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1

Anatomy of pollution: Rivers of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

North Rhine-Westphalia, the most industrialized and densely populated state of Germany, is drained by six major tributaries of the Rhine: the Sieg, Wupper, Ruhr, Erft, Emscher, and Lippe. The first four drain predominantly catchments with Phanerozoic siliciclastic rocks, while the latter two dewater Cretaceous carbonate basins. Together, the rivers account for {approximately}11 percent of the Rhine water, and they reflect various stages of pollution, from a moderately polluted Sieg and Ruhr to the heavily damaged Emscher. The {delta}{sup 18}O H{sub 2}O of -8.5{+-}1.5 permil SMOW suggests that summer recharge into local aquifers is the main source of water in these rivers. Down-stream, the water becomes enriched in {sup 18}O, by {approximately}2 permil, due to low altitude precipitation and because of evaporation, particularly in artificial lakes. However, thermal fractionation, when water is utilized for cooling in power stations and smelters, also contributes to this trend. State-wide, and down-stream within rivers, the increasing pollution levels are characterized by rising salt concentrations (from normal riverine values up to a third of seawater), by up to two orders of magnitude CO{sub 2} overpressures, oxygen depletion, and enhanced nutrient concentrations. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} demonstrate that microbial respiration of C{sub org} in soil/groundwater systems accounts for about 50 to 100 percent of the entire DIC, with the higher values typical of more polluted ecosystems. Evasion of gaseous CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere and microbial nitrification are the most important processes for the riverine aquatic cycles of carbon and nitrogen, resulting in more advanced dissipation of CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the less polluted ecosystems. Denitrification may fuel generation of some {open_quotes}excess{close_quotes} CO{sub 2} only in the highly polluted ecosystems, such as the Emscher. 58 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Flintrop, C.; Hohlmann, B.; Jasper, T. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)