WorldWideScience

Sample records for rolling mill rolls

  1. Bimetal rolling in dissimilar diameter mill rolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold working conditions in St3-Kh18N10T steel bimetal sheet rolling were calculated aimed to prevent delamination. It states that in cold rolling in a mill stand with dissimilar diameter rolls the ratio of roll diameters should be close to that of layer thickness to decrease stresses at the bimetal interface

  2. Stress and accidental defect detection on rolling mill rolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the rolling mill process, rolls are submitted to high pressures that can lead to local decohesion or metallurgical changes. Both these cracks or softened areas must be detected as soon as they appear because of the risk of spalling, marks on the product, and mill wreck. These defects can be detected using the eddy current method, and particularly sensors specially developed for micro-defects detection. These sensors must be adapted to the environment of a roll grinding machine on which they must be installed. Users' schedule of conditions also require them to be attached to a wide range of eddy current generator and automatic computerized interpretation. Mill requirements for new high tech roll grades and quality lead to continuous development and improvement of the tools that will provide immediate 'go - no go' information. This paper is an update of these developments. (author)

  3. Metallurgical analysis of spalled work roll of hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study failure analysis of four work roll of the Hot Strip Mill is carried out. The microstructure is correlated with the chemical composition of shell and roll-life. It was concluded that for the longer service of the roll, cementite, graphite and martensite should be balanced (as per working requirement of the mill). (author)

  4. Work Roll Materials For Hot Strip Milling and Casting Methods of Rolling Roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?adi KARAGÖZ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of materials for rolling, which is one of the powerful manufacturing process and the influence of these materials on the roll properties is an important factor. Also, the use of suitable material and various manufacturing technologies affect these characteristics. To understand that which roll grade is needed for which application, the rolling conditions, the roll grades and their properties should be known. In this work the evolution of roll materials from classical materials up to recently developed materials are presented and bimetallic roll technologies are investigated. Furthermore, experimentally cast pearlitic and martensitic roll microstructures were examined. The influence of microstructural phases on the roll properties were analyzed with the results of mechanical and microstructural observations.

  5. Technological design for rolling uranium rod by Y-type rolling mill with three rollers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental characteristics of Y-type rolling mill with three rollers and the methods for designing and calculating the grooves are described. The feasibility of producing metallic uranium rod is substantiated by the experiment in continuous rolling. The advantage of this process in rolling metallic uranium rod is analysed

  6. Investigation of unbalanced mass of a work roll in a cold rolling mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An abrasion due to continuous friction between a work roll and strip causes the mass of the work roll to be unbalanced in the rolling process. We developed a mathematical model for the rolling mill considering the unbalanced mass and verified the model experimentally. The work roll was approximated as a rigid rotor with eccentricity, and the effect of the unbalanced mass on chatter vibration was investigated. The joint forces computed by quasistatic analysis were applied to the work roll in the rolling mill. Transient responses were obtained, and frequency analysis was performed by solving equations of motion using a direct integration method. Horizontal vibrations were more strongly affected by eccentricity than vertical vibrations. In the horizontal direction, a small eccentricity of 1% of the work roll radius considerably increased the amplitude of the chatter frequency

  7. Structural causes of defects in a cast iron mill roll

    OpenAIRE

    Krawczyk, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of a defective microstructure of a mill roll. For this purpose, a piece of a broken roll was collected. That roll was made of mottled cast iron. Its microstructure consisted of modular graphite, transformed ledeburite and a matrix composed of bainite and martensite. Metallographic investigations were performed nearby the fracture in the roll. Observations were conducted on polished sections, first not etched, and then etched, which allowed us to trace carefull...

  8. Analysis of roll stack deflection in a hot strip mill

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sudipta, Sikdar; Shylu, John; Ashwin, Pandit; Raju, Dasu.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Predictive models are required to provide the bending set point for bending for the flatness control devices at rolling stands of finishing mill of Hot Strip Mill (HSM). A simple model for roll stack deflection at the finishing mill has been illustrated where a modified Misaka’s equation has been us [...] ed to obtain mean flow-stress. Investigation has been performed to understand the effect of width of roll on roll stack deflection. The bending on the deflection has been found to have a positive effect to reduce the amount of the stack deflection. The results from the sensitivity analysis of the roll width on roll deflection are also described.

  9. Service behaviour of high speed steel rolling rolls used in hot strip mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work rolls used in hot strip mills may be able to carry out severe actions: very high thermal stresses and wear, along with mechanical stresses due to normal rolling loads, which develop in the presence of cracks, produced by the former actions. The microstructure and the mechanical behaviour (strength and toughness) of high speed steels, which recently have been introduced in this applications, were studied in this work in comparison with high chromium cast irons. (Author) 7 refs

  10. Inprovement in rolling procedure and steel plates finishing on the rolling mill 2800

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology directed towards the increase of metal output and quality of production in the process of rolling and finishing of steel plates on the rolling mill 2800 has been elaborated. The slab end deformation in vertical stand with angular gauge of 60 deg has been applied. Minimal uneven gauge is established by work roll contouring. Special cuts of optimal form on the surface of roller breaking-down stand are used for removal of mill scale together with hydrocleaning at increasing pressure. Methods of line slitting of sheet edges are analyzed. The sheets of all types of steel with the thickness up to 40 mm may be successfully cut in plastic state at 600-900 deg C

  11. PVD Coated Mill Rolls for Cold Rolling of Stainless Steel Strips: Tribological and Mechanical Laboratory Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Ould, Choumad; Badiche, Xavier; Montmitonnet, Pierre; Gachon, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The cost of rolling is determined in particular by productivity (i.e. reduction per pass and speed) and lifetime of rolls before regrinding. Adhesive wear of the sheet gives rise to transfer on the roll surface (called "roll-coating" or "pick-up"). Its occurrence depends on rolling conditions (load, speed, temperature, lubrication) and is one of the determining factors of the maximal reduction for a given rolling speed. Abrasive wear of the roll is the second factor for roll lifetime. Both ph...

  12. Physical metallurgy of a HSS material for hot rolling mill rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte-beckers, Jacqueline; Tchoufang Tchuindjang, Je?ro?me; Pirard, Eric; Breyer, Jean-pierre

    2002-01-01

    High Speed Steel (HSS) cast rolls are used in front finishing stands of hot strip mills. Good wear resistance and hardness at high temperatures, are defining features of HSS. Many types of carbides are present in these alloys, each having different effect upon their final properties. As a result, nature, morphology and amount of these carbides are factors of important concern. Identification and characterisation of carbides were realised. MC, M2C, M7C3 carbides were found. Some relation...

  13. Development of rolling mill for rectangular orthodontic wires production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Totten

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In orthodontic treatments, wires of different metallic alloys are used for alignment, leveling, correction of the molar position, space closing, finish and retention. The purpose of the paper is the characteristics of austenitic stainless steel wires, with a square traverse section, which were produced using a rolling mill built for this purpose, are presented hereDesign/methodology/approach: With respect to finish and retention, these wires are responsible for adequate positioning of the upper teeth on the lower teeth. Wires that are subjected to incisor torque require high resistance and stiffness. For this, wires of rectangular austenitic stainless steel are used due to high modulus of elasticity and good corrosion resistance in the oral environment. Because of the rectangular geometry, wire production requires process development suitable for industrial scale manufacture with geometric characteristics and mechanical properties better adapted to the use conditions.Findings: To obtain wires with such characteristics, a rolling mill was developed for the production of rectangular wires by a rolling process with the objective of reducing cost of the cold drawing process that is currently used which utilize complex and expensive wire-drawing dies. In addition to the rolling process itself, wire deformation, microhardness, tension and bend tests were also performed.Research limitations/implications: A rolling-mill was built that successfully produced dental wires within acceptable tolerances and physical/mechanical properties.These wires exhibited excellent hardness and tensile strength, although slightly less than analogous commercial wires. It is expected that this problem are corrected by using initial wires with a higher hardness, since this property is directly related with the tensile strength.Originality/value: In these tests, wire geometry, surface finish and mechanical properties were successfully adapted for use in orthodontic treatments.

  14. Development of rolling mill for rectangular orthodontic wires production

    OpenAIRE

    Totten, G. E.; Filho, A. I.; Gouve?a, C. A. R.; Neto, A.; Casteletti, L. C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In orthodontic treatments, wires of different metallic alloys are used for alignment, leveling, correction of the molar position, space closing, finish and retention. The purpose of the paper is the characteristics of austenitic stainless steel wires, with a square traverse section, which were produced using a rolling mill built for this purpose, are presented hereDesign/methodology/approach: With respect to finish and retention, these wires are responsible for adequate positioning o...

  15. Influence of a matrix on properties of mottled cast iron applied for mill rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Krawczyk, J.; Pacyna, J.

    2010-01-01

    Mill rolls are ones of the most expensive tools applied in plastic working processes and have to satisfy several criteria, which allow them to be used. Cast iron mill rolls, due to their fracture toughness and tribological properties, are the most often applied at hot-rolling in the last rolling stands. This results from the smallest dynamic loads of such rolling stands and the decisive influence of the surface quality of these tools on the surface quality of the rolled product. An improper m...

  16. Slip Line Field Solution for Second Pass in Lubricated 4-High Reversing Cold Rolling Sheet Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwole, Oluleke O.; Olayinka Olaogun

    2011-01-01

    The development of a possible slip line field (slf) for theoretical calculations of the deforming pressure (load) in a second pass of a lubricated cold rolling sheet mill and validation using values from an aluminium sheet rolling mill was done in this work. This will be relevant in the manufacturing industries providing an easy method for determining necessary applied rolling load. Experimental rolling was carried out to observe the shear lines in the deformation field. Construction of possi...

  17. Modelling and control of a hot rolling mill

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F. G., Rossomando; J., Denti Filho.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper, a real application of optimal control of a hot rolling mill is presented. It is used the state space model formulation in the minimization of the strip thickness variations. It is presented the simulation results of the control model, which is compared with industrial real data from p [...] rocess controled by traditional techniques. The results of the simulations lead to a less output thickness variations compared with the real industrial data.

  18. Bayesian model mixing for cold rolling mills: Test results.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, P.; Puchr, I.; Dedecius, Kamil

    Slovensko : Slovak University of Technology, 2013, s. 359-364. ISBN 978-1-4799-0926-1. [19th International Conference on Process Control. Štrbské Pleso (SK), 18.06.2013-21.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7D09008; GA MŠk 7D12004 Keywords : Bayesian statistics * model mixing * process control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/dedecius-bayesian model mixing for cold rolling mills test results.pdf

  19. Rolling mill optimization using an accurate and rapid new model for mill deflection and strip thickness profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arif Sultan

    This work presents improved technology for attaining high-quality rolled metal strip. The new technology is based on an innovative method to model both the static and dynamic characteristics of rolling mill deflection, and it applies equally to both cluster-type and non cluster-type rolling mill configurations. By effectively combining numerical Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solid mechanics, the devised approach delivers a rapid, accurate, flexible, high-fidelity model useful for optimizing many important rolling parameters. The associated static deflection model enables computation of the thickness profile and corresponding flatness of the rolled strip. Accurate methods of predicting the strip thickness profile and strip flatness are important in rolling mill design, rolling schedule set-up, control of mill flatness actuators, and optimization of ground roll profiles. The corresponding dynamic deflection model enables solution of the standard eigenvalue problem to determine natural frequencies and modes of vibration. The presented method for solving the roll-stack deflection problem offers several important advantages over traditional methods. In particular, it includes continuity of elastic foundations, non-iterative solution when using pre-determined elastic foundation moduli, continuous third-order displacement fields, simple stress-field determination, the ability to calculate dynamic characteristics, and a comparatively faster solution time. Consistent with the most advanced existing methods, the presented method accommodates loading conditions that represent roll crowning, roll bending, roll shifting, and roll crossing mechanisms. Validation of the static model is provided by comparing results and solution time with large-scale, commercial finite element simulations. In addition to examples with the common 4-high vertical stand rolling mill, application of the presented method to the most complex of rolling mill configurations is demonstrated with an optimization example involving the 20-high Sendzimir mill.

  20. Slip Line Field Solution for Second Pass in Lubricated 4-High Reversing Cold Rolling Sheet Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleke O. Oluwole

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a possible slip line field (slf for theoretical calculations of the deforming pressure (load in a second pass of a lubricated cold rolling sheet mill and validation using values from an aluminium sheet rolling mill was done in this work. This will be relevant in the manufacturing industries providing an easy method for determining necessary applied rolling load. Experimental rolling was carried out to observe the shear lines in the deformation field. Construction of possible slip line field model was developed adhering strictly to assumptions of rigid plastic model. Calculation of the deforming force/load was achieved using Hencky’s equation. Results showed that the load calculations for constructed slip line field using aluminium sheet rolling as an example tallied with values obtained from Tower Aluminium rolling mill. Slip line fields constructed for the second pass described adequately the rolling pressure in the cold rolling process, giving a valid solution of the exact load estimates on comparison with the industrial load values. Roll pressure along the arc of contact rose fairly linearly from the entrance to a maximum at the exit point. This work showed that slf for the first pass in a cold rolling mill cannot be used for subsequent passes; it requires construction of slfs for each pass in the cold rolling process.

  1. Optimization of a Heavy Continuous Rolling Mill System Via Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop an integrated simulation model, which generates a set of optimizing alternatives for a heavy continuous rolling mill system in a full-scale steelmaking factory. The simulation approach enabled us to evaluate the performance of the existing system and pinpointed existing bottlenecks in workstations and production flow. Consequently, it generated a set of optimum production alternatives. Data related to process and operation times, repairs, maintenance and quality control were collected and analyzed systematically. The simulation model was modeled by Visual SLAM and Awesim simulation language. The results and structure of the computer simulation model were validated and verified against the actual system. Also, the results of the models were discussed and approved by the production managers. The distinct feature of the simulation model is three fold. First, it is integrated and considers detailed operations and activities of the Rolling Mill system. Furthermore, it is designed to be integrated with other workshops of the factory. Second, it locates the optimum solutions by a rule-based methodology. Finally, the model considers the Just-in-Time configuration of the line and is capable of answering all production and inventory issues.

  2. Research upon the quality assurance of the rolling-mill rolls and the variation boundaries of the chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss, I.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cast-iron rolls must present higher hardness at the rolling surface and lower in the core and the necks, adequate with mechanical resistance and in the high work temperature. If in the zone of the rolling surface, the hardness is guarantied by the irons structure, through the cementite quantities, the core of rolls must contain graphite, to assure this property. Starting from the lamination equipments aspects, from the form of rolls, of the technological interest zones and the structure, which assures the exploitation property, it was establish, through modeling, to the mathematical description of a direct influences, and in final, through successive determinations, to an optimum. One of the parameters, which are determined the structure of the irons destined for rolls casting, is the chemical composition, which guaranties the exploitation properties of the each roll in the stand of rolling mill. The realization of optimum chemical compositions of the cast-iron can constitute a technical efficient way to assure the exploitation properties, the material from which the rolling mills rolls are manufactured having an important role in this sense. Although the manufacture of rolls is in continuously perfecting, the requirements for superior quality rolls are not yet completely satisfied, in many cases, the absence of quality rolls preventing the realization of quality laminates or the realization of productivities of which rolling mills are capable. This paper presents an analysis of the main alloying elements from chemical composition, the influences upon the mechanical properties of the cast-iron rolls, and presents also some graphical addenda. Using the Matlab calculation and graphical programs we determinate some correlations between the hardness (on the working surface and on necks and the chemical composition. Using the double and triple correlations is really helpful in the foundry practice, as it allows us to determine variation boundaries for the chemical composition, in view the obtaining the desired and optimal values of the hardness of this very important metallurgical equipments. The enunciation of some mathematically modeling results, described through a number of multi-component equations determined for the spaces with 3 the and 4 dimensions, as well as the generation of some regression surfaces, of some curves of levels and volumes of variation, can be represented and interpreted by technologists and can be considerate diagrams of correlation between the analyzed variables. From this point of view the research is inscribes in context of scientific capitalization of the process and the industrial technologies optimizations, on the way of the analysis and the mathematical experiment.

    Los cilindros o rodillos de laminación de función deben presentar una dureza más alta en su superficie y menor en el núcleo y el cuello del cilindro, adecuados a la resistencia mecánica y a la alta temperatura de trabajo. Si en la zona de la superficie de rodillo, la dureza se garantiza por las cementita existente en la estructura, el núcleo del cilindro debe tener grafito para asegurar la característica deseada. A partir de consideraciones sobre los equipos de la laminación, forma de los cilindros de laminación, zonas tecnológicas del interés y de la estructura, que asegura la característica de la explotación, se estableció un modelo que da una descripción matemática de las influencias directas y, finalmente, mediante determinaciones sucesivas, permite establecer un óptimo. Uno de los parámetros, que determinan la estructura del material de los cilindros de laminación es su composición química, que garantiza las características de la explotación de cada cilindro en el laminador. El empleo de las composiciones químicas de colada, óptimas, puede ser una manera técnicamente eficiente de asegurar las características de la explotación; el material de fabricación de los cilindros juega un papel importante. Aunque la fabricación de cilindros es objeto de una mejora c

  3. Premature failure analysis of forged cold back-up roll in a continuous tandem mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Metal wrapping and strip welding in work/back-up rolls contact zone caused spalling. ? MnS inclusion and pore initiated crack which propagated in milling led to spalling. ? Retained austenite conversion to ?'-martensite accelerated spalling failure. ? Needle shaped carbide (Fe,Mo,Cr)7C3, may cause poor service life of back-up roll. -- Abstract: In this paper, premature failure of a forged back-up roll from a continuous tandem mill was investigated. Microstructural evolutions of the spalled specimen and surface of the roll were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and ferritscopy, while hardness value of the specimen was measured by Vickers hardness testing. The results revealed that the presence of pore and MnS inclusion with spherical and oval morphologies were the main contributing factors responsible for the poor life of the back-up roll. In addition, metal pick up and subsequently strip welding on the surface of the work roll were found as the major causes of failure in work roll which led to spalling occurrence in the back-up roll. Furthermore, relatively high percentage of retained austenite, say 9%, in outer surface of the back-up roll contributed spalling due to conversion of this meta-stable phase to martensite and creation of volume expansion on the outer surface through work hardening during mill campaign.

  4. Optimization of cold rolling procedure using reversing mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimum procedures of the band cold rolling of the 12Kh18N9T steel and 7KhNM alloy are calculated according to the developed algorithm. Results of calculations of optimum procedures of rolling are given. It is shown that realization of optimum procedure will permit to produce a plotting band with minimum cross section different-thickness at simultaneous reduction of a number of gaps

  5. Research on roll wear of 2050mm hot strip finishing train (CVC Mill) of Baosteel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the general characteristics and affecting factors of work and backup rolls wear of finishing train were analyzed. Taking the CVC finishing mills of 2050mm hot strip mill of Baosteel as an example, the roll wear magnitude and contour were calculated in theory, and measured by the present grinding machine in experiment. The calculated results agree well with the measured data in distribution, and also in general characteristics. Based on the calculated and measured results, an on-line prediction model by which the roll wear distribution characteristics of a CVC mill can be revealed more accurately was proposed. (author)

  6. Sequential supervisory control, modelling and simulation of a multipass experimental rolling mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a Grafcet Model to control a laboratory-scale rolling mill and describes the design of a hybrid modelling and simulation strategy, its implementation in the G2 Real-time Expert System, and its application to the rolling mill. The rolling mill with its process variables and datalogging system is described. Grafcet is briefly overviewed, together with the implementation of the model on the rolling mill. The hybrid model base for the mill is designed from a combination of Object-Orientation, Rule-based Programming, GRAFCET, Equations, and procedures. The strategy, implemented in the real-time expert system, G2, involves the concurrent execution of three simulators: a continuous simulator, a GRAFCET simulator, and a heuristic simulator. (author)

  7. Design, fabrication and performance analysis of a planetary roll mill for fine grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaka E. O.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing milling cost in mineral processing is a problem that has defiled all serious attempts while milling still takes up to 60% of comminution cost. The planetary roll mill is a new innovation for faster and finer grinding. It is designed and fabricated with grinding rolls rotating in a number of arms inside a grinding sphere. A test run of the complete machine with crushed granite and sandstone shows that the machine grinds to fine consistency within a short period of time. A comparison of the products of the machine with that of a standard Denver Laboratory Ball Mill shows that the machine is about 30% more efficient than the ball mill in terms of duration of grinding to a particular size consistency. One advantage of the planetary roll mill is that is can be used as a ball mill if the need arises. It is therefore recommended that this mill be developed for both research and industrial uses.

  8. A model-based predictive control scheme for steal rolling mills using neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvez J. M.; Zárate Luis E.; Helman H.

    2003-01-01

    A capital issue in roll-gap control for rolling mill plants is the difficulty to measure the output thickness without including time delays in the control loop. Time delays are a consequence of the possible locations for the output thickness sensor, which usually is located some distance away from the roll gap. In this work, a new model-based predictive control law is proposed. The new scheme is a neural network based predictive control structure which is applied to roll-gap control with outs...

  9. A model-based predictive control scheme for steal rolling mills using neural networks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. M., Gálvez; Luis E., Zárate; H., Helman.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A capital issue in roll-gap control for rolling mill plants is the difficulty to measure the output thickness without including time delays in the control loop. Time delays are a consequence of the possible locations for the output thickness sensor, which usually is located some distance away from t [...] he roll gap. In this work, a new model-based predictive control law is proposed. The new scheme is a neural network based predictive control structure which is applied to roll-gap control with outstanding results. It is shown that the neural network based predictive control permits to overcome the existing time delays in the system dynamics. The proposed scheme implements a virtual thickness sensor, which releases an accurate estimate of the actual output thickness. It is shown that the dynamic response of the rolling mill system can be substantially improved by using the proposed controller. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the controller performance.

  10. A model-based predictive control scheme for steal rolling mills using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gálvez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A capital issue in roll-gap control for rolling mill plants is the difficulty to measure the output thickness without including time delays in the control loop. Time delays are a consequence of the possible locations for the output thickness sensor, which usually is located some distance away from the roll gap. In this work, a new model-based predictive control law is proposed. The new scheme is a neural network based predictive control structure which is applied to roll-gap control with outstanding results. It is shown that the neural network based predictive control permits to overcome the existing time delays in the system dynamics. The proposed scheme implements a virtual thickness sensor, which releases an accurate estimate of the actual output thickness. It is shown that the dynamic response of the rolling mill system can be substantially improved by using the proposed controller. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the controller performance.

  11. Drop deformation in two-roll mills considering wall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Velázquez, C. A.; Huesca-Reyes, M. A.; Yescas Rosas, I.; Geffroy, E.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental, theoretical and numerical results of dynamics of drop deformation in strong flows generated by a co-rotating two-roll mill and considering the influence of near rigid walls are presented. The drop dynamics is altered, with respect to a drop free of wall effects, by the proximity of the rigid boundaries as well as caused by a non-linear and non-uniform flow due to gradients of flow-type parameter and shear rate. Simulations were carried out using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). Since the inclusion of the whole boundaries (drop and rollers surfaces) is not an easy and trivial task, bi-dimensional numerical simulations was performed as a first approach. The experimental and numerical results were obtained for a flow type of ? = 0.03 and two values of viscosity ratio ? = 0.012 and 16. In general, numerical results for the stationary deformation parameters, up to intermediate confinements, are in agreement with the experiments, with and without wall effects. Since the case of drops with a high viscosity ratio did not match existing theoretical models, the wall-effect theory of Shapira and Haber was modified, considering Cox's second-order theory as the converging theory without wall effects. From low to intermediate confinements, the new Cox-Shapira-Haber model fitted the observed experimental deformations.

  12. Rolling of nickel base hardly deformable alloys in four-roller mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of the optimization procedure relating to a new rod rolling technology in the case of hard-to-deform nickel alloys of the type EhP220VD and some others on four-high mills. The rods 22, 16 and 12 mm in diameter being rolled on the mills MK-165 and MK-200 show an adequate surface quality, high mechanical and heat-resistance properties. The main principles of the rolling technology as applied to the treatment of hard-to-deform nickel alloys developed

  13. Rolling process simulation of a pair-crossed hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process simulation can help optimize the operating parameters aiming to improve the quality of rolled products. In this paper, software in Visual Basic language is developed to simulate the hot rolling process of a pair-crossed mill. The strip temperature is calculated by considering air cooling, water cooling, heat generation and conduction.The production parameters including rolling speeds, resistance to deformation, rolling forces, drive torques and powers are evaluated by mathematical models and their parameter identification support tools. The deformation of roll stack is calculated by influential function method. The roll temperature and expansion are calculated by finite differential method, and the roll wear is described by empirical formula. Based on these calculations as well as the effect of heredity is taken into account, the strip crown and flatness then can be obtained. The results show that the simulation software has friendly user interface, high accuracy and practicability. It can be served as a basis for the mill design and optimization of process parameters to acquire high quality of hot rolled strip. (author)

  14. Coupled dynamic modeling of rolls model and metal model for four high mill based on strip crown control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianliang; Peng, Yan; Liu, Hongmin

    2013-01-01

    The crown is a key quality index of strip and plate, the rolling mill system is a complex nonlinear system, the strip qualities are directly affected by the dynamic characteristics of the rolling mil. At present, the studies about the dynamic modeling of the rolling mill system mainly focus on the dynamic simulation for the strip thickness control system, the dynamic characteristics of the strip along the width direction and that of the rolls along axial direction are not considered. In order to study the dynamic changes of strip crown in the rolling process, the dynamic simulation model based on strip crown control is established. The work roll and backup roll are considered as elastic continuous bodies and the work roll and backup roll are joined by a Winkler elastic layer. The rolls are considered as double freely supported beams. The change rate of roll gap is taken into consideration in the metal deformation, based on the principle of dynamic conservation of material flow, the two dimensional dynamic model of metal is established. The model of metal deformation provides exciting force for the rolls dynamic model, and the rolls dynamic model and metal deformation model couple together. Then, based on the two models, the dynamic model of rolling mill system based on strip crown control is established. The Newmark-? method is used to solve the problem, and the dynamic changes of these parameters are obtained as follows: (1) The bending of work roll and backup roll changes with time; (2) The strip crown changes with time; (3) The distribution of rolling force changes with time. Take some cold tandem rolling mill as subject investigated, simulation results and the comparisons with experimental results show that the dynamic model built is rational and correct. The proposed research provides effective theory for optimization of device and technological parameters and development of new technology, plays an important role to improve the strip control precision and strip shape quality.

  15. Simulation of the thermal conditions of rolls in a wide-strip hot-rolling mill to determine their effective cooling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, E. A.; Khlopotin, M. V.; Traino, A. I.; Popov, E. S.; Savinykh, A. F.

    2009-06-01

    An advanced procedure is developed for the thermal calculation of the rolls in a wide-strip hot-rolling mill (WSHRM). It combines the following two adaptive models: the thermal balance in the active surface layer in a roll per revolution and the thermal balance in the main zones of work and backup rolls with axisymmetric temperature fields with allowance for the heat exchange between a strip, rolls, the coolant, and the environment. In contrast to the well-known models, this advanced procedure calculates the bulk mean temperature and the thermal profile in a roll more accurately, since the temperature drop across the surface layer in this procedure is calculated allowing for the intensities of the contact and convective heat exchange between rolls. Data on the coefficient of heat transfer from rolls to the coolant supplied at an excess pressure of 1.0-1.5 MPa are presented for the first time. This procedure is used in a 2000 WSHRM and improves the transverse profile of hot-rolled strips due to a stabilized thermal profile in rolls.

  16. Evaluation of the fatigue damage of rolls for strip mills below the surface by x-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique of the X-ray diffraction line profile analysis has been applied to the study of fatigue damage below the surface of the work and the backup rolls of cold strip mill and the backup rolls of hot strip mill. Half value breadth has been taken as a measure of fatiguing. Fatigued zone below the surface of rolls is well correlated with the half contact length of roll, L; 0.03 L in the work roll of cold strip mill and 0.1 L in the other rolls. Changes in the half value breadth with increase in cycles of roll contact differ in accordance with the surface hardness of the rolls: continued cycling results in decrease of the half value breadth at surface in hard rolls (H sub(s) >= 60) and increase in soft rolls (H sub(s) <= 50). The technique of X-ray study of fatigue can be extended to prediction and prevention of accidental failure of rolls due to fatigue fracture such as spalling. Furthermore the amount of surface dressing at regular maintenance of rolls can be saved significantly on the basis of accurate evaluation of the depth of fatigue damaged zone. (author)

  17. Identification of Material Properties Based on Rolling Process at 4-Stand Laboratory Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeliga, D.; Graf, M.; Kawalla, R.; Pietrzyk, M.

    2011-05-01

    The general objective of the work is to estimate the properties of the material in hot strip rolling process. The authors propose a modified inverse algorithm; to make direct use of the manufacturing process instead of conventional plastometric tests. This approach allows to reduce time and costs of identification. The rolling at 4-stand pilot mill at the Institute of Metal Forming, TU Bergakademie, Freiberg was selected. The material was C45 steel. The measured quantities of the process were rolling loads and torques, as well as temperatures. Numerical tests have shown that accuracy of torque predictions is low, therefore, the goal function of inverse analysis was defined as an average square root error between measured and FEM calculated rolling loads only. The first stage of the work was to develop the model of the hot strip rolling, which defines the direct model in the inverse analysis. This model is complex, it composes the whole roughing and finishing rolling. Based on the model and results of the laboratory experiment, the deformation process including the temperature field and the recrystallization up to the last finishing mill is calculated. Moreover, an application of the inverse analysis to the identification of the models of the hot strip rolling and design of the rolling parameters allows to obtain the required microstructure of final products. Inverse analysis and/or optimization of such a manufacturing chain is time-consuming. Large number of control parameters makes the time of the analysis unacceptable. Therefore, the metamodel of the hot rolling is applied to make the inverse calculations efficient. In the work the results of calculations with identified process parameters and experimental data are compared and presented. Also advantages and disadvantages are described.

  18. An investigation of worn work roll materials used in the finishing stands of the hot strip mill for steel rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Maria; Olsson, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The surface failure characteristics of different work roll materials, i.e. high speedsteel, high chromium iron and indefinite chill iron, used in the finishing stands of a hot stripmill have been investigated using stereomicroscopy, three-dimensional optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that the surface failure mechanisms of work rolls for hot rolling are very complex, involving plastic deforma...

  19. Extended Kalman Filter Based Neural Networks Controller For Hot Strip Rolling mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with the application of an Extended Kalman filter based adaptive Neural-Network control scheme to improve the performance of a hot strip rolling mill. The suggested Neural Network model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. The control input was estimated iteratively by an on-line extended Kalman filter updating scheme basing on the inversion of the learned neural networks model. The performance of the controller is evaluated using an accurate model estimated from real rolling mill input/output data, and the usefulness of the suggested method is proved

  20. Production of sponge iron powder by reduction of rolling mill scale

    OpenAIRE

    Marti?n Herna?ndez, Mari?a Isabel; Lo?pez Go?mez, Fe?lix Antonio; Torralba Castello?, Jose? Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Rolling mill scale is a solid by-product of the steelmaking industry that contains metallic iron (Fe) and three types of iron oxides: wustite (FeO), hematite (?-Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4). It also contains traces of non-ferrous metals, alkaline compounds and oils from the rolling process. A study is made of the reduction of mill scale to sponge iron using coke at different temperatures and times. The reduced samples are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (S...

  1. Soft Starting Arrangements Availables for Hot Rolling Mills for Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen, A. M.; Bapat, P. M.; Gagnuly, S. K.

    2012-07-01

    The conventional rolling mills in India are producing a major part of structural steel requirement of the country. The energy conservation in these rolling mills can be achieved mainly by reducing the size of the prime mover i.e. main electric motor. The power consumption per ton can be considerably decreased through proper selection of electric motor since it has been an observation by many surveyors[1] that the selection of electric motor of the rolling mill has been almost five to ten times on the higher side which can be easily verified from the power consumption and motor working data.Flywheel is a mechanical storage device. Largest size of flywheels are frequently recommended for smooth running of rolling mills. The main difficulty encountered in selecting large capacity flywheel or flywheel gear box system is the starting of the mill with smaller capacity electric motor. The starting characteristic of electric motor is not suitable for starting such rolling mill with very high inertia flywheel. In such condition it becomes very essential to introduce the soft starting arrangement for the electric motor so that considerably small size motor can start the flywheel effectively.Soft starters are used for the smooth start-up control of three-phase induction motors. The soft starter is functionally located between the Flywheel and the electric motor. In selecting the correct soft starter to suit the application the peculiarities of the soft start should be considered. In the prevailing conditions we use the motor of high horse power due to the fact that the flywheel requires high torque to be driven initially. For the same reason the efficiency of the flywheel is very low initially. Once the flywheel stores sufficient power which is required at the start up, the flywheel then requires less power than given initially. If we somehow are able to increase the efficiency of the flywheel using a flexible electrical, mechanical, hydraulic or flexible drives with different combinations (Electrical, Mechanical, Hydraulic) then the motor of less horse power can thus be installed to run the flywheel.This paper gives an idea of available type of the soft starting arrangement for a rolling mill so that horse power of motor can be reduced without affecting the working of the mill. Hence optimum selection of the soft starting arrangement is to be done so that initial and billing cost will be less.

  2. Plate Rolling Modeling at Mill 5000 of OJSC ``Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel'' for Analysis and Optimization of Temperature Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, V.; Shmakov, A.; Pesin, A.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    Modeling of strip deflected mode and thermal state in rolling is an integral part of the technology and perspective rolling-mill machinery such as plate mill 5000 of the OJSC "Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel". To comprehend metal behavior in the deformation zone in the rough passes during plate rolling it is essential to assess the impact of various temperature factors on variations in field of stress and strain intensities as well as temperature fields in deformation. To do such researches in consideration of various software products and adequate results one of the most effective methods nowadays is regarded as the method of finite elements. The research shows modeling of roughing rolling of a pipe steel sheet with strength category X80 according to standard API-5L. In the research of the metal deflected mode software product DEFORM 2D has been used for the isothermal and nonisothermic process. The mathematical modeling allows revealing the impact of temperature field on the metal deflected mode in the rough passes in plate rolling. Supposedly, it is deformation heating that can have more impact on the ingot temperature profile in the finishing passes in controlled rolling of the pipe steel grades. It is defined by high percent reduction, rolling speeds; more area of heat exchange surface; less thickness and lower temperature of rolling. The results can be used to develop efficient modes of plate rolling of the pipe steels.

  3. Kinetic study of the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions by rolling mill scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions by rolling mil scale occurs through a process of oxidation-reduction or cementation of Cu''2+ ions in aqueous solution onto metallic iron (Fe''0) contained in the mill scale. The kinetics of cementation of copper onto iron was evaluated over different temperatures, initial copper concentrations and solid/liquid relations. Process of copper removal by rolling mill scale obeys a first-order kinetic law. The rate constant value (k) varies with temperature and initial cation concentration in solution at low temperatures. At high temperatures the value of k remains practically constant. the solid/liquid relation value affects the rate constant value too. (Author) 19 refs

  4. A Simple Method of Designing Dual loop Controller for Cold Rolling Mill

    OpenAIRE

    S. Umamaheswari,; V.Palanisamy,; Chidambaram, M.

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical model (Interval Plant) of the web guide in rolling mill is controlled using PID controller. The given interval plant is approximated to first order plus time delay with integrator (FOPTDI) system. The dual loop control (DLC) method proposed by Jacob and chidambaram for design PID controllers is extended for FOPTD+I systems. The performance of the closed loop system is evaluated for both the original and the approximated model. The controllers are also tuned using Internal Mod...

  5. A nucleonic thickness control system for a thin sheet rolling mills machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear transmission thickness gauge and control system was developed. It was used to improve the thickness control of the thin sheet metal production in the cold rolling mills. The deviation from the nominal thickness of the sheet metal was reduced through automatic correction in continuous production process. The five main parts of the nuclear thickness gauge are : radiation source. radiation detection system, analog to digital converter, micro controller and interfaces. A thickness gauge with Am-241 of 3.7 x 109 Bq as radiation source together with a 1 x 1 inch NaI(T 1) as radiation detector was installed on an old version cold rolling mills producing brass sheets of various thickness from 0.1 to 0.5 mm with a feeding speed of 25 m/min. It was found that with nuclear thickness gauge the brass sheet thickness could be controlled with a deviation of ±0.01 mm in comparison with ±0.02 mm resulting from the previous conventional thickness control. Thus, the performance of the old version cold rolling mills can be improved through the development of an automatic nuclear electronic thickness gauging

  6. Effect of powder milling on mechanical properties of hot-pressed and hot-rolled Cu–Cr–Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, A.K.; Narayana Murty, S.V.S.; Suresh Kumar, R. [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695 022 (India); Mondal, K., E-mail: kallol@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Milled powder enhances sintering and mechanical properties after hot pressing. •Hot-rolling of hot-pressed samples made from milled powder enhances ductility. •Pore size and number of pores decreases after hot-rolling. -- Abstract: The present study is on the effect of mechanical milling of gas-atomized powders on mechanical properties of the hot-pressed and subsequently hot-rolled Cu–8 at% Cr–4 at% Nb alloy with a microstructure consisting of pure copper matrix hardened by intermetallic Cr{sub 2}Nb precipitates. The mechanically milled powders result in lower sintering temperature during hot pressing compared to the atomized powders. The hot-pressed samples made from the milled powder exhibit significantly higher hardness and tensile strength, but lower ductility and electrical conductivity compared to that made from the un-milled gas-atomized powders. The hot rolling results in marginal increase in strength, but significant increase in ductility compared to the hot-pressed alloy for both the milled and atomized powders and it is attributed to the decrease in size of the pores and amount of porosities after hot rolling.

  7. Effect of powder milling on mechanical properties of hot-pressed and hot-rolled Cu–Cr–Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Milled powder enhances sintering and mechanical properties after hot pressing. •Hot-rolling of hot-pressed samples made from milled powder enhances ductility. •Pore size and number of pores decreases after hot-rolling. -- Abstract: The present study is on the effect of mechanical milling of gas-atomized powders on mechanical properties of the hot-pressed and subsequently hot-rolled Cu–8 at% Cr–4 at% Nb alloy with a microstructure consisting of pure copper matrix hardened by intermetallic Cr2Nb precipitates. The mechanically milled powders result in lower sintering temperature during hot pressing compared to the atomized powders. The hot-pressed samples made from the milled powder exhibit significantly higher hardness and tensile strength, but lower ductility and electrical conductivity compared to that made from the un-milled gas-atomized powders. The hot rolling results in marginal increase in strength, but significant increase in ductility compared to the hot-pressed alloy for both the milled and atomized powders and it is attributed to the decrease in size of the pores and amount of porosities after hot rolling

  8. Feasibility of TiBN PVD Coating for Mill Rolls - Laboratory Testing of Anti-adhesive and Fatigue Resistance Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ould, Choumad; Badiche, Xavier; Montmitonnet, Pierre; Gachon, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The ceramic coatings deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) are known for their high hardness. They offer a wide variety of friction coefficients. They have been used for a number of years for the coating of cutting tools; they have shown high efficiency in this field. Considering this, some of these coatings might prove efficient in the field of metal rolling. Yet to the best of the authors' knowledge, they have never been used industrially for rolling mill rolls. TiBN is one of the P...

  9. The technology of production of high-strength, cold resistant weldable steel on wide-strip rolling mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regularities of influence of technological rolling parameters on wide-strip rolling mill on structure and mechanical characteristics of low-carbon steel of St3sp type were established. Possibility of sufficient growth of strength and cold resistance of strips, produced by hot working, as compared to traditional technology is shown. This is achieved by grain refinement and formation of subgrain structure in ferrite

  10. Wedge - rolls rolling of hollowed parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pater

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Presentation of the possibilities of application of a new manufacturing method, called wedge rollsrolling (WRR in forming of axi – symmetrical hollowed parts.Design/methodology/approach: The research work was done in a specially designed laboratory rolling millLUW-2. During the research, hollowed parts from steel were rolled in hot forming conditions. Basic kinematicaland force parameters of the process were noticed during rolling.Findings: On the basis of the conducted research it was stated that the WRR method could be used for formingof hollowed parts with the precision compared with the precision obtained in the typical cross wedge rollingprocesses (CWR. At the same time, it was proved that this method could be used for rolling from billets withthe wall thinner than the wall given in the CWR.Research limitations/implications: The research were limited to the wedges with spreading angles withinrange of ? = (5° ÷ 9°, with the constant values of forming angle ? = 30° and relative reduction ratio ? = 1.45.In the future, it is planned to analyse the influence of changes of angle ? and relative reduction ratio ? on theWRR process.Practical implications: The conducted research can be used for designing of a new industrial method of metalforming of hollowed parts.Originality/value: The innovation of this solution is based on the application of only one wedge for forming.Because of that, the WRR method is cheaper for implementation than used so far CWR processes. This methodcan be applied mainly in automotive and aviation industries.

  11. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant

  12. Simulation of accelerated strip cooling on the hot rolling mill run-out roller table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A mathematical model of the thermal state of the metal on the run-out roller table of a continuous wide hot-strip mill is presented. The mathematical model takes into account the heat generation during the polymorphic ? ? ? transformation of super cooled austenite phase and the influence of chemical composition on the physical properties of the steel. The model allows the calculation of modes of accelerated cooling of strips on the run-out roller table of a continuous wide hot strip mill. Winding temperature calculation error does not exceed 20 °C for 98.5 % of the strips from low-carbon and low-alloyed steels. key words: hot rolled, wide-strip, accelerated cooling, run-out roller table, polymorphic transformation, mathematical modeling

  13. Transport, mixing and stretching in a chaotic Stokes flow: The two-roll mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the outline and preliminary results of an analytical and numerical study of transport, mixing, and stretching in a chaotic Stokes' flow in a two-roll mill apparatus. We use the theory of dynamical systems to describe the rich behavior and structure exhibited by these flows. The main features are the homoclinic tangle which functions as the backbone of the chaotic mixing region, the Smale horseshoe, and the island chains. We then use our detailed knowledge of these structures to develop a theory of transport and stretching of fluid in the chaotic regime. In particular, we show how a specific set of tools for adiabatic chaos- the adiabatic Melnikov function lobe area and flux computations and the adiabatic switching method is ideally suited to develop this theory of transport, mixing and stretching in time-dependent two-dimensional Stokes' flows. 19 refs., 8 figs

  14. Rolling of very thin sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrutton, R.F.; Lenard, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thin strip specimens were reduced to foil by passing them repeatedly between the rolls of a two-high mill at low speeds. Narrow specimens were tested to avoid complications caused by roll bending. Factors governing the rate of reduction were examined, these being roll preload value and roll surface finish for low carbon strips as well as material strength, hardness, and anisotropy for aluminum and copper. No minimum thickness was found for the steel specimens; for aluminum and copper limiting thickness values were obtained based on the onset of edge cracking and longitudinal fracture. Thickness values and total number of passes were found to be inversely related. Roll surface finish and preload value affected the rate of reduction in a significant manner; hardness and developing anisotropy did not. 20 refs.

  15. Improving Thermal Efficiency Of Push Type Furnace In A Hot Re-Rolling Steel Mill By Direct Method : Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jeetendra Mohan Khare, Sandip Kumar Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Rolling is the process of reducing the thickness or changing the cross-section of a long work-piece by compressive forces applied through a set of rolls. Rolling accounts for about 90% of all metals produced by metalworking processes. The purpose of Rolling is to convert larger sections into smaller sections, which can be used directly in as rolled state or as stock for working through other processes. As a result of rolling, the coarse structure of cast in...

  16. Analysis of the bimetallic bars rolling during a skew rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Sawicki, S.; Szota, P.; Dyja, H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Bimetallic bars which possess higher corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, it is the newkind of bimetallic bars which are better than standard bars. The bimetallic bars are more often applied in concreteconstruction. There are few methods which ensure a good strength of bimetallic layer bond. Hydrostatic extrusion,rotary rolling and explosive cladding are most often used methods.Design/methodology/approach: The simulations of the bar rolling in a three-high skew mill were c...

  17. Finite element analysis of deflection of rolls and its correction by providing camber on rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Gautam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rolling process is a key step in the production of flat steel products. Because of automation commonly implemented in flat product rolling mills, the products should meet the requirements of tight tolerances. one of the major defects observed in the rolling process is flatness and lack of attainment of the desired surface profile due to deflection of the rolls. The spatial shape and dimensions of the roll gap are influenced by the elastic deformation of all parts of the rolling stand equipment affected by the roll pressure. The current study aims to determine the variation of the deflection in rolls in a two high mill with varying percentage reduction of the sheet i.e, 20%, 25% and 30% on annealed and non-annealed IF steel sheet and analyzing possible solutions to reduce the elastic deflection of rolls with special emphasis on cambering and modelling of the same in Abaqus CAE.

  18. Simulation of two Stands Cold Rolling Mill Process Using a Combination of Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms to Avoid the Chatter Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad BahramiNejad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rolling mill Industry is one of the most profitable industries in the world. Chatter phenomenon is one of the key issues in this industry. Chatter or rolling unwanted vibrations not only has an adverse effect on product quality, but also reduces considerably the efficiency with reduced rolling velocities of rolling lines. This paper is an attempt to simulate the phenomenon of Chatter more accurate than the previous performed simulations. In order to increase the production speed, it needs to avoid parameters which effect on the Chatter and varieties with the rolling lines condition. Actual values of these parameters were determined in the archives of the Mobarakeh two stand cold rolling mills and collected on the 210 case study of real chattering. To simulate the experiment, a neural network is trained and weights and bias values of the neural network with genetic optimization algorithm were used to get an optimal neural network which reduces bugs on the test data. So this model is capable to predict speed of Chatter threshold on rolling process of two stand cold rolling mill with the accuracy less than one percent. So it can be used in rolling process with the building intelligent recognition systems to prevent the creator conditions of the chatter frequency range.

  19. Planejamento e controle da produção de cilindros para laminação: um estudo de caso quantitativo Production management of rolling mill rolls: a quantitative study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte José Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um modelo de otimização-simulação aplicado em um estudo de caso real no setor de cilindros para laminação de uma siderúrgica, buscando melhorar o gerenciamento da área/equipamento gargalo da linha de produção. A simulação atuou em conjunto com um modelo de otimização da programação linear inteira (PLI para melhorar o atendimento de prazo junto aos clientes em uma produção não seriada. Como resultado deste procedimento combinado da PLI e simulação, o processo produtivo foi otimizado e as filas de espera e o lead-time foram reduzidos, melhorando o atendimento aos clientes.This article presents a simulation-optimization model application for a real case study in the rolling mill roll sector of a steel plant. The purpose of this study was to get a better area/equipment bottleneck management in the production line. The simulation was used together with an ILP (Integer Linear Programming optimization model, in order to improve customer service in a made-to-order production. As a result of this ILP and Simulation combined approach, the productive process was optimized and both queues and lead-time were reduced, improving customer service.

  20. Rolling friction and bistability of rolling motion

    CERN Document Server

    Pöschel, T; Brilliantov, N; Zaikin, A; Poeschel, Thorsten; Schwager, Thomas; Brilliantov, Nikolai; Zaikin, Alexei

    2005-01-01

    The rolling motion of a rigid cylinder on an inclined flat viscous surface is investigated and the nonlinear resistance force against rolling, $F_R(v)$, is derived. For small velocities $F_R(v)$ increases with velocity due to increasing deformation rate of the surface material. For larger velocity it decreases with velocity due to decreasing contact area between the rolling cylinder and the deformed surface. The cylinder is, moreover, subjected to a viscous drag force and stochastic fluctuations due to a surrounding medium (air). For this system, in a wide range of parameters we observe bistability of the rolling motion. Depending on the material parameters, increasing the noise level may lead to increasing or decreasing average velocity.

  1. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the high-pressure roll mill grinding of coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; De, A.

    1996-08-01

    The preparation of coal water slurries to replace fuel oil for direct combustion has become an important field in modem coal technology. The U.S. Department of Energy has planned or has underway several demonstration projects to burn coal-water slurries to replace fuel oil is attractive not only because there is an assured domestic supply of coal, but also on various technoeconomic grounds. Coal-water slurries combine the handling flexibility of fuel oil in power plants and various other industrial applications. This report discusses the rheology of coal-water slurries and the correlation to the coal preparation by grinding with a choke-fed high pressure roll mill. Performance of the roll mills and energy consumption are described.

  2. Genetic based sensorless hybrid intelligent controller for strip loop formation control between inter-stands in hot steel rolling mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, S; Palanisamy, V; Duraiswamy, K

    2008-04-01

    Safe operating environment is essential for all complex industrial processes. The safety issues in steel rolling mill when the hot strip passes through consecutive mill stands have been considered in this paper. Formation of sag in strip is a common problem in the rolling process. The excessive sag can lead to scrap runs and damage to machinery. Conventional controllers for mill actuation system are based on a rolling model. The factors like rise in temperature, aging, wear and tear are not taken into account while designing a conventional controller. Therefore, the conventional controller cannot yield a requisite controlled output. In this paper, a new Genetic-neuro-fuzzy hybrid controller without tension sensor has been proposed to optimize the quantum of excessive sag and reduce it. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with the performance of fuzzy logic controller, Neuro-fuzzy controller and conventional controller with the help of data collected from the plant. The simulation results depict that the proposed controller has superior performance than the other controllers. PMID:18093589

  3. Transverse Crack Modeling of Continuously Casted Slabs through Finite Element Method in Roughing Rolling at Wide Strip Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesin, A.; Salganik, V.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    In the pipe billet production at the wide strip mills of hot rolling big metal losses are caused by surface defects that affect most parts of the finished strips. The rolling surface defects are referred to the breach of steelmaking technology. Specialists mostly face defects of metal surface such as "scab" and "crack". The only area suffered from these defects is a slab edge. This area has the least surface temperature at the unbending of the continuous-casting machine, and together with deep buckles made by reciprocating motion of the crystallizer it is mostly subjected to transverse cracks that can be up to several millimeters. Each surface defect of the continuously casted slab will further turn into the surface defect of the strip bar. For some grade sets, mostly made of pipe steel grades the amount of strips with these defects can reach up to 60-70%. The area that is mostly prone to these defects is the edge of the strip. The work reveals investigation of the form change peculiarities in the transverse cracks of the continuously casted slab in roughing rolling in the horizontal rollers. The finite element method with software DEFORM 3D V6.1 has been applied in modeling. The work gives a form change mechanism of transverse cracks of slabs in deformation. Further crack growth in rolling is assessed due to Cockroft-Latham criteria.

  4. Prevention of rolled-in defects in cold-rolled ultra-low carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cause of the surface defect in the cold-rolled ultra-low carbon steel was investigated through the analyses of the chemical composition and the size of the defect itself and of the correlation between the defect and the surface deterioration of the finishing work roll in the hot strip mill. It was found that the surface defect was originated from the surface peeling of the fourth finishing work roll, which was related to the severe thermal fatigue damage due to higher hot-rolling temperature. The amount of the defective strips was considerably decreased by intermediate change of the fourth work roll and by increasing the roll coolant and the lubricant. The defect was also decreased by reducing the number of the ultra-low carbon steel coils in one rolling campaign. Complete prevention was achieved by changing the roll material from nickel-grain cast iron to high-chromium cast iron with the superior thermal fatigue property

  5. Prediction of work-roll temperature distribution in continuous hot strip rolling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction of temperature distribution within the work-rolls during the hot slab rolling process is of great importance to mill designers. This is because, not only the temperature distribution in rolling material and the dimensional accuracy are depended on work-roll temperature but also the roll life is a function of its temperature distribution. In this paper using the heat transfer equations for moving media and a two dimensional finite element method, the work-roll temperature distribution during continuous hot strip rolling process is predicted. To achieve an accurate temperature field the effects of various factors including the rolling speed, interface heat transfer coefficient, and the amount of slab thickness reduction at each deformation pass are taken into account. Comparison between the predicted and experimental published results depicts the validity of the mathematical model. (author)

  6. Roll force prediction of high strength steel using foil rolling theory in cold skin pass rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin pass rolling is a very important process for applying a certain elongation to a strip in the cold rolling and annealing processes, which play an important role in preventing the stretching of the yield point when the material is processed. The exact prediction of the rolling force is essential for obtaining a given elongation with the steel grade and strip size. Unlike hot rolling and cold rolling, skin pass rolling is used to apply an elongation of within 2% to the strip. Under a small reduction, it is difficult to predict the rolling force because the elastic deformation behavior of the rolls is complicated and a model for predicting the rolling force has not yet been established. Nevertheless, the exact prediction of the rolling force in skin pass rolling has gained increasing importance in recent times with the rapid development of high strength steels for use in automobiles. In this study, the possibility of predicting the rolling force in skin pass rolling for producing various steel grades was examined using foil rolling theory, which is known to have similar elastic deformation behavior of rolls in the roll bite. It was found that a noncircular arc model is more accurate than a circular model in predicting the roll force of high strength steel below TS 980 MPa in skin pass rolling

  7. CISM Course on Rolling Contact Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kalker, Joost

    2000-01-01

    Preface.- Rolling Contact Phenomena - Linear Elasticity.- Finite Element Methods for Rolling Contact.- Plastic Deformation in Rolling Contact.- Non-Steady State Rolling Contact and Corrugations.- Modelling of Tyre Force and Moment Generation.- Rolling Noise.- Lubrication

  8. Energy consumption reduction in Ring Rolling processes: a FEM analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giorleo, Luca; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Giardini, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Ring Rolling is a very high energy consuming hot forming process used for the production of shaped ring, seamless and axis symmetrical workpieces. Different production steps (Upsetting, Piercing, Ring Rolling) are involved in generating the desired ring shape. In particular the Upsetting and Piercing steps generate a hollow circular preform that will be subsequently enlarged by the rolling mills (Driver, Idle and Axial Rolls) during the Ring Rolling step. In order to reduce the energy and the...

  9. Analysis of the bimetallic bars rolling during a skew rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sawicki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bimetallic bars which possess higher corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, it is the newkind of bimetallic bars which are better than standard bars. The bimetallic bars are more often applied in concreteconstruction. There are few methods which ensure a good strength of bimetallic layer bond. Hydrostatic extrusion,rotary rolling and explosive cladding are most often used methods.Design/methodology/approach: The simulations of the bar rolling in a three-high skew mill were carriedout using the Forge2005® commercial program.Findings: The higher value of yield stress of the cladding layer does not produce the effect of “flowing down” ofthis layer over the core surface and it’s folding between the rolls. The use of non-corrosive steel on plating layerassures receipt on a high durability and esthetics bimetallic bars.Practical implications: Bimetallic bars are chiefly used in the building industry at production of concreteconstructions, and as working elements in bridge building in aggressive environment.Originality/value: Production of bimetallic bars is very difficult. One from many problems during productionbimetallic bars is assurance good strength of bimetallic layer bond. A theoretical analysis of bimetallic bar rollingin a three-high skew mill is presented in the paper and the distributions of stress and strain intensities in thebimetallic bar during skew rolling are shown.

  10. Strip thickness estimation in rolling mills from electrical variables in AC drives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.S., Marcellos; J.F., Denti; G.C.D., Sousa.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The large-scale utilization of steel in the modern society highlights the importance of the lamination process, and poses new demands for advanced technologies in the electromechanical equipments as well as for the control systems. Several process parameters, such as strip thickness, friction, tensi [...] on, temperature, and rolling speed have a strong influence in the quality of the final product, and strategic importance in the control system. This paper introduces a method to obtain the torque and rolling mechanical power estimates in real time, without utilization of lamination process models. In contrast to existing techniques, in this work these estimates are derived from stator electrical variables, readily available in AC drives. This work also discusses the utilization of the torque and rolling mechanical power estimates to determine input and output strip thickness, by means of a neural network. Simulation results are presented and compared to real industrial data to demonstrate the validity of the proposed technique.

  11. Effect of plate asymmetric rolling parameters on the change of the total unit pressure of roll

    OpenAIRE

    Kawalek, A.; Dyja, H.; Mroz, S.; Knapinski, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work shows the results of theoretical analysis of asymmetric rolling process of plates in the finishing mill of plate rolling. Its aim was to determine the influence of asymmetry velocity of working rolls on decrease of unit pressure of metal on the rolls. The lower value of the unit pressure will reduce the elastic deflection of the finishing stand and improve the cross-section shape of plate. Three-dimensional simulation of asymmetric hot rolling of S355J2G3 steel plates was done with ...

  12. Catalytic surface modification of roll-milled poly(?-caprolactone) biaxially stretched to ultra-thin dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel roll-milling polymer processing technique along with biaxial stretching was used to fabricate 10 ?m thick poly(?-caprolactone) films. A less invasive collagen surface modification was used, involving a reaction between corona-preactivated membranes and ferrous-containing acrylic acid solution at the low temperature of 42 oC. Successful modified films were characterized by Toluidine Blue O assay and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells also showed both higher proliferation rate and differentiated cobblestone morphology on these collagen-immobilized substrates

  13. Catalytic surface modification of roll-milled poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) biaxially stretched to ultra-thin dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, H.L. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Bionic Materials Technology Group, Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Taniguchi, A. [Bionic Materials Technology Group, Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Yu, H. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Okano, T. [Bionic Materials Technology Group, Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Tokyo Women' s Medical University (Japan); Teoh, S.H. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)]. E-mail: mpetsh@nus.edu.sg

    2007-03-15

    A novel roll-milling polymer processing technique along with biaxial stretching was used to fabricate 10 {mu}m thick poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) films. A less invasive collagen surface modification was used, involving a reaction between corona-preactivated membranes and ferrous-containing acrylic acid solution at the low temperature of 42 {sup o}C. Successful modified films were characterized by Toluidine Blue O assay and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells also showed both higher proliferation rate and differentiated cobblestone morphology on these collagen-immobilized substrates.

  14. The ways of increasing the socket accuracy in the course of broaching on a three-roll mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of experimental investigations on the wall thickness variation of sleeves broached on a three-high mill with barrel-shaped rolls. To obtain sleeves with relatively accurate geometrical dimensions it is necessary to ensure a high rigidity of alignment of the sleeve-mandrel-rod system with a 3- to 4-fold safety margin for rod resistance to longitudinal bending with a length equal to that of the sleeve. Broaching is better to accomplish at increased feed angles (14-16 deg.) with partial cooling of the billets

  15. New rolling strategy for heavy plate mills. Development and installation; Nouvelle strategie de laminage pour toleries fortes. Developpement et implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza, L.; Dreistadt, D. [Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France); Lavolaine, P.; Dumoulin, P.; Martin, D.; Medalle, G. [Societe Creusot-Loire, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-07-01

    For the last few years, an evolution has been noted in the Usinor Sacilor plate mill order book going towards thinner, harder and wider products, causing a malfunction of the control system (PLATE). This problem could be solved by the development of a new strategy making it possible to exceed the flatness tolerances during the main thickness reduction phase. Installation of this new strategy in the CLI PLATE control system made it possible to increase the final temperature of the product (- 100 deg. C), to decrease the number of schema passes (up to 50 %) and thus to extend automatic rolling to finer products while guaranteeing a good final flatness. (authors)

  16. Grooved roll for a high speed twin roll caster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is investigation of the effect of roll-surface on the strip-surface. Improvement ofsmall cracks on the strip-surface was tried and effect of groove at the roll surface on the strip surface was shown.Design/methodology/approach: Method used in the present study was high speed twin roll caster withgrooved roll. Two kinds of grooves were used: one was parallel groove and the other was cross groove machinedby knurling and bite attached to a lathe.Findings: Findings of this research are that grooved roll was effective to eliminate the small cracks on the stripsurface. The contact condition between the roll and the melt became uniform by the small groove on the rollsurface. Contact area became small, and heat transfer between the melt and roll became small, too. As the result,chill structure did not become columnar, and crack did not occur. Groove pattern on the strip surface could beerased by the cold rolling.Research limitations/implications: Research limitation is that groove life could not be investigated.Practical implications: Practical implications are as below. The roll load was small and strip was not hot-rolledin a high speed twin roll caster. The grooved roll made strip-surface sound. Grooved 600mm width roll was tested,and usefulness of the grooved roll was shown.Originality/value: In the present study effect of the grooved roll on a high speed twin roll caster was investigated.

  17. Analysis of the technology of rolling 5,5 mm-diameter wire rod of cold upsetting steel in the morgan block mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Laber

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The commercial technology of rolling 5,5 mm-diameter wire rod in Poland’s most modern rolling line has been examined within the study. The material used for the investigation was the 20MnB4 steel intended for subsequent cold working. From the performed analysis of the investigation results it has been found that the technology of rolling wire rod of cold upsetting steel, which is used currently in the Rolling Mill under examination, allows the production of finished products that can be deformed with a relative reduction of about 33 %. At larger plastic deformations,cracks occur in the material, which disqualifies it from further cold working.

  18. The analysis of the asymmetric plate rolling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kawa?ek

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The analysis of asymmetric band rolling in the finishing stand of a plate rolling mill has been carried out within the present study with the aim of establishing the effect of the speed asymmetry factor, av, on band bending during the rolling process and determining the strain velocity distributions of the rolled material in the roll bite region.Design/methodology/approach: The simulation of metal flow in the asymmetric roll bite region was performed using the program FORGE 2D. The development of numerous branches of the steelmaking industry imposes increasingly high demands on steel product manufacturers, which can only be met by products manufactured according to the state-of-the-art plastic working technologies. One of the major plastic working technologies is asymmetric rolling.Findings: The analysis shows that the band bends most often toward the lower-speed roll. Increasing the value of the speed asymmetry factor causes an increase in the advance, while the force parameters decrease with increasing asymmetry factor av.Practical implications: Asymmetric rolling is achieved by differentiating working roll diameters, roll rotational speeds, or roll surface roughness. In industrial practice, one or a combination of the above-mentioned parameters is used.Originality/value: In order to improve the asymmetric plate rolling process, the analysis of the following parameters must be carried out: band temperature, the magnitude of rolling reduction, the magnitude of yield stress for particular steel grades, roll rotational speeds and roll diameters.

  19. Computation of Rolling Stand Parameters by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František ?urovský

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of rolling process is used at cold mill rolling on tandemmills in metallurgy. The model goal is to analyse rolling process according to process datameasured on the mill and get immeasurable variables necessary for rolling control andoptimal mill pre-set for next rolled coil. The values obtained by model are used asreferences for superimposed technology controllers (thickness, speed, tension, etc. as well.Considering wide steel strip assortment (different initial and final thickness, differenthardness, and fluctuation of tandem mill parameters (change of friction coefficient, workrolls abrasion, temperature fluctuation, etc. the exact analysis of tandem is complicated.The paper deals with an identification of friction coefficient on a single rolling mill standby a genetic algorithm. Mathematical description of tandem mill stand is based on themodified Bland-Ford model. Results are presented in graphical form.

  20. Maintenance strategy for tilting table of rolling mill based on reliability considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is a new strategic framework for ensuring that any asset continues to perform, as its users want it to perform. RCM is a process used to determine the maintenance requirement of any physical asset in its operating context. RCM process entails asking seven questions about each of the selected assets. It makes use of two documents namely, RCM information worksheet and RCM decision worksheet. RCM decision diagram integrates all the decision processes into a single strategic framework. RCM concept developed by US commercial airlines industry has been successfully implemented by Military, Navy, Nuclear power plants, electric power generation and distribution undertakings and several other sectors. These projects have been carried out in the United Kingdom, The Republic of Ireland, the United States, Hong Kong, Australia, Spain and Singapore. The fact that people has enthusiastically received RCM at all levels and has enabled users to achieve some remarkable successes in all of these countries, suggests that it can be universally employed. Literature review indicates that RCM approach is not conventionally applied in process industries in India. Presently, predictive maintenance (PDM) approach along with conventional preventive maintenance is used in continuous/process industries. This approach if implemented in totality will increase the production cost to a large degree and make the production uneconomical. Similarly breakdown mainten uneconomical. Similarly breakdown maintenance (BDM) approach cannot be applied in such industries as each breakdown involves huge costs. RCM approach is a compromise between PDM and BDM approach for optimising the cost and ensuring the availability of machine. The RCM approach has been applied to the tilting table system of rolling mill for the research work reported in this paper. In the present study, preventive maintenance tasks suggested for power transmission subsystem, guiding and transportation subsystem and hydraulic subsystem in tilting tables are 14 scheduled on-condition tasks, 10 scheduled on-restoration tasks, seven scheduled discard task. Whereas for 14 failure modes no scheduled maintenance has been proposed. Existing maintenance schedule for tilting tables indicates the maintenance action as and when required. Hence RCM based schedule specifies that additional preventive maintenance tasks need to be executed as compared to none initially. Cost incurred for this can be offset from the savings accrued from reduction in loss of production due to repetitive breakdowns. The methodology of RCM adopted in western industries cannot be applied as it is to Indian industries because of labour oriented nature, partially computerised information systems, non-availability of the information about cost of loss of production due to breakdown and age-reliability pattern of equipment, insufficient maintenance database. These problems can be overcome by development of sound MMIS, formulation of RCM review group and imparting suitable training to acquire the relevant skills in RCM. Thus RCM methodology can be applied to Indian industry for reduction of breakdowns as well as optimisation of preventive maintenance cost. This can further boost up the prospects of Indian industry to offer the products at globally competitive prices

  1. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of difficulties associated with control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance and the applicability of different mathematical models, and it surveys the control methods that have been implemented and validated with full scale experiments. The paper also presents an outlook on what are believed to be potential areas of research within this topic.

  2. Fast-roll inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Motohashi, Hayato; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2014-01-01

    A novel class of exact solutions of inflationary dynamics with a specific form of a scalar potential is given based on a "fast-roll" ansatz, where the even-order slow-roll parameters approach to a nonnegligible constants while the odd ones are asymptotically vanishing in the quasi-de Sitter regime. Due to the rapid evolution of the background dynamics, the would-be decaying mode of the linear curvature perturbation may behave as a growing mode depending on the value of the model parameter, while the other mode remains constant. For the parameters giving a slightly red-tilted primordial power spectrum, the unwanted anomalous growth of the curvature perturbation is inevitable, which is similar to the case of the so-called ultra-slow-roll inflation.

  3. Sliding and Rolling: The Physics of a Rolling Ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierrezuelo, J.; Carnero, C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an approach that provides a simple and adequate procedure for introducing the concept of rolling friction. Discusses some aspects related to rolling motion that are the source of students' misconceptions. Presents several didactic suggestions. (JRH)

  4. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan University of Newcastle

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past.

  5. Slitting criterion for various rolling speeds in MSR rolling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stefanik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main idea of MSR technology is the capability of producing two, three, four and even five rods simultaneously from a single strip in a hot rolling process. Correctly separation of the joined strips is the one of the mainly problem in MSR process. Changing the rolling speed may causes easier of the strand division. In this paper results of the computer simulation of the double slitting rolling process were presented.Design/methodology/approach: For numerical modelling of the multi rolling process a computer program Forge 2005, based by the finished element method was used. As a slitting criterion normalised Cockroft – Latham criterion was used.Findings: For the analysis performed in this study, it was found that increasing of the rolling speed causes of increasing the normalized Cockroft – Latham criterion. For the small values of rolling velocity the strip separation was easier.Research limitations/implications: Multi Slit Rolling process is applied in ribbed rods rolling. Adjusting of the rolling speed in multi slit rolling process could improve of the slitting band to the separated strips.Originality/value: Incorrect construction or bad gap matching could cause lack of separation propelled slitting rolls. The separation of the band is effected by means of separating rollers, which shape must be properly designed to suit to the slitting pass. Changing of the rolling speed could improve of the separation to the single strips.

  6. Rolling Stonesi kinokontsert kannab toorest rokiväge / Maris Meiessaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meiessaar, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Martin Scorsese muusikalisest dokumentaalfilmist "Shine a Light - Valgus peale" (USA-Suurbritannia, 2008), mille keskmes on 2006. a. New Yorgi Beaconi teatris toimunud briti ansambli Rolling Stones kontsert

  7. Effect of plate asymmetric rolling parameters on the change of the total unit pressure of roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kawalek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the results of theoretical analysis of asymmetric rolling process of plates in the finishing mill of plate rolling. Its aim was to determine the influence of asymmetry velocity of working rolls on decrease of unit pressure of metal on the rolls. The lower value of the unit pressure will reduce the elastic deflection of the finishing stand and improve the cross-section shape of plate. Three-dimensional simulation of asymmetric hot rolling of S355J2G3 steel plates was done with the aid of FORGE 2008® software. The tensor polynomial interpolation was used for comparing the values of the unit pressure obtaining from symmetric and asymmetric rolling.

  8. Comparison between a high chromium steel and a semi HSS grades used as work rolls in the roughing stands of a hot strip mill

    OpenAIRE

    Tchuindjang, Je?ro?me Tchoufack; Lecomte-beckers, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Two alloys grades for work rolls used in the roughing stand of Hot Strip Mill (HSM) were compared. The first grade known as High Chromium Steel (HCS) is actually the alloy widely used for such an application, while the second one known as semi-High Speed Steel (semi-HSS) is the new grade developed to improve overall properties of the work roll in the roughing stands of the HSM. In the present work, the new semi-HSS grade is studied starting from 3 chemical compositions closed one to anoth...

  9. GRCop-84 Rolling Parameter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This report is a section of the final report on the GRCop-84 task of the Constellation Program and incorporates the results obtained between October 2000 and September 2005, when the program ended. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a new copper alloy, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb), for rocket engine main combustion chamber components that will improve rocket engine life and performance. This work examines the sensitivity of GRCop-84 mechanical properties to rolling parameters as a means to better define rolling parameters for commercial warm rolling. Experiment variables studied were total reduction, rolling temperature, rolling speed, and post rolling annealing heat treatment. The responses were tensile properties measured at 23 and 500 C, hardness, and creep at three stress-temperature combinations. Understanding these relationships will better define boundaries for a robust commercial warm rolling process. The four processing parameters were varied within limits consistent with typical commercial production processes. Testing revealed that the rolling-related variables selected have a minimal influence on tensile, hardness, and creep properties over the range of values tested. Annealing had the expected result of lowering room temperature hardness and strength while increasing room temperature elongations with 600 C (1112 F) having the most effect. These results indicate that the process conditions to warm roll plate and sheet for these variables can range over wide levels without negatively impacting mechanical properties. Incorporating broader process ranges in future rolling campaigns should lower commercial rolling costs through increased productivity.

  10. Effect of the microstructure on tribological phenomena occurring on the surface of a mill roll made of SA5T cast iron (GJSL-HV600 - GJSL-330NiMoCr12-8-3)

    OpenAIRE

    Krawczyk, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the role of the microstructure in the tribological wear processes occurring in a cast iron mill roll. For this purpose, a piece of a broken roll, made in Italy, was collected. Its microstructure consisted of modular graphite, transformed ledeburite and a matrix composed of bainite and martensite. Metallographic investigations were performed on the roll working surface in conjunction with metallographic tests effected within its surface layer. There was established the re...

  11. Walk and roll robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A mobile robotic unit features a main body, a plurality of legs for supporting the main body on and moving the main body in forward and reverse directions about a base surface, and a drive assembly. According to an exemplary embodiment each leg includes a respective pivotal hip joint, a pivotal knee joint, and a wheeled foot adapted to roll along the base surface. Also according to an exemplary embodiments the drive assembly includes a motor operatively associated with the hip and knee joints and the wheeled foot for independently driving pivotal movement of the hip joint and the knee joint and rolling motion of the wheeled foot. The hip joint may include a ball-and-socket-type joint interconnecting top portion of the leg to the main body, such that the hip joint is adapted to pivot said leg in a direction transverse to a forward-and-reverse direction.

  12. Speed roll laws influence in a Ring Rolling process

    OpenAIRE

    Giorleo, Luca; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Giardini, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Ring Rolling is a complex hot forming process used for the production of shaped rings, seamless and axis symmetrical workpieces. The main advantage of workpieces produced by ring rolling, compared to other technological processes, is given by the size and orientation of grains, especially on the worked surface which give to the final product excellent mechanical properties. In this process different rolls (Idle, Axial, Guide and Driver) are involved in generating the desired ring shape. Becau...

  13. Grooved roll for a high speed twin roll caster

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, T.; Hirooka, K.; Watari, H.; Kumai, S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper is investigation of the effect of roll-surface on the strip-surface. Improvement ofsmall cracks on the strip-surface was tried and effect of groove at the roll surface on the strip surface was shown.Design/methodology/approach: Method used in the present study was high speed twin roll caster withgrooved roll. Two kinds of grooves were used: one was parallel groove and the other was cross groove machinedby knurling and bite attached to a lathe.Findings: Findings ...

  14. G-MG Toilet Roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Picture a roll of toilet paper; assume that the paper in the roll is very tightly rolled. Assuming that the paper in the roll is very thin, find a rela...

  15. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Donald R. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  16. Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group) from Ahvaz-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiei Masoud; Gadgil Alaka; Ghole Vikram; Gore Sharad; Jaafarzadeh Neemat; Mirkazemi Roksana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-se...

  17. Analysis of roll gap heat transfers in hot steel strip rolling through roll temperature sensors and heat transfer models

    OpenAIRE

    Weisz-patrault, Daniel; Ehrlacher, Alain; Legrand, Nicolas; Labbe, Nathalie; Horsky, Jaroslav; Luks, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of roll bite heat transfers during pilot hot steel strip rolling. Two types of temperature sensors (drilled and slot sensors) implemented near roll surface are used with heat transfer models to identify interfacial heat flux, roll surface temperature and Heat Transfer Coefficient HTCroll-bite in the roll bite. It is shown that: - the slot type sensor is more efficient than the drilled type sensor to capture correctly fast roll temperature changes and heat fluxe...

  18. Mechanical of beryllium deformation and hardening at cold rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium rolling has been made on DUO-80 mills and quarto 15-35 with reductions of 0.2-1.0% for the run. A mechanism of beryllium deformation at cold rolling is determined by dislocations interaction with additive inclusions. The fracture of inclusion with microcracks formations is possible during deformation. At cold rolling of beryllium it is necessary to control the value of tensile stress in the metal to prevent the propagation of microcracks formed during inclusons cutting

  19. Quality assessment of rolled strip produced by compact versus conventional rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In continuous casting and rolling, the major factors that influence the quality are frequently interrelated and dependent on each other, with complex confluent relationships. When one of these factors changes, e.g. the temperature, not only is the rolling force affected, but the torque and surface properties, as kinematic boundary conditions, changes as well. The same is valid for the geometric quality parameters, consisting of thickness, profile, flatness, width and wedge, as well as for surface roughness. In order to be able to predict and improve the expected quality of the rolled sheet, detailed analysis of all these factors is necessary. The steel quality-producing of the new compact strip production technique as compared to as an integrated mill is studied by using modern data mining tools, primarily the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) approach. The data are gathered at several steel mills. In this paper data from two mills is analyzed using a bench marking approach. (author)

  20. Using Variable Perturbation Method to Study the Stability of Torsional Self-Excited Vibration in Main Drive System of Rolling Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglan Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The self-excited vibration of blooming mill is a kind of torsional vibration, which occurs only when the rolling machine slips under appropriate conditions. Once in place, this may cause the larger peak pressure of each component in the main drive system; reduce the service life of the components, cause components? damage directly. A large number of studies have shown that, at present there are not effective methods for diagnosis, monitoring of slipping and take proper measures in time to stop slipping so as to avoid the occurrence of malignant accidents. In this paper, author set out from another angle, take the main drive system of rolling mill as an example, to study stability of self-excited vibration. The conditions of the stable vibration are gained. By combining with the actual working conditions of blooming mill, author has put forward some effective measures to meet the stable conditions in order to make the blooming mill work in the stable state. Practice research has proved that the effective measures can contribute to reduce structural damage directly caused by the torsional vibration when “slipping” phenomenon occurred and to extend the service life of the components.

  1. Rolling tool calibration for cold rolling of tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis was made of calibration methods for step-back rolling of tubes from austenitic steels to meet the order of nuclear power for tubes with a high quality of inner surfaces. On the basis of this analysis the optimization criterion chosen was the observance of the constant value of the ratio of wall thickness deformation to the deformation of tube diameter for any length of a tube. A logarithmic function was derived for the shape of the rolling pin. Operating trials showed that rolling instruments of the given design have a favourable effect on the quality of the inner surface of tubes and on the even load of the rolling system in an operating cycle. (Ha)

  2. Nonlinear Observers for Parametric Roll

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Gunnhild Konstanse Hoff

    2012-01-01

    Parametric roll resonance is a dangerous resonance phenomenon affecting several kinds of ships, such as cruise ships, fishing vessels and container ships. In a worst case scenario parametric roll resonance may lead to roll angles of up to 50 degrees, capsizing of the vessel, or damage of goods and ship for tens of millions of dollars, citep{Ginsberg1998}.Accurate equations in the model for the ship motion are important because they are directly related to the observer design. There has been d...

  3. 75 FR 16504 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Review)] Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil...on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products (``hot-rolled...Supply conditions to consider include technology; production methods; development...

  4. Adaptive Automatic Gauge Control of a Cold Strip Rolling Process

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, N.; Ceanga, E.; Bivol, I.; Caraman, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper tackles with thickness control structure of the cold rolled strips. This structure is based on the rolls position control of a reversible quarto rolling mill. The main feature of the system proposed in the paper consists in the compensation of the errors introduced by the deficient dynamics of the hydraulic servo-system used for the rolls positioning, by means of a dynamic compensator that approximates the inverse system of the servo-system. Because the servo-system is considered va...

  5. Steel balls forming by cross rolling with upsetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pater

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a process of forming four balls with a diameter of 22 mm by means of cross rolling with upsetting. The paper also presents the tool used to form semi-finished balls. Owing to the application of the finite element method (FEM, the course of the rolling process as well as temperature and strain distributions in the obtained balls could be presented. The rolling tests conducted in laboratory conditions at the Lublin University of Technology have proved that the balls produced with the developed rolling method meet the demands for grinding media used in ball mills.

  6. Rolling Process Modeling Report: Finite-Element Prediction of Roll Separating Force and Rolling Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2014-04-23

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been investigating manufacturing processes for the uranium-10% molybdenum (U-10Mo) alloy plate-type fuel for the U.S. high-performance research reactors. This work supports the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative. This report documents modeling results of PNNL’s efforts to perform finite-element simulations to predict roll separating forces and rolling defects. Simulations were performed using a finite-element model developed using the commercial code LS-Dyna. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel have been conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll-pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. This report discusses various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., dog-boning and thickness non-uniformity).

  7. Rolling Resistance Measurement and Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Grinderslev; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased focus worldwide on understanding and modeling rolling resistance because reducing the rolling resistance by just a few percent will lead to substantial energy savings. This paper reviews the state of the art of rolling resistance research, focusing on measuring techniques, surface and texture modeling, contact models, tire models, and macro-modeling of rolling resistance

  8. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear ...

  9. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  10. Numerical analysis of cross shear plate rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The rolling process is widely applied for industrial production of metal plates. In conventional plate rolling the two work rolls are rotating at the same peripheral speed. By introducing a specific difference in the speed of the two work rolls, cross shear rolling is introduced forming a central shear zone between the forward and backward slip zones in the deformation zone thus lowering the rolling load. A numerical analysis of the cross shear rolling process is carried out based on the slab method adopting Wanheim and Bay's general friction model. The pressure distribution along the contact are in the roll gap, the position and the size of the shear zone and the rolling load are calculated. Experimental results are presented verifying the calculations. The numerical analysis facilitates a better understanding of the mechanics in cross shear plate rolling.

  11. NORMAL PRESSURE AND FRICTION STRESS MEASUREMENT IN ROLLING PROCESSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    A load transducer has been developed to measure the contact forces in the deformation zone during rolling. The transducer consists of a strain gauge equipped insert, embedded in the surface of the roll. The length of the insert exceeds the contact length between material and roll. By analyzing the output from the transducer, the friction stress and normal pressure in the contact zone can be determined. The new concept differs from existing pin designs by a lower disturbance of lubricant film and material flow and limited penetration of material between transducer and roll. Aluminum, cupper and steel strips with a width of 40 mm was rolled with reduction varying from 2.7% to 29%, in a pilot mill. For evaluating the transducer, the measured contact forces are compared with external measurements of roll separating forces and torque. The determined friction coefficients are compared with values found by forward slip measurements.

  12. Multi-stage FE simulation of hot ring rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2013-05-01

    As a unique and important member of the metal forming family, ring rolling provides a cost effective process route to manufacture seamless rings. Applications of ring rolling cover a wide range of products in aerospace, automotive and civil engineering industries [1]. Above the recrystallization temperature of the material, hot ring rolling begins with the upsetting of the billet cut from raw stock. Next a punch pierces the hot upset billet to form a hole through the billet. This billet, referred to as preform, is then rolled by the ring rolling mill. For an accurate simulation of hot ring rolling, it is crucial to include the deformations, stresses and strains from the upsetting and piercing process as initial conditions for the rolling stage. In this work, multi-stage FE simulations of hot ring rolling process were performed by mapping the local deformation state of the workpiece from one step to the next one. The simulations of upsetting and piercing stages were carried out by 2D axisymmetric models using adaptive remeshing and element erosion. The workpiece for the ring rolling stage was subsequently obtained after performing a 2D to 3D mapping. The commercial FE package LS-DYNA was used for the study and user defined subroutines were implemented to complete the control algorithm. The simulation results were analyzed and also compared with those from the single-stage FE model of hot ring rolling.

  13. An FE Based On-line Model for the Prediction of Work Roll Thermal Profile in Hot Strip Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Hyeung; Sun, Cheng Gang; Hwang, Sang Moo

    2010-06-01

    Prediction and control of the thermal deformation of the work roll is vital for enhancing product quality in hot strip and plate rolling. In this paper, we present an on-line model for the prediction of the work roll thermal profile. The model is developed on the basis of an integrated finite element model for the coupled analysis of heat transfer and deformation occurring at the bite zone, to rigorously take into account the effect of various rolling parameters on the thermal behavior of the work roll. The validity of the model is demonstrated through comparison with measurements made in an industrial hot strip mill. Also, an emphasis is given to the examination the effect of some selected rolling parameters in an actual production environment.

  14. Effects of hot-rolling temperature and reduction ratio on edge cracking of hot-rolled boron-stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of hot-rolling temperature and reduction ratio on edge cracking in hot-rolled stainless steel containing 1.1% boron were investigated by using a hot-mill simulator. The main results are as follows: (1) The temperature at the side of hot-rolled steel sheets (Ts) during hot-rolling was significantly lower than at the center of hot-rolled steel sheets (Tp) just before hot rolling. (2) Ts at the start of edge cracking was not constant and increased with increasing reduction per pass. (3) The total reduction until the start of edge cracking was constant and was not dependent on Ts or the reduction per pass. (4) It is concluded that total reduction is the main factor in edge cracking due to rapid work hardening of the matrix (?phase), and owing to cavities occurring at the interface of the matrix and boride under constant strain conditions. (author)

  15. Effects of hot-rolling temperature and reduction ratio on edge cracking of hot-rolled boron-stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Osamu; Takemoto, Toshihiko [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    The effects of hot-rolling temperature and reduction ratio on edge cracking in hot-rolled stainless steel containing 1.1% boron were investigated by using a hot-mill simulator. The main results are as follows: (1) The temperature at the side of hot-rolled steel sheets (Ts) during hot-rolling was significantly lower than at the center of hot-rolled steel sheets (Tp) just before hot rolling. (2) Ts at the start of edge cracking was not constant and increased with increasing reduction per pass. (3) The total reduction until the start of edge cracking was constant and was not dependent on Ts or the reduction per pass. (4) It is concluded that total reduction is the main factor in edge cracking due to rapid work hardening of the matrix ({gamma}phase), and owing to cavities occurring at the interface of the matrix and boride under constant strain conditions. (author)

  16. Studying possibilities to improve the functional properties of metallurgical rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Stradomski, Z.; Pirek, A.; Stachura, S.

    2008-01-01

    Thc paper prcscnts rcsults nT invcst igations and at~thors' opinion on improving functional propcrtics of mciall urgicnl rolls cast fromGZOOCrMoNi 4-9-3 cast wccl. onc nf most oftcn ilscd lor rolls in scction mills. Thcsc mills Icn~urcq uickcr than flat rolls wear or 1001'spass. whar rcquircs morc Crcqocnt rcpcncr;lt ion. 'Thc machining rcquircs n rclat ivcly low hardness, which is cnsurcd hy ~ h pcc arliiic matrixof casr steel strldid. 7 % ~au thors silggcst 10 achicvc thc optimisntion o f t...

  17. Development of roll-to-roll hot embossing system with induction heater for micro fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dongwon; Son, Youngsu; Kyung, Jinho; Park, Heechang; Park, Chanhun; Lee, Sunghee; Kim, Byungin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a hot embossing heating roll with induction heater inside the roll is proposed. The induction heating coil is installed inside a roll that is used as a heating roll of a roll-to-roll (R2R) hot embossing apparatus. Using an inside installed heating coil gives the roll-to-roll hot embossing system a more even temperature distribution on the surface of the heating roll compared to that of previous systems, which used an electric wire for heating. This internal induction heating roll can keep the working environment much cleaner because there is no oil leakage compared to the oiled heating roll. This paper describes the principles and provides an analysis of this proposed system; some evaluation has also been performed for the system. A real R2R hot embossing heating roll system was fabricated and some experiments on micro-pattering have been performed. After that, evaluation has been performed on the results.

  18. Modeling recrystallization kinetics during strip rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, W.P.; Hawbolt, E.B.; Meadowcroft, T.R. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). The Centre for Metallurgical Process Engineering

    1995-01-01

    In order to simulate the microstructural evolution during hot strip rolling, double-hit compression tests have been carried out on plain carbon steels. Using the softening data obtained by these tests, mathematical models were developed to predict the overall kinetics of static recrystallization under roughing and finishing mill conditions. These models include the effects of deformation temperature, applied strain, strain rate and initial austenite grain size. Predictions based on these models are in reasonable agreement with the present experimental results.

  19. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-07-30

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  20. Roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, T.; Mtsuo, M.; Kunigo, D.; Hatanaka, Y.; Nakamuta, R.; Watari, H.; Kumai, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is investigation of the ability of the high speed roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy. Appropriate twin roll caster to cast the 5182 strip was researched.Design/methodology/approach: Method used in the present study was an unequal diameter twin roll caster and a vertical type high speed twin roll caster equipped with mild steel rolls without parting material.Findings: are that the vertical type high speed twin roll caster was effective to cast 5182 strip at high speed....

  1. Robust Rudder Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, C.

    1998-01-01

    The results of a systematic research to solve a specific ship motion control problem, simultaneous roll damping and course keeping using the rudder are presented in this thesis. The fundamental knowledge a priori is that rudder roll damping is highly sensitive to the model uncertainty, therefore H-infinity theory is used to deal with the problem. The necessary mathematical tools and the H-Infinity theory as the basis of controller design are presented in Chapter 2 and 3. The mu synthesis and the D-K iteration are introduced in Chapter 3. The ship dynamics and modeling technology are discussed in Chapter 4, two kinds of ship model have been obtained: linear ship model used for designing the controller and nonlinear model used for simulation. The ship model uncertainty is discussed in this chapter and so is a wave model because the ship's roll motion is caused by waves. Using an unstructured model of uncertainty, three controllers with different kind of control schemes are designed by the mixed sensitivity method in Chapter 5. Sea-way simulation results show that each of these controllers have good robust stability and performance. The roll damping reduction is above 35% for all of these controllers. Roll reduction of near 70% has been obtained by the cascade controller. Using structured model of uncertainty, a m controller is designed in Chapter 6. The good robust performance has been recognized in the simulation results. It is shown that the m controller has the best robust characteristics with respect to model uncertainty and the roll reduction is near 50% with an envelope of model perturbations.

  2. Rolling up a graphene sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Quintana, Mildred; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco; Prato, Maurizio

    2013-10-21

    Carbon Nanotubes, CNTs, have been described as rolled-up graphene layers. Matching this concept to experiments has been a great experimental challenge for it requires a method to exfoliate graphite, generate ordered and stable dangling carbon bonds, and roll up the layer without affecting the unpaired electrons of the dangling bonds that finally have to zip up in an orderly fashion: A tall order for any synthetic strategy. The combined use of ultrasonication of graphite in dimethylformamide and addition of ferrocene aldehyde just does it! PMID:23757109

  3. Tallinnas on kõne all spordi muutuv roll kõrghariduses / Raivo Russmann, Malle Jürves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Russmann, Raivo

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikakõrgkooli korraldusel toimub 8.-12. novembrini Tallinnas 9. üle-euroopalise kõrgkoolide spordikeskuste assotsiatsiooni ENAS konverents, mille teemaks on spordi muutuv roll kõrghariduses

  4. Cell sorting by deterministic cell rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sungyoung; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Karnik, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    This communication presents the concept of “deterministic cell rolling”, which leverages transient cell-surface molecular interactions that mediate cell rolling to sort cells with high purity and efficiency in a single step.

  5. Modeling and Control of Parametric Roll Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Parametric roll resonance is a dangerous resonance phenomenon affecting several types of ships, such as destroyers, RO-RO paxes, cruise ships, fishing vessels and especially container ships. Worst case, parametric roll is capable of causing roll angles of at least 50 degrees, and damage in the tens of millions of US dollars. Empirical and mathematical investigations have concluded that parametric roll occurs due to periodic changes in the waterplane area of the ship. If the vessel is sailing ...

  6. Controlling the Roll Responses of PCTC's

    OpenAIRE

    So?der, Carl-johan

    2013-01-01

    Modern Panamax Pure Car and Truck Carriers (PCTC) have become more vulnerable to critical roll responses as built in margins have been traded against increased transport efficiency. The research presented in this licentiate thesis aims at enhancing the predictability and control of these critical roll responses. The thesis presents the development of a new method for assessing the roll damping, which is a crucial parameter for predicting roll motions. The method involves a unique set up of fu...

  7. Improvement in rolling workability of Fe3Al by high-speed rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, A.; Utsunomiya, H.; Matsumoto, R.; Sakai, T.

    2012-08-01

    High-speed rolling is expected to improve the deformability of difficult-to-work alloys. In this work, high-speed rolling was applied to Fe3Al, and the rolling workability was investigated. Fe-28%Al was prepared by plasma arc melting and multi-pass hot-rolled to a sheet 2 mm in thickness, followed by heat-treatment. Both the hot-rolling and heat-treatment were carried out at 1173 K. These specimens were rolled in a one-pass operation with a thickness reduction of 30 % at 1000 m/min in the temperature range from 573 to 973 K. Rolling at 5 m/min was also conducted for comparison. Sound sheets without defects or cracks were obtained even at 673 K in the high-speed rolling, while sound sheets were obtained only above 1173 K in the low-speed rolling. EBSD analysis showed that fine grains were formed either after the high-speed rolling at 873 K or after the low-speed rolling at 1073 K. Vickers hardness is not sensitive to the rolling speed below 773 K and decreased above 773 K and 1173 K in the high-speed rolling and low-speed rolling, respectively. The rolling workability of Fe3Al was significantly improved by the high-speed rolling.

  8. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right circumstances both materials show good bonding, but the high purity material is excluded because of recrystallisation and the resulting loss of mechanical properties. The effect of cross stacking and roll bonding pre-strained sheets of the commercial purity material is investigated and some dependence of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained materials. With deeper knowledge of the parameters at play it will be possible to tailor the properties of the material produced. This combined with the potential for production of bulk material, could make the process an interesting alternative to other methods of producing high strained material.

  9. Application research of ferrous matrix composites in roller ring used in high-speed wire/bar rolling mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? A composite structure roller rings was fabricated by centrifugal casting. ? The roller rings consisted of outer WCP/Fe-C composites layer and inner Fe-C alloy matrix. ? Hardness attained to HRA80-85 in the composites layer, and HRA73-76 in inner Fe-C alloy matrix where the toughness was over 8 J/cm2. ? The wear resistance of the roller rings excelled that of high-speed steel, and approached to that of the WC hard alloy roll. ? The production cost of the WCP/Fe-C composites roller ring decreased by 50%. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide particle (WCP) reinforced ferrous matrix composites roller rings were fabricated by centrifugal casting. The microstructures, properties and application effect of the composites roller rings were investigated by SEM, TEM and various property testers. The experimental results show that the WCP were uniformly distributed in outer reinforced-layer (working-layer) of 20-50 mm in thickness and their volume fraction reached 60-80 vol.%; there was a good interface bonding between WCP and Fe-C alloy without any reaction products; hardness attained to HRA80-85 in working-layer, and HRA73-76 in inner ferrous matrix where the toughness was over 8 J/cm2; the wear resistance of the composites roller rings excels that of high-speed steel; service life of the composites parts approached to that of the WC hard alloy roll when the same WCP-volume-fraction in woub>P-volume-fraction in working-layer were obtained for both of them, but the production cost of the WCP/Fe-C composites roller ring decreased by 50%.

  10. Application research of ferrous matrix composites in roller ring used in high-speed wire/bar rolling mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Yanpei, E-mail: sypei@mail.haust.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, No 48 Xiyuan Road, Luoyang 471003 (China); Li Xiuqing; Bi Shuangxu [School of Material Science and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, No 48 Xiyuan Road, Luoyang 471003 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A composite structure roller rings was fabricated by centrifugal casting. {yields} The roller rings consisted of outer WCP/Fe-C composites layer and inner Fe-C alloy matrix. {yields} Hardness attained to HRA80-85 in the composites layer, and HRA73-76 in inner Fe-C alloy matrix where the toughness was over 8 J/cm{sup 2}. {yields} The wear resistance of the roller rings excelled that of high-speed steel, and approached to that of the WC hard alloy roll. {yields} The production cost of the WCP/Fe-C composites roller ring decreased by 50%. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide particle (WC{sub P}) reinforced ferrous matrix composites roller rings were fabricated by centrifugal casting. The microstructures, properties and application effect of the composites roller rings were investigated by SEM, TEM and various property testers. The experimental results show that the WC{sub P} were uniformly distributed in outer reinforced-layer (working-layer) of 20-50 mm in thickness and their volume fraction reached 60-80 vol.%; there was a good interface bonding between WC{sub P} and Fe-C alloy without any reaction products; hardness attained to HRA80-85 in working-layer, and HRA73-76 in inner ferrous matrix where the toughness was over 8 J/cm{sup 2}; the wear resistance of the composites roller rings excels that of high-speed steel; service life of the composites parts approached to that of the WC hard alloy roll when the same WC{sub P}-volume-fraction in working-layer were obtained for both of them, but the production cost of the WC{sub P}/Fe-C composites roller ring decreased by 50%.

  11. Evaluation of roll compaction as a preparation method for hydroxypropyl cellulose-based matrix tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Imjak; Gilli, Tiziana; Betz, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Roll compaction was applied for the preparation of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-based sustained-release matrix tablets. Matrix tablets made via roll compaction exhibited higher dosage uniformity and faster drug release than direct-compacted tablets. HPC viscosity grade, roll pressure, and milling speed affected tablet properties significantly. Roll compaction seems to be an adequate granulation method for the preparation of HPC-based matrix tablets due to the simplicity of the process, less ...

  12. A review of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooy, Nazrin; Mohamed, Khairudin; Pin, Lee Tze; Guan, Ooi Su

    2014-06-01

    Since its introduction in 1995, nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated in many researches as a simple, low-cost, and high-throughput process for replicating micro- and nanoscale patterns. Due to its advantages, the nanoimprint lithography method has been rapidly developed over the years as a promising alternative to conventional nanolithography processes to fulfill the demands generated from the recent developments in the semiconductor and flexible electronics industries, which results in variations of the process. Roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is the most demanded technique due to its high-throughput fulfilling industrial-scale application. In the present work, a general literature review on the various types of nanoimprint lithography processes especially R2R NIL and the methods commonly adapted to fabricate imprint molds are presented to provide a clear view and understanding on the nanoimprint lithography technique as well as its recent developments.

  13. Almost rolling motion: An investigation of rolling grooved cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Mead, L R; Mead, Lawrence R.; Bentrem, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of cylinders that are grooved to form N teeth for rolling motion down an inclined plane. The grooved cylinders are experimentally found to reach a terminal velocity. This result can be explained by the inclusion of inelastic processes which occur whenever a tooth hits the surface. The fraction of the angular velocity that is lost during an inelastic collision is phenomenologically found to be proportional to (2*sin^2*pi/N)-(alpha*sin^3*pi/N), and the method of least squares is used to find the constant alpha=0.98. The adjusted theoretical results for the time of rolling as well as for terminal velocity are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Improving energy efficiency of reheating furnace of sheet ingot plant and rolling mill Calibers of Gecamines / Lubumbashi by the recovery of waste heat of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic management of energy is an important topic in industrial processes to the extent that it ensures the competitiveness of any firm and ensures its survival. Within this framework we plan to improve the energy efficiency of the powerful furnace for reheating lingots Rolling Mills and Cable Factory (of which the fuel is diesel) where we propose to install a head recovery exchanger between the hot fumes out of the oven (60 C) and combustion air taken initially at room temperature (250C). Without recovery the oven consumes on the average 101 liters of diesel per hour for its operation and yields a thermal efficiency of 68,6%. Whereas with recovery, it can reach a thermal efficiency of 86% on one of recoverers that we have proposed, and save up to 15,8 liters of diesel on its hourly consumption

  15. Stokes flow in a two-dimensional micro-device combined by a cross-slot and a microfluidic four-roll mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jing; Liu, Jinxia; Li, Xiaoduan; Tao, Jun; Wang, Jingtao

    2015-02-01

    The flow structures in a novel microfluidics device (CS-MFRM) combining a cross-slot (CS) and a microfluidics four-roll mill (MFRM) have been investigated through a two-dimensional boundary element method. By changing the volume flow rates at various inlets of a CS-MFRM, diverse flow structures can be generated. Some of them are proposed to be employed to achieve some functions in the fabrication process of anisotropic particles. The stagnant points and eddies in those flows are particularly discussed since they are critical to trap and/or rotate droplets. Energy consumption of eddies generated in branches in some flow structures is also investigated in this paper.

  16. Development of rolling magnetic microrobots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports magnetic microrobots with rolling capability. A magnetic object subjected to an externally rotating magnetic field would be rotated due to the tendency of alignment between its internal magnetization and the field. Based on this principle, a magnetic microrobot in a spherical body with a diameter of several hundred microns was designed and fabricated. To remotely power and control the microrobot, a rotating magnet was used to generate a rotating magnetic field. Driven by this field, the microrobot can freely roll on three-dimensional surfaces. These surfaces can be in air, water or silicon oil. In a dry environment, a microrobot with a diameter of 440 µm achieved a maximum linear speed of 13.2 mm s?1.

  17. Rolling Contact Fatigue of Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Wang, W. [Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; Wang, Y. [Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; Hadfield, M. [Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; Kanematsu, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan; Kirkland, Timothy Philip [ORNL; Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville

    2006-09-01

    High hardness, low coefficient of thermal expansion and high temperature capability are properties also suited to rolling element materials. Silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) has been found to have a good combination of properties suitable for these applications. However, much is still not known about rolling contact fatigue (RCF) behavior, which is fundamental information to assess the lifetime of the material. Additionally, there are several test techniques that are employed internationally whose measured RCF performances are often irreconcilable. Due to the lack of such information, some concern for the reliability of ceramic bearings still remains. This report surveys a variety of topics pertaining to RCF. Surface defects (cracks) in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and their propagation during RCF are discussed. Five methods to measure RCF are then briefly overviewed. Spalling, delamination, and rolling contact wear are discussed. Lastly, methods to destructively (e.g., C-sphere flexure strength testing) and non-destructively identify potential RCF-limiting flaws in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls are described.

  18. Cosmological Constraints on Rapid Roll Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Mukohyama, Shinji; Powell, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    We obtain cosmological constraints on models of inflation which exhibit rapid roll solutions. Rapid roll attractors exist for potentials with large mass terms and are thus of interest for inflationary model building within string theory. We constrain a general ansatz for the power spectrum arising from rapid roll inflation that, in the small field limit, can be associated with tree level hybrid potentials with variable mass terms and nonminimal gravitational coupling $\\xi R\\...

  19. ROLL OUT THE TALENT : Final project report

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Tuomas; Tuominen, Pirjo; Hakkarainen, Riitta-liisa; Laurikainen, Marja; Mero, Niina

    2014-01-01

    The ROLL OUT THE TALENT project was born out of the desire to recognise and support the strengths of vocational students and to develop new and innovative operating models. ROLL OUT THE TALENT promoted regional cooperation between institutes and companies. The project produced operating and study path models that take into consideration the individual strengths of vocational students and the principles of lifelong learning. This is the final report of the ROLL OUT THE TALENT project, and ...

  20. Coil rolling of VT20 alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An infleunce of interderformational intervals in crushing deformation on alloy disordering has been found when determining the resistance to deformation and ductility of VT20 titanium alloy. An influence of chemical composition of VT20 alloy on the resistance to deformation during hot rolling is shown. The values of specific forces in rolling at deformation temperatures of 850-1050 deg C are determined. Thermomechanical parameters of coil rolling of VT20 alloy sheets in 2.0 mm thickness are developed

  1. Whirlwind Rolling Process of Slender Shaft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Hong; Deng ZhiPing; Jin Long; Long Jun; Zhang Zhengyi

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of slender shaft which is easy bended and deformed for its big slenderness ration and poor rigidity, the method of whirlwind rolling with Tri-tools is designed. This paper introduces the principle and the process of stress analysis. With the help of ABAQUS finite element simulation software, the 3D model of whirling rolling is established. The rolling process is simulated by the software and summarizes the influence of quality factors during the whirlwind rollin...

  2. Large-area, continuous roll-to-roll nanoimprinting with PFPE composite molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Jacob; Tang, YuYing; Rothstein, Jonathan P.; Watkins, James J.; Carter, Kenneth R.

    2013-12-01

    Successful implementation of a high-speed roll-to-roll nanoimprinting technique for continuous manufacturing of electronic devices has been hindered due to lack of simple substrate preparation steps, as well as lack of durable and long lasting molds that can faithfully replicate nanofeatures with high fidelity over hundreds of imprinting cycles. In this work, we demonstrate large-area high-speed continuous roll-to-roll nanoimprinting of 1D and 2D micron to sub-100 nm features on flexible substrate using perfluoropolyether (PFPE) composite molds on a custom designed roll-to-roll nanoimprinter. The efficiency and reliability of the PFPE based mold for the dynamic roll-to-roll patterning process was investigated. The PFPE composite mold replicated nanofeatures with high fidelity and maintained superb mold performance in terms of dimensional integrity of the nanofeatures, nearly defect free pattern transfer and exceptional mold recovering capability throughout hundreds of imprinting cycles.

  3. Large-scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rolls in a Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethelehem Steel's (Now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengel, J.

    2003-12-16

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system. Many challenges were involved in this project, including developing welding procedures for joining nickel aluminide intermetallic alloys with H-series austenitic alloys, developing commercial cast roll manufacturing specifications, working with several commercial suppliers to produce a quantity of high quality, reproducible nickel aluminide rolls for a large steel industrial annealing furnace, installing and demonstrating the capability of the rolls in this furnace, performing processing trials to evaluate the benefits of new equipment and processes, and documenting the findings. Updated furnace equipment including twenty-five new automated furnace control dampers have been installed replacing older design, less effective units. These dampers, along with upgraded flame-safety control equipment and new AC motors and roll-speed control equipment, are providing improved furnace control and additional energy efficiency. Energy data shows up to a 34% energy reduction from baseline after the installation of upgraded furnace damper controls along with up to a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases, potential for an additional 3 to 6% energy reduction per campaign of light-up and shutdown, and a 46% energy reduction from baseline for limited trials of a combination of improved damper control and straight-through plate processing. The straight-through processing is now possible because of the nickel aluminide rolls which also provided plate product surface quality improvement that will allow the additional processing of surface critical material. Benefits also include associated large reductions in maintenance, reduction in spare rolls and associated component costs, and potential for greater through-put and productivity. Estimated project fuel cost reductions alone for processing 100,000 tons/yr through this furnace are almost $0.5 million/yr with the new dampers, and more than $600,000/yr with straight-through processing and new damper control, assuming natural gas prices of $6.00/MMBtu. The nickel aluminide rolls are competitively priced with conventional H series alloy rolls.

  4. Europarlamendi roll põllumajanduspoliitika kujundamisel / Andres Tarand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarand, Andres, 1940-

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi roll Euroopa Liidu ühtse põllumajandus- ja energiapoliitika kujundamisel. Põllumajanduslik aspekt energeetikas: energiasektori varustamine omamaa bioenergiaga, Venemaa energeetika välispoliitika teenistuses

  5. A Framework for Rolling Stock Rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, JØrgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin

    Rolling Stock schedules are typically made months or weeks prior to the date of execution. It is, however, rare that everything goes exactly as planned due to internal and external factors on the day of operation. If the magnitude of the disturbances is small then the problems may be absorbed by network buffer times. However, if the problems are more severe, changes must be made to the rolling stock schedule. In this talk we will discuss the Rolling Stock Rescheduling problem and Disruption Management. We will present our current work and planned future work on a framework for solving the Rolling Stock in a disruption context.

  6. Terras: NATO õppuste roll Euroopas kasvab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Kaitseväe juhataja kindralmajor Riho Terrase sõnul suureneb lähiaastatel NATO õppuste roll Euroopas, sest Afganistanis sõdides saadud kogemust on vaja säilitada ning kasutada seda kollektiivkaitse tugevdamiseks

  7. Roll pass design for improved flexibility and quality in wire rod rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Conny

    2004-01-01

    The thesis treats roll pass design in wire rod rolling of stainless steel for sequences and series built up by two-symmetrical grooves. It is focused on predicting rolling flexibility, also called working range, as well as product quality. For analysing the flexibility a computer program has been developed. The minimum and maximum roll gap and corresponding bar areas for series of grooves including "oval", "round", "false round", "square" and "diamond" shapes are calculated. Six pass designs ...

  8. Toward Large Scale Roll-to-Roll Production of Fully Printed Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyeongil; Jung, Yen-Sook; Heo, Youn-Jung; Scholes, Fiona H; Watkins, Scott E; Subbiah, Jegadesan; Jones, David J; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2015-02-01

    Fully printed perovskite solar cells are demonstrated with slot-die coating, a scalable printing method. A sequential slot-die coating process is developed to produce efficient perovskite solar cells and to be used in a large-scale roll-to-roll printing process. All layers excluding the electrodes are printed and devices demonstrate up to 11.96% power conversion efficiency. It is also demonstrated that the new process can be used in roll-to-roll production. PMID:25581092

  9. 8.G Shipping Rolled Oats

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Rolled oats (dry oatmeal) come in cylindrical containers with a diameter of 5 inches and a height of 9$\\frac12$ inches. These containers are shipped to...

  10. Rolling-cuff flexible bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D.R.

    1982-09-27

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping, is described. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  11. Effect of temper rolling on final shape defects in a V-section roll forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abvabi, Akbar; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter D.; Weiss, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Roll forming is a continuous process in which a flat strip is shaped to the desired profile by sequential bending in a series of roll stands. Because of the large variety of applications of roll forming in the industry, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is increasingly utilized for roll forming process design. Bending is the dominant deformation mode in roll forming. Sheet materials used in this process are generally temper rolled, roller- or tension- leveled. These processes introduce residual stresses into the material, and recent studies have shown that those affect the material behavior in bending. In this study a numerical model of the temper rolling (skin passing) process was used to determine a residual stress distribution in a dual phase, DP780, steel strip. A 5-stand roll forming process for the forming of a V-section was modeled, and the effect of various thickness reduction levels in the temper rolling process on the final shape defects was analyzed. The results show that a small thickness reduction in the temper rolling process decreases the maximum bow height but the final springback angle increases. It is also shown that reasonable model accuracy can be achieved by including the residual stress information due to temper rolling as initial condition in the numerical modeling of a roll forming process.

  12. Strip shape analysis in unsymmetrical rolling; Sayu hitaisho atsuen no keijo seigyo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, A.; Hara, K.; Nakamoto, K. [Nippon Seiko K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-30

    Model for analyzing unsymmetrical rolling based on a matrix model is built for a 6-stage rolling mill (UC mill) known for its excellent performance in correcting unsymmetrical shapes. The shape controlling properties of the UC mill in unsymmetrical rolling are examined by use of this analysis model. An experiment of unsymmetrical rolling is conducted in which the differentiated loads and the intermediate roll shift are changed, and it is found that there is good agreement between the calculated values and the values obtained from the experiment and that this analysis model works accurately in the analysis of unsymmetrical rolling. There holds a linear relationship between the unsymmetrical component involving the plate edge and quarter section inlet side plate crown and the unsymmetrical component involving the outlet side plate shape, and the effect of the inlet side plate crown can be quantified. When the work roll diameter is large, the scope of unsymmetrical shape control application is small because the controlling properties of the unsymmetrical shape controlling means are alike. When the work roll diameter is small, however, the unsymmetrical shape may be effectively controlled because the controlling properties are greatly dependent on the combination of the unsymmetrical intermediate roll shift with differentiated loads or with the unsymmetrical intermediate roll bender. 5 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. High speed roll casting of Mg alloy strip by a vertical type twin roll caster

    OpenAIRE

    Watari, H.; Kumai, S.; Haga, T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The possibility of high speed roll casting of AZ31, AM60 and AZ91 was investigated. Warm deep drawing of roll cast magnesium alloy was operated. and formability of roll cast magnesium strip was cleared.Design/methodology/approach: A vertical type high speed twin roll caster was used. The roll casting was operated in the air atmosphere. The casting speed was from 60 m/min up to 180 m/min. Low temperature casting was adopted to realize high speed casting.Findings: Strip thinner 3 mm wi...

  14. 25 CFR 75.3 - Announcement of revision of roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REVISION OF THE MEMBERSHIP ROLL OF THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE... Announcement of revision of roll. When the Tribal Council...sufficient staff to perform the work necessary to revise the membership roll of the Band and such...

  15. OPTIMISE - Deliverable D4.1, Deliver preliminary samples made by two axis rolling to UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE, month 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary samples that were delivered to University of Twente (UT). It was decided not to deliver samples made by two axis rolling but instead deliverer samples which were reduce by square drawing and flat rolled in a standard rolling mill. The reason for that will be explained before the results from the actual deliverables will be described.

  16. Rolling-Convolute Joint For Pressurized Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Bassick, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Rolling-convolute metacarpal/finger joint enhances mobility and flexibility of pressurized glove. Intended for use in space suit to increase dexterity and decrease wearer's fatigue. Also useful in diving suits and other pressurized protective garments. Two ring elements plus bladder constitute rolling-convolute joint balancing torques caused by internal pressurization of glove. Provides comfortable grasp of various pieces of equipment.

  17. New versions of the rolling double cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri

    2002-03-01

    Rolling a double cone upward is interesting but oscillating it on a track having an elevated centre is fascinating. You can design three different arrangements of a pair of cones each requiring different tracks to roll up and oscillate on a track of elevated centre.

  18. Adsorption of single-strand alkylammonium salts on bentonite, surface properties of the modified clay and polymer nanocomposites formation by a two-roll mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of tallow alkylammonium salts onto bentonite from the Lopburi province in Thailand, and the effect of surface wettability on the formation of polymer-clay nanocomposites are reported. We looked specifically at octadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (S18), a popular member of the tallow alkylammonium salt family. The adsorption of S18 onto the bentonite interlayer can be divided into three distinct stages depending upon the initial concentration of S18. These stages are (a) monolayer formation, (b) intermediate state of double layer formation and (c) double layer formation. A decrease in surface energy driven by drops in the values of the polar and dispersive components was observed as the amount of surfactant surface coverage increased. Using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), the critical surface energy (CSE) of organoclay was found to decrease as the amount of absorbed S18 increased. S18 organoclay with different degrees of surface coverage was used in a two-roll mill to prepare high-density polyetheylene (HDPE)-clay nanocomposites. The oxidized polyethylene wax (OWax) was used as a dispersing agent to promote the delamination of the organoclay platelets. The results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated a difference in the dispersing capability of the organoclay.

  19. Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group from Ahvaz-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Masoud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study on 400 workers in different exposure levels to environmental pollution was performed during 2005 to determine the mean value of respirable particulate matter (RPM concentrations and its effects on the health status of workers. To elicit information regarding the health status of the worker, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard questionnaire was used. Fisher?s exact test was performed to assess the relative risk (RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers. Results: There was significant difference in RPM pollution level between two product lines. The RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers were 2.78, 2.44, 2.15, 1.92, 1.57, 3.90, and 2.09, respectively.

  20. Dynamics of Entangled Polymeric Fluids in Two-roll Mill studied via Dynamic Light Scattering and Two-color flow Birefringence; 1, Steady flow

    CERN Document Server

    Sanyal, S; Leal, L C; Sanyal, Subrata; Yavich, Dmitry

    2000-01-01

    We present the experimental results on a series of high molecular weight, entangled polystyrene solutions subjected to a ``mixed'' shear and elongational flow-type generated in a co-rotating two-roll mill. For steady-flows as well as for start-up of flows from rest, we used two different optical methods to study the dynamics of entangled polymeric fluids: two-color flow birefringence (TCFB) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Using the TCFB method, we measured the birefringence, $\\Delta n$, and the orientation angle, $\\chi$, of the optic axes in the solution and thereby the generalized viscosity function, $\\eta$ (with the use of stress-optical relations). The DLS method was applied to measure the velocity-gradient, \\gdot, and the flow-type parameter $\\lambda$ for the polymer solutions under flow conditions identical to the TCFB measurements. For low deformation rates the symmetry of the flow-field was reduced with the use of polymeric fluids compared to that seen with a Newtonian fluid. A molecular constituti...

  1. Effects of cold rolling on precipitates in inconel 718 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongbin, Li; Xianchang, He; Mei, Yao; Wenchang, Liu

    2002-10-01

    The morphology, microstructure, and the volume fractions of ?? phase and ? phase that occur during cold rolling and double aging of Inconel 718 alloy were investigated. Two treatments were developed to produce either single-pass cold rolling or double-pass cold rolling. Cold rolling not only induced the ?? phase precipitation, but also prompted the ???? phase transformation. Double-pass cold rolling enhanced the ? phase volume fraction, but decreased the ?? phase volume fraction. The dimension of ?? particle decreased as cold rolling reduction increased.

  2. Automated Procedure for Roll Pass Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiase, F.; Langella, A.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work has been to develop an automatic roll pass design method, capable of minimizing the number of roll passes. The adoption of artificial intelligence technologies, particularly expert systems, and a hybrid model for the surface profile evaluation of rolled bars, has allowed us to model the search for the minimal sequence with a tree path search. This approach permitted a geometrical optimization of roll passes while allowing automation of the roll pass design process. Moreover, the heuristic nature of the inferential engine contributes a great deal toward reducing search time, thus allowing such a system to be employed for industrial purposes. Finally, this new approach was compared with other recently developed automatic systems to validate and measure possible improvements among them.

  3. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connected when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.

  4. High speed roll casting of Mg alloy strip by a vertical type twin roll caster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Watari

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The possibility of high speed roll casting of AZ31, AM60 and AZ91 was investigated. Warm deep drawing of roll cast magnesium alloy was operated. and formability of roll cast magnesium strip was cleared.Design/methodology/approach: A vertical type high speed twin roll caster was used. The roll casting was operated in the air atmosphere. The casting speed was from 60 m/min up to 180 m/min. Low temperature casting was adopted to realize high speed casting.Findings: Strip thinner 3 mm with 100 width could be cast continuously. The casting ability became better with increasing content of Al. Roll cast Mg alloy strips could be hot-rolled down to 0.5 mm. AZ31 as-cast strip could be thinner down to 0.5 mm only by three times of hot rolling. Deep drawing was operated with three kinds of Mg alloy at 250°C, and LDR value was larger than 2.0. It was shown that deep drawing of AZ91 alloy for casting was possible.Research limitations/implications: There was tendency that cracks occurred at the center in the thickness direction as Al content increased.Practical implications: Sheet metal forming of magnesium alloy with high content Al can be realized.Originality/value: It was shown that possibility of high speed roll casting of magnesium alloy, and warm deep drawing of roll cast AZ91 strip.

  5. Flow Stress Evaluation in Hot Rolling of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghasafari, P.; Salimi, M.; Daraei, A.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, an inverse analysis technique is used to obtain the flow curve of materials in a hot rolling finishing mill. This technique is based on minimization of the differences between the experimental and computed values. The flow curves and the friction coefficients at roll/work-piece interface are derived from two different models. Model I is based on simple slab method of analysis. Model II is based on a modified slab method in which the effect of shear stress in calculating the rolling force and torque is taken into account. It is shown that the developed inverse analysis technique is reliable and can simultaneously determine a more accurate flow stress for the material as well as a better estimation for the interface friction factors.

  6. ROLLING NOISE SIMULATION OF A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MAZILU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rolling noise of the railway vehicles is occurred by the wheel/rail vibration excited bythe rolling surfaces roughness. This paper presents an acoustic model able to predict the rollingnoise level of a railway vehicle. The acoustic model is based on a wheel/rail vibration modelwhich takes into account the structural wheel vibration (Remington model and the bendingvertical waves of the rail. To this, the track model with an infinite Euler Bernoulli beam elasticallysupported on two layers is applied to simulate the effect of the ballasted track. The influence of therolling surfaces roughness and vehicle velocity on the rolling noise is investigated.

  7. Rolling process for producing biaxially textured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2004-05-25

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured article includes the steps of: rolling a metal preform while applying shear force thereto to form as-rolled biaxially textured substrate having an a rotated cube texture wherein a (100) cube face thereof is parallel to a surface of said substrate, and wherein a [100] direction thereof is at an angle of at least 30.degree. relative to the rolling direction; and depositing onto the surface of the biaxially textured substrate at least one epitaxial layer of another material to form a biaxially textured article.

  8. Signal and power roll ring testing update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dennis W.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the roll ring as a long-life, low-torque alternative to the slip ring is discussed. A roll ring consists of one or more circular flexures captured by their own spring force in the annular space between two concentric conductors or contact rings. The advantages of roll rings over other types of electrical transfer devices are: extremely low drag torque, high transfer efficiencies in high-power configurations, extremely low wear debris generation, long life, and low weight for high-power applications.

  9. Experimental study of interfacial heat flux and surface temperature by inverse analysis with thermocouple (fully embedded) during hot steel strip rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Weisz-patrault, Daniel; Ehrlacher, Alain; Legrand, Nicolas; Labbe, Nathalie; Horsky, Jaroslav; Luks, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of temperature distribution in the roll is fundamental aspect in cold rolling. An inverse analytical method has been previously developed to determine interfacial heat flux and surface temperature by measuring the temperature with a thermocouple (fully embedded) at only one point inside the roll. On this basis some pilot mill tests have been performed. The temperature sensor, the calibration procedure and rolling tests at different strip rolling conditions (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) are...

  10. Hot rolling of intermetallics FeAl phase based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Niewielski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The one of major problem restricting universal employment of intermetallic phase base alloy istheir low plasticity which leads to hampering their development as construction materials. The following workconcentrates on possibilities to form through rolling process the alloys with various aluminium content.Design/methodology/approach: After casting and annealing, alloy specimens were subjected to axialsymmetriccompression at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200°C at 10 s-1 strain rates. In order to analyse theprocesses which take place during deformation, the specimens after deformation were intensely cooled with water.Structural examination was carried out using light microscopy. The process was conducted on the K -350 quartorolling mill used for hot rolling of flat products. The process was conducted in some stages in at temperaturesranging from 1200-900°C:Findings: The research carried out enabled the understanding of the phenomena taking place during hot rolling ofthe investigated alloy. An alloy with 38%at. aluminium concentration can be plastically formed at a temperature of upto 900°C, which has been also confirmed in plastometric studies conducted in the form of hot compression tests.Research limitations/implications:Practical implications: The obtained sheets can be used as constructional elements working in complex stressfields, at a high temperature and corrosive environmentsOriginality/value: The tests have shown that it is possible to form the investigated alloys through rolling processingonly where shields are applied. Rolling of the alloys without shields led to the occurrence of a grid of cracks.

  11. Fatigue crack growth and fracture mechanics analysis of a working roll surface layer material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drobne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue crack growth and fracture mechanics analysis of a working roll surface layer material is presented in this paper. The research is done on a hot strip mill working roll where High Chromium Steel is used for roll’s shell material. To obtain corresponding parameters, a rectangular single edge notched bend specimens – SENB, according to standard BS 7448, were used. The fatigue crack growth analysis was done on a resonant testing machine with use of special crack gauges, while for fracture mechanics parameters the electro–mechanical testing machine was used.

  12. Tensile mechanical behavior and fracture toughness of MWCNT and DWCNT modified vinyl-ester/polyester hybrid nanocomposites produced by 3-roll milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to investigate the tensile mechanical behavior and fracture toughness of vinyl-ester/polyester hybrid nanocomposites containing various types of nanofillers, including multi- and double-walled carbon nanotubes with and without amine functional groups (MWCNTs, DWCNTs, MWCNT-NH2 and DWCNT-NH2). To prepare the resin suspensions, very low contents (0.05, 0.1 and 0.3 wt.%) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were dispersed within a specially synthesized styrene-free polyester resin, conducting 3-roll milling technique. The collected resin stuff was subsequently blended with vinyl-ester via mechanical stirring to achieve final suspensions prior to polymerization. Nanocomposites containing MWCNTs and MWCNT-NH2 were found to exhibit higher tensile strength and modulus as well as larger fracture toughness and fracture energy compared to neat hybrid polymer. However, incorporation of similar contents of DWCNTs and DWCNT-NH2 into the hybrid resin did not reflect the same improvement in the corresponding mechanical properties. Furthermore, experimentally measured elastic moduli of the nanocomposites containing DWCNTs, DWCNT-NH2, MWCNTs and MWCNT-NH2 were fitted to Halphin-Tsai model. Regardless of amine functional groups or content of carbon nanotubes, MWCNT modified nanocomposites exhibited better agreement between the predicted and the measured elastic moduli values compared to nanocomposites with DWCNTs. s compared to nanocomposites with DWCNTs. Furthermore, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to reveal dispersion state of the carbon nanotubes within the hybrid polymer and to examine the CNT induced failure modes that occurred under mechanical loading, respectively. Based on the experimental findings obtained, it was emphasized that the types of CNTs and presence of amine functional groups on the surface of CNTs affects substantially the chemical interactions at the interface, thus tuning the ultimate mechanical performance of the resulting nanocomposites.

  13. 25 CFR 75.15 - Current membership roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current membership roll. 75.15 Section 75.15... TRIBAL GOVERNMENT REVISION OF THE MEMBERSHIP ROLL OF THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE...NORTH CAROLINA § 75.15 Current membership roll. The membership roll...

  14. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS FOR ROLLING STOCK TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Pasko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rolling stock on the railways of Ukraine has not been updated for many years, which has led to significant wear of the country electric and diesel locomotive fleet. A way out of the existing situation is execution of major overhaul with extension of locomotive life to allow their operation for several more years. Repair or upgrading as well as putting new rolling stock into operation must be accompanied by implementation of state-of-the-art traction electric drives.

  15. Characteristics of cold rolled stainless steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cold rolling of sheets of austenitic stainless steel was investigated for different temperatures and percentages of reduction. It was also established under which conditions are the mechanical strenght and the ductility improved. It was found that this improvement is related to the characteristics of martensitic transformation taking place during rolling and through the tensile tests performed in stainless steels with different degree of martensitic transformation. The results are explained on the basis of martensite participation in the stained structure. (Author)

  16. Tube bending on the roll machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepershin, Rostislav I.

    2013-10-01

    Computer simulation of the elastic-plastic tube bending by pushing on three-roll machine with work hardening effect consideration is presented. Non-steady tube bending process for specified curvature is simulated with axis of bending roll displacement, followed by transfer to the steady-state bending process. Estimation of curvature, constrained by tube section elliptical distortion modeled by plastic hinge mechanism is given. Elastic-plastic bending moment versus curvature and critical curvature estimation reasonably correlated with experiments.

  17. Round rolling process of spur gears

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Mu?ller, Roland; Hellfritzsch, Udo; Lahl, Mike; Schiller, Sven; Milbrandt, Matthias; Druwe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the rolling process of gears and profiles, which demonstrates a seminal energy and material efficient forming technology for the production of lead geometries of Power Train applications. Former cold rolling processes for gear production only gained industrial acceptation for assortments of stub-toothed geometries until a tooth height factor of y = 1.5. Results and findings of the researches at the Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology Chemnitz pro...

  18. Partition Decomposition for Roll Call Data

    CERN Document Server

    Leibon, Greg; Rockmore, Daniel N; Savell, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we bring to bear some new tools from statistical learning on the analysis of roll call data. We present a new data-driven model for roll call voting that is geometric in nature. We construct the model by adapting the "Partition Decoupling Method," an unsupervised learning technique originally developed for the analysis of families of time series, to produce a multiscale geometric description of a weighted network associated to a set of roll call votes. Central to this approach is the quantitative notion of a "motivation," a cluster-based and learned basis element that serves as a building block in the representation of roll call data. Motivations enable the formulation of a quantitative description of ideology and their data-dependent nature makes possible a quantitative analysis of the evolution of ideological factors. This approach is generally applicable to roll call data and we apply it in particular to the historical roll call voting of the U.S. House and Senate. This methodology provides a...

  19. Roll bonding of 6061 aluminum alloy plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The roll bonding process is an important application of the solid state welding . in principle, two or more slabs of the materials to be bonded are placed in contact and welded around the edges. then, this assembled set is heated and rolled until the required thickness is obtained. this process is applied to clad the nuclear fuel, with high strength aluminum alloys during fabrication of plate type nuclear fuel elements for research reactors, or to produce many new constructions which have special uses in industrial applications. in the present work, the steps of the hot roll bonding of 6061 aluminum alloy plates were studies by using both microscopic examination and mechanical test namely singe lap shear strength test. also the effect of reduction degree in thickness, the sequence of hot rolling , surface roughness, degassing opening length and holding time on roll bonding process were studied. the results obtained due to variations in the above parameters are discussed with respect to their effects on the roll bonding of 6061 aluminum alloy plates as well as their effects on the specifications of the fuel plates

  20. Microstructure evolution during spray rolling and heat treatment of 2124 Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spray rolling is a strip-casting technology that combines elements of spray forming and twin-roll casting. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, quenching the resultant droplets in flight, and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets and conduction heat transfer at the rolls rapidly remove the metal's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly-solidified strip. Spray rolling operates at a higher solidification rate than conventional twin-roll casting and is able to process a broader range of alloys at high production rates. A laboratory-scale strip caster was constructed and used to evaluate the interplay of processing parameters and strip quality for strips up to 200 mm wide and 1.6-6.4 mm thick. This paper examines microstructure evolution during spray rolling and explores how gas-to-metal mass flow ratio influences the microstructure and mechanical properties of spray-rolled 2124 Al. The influences of solution heat treatment and cold rolling on grain structure and constituent particle spheroidization are also examined

  1. 78 FR 69316 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (Formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (Formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland GmbH...to all Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-715A1-30, BR700-715B1-30...contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827...

  2. Wear phenomena of spinning rolls for stone wool production

    OpenAIRE

    Klimpel, A.; Dobrzan?ski, L. A.; Lisiecki, A.; Janicki, D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper: Results of the study of wear phenomena of cascade spinning rolls during stone wool production process are described.Design/methodology/approach: The study were based on direct process observations, chemical analysis and temperature measurements of basalt lava, metallographic examinations of the spinning rolls deposits.Findings: It was showed that the deposits of spinning rolls are worn in very different way, depending on the roll position in rolls cascade. Pred...

  3. Numerical simulation of wear of basalt lava spinning rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiecki, A.; Klimpel, A.; Janicki, D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper: Results of the study of wear phenomena of cascade spinning rolls during stone woolproduction process are described.Design/methodology/approach: The study was based on direct process observations, chemical analysis andtemperature measurements of basalt lava, metallographic examinations of the spinning rolls deposits. It was showedthat the deposits of spinning rolls are worn in very different way, depending on the roll position in rolls cascade.Findings: Predominant wear...

  4. Rolling friction for hard cylinder and sphere on viscoelastic solid

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, B. N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the friction force acting on a hard cylinder or spherical ball rolling on a flat surface of a viscoelastic solid. The rolling friction coefficient depends non-linearly on the normal load and the rolling velocity. For a cylinder rolling on a viscoelastic solid characterized by a single relaxation time Hunter has obtained an exact result for the rolling friction, and our result is in very good agreement with his result for this limiting case. The theoretical resul...

  5. Outlook of work rolls in hot strip finisher for steel rolling. Netsukan obiita atsuen'yo sagyo roll no gaikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, J. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    This review article elucidates the material properties used for finisher rolls of hot strip continuous rolling machines. The work roll in finisher for rolling slides relatively against the strip at the temperature ranging from 900 to 1,100 centigrade under the pressure condition ranging from 200 to 500 MPa. This paper summarizes the properties of material applied to the work roll, which is subjected by such load and thermal load. From the balance between thermal resistance and economic rationality, and from the balance between strength and toughness, iron base materials have been selected as the roll material. In the former stage of finishing, the high speed steel roll has been recently apt to be used in addition to the adamite roll and high-Cr cast iron roll. While, also in the latter stage of finishing, the high speed steel roll has been recently apt to be used in addition to the high-Ni cast iron roll and high-Cr cast iron roll. For the high speed steel roll with an excellent wear resisting property, effects of the resistance of temper softening of matrix and the protection of falling of carbonaceous material can be expected. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. 77 FR 72820 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the Russian Federation; 2010-2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ...certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products. The covered merchandise...Certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel covered include: Vacuum degassed, fully stabilized; high strength low alloy; and...

  7. Calculation and Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Hot Rolling Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Kaixiang Peng

    2013-01-01

    Modern steel grades require constant and reproducible production conditions both in the hot strip mill and in the cooling section to achieve constant material properties along the entire strip length and from strip to strip. Calculation of the temperature in final rolling process always utilizes factors such as the work piece's inner organizational structure, plastic deformation, and it's variations of properties and so on, also as well as the physical parameters such as gauge, shape, etc. In...

  8. Roll-to-roll fabricated lab-on-a-chip devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Mäkelä, Tapio

    2011-01-01

    We present a high-volume fabrication technique for making polymer lab-on-a-chip devices. Microfluidic separation devices, relying on pinched flow fraction, are roll-to-roll fabricated in a cellulose acetate (CA) film at a volume of 360 devices h?1 for a cost of approximately 0.5 euro/device. The manufacturing process consists of two steps: (i) roll-to-roll thermal nanoimprint for patterning the microchannels into a CA film and (ii) roll-to-roll lamination for bonding another CA film onto the imprinted film to seal the microchannels. Reverse gravure coating is used to apply an adhesive polymer onto the CA lid film before roll-to-roll lamination in order to increase the bonding strength. The fabricated devices are compared with planar imprinted devices with regard to the cross-sectional profile of the imprinted channels and their separation functionality. The separation functionality is characterized using fluorescent polystyrene microspheres with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 5 µm.

  9. Approximate Rolle’s theorems for the proximal subgradient and the generalized gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Azagra Rueda, Daniel; Ferrera Cuesta, Juan; Lo?pez-mesas Colomina, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    We establish approximate Rolle's theorems for the proximal subgradient and for the generalized gradient. We also show that an exact Rolle's theorem for the generalized gradient is completely false in all infinite-dimensional Banach spaces (even when they do not possess smooth bump functions).

  10. Roll-to-roll fabricated lab-on-a-chip devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a high-volume fabrication technique for making polymer lab-on-a-chip devices. Microfluidic separation devices, relying on pinched flow fraction, are roll-to-roll fabricated in a cellulose acetate (CA) film at a volume of 360 devices h?1 for a cost of approximately 0.5 euro/device. The manufacturing process consists of two steps: (i) roll-to-roll thermal nanoimprint for patterning the microchannels into a CA film and (ii) roll-to-roll lamination for bonding another CA film onto the imprinted film to seal the microchannels. Reverse gravure coating is used to apply an adhesive polymer onto the CA lid film before roll-to-roll lamination in order to increase the bonding strength. The fabricated devices are compared with planar imprinted devices with regard to the cross-sectional profile of the imprinted channels and their separation functionality. The separation functionality is characterized using fluorescent polystyrene microspheres with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 5 µm.

  11. Decision Support for the Rolling Stock Dispatcher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen

    2009-01-01

    Real-time recovery is receiving a fast growing interest in an increasingly competitive railway operation market. This thesis considers the area of rolling stock dispatching which is one of the typical real-time railway dispatching problems. All work of the thesis is based on the network and planning processes of the railway operator DSB S-tog a/s. In the thesis the problems existing in the railway planning process from the strategic to real-time level are briefly sketched. Network planning, line planning, timetabling, crew and rolling stock planning is outlined and relevant references are given. Specifically the thesis references the operation research studies based on the railway operation of DSB S-tog a/s. Subsequently the process of dispatching is outlined with a specific emphasis on rolling stock. The rolling stock recovery problem is the problem of assigning train units to train departures in a disrupted rolling stock schedule so that operation returns quickly to the originally planned schedule. Different network structures and mathematical formulations for the problem are discussed. Based on prior work on network structures a decomposed approach for the rolling stock recovery problem is put forward. The main contributions of the thesis are contained in four papers included as appendices. The papers deal with respectively an analysis of robustness in timetables, the mathematical model behind a decision support tool for reinsertion of a train line, a survey on the dispatching problems of passenger railway transportation and the decomposed solution process of the rolling stock recovery problem. The paper on the robustness analysis has been accepted for submission in the International Journal of Operations Research. Two of the papers have been submitted to journals and are being reviewed. The last paper will be submitted. Furthermore, the work of the two papers on the robustness analysis respectively the reinsertion model have formed the basis of practical projects in DSB S-tog. The applicability of the decomposed process will be further investigated in the future.

  12. Studying possibilities to improve the functional properties of metallurgical rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Stradomski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Thc paper prcscnts rcsults nT invcst igations and at~thors' opinion on improving functional propcrtics of mciall urgicnl rolls cast fromGZOOCrMoNi 4-9-3 cast wccl. onc nf most oftcn ilscd lor rolls in scction mills. Thcsc mills Icn~urcq uickcr than flat rolls wear or 1001'spass. whar rcquircs morc Crcqocnt rcpcncr;lt ion. 'Thc machining rcquircs n rclat ivcly low hardness, which is cnsurcd hy ~ h pcc arliiic matrixof casr steel strldid. 7 % ~au thors silggcst 10 achicvc thc optimisntion o f tribologicnl propcnics through adji~stmcno~r ~ h cch cinicalcompsizion odand modificat ioll of rhc hcat trcatmcnt. In thc study prcscntcd only t hc carbon comcnt was sliyhtly incrcascd (havingciirhiclc-forming clcmcnts in Y icw rcst~ltingi n thc incrcnse in lcdcburitic carbides. Il owcvcr, !his most nhvious way or improving thcahrasivc wcar rcsisrnncc incrcascs rhc ~brcaot f rolls cracking and ~hcrcforcrc quircs verification using ttlc iracii~rc~ ncchanicsm cthod.Szaziaical analysis of random1 y sclcctcd fcw dozens of rolls havc shown Tor this gradc or cast stccl a trcnd to rcducc thc carbon contcnzby ~ h ~cn :~nurihcturcmr. ilintilining ir at thc lowcr rangc of limirs spccificd by thc standard and not to incrcasc i t . Thc analysis or thc wcnrmcchmism or suriaccs or worn out mlls madc of G2OOCrMoNi 4-3-3 cast stecl allows making suggestions on thc possihilit ics of hcatrrcarmcnt changes, what aEso has hccn prcscnrcd in ~ h pc a p .

  13. Analysis of asymmetrical hot strip rolling by the slab method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y. M.; Tzou, G. Y.

    1995-06-01

    Two analytical models based on the slab method are proposed to examine the behavior of sheet at the roll gap during the asymmetrical hot strip rolling process. In model I, the effect of shear stress in vertical plane at the roll gap is considered, whereas this effect is neglected in model II. Neutral points between rolls and strip, rolling pressure distributions along the contact art length of rolls, rolling forces, and rolling torques can be calculated easily by these proposed analytical models. The results including rolling pressure distributions, rolling forces, and rolling torques by both models are compared. The rolling pressure distribution predicted by model I shows that a “pressure well” develops in the cross shear region. On the other hand, no “pressure well” is predicted in model II. Furthermore, the rolling forces predicted by model I are always lower than those measured in the experiment, whereas those predicted by model II are always higher. However, the averages of the values predicted by model I and II are in fairly good agreement with the experimental data. Thus this analytical approach can offer useful knowledge in designing the pass schedules of the asymmetrical hot strip rolling processes.

  14. Microstructural heterogeneity of forged rolled rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the processes which condition the quality of steel cast strands and properties of rolled products. It touches upon the technology of small-size rings manufacture from the 42CrMo4 steel used for the production of rolling bearings and toothed rings.Design/methodology/approach: Investigations were made on the 42CrMo4 steel based process of small-size rings manufacture of weight not exceeding 100 kg and the internal diameter up to 600 mm.Findings: Microstructure heterogeneity has been proven on the cross section of rods and rings under hot rolling and thermal treatment. Non-uniformity in hardness distribution was found on the hot rolled rings’ face surface and cross section. Final products made from rings with heterogeneous properties characterize: difficulties with machining, cracking during surface hardening and decrease of life time. After the process modification, the rings’ microstructure homogeneity and advantageous hardness distribution were obtained.Practical implications: A good quality of final rings after heat treatment is obtained in the case of charge characterized by a uniform pearlitic/ferritic microstructure. After the process technology modification, the rings’ microstructure homogeneity and advantageous hardness distribution were obtained.Originality/value: The minimum processing degree in the rolling of rod products should guarantee obtaining a homogeneous microstructure on the rings cross section and properties which would ensure a good quality and the required functional properties of the final products.

  15. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M; Cohen, Itai

    2015-04-01

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportional-integral controller. For more aggressive perturbations, we show evidence for nonlinear and hierarchical control mechanisms. Flies respond to roll perturbations within 5 ms, making this correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom. PMID:25762650

  16. Transplanckian energy production and slow roll inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we investigate how the energy density due to a nonstandard choice of initial vacuum affects the expansion of the universe during inflation. To do this we introduce source terms in the Friedmann equations making sure that we respect the relation between gravity and thermodynamics. We find that the energy production automatically implies a slow rolling cosmological constant. Hence we also conclude that there is no well defined value for the cosmological constant in the presence of sources. We speculate that a nonstandard vacuum can provide slow roll inflation on its own

  17. Roll ring assemblies for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, J.; Vise, J.; Young, K.

    1994-01-01

    Space Station Freedom requires the transmission of high power and signals through three different rotational interfaces. Roll ring technology was baselined by NASA for rotary joints to transfer up to 65.5 kW of power for 30 years at greater than 99 percent efficiency. Signal transfer requirements included MIL-STD-1553 data transmission and 4.5 MHz RS250A base and color video. A unique design for each rotary joint was developed and tested to accomplish power and signal transfer. An overview of roll ring technology is presented, followed by design requirements, hardware configuration, and test results.

  18. Study of rolled uranium annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dilatometric study of rolled uranium clearly shows not only the expansions or contractions induced by stress relief or diffusion of vacancies, but also the slope variations of the cooling curves, which are the best evidence of a texture change. Under the microscope, hard-rolled sheets appear as a mixture of two distinct structures; it is also possible by intermediate annealing to prepare homogeneous sheets of either structure, i.e. twinned or untwinned. All these sheets which have similar textures, undergo at first a primary recrystallization beginning at 320 deg C, then a texture change without any apparent crystal growth, at about 430 deg C. (author)

  19. Modeling, simulation and identification for control of tandem cold metal rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péricles Guedes Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a modeling procedure for tandem cold metal rolling, including the linearization step and system identification for control. The tandem cold rolling process is described by a mathematical model based on algebraic equations developed for control purposes and empirical relations. A state-space model is derived and detailed analyses in open loop are presented, concerning the sensitivity with regard to the variations in process parameters and results for the application of a new subspace identification method are compared with classical methodologies. Therefore, this work intents to be a contribution for developments in new control strategies for tandem cold rolling process that offer the potential to reduce the design efforts, the commissioning time and maintenance in rolling mills. The preliminary results obtained with this model have shown reasonable agreement with operational data presented at literature for industrial cold rolling process.

  20. Investigation of possibility for rolled sheet steel production with improved mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this research the technology process of obtaining a low -carbon hot rolled steel plates of structural steel S355J2+N was investigated. The normalization during rolling is the advantage of the process mentioned above. Due to this operation thermal treatment was avoided, the intended properties were achieved and the production efficiency was increased with preserving the quality of the final products. A deformation-speed regime of rolling was researched in details. On the base of that research an improved deformation speed regime was offered which allows improving of the mechanical properties of the material. key words: low -carbon hot rolled steel, deformation-speed regime, rolling mill, mechanical properties of the material

  1. Wear phenomena of spinning rolls for stone wool production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Klimpel

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper: Results of the study of wear phenomena of cascade spinning rolls during stone wool production process are described.Design/methodology/approach: The study were based on direct process observations, chemical analysis and temperature measurements of basalt lava, metallographic examinations of the spinning rolls deposits.Findings: It was showed that the deposits of spinning rolls are worn in very different way, depending on the roll position in rolls cascade. Predominant wear phenomena are high temperature erosion, molten basalt lava (molten salt corrosion, high temperature corrosion-oxidation, high temperature metal-ceramic abrasion wear, thermal fatigue of the working surface of spinning rolls.Research limitations/implications: The mechanisms of high temperature erosion demands further investigations and detailed studies.Practical implications: The wear resistance of basalt lava spinning rolls can be increased.Originality/value: The mechanisms of surface layer wear of basalt lava spinning rolls were determined.

  2. Deformation and recrystallization textures in straight-rolled and pseudo cross-rolled AA 3105 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot band of CC AA 3105 aluminum alloy was cold-rolled to different reductions along the original rolling and transverse directions, and then annealed at 427 oC for 24 h. The deformation and recrystallization textures in these cold-rolled sheets were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The result shows that further rolling of the hot band along the original rolling direction incrementally strengthens the ? fiber rolling texture. Under cross-rolling (i.e., along the original transverse direction), the former ? fiber orientations are unstable and they gradually rotate towards the ? fiber in the new sample reference system. The recrystallization is completed at a lower reduction in the cross-rolled specimens than in the straight-rolled specimens. The recrystallization texture of the straight-rolled specimens is characterized by the major P component and the minor R and Goss components. The recrystallization texture of the cross-rolled specimens depends on the cross-rolling reduction. As the cross-rolling reduction increases from 33% to 90%, the recrystallization texture is changed from the {0 1 2} texture through {1 11 7} to the P texture.

  3. Austenitic steel rolling in the temperature range of anomalous ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations are carried out on the strips of the Kh14G14N3T (EhI-711), OOOKh18N12 and Kh16N16M3B (EhI-847) steels, deformed, by shot rolling with summary reductions up to 80 % under conditions close to isothermal, at the temperatures in the range of 196-400 deg C as well as on the working cones of tube rolling of the 12Kh18N10T steel using the tube-cold-rolling mill at 20, 100, 200 and 300 deg C, their heating in the deformation focus has not been hindered. Dislocation structure and phase composition of the steels have been investigated using the methods of optical and electron microscopy, X-ray (in iron Ksub(?)-irradiation) and electron diffraction. It is shown that the effect of anomalous ductility during austenitic steel rolling is manifested in the temperature range being the lower the more stable austenit is in them and reaches the maximum at higher temperature than at stretching. The nature of anomalous ductility effect is complex and the essence of it is not only in stress relaxation in the process of phase transformations. Formation of stacking faults and transverse slipping, producing effect upon dislocation structure formation of austenite during rollling, plays a very importand role. Manifestation of the anomalous ductility effect depends on deformation heating an6 produces considerable effect upon formation of technological defects (cracks, fissures and so on) upon the treatment purity of the rolled surface of sheet and tubesheet and tubes

  4. Implications of a Running Spectral Index for Slow Roll Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Easther, Richard; Peiris, Hiranya

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the weak (2 sigma) evidence for a running spectral index seen in the three-year WMAP dataset and its implications for single field, slow roll inflation. We assume that the running is comparable to the central value found from the WMAP data analysis, and use the Hubble Slow Roll formalism to follow the evolution of the slow roll parameters. For all parameter choices consistent with a large, negative running, single field, slow roll inflation lasts less than 30 efol...

  5. Controlling the plastic anisotropy in asymmetrically rolled aluminium sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Sidor, Jurij; Miroux, Alexis; Petrov, Roumen; Kestens, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Formability of metals depends on the crystallographic texture produced during thermo-mechanical processing. The crystallographic orientation of the deformed grains results from the deformation path applied. Asymmetric rolling is a new process which is expected to improve the formability of rolled aluminium sheets by introducing intense shear deformation and consequently shear texture. The asymmetric rolling is applied to aluminium alloy AA6016 with roll diameters ratio of ...

  6. The role of internal communication in the rolling forecast process

    OpenAIRE

    Sorvari, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Objective of the Study The objective of the study was to examine the role of internal communication in the rolling forecast process. The study analysed the role of internal communication through four research questions: 1) What communication practices are connected with the rolling forecast process? 2) Which organisational attributes influence the internal communication climate in the rolling forecast process? 3) How is management and strategic communication incorporated in the rolling fo...

  7. Cosmological constraints on rapid roll inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtain cosmological constraints on models of inflation which exhibit rapid roll solutions. Rapid roll attractors exist for potentials with large mass terms and are thus of interest for inflationary model building within string theory. We constrain a general ansatz for the power spectrum arising from rapid roll inflation that, in the small field limit, can be associated with tree level hybrid potentials with variable mass terms and nonminimal gravitational coupling ?R?2. We consider perturbations generated through modulated reheating and/or curvaton mechanisms in place of the observationally unacceptable primary spectra generated by inflaton fluctuations in these models. The lack of a hierarchy amongst higher-order k-dependencies of the power spectrum results in models with potentially large runnings, allowing us to impose tight constraints on such models using CMB and LSS data. In particular, we find ns < 1 and |?| < 0.01. We conclude with a concrete realization of rapid roll inflation within warped throat brane inflation that is in good agreement with current data

  8. Roll diffusion bonding of titanium alloy panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.; De Witt, T. E.; Jones, A. G.; Koeller, F.; Muser, C.

    1968-01-01

    Roll diffusion bonding technique is used for fabricating T-stiffened panel assemblies from titanium alloy. The single unit fabrication exhibits excellent strength characteristics under tensile and compressive loads. This program is applied to structures in which weight/strength ratio and integral construction are important considerations.

  9. Vananemise ilu ehk restaureerimisarhitekti roll / Ove Hidemark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hidemark, Ove

    1997-01-01

    Restaureerimisarhitekti ülesannetest - ta ei pea otsustama üksnes tehniliste küsimuste üle, vaid arvestama ka sajandite vältel muutunud maitset, vana käsitöö erilist atmosfääri, toetama ehitisse koondatud ajaloolist elamust, nähes selles aja ja muutumise tervikut ning inimkäe mõju ja ajaloo sünteesi. Artikkel "Att behärska åldrandets skönhet eller om restaureringsarkitektens roll" rootsi ajakirjast "Kulturmiljövård", 1990, nr.4, lk.13-16

  10. Oscillations and Rolling for Duffing's Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Piskovskiy, E. V.; Volovich, I. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Duffing equation has been used to model nonlinear dynamics not only in mechanics and electronics but also in biology and in neurology for the brain process modeling. Van der Pol's method is often used in nonlinear dynamics to improve perturbation theory results when describing small oscillations. However, in some other problems of nonlinear dynamics particularly in case of Duffing-Higgs equation in field theory, for the Einsten-Friedmann equations in cosmology and for relaxation processes in neurology not only small oscillations regime is of interest but also the regime of slow rolling. In the present work a method for approximate solution to nonlinear dynamics equations in the rolling regime is developed. It is shown that in order to improve perturbation theory in the rolling regime it turns out to be effective to use an expansion in hyperbolic functions instead of trigonometric functions as it is done in van der Pol's method in case of small oscillations. In particular the Duffing equation in the rolling regime is investigated using solution expressed in terms of elliptic functions. Accuracy of obtained approximation is estimated. The Duffing equation with dissipation is also considered.

  11. Rolled joint separation by shock heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the programs carried out at both Ontario Hydro Research and Bruce A Nuclear Generating Station for the successful implementation of the shock heating technique for the separation of calandria tube rolled joints of Channel B2N06 in Bruce Unit 2

  12. Har Det Etiske Råd udspillet sin rolle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend

    2014-01-01

    I anledning af diskussionen om Etisk Råds rolle omtales situationen ved dets oprettelse i 1988. Nye biomedicinske teknikker muliggjorde nye indgreb i det begyndende menneskeliv, som udfordrede tanken om menneskets værdighed. Den politiske regulering af teknikkerne fulgte en anden etisk linje. Derfor - og fordi betingelserne for den offentlige debat er drastisk ændret - kan man stille spørgsmål ved Etisk Råds nødvendighed.

  13. Tunable swelling and rolling of microgel membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Spears, Mark William; Lyon, L Andrew

    2014-07-01

    The tunable swelling and rolling of films assembled via layer-by-layer (LbL) methods from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (pNIPAm-co-AAc) microgels and poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) have been systematically studied. Microgel/PEI films assembled at pH 7.4 display a high degree of in-plane swelling at low pH that dramatically increases the film area and drives self-delamination from the substrate to form a free-standing film. The degree of film swelling can be controlled by the size of microgels used in film fabrication. Taking advantage of this feature, self-rolled scrolls can be easily obtained from microgel/PEI films prepared from microgels of two different sizes. The rolling direction can be controlled by the assembly of different size microgels in different film strata, and the final shape of the scrolls can be controlled by scratching the desired film edges. The present work contributes to a deeper understanding of microgel/PEI film swelling properties and introduces a facile and novel method to prepare free-standing films and self-rolled scrolls. PMID:24927510

  14. Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couch, R; Becker, R; Rhee, M; Li, M

    2004-09-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory participated in a U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Industrial Technology sponsored research project 'Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery', as a Cooperative Agreement TC-02028 with the Alcoa Technical Center (ATC). The objective of the joint project with Alcoa is to develop a numerical modeling capability to optimize the hot rolling process used to produce aluminum plate. Product lost in the rolling process and subsequent recycling, wastes resources consumed in the energy-intensive steps of remelting and reprocessing the ingot. The modeling capability developed by project partners will be used to produce plate more efficiently and with reduced product loss.

  15. Conical Euler analysis and active roll suppression for unsteady vortical flows about rolling delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.

    1993-01-01

    A conical Euler code was developed to study unsteady vortex-dominated flows about rolling, highly swept delta wings undergoing either forced motions or free-to-roll motions that include active roll suppression. The flow solver of the code involves a multistage, Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme that uses a cell-centered, finite-volume, spatial discretization of the Euler equations on an unstructured grid of triangles. The code allows for the additional analysis of the free to-roll case by simultaneously integrating in time the rigid-body equation of motion with the governing flow equations. Results are presented for a delta wing with a 75 deg swept, sharp leading edge at a free-stream Mach number of 1.2 and at 10 deg, 20 deg, and 30 deg angle of attack alpha. At the lower angles of attack (10 and 20 deg), forced-harmonic analyses indicate that the rolling-moment coefficients provide a positive damping, which is verified by free-to-roll calculations. In contrast, at the higher angle of attack (30 deg), a forced-harmonic analysis indicates that the rolling-moment coefficient provides negative damping at the small roll amplitudes. A free-to-roll calculation for this case produces an initially divergent response, but as the amplitude of motion grows with time, the response transitions to a wing-rock type of limit cycle oscillation, which is characteristic of highly swept delta wings. This limit cycle oscillation may be actively suppressed through the use of a rate-feedback control law and antisymmetrically deflected leading-edge flaps. Descriptions of the conical Euler flow solver and the free-to roll analysis are included in this report. Results are presented that demonstrate how the systematic analysis of the forced response of the delta wing can be used to predict the stable, neutrally stable, and unstable free response of the delta wing. These results also give insight into the flow physics associated with unsteady vortical flows about delta wings undergoing forced motions and free-to-roll motions, including the active suppression of the wing-rock type phenomenon. The conical Euler methodology developed is directly extend able to three-dimensional calculations.

  16. Roll compaction and granulation system for nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A roll compaction and roll granulation system has been designed and fabricated to replace conventional preslugging and crushing operations typically used in the fabrication of mixed oxide nuclear fuel pellets. This equipment will be of maintenance advantage with only the compaction and granulation rolls inside containment. The prototype is being tested and the results will be reported within a year

  17. 25 CFR 75.4 - Basic membership roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basic membership roll. 75.4 Section 75.4 Indians... TRIBAL GOVERNMENT REVISION OF THE MEMBERSHIP ROLL OF THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.4 Basic membership roll. All persons whose names...

  18. Development and Fabrication of Pineapple Rolled Tart Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pineapple rolled tart machine is required in the manufacturing of pineapple rolled tart. In this research, a machine that would reduce processing time and operating cost and that would be affordable for small-scale industries was designed. The machine was tested at different screw rotating speeds and dough formulations. The rolled tart throughput rates were significantly increased (p-1.

  19. Theory of rolling: Solution of the Coulomb problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    A theory of rolling of round bodies in the normal mode with adhesion conditions satisfied on the entire contact area is proposed. This theory refines the classical Coulomb's theory of rolling in which the rolling moment is directly proportional to the pressing force (e.g., the weight of the rolling body). The rolling moment of cylinders is found to be directly proportional to the pressing force raised to a power of 3/2, and the rolling moment of balls and tori is proportional to the pressing force raised to a power of 4/3. It is shown that the normal mode of uniform rolling can only be provided for a certain ratio of the elastic constants of the materials of the round body and the base forming an ideal pair. The Coulomb problem is solved for the cases of rolling of an elastic cylinder over an elastic half-space, of an elastic ball over an elastic half-space, of an elastic torus over an elastic half-space, and of a cylinder and ball over a tightly stretched membrane. The rolling law is derived for such cases. The rolling friction coefficients, the rolling moment, and the rolling friction force are calculated.

  20. 75 FR 62566 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade...investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia...investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia would be likely to lead to...

  1. 75 FR 42782 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade...investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia...investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia would be likely to lead to...

  2. Patterned Immobilization of Antibodies within Roll-to-Roll Hot Embossed Polymeric Microfluidic Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Feyssa, Belachew; Liedert, Christina; Kivimaki, Liisa; Johansson, Leena-sisko; Jantunen, Heli; Hakalahti, Leena

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the patterned immobilization of capture antibodies into a microfluidic platform fabricated by roll-to-roll (R2R) hot embossing on poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Covalent attachment of antibodies was achieved by two sequential inkjet printing steps. First, a polyethyleneimine (PEI) layer was deposited onto oxygen plasma activated PMMA foil and further cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) to provide an amine-reactive aldehyde surface (PEI-GA). This step wa...

  3. High-rate, roll-to-roll nanomanufacturing of flexible systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Khershed P.; Wachter, Ralph F.

    2012-10-01

    Since the National Nanotechnology Initiative was first announced in 2000, nanotechnology has developed an impressive catalog of nano-scale structures with building-blocks such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanorods, nanopillars, and quantum dots. Similarly, there are accompanying materials processes such as, atomic layer deposition, pulsed layer deposition, nanoprinting, nanoimprinting, transfer printing, nanolithography and nanopatterning. One of the challenges of nanomanufacturing is scaling up these processes reliably and affordably. Roll-to-roll manufacturing is a means for scaling up, for increasing throughput. It is high-speed production using a continuous, moving platform such as a web or a flexible substrate. The adoption of roll-to-roll to nanomanufacturing is novel. The goal is to build structures and devices with nano-scale features and specific functionality. The substrate could be a polymer, metal foil, silk, cloth or paper. The materials to build the structures and multi-level devices could be organic, inorganic or biological. Processing could be solution-based, e.g., ink-jet printing, or vacuum-based, e.g., chemical vapor deposition. Products could be electronics, optoelectronics, membranes, catalysts, microfluidics, lab-on-film, filters, etc. By this means, processing of large and conformal areas is achievable. High-throughput translates into low cost, which is the attraction of roll-to-roll nanomanufacturing. There are technical challenges requiring fundamental scientific advances in materials and process development and in manufacturing and system-integration where achieving nano-scale feature size, resolution and accuracy at high speeds can be major hurdles. We will give an overview of roll-to-roll nanomanufacturing with emphasis on the need to understand the material, process and system complexities, the need for instrumentation, measurement, and process control and describe the concept of cyber-enabled nanomanufacturing for reliable and predictable production.

  4. Laser direct write system for fabricating seamless roll-to-roll lithography tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzelka, Joseph E.; Hardt, David E.

    2013-03-01

    Implementations of roll to roll contact lithography require new approaches towards manufacturing tooling, including stamps for roll to roll nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and soft lithography. Suitable roll based tools must have seamless micro- or nano-scale patterns and must be scalable to roll widths of one meter. The authors have developed a new centrifugal stamp casting process that can produce uniform cylindrical polymer stamps in a scalable manner. The pattern on the resulting polymer tool is replicated against a corresponding master pattern on the inner diameter of a centrifuge drum. This master pattern is created in photoresist using a UV laser direct write system. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a laser direct write system targeting the internal diameter of a rotating drum. The design uses flying optics to focus a laser beam along the axis of the centrifuge drum and to redirect the beam towards the drum surface. Experimental patterning results show uniform coatings of negative photoresist in the centrifuge drum that are effectively patterned with a 405 nm laser diode. Seamless patterns are shown to be replicated in a 50 mm diameter, 60 mm long cylindrical stamp made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Direct write results show gratings with line widths of 10 microns in negative photoresist. Using an FPGA, the laser can be accurately timed against the centrifuge encoder to create complex patterns.

  5. Coupled rolling motion: considering rolling friction in non-holonomic mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper enlarges an undergraduate student project in non-holonomic mechanics (Janova et al 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 1257-69) by considering rolling friction. In the original problem of coupled rolling motion, the agreement of theory and experiment was demonstrated for the initial part of motion with rolling friction being neglected. As expected, the reality is that rolling friction plays a decisive role during the whole experiment. Extending the correspondence of the model to reality by considering rolling friction, in this paper it is demonstrated that the model satisfactorily explains not only the initial part but also the whole period of the motion observed. Together with the original problem, this paper is an interesting demonstration of the influence of rolling friction and its physical modelling for undergraduate physics education. It also demonstrates that a relatively simple theoretical background can be used for describing realistic situations in mechanics and for explaining experimental results. Moreover, this paper itself can be used by physics teachers as an interesting project in theoretical mechanics that may be solved both separately from and as a follow-up project to Janova et al (2009).

  6. Producton method of hot-rolled sheets and plates of titanium alloys with intermittent rolling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method is proposed for the production of hot-rolled sheets and plates from titanium alloys involving interruption of the rolling process. The method makes it possible to improve the mechanical properties of rolled iron sheets. To improve the microstructure of sheets consisting of ?-and (2? + 2?)-alloys the hot and warm rolling processes are combined with into one by cooling the stock followed by deformation according to conditions of the warm rolling process. A method is proposed involving two heating cycles followed by cooling to room temperature and then by heating the strip to the temperature corresponding to (?+?)-phase and rolling the metal to the required dimensions with the degree of shingling being not less 40%. A comparative metallographic analysis has shown that the microstructure of sheets of different thickness is characterized by the absence of streaks of well defined boundaries of ?-grains and by the presence of uniformly dispersed mixture of (?+ ?)-phase. The relative elongation has grown from 2 -10% to 6 - 12% with some increase in the strength of the metal. The developed method is recommended for the production of plates and thick sheets from various titanium alloys

  7. Coupled rolling motion: considering rolling friction in non-holonomic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janova, Jitka; Musilova, Jana, E-mail: janova@mendelu.cz [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-15

    This paper enlarges an undergraduate student project in non-holonomic mechanics (Janova et al 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 1257-69) by considering rolling friction. In the original problem of coupled rolling motion, the agreement of theory and experiment was demonstrated for the initial part of motion with rolling friction being neglected. As expected, the reality is that rolling friction plays a decisive role during the whole experiment. Extending the correspondence of the model to reality by considering rolling friction, in this paper it is demonstrated that the model satisfactorily explains not only the initial part but also the whole period of the motion observed. Together with the original problem, this paper is an interesting demonstration of the influence of rolling friction and its physical modelling for undergraduate physics education. It also demonstrates that a relatively simple theoretical background can be used for describing realistic situations in mechanics and for explaining experimental results. Moreover, this paper itself can be used by physics teachers as an interesting project in theoretical mechanics that may be solved both separately from and as a follow-up project to Janova et al (2009).

  8. Investigation into the causes of cracking of 2024 aluminium alloy during rolling operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium alloy 2024 bars cracked during cold rolling to produce strips conforming to T-3 temper designation. The specimens had reduced to 10 mm X 10 mm size by hot rolling rectangular ingots of size 25 mm X 25 mm in 3 passes using the rolling mill. Microscopic studies of the cracked specimens revealed the presence of inclusions on the grain boundaries and in the fracture valleys. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) indicated that inclusions were rich in iron. Fractrogapy of fracture specimens were carried out using both optical scanning electron microscopy which indicated brittle fracture due to the presence of iron inclusions. (author)

  9. Micro-Plasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication a Fundamental Mechanism in Cold Rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugier, Maxime; Boman, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents recent investigations in Micro-Plasto-Hydrodynamic (MPH) lubrication. Industrial evidences of the existence of MPH lubrication mechanism for cold rolling processes are presented. A new lubrication model developed for strip drawing processes is then applied to predict the MPH lubrication initiation and MPH lubrication extension along the tool-piece solid contacts initially in boundary lubrication regime. Finally, it is shown how this new MPH lubrication model can be implemented in a cold rolling model to maximize mills capabilities, determine optimum rolling oils properties and predict roughness transfer.

  10. Control system for the surface quality of hot-rolled metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The modern ideas about quality of products are based on the principle of absolute satisfaction of the requirements and recommendations of the buyer. The presence of surface defects of steel-smelting and rolling origin is characteristic for the production of hot-rolling mill. The automatic surface inspection system (ASIS) includes two digital line video cameras for the filming of the upper and lower surface of the flat bar, a block for illumination of the upper and lower surface of the flat bar and a computer equipment. A system which secures 100 % control of the upper and lower surface of the rolled metal, detects automatically and classifies the sheet defects in the real time mode, was mounted 2003 for the first time in the domestic practice at the hot rolling mill 2000 JSC «Novolipetsk Iron & Steel Corporation» (NISC). The whole assortment of the mill 2000 was divided into five groups according to the outward appearance of the surface. The work on identifying the defects of hot-rolled metal and on widening the data base of knowledge of ASIS was continued after the guarantee tests. More than ten thousand images of defects were added to the data base during the year. key words: hot-rolling sheet, surface quality control, data base of defects

  11. High speed twin roll casting of 6016 strip

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, T.; Ikawa, M.; Watari, H.; Kumai, S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin aluminum alloy strip. 6016aluminum alloy is used for sheet metal of the automobile. Therefore, casting of 6016 was tried in this study.Castability and characteristics of roll cast 6016 strip were investigated.Design/methodology/approach: was a high speed twin roll caster. The high speed twin roll caster was designedto overcome the low castability of the twin roll caster.Findings: are as below. The 6016 could...

  12. Densification behavior of titanium in direct powder rolling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Hwan; Kim, Tae Won [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jae Keun; Park, Nho Kwang [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The densification behavior of titanium powder in the direct powder rolling process was investigated. An analytical model for the roll backlash phenomenon during this process was proposed to conduct a realistic finite element analysis. Furthermore, the roll backlash was quantitatively analyzed, and the relative densities of the green strip along the rolling direction were precisely estimated. Finally, the slip and nip phenomena were identified by calculating the contact pressure and shear stress between the titanium powder and the roller in order to understand the densification behavior of the powder during the rolling process.

  13. High speed twin roll casting of 6016 aluminium alloy strip

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, H.; Haga, T.; Watari, H.; Kumai, S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of aluminum alloy strip. In the bodyof the automobiles, a sheet of 6016 aluminum alloy is adopted for the outer panel. Therefore, casting of 6016was tried in this study. Characteristics of roll cast 6016 were investigated.Design/methodology/approach: was a high speed twin roll caster. The high speed twin roll caster was designedto overcome the low castability of the twin roll caster.Findings: are as below. 6016 allo...

  14. Toward large-area roll-to-roll printed nanophotonic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Hiltunen, Jussi; Aikio, Sanna M.; Alajoki, Teemu; Tuominen, Jarkko; Hiltunen, Marianne; Siitonen, Samuli; Kontturi, Ville; Böhlen, Karl; Hauser, Rene; Charlton, Martin; Boersma, Arjen; Lieberzeit, Peter; Felder, Thorsten; Eustace, David; Haskal, Eliav

    2014-05-01

    Polymers have become an important material group in fabricating discrete photonic components and integrated optical devices. This is due to their good properties: high optical transmittance, versatile processability at relative low temperatures and potential for low-cost production. Recently, nanoimprinting or nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has obtained a plenty of research interest. In NIL, a mould is pressed against a substrate coated with a moldable material. After deformation of the material, the mold is separated and a replica of the mold is formed. Compared with conventional lithographic methods, imprinting is simple to carry out, requires less-complicated equipment and can provide high-resolution with high throughput. Nanoimprint lithography has shown potential to become a method for low-cost and high-throughput fabrication of nanostructures. We show the development process of nano-structured, large-area multi-parameter sensors using Photonic Crystal (PC) and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) methodologies for environmental and pharmaceutical applications. We address these challenges by developing roll-to-roll (R2R) UV-nanoimprint fabrication methods. Our development steps are the following: Firstly, the proof of concept structures are fabricated by the use of wafer-level processes in Si-based materials. Secondly, the master molds of successful designs are fabricated, and they are used to transfer the nanophotonic structures into polymer materials using sheet-level UV-nanoimprinting. Thirdly, the sheet-level nanoimprinting processes are transferred to roll-to-roll fabrication. In order to enhance roll-to-roll manufacturing capabilities, silicone-based polymer material development was carried out. In the different development phases, Photonic Crystal and SERS sensor structures with increasing complexities were fabricated using polymer materials in order to enhance sheet-level and roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. In addition, chemical and molecular imprint (MIP) functionalization methods were applied in the sensor demonstrators. In this paper, the process flow in fabricating large-area nanophotonic structures by the use of sheet-level and roll-to-roll UV- nanoimprinting is reported.

  15. Rolling friction for hard cylinder and sphere on viscoelastic solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2010-12-01

    We calculate the friction force acting on a hard cylinder or spherical ball rolling on a flat surface of a viscoelastic solid. The rolling-friction coefficient depends non-linearly on the normal load and the rolling velocity. For a cylinder rolling on a viscoelastic solid characterized by a single relaxation time Hunter has obtained an exact result for the rolling friction, and our result is in very good agreement with his result for this limiting case. The theoretical results are also in good agreement with experiments of Greenwood and Tabor. We suggest that measurements of rolling friction over a wide range of rolling velocities and temperatures may constitute a useful way to determine the viscoelastic modulus of rubber-like materials. PMID:21107881

  16. Investigations upon the indefinite rolls quality assurance in multiple regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rolling rolls quality has been enhanced mainly due to the improvements of the chemical compositions of rolls materials. The realization of an optimal chemical composition can constitute a technical efficient mode to assure the exploitation properties, the material from which the rolling mills rolls are manufactured having a higher importance in this sense. This paper continues to present the scientifically results of our experimental research in the area of the rolling rolls. The basic research contains concrete elements of immediate practical utilities in the metallurgical enterprises, for the quality improvements of rolls, having in last as the aim the durability growth and the safety in exploitation. This paper presents an analysis of the chemical composition, the influences upon the mechanical properties of the indefinite cast iron rolls. We present some mathematical correlations and graphical interpretations between the hardness (on the working surface and on necks) and the chemical composition. Using the double and triple correlations which is really helpful in the foundry practice, as it allows us to determine variation boundaries for the chemical composition, in view the obtaining the optimal values of the hardness. We suggest a mathematical interpretation of the influence of the chemical composition over the hardness of these indefinite rolling rolls. In this sense we use the multiple regression analysis which can be an important statistical tool for the be an important statistical tool for the investigation of relationships between variables. The enunciation of some mathematically modeling results can be described through a number of multi-component equations determined for the spaces with 3 and 4 dimensions. Also, the regression surfaces, curves of levels and volumes of variations can be represented and interpreted by technologists considering these as correlation diagrams between the analyzed variables. In this sense, these researches results can be used in the engineers collectives of the foundries and the rolling mills sectors, for quality assurances of rolls as far back as phase of production, as well as in exploitation of these, what lead to, inevitably, to the quality assurance of produced laminates. (Author) 16 refs.

  17. Analytical inverse solution for coupled thermoelastic problem for the evaluation of contact stress during steel strip rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Weisz-patrault, Daniel; Ehrlacher, Alain; Legrand, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the contact stress between roll and strip is a critical factor in modern, high-speed rolling mills. Previously two inverse analytical methods have been developed to determine the elastic contact stress on the one hand and the heat flux or the temperature in the whole roll (and especially at the surface) on the other hand, by measuring the stress tensor inside the roll body with fibre optics and by measuring the temperature with a thermocouple fully embedded at only one point insi...

  18. Calculation and Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Hot Rolling Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixiang Peng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern steel grades require constant and reproducible production conditions both in the hot strip mill and in the cooling section to achieve constant material properties along the entire strip length and from strip to strip. Calculation of the temperature in final rolling process always utilizes factors such as the work piece's inner organizational structure, plastic deformation, and it's variations of properties and so on, also as well as the physical parameters such as gauge, shape, etc. In this paper, a finite element model is constructed for the temperature field in a rolling process. The temperature field of strip steel is modeled with a 3-D finite element analysis (FEA structure, simultaneously considering the distribution of the work roll temperature. Then the distribution of field is simulated numerically. From the model, the temperature contours can be obtained by analysis of the temperature distribution of contact area. At the same time, the distribution of temperature in any position at any time can be acquired. These efforts provide the reliable parameters for the later finishing temperature and shape control.  

  19. Numerical simulation of wear of basalt lava spinning rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lisiecki

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper: Results of the study of wear phenomena of cascade spinning rolls during stone woolproduction process are described.Design/methodology/approach: The study was based on direct process observations, chemical analysis andtemperature measurements of basalt lava, metallographic examinations of the spinning rolls deposits. It was showedthat the deposits of spinning rolls are worn in very different way, depending on the roll position in rolls cascade.Findings: Predominant wear phenomena of the fully austenitic Grade 310 deposit of spinning roll no 1 is moltenbasalt lava corrosion-oxidation accompanied by low and high cycle thermal fatigue, high temperature basalt lavaerosion at low velocity of basalt lava stream impinging the working surface at high angle. Predominant wearphenomena of the austenitic-ferritic Grade S32304 deposit of spinning roll no 2 is high temperature basalt lava erosionat very high velocity of lava stream impinging the working surface at high angle what is the cause of much faster wearof then spinning roll no 1. High temperature erosion wear is accompanied by molten basalt lava corrosion-oxidationand low and high cycle thermal fatigue processes. Predominant wear phenomena of the austenitic-ferritic GradeS32304 deposits spinning roll no 3 and roll no 4 is high temperature basalt lava abrasion as sprayed by rolls no 1 andno 2 fibers of solidifying basalt lava impinge the working surface of spinning rolls no 3 and no 4.Research limitations/implications: The mechanisms of high temperature erosion demands further investigationsand detailed studies.Practical implications: The wear resistance of basalt lava spinning rolls can be increased.Originality/value: The mechanisms of surface layer wear of basalt lava spinning rolls were determined.

  20. Rapid roll Inflation with Conformal Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Kofman, Lev

    2007-01-01

    Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-antiD3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, ...

  1. Thermal effects on slow-roll dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the transition from the inflationary epoch to radiation domination requires the understanding of quantum fields out of thermal equilibrium, particle creation and thermalization. This can be studied from first principles by solving a set of truncated real-time Schwinger-Dyson equations, written in terms of the mean field (inflaton) and the field propagators, derived from the two-particle irreducible effective action. We investigate some aspects of this problem by considering the dynamics of a slow-rolling mean field coupled to a second quantum field, using a ?2?2 interaction. We focus on thermal effects. It is found that interactions lead to an earlier end of slow roll and that the evolution afterwards depends on details of the heatbath

  2. Properties of hot rolled steels for enamelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an investigation of the structure and properties of experimental produced hot rolled steels suitable for enamelling are presented in the paper. Hot rolled steels for enamelling represent a special group of the steels for conventional enamelling. Their quality has to be adapted to the method and conditions of enamelling. Therefore, these steels should meet some specific requirements. In addition to usual investigation of the chemical composition and mechanical properties, microstructure and quality of the steel surface also were investigated. The basic aim was to examine steels capability for enamelling, i. e. steels resistance to the fish scales phenomena, by trial enamelling, as well as quality of the steel - enamel contact surface, to evaluate the binding. Also, the changes of the mechanical properties, especially the yield point, during thermal treatment, as a very specific requirement, were investigated, by simplified method. Good results were obtained confirming the steels capability for enamelling. (Original)

  3. Innovations in Rolling Process of Helical Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, R.; Hellfritzsch, U.; Lahl, M.; Schiller, S.; Milbrandt, M.

    2011-01-01

    By recent studies at Fraunhofer IWU Chemnitz basic information about the material flow in the rolling process of high gearings have been obtained, which provide the necessary data basis for a systematic adjustment of variable geometry and technology parameters. To use these data as efficiently as possible for subsequent studies a hybrid approach to this problem was chosen. In that case the combination of visioplasticity and FEM simulation. Such a method already used in many fields of manufacturing technologies has advantages in the field of visioplastic evaluated grid determined deformations and strain parameters according to available plastic theories of Huber, Hencky, Levy or v. Mises, which can be directly applied as boundary conditions for subsequent FEM analysis of the marginal zone of the work piece (gear contour). Results of the first qualitative investigations of this material flow analysis represent the basis for future optimized simulation modeling of gear rolling processes.

  4. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  5. Contact conditions in skin-pass rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kijima, Hideo; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The special contact conditions in skin-pass rolling of steel strip is analysed by studying plane strain upsetting of thin sheet with low reduction applying long narrow tools and dry friction conditions. An extended sticking region is estimated by an elasto-plastic FEM analysis of the plane strain upsetting. This sticking region causes a highly inhomogeneous elasto-plastic deformation with large influence of work-hardening and friction. A numerical analysis of skin-pass rolling shows the same contact conditions, i.e. an extended sticking region around the center of the contact zone. The calculated size of the sticking region with varying contact length and pressure/reduction is experimentally verified by plane strain upsetting tests measuring the local surface deformation of the work pieces after unloading.

  6. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.

    2005-07-31

    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  7. Boundary Friction on Molecular Lubricants: Rolling Mode?

    CERN Document Server

    Loktev, V M; Pogorelov, Yu.G.

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical model is proposed for low temperature friction between two smooth rigid solid surfaces separated by lubricant molecules, admitting their deformations and rotations. Appearance of different modes of energy dissipation (by ''rocking'' or ''rolling'' of lubricants) at slow relative displacement of the surfaces is shown to be accompanied by the stick-and-slip features and reveals a non-monotonic (mean) friction force {\\it vs} external load

  8. Collisionless kinetic theory of rolling molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Darryl D.; Putkaradze, Vakhtang; Tronci, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    We derive a collisionless kinetic theory for an ensemble of molecules undergoing nonholonomic rolling dynamics. We demonstrate that the existence of nonholonomic constraints leads to problems in generalizing the standard methods of statistical physics. In particular, we show that even though the energy of the system is conserved, and the system is closed in the thermodynamic sense, some fundamental features of statistical physics such as invariant measure do not hold for suc...

  9. A model for rolling swarms of locusts

    OpenAIRE

    Topaz, Chad M.; Bernoff, Andrew J.; Logan, Sheldon; Toolson, Wyatt

    2007-01-01

    We construct an individual-based kinematic model of rolling migratory locust swarms. The model incorporates social interactions, gravity, wind, and the effect of the impenetrable boundary formed by the ground. We study the model using numerical simulations and tools from statistical mechanics, namely the notion of H-stability. For a free-space swarm (no wind and gravity), as the number of locusts increases, it approaches a crystalline lattice of fixed density if it is H-stab...

  10. Weak Rolling Adhesion Enhances Bacterial Surface Colonization? †

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Brett N.; Ding, Albert M.; Nilsson, Lina M.; Kusuma, Kaoru; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Vogel, Viola; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.; Thomas, Wendy E.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to and subsequent colonization of surfaces are the first steps toward forming biofilms, which are a major concern for implanted medical devices and in many diseases. It has generally been assumed that strong irreversible adhesion is a necessary step for biofilm formation. However, some bacteria, such as Escherichia coli when binding to mannosylated surfaces via the adhesive protein FimH, adhere weakly in a mode that allows them to roll across the surface. Since single-point...

  11. Boundary friction on molecular lubricants: rolling mode?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical model is proposed for low-temperature friction between two smooth rigid solid surfaces separated by lubricant molecules, admitting their deformations and rotations. The appearance of different modes of energy dissipation (by 'rocking' or 'rolling' of lubricants) at slow relative displacement of the surfaces is shown to be accompanied by stick-and-slip features and reveals a nonmonotonic (mean) friction force vs external load

  12. Roll up nanowire battery from silicon chips

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad, Alexandru; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Ajayan, Anakha; Singh, Neelam; Gohy, Jean-franc?ois; Melinte, Sorin; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report an approach to roll out Li-ion battery components from silicon chips by a continuous and repeatable etch-infiltrate-peel cycle. Vertically aligned silicon nanowires etched from recycled silicon wafers are captured in a polymer matrix that operates as Li+ gel-electrolyte and electrode separator and peeled off to make multiple battery devices out of a single wafer. Porous, electrically interconnected copper nanoshells are conformally deposited around the silicon nanowires to stab...

  13. Influence of Surge on Extreme Roll Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Rognebakke, Olav

    2008-01-01

    Interference of the wave-induced ship surge motion with roll dynamics has been studied. The surge motion has been included in a previously derived hydrodynamic roll prediction model in order to account for the ship speed variation due to the longitudinal incident wave pressure force. Depending on the position of the wave crest relatively to the ship, the ship will be slowed down when she meets the wave. In this paper attempts are made to accurately account for added resistance and additional thrust, applied in order to maintain the ship speed. The surge equilibrium equation has been longitudinally balanced in order to determine the added thrust term that would represent actions to maintain speed The resulting forward speed variation affects the frequency of encounter and the parametric roll resonant condition is directly influenced by this speed variation. The analysis procedure is demonstrated for an example containership sailing mainly in head sea condition and higher sea states. Sensitivity of the results to the added thrust model and vertical motion calculation is discussed.

  14. Vibration Analysis of Rolling Element Bearings Defects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Saruhan; S., Saridemir; A., Qicek; I., Uygur.

    Full Text Available In this work, vibration analysis of rolling element bearings (REBs) defects is studied. The REBs are the most widely used mechanical parts in rotating machinery under high load and high rotational speeds. When the defect in a rolling element comes into contact with another element surface, an impact [...] force is generated which is resulting in an impulsive response of the bearing. A defect at any element of the REB transmits to all other elements such as outer race, inner race, ball and, train cage of the bearing. The defect in rolling elements may lead to serious catastrophic consequences resulting in costly downtime. For this purpose, the vibration analysis technique which is a reliable and accurately detecting defect in the bearing elements is used. The vibration data captured and used for determination and validation is composed from four different defects states of the REB -outer raceway defect, inner raceway defect, ball defect, and combination of the bearing elements defect- and one representing normal state of the bearing for four different running speeds with two load levels. The results obtained from the experiments have illustrated and explained.

  15. Airbag roll marks & displaced rocks and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Looking southwest from the lander, soil disturbances indicating the spacecraft rolled through the landing site are visible. Arriving from the east, the lander, still encased in its protective airbags, rolled up a slight rise and then rolled back down to its final position. The inset at left shows displaced rocks near the rock 'Flat Top.' Dark patches of disturbed soil indicate where the rocks had originally rested Both insets show rocks that were pushed into the soil from the weight of the lander, visible from the areas of raised rims of dark, disturbed soil around several rocks. The south summit of Twin Peaks is in the background, while a lander petal, deflated airbag, and rear rover deployment ramp are in the foreground.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  16. Development and investigation of industrial technique for hot rolling of small cross section rods of unyielding heat resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hot-rolling technology has been developed for rolling rods about 14 to 16 mm in diameter made of EI826, EI929VD, EI867VD heat-resistant nickel alloys, the rods being used for manufacturing the fastening parts and for die-forging blades. The blanks preheated up to a temperature of 1160 to 1190 deg C are rolled on ''300/450'' rolling mill in two processes according to two roll pass designs; namely, oval-round for rolling the rods 16 mm in diameter, and square-oval-round for the rods 14 mm in diameter. It is the installation of the technology of manufacturing rods of decreased diameters from the above heat-resistant alloys that yields a considerable economical effect, owing to the saving of up to 40% of an expensive metal and to the reducing of the amount of work as required for manufacturing the machine parts

  17. Rolling friction—models and experiment. An undergraduate student project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the rolling friction (rolling resistance) model is studied theoretically and experimentally in undergraduate level fundamental general physics courses. Rolling motions of a cylinder along horizontal or inclined planes are studied by simple experiments, measuring deformations of the underlay or of the rolling body. The rolling of a hard cylinder on a soft underlay as well as of a soft cylinder on a hard underlay is studied. The experimental data are treated by the open source software Tracker, appropriate for use at the undergraduate level of physics. Interpretation of results is based on elementary considerations comprehensible to university students—beginners. It appears that the commonly accepted model of rolling resistance based on the idea of a warp (little bulge) on the underlay in front of the rolling body does not correspond with experimental results even for the soft underlay and hard rolling body. The alternative model of the rolling resistance is suggested in agreement with experiment and the corresponding concept of the rolling resistance coefficient is presented. In addition to the obtained results we can conclude that the project can be used as a task for students in practical exercises of fundamental general physics undergraduate courses. Projects of similar type effectively contribute to the development of the physical thinking of students. (paper)

  18. Troll, a Language for specifying Dice-rolls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2009-01-01

    Dice are used in many games, and often in fairly complex ways that make it difficult to unambiguously describe the dice-roll mechanism in plain language. Many role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons, use a formalised notation for some instances of dice-rolls. This notation, once explained, make dice-roll descriptions concise and unambiguous. Furthermore, the notation has been used in automated tools for pseudo-random dice-rolling (typically used when playing over the Internet). This notation is, however, fairly limited in the types of dice-rolls it can describe, so most games still use natural language to describe rolls. Even Dungeons & Dragons use formal notation only for some of the dice-roll methods used in the game. Hence, a more complete notation is in this paper proposed, and a tool for pseudo-random rolls and (nearly) exact probability calculations is described. The notation is called "Troll", combining the initial of the Danish word for dice ("terninger") with the English word "roll". It is a development of the language Roll described in an earlier paper. The present paper describes the most important features of Troll and its implementation.

  19. Determination of the energy and power parameters during groove-rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mróz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to correctly design the process of bar rolling in grooves it is required that several limitations affecting the rolling process be considered. When developing a technology, energy and force parameters, among others, are needed to be taken into account. Therefore, it is purposeful to examine variations in the energy and force parameters during the rolling of bars.Design/methodology/approach: Using FEM-based computer programs for solving the problems of the theory of plasticity enables determining the energy and force parameters in complex plastic working processes and also accounting for a number of process specificities, which are not provided for by the empirical formula.Findings: The theoretical values of the rolling torque and power during the rolling of band in the grooves, as determined using the Forge3® software and the engineering method proposed by Chekmarev, were compared with the experimental values obtained from the measurements of current loads in a plant manufacturing bars. The current loads of the main drive of the continuous rolling mill for rolling bars were measured in one of the Polish steelworks.Practical implications: Change in the band temperature over its length influences the variations in the magnitudes of widening and advance. Its variations lead to a change in energy–force parameters.Originality/value: Using the FE programs for the computation of the values of the energy–force parameters can take into account the distribution of temperature over the band length.

  20. Low Band Gap Polymers for Roll-to-Roll Coated Organic Photovoltaics – Design, Synthesis and Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Hagemann, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and synthesis of 25 new low band gap polymers. The polymers were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy which showed optical band gaps of 2.0–0.9 eV. The polymers which were soluble enough were applied in organic photovoltaics, both small area devices with a spin coated active layer and in large area modules where all layers including the active layer were either roll-to-roll coated or printed. These experiments showed that the design of polymers compatible with roll-toroll coating is not straightforward and that there are various issues such as donor/acceptor fitting within the polymer, side chains to ensure solubility and HOMO/LUMO level alignment with the acceptor (e.g. [60]PCBM) to take into consideration.

  1. Texture analysis of cold rolled and annealed aluminum alloy produced by twin-roll casting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana de Paula, Martins; André Luis Moreira de, Carvalho; Angelo Fernando, Padilha.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A 7.4 mm thick strip of 3003 aluminum alloy produced by the industrial twin-roll casting (TRC) process was homogenized at 500 °C for 12 hours, after which it was cold rolled in two conditions: 1) to reduce the strip's thickness by 67%, and 2) to reduce it by 91%. The alloy was annealed at 400 °C for [...] 1 hour in both conditions. The results revealed that a rotated cube texture, the {001} component, predominated in the as-cast condition and was transformed into brass, copper and S type textures during the cold rolling process. There was practically no difference between the deformation textures at the two thickness reductions.

  2. A roll-to-roll welding process for planarized silver nanowire electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Jun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jung Kyu; Baik, Hionsuck; Park, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jaeki; Nam, Jaewook; Park, Jong Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Woo; Yi, Gi-Ra; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2014-10-21

    We demonstrate continuous roll-to-roll production of highly conductive silver network films on a plastic substrate via mechanical and chemical welding processes. This process included three essential steps: (i) solvent spraying, (ii) roll compression, and (iii) salt treatment and washing. The sheet resistance of the resulting AgNW film was 5 ? sq(-1) at 92% transmittance, which was the lowest sheet resistance and the highest transparency among the values reported previously for solution-processed AgNW electrodes. Moreover, the strong contacts among the AgNWs dramatically enhanced the mechanical stability of the network film. The resulting AgNW film was successfully applied to various organic electronic devices, such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and organic solar cells (OSCs). PMID:25169643

  3. A roll-to-roll welding process for planarized silver nanowire electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Jun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jung Kyu; Baik, Hionsuck; Park, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jaeki; Nam, Jaewook; Park, Jong Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Woo; Yi, Gi-Ra; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate continuous roll-to-roll production of highly conductive silver network films on a plastic substrate via mechanical and chemical welding processes. This process included three essential steps: (i) solvent spraying, (ii) roll compression, and (iii) salt treatment and washing. The sheet resistance of the resulting AgNW film was 5 ? sq-1 at 92% transmittance, which was the lowest sheet resistance and the highest transparency among the values reported previously for solution-processed AgNW electrodes. Moreover, the strong contacts among the AgNWs dramatically enhanced the mechanical stability of the network film. The resulting AgNW film was successfully applied to various organic electronic devices, such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and organic solar cells (OSCs).We demonstrate continuous roll-to-roll production of highly conductive silver network films on a plastic substrate via mechanical and chemical welding processes. This process included three essential steps: (i) solvent spraying, (ii) roll compression, and (iii) salt treatment and washing. The sheet resistance of the resulting AgNW film was 5 ? sq-1 at 92% transmittance, which was the lowest sheet resistance and the highest transparency among the values reported previously for solution-processed AgNW electrodes. Moreover, the strong contacts among the AgNWs dramatically enhanced the mechanical stability of the network film. The resulting AgNW film was successfully applied to various organic electronic devices, such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and organic solar cells (OSCs). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03771e

  4. Lengthening the lifetime of roll-to-roll produced polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    2013-01-01

    The field of polymer solar cells is a field with an exponential growth in the number of published papers. It is a field defined by a set of challenges including; efficiency, stability and processability. Before all of these challenges have been addressed; polymer solar cells will not be a commercial success. This dissertation is devoted primarily to the study of the stability of polymer solar cells, and more specifically to designing and verifying experimental techniques, procedures, and automated solutions to stability tests and characterization. The goal of the project was to expand the knowledge of the degradation mechanisms involved in roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells. While only a part of the experiments have directly involved roll-to-roll coated devices, most of the work is applicable to coated devices. The first part of the dissertation is devoted to the study of in-depth morphology of polymer solar cells using ellipsometry. It was demonstrated that ellipsometry can be used as a non destructive depth profiling technique to obtain compositional morphology of the active layer of roll-to-roll coated samples. The second and third part is devoted to the study of photo-chemical degradation of the active layer materials. The second part details the building of an automated setup for stability tests and presents results on thickness and absorbance dependence of the photo-chemical stability, acceptor stability, and the influence of intrinsic polymer parameters on stability. In the third part two light concentrating setups, built during the PhD, are detailed and results based on high intensity photodegradation studies presented. In the last part of the dissertation the use of TOF-SIMS for polymer solar cell characterization is detailed and the results on intrinsic barrier effects and degradation patterns are summarized.

  5. Roll-to-roll gravure with nanomaterials for printing smart packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhun; Kim, Junseok; Koo, Hyunmo; Lee, Wookyu; Subramanian, Vivek; Cho, Gyoujin

    2014-02-01

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure is considered one of the highest throughput tools for manufacturing inexpensive and flexible ubiquitous IT devices called "smart packaging" in which NFC (near-field communication) transponder, sensors, ADC (analog-to-digital converter), simple processor and signage are all integrated on paper or plastic foils. In this review, we show R2R gravure can be employed to print smart packaging, starting from printing simple electrodes, dielectrics, capacitors, diodes and thin film transistors with appropriate nanomaterial-based inks on plastic foils. PMID:24749427

  6. Texture Evolution During Annealing in Warm-Rolled and Cold-Rolled Ti-IF Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Hui; Wang, Zhao-Dong; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2011-04-01

    The texture characteristics and the recrystallization mechanism during annealing in warm rolled and subsequently cold rolled Ti-IF steel have been investigated by x-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The results attained by x-ray show that texture changes little until the holding time reaches 4 h. After annealing for 4 h, the orientation density of ?-fiber reduces dramatically, but the orientation density of ?-fiber has no obvious change; however, the density of {332} component increases. The EBSD analysis shows that orientated-nucleation dominates during recrystallization, and the orientation of the nuclei includes ?-orientation as well as {332} component.

  7. Development of a twin roll caster for light metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to show the development of a twin roll caster for aluminium alloy. One of the developments was the increase of the roll speed. The increase of the roll speed was essential to improve the low productivity of the twin roll caster. Limitation of the alloys, which can be cast into the strip, could be enlarged by the method to increase the roll speed. The method to increase the roll speed was useful to increase the cooling rate of the cast strip. The devices to increase the roll speed were shown in this paper. Other development was invention of the twin roll caster to cast clad strip. The twin roll casters to cast two layers clad strip, three layers clad strip and five layers clad strip were invented.Design/methodology/approach: Increase of roll speed was attained by the use of a copper roll and a nozzle, operation of the low temperature casting and non-use of parting material. A scraper was adopted to the twin roll caster for clad strip to prevent the mixture of the molten metals and to control the surface condition. The devices to increase the roll speed were useful for the roll caster to cast clad strip.Findings: The aluminium alloy strip could be cast at the speeds up to 90 m/min. The aluminium alloy which has wide freezing zone like Al-25%Si could be cast into the strip. Two layers, three layers and five layers of clad strips could be cast.Research limitations/implications: The roll casters were laboratory size. Therefore, it was not clear of the ability of the casting of the long size and wide size strips.Practical implications: The productivity of aluminium alloy strip is increased. The property of the aluminium alloy strip is improved. The aluminium alloy, which was too brittle to be formed into the plate, will be cast into strip directly from melt. The process and energy to make the brazing sheet will be saved by the roll caster of the present study.Originality/value: The invented roll casters, devices for casting and properties of the cast strips are original.

  8. Semisolid strip casting using a vertical type twin roll caster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, T. [Osaka Inst. of Tech., Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, K. [Graduate School of Osaka, Inst. of Tech., Osaka (Japan); Watari, H. [Oyama National Coll. of Technology (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Semisolid strip casting of A356 alloy was tried using a vertical type twin roll caster equipped with a nozzle and a cooling slope. Molten metal was poured on the cooling slope and the molten metal became semisolid slurry. Solidification rate of the semisolid slurry was lower than 5%. Low solidification rate roll casting was carried out. Roll speed was from 60 m/min to 180 m/min. Strip thickness, which was thinner than 3 mm, could be cast. Microstructure was not columnar but equiaxed structure. Eutectic Si became very fine and globular. Ductility of the strip after homogenization was enough for cold rolling. The strip could be cold rolled until 0.5 mm. Mechanical properties were investigated after homogenization, cold rolling and T6 heat treatment. The elongation was improved and better than 15%. The strip, that thickness was 0.5 mm and was annealed, was not broken after 180 degrees bending. (orig.)

  9. A review on hot direct rolling of hsla steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of economically viable high strength low alloy structural steels (HSLA) with a good weld ability is probably the most significant metallurgical achievement of the steel industry in the last few decades. In these developments during thermo mechanical processing grain refinement is achieved by refining the as rolled austenite phase prior to transformation and introducing a high density of ferrite nucleation sites during rolling. A current trend in thermo mechanical processing of steel is to integrate the rolling process with continuous casting process. The development of a direct linkage between the continuous casting machine and hot working processes is suggested by economic considerations. However, hot charge rolling (HCR) and hot direct rolling (HDR) of micro alloyed steels affect mechanical properties significantly compared with conventional controlled rolling(CCR). (author)

  10. Implications of a Running Spectral Index for Slow Roll Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Easther, R; Easther, Richard; Peiris, Hiranya

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the weak (2 sigma) evidence for a running spectral index seen in the three-year WMAP dataset and its implications for single field, slow roll inflation. We assume that the running is comparable to the central value found from the WMAP data analysis, and use the Hubble Slow Roll formalism to follow the evolution of the slow roll parameters. For all parameter choices consistent with a large, negative running, single field, slow roll inflation lasts less than 30 efolds after CMB scales leave the horizon. Thus, a definitive observation of a large negative running would imply that any inflationary phase requires multiple fields or the breakdown of slow roll. Alternatively, if single field, slow roll inflation is sources the primordial fluctuations, we can expect the observed running to move much closer to zero as the CMB is measured more accurately at small angular scales.

  11. Modelling of spring roll actuators based on viscoelastic dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junshi; Chen, Hualing; Tang, Liling; Li, Bo; Sheng, Junjie; Liu, Lei

    2015-02-01

    In this article, the effect of viscoelastic deformation is analyzed theoretically to evaluate the performance of spring roll dielectric elastomer (DE) actuators. By patterning the electrodes on the rolls, respectively, two functions are studied: axial elongation and bending. The thermodynamic model of viscoelastic DE spring roll is established, and the governing equation is deduced by the free energy method. It is found that when the applied voltage is static and relatively small, both the axial elongated and bending deformed spring rolls can reach equilibrium after viscoelastic relaxation. The evolutions in different timescales and the final profile are presented. The dynamic response is studied as well, by applying a sinusoidal voltage. For the axial elongated spring roll, viscoelasticity can reduce amplitude and increase mean stretch of the actuator. For the bending deformed spring rolls, the results indicate that the spring stiffness has a more significant impact on dynamic performance compared to the effect of voltage.

  12. Rolling test of turbine generator by non-nuclear steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object and procedure of rolling turbine generator test by non-nuclear steam in Qinshan NPP are presented. The steam source of rolling test is compared and chosen. The steam quantity during the rolling test is simply calculated. The limits of parameters of the test and the preparing for rolling of turbine generator are introduced. Procedures of rolling test are divided into three stage of speed: 600 r/min, 1200 r/min, 3000 r/min. Parameters measured as a result of rolling test, such as absolute vibration of axle, metal temperature of bearings, temperature of oil from the exit of bearings and vacuity of condenser etc, show that the design, manufacture, installation and speed control of turbine generator are satisfactory

  13. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); O'Malley, Ronald J. (Miamisburg, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  14. Estimation of Parametric Roll in a Stochastic Seaway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, JØrgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    The present paper describes a model for prediction of parametric roll which is sufficiently fast to give predictions in real time for the probability of different levels of parametric roll angles in given long crested sea states. The procedure is based on an extension of a simplified two-degree of freedom (roll and heave) time domain model [10]. In the present paper the effect of the increased added resistance when the bow heaves and pitches down in a wave crest is introduced. Due to the resulting forward speed variation the roll resonance condition will be changed. The influence of ship speed on roll angle has in the past been noted by e.g. [6], where large roll angles in combination with the ship speed reduction can be seen from time traces from model tests.

  15. High speed twin roll casting of 6061 alloy strips

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, T.; Sakaguchi, H.; Watari, H.; Kumai, S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin strips of two aluminum alloys:6061 and recycled 6061. Mechanical properties of the roll cast 6061 and recycled 6061 strips were investigated inthe frame of this purpose.Design/methodology/approach: Methods used in the present study were high speed twin roll caster and lowtemperature casting. These methods were used to realize rapid solidification and increase the casting speed.Findings: are that 6061 and rec...

  16. Entry Strategies to Indonesian Market Case: MoveaRoll

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Zahedul

    2013-01-01

    MoveRoll Oy, an internationally growing and expanding Finnish company located in Porvoo, has invented a unique technology to produce a paper roll conveyor which the company believes will revolutionise the paper roll handling industry. Moreover, after establishing itself in the Finnish market, the company has started expanding its business to countries like Sweden, USA, and China. Likewise, the process of expanding to the Russian market is currently underway and the company has recently launch...

  17. Rolling of castings of difficult to work steels on bloomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommendations on heating and rolling of castings of 12Kh18N10T, 08Kh22N6T, 14 Kh17N2, 12Kh13, 09Kh17N, 20Kh23N18 steels which introduction allows to upgrade the quality of rolled products, are given. A technique for determining optimal heating and rolling temperatures of difficult to work steels and alloys is developed. Revolution number heating temperature curves have been plotted from torsion test results

  18. Temperature and heat flux fast estimation during rolling process

    OpenAIRE

    Weisz-patrault, Daniel; Ehrlacher, Alain; Legrand, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring and controlling flatness during the rolling process becomes critical for ensuring the product quality. Flatness defects are due to highly three-dimensional phenomena. Indeed, strips with different widths are rolled during the same campaign and cooling systems are heterogeneous along the axial direction to modify the thermal expansion of the roll. Therefore this paper presents a fully three-dimensional inverse analytical method to determine the temperature field and heat fluxes (esp...

  19. Adaptive attenuation of aliased ground roll using the shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Abolfazl; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Hassani, Hossien; Torabi, Siyavash; Sadri, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Attenuation of ground roll is an essential step in seismic data processing. Spatial aliasing of the ground roll may cause the overlap of the ground roll with reflections in the f-k domain. The shearlet transform is a directional and multidimensional transform that separates the events with different dips and generates subimages in different scales and directions. In this study, the shearlet transform was used adaptively to attenuate aliased and non-aliased ground roll. After defining a filtering zone, an input shot record is divided into segments. Each segment overlaps adjacent segments. To apply the shearlet transform on each segment, the subimages containing aliased and non-aliased ground roll, the locations of these events on each subimage are selected adaptively. Based on these locations, mute is applied on the selected subimages. The filtered segments are merged together, using the Hanning function, after applying the inverse shearlet transform. This adaptive process of ground roll attenuation was tested on synthetic data, and field shot records from west of Iran. Analysis of the results using the f-k spectra revealed that the non-aliased and most of the aliased ground roll were attenuated using the proposed adaptive attenuation procedure. Also, we applied this method on shot records of a 2D land survey, and the data sets before and after ground roll attenuation were stacked and compared. The stacked section after ground roll attenuation contained less linear ground roll noise and more continuous reflections in comparison with the stacked section before the ground roll attenuation. The proposed method has some drawbacks such as more run time in comparison with traditional methods such as f-k filtering and reduced performance when the dip and frequency content of aliased ground roll are the same as those of the reflections.

  20. Rolls of the internal gravity waves in the Earth's atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Onishchenko, O.; Pokhotelov, O.; Horton, W.; Smolyakov, A.; Kaladze, T.; Fedun, V.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the wind shear on the roll structures of nonlinear internal gravity waves (IGWs) in the Earth's atmosphere with the finite vertical temperature gradients is investigated. A closed system of equations is derived for the nonlinear dynamics of the IGWs in the presence of temperature gradients and sheared wind. The solution in the form of rolls has been obtained. The new condition for the existence of such structures was found by taking into account the roll spatial s...

  1. Structure of ledeburitic steels after radial-shear rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, I. V.; Blinov, V. M.; Antoschenkov, A. E.; Lukina, Yu. A.

    2007-04-01

    The effect of the forging reduction ratio and radial-shear rolling on the structure and mechanical properties of 160Kh12MF, R9M4K8, and R6M5 ledeburitic steels has been studied. It is shown that carbide particles become significantly finer during radial-shear rolling. Spherical carbides are uniformly distributed in the structure of hot-rolled billets after this treatment.

  2. Prediction of Parametric Roll Resonance by Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Mi?guez Gonza?lez, M.; Lo?pez Pen?a, F.; Di?az Casa?s, V.; Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Parametric roll resonance is a ship stability related phenomenon that generates sudden large amplitude oscillations up to 30-40 degrees of roll. This can cause severe damage, and it can put the crew in serious danger. The need for a parametric rolling real time prediction system has been acknowledged in the last few years. This work proposes a prediction system based on a multilayer perceptron (MP) neural network. The training and testing of the MP network is accomplished ...

  3. Rolling friction of a hard cylinder on a viscous plane

    CERN Document Server

    Pöschel, T; Brilliantov, N V; Pöschel, Thorsten; Schwager, Thomas; Brilliantov, Nikolai V.

    1998-01-01

    The resistance against rolling of a rigid cylinder on a flat viscous surface is investigated. We found that the rolling-friction coefficient reveals strongly non-linear dependence on the cylinder's velocity. For low velocity the rolling-friction coefficient rises with velocity due to increasing deformation rate of the surface. For larger velocity, however, it decreases with velocity according to decreasing contact area and deformation of the surface.

  4. Rolling Bearing Diagnosis Based on LMD and Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Baoshan Huang; Wei, De; Wei Xu; Xinfeng Zou

    2013-01-01

    Inner ring pitting, the outer indentation and rolling element wear are typical faults of rolling bearing. In order to diagnose these faults rapidly and accurately, the paper proposes a novel diagnosis method of rolling bearing based on the energy characteristics of PF component and neural network by the vibration signal of local mean decomposition(Local mean decomposition, LMD). The vibration signal is decomposed into several PF components by the local mean decomposition, the calculated energ...

  5. High speed twin roll caste for aluminum alloy thin strip

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, T.; Inui, H.; Sakaguchi, H.; Watari, H.; Kumaic, S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, effectiveness of a high-speed twin roll caster for recycling aluminum alloy was investigated.Design/methodology/approach: The effects of the high-speed twin roll caster on alleviating the deterioration of mechanical properties by impurities were investigated. Properties of the cast strip were investigated by metalography, a tension test, and a bending test.Findings: A vertical type twin roll caster for strip casting of aluminum alloys was devised. The strip, whi...

  6. FE Simulations of Gear Rolling by flat tools

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Adil

    2013-01-01

    Gear rolling is one of the latest techniques being used in gear manufacturing. As compared to traditional gear manufacturing techniques, gear rolling can add benefits like improved surface finish, increased flank strength, increased load capacity and less material usage. After initial research initiatives in USA, Germany and China, efforts are underway to make this technique industrially viable for production of both low and high module gears. There are two methods for gear rolling one uses r...

  7. Engineering of rolled constructional microalloyed steel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flexibility of the microalloyed steels on manufacturing of products with high mechanical and technological properties at not exaggerated production costs, it caused of their application for different constructions and machines in many branches of economy. It is a reason of the big interest of this steel group and the improvement of metallurgical and technological processing. In the work the examples of applications of C-Mn microalloyed steels with V and N microadditions for production of long shape products of Rp0.2 > 650 MPa and KCU2 > 57 Jcm-2 are presented. They are manufactured in the controlled rolling process. Moreover this work presents liquid metal treatment in ladlemann process and influence of ingots solidification conditions, controlled rolling of weldable plates with Nb, Ti, V and B microadditions which after quenching and tempering have Rp0.2 > 870 MPa, KV-50oC > 27 J and plastic strain ratio equals 1.2. This work also presents the energy saving rolling technology with controlled recrystallization (method of thermomechanical treatment) of improved Weldox 960 steel plates with Mb, Ti, V and B microadditions which have after high-temperature tempering Rp0.2 > 100 MPa, KV-50oC >90 J and plastic strain ratio is less than 1.2. The introduction of microalloyed constructional steels and the appropriate technology in the domestic industry will contribute to high-processed prodtry will contribute to high-processed products with properties competitive to products manufactured in high-industrialized countries. Thanks to that it will be possible to increase the technical level as well as to reduce production costs and import. (author)

  8. Arvuti roll elementaarmatemaatika õppimisel ja õpetamisel / Margo Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Margo, 1974-

    1998-01-01

    Juuni algul toimus TPÜ-s kolmepäevane kursus "Arvuti roll elementaarmatemaatika õppimisel ja õpetamisel", kus põhiesinejaks oli The Royal Danish School of Educational Studies (Taani) õppejõud Viggo Sadolin

  9. Slow-roll reconstruction for running spectral index

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qing-guo

    2006-01-01

    We not only reconstruct the slow-roll parameters for fit to the running spectral index from WMAP three-year data in the usual slow-roll inflation model and noncommutative inflation model, but also investigate the evolution of these slow-roll parameters. Requiring slow-roll inflation lasts more than 20 e-folds after CMB scales leave the horizon suggests that the potential at the last stage of inflation takes the form $V(\\phi)=V_0(1+{\\eta_c\\over 2}{(\\phi-\\phi_c)^2\\over M_p^2})...

  10. Roll caster for the three-layer clad-strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nakamura

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to show the characteristics of two kinds of roll casters for three-layer clad strip of aluminium alloys. Moreover, the characteristics of these twin roll casters were compeered with the early type of roll casters for clad strip.Design/methodology/approach: Design was tried to attain the fabrication of the roll casters to cast the three-layers-clad-strip. One caster was an unequal diameter roll caster equipped with a scraper. The scraper was adopted to prevent the mixture of different kinds of melts of the alloys. The scraper was used to cast the clad strip with clear interfaces between each strip. The other caster was a tandem type roll caster assembled from two vertical type twin roll casters. A vertical type of twin roll was mounted on the other vertical type of a twin roll caster.Findings: Three layers of clad strips could be cast by two kinds of the roll casters developed in the present study. The casting speed was 20 m/min. This speed was much higher at the conventional twin roll caster for the aluminium alloys. Each strip of three layers clad strip was connected strictly. The element of clad strip did not peel at the interface by continuous bending. The as-cast clad strip could be cold-rolled. The element of alloys did not mix at the connecting interface of the strips. The casting conditions which affected the connecting of the strips and condition of interface were investigated and shown in this paper.Research limitations/implications: The width of the strip was from 30 mm to 50 mm. The casting of the wide strip was not investigated. The alloy used in the present study was only aluminium alloys. The length of the cast strip was 3 m. The thickness of element strip was from 0.8 mm to 1.5 mm. The difference of the melting temperature of the alloys was within 50°C. The number of the layers was less than three layers.Practical implications: The roll caster invented in the present study can be used for the fabrication of the clad strip. The clad strip is, for example, used for the brazing sheet of the radiator for the automotive industry.Originality/value: There was not a report concerning the roll caster for three layers clad strip. The roll casters for clad strips shown in this paper were of an original process. Especially, the use of the scraper in the roll casting was original.

  11. The effects of forming parameters on conical ring rolling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wen; Zhao, Guoqun; Guan, Yanjin

    2014-01-01

    The plastic penetration condition and biting-in condition of a radial conical ring rolling process with a closed die structure on the top and bottom of driven roll, simplified as RCRRCDS, were established. The reasonable value range of mandrel feed rate in rolling process was deduced. A coupled thermomechanical 3D FE model of RCRRCDS process was established. The changing laws of equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) and temperature distributions with rolling time were investigated. The effects of ring's outer radius growth rate and rolls sizes on the uniformities of PEEQ and temperature distributions, average rolling force, and average rolling moment were studied. The results indicate that the PEEQ at the inner layer and outer layer of rolled ring are larger than that at the middle layer of ring; the temperatures at the "obtuse angle zone" of ring's cross-section are higher than those at "acute angle zone"; the temperature at the central part of ring is higher than that at the middle part of ring's outer surfaces. As the ring's outer radius growth rate increases at its reasonable value ranges, the uniformities of PEEQ and temperature distributions increase. Finally, the optimal values of the ring's outer radius growth rate and rolls sizes were obtained. PMID:25202716

  12. Quantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hearns, G.; Blanke, M.

    1998-01-01

    A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative feedback theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how the design tradeoffs in closed-loop roll reduction can be approximated using this formula before a controller is designed. The robust roll and course keeping controllers designed are then tested using a nonlinear simulation.

  13. Qantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hearns, G.; Blanke, M.

    1998-01-01

    A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative Feedback Theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how the design tradeoffs in closed-loop roll reduction can be approximated using this formula before a controller is designed. The robust roll and course keeping controllers designed are then evaluated using a nonlinear simulation.

  14. Troll, a Language for specifying Dice-rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2009-01-01

    Dice are used in many games, and often in fairly complex ways that make it difficult to unambiguously describe the dice-roll mechanism in plain language. Many role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons, use a formalised notation for some instances of dice-rolls. This notation, once explained, make dice-roll descriptions concise and unambiguous. Furthermore, the notation has been used in automated tools for pseudo-random dice-rolling (typically used when playing over the Internet). This no...

  15. Finite Element Simulation of Roll Forming

    OpenAIRE

    Hellborg, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A finite element model has been developed to simulate the forming of a channel section profile with the roll forming method. The model has been optimized to experimental results with respect to strains at the edge of the sheet and spring back of the sides of the profile. Finite element models with a coarse mesh have been compared to models with a finer mesh. The models with to fine mesh become instable and a model with a rather coarse mesh was finally chosen. Both the models with shell elemen...

  16. Corrosion behaviour of different hot rolled steels

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, F. J.; Martinez, L.; Hierro, M. P.; Gomez, C.; Portela, A. L.; Pucci, G. N.; Duday, D.; Lecomte-beckers, Jacqueline; Greday, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation-corrosion behaviour of hot rolled alloys was examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion behaviour of the non-oxidised alloys was first determined in order to have a reference behaviour. Then, each alloy was oxidised for 1 and 3 days at 650 degrees C in air and its corrosion behaviour was also determined. For all the alloys, Fe2O3 was formed at the scale-gas interface. However, the Fe2O3 crystallographic structures varied as a function of the alloy composit...

  17. Low Band Gap Polymers for Roll-to-Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Hagemann, Ole

    2010-01-01

    We present the synthesis of a low band gap copolymer based on dithienothiophene and dialkoxybenzothiadiazole (poly(dithienothiophene-co-dialkoxybenzothiadiazole), PDTTDABT). The optical properties of the polymer showed a band gap of 1.6 eV and a sky-blue color in solid films. The polymer was explored in roll-to-roll coating experiments and was optimized with respect to the manufacturing process and mixing ratio with [60]PCBM through a series of experiments with variation of the composition in steps of 1% w/w of respectively PDTTDABT and [60]PCBM and a relatively broad optimimum was found around a 1:2 mixing ratio. Roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cell devices were prepared under ambient conditions employing solution processing in all steps including the metallic back electrode that was printed as a grid giving semitransparent solar cell devices. Solar cell modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared with a total module active area of 96 cm2. The devices were tested for operational stability under simulated sunlight (AM1.5G) and natural sunlight, and the photochemical stability of the polymer was examined using a combination of UV?vis and IR spectroscopy.

  18. Roll bonding steps of 6061 aluminum alloy plates during hot rolling of nuclear fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roll Bonding process is applied to clad the core plate (U3O8+Al), with high strength aluminum alloys during fabrication of plate type nuclear fuel elements for research reactors, and to produce many new constructions which have special uses in industrial applications. In the present work, the steps of the hot roll bonding process were studied using both microscopic examination and mechanical testing. It was found that, there is a threshold of reduction, at which the metallic bond initiates. After this point, the increasing of degree of reduction leads to increase in the bond strength. This reduction threshold was found to be 30%. The final bond strength was about 0.87 of the strength of the base 6061 aluminum alloy at the same conditions of hot working and thermal treatments. The present results showed that at least 81% reduction in thickness is required to produce the required bond between the cladding and both core plate and frame for roll bonded plates with the standard roll bonding method. (author)

  19. Effects of Preheating and Cooling Durations on Roll-to-Roll Hot Embossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung; Son, Youngsu; Park, Heechang; Kim, Byungin; Yun, Dongwon

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we examined the sensitivity of embossed pattern depth to preheat supply and cooling and investigated how the pattern type and density affect the embossed depth. The main factors that affect embossed pattern qualities of roll-to-roll hot embossing, such as roller temperature, roller speed, and applied force, were determined using the response surface methodology. Eight conditions were then added to determine the time-dependent effects of heat transfer with custom-designed preheating and cooling systems. An extended preheat time for the polymethylmethacrylate substrate contributed to the significant change in the embossed depth, whereas the substrate-cooling did not exhibit a clear increasing or decreasing trend. Larger embossed depths were achieved in the horizontal patterns with lower density than in the vertical patterns, and the lower pattern densities showed greater embossed depths in most embossing conditions. We expect that this result will help to understand the effects of the pre- and posttreatment of roll-to-roll hot embossing by employing time duration factors of heat transfer, depending on the mold pattern type and density. PMID:25311866

  20. Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Tromholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Upscaling of the manufacture of polymer solar cells is detailed with emphasis on cost analysis and practical approach. The device modules were prepared using both slot-die coating and screen printing the active layers in the form of stripes that were serially connected. The stripe width was varied and the resultant performance analysed. Wider stripes give access to higher geometric fill factors and lower aperture loss while they also present larger sheet resistive losses. An optimum was found through preparation of serially connected stripes having widths of 9, 13 and 18 mm with nominal geometric fill factors (excluding bus bars) of 50, 67 and 75% respectively. In addition modules with lengths of 6, 10, 20, 22.5 and 25 cm were explored. The devices were prepared by full roll-to-roll solution processing in a web width of 305 mm and roll lengths of up to 200 m. The devices were encapsulated with a barrier material in a full roll-to-roll process using standard adhesives giving the devices excellent stability during storage and operation. The total area of processed polymer solar cell was around 60 m2 per run. The solar cells were characterised using a roll-to-roll system comprising a solar simulator and an IV-curve tracer. After characterisation the solar cell modules were cut into sheets using a sheeting machine and contacted using button contacts applied by crimping. Based on this a detailed cost analysis was made showing that it is possible to prepare complete and contacted polymer solar cell modules on this scale at an area cost of 89 m-2 and an electricity cost of 8.1 Wp-1. The cost analysis was separated into the manufacturing cost, materials cost and also the capital investment required for setting up a complete production plant on this scale. Even though the cost in Wp-1 is comparable to the cost for electricity using existing technologies the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is expected to be significantly higher than the existing technologies due to the inferior operational lifetime. The presented devices are thus competitive for consumer electronics but ill-suited for on-grid electricity production in their current form.

  1. Texture evolution in an electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni–Fe alloy during growth-plane rolling and cross-section rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texture evolution in an electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni–Fe alloy upon cold-rolling has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. In particular, the cold-rolling was performed on the growth plane (the normal direction of which is parallel to the growth direction) and the cross-section (the transverse direction of which is parallel to the growth direction) of the electrodeposits. Substantial grain growth and distinct texture evolution during growth-plane rolling and cross-section rolling were detected in the electrodeposited nanocrystalline alloy, and the corresponding mechanisms are discussed in this paper.

  2. Effect of the rolling speed on microstructural and mechanical properties of aluminum-magnesium alloys prepared by twin roll casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloys prepared by twin roll casting (TRC), varying rolling speed, (i.e., 3, 4, and 5 rpm) were studied. Optical microstructures of the all the samples show dendritic morphology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) studies show segregation of alloying elements at the interdendritic regions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation confirms the presence of intermetallic phase (Mg5Al8) at the grain boundaries. It was observed that the secondary dendritic arm spacing (SDAS) increases (marginally) with rolling speed. Also the microhardness and tensile strength decreases with increase in rolling speed.

  3. Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2014-01-01

    Inline printing and coating methods have been demonstrated to enable a high technical yield of fully roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cell modules. We demonstrate generality by employing different material sets and also describe how the ink systems must be carefully co-developed in order to reach the ambitious objective of a fully printed and coated 14-layer flexible tandem solar cell stack. The roll-to-roll methodologies involved are flexographic printing, rotary screen printing, slot-die coating, X-ray scattering, electrical testing and UV-lamination. Their combination enables the manufacture of completely functional devices in exceptionally high yields. Critical to the ink and process development is a carefully chosen technology transfer to industry method where first a roll coater is employed enabling contactless stack build up, followed by a small roll-to-roll coater fitted to an X-ray machine enabling in situ studies of wet ink deposition and drying mechanisms, ultimately elucidating how a robust inline processed recombination layer is key to a high technical yield. Finally, the transfer to full roll-to-roll processing is demonstrated.

  4. High speed twin roll caste for aluminum alloy thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study, effectiveness of a high-speed twin roll caster for recycling aluminum alloy was investigated.Design/methodology/approach: The effects of the high-speed twin roll caster on alleviating the deterioration of mechanical properties by impurities were investigated. Properties of the cast strip were investigated by metalography, a tension test, and a bending test.Findings: A vertical type twin roll caster for strip casting of aluminum alloys was devised. The strip, which was thinner than 3 mm, could be cast at speeds higher than 60 m/min. Features of the twin roll casters are as below. Copper rolls were used and lubricant was not used in order to increase the casting speed. A casting nozzle was used to set the solidification length precisely. Heat transfer between melt and the roll was improved by hydrostatic pressure of the melt. Separating force was very small in order to prevent sticking of the strip to the roll. Low superheat casting was carried out in order to improve microstructure of the strip. In the present study, effectiveness of a high-speed and high-cooling rate twin roll caster of the present study for recycling aluminum alloy was investigated. Fe was added as impurity to 6063 and A356. The roll caster of the present study was useful to decrease the influence of impurity of Fe.Research limitations/implications: A high-speed twin roll caster of vertical type was designed and assembled to cast aluminum alloy thin strip.Originality/value: The results demonstrate that the high-speed twin roll caster can improve the deterioration by impurities.

  5. High-speed rolling deflectometer data evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andren, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The high-speed rolling deflectometer is one of the result of almost twenty year of research in pavement condition using laser technique. The latest research vehicle is the laser Road Deflection Tester, built in the mid-nineties using experiences from a prototype truck from the early nineties. Apart from the laser range finders used for finding used for finding the deflection, the truck is also equipped with optical speedometers for both longitudinal and transversal speed, accelerometers and force transducers on the rear wheel axle and a gyro for assessing the deviation. Presently, only the laser range finders are being used as the rest of the sensors has not been calibrated in a satisfying way. During the spring and summer of 1998 a first test program was carried out, and about twenty different roads were studied as a first step towards a more thorough investigation on a road network level. The results from this first major test with the high-speed rolling deflectometer are very promising and, even though many questions remains to be answered, the method has most certainly a strong potential. A general view of some different ways to evaluate the data, as well as more thorough evaluation of some specific roads, will be presented in this paper.

  6. Wear of rolling element bearings in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolling element bearings and related mechanisms are attractive for service in liquid sodium but it is not clear what minimum wear rate can be anticipated. For axially loaded angular contact bearings rotation is incompatible with pure rolling on both races and wear arises from the resulting ball spin. The initial pressure distributions and sizes of the contact ellipses can be calculated but will change with bearing wear. However, the most effective distribution for producing wear would be for the full loads to be borne on the tips of the contact areas, whose maximum length is given by examination of the race wear tracks. A calculation on such a basis should set a lower limit for the wear coefficient. Both the torque and instantaneous wear rate of a bearing will be similar functions of the integral over the contact areas of the product of contact pressure and radius from the ball spin axis. A better estimate of wear coefficient should be obtained by relating the average torque, the average wear, the initial torque and the initial wear where the conditions are known. Analysis of tests in sodium at 4000C of high speed steel and Stellite bearings by these methods indicates specific wear rates of the order of 10-15m3/N-m, not unduly out of line with the range of values found in conventional sliding tests

  7. Precision instrumentation for rolling element bearing characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Eric R.; Vigliano, Vincent C.; Weiss, Jeffrey R.; Moerlein, Alex W.; Vallance, R. Ryan

    2007-03-01

    This article describes an instrument to measure the error motion of rolling element bearings. This challenge is met by simultaneously satisfying four requirements. First, an axial preload must be applied to seat the rolling elements in the bearing races. Second, one of the races must spin under the influence of an applied torque. Third, rotation of the remaining race must be prevented in a way that leaves the radial, axial/face, and tilt displacements free to move. Finally, the bearing must be fixtured and measured without introducing off-axis loading or other distorting influences. In the design presented here, an air bearing reference spindle with error motion of less than 10 nm rotates the inner race of the bearing under test. Noninfluencing couplings are used to prevent rotation of the bearing outer race and apply an axial preload without distorting the bearing or influencing the measurement. Capacitive displacement sensors with 2 nm resolution target the nonrotating outer race. The error motion measurement repeatability is shown to be less than 25 nm. The article closes with a discussion of how the instrument may be used to gather data with sufficient resolution to accurately estimate the contact angle of deep groove ball bearings.

  8. Precision instrumentation for rolling element bearing characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes an instrument to measure the error motion of rolling element bearings. This challenge is met by simultaneously satisfying four requirements. First, an axial preload must be applied to seat the rolling elements in the bearing races. Second, one of the races must spin under the influence of an applied torque. Third, rotation of the remaining race must be prevented in a way that leaves the radial, axial/face, and tilt displacements free to move. Finally, the bearing must be fixtured and measured without introducing off-axis loading or other distorting influences. In the design presented here, an air bearing reference spindle with error motion of less than 10 nm rotates the inner race of the bearing under test. Noninfluencing couplings are used to prevent rotation of the bearing outer race and apply an axial preload without distorting the bearing or influencing the measurement. Capacitive displacement sensors with 2 nm resolution target the nonrotating outer race. The error motion measurement repeatability is shown to be less than 25 nm. The article closes with a discussion of how the instrument may be used to gather data with sufficient resolution to accurately estimate the contact angle of deep groove ball bearings

  9. Multi-hundred kilowatt roll ring assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter E.

    1985-01-01

    A program was completed to develop an evaluation unit of a high power rotary transfer device for potential application in a space environment. This device was configured around a Roll Ring concept which performs the same function as a slip ring/brush assembly with a rolling instead of sliding interface. An eight circuit Evaluation Unit (EU) and a portable Test Fixture (TF) were designed and fabricated. The EU was designed to transfer currents to 200 amperes at a potential of as high as 500 volts for an ultimate 100 kW/circuit transfer capability. The EU was evaluated in vacuum at dc transfer currents of 50 to 200 amperes at voltages to 10 volts and at 500 volts at 2 amperes. Power transfer to levels of 2 kW through each of the eight circuits was completed. Power transfer in vacuum at levels and efficiencies not previously achieved was demonstrated. The terminal-to-terminal resistance was measured to be greater than 0.42 milliohms which translates to an efficiency at 100 kW of 99.98 percent. The EU and TF have been delivered to the Lewis Research Center and are being prepared tor testing at increased power levels and for life testing, which will include both dc and ac power.

  10. 75 FR 64246 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Correction to Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ...Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Correction to Notice...hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products from Brazil. See Antidumping...Administration. [FR Doc. 2010-26268 Filed 10-18-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  11. High-precision thickness setting models for titanium alloy plate cold rolling without tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Yang, Quan; He, Fei; Sun, Youzhao; Xiao, Huifang

    2015-03-01

    Due to its highly favorable physical and chemical properties, titanium and titanium alloy are widely used in a variety of industries. Because of the low output of a single batch, plate cold rolling without tension is the most common rolling production method for titanium alloy. This method is lack of on-line thickness closed-loop control, with carefully thickness setting models for precision. A set of high-precision thickness setting models are proposed to suit the production method. Because of frequent variations in rolling specification, a model structural for the combination of analytical models and statistical models is adopted to replace the traditional self-learning method. The deformation resistance and friction factor, the primary factors which affect model precision, are considered as the objectives of statistical modeling. Firstly, the coefficient fitting of deformation resistance analytical model based on over-determined equations set is adopted. Additionally, a support vector machine(SVM) is applied to the modeling of the deformation resistance and friction factor. The setting models are applied to a 1450 plate-coiling mill for titanium alloy plate rolling, and then thickness precision is found consistently to be within 3%, exceeding the precision of traditional setting models with a self-learning method based on a large number of stable rolling data. Excellent application performance is obtained. The proposed research provides a set of high-precision thickness setting models which are well adapted to the characteristics of titanium alloy plate cold rolling without tension.

  12. High-precision thickness setting models for titanium alloy plate cold rolling without tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Yang, Quan; He, Fei; Sun, Youzhao; Xiao, Huifang

    2014-10-01

    Due to its highly favorable physical and chemical properties, titanium and titanium alloy are widely used in a variety of industries. Because of the low output of a single batch, plate cold rolling without tension is the most common rolling production method for titanium alloy. This method is lack of on-line thickness closed-loop control, with carefully thickness setting models for precision. A set of high-precision thickness setting models are proposed to suit the production method. Because of frequent variations in rolling specification, a model structural for the combination of analytical models and statistical models is adopted to replace the traditional self-learning method. The deformation resistance and friction factor, the primary factors which affect model precision, are considered as the objectives of statistical modeling. Firstly, the coefficient fitting of deformation resistance analytical model based on over-determined equations set is adopted. Additionally, a support vector machine(SVM) is applied to the modeling of the deformation resistance and friction factor. The setting models are applied to a 1450 plate-coiling mill for titanium alloy plate rolling, and then thickness precision is found consistently to be within 3%, exceeding the precision of traditional setting models with a self-learning method based on a large number of stable rolling data. Excellent application performance is obtained. The proposed research provides a set of high-precision thickness setting models which are well adapted to the characteristics of titanium alloy plate cold rolling without tension.

  13. Study of Titanium Alloy Sheet During H-sectioned Rolling Forming Using the Taguchi Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study employs commercial DEFORM three-dimensional finite element code to investigate the plastic deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheet during the H-sectioned rolling process. The simulations are based on a rigid-plastic model and assume that the upper and lower rolls are rigid bodies and that the temperature rise induced during rolling is sufficiently small that it can be ignored. The effects of the roll profile, the friction factor between the rolls and the titanium alloy, the rolling temperature and the roll radii on the rolling force, the roll torque and the effective strain induced in the rolled product are examined. The Taguchi method is employed to optimize the H-sectioned rolling process parameters. The results confirm the effectiveness of this robust design methodology in optimizing the H-sectioned rolling process parameters for the current Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

  14. 76 FR 8319 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Design Roll Maneuver Requirement for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ...Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Design Roll Maneuver Requirement for Electronic Flight Controls...flight computers. The current design roll maneuver requirement for structural loads in 14...special conditions require that the roll maneuver result from defined movements of...

  15. 76 FR 36870 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Design Roll Maneuver Requirement for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ...Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Design Roll Maneuver Requirement for Electronic Flight Controls...flight computers. The current design roll maneuver requirement for structural loads in 14...special conditions require that the roll maneuver result from defined movements of...

  16. 40 CFR 467.20 - Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory. 467.20 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling With Emulsions Subcategory § 467.20 Applicability...description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory. This...

  17. 26 CFR 1.263(e)-1 - Expenditures in connection with certain railroad rolling stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...connection with certain railroad rolling stock. 1.263(e)-1 Section 1.263...connection with certain railroad rolling stock. (a) Allowance of deduction ...rehabilitation of a unit of railroad rolling stock (as defined in paragraph...

  18. High speed twin roll casters for aluminum alloy strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, T. [Osaka Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Suzuki, S. [Technical Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Two kinds of twin roll caster for aluminum alloys were devised in the present study. Vertical type was adopted. The strip, which was thinner than 3 mm, could be cast at speeds higher than 60 m/min. Aluminum alloy, which freezing zone is very wide like A5182, could be cast using the twin roll caster of the present study at speeds up to 150 m/min. Features of the twin roll casters are as below. Copper rolls were used and lubricant was not used in order to increase the casting speed. Heat transfer between melt and the roll was improved by hydrostatic pressure of the melt. Separating force was very small in order to prevent sticking of the strip to the roll. Low superheat casting was carried out in order to improve microstructure of the strip. A5182 strip, which had equiaxed structure, could be cast. Some heat treatment was tried and tested in order to improve the mechanical property of A5182 strip. A3003 strip was cast by low superheat strip casting. A3003 strip showed thermo-softening resistance. Semisolid strip casting of A356 alloy was tried using a twin roll caster equipped with a cooling slope. Mechanical property, especially elongation, was improved. Result of 180 degrees bending test was improved, too. Semisolid strip casting was useful for high speed roll casting, and the casting speed increased up to 180 m/min. (orig.)

  19. Die Rolle der Thrombozyten in den frühen Phasen der Atherogenese

    OpenAIRE

    Schu?rzinger, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    Thrombozyten spielen eine wichtige Rolle bei thrombembolischen Komplikationen der späten Atherosklerose. Ruptur und Erosionen fortgeschrittener Läsionen führen zu einer Aktivierung von Thrombozyten, Aggregation und Thrombusformation und lösen akutes Koronarsyndrom, Herzinfarkt oder Schlaganfall aus. Es bleibt jedoch zu zeigen, welche Rolle Thrombozyten in der initialen Phase der Atherosklerose einnehmen. Der inflammatorische Prozess der Atherogenese beginnt mit einer Dysfunktion des...

  20. Early Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Parametric roll resonance on ships is a nonlinear phenomenon where waves encountered at twice the natural roll frequency can bring the vessel dynamics into a bifurcation mode and lead to extreme values of roll. Recent years have seen several incidents with dramatic damage to container vessels. The roll oscillation, which is subharmonic with respect to the wave excitation, may be completely unexpected and a system for detection of the onset of such resonance could warn the navigators before roll angles reach serious levels. Timely warning could make remedial actions possible, such as change the ship's speed and course, to escape from the bifurcation condition. This paper proposes nonparametric methods to detect the onset of roll resonance and demonstrates their performance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are revisited and are used to develop efficient methods to detect its onset. Spectral and temporal correlations of the square of roll with pitch (or heave) are demonstrated to be of particularinterest as indicators. Properties of the indicators are scrutinized, and a change detector is designed for the Weibull-type of distributions that were observed from a time-domain indicator for phase correlation. Hypothesis testing for resonance is developed using a combination of detectors to obtain robustness. Conditions of forced roll and disturbances in real weather conditions are analyzed and robust detection techniques are suggested. The efficacy of the methodology is shown on experimental data from model tests and on data from a container ship crossing the Atlantic during a storm.

  1. Optimization of reduction conditions on rolling at blooming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility of unambiquous description of arbitrary reduction conditions on rolling at flooming using four parameters is proved. Use of these parameters as the factors of experiment planning enables to conduct optimization of reduction conditions according to assigned criterion optization efficiency is shown taking rolling of Kh20N80 alloy ingots at blooming 950 as an example

  2. Abnormal Rolls and Regular Arrays of Disclinations in Homeotropic Electroconvection

    CERN Document Server

    Rossberg, A G; Buka, A; Kramer, L; Rossberg, Axel G.; Eber, Nandor; Buka, Agnes; Kramer, Lorenz

    2000-01-01

    We present the first quantitative verification of an amplitude description for systems with (nearly) spontaneously broken isotropy, in particular for the recently discovered abnormal-roll states. We also obtain a conclusive picture of the 3d director configuration in a spatial period doubling phenomenon involving disclination loops (CRAZY rolls). The first observation of two Lifshitz frequencies in electroconvection is reported.

  3. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. 25.491 Section 25... § 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate...weights, the airplane structure and landing gear are assumed to be subjected...

  4. A netlike rolling circle nucleic acid amplification technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Feng, Chang; Zhang, Bin; Tong, Hui; Gao, Tao; Li, Genxi

    2015-01-01

    A nucleic acid amplification technique termed as netlike rolling circle amplification is proposed by introducing a nicking enzyme into the existing hyperbranched rolling circle amplification system. Surprisingly dense and uniform network morphology is observed; and cubic amplification is achieved for the sensitive detection of a sequence from HIV. PMID:25407326

  5. Production of normalized steel plate through normalizing rolling; Producao de chapas grossas normalizadas diretamente do calor de laminacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorni, Antonio Augusto; Cavalcanti, Celso Gomes; Reis, Jackson Soares de Souza; Silveira, Jose Herbert Dolabela da [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (COSIPA), SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Normalized plates can be got directly from the rolling heat through the use of a normalizing rolling process. In such way, an additional step of the conventional process of production of normalized plates - the normalizing heat treatment - can be suppressed, reducing the manufacturing cost of the product and shortening its production time. This relatively new production route is being used in several steelworks all over the world for many years. This work describes the implementation trials of normalizing rolling at COSIPA`s plate mill, using an alternative process of controlled rolling called recrystallization controlled rolling. The results got with new technique were successful, as it was able to produce plates with properties very similar to the conventionally normalized material, attending the requirements of the DIN 17100 RR 52-3N standard. This is one of many standards that permit the use of this new route of normalized steel plate production. (author) 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Cold-rolled steel strip X-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces a cold-rolled steel strip X-ray thickness gauge. This gauge uses two-detector construction including penetrating ionization chamber and measuring ionization chamber. Standard magazine box is composed of three rotating plates driving by stepper motor, including 13 pieces of standard sample to build up 154 thickness value, obtaining standard sample curve covering thickness range of 0.1 mm to 5 mm. Automation system include Siemens S7-200 PLC as key controlling unit, embedded controlling system for data acquisition and computing, and PC as man-machine interface, and employ Ethernet (TCP/IP) or RS485/232 as communication protocol. Reversing Cold mill AGC closed-loop control operation test demonstrates that the gauge can adapt to the severe production environment, operate stably and reliably, measurement precision can reached to ±0.19%, reproducibility to ±0.09%, and stability to ±0.06%, response time range from 4 ms to 200 ms and be adjustable. So it can meet the high demanding of cold-rolled plate/strip production. (authors)

  7. Controlling the microstructure of magnesium alloy sheet during rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se-Jong, E-mail: ksj1009@kims.re.kr; Yim, Chang Dong; Lee, Young-Seon; Yoon, Jong-Hun; Lee, Jung Hwan

    2014-02-24

    A hot rolled magnesium alloy sheet embedded in a steel block was rolled together with 3% thickness reduction at room temperature, 373 K, and 673 K. Tensile twins were observed after the rolling, which could not be found when the magnesium alloy sheet was rolled without the steel block. The twin fraction was the highest at 373 K because of thermal expansion and activating non-basal slip systems at high temperature. Electron back-scattered diffraction analysis and finite element simulations confirmed that the steel block with higher strength played an important role in generating compressive stress along the transverse direction in the magnesium alloy sheet. The compressive stress could increase owing to suppression of thermal expansion in the magnesium alloy sheet at 373 K. The yield stress and the tensile stress became higher in the rolled specimen with the steel block at 373 K than in the specimen without it owing to grain refinement caused by tensile twins.

  8. Controlling the microstructure of magnesium alloy sheet during rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hot rolled magnesium alloy sheet embedded in a steel block was rolled together with 3% thickness reduction at room temperature, 373 K, and 673 K. Tensile twins were observed after the rolling, which could not be found when the magnesium alloy sheet was rolled without the steel block. The twin fraction was the highest at 373 K because of thermal expansion and activating non-basal slip systems at high temperature. Electron back-scattered diffraction analysis and finite element simulations confirmed that the steel block with higher strength played an important role in generating compressive stress along the transverse direction in the magnesium alloy sheet. The compressive stress could increase owing to suppression of thermal expansion in the magnesium alloy sheet at 373 K. The yield stress and the tensile stress became higher in the rolled specimen with the steel block at 373 K than in the specimen without it owing to grain refinement caused by tensile twins

  9. Large transient fault current test of an electrical roll ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenni, Edward J.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    1992-01-01

    The space station uses precision rotary gimbals to provide for sun tracking of its photoelectric arrays. Electrical power, command signals and data are transferred across the gimbals by roll rings. Roll rings have been shown to be capable of highly efficient electrical transmission and long life, through tests conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center and Honeywell's Satellite and Space Systems Division in Phoenix, AZ. Large potential fault currents inherent to the power system's DC distribution architecture, have brought about the need to evaluate the effects of large transient fault currents on roll rings. A test recently conducted at Lewis subjected a roll ring to a simulated worst case space station electrical fault. The system model used to obtain the fault profile is described, along with details of the reduced order circuit that was used to simulate the fault. Test results comparing roll ring performance before and after the fault are also presented.

  10. Texture evolution of zircaloy-4 plate rolled at high ? temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The texture of Zircaloy-4 plate rolled at high ? temperature has been investigated by employing the techniques of (0002) pole figure and texture orientation factor. The results indicated that, the effect of initial textures on the final texture is evident. When Zircaloy-4 plate is rolled at high ? temperature , {10 1-bar 1} and {11 2-bar 1} slips are the basic deformation systems, thus the operations of them make basal pole orientate along the normal direction of plate. When Zircaloy-4 is rolled along rolling direction of original plate, ft is larger than fl, which can be explained by the activation of {1-bar 010} slip system in some crystals. When Zircaloy-4 is rolled along transverse direction of original plate, the activation of {11 2-bar 1} twin system enhances the orientation of basal pole along the normal direction of plate

  11. Rolling Textures in Compacts of Copper and Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Herbert A. J.; Hartley, Craig S.

    1986-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether differences exist in the rolling textures of materials rolled with and without cladding and whether such differences are affected by bonding the clad and core by hot isostatic pressing (HIP'ing) prior to rolling/ Both steel-clad copper and copper-clad steel were studied, using compacts having nominal volume fractions of core equal to.33 and.50. Unclad core material having the same initial thicnkess as the cores was rolled to similar reductions for comparison with material rolled with cladding. No significant difference in the deformation textures, compared to unclad material, were observed for steel-clad copper. However, for copper-clad steel, a pronounced deformation texture developed in the core at lower total reductions than those required to developed the same degree of texture in unclad material. In these cases, the cladding showed evidence of a shear texture. Prebonding of the compacts by HIP'ing intensified this effect.

  12. Slab Analysis of Ring Rolling Assuming Constant Shear Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, A.; Abrinia, K.; Salimi, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this article, an analytic solution for ring rolling process based on the slab method theory is presented, in which the non-uniformity of the normal and shear stresses across the section of the deforming material throughout the plastic region is considered. The friction factor multiplied by the shear yield strength (? = mk) is used to present friction between the main roll and the ring. The influence of the process parameters such as friction factor, feed speed, main roll rotational speed, and radii of the main roll and mandrel on process outputs is investigated. Complete expressions for the ring rolling pressure, force, and torque are obtained, and the position of neutral point is predicted. Comparison of the analytic results of this model with the experimental results of other investigators and FEM analysis show that they are in good agreement.

  13. Rolling Bearing Diagnosis Based on LMD and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inner ring pitting, the outer indentation and rolling element wear are typical faults of rolling bearing. In order to diagnose these faults rapidly and accurately, the paper proposes a novel diagnosis method of rolling bearing based on the energy characteristics of PF component and neural network by the vibration signal of local mean decomposition(Local mean decomposition, LMD. The vibration signal is decomposed into several PF components by the local mean decomposition, the calculated energy characteristics of the PF component are inputted to the neural network to identify the type of rolling bearing faults. At the same time, the genetic algorithm is introduced to optimize the structure parameters of neural network, which improves diagnostic rate and accuracy of faults. The results show that this method has a higher diagnosis and recognition rate for the typical faults of rolling bearing.

  14. Development of rolling texture in copper and brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Grum-Jensen, A.

    1968-01-01

    The development of texture in copper and brass (15 pct Zn by weight) rolled at room temperature and in copper rolled at -196degC has been followed by determination of pole figures for various degrees of reduction. The concurrent development in microstructure has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. For low deformations, the texture in brass, and in copper rolled at -196degC, is the same as the texture in copper rolled at room temperature. The difference in texture does not show until 50% reduction. At the same reduction at which the difference in texture appears, mechanical twinning starts in brass and low-temperature rolled copper. Nevertheless, Wassermann's twinning theory is found to be incompatible with the present results.

  15. High-speed deformation of aluminum by cold rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-speed deformation of aluminum was carried out by use of a high-speed rolling machine, and the results were compared with those of impact compression. The rolled specimens were electro-polished and observed under an electron microscope. As compared with the microstructures observed in the impact compression specimens, the microstructures observed in the rolled specimens showed almost the same tendency as impact compression for vacancy loop formation, but a different tendency for dislocation cell formations. The difference in the results is explained by the variation in strain rate during deformation in rolling. The results indicate that in high-speed rolling, vacancies and dislocations are produced independently during different periods. Specifically, in the high-strain period, during which dislocations are not generated, deformation proceeds without dislocations

  16. High speed twin roll casting of 6016 aluminium alloy strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sakaguchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of aluminum alloy strip. In the bodyof the automobiles, a sheet of 6016 aluminum alloy is adopted for the outer panel. Therefore, casting of 6016was tried in this study. Characteristics of roll cast 6016 were investigated.Design/methodology/approach: was a high speed twin roll caster. The high speed twin roll caster was designedto overcome the low castability of the twin roll caster.Findings: are as below. 6016 alloy could be cast into the strip continuously at the speed of 60m/min. Thethickness of the strip was 3.4 mm. The microstructure at as-cast and after T4 heat treatment was shown. Themicrostructure was very fine. The mechanical properties were investigated by the tensile test and 180 degreesvending test. The as-cast strip could be cold rolled without homogenization to 1mm. Result of tensile test wastensile strength was 230MPa, 0.2% proof stress was 118MPa and elongation was 33%. 6016 strip of T4 heattreatment could be bent 180 degrees without occurrence of crack at the outer surface or breaking.Research limitations/implications: is the width of the strip was 100 mm. It is necessary to test twin roll casterequipped wide rolls.Practical implications: are as below. The mechanical properties of the roll-cast 6016 were enough for the sheetmetal for the automobile. The low productivity of the twin roll caster could be improved.Originality/value: is that 6016 strip could be cast continuously at speed 60 m/min and this strip had goodmechanical properties.

  17. Kollektiivlepingu roll töösuhete regulatsioonis pärast uue töölepingu seaduse vastuvõtmist / Kadi Pärnits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärnits, Kadi, 1965-

    2009-01-01

    Kollektiivlepingu roll töösuhete reguleerimisel Eesti kehtivate seaduste ja uue töölepingu seaduse järgi. Kollektiivlepingu roll Soomes, Taanis, Prantsusmaal, Saksamaal, Ungaris, Tšehhis, Poolas jt. riikides

  18. 75 FR 43931 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...A506). SAE/AISI grades of series 2300 and higher. Ball bearing steels, as defined in the...Hot-rolled bearing quality steel, SAE grade 1050, in coils...maximum chromium. Grade ASTM A570-50 hot-rolled steel sheet in coils...

  19. 75 FR 64254 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From Brazil; Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ...SAE/AISI grades of series 2300 and higher. --Ball bearing steels, as defined in the...Hot-rolled bearing quality steel, SAE grade 1050, in coils...maximum chromium. --Grade ASTM A570-50 hot-rolled steel sheet in coils...

  20. 76 FR 22868 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...A506). SAE/AISI grades of series 2300 and higher. Ball bearing steels, as defined in the...Hot-rolled bearing quality steel, SAE grade 1050, in coils...maximum chromium. Grade ASTM A570-50 hot-rolled steel sheet in coils...

  1. Flexible organic tandem solar modules with 6% efficiency: combining roll-to-roll compatible processing with high geometric fill factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spyropoulos, G. D.; Kubis, P.

    2014-01-01

    Organic solar cell technology bears the potential for high photovoltaic performance combined with truly low-cost, high-volume processing. Here we demonstrate organic tandem solar modules on flexible substrates fabricated by fully roll-to-roll compatible processing at temperatures

  2. A 'roll-on, roll-off' preceptorship pathway for new registrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Linda

    2013-05-01

    The need to support high numbers of new registrants simultaneously at the Royal United Hospital, Bath, led to the development of a preceptorship pathway. The 'roll-on, roll-off' structure allows newly registered nurses and allied health professionals to start preceptorship as soon as they take up their roles. Essential competencies are negotiated with managers and achieved through subject-focused teaching sessions, workplace preceptorship, reflection, peer support and the use of distance-learning materials that link to the NHS knowledge and skills framework and appraisal requirements. Evaluation suggests that the pathway provides a high standard of learning and support, but development will continue, particularly in relation to monitoring and recording new practitioners' involvement in clinical incidents and their completion rates. PMID:23734417

  3. Thermoresistive Strain Sensor and Positioning Method for Roll-to-Roll Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Hsun Liao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Joule heating effect-generated temperature difference to monitor in real-time and localize both compressive and tensile strains for the polymer substrates used in the roll-to-roll process. A serpentine gold (Au line was patterned on a polyethylenenaphthalate (PEN substrate to form the strain sensor based on thermoresistive behavior. This strain sensor was then subjected to either current or voltage to induce the Joule heating effect on the Au resistor. An infrared (IR detector was used to monitor the strain-induced temperature difference on the Au and PEN surfaces and the minimal detectable bending radius was 0.9 mm with a gauge factor (GF of 1.46. The proposed design eliminates the judgment ambiguity from conventional resistive strain sensors where resistance is the only physical quantity monitored. This study precisely and successfully indicated the local strain quantitatively and qualitatively with complete simulations and measurements.

  4. Roll-to-roll printed resistive WORM memory on a flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fabrication process and the operation characteristics of a fully roll-to-roll printed resistive write-once-read-many memory on a flexible substrate are presented. The low-voltage (<10 V) write operation of the memories from a high resistivity ‘0’ state to a low resistivity ‘1’ state is based on the rapid electrical sintering of bits containing silver nanoparticles. The bit ink is formulated by mixing two commercially available silver nanoparticle inks in order to tune the initial square resistance of the bits and to create a self-organized network of percolating paths. The electrical performance of the memories, including read and write characteristics, is described and the long-term stability of the less stable ‘0’ state is studied in different environmental conditions. The memories can find use in low-cost mass printing applications. (paper)

  5. Using Light-Induced Thermocleavage in a Roll-to-Roll Process for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Norrman, Kion

    2010-01-01

    We report on the use of intense visible light with a narrow spectral distribution matched to the region where the conjugated polymer material absorbs to selectively heat the active material and induce thermocleavage. We show a full roll-to-roll process, leading to complete large-area polymer solar cell modules using light-induced thermocleavage. The process employs full solution processing in air for all five layers in the device and does not employ indium?tin oxide or vacuum processing. The process steps were carefully analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, attenuated total reflectance infrared, and transmission/reflection UV?vis techniques.

  6. Material for hot rolling of high boron content austenite stainless steel, and hot rolling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Osamu; Takemoto, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Morihiro

    1997-10-14

    A hot rolling material made of a high boron content austenite stainless steel of the present invention comprises a slab made of an austenite stainless steel containing from 0.6 to 2.0% by weight of B and a pad-welded metal layer formed on the side surface of the slab. The pad-welded metal layer has {delta} ferrite amount of from 3 to 12% by volume, B content up to 0.3% by weight, a thickness of 3mm or greater, and is subjected to hot rolling after heated to a temperature of from 1100 to 1200degC. This can prevent occurrence of peripheral cracking and the material can be industrially manufactured stably at a low cost. (T.M.)

  7. Roll-to-Roll fabrication of large area functional organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØndergaard, Roar R.; Hösel, Markus

    2013-01-01

    With the prospect of extremely fast manufacture of very low cost devices, organic electronics prepared by thin film processing techniques that are compatible with roll-to-roll (R2R) methods are presently receiving an increasing interest. Several technologies using organic thin films are at the point, where transfer from the laboratory to a more production-oriented environment is within reach. In this review, we aim at giving an overview of some of the R2R-compatible techniques that can be used in such a transfer, as well the current status of R2R application within some of the existing research fields such as organic photovoltaics, organic thin film transistors, light-emitting diodes, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, and electrochromic devices. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 000: 000–000, 2012

  8. Roll-to-roll production of spray coated N-doped carbon nanotube electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mehmet; Zhu, Jingyi; Raghavendra, Achyut J.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Parler, Samuel G.; Kaplan, James P.; Rao, Apparao M.

    2014-12-01

    Although carbon nanomaterials are being increasingly used in energy storage, there has been a lack of inexpensive, continuous, and scalable synthesis methods. Here, we present a scalable roll-to-roll (R2R) spray coating process for synthesizing randomly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotubes electrodes on Al foils. The coin and jellyroll type supercapacitors comprised such electrodes yield high power densities (˜700 mW/cm3) and energy densities (1 mW h/cm3) on par with Li-ion thin film batteries. These devices exhibit excellent cycle stability with no loss in performance over more than a thousand cycles. Our cost analysis shows that the R2R spray coating process can produce supercapacitors with 10 times the energy density of conventional activated carbon devices at ˜17% lower cost.

  9. Roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cells partially processed from water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2012-01-01

    Large area polymer tandem solar cells completely processed using roll-to-roll (R2R) coating and printing techniques are demonstrated. A stable tandem structure was achieved by the use of orthogonal ink solvents for the coating of all layers, including both active layers. Processing solvents included water, alcohols and chlorobenzene. Open-circuit voltages close to the expected sum of sub cell voltages were achieved, while the overall efficiency of the tandem cells was found to be limited by the low yielding back cell, which was processed from water based ink. Many of the challenges associated with upscaling the multilayer tandem cells were identified giving valuable information for future experiments and development.

  10. Development of CRE (Cross Roll Edge-bend) method for ERW pipe forming; Denho kokan seikei ni okeru CRE (Cross Roll Edge-bend) ho no kaihatsu (koseido, kohinshitsu edge bend gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hada, K.; Osawa, T.; Sumimoto, D.; Kikuma, T. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-07

    The new CRE (Cross Roll Edge-bend) method was developed for ERW piping mills forming various thin and thick ERW pipes which is featured by high roll compatibility and edge formability possible to cope with change in outside diameter and wall thickness, and keep a stable product quality. The CRE method adjusts the gap profile composed by crossing upper and lower rolls so as to meet the proper bending curvature and wall thickness. The forming test result on a prototype testing stand and numerical analysis result clarified the following effects. The compatibility of rolls by swing of rolls was proved in a bending curvature range within 1.5 times. By crossing upper and lower rolls in a direction that the surface track of an upper roll shifts from the edge portion to center portion of formed materials, bending moment effectively served to improve the edge formability. By giving the suitable swing angle of an upper roll according to the wall thickness of pipes, the high-precision edge formability with less impression defects was achieved. 2 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Roll up nanowire battery from silicon chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Alexandru; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Ajayan, Anakha; Singh, Neelam; Gohy, Jean-François; Melinte, Sorin; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report an approach to roll out Li-ion battery components from silicon chips by a continuous and repeatable etch-infiltrate-peel cycle. Vertically aligned silicon nanowires etched from recycled silicon wafers are captured in a polymer matrix that operates as Li+ gel-electrolyte and electrode separator and peeled off to make multiple battery devices out of a single wafer. Porous, electrically interconnected copper nanoshells are conformally deposited around the silicon nanowires to stabilize the electrodes over extended cycles and provide efficient current collection. Using the above developed process we demonstrate an operational full cell 3.4 V lithium-polymer silicon nanowire (LIPOSIL) battery which is mechanically flexible and scalable to large dimensions. PMID:22949696

  12. Analysis and compensation of rolling shutter effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chia-Kai; Chang, Li-Wen; Chen, Homer H

    2008-08-01

    Due to the sequential-readout structure of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor array, each scanline of the acquired image is exposed at a different time, resulting in the so-called electronic rolling shutter that induces geometric image distortion when the object or the video camera moves during image capture. In this paper, we propose an image processing technique using a planar motion model to address the problem. Unlike previous methods that involve complex 3-D feature correspondences, a simple approach to the analysis of inter- and intraframe distortions is presented. The high-resolution velocity estimates used for restoring the image are obtained by global motion estimation, BEzier curve fitting, and local motion estimation without resort to correspondence identification. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:18632342

  13. /WC Composite by Accumulative Roll Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanian, Morteza; Mohammadnezhad, Mahyar; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    In this study, Al/Al2O3/WC composites were fabricated via the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process. Furthermore, the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and deformation texture of the composite samples were reported. The results illustrated that when the number of cycles was increased, the distribution of particles in the aluminum matrix improved, and the particles became finer. The microstructure of the fabricated composites after eight cycles of the ARB process showed an excellent distribution of reinforcement particles in the aluminum matrix. Elongated ultrafine grains were formed in the ARB-processed specimens of the Al/Al2O3/WC composite. It was observed that as the strain increased with the number of cycles, the tensile strength, microhardness, and elongation of produced composites increased as well. The results indicated that after ARB process, the overall texture intensity increases and a different-strong texture develops. The main textural component is the Rotated Cube component.

  14. Nonlinear stability of viscous roll waves

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Matthew; Noble, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Extending results of Oh--Zumbrun and Johnson--Zumbrun for parabolic conservation laws, we show that spectral stability implies nonlinear stability for spatially periodic viscous roll wave solutions of the one-dimensional St. Venant equations for shallow water flow down an inclined ramp. The main new issues to be overcome are incomplete parabolicity and the nonconservative form of the equations, which leads to undifferentiated quadratic source terms that cannot be handled using the estimates of the conservative case. The first is handled by treating the equations in the more favorable Lagrangian coordinates, for which one can obtain large-amplitude nonlinear damping estimates similar to those carried out by Mascia--Zumbrun in the related shock wave case, assuming only symmetrizability of the hyperbolic part. The second is handled by the observation that, similarly as in the relaxation and detonation cases, sources occurring in nonconservative components experience greater decay comparable to that experienced b...

  15. Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstractbed. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version. (topical review)

  16. Nanoscale precipitation in hot rolled sheet steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun

    Some newer hot rolled high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels with a single phase ferrite matrix have obtained substantial strengthening from nanoscale precipitation. These HSLA are reported to have a good combination of strength, ductility and hole-expansion ability. In the current work, Gleeble ® 3500 torsion testing was employed to simulate the hot rolling process with varying run-out table cooling rates and coiling temperatures on five microalloyed steels with additions of Ti, Nb, Mo, Cr and V, to investigate the effects of microalloy additions and processing conditions on microstructures as well as mechanical properties. Subsized tensile specimens obtained from as-twisted torsion samples were used to evaluate mechanical properties. The precipitation states of the five steels with different processing conditions were characterized using extraction replica TEM. Comparison of microstructures and mechanical properties was discussed. Characterization of the microstructure via light optical microscopy showed the matrix microstructure was mainly influenced by coiling temperature, which indicates that the transformation from austenite to ferrite occurred during the coiling period. A higher Ti content was shown to reduce the second constituent fractions. Investigation of carbon extraction replica specimens via TEM revealed the presence of nanoscale precipitation. Extensive nanoscale precipitation was observed in most of the specimens having a polygonal ferrite matrix, while in the granular bainite/ferrite microstructure at lower temperatures, fewer microalloy carbides were present. The specimens with polygonal ferrite had similar or higher yield strength than the specimens with granular bainite microstructure, which suggests the effectiveness of precipitation strengthening from extensive nanoscale precipitates. In the Nb-Mo steel, more significant strengthening due to grain refinement was evident. Yield strength values were less than reported for JFE's "NANOHITEN®" steel in specimens with similar microstructure (polygonal ferrite matrix with extensive nanoscale precipitation).

  17. Antireflective surface patterned by rolling mask lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Oliver; Geddes, Joseph B.; Aryal, Mukti; Perez, Joseph; Wassei, Jonathan; McMackin, Ian; Kobrin, Boris

    2014-03-01

    A growing number of commercial products such as displays, solar panels, light emitting diodes (LEDs and OLEDs), automotive and architectural glass are driving demand for glass with high performance surfaces that offer anti-reflective, self-cleaning, and other advanced functions. State-of-the-art coatings do not meet the desired performance characteristics or cannot be applied over large areas in a cost-effective manner. "Rolling Mask Lithography" (RML™) enables highresolution lithographic nano-patterning over large-areas at low-cost and high-throughput. RML is a photolithographic process performed using ultraviolet (UV) illumination transmitted through a soft cylindrical mask as it rolls across a substrate. Subsequent transfer of photoresist patterns into the substrate is achieved using an etching process, which creates a nanostructured surface. The current generation exposure tool is capable of patterning one-meter long substrates with a width of 300 mm. High-throughput and low-cost are achieved using continuous exposure of the resist by the cylindrical photomask. Here, we report on significant improvements in the application of RML™ to fabricate anti-reflective surfaces. Briefly, an optical surface can be made antireflective by "texturing" it with a nano-scale pattern to reduce the discontinuity in the index of refraction between the air and the bulk optical material. An array of cones, similar to the structure of a moth's eye, performs this way. Substrates are patterned using RML™ and etched to produce an array of cones with an aspect ratio of 3:1, which decreases the reflectivity below 0.1%.

  18. Autonomous Supervision and Control of Parametric Roll Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    When ships sail in longitudinal waves, and the encounter frequency and wave length satisfy certain conditions, passage of wave crest and wave trough along the hull continuously amplifies the roll motion at half the frequency of encounter. This gives the onset of a resonance condition. The phenomenon can induce a rapid increase in roll motion that can reach 40 degrees or more. Recent incidents have shown that modern container ships and some fishing vessels are particularly prone to this due to their hull shape. Such incidents can result in damages counting to millions of USD. Theoretically, the resonance behaviour is well understood and it can be reproduced by quasi-periodic changes in parameters of nonlinear differential equations that describe ship motion. Practically, the challenge is whether detection and stabilization can be achieved in time to avoid damage. The research in this thesis has therefore two objectives. The first is to develop methods for detection of the inception of parametric roll resonance. The second is to develop control strategies to stabilize the motion after parametric roll has started. Stabilisation of parametric roll resonance points to two possible courses of action. One is a direct stabilisation through an increase of damping in roll, which increases the threshold that triggers the resonant motion. A second is to obtain a change in wave encounter frequency by means of changes in ship forward speed and/or heading. As direct stabilisation, this thesis considers the increase of roll damping by using fin stabilisers, which are controlled using integrator backstepping methods. As indirect stabilisation, a shift in the encounter frequency is considered by varying the ship forward speed. The speed controller is designed using nonlinear Lyapunov methods. The two control strategies are then combined to stabilise parametric roll resonance within few roll cycles. Limitations on the maximum stabilisable roll angle are analysed and linked to the ii slew rate saturation and hydrodynamic stall characteristics of the fin stabilisers. The study on maximum stabilisable roll angle leads to the requirements for early detection. Two novel detectors are proposed, which work within a shorttime prediction horizon, and issue early warnings of parametric roll inception within few roll cycles from its onset. The main idea behind these detection schemes is that of exploiting the link between the second harmonic of roll angle and the first harmonic of heave or pitch motions. A nonlinear energy flow indicator, which measures the transfer of energy from the first harmonic of heave or pitch into the second harmonic of roll, is at the core of the first detector. The second detector relies on a driving signal that carries information about the phase correlation between either pitch or heave and roll. A generalised likelihood ratio test is designed to detect a change in distribution of the driving signal. The detectors are validated against experimental data of tests of a 1:45 scale model of a container ship. The validation shows excellent performance in terms of time to detect and false-alarm rate for both the proposed detectors. The detectors are the main contribution of this research. The thesis also offers a contribution regarding modeling. A 3 degree-offreedom nonlinear model in heave-pitch-roll of a container ship suitable for parametric roll resonance study is proposed. The model, which has been developed in collaboration with other researchers, provides a benchmark for the study and simulation of parametric roll over a large range of ship speeds and sea states. The results of this research have been published in articles enclosed in this dissertation and in an international patent application.

  19. Influence of chemistry and hot rolling conditions on high permeability non-grain oriented silicon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the influence of chemical composition on the final electromagnetic properties in higher permeability material. Furthermore, the effect of the hot rolling practice and the end of austenite transformation temperature range on the hot band microstructure is described. The magnetic polarization J 5000 better than 1.7 T, using hot rolling conditions 40 mm transfer bar thickness, finish mill entry temperature 1000 deg. C, and finishing temperature 800-840 deg. C and after decarburization heat treatment and grain growth treatment, was obtained

  20. Improving the quality of rolled pipe steel products by minimizing the bending of the ends of plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, V. M.; Chikishev, D. N.; Denisov, S. V.; Stekanov, P. A.; Shmakov, A. V.; Fomichev, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The causes of the vertical bending of the front ends of plates during hot rolling are revealed. A finite-element mathematical model is developed to describe the state of stress of the metal in an asymmetric deformation zone with allowance for solving a temperature problem, and the model is adapted to the conditions of the 5000 rolling mill in OAO MMK. It is found that, in rolling with mismatched work roll speeds, the direction of bending of the front strip end is determined by the strip thickness and the deformation zone shape. The main cause of the bending of the front plate end at the stage of finishing stage of rolling is shown to be the difference between the roller bed level and the rolling line. New asymmetric deformation regimes are developed with allowance for the effect of the deformation zone shape on the direction of bending of the front strip end. The developed technological regimes of asymmetric rolling make it possible to decrease the mill downtime because of the bending of the breakdown bar ends and to reduce the metal volume rejected because of violated temperature regimes of the thermomechanical treatment of plates.

  1. Determining asymmetry of roll-over shapes in prosthetic walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Curtze, MSc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How does the inherent asymmetry of the locomotor system in people with lower-limb amputation affect the ankle-foot roll-over shape of prosthetic walking? In a single-case design, we evaluated the walking patterns of six people with lower-limb amputation (3 transtibial and 3 transfemoral and three matched nondisabled controls. We analyzed the walking patterns in terms of roll-over characteristics and spatial and temporal factors. We determined the level of asymmetry by roll-over shape comparison (root-mean-square distance as well as differences in radius of curvature. In addition, we calculated ratios to determine spatial and temporal asymmetries and described different aspects of asymmetry of roll-over shapes. All participants showed some level of asymmetry in roll-over shape, even the nondisabled controls. Furthermore, we found good intralimb reproducibility for the group as a whole. With respect to spatial and temporal factors, the participants with transtibial amputation had a quite symmetrical gait pattern, while the gait in the participants with transfemoral amputation was more asymmetrical. The individual ankle-foot roll-over shapes provide additional insight into the marked individual adjustments occurring during the stance phase of the nondisabled limb. The two methods we present are suitable for determining asymmetry of roll-over shapes; both methods should be used complementarily.

  2. Microstructure changes of IF steels during hot strip rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot deformation behavior of three interstitial free (IF) steels containing Ti and/or Nb under strip or plate rolling was investigated by means of multi-pass torsion tests. All the tests were carried out at a strain rate of 2 s-1. Three types of strip rolling schedules (they differed only with respect to the number and total strain of finishing passes) and one type of plate rolling were employed. Under strip rolling conditions the effects of total finishing pass strain and first finishing pass temperature was investigated. The plate rolling schedule was used in order to determine the three critical hot deformation temperature, i.e. Tnr, Ar3 and Arl. The results indicate that , under strip rolling conditions, static recrystallization is responsible for the high degree of inter pass softening in the early passes of rolling. During the final passes, dynamic recrystallization occurs to a degree that depends on the composition of the steel, the total finishing strain and the temperature. (author)

  3. Microstructural evolution of hot and cold rolled Al-based particulate-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot and cold formability of Al-based particulate-reinforced composites was investigated. A 2618/20%SiC and 6061/20%Al2O3 composite, as well as a 6061 unreinforced alloy were subjected to hot rolling on laboratory mills to reduce the starting bars to sheets with a thickness of 4 mm. Cold rolling was then performed to produce thin tapes and wires with several deformation levels, up to 90%. The obtained materials were then tested to investigate the evolution of microhardness and mechanical properties. The present work was also aimed at studying in detail the evolution of microstructure and of the aging behaviour of the composites as a function of their fabrication condition. In particular, the effects of extensive workhardening induced during cold rolling are considered. Moreover, DSC analyses were carried out to study the aging and recrystallisation behaviour of the deformed samples. (author)

  4. Dynamic geometry of a rotating paper machine roll

    OpenAIRE

    Juhanko, Jari

    2011-01-01

    The research is initiated by the findings that the coating variation of light weight coated LWC paper is in synchronization with a backing roll of a coating station. The frequency of the largest peak in the quality variation spectrum corresponds to the oval geometry of a backing roll, but no such a phenomenon has been measured in a roll shop. It was realized that the cause of the research problem could be the change in the geometry as a function of running speed. First, a theoretical stu...

  5. Study of Hydroplaning Risk on Rolling and Sliding Passenger Car :

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S. S.; Anupam, K.; Scarpas, A.; Kasbergen, C.

    2012-01-01

    Hydroplaning speed is known to vary over a range of tire slipping conditions from free rolling to completely skidding. An attempt has been made to simulate two extreme conditions of hydroplaning i.e. when the tire is completely rolling (0% slip) and a completely locked tire (100% slip). ASTM standard smooth tire moving over the plane pavement surface is considered in the model. The analyses showed that the hydroplaning risk associated with the locked tire is more than the rolling tire. The mo...

  6. FEM analysis of hollow hub forming in rolling extrusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartnicki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of numerical calculations of rolling extrusion process of a hollow hub. As the flanges manufacturing at both sides of the product is required, in the analyzed process of rolling extrusion, a rear bumper was implemented as additional tool limiting axial metal flow. Numerical calculations of the hub forming process were conducted basing on finite element method, applying software Deform3D and Simufact in conditions of three dimensional state of strain. The obtained satisfactory results show that it is possible to conduct the further research works of experimental character, with the application of a modernized aggregate for the rolling extrusion process PO-2.

  7. Effect of biomimetic coupling units' morphologies on rolling contact fatigue wear resistance of steel from machine tool rolling tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanshi; Zhou, Hong; Sun, Liang; Wang, Chuanwei; Chen, Zhikai

    2014-04-01

    The rolling contact fatigue wear resistance plays an important role on ensuring machining precision of machine tool using rolling tracks. Bio-inspired wearable surfaces with the alternated hardness were prepared on the specimen of steel material from machine tool rolling tracks by biomimetic coupling laser remelting method to imitate biological coupling principle. The microstructures and micromorphologies of bionic units in different sizes were characterized by optical microscope. The specimens with bionic units in different sizes and distributions were tested for rolling contact fatigue wear resistance. Combining the finite element analysis and the results of wear tests, a discussion on rolling contact fatigue wear was had. The specimens with bionic units had better rolling contact fatigue wear resistance than the untreated one, while the specimens with bionic units in the alternative depth's distributions present a better rolling contact fatigue wear resistance than the ones with bionic units in the single depth's distribution. It attributed to the alternative distribution made further improvement on the dispersion of depth of stress concentration.

  8. Rolling element bearing diagnostics—A tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Robert B.; Antoni, Jérôme

    2011-02-01

    This tutorial is intended to guide the reader in the diagnostic analysis of acceleration signals from rolling element bearings, in particular in the presence of strong masking signals from other machine components such as gears. Rather than being a review of all the current literature on bearing diagnostics, its purpose is to explain the background for a very powerful procedure which is successful in the majority of cases. The latter contention is illustrated by the application to a number of very different case histories, from very low speed to very high speed machines. The specific characteristics of rolling element bearing signals are explained in great detail, in particular the fact that they are not periodic, but stochastic, a fact which allows them to be separated from deterministic signals such as from gears. They can be modelled as cyclostationary for some purposes, but are in fact not strictly cyclostationary (at least for localised defects) so the term pseudo-cyclostationary has been coined. An appendix on cyclostationarity is included. A number of techniques are described for the separation, of which the discrete/random separation (DRS) method is usually most efficient. This sometimes requires the effects of small speed fluctuations to be removed in advance, which can be achieved by order tracking, and so this topic is also amplified in an appendix. Signals from localised faults in bearings are impulsive, at least at the source, so techniques are described to identify the frequency bands in which this impulsivity is most marked, using spectral kurtosis. For very high speed bearings, the impulse responses elicited by the sharp impacts in the bearings may have a comparable length to their separation, and the minimum entropy deconvolution technique may be found useful to remove the smearing effects of the (unknown) transmission path. The final diagnosis is based on "envelope analysis" of the optimally filtered signal, but despite the fact that this technique has been used for 40 years in analogue form, the advantages of more recent digital implementations are explained.

  9. Application of powder metallurgy and hot rolling processes for manufacturing aluminum/alumina composite strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, aluminum matrix composites (AMC) with 2, 4, 6 and 10 wt% alumina were produced using powder metallurgy (PM), mechanical milling (MM) and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) techniques; then, this was followed by the hot-rolling process. During hot rolling, AMCs with 6 and 10 wt% Al2O3 were fractured whereas strip composites with 2 and 4 wt% Al2O3 were produced successfully. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the samples were investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopes and tensile and hardness tests, respectively. Microscopic evaluations of the hot-rolled composites showed a uniform distribution of alumina particles in the aluminum matrix. It was found that with increasing alumina content in the matrix, tensile strength (TS) and hardness increased and the percentage of elongation also decreased. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate aluminum/alumina interfaces and fracture surfaces of the hot rolled specimens after tensile test. SEM observations demonstrated that the failure mode in the hot-rolled Al-2 wt% Al2O3 composite strips is a typical ductile fracture, while the failure mode was shear ductile fracture with more flat surfaces in Al-4 wt% Al2O3 strips.

  10. Flows in forward deformable roll coating gaps: Comparison between spring and plane-strain models of roll cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.S.; Scriven, L.E. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    In this report the flow between rigid and a deformable rotating rolls fully submerged in a liquid pool is studied. The deformation of compliant roll cover is described by two different models (1) independent, radially oriented springs that deform in response to the traction force applied at the extremity of each or one-dimensional model, and (2) a plane-strain deformation of an incompressible Mooney-Rivlin material or non-linear elastic model. Based on the flow rate predictions of both models, an empirical relation between the spring constant of the one dimensional model and the roll cover thickness and elastic modulus is proposed.

  11. Flows in forward deformable roll coating gaps: Comparison between spring and plane-strain models of roll cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the flow between rigid and a deformable rotating rolls fully submerged in a liquid pool is studied. The deformation of compliant roll cover is described by two different models (1) independent, radially oriented springs that deform in response to the traction force applied at the extremity of each or one-dimensional model, and (2) a plane-strain deformation of an incompressible Mooney-Rivlin material or non-linear elastic model. Based on the flow rate predictions of both models, an empirical relation between the spring constant of the one dimensional model and the roll cover thickness and elastic modulus is proposed

  12. 78 FR 10501 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ...Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation...for all Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-710A1-10 and BR700- 710A2-20...2013-03-17 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (Formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland...

  13. 77 FR 39156 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal...2009-07-01 R1 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (formerly BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH, formerly...applies to Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG BR700- 715A1-30,...

  14. 77 FR 9869 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal...2009): Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (formerly BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH, formerly...applies to Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG BR700- 715A1-30,...

  15. 78 FR 17082 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbojet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbojet Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation...certain Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Spey 511-8 turbojet engines...2013-05-20 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland...

  16. 77 FR 16917 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation...contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827 Blankenfelde...2012-06-17 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (Formerly Rolls-Royce plc, Derby,...

  17. 78 FR 17080 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation...certain Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-710 series turbofan engines...2013-05-13 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (Formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland...

  18. Semi-industrial simulation of hot rolling and controlled cooling of Mn-Al TRIP steel sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grajcar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the work is a semi-industrial physical simulation of thermomechanical rolling and controlled cooling of advanced high-strength steels with increased Mn and Al content.Design/methodology/approach: Four steels of various Mn and Nb concentration were thermomechanically rolled in 3 and 5 passes using a modern LPS line for physical simulation of hot rolling at a semi-industrial scale. The hot deformation course is fully automated as well as controlled cooling applied directly after finishing rolling. Temperature-time and force-energetic parameters of hot rolling were continuously registered and assessed.Findings: The applied line consisting of two-high reversing mill, roller tables with heating panels, cooling devices and controlling-recording systems reflects industrial hot strip rolling parameters sufficiently. Reduction values and temperature-time regimes are similar to those used in industrial practice whereas strain rate is limited to about 10 s-1 what requires taking into account during comparison. All the steels investigated have high total pressure forces due to the high total content of alloying elements. The critical factor making it possible to obtain high-quality sheet samples with a thickness up to 3.3 mm is applying isothermal heating panels which decrease a cooling rate of thin sheets.Research limitations/implications: The real complete simulation of hot strip rolling requires extension of a used line with a further module for simulation of continuous finishing rolling stages. The work is in progress.Practical implications: The results can be successfully utilized in industrial hot rolling and controlled cooling practices after necessary modifications.Originality/value: The efficient semi-industrial physical simulation of hot strip thermomechanical rolling of some new model AHSS grades containing increased Mn and Al content as well as Nb microadditions was presented.

  19. Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert

    2013-01-01

    Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells Conjugated polymers potential to both absorb light and transport current as well as the perspective of low cost and large scale production has made these kinds of material attractive in solar cell research. The research field of polymer solar cells (PSCs) is rapidly progressing along three lines: Improvement of efficiency and stability together with the introduction of large scale production methods. All three lines are explored in this work. The thesis describes low band gap polymers and why these are needed. Polymer of this type display broader absorption resulting in better overlap with the solar spectrum and potentially higher current density. Synthesis, characterization and device performance of three series of polymers illustrating how the absorption spectrum of polymers can be manipulated synthetically and how this affects the PSC parameters are presented. It is generally found that it is possible to syntheticallycontrol the absorption spectrum of conjugated polymer systems. One way to alter the spectrum is by incorporating alternating donor-acceptor motifs, resulting in an additional optical absorption band, the charge transfer (CT) band. A second approach is to introduce fused donor systems. A third method is to use several different monomer units in the polymerization hereby creating semirandom polymers with multiple chromophores. By changing the fed ratio of the monomers the absorption spectrum can effectively be tuned and a significant broadening of the absorption spectrum is obtained. A focus in this thesis is stabilization of the active layer morphology and the photochemical stability of its components. In terms of stability PSC degrades under illumination and the operational lifetime are generally limited. A fundamental understanding of the degradation of PSCs allows one to develop improved materials that can increase their lifetime. Synthesis and characterization of polymer materials for improved stability in PSCs is presented. Stabilization of the active layer was accomplished by incorporating different types of crosslinking functionalities into the polymer TQ1. Cross-linking was achieved by UV-light illumination to give solvent resistant films and reduced phase separation and growth of PCBM crystallites in polymer:PCBM films. This study showed that cross-linking can improve morphological stability but that it has little influence on the operational stability of the device. The photochemical stability of a wide range of materials relevant to PSC is presented and compared. General rules relative to the polymer structure–stability relationship are proposed and can be used as a guideline for further development of PSCs. One of the main advantages of PSCs is that they can be produced using printing techniques which allows for large scale roll-to-roll (R2R) production. A laboratory roll coater that enables solution processing of five layers on ITO-free flexible substrates using slot-die coating and flexographic printing is presented. As little as one ml of active material solution is needed to produce more than a hundred devices. This laboratory scale approach to PSCs was found to be directly scalable to the large scale R2R equipment making it suitable as a test platform for polymer development. PSC devices based on PDTSTTz-4 and PCBM were produced using the laboratory roll coater and through optimerization of the processing parameters a PCE of 2.95 % at ambient condition. This efficiency is among the highest obtained on flexible ITO-free substrates using slot-die coating.

  20. Põllumajandus-kaubanduskoja roll euroliitu astumisel / Ester Tuiksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2003-01-01

    Autor leiab, et suurima tootjate ja töötlejate ringkondi ühendava organisatsioonina on EPKK roll ja ülesanded EL-i kontekstis pidevalt muutuvad ning ka organisatsioon muutub ja areneb vastavalt aja vajadustele.

  1. Rock'n'roll, tankid ja vabadus Endlas / Ülle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Tšehhi päritolu briti näitekirjaniku Tom Stoppardi "Rock'n' roll" Endla teatris, üks lavastajatest on psühholoog ja koolitaja Heiti Pakk. Näidendi tegevus toimub Tšehhimaal aastatel 1968-1990. Esietendus 7. märtsil

  2. Rolling shutter image compensation based on humanoid robot NAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuying; Zhao, Bing; Pan, Feng; Lan, Dongying; Jiang, Longwei; Hu, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    According to the requirement of RoboCup Standard Platform League (NAO) Rule Book, the author did some experiments to finish the League's tasks based on the humanoid robot NAO. The image captured by a moving camera will have a distortion which is affected by the so called "rolling shutter". The rolling shutter means that not all scanlines are exposed over the same time interval. This paper presents the model of rolling shutter of cameras and principle of capturing images. Then corrections to image distortion found on the NAO robots is described. At last the cases of reversing the effects of a rolling shutter on the images taken by the robot's moving camera are presented. This approach improves the effectiveness of shape recognition and the accuracy of Tilt rate of field line.

  3. Prediction of Parametric Roll Resonance by Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Míguez González, M; López Peña, F.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric roll resonance is a ship stability related phenomenon that generates sudden large amplitude oscillations up to 30-40 degrees of roll. This can cause severe damage, and it can put the crew in serious danger. The need for a parametric rolling real time prediction system has been acknowledged in the last few years. This work proposes a prediction system based on a multilayer perceptron (MP) neural network. The training and testing of the MP network is accomplished by feeding it with simulated data of a three degrees-of-freedom nonlinear model of a fishing vessel. The neural network is shown to be capable of forecasting the ship’s roll motion in realistic scenarios.

  4. Reduction of dispersive ground-roll using time delay spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter MØller; Larsen, Henrik C

    1992-01-01

    Velocity filtering seismic traces requires fulfilment of the sampling theorem in the time domain and in the space domain. Since the latter condition is seldom met in exploration seismics, a method based on ?-p transformation combined with time varying filtering is proposed for solving the problem of reducing dispersive ground-roll in a seismic trace. Although it is possible to mask out ground-roll in the ?-p domain, mapping of the ?-p domain back into the original x-t domain involves numerical difficulties because the used inverse discrete Radon transform is ill-posed. To circumvent this problem the seismic trace is applied to a time varying filter with a stop-band which at any instant corresponds to the instantaneous frequency of the ground-roll, thus reducing the ground-roll with minimum distortion of the wanted seismic rate

  5. Dynamic Effect of Rolling Massage on Blood Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese traditional medical massage has been used as a natural therapy to eliminate some diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage frequency to the blood flow in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that when the frequency is smaller than or comparable to the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the effect on the blood flux by the rolling massage is small. On the contrast, if the frequency is twice or more times of the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the blood flux is greatly enhanced and increases linearly with respect to the frequency. Similar behavior has also been observed on the shear stress on the blood vessel walls. The result is helpful for understanding that the rolling massage has the function of promoting the blood circulation and removing the blood stasis.

  6. The condition for classical slow rolling in new inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the stochastic description of inflation, we investigate the dynamics of a fixed comoving domain in a continuously inflating universe on the global scale, both analytically and numerically. A particular attention is paid to the condition for a domain to enter the classical slow rolling phase. New inflationary universe models with the potential form, V(?) ? V0 - c?2n at ? ? 0 are considered. The critical value of the scalar field beyond which the field slowly rolls down the potential hill is estimated. We find, for all models under consideration, the condition for classical slow rolling is a sufficient condition for the expected amplitude of density perturbations to be smaller than unity. In other words, the density perturbation amplitude at the later Friedmann stage is always smaller than unity if the universe experienced the classical slow roll-over phase. (author)

  7. Numerical simulations supporting the process design of ring rolling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkouk, V.; Hirt, G.; Seitz, J.

    2013-05-01

    In conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of radial-axial ring rolling (RAR) the motions of all tools are usually defined prior to simulation in the preprocessing step. However, the real process holds up to 8 degrees of freedom (DOF) that are controlled by industrial control systems according to actual sensor values and preselected control strategies. Since the histories of the motions are unknown before the experiment and are dependent on sensor data, the conventional FEA cannot represent the process before experiment. In order to enable the usage of FEA in the process design stage, this approach integrates the industrially applied control algorithms of the real process including all relevant sensors and actuators into the FE model of ring rolling. Additionally, the process design of a novel process 'the axial profiling', in which a profiled roll is used for rolling axially profiled rings, is supported by FEA. Using this approach suitable control strategies can be tested in virtual environment before processing.

  8. 14 CFR 23.157 - Rate of roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.157 Rate of roll. (a) Takeoff. It must be possible, using a favorable combination of...

  9. Development of a paper based roll-to-roll nanoimprinting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byungwook

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has been developed and studied since 1995. It is a technique where micro- or nanoscale patterns are transferred to soft materials such as polymer through pressing a stamp with certain patterns into this materials and then solidifying it by cooling at lower temperature or curing under ultra violet excitement. High Cost and low throughput of batch mode nanoimprint lithography (NIL) processes are limiting its wide range of applications in meeting industry manufacturing requirements. The roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprinting technology is emerged as a solution to this issue. This thesis study presents the design, build and test of an innovative R2R T-NIL process machine for nanofabrication and MEMS fabrication applications, which consists of individual modules of heating, inking, pressuring, and rotational speed control. The system utilizes PDMS as mold material, PMMA as imprinting material, and paper as substrate material. In order to achieve a uniform pressure on PMMA during imprinting process, an innovative air pressure device (APD) was developed and integrated with R2R machine. The APD replaces the conventional 2-roll line contact pressure approach and can cover one third of the surface of the imprinting roller with a uniform pressure (1-3 psi). During the imprinting experiment, a mixture of PMMA (20w %) and 2-Ethoxyethyl acetate is applied on the paper substrate by an inking roller using capillary force and an IR heater is used for pre-heating and drying of polymer layers before it is fed into the imprinting module. Two 500-Watt cartridge heaters are installed on the roller and provide the heat to raise the PMMA film temperature during the imprinting.

  10. Investigations upon the indefinite rolls quality assurance in multiple regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss, I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The rolling rolls quality has been enhanced mainly due to the improvements of the chemical compositions of rolls materials. The realization of an optimal chemical composition can constitute a technical efficient mode to assure the exploitation properties, the material from which the rolling mills rolls are manufactured having a higher importance in this sense. This paper continues to present the scientifically results of our experimental research in the area of the rolling rolls. The basic research contains concrete elements of immediate practical utilities in the metallurgical enterprises, for the quality improvements of rolls, having in last as the aim the durability growth and the safety in exploitation. This paper presents an analysis of the chemical composition, the influences upon the mechanical properties of the indefinite cast iron rolls. We present some mathematical correlations and graphical interpretations between the hardness (on the working surface and on necks and the chemical composition. Using the double and triple correlations which is really helpful in the foundry practice, as it allows us to determine variation boundaries for the chemical composition, in view the obtaining the optimal values of the hardness. We suggest a mathematical interpretation of the influence of the chemical composition over the hardness of these indefinite rolling rolls. In this sense we use the multiple regression analysis which can be an important statistical tool for the investigation of relationships between variables. The enunciation of some mathematically modeling results can be described through a number of multi-component equations determined for the spaces with 3 and 4 dimensions. Also, the regression surfaces, curves of levels and volumes of variations can be represented and interpreted by technologists considering these as correlation diagrams between the analyzed variables. In this sense, these researches results can be used in the engineers collectives of the foundries and the rolling mills sectors, for quality assurances of rolls as far back as phase of production, as well as in exploitation of these, what lead to, inevitably, to the quality assurance of produced laminates.

    Con este trabajo se ha logrado asegurar la calidad de los cilindros de laminación, debido fundamentalmente a la aportación de una determinada composición química a los materiales cilíndricos. Esta composición química mejorada, puede desarrollar de una forma efiicaz las propiedades de explotación, donde estos cilindros de laminación podrán ser fabricados, ofreciendo mejores resultados. El trabajo se presenta de una forma científica, aportando los resultados de una investigación experimental en el área de los cilindros de laminación. Dicha investigación contiene elementos suficientes y de inmediata utilidad práctica para las empresas metalúrgicas, y así de esta forma, mejorar la calidad de los cilindros de laminación. El objetivo principal es el aumento de la durabilidad y la seguridad en la explotación. En este proceso se presenta un análisis de la composición química y de la influencia sobre las propiedades mecánicas de los cilindros de laminación indefinida. Presentamos algunas correlaciones matemáticas añadiendo una interpretación gráfica entre la dureza (en la superficie de trabajo y el cuello y la composición química. La determinación de las correlaciones dobles y triples, que son realmente útiles en la práctica de la fundición, nos permite determinar los límites de variación de la composición química, con vistas a obtener los valores óptimos de la dureza.Se podrá observar una interpretación matemática de la influencia de la composición química, sobre la dureza de estos cilindros de laminación. En este sentido, realizamos el análisis de regresión múltiple el cual puede aportar un importante instrumento estadístico para la investigación de las relaciones entre las variables. Los resultados matemáticamente modelados, pueden ser descritos mediante una ser

  11. Communication using eye roll reflective signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamarique, I.N.; Mueller, G.A.; Cheng, C.L.; Figiel, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Body reflections in the ultraviolet (UV) are a common occurrence in nature. Despite the abundance of such signals and the presence of UV cones in the retinas of many vertebrates, the function of UV cones in the majority of taxa remains unclear. Here, we report on an unusual communication system in the razorback sucker, Xyrauchen texanus, that involves flash signals produced by quick eye rolls. Behavioural experiments and field observations indicate that this form of communication is used to signal territorial presence between males. The flash signal shows highest contrast in the UV region of fhe visual spectrum (??max???380 nm), corresponding to the maximum wavelength of absorption of the UV cone mechanism in suckers. Furthermore, these cones are restricted to the dorsal retina of the animal and the upwelling light background is such that their relative sensitivity would be enhanced by chromatic adaptation of the other cone mechanisms. Thus, the UV cones in the sucker have optimal characteristics (both in terms of absorbance and retinal topography) to constitute the main detectors of the flash signal. Our findings provide the first ecological evidence for restricted distribution of UV cones in the retina of a vertebrate. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  12. Magnetically capped rolled-up nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Robert; Thurmer, Dominic J; Makarov, Denys; Kronast, Florian; Kosub, Tobias; Kravchuk, Volodymyr; Sheka, Denis D; Gaididei, Yuri; Schäfer, Rudolf; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2012-08-01

    Modifying the curvature in magnetic nanostructures is a novel and elegant way toward tailoring physical phenomena at the nanoscale, allowing one to overcome limitations apparent in planar counterparts. Here, we address curvature-driven changes of static magnetic properties in cylindrically curved magnetic segments with different radii of curvature. The curved architectures are prepared by capping nonmagnetic micrometer- and nanometer-sized rolled-up membranes with a soft-magnetic 20 nm thick permalloy (Ni(80)Fe(20)) film. A quantitative comparison between the magnetization reversal processes in caps with different diameters is given. The phase diagrams of magnetic equilibrium domain patterns (diameter versus length) are generated. For this, joint experimental, including X-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoelectron emission microscopy (XMCD-PEEM), and theoretical studies are carried out. The anisotropic magnetostatic interaction in cylindrically curved architectures originating from the thickness gradient reduces substantially the magnetostatic interaction between closely packed curved nanowires. This feature is beneficial for racetrack memory devices, since a much higher areal density might be achieved than possible with planar counterparts. PMID:22738285

  13. A mechanism for ramified rolling circle amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith James H

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amplification of single-stranded DNA circles has wide utility for a variety of applications. The two-primer ramified rolling circle amplification (RAM reaction provides exponential DNA amplification under isothermal conditions, creating a regular laddered series of double-stranded DNA products. However, the molecular mechanism of the RAM reaction remains unexplained. Results A RAM reaction model predicts exponential accumulation of a double-stranded DNA product size series, and product-size ratios, that are consistent with observed RAM reaction products. The mechanism involves generation of a series of increasing size intermediate templates; those templates produce RAM products and recursively generate smaller intermediate templates. The model allows prediction of the number of rounds of circular template replication. Real-time RAM reaction data are consistent with the model. Analysis of RAM reaction products shows exponential growth limitation consistent with the model's predictions. Conclusions The model provides a rationale for the observed products of the RAM reaction, and the molecular yield among those products. Experimental results are consistent with the model.

  14. A theory of sovereign debt roll-over crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Masazumi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to provide theoretical investigation to debt roll-over crisis in government bond market. By using the global game techniques, we analyse coordination problem in debt auction. The approach in this paper allows us to have insight on the relation between occurence of soverign debt roll-over crisis and the fundamentals of economy which is not clearly explained in preceding works. This paper also makes it clear how the amount of debt for refinancing affects occurrence of ...

  15. High speed twin roll casting of 6016 strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin aluminum alloy strip. 6016aluminum alloy is used for sheet metal of the automobile. Therefore, casting of 6016 was tried in this study.Castability and characteristics of roll cast 6016 strip were investigated.Design/methodology/approach: was a high speed twin roll caster. The high speed twin roll caster was designedto overcome the low castability of the twin roll caster.Findings: are as below. The 6016 could be cast at speed of 60 m/min. The thickness of the 6016 was 3 mm.The microstructure at as-cast and after T6 heat treatment was shown. The microstructure was very fine by theeffect of the rapid solidification. The mechanical properties were investigated by the tension test and 180 degreesbending test. The as-cast strip could be cold rolled down to 1 mm without homogenization. The result of tensiontest (gage length 50mm of T4 strip was as below, tensile stress was 242 MPa, proof stress was 123 MPa andelongation was 26%. There was no crack at the outer surface of 180-degree-bent strip until contact. This showsthe strip endure the hem forming.Research limitations/implications: is the width of the strip was 100 mm. The test using a large scale twin rollcaster must be operated.Practical implications: are as below. The mechanical properties of the roll-cast 6016 were enough for the sheetmetal for the automobile. The low productivity of the twin roll caster could be improved, and economy 6016strip was able to produce.Originality/value: is that 6016 strip could be cast at speed 60 m/min and this strip had good mechanicalproperties.

  16. Tool condition analysis and monitoring in cold rolling process

    OpenAIRE

    El Siblani, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This research is about a costly problem in the automotive industry due to tool fracture during the splines cold rolling of steel shafts. The objective is to study the cause of this failure and propose solutions that can be implemented in the workshop.The writing starts with a brief introduction of the companies involved in shafts production and problem solving. It introduces the cold rolling process and its advantages on splines manufacturing, and it goes through relevant material and process...

  17. Work Roll Cooling System Design Optimisation in Presence of Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Azene, Y. T.; Roy, Rajkumar; Farrugia, Didier; Onisa, C.; Mehnen, Jorn; Trautmann, H.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a framework to optimise the design of work roll based on the cooling performance. The framework develops Meta models from a set of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the roll cooling. A design of experiment technique is used to identify the FEA runs. The research also identifies sources of uncertainties in the design process. A robust evolutionary multi-objective algorithm is applied to the design optimisation I order to identify a set of good solutions in the pre...

  18. Light-weight materials produced by accumulative roll bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Govindaraj, Nagaraj Vinayagam

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is an experimental study of roll bonding and accumulative roll bonding of similar and dissimilar metal combinations with special focus on bond strength evaluation, post process heat treatments and layer continuity of the harder phase. Three objectives have been pursued. The first objective was development of a new method to test the bond strength in tensile mode. The second objective was to assess the influence of post deformation heat treatments on the mecha...

  19. Do liquid drops roll or slide on inclined surfaces?

    OpenAIRE

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Adhikari, Ronojoy; Govindarajan, Rama

    2011-01-01

    We study the motion of a two-dimensional droplet on an inclined surface, under the action of gravity, using a diffuse interface model which allows for arbitrary equilibrium contact angles. The kinematics of motion is analysed by decomposing the gradient of the velocity inside the droplet into a shear and a residual flow. This decomposition helps in distinguishing sliding versus rolling motion of the drop. Our detailed study confirms intuition, in that rolling motion dominate...

  20. FEM analysis of hollow hub forming in rolling extrusion process

    OpenAIRE

    Bartnicki, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results of numerical calculations of rolling extrusion process of a hollow hub. As the flanges manufacturing at both sides of the product is required, in the analyzed process of rolling extrusion, a rear bumper was implemented as additional tool limiting axial metal flow. Numerical calculations of the hub forming process were conducted basing on finite element method, applying software Deform3D and Simufact in conditions of three dimensional state of strain. Th...

  1. Micro Crack of Aluminum Sheet During Cold Rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Chaohui Zhang; Sisi Liu; Chenhui Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The micro crack of aluminum sheet during cold rolling lubricated with emulsions is investigated. Experi-ments show that micro cracks occur after cold rolling process and this is attributed to various parameters, for instance, the thin oxide film formed at the sheet surface. The micro crack spacing thus becomes an important parameter which deserves more concerns. The aspect ratio of these micro cracks is then analyzed theoreti-cally, which takes into consideration of the oxide fracture process...

  2. Validation of hot ring rolling industrial process 3D simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Giorleo, Luca; Giardini, Claudio; Ceretti, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Ring rolling is a hot forming process used in the production of railway tyres, anti friction bearing races and different ring shaped work pieces for automotive energy production and aerospace applications. The advantages of ring rolling process include short production time, uniform quality, closed tolerances, good material quality and considerable saving in material cost. Despite the benefits some problems still exist according to a correct selection of the process parameters. Due to the nat...

  3. Rolling contact fatigue testing of peek based composites

    OpenAIRE

    Petrogalli C.; Pandini S.; Gallina D.; Donzella G.; Avanzini A.

    2010-01-01

    Rolling contact fatigue phenomenon was investigated on unfilled PEEK and on three different PEEK composites: 10% carbon micro-fiber, graphite and PTFE filled matrix, 30% carbon micro-fiber filled matrix, 30% glass micro-fiber filled matrix. For this aim, roller-shaped specimens were machined from extruded bars of these materials and subjected to rolling contact tests at different contact pressure levels by means of a four roller machine. Contact pressure-life diagrams and wear rates wer...

  4. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, S.

    1997-03-01

    It is widely accepted that dead reckoning based on the rolling with no slip condition on wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. The author establishes that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  5. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.

    1996-06-01

    It is widely accepted that dead-reckoning based on the rolling with no-slip condition on the wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. The authors establish that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  6. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, S.

    1997-03-01

    It is widely accepted that dead reckoning based on the rolling with no slip condition on wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. We establish that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  7. Dimethylsulfoxide exposure modulates HL-60 cell rolling interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, David X. A. J.; Kate Wright, L. X. A.; Jonathan Zimmermann; Kayla Cole; Karen Soule; Michelle Ubowski

    2012-01-01

    Human leukaemic HL-60 cells are widely used for studying interactions involving adhesion molecules [e.g. P-selectin and PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1)] since their rolling behaviour has been shown to mimic the dynamics of leucocyte rolling in vitro. HL-60 cells are neutrophilic promyelocytes that can undergo granulocytic differentiation upon exposure to compounds such as DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide). Using a parallel plate flow chamber functionalized with recombinant P-selectin–...

  8. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold rolling material and Ti-6A1-4V and Inconel 718 were selected as typical hot rolling and cold rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape rolling process were developed. These models utilized the upper bound and the slab methods of analysis, and were capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll separating force, roll torque, and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design system was also capable of simulating the actual rolling process, and thereby designing the roll pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or a similar shape.

  9. Formation of the Goss orientation near the surface of 3 pct silicon steel during hot rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y.; Ito, Y.; Iida, Y.

    1986-08-01

    The influence of hot rolling conditions such as reduction rate, rolling temperature, rolling speed, lubrication, and initial orientation on the formation of the Goss orientation near the surface of hot rolled 3 Pct silicon steel was studied. A (110) [001] orientation was stably formed at the reduction rate of over 85 Pct in any initial orientation used, even from (100) [001] and (100) [011] single crystals. A strong (110) [001] orientation was obtained in the specimen hot rolled by multi-pass rolling (low reduction rate per pass) and by slower speed rolling in the range of 6 to 50 m/min. It was found that the Goss orientation was formed not by recrystallization during and after hot rolling but by slip rotation near the surface due to constrained deformation. The high friction between the roll and sheet characteristic to hot rolling was important for this texture formation.

  10. Influence of the GZ calculation method on parametric roll prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Parametrically excited roll response in a container ship sailing in irregular head sea has been studied. Short-term predictions for roll have been made for a ship at a constant forward speed based on different hydrodynamic roll descriptions.The first order reliability method (FORM) has been used to obtain the probability that the roll motion will exceed a given limiting angle. The results have been compared to the results by a Monte Carlo simulation. Using FORM the computational time is greatly reduced as compared to direct simulations, still retaining the probability of failure of the correct order of magnitude. Calculations have been made for different sea states and operational conditions leading to parametric roll resonance and for relevant maximum pre-defined roll angles. The outcome of this comparative study could be useful for the decisions in an early design phase or for application to on-board decision support systems, where a computationally efficient method is needed in order to have an operationally feasible time frame.

  11. Sticking Phenomenon Occurring during Hot Rolling of Ferritic Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sticking phenomenon occurring during hot rolling of two ferritic stainless steels, STS 430J1L and STS 436L, was investigated in this study. A hot rolling simulation test was carried out using a high-temperature wear tester capable of controlling rolling speed, load, and temperature. The simulation test results at 900 .deg. C and 1000 .deg. C revealed that the sticking process proceeded with three stages, i.e., nucleation, growth, and saturation, for the both stainless steels, and that STS 430J1L had a smaller number of sticking nucleation sites than the STS436L because of higher high-temperature hardness, thereby leading to a smaller amount of the sticking. When the test temperature was 1070 .deg. C, the sticking hardly occurred in both stainless steels as Fe-Cr oxide layers were formed on the surface of the rolled materials. These findings suggested that the improvement of high-temperature properties of stainless steels and the appropriate rolling conditions for readily forming oxide layers on the rolled material surface were required in order to prevent or minimize the sticking

  12. Numerical modelling of the bimetallic reinforcement bar rolling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Szota

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: New kind of reinforcement bars are bimetallic reinforcement bars which has a higher corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, than the standard bars. The bimetallic bars are more and more often applied to building of concrete construction. This kind of application decides about high requirements imposed upon their performance characteristics and mechanical properties.Design/methodology/approach: Using the numerical modelling to rolling process of the bimetallic reinforcement bars in a finished pass to define rolling parameters. The simulations of the ribbed bar rolling were carried out using the Forge2005® commercial program.Findings: It has been performed in order to define the specific features of the mode of metal flow in the roll gap and to determine the effect of the shape and dimensions of the feedstock oval on the height of the ribs and on the thickness of surface layer of the finished bar.Practical implications: Reinforcement bars are chiefly used in the building industry at production of reinforced concrete constructions, and as working elements in bridge building.Originality/value: Production of bimetallic reinforcement bars is very difficult. One from many problems during production bimetallic bars is rolling in the finished passes. In this paper the computer simulation of the rolling bimetallic reinforcement bar is presented.

  13. New surface layers with low rolling resistance tested in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘CO2 emission reduction by exploitation of rolling resistance modeling of pavements’ (COOEE) was started in 2011 to establish a scientific background for development of novel pavement types and asset management solutions that minimize the rolling resistance for cars and trucks, the purpose being to reduce CO2 emission from the transport sector. In summer 2012, three different test sections were constructed on a highway located near Vordingborg, Denmark, in order to verify the respective Rolling Resistances; the main purpose was to develop and design new surface layers with reduced Rolling Resistance coefficient that could improve energy efficiency of the roads. In particular, two new types of Split Mastic Asphalt (SMA) were developed and compared to a reference one; both mixtures have a relatively small maximum grain-size, 6 mm and 8 mm, respectively. Surface measurements such as Skid Resistance and Mean Depth Profile were appropriately verified in order to fulfill these essential texture values. Samples were taken and studied in the laboratory to analyze the volumetric characteristics. Rolling resistance measurements have shown that both new SMAs have a reduced Rolling Resistance compared to the traditional one.

  14. Development of manufacturing process of wrought magnesium alloy sheets by twin roll casting

    OpenAIRE

    Watari, H.; Paisarn, R.; Haga, T.; Noda, K.; Davey, K.; Koga, N.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the work is to development of a strip casting technology for manufacturing magnesiumalloy sheets. The aim of the work is to establish a manufacturing process and technology to facilitate theeconomical manufacture of high-strength magnesium sheet alloys.Design/methodology/approach: A horizontal type twin roll caster was used to manufacture magnesium alloysheets. Pair of copper alloy roll, pure copper roll and steel roll was used for the horizontal type twin roll caster....

  15. Ring rolling of AW5083 large rings for the external cylinder of CMS

    CERN Document Server

    S. Sgobba / EST

    2001-01-01

    Picture 1: The forged cylinder is engaged in the ring rolling plant. Picture 2: Vertical rolls allow for the reduction in the axial direction. Rolling is carried out at approx. 400 degrees C. Horizontal rolls (not shown) allow for the reduction in the radial direction. Picture 3: Handling of the ring, rolled at the internal diameter of approx. 7m, and transfer to the quenching both. All pictures have been taken during the visit of Mr. Sgobba at Dembiermont, Mobeuge (Bruxelles).

  16. High?Volume Processed, ITO?Free Superstrates and Substrates for Roll?to?Roll Development of Organic Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Angmo, Dechan

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of substrates and superstrates prepared by scalable roll-to-roll methods is reviewed. The substrates and superstrates that act as the flexible carrier for the processing of functional organic electronic devices are an essential component, and proposals are made about how the general availability of various forms of these materials is needed to accelerate the development of the field of organic electronics. The initial development of the replacement of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) for the flexible carrier materials is described and a description of how roll-to-roll processing development led to simplification from an initially complex make-up to higher performing materials through a more simple process is also presented. This process intensification through process simplification is viewed as a central strategy for upscaling, increasing throughput, performance, and cost reduction.

  17. Organic digital logic and analog circuits fabricated in a roll-to-roll compatible vacuum-evaporation process

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Dm; Patchett, Er; Williams, A.; Neto, Nj; Ding, Z.; Assender, He; Morrison, Jj; Yeates, Sg

    2014-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a range of organic circuits produced by a high-yielding, vacuum-based process compatible with roll-to-roll production. The circuits include inverters, NAND and NOR logic gates, a simple memory element (set-reset latch), and a modified Wilson current mirror circuit. The measured circuit responses are presented together with simulated responses based on a previously reported transistor model of organic transistors produced using our fabrication process. Circuit simu...

  18. Interlaboratory outdoor stability studies of flexible roll-to-roll coated organic photovoltaic modules: Stability over 10,000 h

    OpenAIRE

    Gevorgyan, Sa; Madsen, Mv; Dam, Hf; Jørgensen, M.; Fell, Cj; Anderson, Kf; Duck, Bc; Mescheloff, A.; Katz, Ea; Elschner, A.; Roesch, R.; Hoppe, H.; Hermenau, M.; Riede, M.; Krebs, Fc

    2013-01-01

    This work attempts to reveal the comparability issues related to outdoor testing procedures of organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules via studies of inter-laboratory long-term outdoor measurements of roll-to-roll coated flexible OPV modules (P3HT:PCBM, inverted architecture) in different geographic locations from both Southern and Northern hemispheres. The interpretation of the module degradation via sub-cell analyses is presented and the poor reproducibility of the module performance linked to t...

  19. Just Roll with It? Rolling Volumes vs. Discrete Issues in Open Access Library and Information Science Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Cirasella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Articles in open access (OA journals can be published on a rolling basis, as they become ready, or in complete, discrete issues. This study examines the prevalence of and reasons for rolling volumes vs. discrete issues among scholarly OA library and information science (LIS journals based in the United States. METHODS A survey was distributed to journal editors, asking them about their publication model and their reasons for and satisfaction with that model. RESULTS Of the 21 responding journals, 12 publish in discrete issues, eight publish in rolling volumes, and one publishes in rolling volumes with an occasional special issue. Almost all editors, regardless of model, cited ease of workflow as a justification for their chosen publication model, suggesting that there is no single best workflow for all journals. However, while all rolling-volume editors reported being satisfied with their model, satisfaction was less universal among discrete-issue editors. DISCUSSION The unexpectedly high number of rolling-volume journals suggests that LIS journal editors are making forward-looking choices about publication models even though the topic has not been much addressed in the library literature. Further research is warranted; possibilities include expanding the study’s geographic scope, broadening the study to other disciplines, and investigating publication model trends across the entire scholarly OA universe. CONCLUSION Both because satisfaction is high among editors of rolling-volume journals and because readers and authors appreciate quick publication times, the rolling-volume model will likely become even more prevalent in coming years.

  20. Flexible IZO/Ag/IZO/Ag multilayer electrode grown on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate using roll-to-roll sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Han-ki; Lim, Jong-wook

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the optical, electrical, structural, and surface properties of roll-to-roll [R2R] sputter-grown flexible IZO/Ag/IZO/Ag [IAIA] multilayer films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates as a function of the top indium zinc oxide [IZO] thickness. It was found that the optical transmittance of the IAIA multilayer was significantly influenced by the top IZO layer thickness, which was grown on identical AIA multilayers. However, the sheet resistance of the IAIA multilayer was mainta...

  1. Dynamics of Entangled Polymeric Fluids in Two-roll Mill studied via Dynamic Light Scattering and Two-color flow Birefringence. II. Transient flow

    CERN Document Server

    Sanyal, S; Leal, L C; Sanyal, Subrata; Yavich, Dmitry

    2000-01-01

    We present an extensive experimental study of birefringence and velocity-gradient components for a series of high molecular weight, flexible, entangled polystyrene solutions subjected to transient start-up flows in a co-rotating two-mill to several Weissenberg numbers. The time-dependent changes in the polymer microstructure, as measured by a two-color flow birefringence technique, is shown to be very distinctly coupled with the transient response of the corresponding velocity-field, measured by a dynamic light scattering technique. As expected, polymer deformations induce substantial modifications from the Newtonian flow-field. As a result, measured values of both velocity-gradient components as well as flow-type parameter reduce, thereby drastically decreasing the extensional strength or measured Weissenberg number at the stagnation-point relative to the velocity-field for a Newtonian fluid. Although the impact of the dynamics of both polymer on flow and flow on polymer are very complicated, their individua...

  2. Preorganization of Nanostructured Inks for Roll-to-Roll-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Senkovskyy, Volodymyr

    2010-01-01

    The challenges associated with obtaining the desired nanomorphology of the active layer in polymer solar cells were addressed through preparation of conjugated polymer chains grown from the surface of seed nanoparticles with a well-defined size. Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) was thus polymerized using a quasi-living chain polymerization method initiated by surface-modified silica nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with a silica core and a P3HT-corona exhibited excellent solubility and optical properties similar to native P3HT. Upon mixing with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester in solution, a preorganized ink was obtained that was used to make polymer solar cell modules in a full roll-to-roll coating and printing process operating in ambient air. The polymer solar cells were thus prepared by a mixture of slot die and flat-bed screen printing. Various polymer solar cell modules were prepared ranging from single cells to two, three, and eight serially connected cells. The power conversion efficiency for the polymer solar cell modules were in the range of 0.8%-1.2% with an active area of up to 120 cm.

  3. Ellipsometry as a Nondestructive Depth Profiling Tool for Roll-to-Roll Manufactured Flexible Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager Madsen, Morten; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O.

    2011-01-01

    We show that it is possible to perform ellipsometry on large area roll-to-roll (R2R) coated solar cells on flexible substrates and further demonstrate that the slot-die coating technique employed yields the same bulk heterojunction (BHJ) film morphology and vertical phase separation as laboratory samples prepared by the spin coating technique. The solar cell device geometry was Kapton/Al/Cr/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag. Variable angle ellipsometry was used to determine the optical dispersions of the pure phases of P3HT and PCBM allowing an effective medium approximation model to be employed. It was found that a top layer phase separation of P3HT and a vertical linear gradient of P3HT and PCBM best described the BHJ layer. The model was tested for samples of varying thickness and blend composition, model parameters including thickness (AFM), vertical composition (XPS depth profiling), and optical transmission (optical simulation and UV–visible spectroscopy comparisons) was confirmed to comply with the model. A meansof quality testing and optimization of the coating procedure line scans across a R2R slot-die-coated sample over large distances (8 cm) was made giving insight into thickness and composition uniformity.

  4. Large-scale roll-to-roll photonic sintering of flexo printed silver nanoparticle electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    In this report we employ static and roll-to-roll (R2R) photonic sintering processes on flexo printed silver nanoparticle-based electrode structures with a heat-sensitive 60 mm thin barrier foil as a substrate. We use large area electrode structures to visualize the increased optical footprint of single and quadruple flashes, and the R2R challenges in the form of overlapping exposures. It is shown that single flash exposure is enough to significantly increase the conductivity and adhesion without damaging the foil or build-up of cracks in the silver layer. Additional flash exposures or increased energies above the threshold level have only minor impact on the conductivity but lead to cracks and substrate deformation. A second silver nanoparticle ink was printed, which was already optimized for lowtemperature drying. Here we show that photonic sintering has only a minor impact on the conductivity as the nanoparticles are already sintered. The advantage of single exposure is the ability to produce higher R2R processing speeds without overlapping, which is shown in the form of theoretical calculations.

  5. Roll-to-Roll Solution-Processible Small-Molecule OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie Jerry

    2012-07-31

    The objective of this program is to develop key knowledge and make critical connections between technologies needed to enable low-cost manufacturing of OLED lighting products. In particular, the program was intended to demonstrate the feasibility of making high performance Small-Molecule OLEDs (SM-OLED) using a roll-to-roll (R2R) wet-coating technique by addressing the following technical risks (1) Whether the wet-coating technique can provide high performance OLEDs, (2) Whether SM-OLED can be made in a R2R manner, (3) What are the requirements for coating equipment, and (4) Whether R2R OLEDs can have the same performance as the lab controls. The program has been managed and executed according to the Program Management Plan (PMP) that was first developed at the beginning of the program and further revised accordingly as the program progressed. Significant progress and risk reductions have been accomplished by the end of the program. Specific achievements include: (1) Demonstrated that wet-coating can provide OLEDs with high LPW and long lifetime; (2) Demonstrated R2R OLEDs can be as efficient as batch controls (Figure 1) (3) Developed & validated basic designs for key equipment necessary for R2R SM-OLEDs; (4) Developed know-hows & specifications on materials & ink formulations critical to wetcoating; (5) Developed key R2R processes for each OLED layer (6) Identified key materials and components such as flexible barrier substrates necessary for R2R OLEDs.

  6. Roll to roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells on nano-textured substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppe, W J; Borg, H; Van Aken, B B; Devilee, C; Dörenkämper, M; Goris, M; Heijna, M C R; Löffler, J; Peeters, P

    2011-12-01

    ECN is developing a novel fabrication process for thin film silicon solar cells on steel foil. Key features in this process are: (1) application of an insulating barrier layer which enables monolithic interconnection and texturization of the rear contact with submicron structures for light trapping; (2) Si deposition with remote, linear PECVD; (3) series interconnection by laser scribing and printing after deposition of all layers, which reduces the total number of process steps. The barrier layer is essential for the monolithic series interconnection of cells, but we show that it also enables optimum light trapping in the solar cells. We can fabricate any arbitrary sub-micron surface profile by hot embossing the barrier layer. For deposition of doped and intrinsic silicon layers we use novel remote, linear plasma sources, which are excellently suited for continuous roll-to-roll processing. We have been able to fabricate device-quality amorphous and microcrystalline silicon layers with these sources. The first nip a-Si cells were made on steel substrates with flat barrier layer and had initial efficiencies of 6.3%, showing the potential of the concept. PMID:22408957

  7. Patterned immobilization of antibodies within roll-to-roll hot embossed polymeric microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyssa, Belachew; Liedert, Christina; Kivimaki, Liisa; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Jantunen, Heli; Hakalahti, Leena

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the patterned immobilization of capture antibodies into a microfluidic platform fabricated by roll-to-roll (R2R) hot embossing on poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Covalent attachment of antibodies was achieved by two sequential inkjet printing steps. First, a polyethyleneimine (PEI) layer was deposited onto oxygen plasma activated PMMA foil and further cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) to provide an amine-reactive aldehyde surface (PEI-GA). This step was followed by a second deposition of antibody by overprinting on the PEI-GA patterned PMMA foil. The PEI polymer ink was first formulated to ensure stable drop formation in inkjet printing and the printed films were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Anti-CRP antibody was patterned on PMMA foil by the developed method and bonded permanently with R2R hot embossed PMMA microchannels by solvent bonding lamination. The functionality of the immobilized antibody inside the microfluidic channel was evaluated by fluorescence-based sandwich immunoassay for detection of C-reactive protein (CRP). The antibody-antigen assay exhibited a good level of linearity over the range of 10 ng/ml to 500 ng/ml (R(2)?=?0.991) with a calculated detection limit of 5.2 ng/ml. The developed patterning method is straightforward, rapid and provides a versatile approach for creating multiple protein patterns in a single microfluidic channel for multiplexed immunoassays. PMID:23874811

  8. Roll to roll fabrication process of thin film silicon solar cells on steel foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppe, W.J.; Van Aken, B.B.; Doerenkaemper, M.S.; Devilee, C.; Heijna, M.; Loeffler, J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    ECN is developing a novel fabrication process for thin film silicon solar cells on steel foil. Key features in this process chain are: (1) application of an insulating barrier layer which enables texturization of the rear contact with submicron structures for light trapping; (2) Si deposition with remote, linear PECVD; (3) series interconnection by laser scribing and printing after deposition of the layers (reducing the total number of process steps). The barrier layer is primarily an enabler for monolithic series interconnection of cells, but we show that we can also fabricate any arbitrary sub-micron structure in this layer by hot embossing to achieve optimum light trapping in the solar cells. For deposition of doped and intrinsic silicon layers we use novel remote and linear plasma sources, which are excellently suited for continuous roll-to-roll processing. We have been able to fabricate device-quality amorphous and microcrystalline silicon layers with these sources. First pin a-Si solar cells have been made on FTO glass, yielding initial efficiencies up to 4.5%. First nip a-Si cells made on steel foil plus textured barrier layer yielded efficiencies of about 3.7%.

  9. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Stephanie R.; Oliver, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven by the thermomechanical stresses in the device. We demonstrate how a thin-film adhesion technique can be applied to flexible organic solar cells to obtain quantitative adhesion values. For the P3HT:PCBM-based BHJ polymer solar cells, the interface of the BHJ with the conductive polymer layer PEDOT:PSS was found to be the weakest. The adhesion fracture energy varied from 1.6 J/m2 to 0.1 J/m2 depending on the composition of the P3HT:PCBM layer. Post-deposition annealing time and temperature were shown to increase the adhesion at this interface. Additionally the PEDOT:PSS cells are compared with V2O5 cells whereby adhesive failure marked by high fracture energies was observed.

  10. A life cycle analysis of polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods under ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis was performed on a full roll-to-roll coating procedure used for the manufacture of flexible polymer solar cell modules. The process known as ProcessOne employs a polyester substrate with a sputtered layer of the transparent conductor indium-tin-oxide (ITO). The ITO film was processed into the required pattern using a full roll-to-roll process, employing screen printing of an etch resist and then applying etching, stripping, washing and drying procedures. The three subsequent layers; ZnO, P3HT:PCBM and PEDOT:PSS were slot-die coated and the silver back electrode was screen printed. Finally the polymer solar modules were encapsulated, using a polyester barrier material. All operations except the application of ITO were carried out under ambient conditions. The life cycle analysis delivered a material inventory of the full process for a module production, and an accountability of the energy embedded both in the input materials and in the production processes. Finally, upon assumption of power conversion efficiencies and lifetime for the modules, a calculation of energy pay-back time allowed us to compare this roll-to-roll manufacturing with other organic and hybrid photovoltaic technologies. The results showed that an Energy Pay-Back Time (EPBT) of 2.02 years can be achieved for an organic solar module of 2% efficiency, which could be reduced to 1.35 years, if the efficiency was 3%.

  11. Roll-to-Roll Inkjet Printing and Photonic Sintering of Electrodes for ITO Free Polymer Solar Cell Modules and Facile Product Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2013-01-01

    Small polymer solar cell modules that are manufactured without indium-tin-oxide using only roll-to-roll printing and coating techniques under ambient conditions enable facile integration into a simple demonstrator (for example a laser pointer). Semitransparent front electrode grid structures prepared by roll-to-roll inkjet printing in conjunction with photonic sintering enabled preparation of complete modules on flexible substrates and subsequent integration of the modules into a laser pointer demonstrator.

  12. Effect of surface shear on cube texture formation in heavy cold-rolled Cu-45 at%Ni alloy substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hui; Suo, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    Two types of Cu-45 at%Ni alloy thin tapes with and without surface shear were obtained by different heavy cold rolling processes. The deformation and recrystallization textures of the two tapes were thoroughly investigated by electron back scattering diffraction technique. The results showed that a shear texture mainly covered the surface of the heavy deformed tapes because of the fraction between the surface of rolling mills and the thin tapes when the rolling force strongly reduced at high strain, which significantly reduced the fraction of rolling texture on the surface of the Cu-45at %Ni alloy thin tapes, retarded the cube grain growth during recrystallization and affected the strong cube texture formation after high temperature annealing.

  13. Optimal control of conditions of deformation during rolling the bar alloy from alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex of programs for determining the optimal gaps between rollers during rolling of simple merchant sections of alloy steels of a wide brand assortment (12KhN3A, Kh17N2, Kh18N10T) was elaborated. Experience in calculations made according to the programs suggests advisability of their use in the automated design systems for roller calibration and for adjustment of section mills

  14. Mathematical simulation of controlled cooling for high speed rolled wire in Stelmor process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical models have been developed to predict the temperature distribution and austenite - pearlite transformation kinetics during the processing of high carbon steel wire in a stelmor machine. For a given rod radius there are three critical fans whose mechanical efficiency should be periodically reviewed to maintain constant cooling condition. These models are currently being applied for rod production control at the transformation at the conveyor of Tangshan Iron and Steel Co. Ltd., High Speed Wire Rod Rolling Mill, China. (author)

  15. High speed twin roll casting of 6061 alloy strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin strips of two aluminum alloys:6061 and recycled 6061. Mechanical properties of the roll cast 6061 and recycled 6061 strips were investigated inthe frame of this purpose.Design/methodology/approach: Methods used in the present study were high speed twin roll caster and lowtemperature casting. These methods were used to realize rapid solidification and increase the casting speed.Findings: are that 6061 and recycled 6061 could be cast at speed of 60 m/min. Casted strips were about 3 mmthick. As cast strip could be cold-rolled down to sheet of 1 mm thick. 180 degrees bending test was operated on thesheet after T4 heat treatment and crack was not worse than 6022 which is typical aluminum alloy for sheet of theautomobile. This result means the roll cast 6061 can be used as a sheet for body of the automobile instead of 6022.Research limitations/implications: Research limitation is that the width of the strip was 100 mm andinvestigation of the properties were enough for practical use. Wider strip must be cast using the twin roll caster ofthe size for production.Originality/value: The economy sheet of the 6061 for the auto mobile can be produced by the high speed twinroll caster. 6061 is typical wrought aluminum alloy of 6000 series. Therefore, the sheet of 6061 will becomeeconomy. 6061 can be recycled at two times when the 6061 is cast into strip by the high speed roll casting.

  16. Dimethylsulfoxide exposure modulates HL-60 cell rolling interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Gee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Human leukaemic HL-60 cells are widely used for studying interactions involving adhesion molecules [e.g. P-selectin and PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1] since their rolling behaviour has been shown to mimic the dynamics of leucocyte rolling in vitro. HL-60 cells are neutrophilic promyelocytes that can undergo granulocytic differentiation upon exposure to compounds such as DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide. Using a parallel plate flow chamber functionalized with recombinant P-selectin–Fc chimaera, undifferentiated and DMSO-induced (48, 72 and 96 h HL-60 cells were assayed for rolling behaviour. We found that depending on P-selectin incubation concentration, undifferentiated cells incurred up to a 6-fold increase in rolling velocity while subjected to an approximately 10-fold increase in biologically relevant shear stress. HL-60 cells exposed to DMSO for up to 72 h incurred up to a 3-fold increase in rolling velocity over the same shear stress range. Significantly, cells exposed for up to 96 h incurred up to a 9-fold decrease in rolling velocity, compared with undifferentiated HL-60 cells. Although cell surface and nuclear morphological changes were evident upon exposure to DMSO, flow cytometric analysis revealed that PSGL-1 expression was unchanged, irrespective of treatment duration. The results suggest that DMSO-treated HL-60 cells may be problematic as a substitute for neutrophils for trafficking studies during advanced stages of the LAC (leucocyte adhesion cascade. We suggest that remodelling of the cell surface during differentiation may affect rolling behaviour and that DMSO-treated HL-60 cells would behave differently from the normal leucocytes during inflammatory response in vivo.

  17. Research on single-phase forced circulation in rectangular channel flow characteristics under rolling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the single-phase flow characteristics in rolling rectangular channel were carried out using the de-ionized water as the working fluid under normal temperature and pressure. The single-phase water friction coefficient under rolling conditions is obtained, according to the pressure drop measured by experiments. Experimental results show that the volume flow of the closed loop cyclical fluctuations under rolling conditions. The amplitude of fluctuation increased with increasing rolling amplitude and frequency, and the average volume flow decreased due to the rolling motion. The average friction coefficient in rolling is larger than the one in the steady-state, which depends on the rolling amplitude, rolling cycle and the average Reynolds numbers. Empirical correlation for the average friction coefficient under rolling conditions is obtained by fitting a large number of experiment data. (authors)

  18. Finite-element modeling of soft tissue rolling indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangpradit, Kiattisak; Liu, Hongbin; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal D

    2011-12-01

    We describe a finite-element (FE) model for simulating wheel-rolling tissue deformations using a rolling FE model (RFEM). A wheeled probe performing rolling tissue indentation has proven to be a promising approach for compensating for the loss of haptic and tactile feedback experienced during robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (H. Liu, D. P. Noonan, B. J. Challacombe, P. Dasgupta, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Rolling mechanical imaging for tissue abnormality localization during minimally invasive surgery, " IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 404-414, Feb. 2010; K. Sangpradit, H. Liu, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Tissue identification using inverse finite element analysis of rolling indentation," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , Kobe, Japan, 2009, pp. 1250-1255; H. Liu, D. Noonan, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "The rolling approach for soft tissue modeling and mechanical imaging during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2008, pp. 845-850; H. Liu, P. Puangmali, D. Zbyszewski, O. Elhage, P. Dasgupta, J. S. Dai, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "An indentation depth-force sensing wheeled probe for abnormality identification during minimally invasive surgery," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H, vol. 224, no. 6, pp. 751-63, 2010; D. Noonan, H. Liu, Y. Zweiri, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "A dual-function wheeled probe for tissue viscoelastic property identification during minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , 2008, pp. 2629-2634; H. Liu, J. Li, Q. I. Poon, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Miniaturized force indentation-depth sensor for tissue abnormality identification," IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2010, pp. 3654-3659). A sound understanding of wheel-tissue rolling interaction dynamics will facilitate the evaluation of signals from rolling indentation. In this paper, we model the dynamic interactions between a wheeled probe and a soft tissue sample using the ABAQUS FE software package. The aim of this work is to more precisely locate abnormalities within soft tissue organs using RFEM and hence aid surgeons to improve diagnostic ability. The soft tissue is modeled as a nonlinear hyperelastic material with geometrical nonlinearity. The proposed RFEM was validated on a silicone phantom and a porcine kidney sample. The results show that the proposed method can predict the wheel-tissue interaction forces of rolling indentation with good accuracy and can also accurately identify the location and depth of simulated tumors. PMID:21257372

  19. Do Liquid Drops on Inclined Surfaces Slide or Roll?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pt, Sumesh; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Adhikari, Ronojoy; Govindarajan, Rama

    2011-11-01

    A solid sphere is likely to roll, while a rectangular box is likely to slide, on an inclined surface. Instead, a liquid drop can exhibit a variety of shapes and complex but interesting dynamics. We obtain global minimum energy static shapes first, for two realistic bases of potential energy, front and back-pinned. We find that the free end always assumes Young's equilibrium angle. Using this clue, simple equations describing the angles and the maximum volume may be derived. Combining the lattice Boltzmann method for hydrodynamics and method of lines for a Cahn-Hilliard equation, a hybrid numerical scheme is developed to study the dynamics of binary fluids on an inclined plate. The contribution of pure translation, and the vorticities associated with rolling and shearing motion are distinguished, using which the motion of the drop can be split into roll and slip. Surprisingly, as gravity increases, the fraction of motion due to roll decreases significantly for certain contact angles. The rolling motion is strongly dependent on the slip length which is in contrast to predictions by the lubrication approximation, where all dependence on the slip length is generally logarithamic.

  20. CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds Ntot?59, there is a 10%-20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2%-4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l2. The suppression is much smaller for Ntot>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound Ntot?59

  1. Surface damage resulting from rolling contact operating in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the effects of magnetic field on rolling contact performance of steel discs and presents an investigation into the mechanisms governing these effects by applying contact mechanics and magnetism theory. The tests were carried out in disc-on-disc contact configuration using two contact conditions, i.e. pure rolling and rolling with 10% sliding. Also two horizontal static magnetic fields of 0.4 and 1.1 T created by permanent magnets were applied. The results of scanning electron microscopy observations reveal that finer wear particles and smoother worn surfaces are produced in the presence of a magnetic field. The smoother surfaces are also confirmed by surface roughness measurements. For generation of the finer wear particles, it is considered that the subsurface crack initiation point is moved towards the surface due to the magnetic field. Wear amounts are decreased in the magnetic fields under pure rolling conditions. However, at rolling with 10% sliding, the wear amounts are increased in the magnetic fields, even though finer particles and smoother surfaces are observed. Both tendencies are explained by calculating the number of cycles required to generate wear particles, which were reduced due to the magnetic field presence. It is considered, therefore, that domain walls near the contact region are caught by dislocations when the specimen is magnetized and part of the energy for magnetization activates the dislocation movement resulting in crackhe dislocation movement resulting in crack initiation

  2. Isothermal annealing of cold-rolled high-purity nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron backscattered patterns have been employed to reveal the details of the texture evolution in 90%, 95% and 97.5% cold-rolled, polycrystalline, high-purity nickel specimens after 1 h anneals at a variety of temperatures. The results show that increasing the thickness reduction of cold-rolling both strengthened the cube texture developed after primary recrystallization, and increased its thermal stability at elevated temperatures. In the 90% cold-rolled specimens, secondary recrystallization occurred during annealing at 600 deg. C but could not be completed at temperatures up to 1000 deg. C. In contrast, extensive secondary recrystallization occurred in 95% and 97.5% cold-rolled specimens that were annealed at temperatures up to 1000 deg. C. Most of the orientations of the second recrystallized grains were related to the primarily recrystallized cube texture by a 41o rotation around about axis or a 27o rotation about , while a few secondary-recrystallized grains were found to have an 18o/ misorientation relationship with the cube-oriented matrix. It appears that the preferred rotation angles/axes is dependent on the rolling reduction

  3. Towards identifying the roll motion parameters of a motorcycle simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Amit; Dagonneau, Virginie; Caro, Séphane; Israël, Isabelle; Lobjois, Régis

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at identifying the roll motion parameters of a motorcycle simulator prototype. Experienced motorcyclists tuned the angular physical movement of the mock-up and that of the visual scene to achieve an optimal riding experience during curves. The participants exceeded the rolling angles that would be required in real-world riding, while avoiding leaning the mock-up beyond 10°. In addition, they were more influenced by the speed of the virtual motorcycle than by road curvature, especially in a wide field of view. Heterogeneity was found in the roll applied to the visual scene. The overall patterns suggest that at least when washout is not applied to remove the side forces that in real-world riding are compensated by a centrifugal force, greater roll of the visual at the expense of the mock-up is mandatory to avoid performance biases that might be enhanced due to fear of falling off the simulator. Future roll motion models must take into consideration factors such as riding postures, which might not only influence the forces operating on the rider-motorcycle system, but also how motorcyclists perceive the visual world. PMID:24140244

  4. Comparative study on the corrosion behavior of the cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony in flue gas desulfurization environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. A.; Kim, J. G.; He, Y. S.; Shin, K. S.; Yoon, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between the corrosion and microstructual characteristics of cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony was established. The corrosion behavior of the specimens used in flue gas desulfurization systems was examined by electrochemical and weight loss measurements in an aggressive solution of 16.9 vol % H2SO4 + 0.35 vol % HCl at 60°C, pH 0.3. It has been shown that the corrosion rate of hot rolled steel is lower than that of cold rolled steel. The corrosion rate of cold rolled steel was increased by grain refinement, inclusion formation, and preferred grain orientation.

  5. Roll-to-roll coated PBI membranes for high temperature PEM fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Thomas; Hjuler, Hans Aage

    2012-01-01

    We employed roll-to-roll coating in the preparation of 40 ?m thick poly[2,2?(m-phenylene)-5,5?bibenzimidazole] (PBI) films for fuel cells using both knife-coating (KC) and slot-die (SD) coating. The films were coated directly from a 9% (w/w) solution of PBI in dimethylacetamide onto a sacrificial low cost paper or plastic based carrier substrate and dried using a hot air oven with a length of 1 m at 140 °C. A web width of 305 mm, a working width of 250 mm and a web speed of 0.2 m min?1 were explored to ensure efficient drying of the thick wet film. A large air flow was found to efficiently avoid skinning. Films were prepared by a single coating step and by two subsequent coating steps in order to explore whether two coating steps gave films with fewer defects. A significant development towards upscaling the PEM fuel cell technology was that the PBI membrane was coated onto a sacrificial carrier substrate allowing for easy recoating on top of the firstly prepared film. It was thus possible to prepare free-standing films by a simple coating procedure followed by delamination from the carrier substrate post-film formation and drying. We finally carried out systematic membrane characterization with respect to solubility, phosphoric acid doping and fuel cell performance. Our results showed that the PBI membranes prepared in this work have identical properties compared to traditionally cast membranes while enabling an increase of a factor of 100 in manufacturing speed.

  6. Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maydannik, Philipp S., E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.fi; Kääriäinen, Tommi O.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Cameron, David C. [Advanced Surface Technology Research Laboratory, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Söderlund, Mikko; Soininen, Pekka [Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, 01511 Vantaa (Finland); Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Moro, Lorenza; Zeng, Xianghui [Samsung Cheil Industries, San Jose R and D Center, 2186 Bering Drive, San Jose, California 95131 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20?nm thickness Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier layers on 500?mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105?°C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20?nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38?°C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostatic–isobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument (<5?×?10{sup ?4}?g/m{sup 2} day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25?m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ?5?×?10{sup ?6} g/m{sup 2} day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate.

  7. Laser processing of organic photovoltaic cells with a roll-to-roll manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsch, Tino; Haenel, Jens; Clair, Maurice; Keiper, Bernd; Scholz, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Flexible large area organic photovoltaic (OPV) is currently one of the fastest developing areas of organic electronics. New light absorbing polymer blends combined with new transparent conductive materials provide higher power conversion efficiencies while new and improved production methods are developed to achieve higher throughput at reduced cost. A typical OPV is formed by TCO layers as the transparent front contact and polymers as active layer as well as interface layer between active layer and front contact. The several materials have to be patterned in order to allow for a row connection of the solar cell. 3D-Micromac used ultra-short pulsed lasers to evaluate the applicability of various wavelengths for the selective ablation of the indium tin oxide (ITO) layer and the selective ablation of the bulk hetero junction (BHJ) consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) on top of a Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) without damaging the ITO. These lasers in combination with high performance galvanometer scanning systems achieve superior scribing quality without damaging the substrate. With scribing speeds of 10 m/s and up it is possible to integrate this technology into a roll-to-roll manufacturing tool. The functionality of an OPV usually also requires an annealing step, especially when using a BHJ for the active layer consisting of P3HT:PCBM, to optimize the layers structure and therewith the efficiency of the solar cell (typically by thermal treatment, e.g. oven). The process of laser annealing was investigated using a short-pulsed laser with a wavelength close to the absorption maximum of the BHJ.

  8. Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20?nm thickness Al2O3 diffusion barrier layers on 500?mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105?°C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20?nm Al2O3 films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38?°C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostatic–isobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument (?4?g/m2 day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25?m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ?5?×?10?6 g/m2 day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate

  9. Predictive model for the cold rolling process through sensitivity factors via neural networks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis E., Zárate.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The mathematical modeling of the rolling process involves several parameters that may lead to non-linear equations of difficult analytical solution. Such is the case of Alexander's model (Alexander 1972), considered one of the most complete in the rolling theory. This model requires excessive comput [...] ational time, which prevents its application in on-line control and supervision systems. In this paper, the representation of the cold rolling process through Neural Networks trained with data obtained by Alexander's model is presented. This representation is based in sensitivity factors obtained by differentiating a neural network previously trained. The representation allows to obtain equations of the process for different operation points with low computational time. On the other hand, the representation based in sensitivity factors has predictive characteristics that can be used in predictive control techniques. Through predictive model, it is possible to eliminate the time delay in the feedback loop introduced by measurements of the outgoing thickness, normally with X-ray sensors. The predictive model can work as a virtual sensor implemented via software. An example of the application to a single stand rolling mill is presented.

  10. Research of PEEQ for Conical Ring with Outer Steps Ring Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaotao, Gong; Fan, Yang

    Based on the platform ABAQUS, a 3-D FEM model of conical ring with outer steps ring rolling process has been developed to investigate the ring's deformation behavior and the equivalent plastic strain PEEQ distribution. During the ring rolling, the average equivalent plastic stain (PEEQa) is increasing with bigger idle roll speed and lower drive roll rotational velocity. And the changing of the standard error criterion of the equivalent plastic strain (SDP) is similar to the equivalent plastic strain PEEQ. So the bigger idle roll speed and lower drive roll rotation velocity can help to improve the mechanical property.

  11. High-speed roll caster for strip casting of aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, T. [Osaka Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Suzuki, S.

    2000-07-01

    A melt ejection twin roll caster was devised for high-speed roll casting of aluminum alloy that has sound surfaces. This caster can cast A5182 alloy strip at the speed of up to 120 m/min. The strip surface can be improved by ejecting the melt on to the roll. The strip does not stick to the roll because of separating force is very small. Therefore, lubricant is not required in order to prevent the sticking of the strip at the roll. The microstructure of the strip cast using the melt ejection twin roll caster is very fine. (orig.)

  12. Parametric roll due to hull instantaneous volumetric changes and speed variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, JØrgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    Parametric roll of a containership in head sea condition has been studied in the paper. A time domain routine for GZ righting arm calculation based on exact underwater hull geometry has been implemented into a two-degree-of-freedom procedure for roll response calculation. The speed variation due to e.g. added resistance has been accounted for in the model by the surge velocity. The ship roll motion due to a regular wave critical for parametric roll occurrence has been simulated, as well as the ship roll response in a severe stochastic sea. The present method has been compared with other existing methods for parametric roll prediction.

  13. A Flight Investigation of the Damping in Roll and Rolling Effectiveness Including Aeroelastic Effects of Rocket Propelled Missile Models Having Cruciform, Triangular, Interdigitated Wings and Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopko, R. N.

    1951-01-01

    The damping in roll and rolling effectiveness of two models of a missile having cruciform, triangular, interdigitated wings and tails have been determined through a Mach number range of 0.8 to 1.8 by utilizing rocket-propelled test vehicles. Results indicate that the damping in roll was relatively constant over the Mach umber range investigated. The rolling effectiveness was essentially constant at low supersonic speeds and increased with increasing mach numbers in excess of 1.4 over the Mach number range investigated. Aeroelastic effects increase the rolling-effectiveness parameters pb/2V divided by delta and decrease both the rolling-moment coefficient due to wing deflection and the damping-in-roll coefficient.

  14. Micro Crack of Aluminum Sheet During Cold Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohui Zhang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The micro crack of aluminum sheet during cold rolling lubricated with emulsions is investigated. Experi-ments show that micro cracks occur after cold rolling process and this is attributed to various parameters, for instance, the thin oxide film formed at the sheet surface. The micro crack spacing thus becomes an important parameter which deserves more concerns. The aspect ratio of these micro cracks is then analyzed theoreti-cally, which takes into consideration of the oxide fracture process. The good agreement between the obser-vations and the theoretical predictions validates the analysis. The approach can shed some new lights on the mechanical process of aluminium sheet during cold rolling.

  15. Texture-induced anisotropy in asymmetrically rolled aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidor, Jurij J. [Ghent University, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering Technologiepark 903, 9052 Gent (Belgium); Petrov, Roumen H.; Kestens, Leo A.I. [Ghent University, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering Technologiepark 903, 9052 Gent (Belgium); Delft University of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The formability of Al alloys is strongly correlated to the crystallographic texture and thus can be controlled by thermomechanical processing parameters. Texture-induced anisotropy is studied in asymmetrically hot and cold rolled Al alloys from the 6xxx series. It is found that the strain mode of both hot and cold rolling processes significantly affects the anisotropy of recrystallized material. The recrystallization textures produced in the ASR process improve the normal anisotropy, whereas the in-plane anisotropy does not benefit significantly from the ASR process. Results of crystal plasticity calculations show that an improved normal anisotropy in asymmetrically rolled sheets (anti r = 0.77) ensures an increased limiting drawing ratio of {approx} 2.11, which is beneficial for formability. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Roll-up of validation results to a target application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Richard Guy

    2013-09-01

    Suites of experiments are preformed over a validation hierarchy to test computational simulation models for complex applications. Experiments within the hierarchy can be performed at different conditions and configurations than those for an intended application, with each experiment testing only part of the physics relevant for the application. The purpose of the present work is to develop methodology to roll-up validation results to an application, and to assess the impact the validation hierarchy design has on the roll-up results. The roll-up is accomplished through the development of a meta-model that relates validation measurements throughout a hierarchy to the desired response quantities for the target application. The meta-model is developed using the computation simulation models for the experiments and the application. The meta-model approach is applied to a series of example transport problems that represent complete and incomplete coverage of the physics of the target application by the validation experiments.

  17. Transport properties of cold rolled Ag sheathed Bi(2223) tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For future applications, the magnetic field dependence of jc is an important quantity. At 77 K the critical current is strongly reduced in the presence of a magnetic field: published values of the ratio jc(77K,0T)/jc(77K,1T) typically lie between 3 and 12, the highest ratio being observed for the rolled tapes. Recently we have shown that both hot and cold rolling techniques in addition to the optimization of the total heat treatment time of tapes reduced the ratio jc(77K,0T)/jc(77K,1T) for long tapes to a value of about 5, i.e. a value normally observed for pressed tapes. Recent results on cold rolled tapes with improved jc values and their field dependence are presented here, together with the electrical characterization at different temperatures and magnetic fields. (orig.)

  18. Measurements of normal and frictional forces in a rolling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    To improve the quality of frictional data and to validate the simulations in rolling, a load transducer for measuring normal and frictional stresses in the deformation zone has been developed. The transducer consists of a strain-gauge-equipped insert embedded in the surface of the roll. The length of the insert exceeds the contact length. By analysing the output from the insert, the frictional stress and normal pressure in the contact zone can be determined. The new concept differs from existing pin designs by less disturbance of lubricant film and material flow and limited penetration of material between the transducer and roll. The transducer is tested at laboratory conditions and is expected to be running in industrial conditions in 2004.

  19. Measurements of Normal and Friction Forces in a Rolling Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    To improve the quality of frictional data and to validate the simulations in rolling, a load transducer for measuring normal and friction stresses in the deformation zone has been developed. The transducer consists of a strain gauge equipped insert embedded in the surface of the roll. The length of the insert exceeds the contact length. By analyzing the output from the insert, the friction stress and normal pressure in the contact zone can be determined. The new concept differs from existing pin designs by a lower disturbance of lubricant film and material flow and limited penetration of material between transducer and roll. The transducer is tested at laboratory conditions and is expected to be running in industrial conditions in 2004.

  20. Modeling of rolling element bearing mechanics. Theoretical manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, David H.; Greenhill, Lyn M.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the theoretical basis for the Rolling Element Bearing Analysis System (REBANS) analysis code which determines the quasistatic response to external loads or displacement of three types of high-speed rolling element bearings: angular contact ball bearings; duplex angular contact ball bearings; and cylindrical roller bearings. The model includes the effects of bearing ring and support structure flexibility. It is comprised of two main programs: the Preprocessor for Bearing Analysis (PREBAN) which creates the input files for the main analysis program; and Flexibility Enhanced Rolling Element Bearing Analysis (FEREBA), the main analysis program. A companion report addresses the input instructions for and features of the computer codes. REBANS extends the capabilities of the SHABERTH (Shaft and Bearing Thermal Analysis) code to include race and housing flexibility, including such effects as dead band and preload springs.

  1. Modeling of rolling element bearing mechanics. Computer program user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Lyn M.; Merchant, David H.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides the user's manual for the Rolling Element Bearing Analysis System (REBANS) analysis code which determines the quasistatic response to external loads or displacement of three types of high-speed rolling element bearings: angular contact ball bearings, duplex angular contact ball bearings, and cylindrical roller bearings. The model includes the defects of bearing ring and support structure flexibility. It is comprised of two main programs: the Preprocessor for Bearing Analysis (PREBAN) which creates the input files for the main analysis program, and Flexibility Enhanced Rolling Element Bearing Analysis (FEREBA), the main analysis program. This report addresses input instructions for and features of the computer codes. A companion report addresses the theoretical basis for the computer codes. REBANS extends the capabilities of the SHABERTH (Shaft and Bearing Thermal Analysis) code to include race and housing flexibility, including such effects as dead band and preload springs.

  2. Interim design report: fuel particle crushing. [Double-roll crusher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, J.W.; Strand, J.B.; Cook, E.J.; Miller, C.M.

    1977-11-01

    The double-roll fuel particle crusher was developed to fracture the silicon carbide coatings of Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fertile and fissile and large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (LHTGR) fissile fuel particles. The report details the design task for the fuel particle crusher, including historical test information on double-roll crushers for carbide-coated fuels and the design approach selected for the cold pilot plant crusher, and shows how the design addresses the equipment goals and operational objectives. Design calculations and considerations are included to support the selection of crusher drive and gearing, the materials chosen for crushing rolls and housing, and the bearing selection. The results of the initial testing for compliance with design objectives and operational capabilities are also presented. 8 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Rolling dielectric elastomer actuator with bulged cylindrical shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note presents preliminary investigations on the design and development of a rolling dielectric elastomer actuator (rDEA) with a bulged cylindrical shape. The actuator is based on an inflated silicone-based hollow cylinder consisting of a series of dielectric elastomer actuator sectors. The electrical activation of the sectors changes the shape of the rDEA; the induced geometrical change causes a variation of the position of the rDEA's centre of gravity and a consequent initiation of rolling of the rDEA. This paper presents a simplified parametric analytical model which is used to simulate the quasi-static behaviour of the rDEA. A testing procedure is used to assess the potential rolling performance of the rDEA prototypes. (technical note)

  4. Improved Fatigue Performance of Threaded Drillstring Connections by Cold Rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, Steinar

    2002-01-01

    The research work presented in this thesis is concerned with analytical, numerical and experimental studies of the effect of cold rolling on the fatigue behaviour of threaded drillstring connections. A comprehensive literature study is made of the various effects on the fatigue behaviour of residual stresses introduced by mechanical deformation of notched components. Some of the effects studied are cyclic hardening behaviour after prestraining, cyclic creep, fatigue initiation in prestrained materials, short cracks and crack growth models including crack closure. Residual stresses were introduced in the surface of a smooth pipe by a rolling device to simulate a cold rolling process and verify the calculated residual stresses by measurements. Strain hardening and contact algorithm of the two bodies were incorporated in the FE analyses. Two significant errors were found in the commercial software package for residual stress evaluation, Restran v. 3.3.2a also called SINT, when using the Schajer method. The Schajer algorithm is the only hole-drilling algorithm without theoretical shortcomings, and is recommended when measuring large residual stress gradients in the depth direction. Using the Schajer method solved by in-house Matlab-routines good agreement between measured residual stress gradients and residual stress gradients from FE analyses was found. Full scale fatigue tests were performed on pipes cut from used drillstrings with notches of similar geometry as threads used in drillstring connections. The simulated threads consisted of four full depth helix notches with runouts at the surface. The pipe threads were cold rolled and fatigue tested in a full-scale four-point rotating bending fatigue testing rig. The test results showed that cold rolling had an effect on the crack initiation period. A major part of the fatigue life was with cracks observed at the notch root, but due to the increased fatigue crack propagation resistance the final fracture initiated at pits inside the pipe. Therefore, an optimisation of the roll geometry and rolling parameters was not possible. However, a significant fatigue life improvement was achieved. Based on experiments, a roller with similar profile as the thread root is recommended. A rolling force of maximum 20 kN is recommended to minimise the possibility of damaging the thread profile. Shallow cracks were observed typically when 5% of the fatigue life had expired. Re-rolling after 50% of expected improved fatigue life, when also short cracks were observed in the notch roots further increased the fatigue improvement. Pretensioned small steel specimens with a notch were used to simulate cold rolled threads. The specimens were fatigue tested in tension with minimum load close to zero. Pretensioning increased the fatigue life from approximately 50 000 cycles to an infinite number of cycles. In these tests non-propagating cracks of typically 0.4 mm length were found. The benefit from pretensioning gradually disappeared with increasing mean stress. FE analyses indicated that an almost instant relaxation of residual stresses to a level with no monotonic strain hardening from preloading would take place when cycled at moderate mean stress. Cycled at low mean stress, an instant relaxation of the surface layer was found in analysis. All observations from notched pretensioned fatigue specimens were in good agreement with the available literature. However, preloading was found to be strain rate dependent in tests where a pretension load held for 2 minutes gave a longer fatigue life than a sinusoidal loading-unloading cycle performed over a one minute interval. Strain hardening was found not contributing to the fatigue life improvement, whereas the polishing effect from improved surface quality after cold rolling increased the fatigue initiation period. However, residual stress and subsequent early crack closure was the dominating effect at moderate cyclic mean loads. The material data required to perform FE fatigue simulation studies of a full threaded cold rolled coupling incorporating make-up

  5. Microstructural response of pure copper to cryogenic rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konkova, T. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Russian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturin Str., Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation); Mironov, S., E-mail: S-72@mail.ru [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Russian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturin Str., Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation)] [Department of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Korznikov, A. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Russian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturin Str., Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation); Semiatin, S.L. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RXLM, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7817 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction technique was applied to quantify grain-structure development and texture evolution during/after cryogenic rolling of pure copper. Microstructure evolution was found to be a complex process involving mainly geometrical effects associated with strain and discontinuous recrystallization but also including limited twinning and grain subdivision. Recrystallization was deduced to be static in nature and probably occurred during static storage of the material at room temperature after cryogenic rolling. The texture contained a pronounced {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2> brass component; this observation was interpreted in terms of the suppression of cross-slip at cryogenic temperatures. In general, cryogenic rolling was found to be ineffective for the formation of a nanocrystalline structure in pure copper.

  6. Rolling friction of a viscous sphere on a hard plane

    CERN Document Server

    Brilliantov, N V; Brilliantov, Nikolai V.; Poeschel, Thorsten

    1998-01-01

    A first-principle continuum-mechanics expression for the rolling friction coefficient is obtained for the rolling motion of a viscoelastic sphere on a hard plane. It relates the friction coefficient to the viscous and elastic constants of the sphere material. The relation obtained refers to the case when the deformation of the sphere $\\xi$ is small, the velocity of the sphere $V$ is much less than the speed of sound in the material and when the characteristic time $\\xi/V$ is much larger than the dissipative relaxation times of the viscoelastic material. To our knowledge this is the first ``first-principle'' expression of the rolling friction coefficient which does not contain empirical parameters.

  7. Student understanding of rotational and rolling motion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldini, Lorenzo G.; Singh, Chandralekha

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the common difficulties that students have with concepts related to rotational and rolling motion covered in the introductory physics courses. We compared the performance of calculus- and algebra-based introductory physics students with physics juniors who had learned rotational and rolling motion concepts in an intermediate level mechanics course. Interviews were conducted with six physics juniors and ten introductory students using demonstration-based tasks. We also administered free-response and multiple-choice questions to a large number of students enrolled in introductory physics courses, and interviewed six additional introductory students on the test questions (during the test design phase). All students showed similar difficulties regardless of their background, and higher mathematical sophistication did not seem to help acquire a deeper understanding. We found that some difficulties were due to related difficulties with linear motion, while others were tied specifically to the more intricate nature of rotational and rolling motion.

  8. Human Ocular Counter-Rolling and Roll Tilt Perception during Off-Vertical Axis Rotation after Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles; Denise, Pierre; Reschke, Millard; Wood, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Ocular counter-rolling (OCR) induced by whole body tilt in roll has been explored after spaceflight as an indicator of the adaptation of the otolith function to microgravity. It has been claimed that the overall pattern of OCR responses during static body tilt after spaceflight is indicative of a decreased role of the otolith function, but the results of these studies have not been consistent, mostly due to large variations in the OCR within and across individuals. By contrast with static head tilt, off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) presents the advantage of generating a sinusoidal modulation of OCR, allowing averaged measurements over several cycles, thus improving measurement accuracy. Accordingly, OCR and the sense of roll tilt were evaluated in seven astronauts before and after spaceflight during OVAR at 45 /s in darkness at two angles of tilt (10 and 20 ). There was no significant difference in OCR during OVAR immediately after landing compared to preflight. However, the amplitude of the perceived roll tilt during OVAR was significantly larger immediately postflight, and then returned to control values in the following days. Since the OCR response is predominantly attributed to the shearing force exerted on the utricular macula, the absence of change in OCR postflight suggests that the peripheral otolith organs function normally after short-term spaceflight. However, the increased sense of roll tilt indicates an adaptation in the central processing of gravitational input, presumably related to a re-weigthing of the internal representation of gravitational vertical as a result of adaptation to microgravity.

  9. Prediction of Critical Heat Flux under Rolling Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim to this paper may be summarized as follows: identify the flow regime compare with existing void-quality relationship and void fraction at OAF derived from the vapor superficial velocity obtained by the churn-to annular flow criterion, develop and evaluate the correlation for accurate prediction of CHF ratio under rolling motion. Experimentally measured CHF results from the previous study were not well-predicted by existing CHF correlations developed for wide range of pressure under rolling motion in vertical tube. Specifically, existing correlations do not account for the dynamic motion parameter, such as tangential and centrifugal force. This study reviewed some existing correlation and experimental studies related to reduction and enhancement of CHF and heat transfer and flow behavior under heaving and rolling motion, and developed a CHF ratio correlation for upward flow vertical tube under rolling motion. Based upon dimensionless groups, equations and interpolation factor, an empirical CHF correlation has been developed which is consistent with experimental data for uniformly heated tubes internally cooled by R-134 under rolling motion. Flow regime was determined through the prediction method for annular flow. Non-dimensional number and function were decided by CHF mechanism of each region. Interaction of LFD and DNB regions is taken into account by means of power interpolation which is reflected void fraction at OAF. The suggested correlation predicted the CHF Ratio with reasonable accuracy, showing an average error of -0.59 and 2.51% for RMS. Rolling motion can affect bubble motion and liquid film behavior complexly by combination of tangential and centrifugal forces and mass flow than heaving motion. Through a search of literature and a comparison of previous CHF ratio results, this work can contribute to the study of boiling heat transfer and CHF for the purpose of enhancement or reduction the CHF of dynamic motion system, such as marine reactor

  10. Prediction of Critical Heat Flux under Rolling Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jinseok; Lee, Yeongun; Park, Gooncherl [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The aim to this paper may be summarized as follows: identify the flow regime compare with existing void-quality relationship and void fraction at OAF derived from the vapor superficial velocity obtained by the churn-to annular flow criterion, develop and evaluate the correlation for accurate prediction of CHF ratio under rolling motion. Experimentally measured CHF results from the previous study were not well-predicted by existing CHF correlations developed for wide range of pressure under rolling motion in vertical tube. Specifically, existing correlations do not account for the dynamic motion parameter, such as tangential and centrifugal force. This study reviewed some existing correlation and experimental studies related to reduction and enhancement of CHF and heat transfer and flow behavior under heaving and rolling motion, and developed a CHF ratio correlation for upward flow vertical tube under rolling motion. Based upon dimensionless groups, equations and interpolation factor, an empirical CHF correlation has been developed which is consistent with experimental data for uniformly heated tubes internally cooled by R-134 under rolling motion. Flow regime was determined through the prediction method for annular flow. Non-dimensional number and function were decided by CHF mechanism of each region. Interaction of LFD and DNB regions is taken into account by means of power interpolation which is reflected void fraction at OAF. The suggested correlation predicted the CHF Ratio with reasonable accuracy, showing an average error of -0.59 and 2.51% for RMS. Rolling motion can affect bubble motion and liquid film behavior complexly by combination of tangential and centrifugal forces and mass flow than heaving motion. Through a search of literature and a comparison of previous CHF ratio results, this work can contribute to the study of boiling heat transfer and CHF for the purpose of enhancement or reduction the CHF of dynamic motion system, such as marine reactor.

  11. On pull out strength of Calandria tube rolled joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of elevated temperature (1250 C) tensile pulling of calandria tube-tube sheet rolled joints of pressurized heavy water reactors are described. The maximum stress values attained by the calandria tube test pieces at 1250 C are considerably higher than those are expected during normal reactor operation. There is no significant deterioration in the helium leak rates after tensile pulling. Microstructural evidences presented suggest that the entire rolled joint participates in supporting the load at all stages of tensile deformation. (author). 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Continuous roll casting of aluminium alloys – casting parameters analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Krsti? Vukelja

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper was to present the influence of casting parameters on casting conditions and interference of casting parameters on the final strip characteristics such as constant strip thickness, surface quality and roughness of aluminum alloys sheet 6,30 to 6,50 mm thick. The study shows that casting speed, roll force and roll gap should have the greatest influence on the final strip thickness, and that the examined parameters agree well with the theoretical standpoints.

  13. Twin roll casting of magnesium alloys with high aluminum contents

    OpenAIRE

    Watari, H.; Haga, T.; Shibue, Y.; Davey, K.; Koga, N.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the work is to establish a manufacturing process and technology to facilitate theeconomical manufacture of high-quality magnesium sheet alloys with high aluminum contents, such as AZ61and AZ91. The aim of the work is to establish a twin roll casting technology to facilitate the manufacture ofAZ61 and AZ91 magnesium sheet alloys economically whilst maintaining high quality.Design/methodology/approach: A horizontal type twin roll caster was used to manufacture thin magne...

  14. Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 29 is being distributed for use in development and testing fingerprint matching systems. The data consist of 216 ten-print fingerprint card pairs with both the rolled and plains (from a bottom of the fingerprint card) scanned at 19.7 pixels per mm. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  15. Effect of rolling on dissipation in fault gouges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliding and rolling are two outstanding deformation modes in granular media. The first one induces frictional dissipation whereas the latter one involves deformation with negligible resistance. Using numerical simulations on two-dimensional shear cells, we investigate the effect of the grain rotation on the energy dissipation and the strength of granular materials under quasistatic shear deformation. Rolling and sliding are quantified in terms of the so-called Cosserat rotations. The observed spontaneous formation of vorticity cells and clusters of rotating bearings may provide an explanation for the long standing heat flow paradox of earthquake dynamics

  16. Mastering of technology of D2 die steel hot rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of melting and hot rolling of the D2 die steel, analogous to the national Kh12MF-type steel, is described. The course of the D2 steel reduced hot plasticity is identified the content of highly large quantities of primary carbides and correspondingly presence of a rough net of the eutectic constituent. Decrease in the molybdenum, vanadium and carbon content within the limits of the brand composition made it possible to reduce the fractions pf the eutectic carbides. Introduction of the developed modes of electrical melting and hot rolling resulted in the increase of the yield up to 73.9%

  17. 76 FR 41045 - Special Conditions; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Design Roll-Maneuver...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ...Model G250 Airplane, Design Roll-Maneuver Requirement AGENCY: Federal Aviation...controls as they relate to design roll-maneuver requirements. The applicable airworthiness...is not covered in the current roll-maneuver airworthiness regulations of Sec....

  18. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.51 Roll-over protective structures...following requirements: (1) Roll-over protective structures...their use is incidental to the work performed therein....

  19. 49 CFR Table 2 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224...REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT ROLLING STOCK Pt. 224, Subpt. B, Table 2 Table...Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock Freight car or locomotive length...

  20. Edge sealing for low cost stability enhancement of roll-to-roll processed flexible polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanenbaum, David M.; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2012-01-01

    Fully roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules were prepared, characterized, and laminated. Cell modules were cut from the roll and matched pairs were selected, one module with exposed cut edges, the other laminated again with the same materials and adhesive sealing fully around the cut edges. The edge sealing rim was 10 mm wide. Cell modules were characterized by periodic measurements of IV curves over extended periods in a variety of conditions, as well as by a variety of spatial imaging techniques. Data show significant stability benefits of the edge sealing process. The results of the imaging experiments show that the ingress of atmospheric reactants from the edges leads to degradation. In the case of edge sealed devices the same effects are observed but significantly slowed down. In particular, the fast nonlinear degradation is eliminated.

  1. Improved Fatigue Performance of Threaded Drillstring Connections by Cold Rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research work presented in this thesis is concerned with analytical, numerical and experimental studies of the effect of cold rolling on the fatigue behaviour of threaded drillstring connections. A comprehensive literature study is made of the various effects on the fatigue behaviour of residual stresses introduced by mechanical deformation of notched components. Some of the effects studied are cyclic hardening behaviour after prestraining, cyclic creep, fatigue initiation in prestrained materials, short cracks and crack growth models including crack closure. Residual stresses were introduced in the surface of a smooth pipe by a rolling device to simulate a cold rolling process and verify the calculated residual stresses by measurements. Strain hardening and contact algorithm of the two bodies were incorporated in the FE analyses. Two significant errors were found in the commercial software package for residual stress evaluation, Restran v. 3.3.2a also called SINT, when using the Schajer method. The Schajer algorithm is the only hole-drilling algorithm without theoretical shortcomings, and is recommended when measuring large residual stress gradients in the depth direction. Using the Schajer method solved by in-house Matlab-routines good agreement between measured residual stress gradients and residual stress gradients from FE analyses was found. Full scale fatigue tests were performed on pipes cut from used drillstrings with notches of similar geometry as threadsith notches of similar geometry as threads used in drillstring connections. The simulated threads consisted of four full depth helix notches with runouts at the surface. The pipe threads were cold rolled and fatigue tested in a full-scale four-point rotating bending fatigue testing rig. The test results showed that cold rolling had an effect on the crack initiation period. A major part of the fatigue life was with cracks observed at the notch root, but due to the increased fatigue crack propagation resistance the final fracture initiated at pits inside the pipe. Therefore, an optimisation of the roll geometry and rolling parameters was not possible. However, a significant fatigue life improvement was achieved. Based on experiments, a roller with similar profile as the thread root is recommended. A rolling force of maximum 20 kN is recommended to minimise the possibility of damaging the thread profile. Shallow cracks were observed typically when 5% of the fatigue life had expired. Re-rolling after 50% of expected improved fatigue life, when also short cracks were observed in the notch roots further increased the fatigue improvement. Pretensioned small steel specimens with a notch were used to simulate cold rolled threads. The specimens were fatigue tested in tension with minimum load close to zero. Pretensioning increased the fatigue life from approximately 50 000 cycles to an infinite number of cycles. In these tests non-propagating cracks of typically 0.4 mm length were found. The benefit from pretensioning gradually disappeared with increasing mean stress. FE analyses indicated that an almost instant relaxation of residual stresses to a level with no monotonic strain hardening from preloading would take place when cycled at moderate mean stress. Cycled at low mean stress, an instant relaxation of the surface layer was found in analysis. All observations from notched pretensioned fatigue specimens were in good agreement with the available literature. However, preloading was found to be strain rate dependent in tests where a pretension load held for 2 minutes gave a longer fatigue life than a sinusoidal loading-unloading cycle performed over a one minute interval. Strain hardening was found not contributing to the fatigue life improvement, whereas the polishing effect from improved surface quality after cold rolling increased the fatigue initiation period. However, residual stress and subsequent early crack closure was the dominating effect at moderate cyclic mean loads. The material data required to perform FE fatigue simulation studies of a full threaded c

  2. Precipitation of Fe and Si in cold rolled Al-Fe-Si sheet during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this present work is to make clear the precipitation behavior of Fe and Si in cold rolled commercial pure aluminum sheet during annealing, especially on the phases and on the effects of prior cold rolling

  3. 27 CFR 45.45b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...designation “roll-your-own tobacco”, “cigarette tobacco”, “cigar tobacco”, “cigarette wrapper”, or “cigar wrapper”. (b) Product weight. Before removal subject to tax, roll-your-own tobacco must have...

  4. 27 CFR 41.72b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...applicable designation “roll-your-own tobacco”, “cigarette tobacco”, “cigarette wrapper”, “cigar tobacco” or “cigar wrapper”. (b) Product weight. Before removal subject to tax, roll-your-own tobacco...

  5. 27 CFR 40.216b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...designation “roll-your-own tobacco”, “cigarette tobacco”, “cigar tobacco”, “cigarette wrapper”, or “cigar wrapper”. (b) Product weight. Before removal subject to tax, roll-your-own tobacco must have...

  6. Texture formation on cold rolling of titanium alloy type VT35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that two-component texture (111)[112-bar] and (100)[011], forms during cold rolling VT35 titanium alloy. The texture leads to anisotropy of mechanical properties of sheets in rolling plane. 7 refs

  7. 3-dimensional numerical modelling of rolling of superconducting Ag/BSCCO tape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten; Bech, Jakob Ilsted

    2000-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the deformation process during flat rolling of multifilament HTS tapes has been investigated using a commercial FEM program, ELFEN. The numerical models were built up in 2D and 3D using a Drucker-Prager/Cap model for the powder. Three different roll diameters (Ø24 mm, Ø85 mm and Ø126 mm) have been investigated. It is found that it is possible to perform numerical simulation with 3D models of flat rolling of multifilament wire. Two 3D models have been used; 3D pressing with rolls and 3D rolling. 3D pressing with rolls have the advance that the simulation time is lower than in the 3D rolling. The 3D models have the advantage compared to 2D pressing that they can predict the 3 dimensional flow in the flat rolling, which has been showed to be very imported for the super conduction properties

  8. 77 FR 3035 - Pricing for 2012 Annual Sets and America the Beautiful Quarters® Bags & Rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ...America the Beautiful Quarters[supreg] Bags & Rolls AGENCY: United States Mint, Department...America the Beautiful Quarters[supreg] Bags and Rolls. Please see the table below...America the Beautiful Quarters[supreg]...

  9. 76 FR 46852 - Panasonic Corporation of North America, Business Operations Group, Rolling Meadows, IL; Panasonic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...Corporation of North America, Business Operations Group, Rolling Meadows, IL...Corporation of North America, Business Operations Group, Rolling Meadows, Illinois...by the company shows that Business Operations Group and Financial Services...

  10. The effects of cold rolling temperature on corrosion resistance of pure iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlong, Lv; Hongyun, Luo

    2014-10-01

    The effects of cold rolling temperature on grain size and grain orientation of pure iron were investigated. Comparing with sample rolled at room temperature, the grain refinement was facilitated in sample obtained by cryogenic cold rolling at liquid-nitrogen temperature. However, the grain orientation changed little for two samples. It was shown that cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction could govern the corrosion reaction for pure iron in sulfuric acid solution. The grain refinement obtained by rolling improved the corrosion resistance of iron in sulfuric acid solution, borate buffer solution and borate buffer solution with chloride ion. However, comparing with iron rolled at room temperature, the corrosion resistance of iron obtained by cryogenic temperature rolling was lower. Comparing with iron rolled at room temperature, higher dislocation density in iron rolled at cryogenic temperature reduced its corrosion resistance.

  11. Sub-wavelength gratings fabricated on a light bar by roll-to-roll UV embossing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Lee, Chi-Hung; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2011-06-01

    This research uses a roll-to-roll based ultraviolet (UV) resin process to make sub-wavelength gratings for display applications. Based on the rigorous coupling wave analysis (RCWA), we analyze the relationship between the first order transmission/reflection efficiency and the pitch of the grating for various shapes as rays pass through the sub-wavelength gratings, patterned with a backlight. The objective is to turn the R/G/B (620 nm, 520 nm, and 450 nm) incident rays into uniformly and normally output white light with high illuminance from the surface of a light guide. PMID:21716360

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Macrosegregation and Shrinkage in Large-Diameter Steel Roll Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastac, Laurentiu

    2011-12-01

    Minimizing macrosegregation and shrinkage in large cast steel mill rolls challenges the limits of commercial foundry technology. Processing improvements have been achieved by balancing the total heat input of casting with the rate of heat extraction from the surface of the roll in the mold. A submerged entry nozzle (SEN) technique that injects a dilute alloy addition through a nozzle into the partially solidified net-shaped roll ingot can mitigate both centerline segregation and midradius channel segregate conditions. The objective of this study is to optimize the melt chemistry, solidification, and SEN conditions to minimize centerline and midradius segregation, and then to improve the quality of the transition region between the outer shell and the diluted interior region. To accomplish this objective, a multiphase, multicomponent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was developed for studying the macrosegregation and shrinkage under various casting conditions for a 65-ton, 1.6-m-diameter steel roll. The developed CFD framework consists of solving for the volume fraction of phases (air and steel mixture), temperature, flow, and solute balance in multicomponent alloy systems. Thermal boundary conditions were determined by measuring the temperature in the mold at several radial depths and height locations. The thermophysical properties including viscosity of steel alloy used in the simulations are functions of temperature. The steel mixture in the species-transfer model consists of the following elements: Fe, Mn, Si, S, P, C, Cr, Mo, and V. Density and liquidus temperature of the steel mixture are locally affected by the segregation of these elements. The model predictions were validated against macrosegregation measured from pieces cut from the 65-ton roll. The effect of key processing parameters such as melt composition and superheat of both the shell and the dilute interior alloy are addressed. The influence of mold type and thickness on macrosegregation and shrinkage also are discussed.

  13. Aqueous Processing of Low-Band-Gap Polymer Solar Cells Using Roll-to-Roll Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous nanoparticle dispersions of a series of three low-band-gap polymers poly[4,8-bis(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo(1,2-b:4,5-b?)dithiophene-alt-5,6-bis(octyloxy)-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-5,5?-diyl] (P1), poly[(4,4?-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2?,3?-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl] (P2), and poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (P3) were prepared using ultrasonic treatment of a chloroform solution of the polymer and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester ([60]PCBM) mixed with an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS). The size of the nanoparticles was established using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of the aqueous dispersions and by both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and using both grazing incidence SAXS (GISAXS) and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) in the solid state as coated films. The aqueous dispersions were dialyzed to remove excess detergent and concentrated to a solid content ofapproximately 60 mg mL–1. The formation of films for solar cells using the aqueous dispersion required the addition of the nonionic detergent FSO-100 at a concentration of 5 mg mL–1. This enabled slot-die coating of high quality films with a dry thickness of 126 ± 19, 500 ± 25, and 612 ± 22 nm P1, P2, and P3, respectively for polymer solar cells. Large area inverted polymer solar cells were thus prepared based on the aqueous inks. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached for each of the materials was 0.07, 0.55, and 0.15% for P1, P2, and P3, respectively. The devices were prepared using coating and printing of all layers including the metal back electrodes. All steps were carried out using roll-to-roll (R2R) slot-die and screen printing methods on flexible substrates. All five layers were processed using environmentally friendly methods and solvents. Two of the layers were processed entirely from water (the electron transport layer and the active layer).

  14. Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the preparation and characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO)-Ag-IZO multilayer electrodes grown on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates using a roll-to-roll sputtering system for use in flexible organic photovoltaics. By the continuous roll-to-roll sputtering of the bottom IZO, Ag, and top IZO layers at room temperature, they were able to fabricate a high quality IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode with a sheet resistance of 6.15 ?/square, optical transmittance of 87.4%, and figure of merit value of 42.03x10-3 ?-1 on the PES substrate. In addition, the IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode exhibited superior flexibility to the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode due to the existence of a ductile Ag layer between the IZO layers and stable amorphous structure of the IZO film. Furthermore, the flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown IZO-Ag-IZO electrode showed higher power efficiency (3.51%) than the OSCs fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode (2.67%).

  15. Using Rolling to Develop Neuromuscular Control and Coordination of the Core and Extremities of Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogenboom, Barbara J.; Voight, Michael L.; Cook, Gray; Gill, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Rolling is a movement pattern seldom used by physical therapists for assessment and intervention with adult clientele with normal neurologic function. Rolling, as an adult motor skill, combines the use of the upper extremities, core, and lower extremities in a coordinated manner to move from one posture to another. Rolling is accomplished from prone to supine and supine to prone, although the method by which it is performed varies among adults. Assessment of rolling for both the ability to co...

  16. Simultaneous Tether Extraction Contributes to Neutrophil Rolling Stabilization: A Model Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yan; Shao, Jin-yu

    2006-01-01

    Neutrophil rolling is the initial step of neutrophil recruitment to sites of inflammation. During the rolling, membrane tethers are very likely extracted from both the neutrophil and the endothelial cell lining of vessel walls. Here, we present a two-dimensional neutrophil-rolling model to investigate whether and how membrane tethers contribute to stable neutrophil rolling. In our model, neutrophils are assumed to be rigid spheres covered with randomly distributed deformable microvilli, and e...

  17. Coupled rolling and buckling model for friction-sensitive setting of flatness actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Nakhoul, Rebecca; Abdelkhalek, Sami; Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Flatness defects in thin strip cold rolling are a consequence of buckling due to roll thermo-elastic deformation and the resulting heterogeneous strip plastic deformation. A coupled rolling - buckling model has been developed [Abdelkhalek et al. 2011]. It has shown that (i) taking buckling into account results in completely different stress fields and fits correctly the measured on-line residual stresses under tension ("stress-meter rolls"); (ii) coupling buckling in the post-bite area and th...

  18. Microstructural Evolution During Hot Rolling of an AZ31 Mg Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Jorge Del; Pe?rez-prado, Mari?a Teresa; Ruano, Oscar Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of a AZ31 Mg alloy during hot rolling has been investigated using optical microscopy and texture (macro and micro) analysis as the main characterization tools. In particular, the differences between the microstructure obtained by unidirectional rolling (UR) and cross rolling (CR) are studied. Significant twinning activity is observed in both cases. Additionally, after cross rolling, a rather heterogeneous microstructure develops, with scattered regions populated ...

  19. Constitutive modelling and computational simulation of nip mechanics and winding of paper rolls

    OpenAIRE

    A?ro?la?, Kilwa

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the behaviour of paper rolls under different loading conditions as well as the winding process are studied using computational simulations. First, the mechanics of a rolling nip contact on a paper stack is investigated. The development of the micro-slip pattern of the contacting surfaces under the rolling nip is elaborated, in particular. It is found that the interlayer slippage between paper layers below the surface of the paper roll substantially influences the events taking ...

  20. Method of Maintaining the Required Values of Surface Roughness and Prediction of Technological Conditions for Cold Sheet Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valí?ek J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on results obtained from topography of surfaces of sheets rolled from deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697, non-alloy low-carbon structural steel EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium. The presented results document correctness of the assumption that the rolling force Froll increases with the increasing reduction ?h and the quality of the rolled surface is improved at the simultaneous increasing of strength of rolled sheets and the decreasing of size of structural grains. The experiment was performed on the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa, which enables only non-continuous technology in contrast to the rolling mill with continuous reduction on one sheet in several degrees on rolling trains, in consequence of which the obtained height parameters of the section are in close correlation with the predicted dependence. Contribution of the work consists in the creation of a mathematical model (algorithm for predicting technological parameters of the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa at change of the absolute reduction ?h, for example for a deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697 and non-alloy lowcarbon structural steel PN EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium, and also in the development of a method of calculation applicable to any material being rolled in general, because the authors have found that various materials can be differentiated by a derived analytical criterion IKP. This criterion is a function of ratio between the modulus of elasticity of reference material and that of actually rolled material. The reference material is here deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697. Verification was carried out by measuring changes of final surface roughness profile and final strength of rolled sheets of the stated materials in relation to reductions and those were compared with theoretically predicted values. It is possible to identify and predict on the basis of this algorithm an instant state of surface topography in respect to variable technological conditions. On this basis it is then possible to calculate and plot individual main technological parameters.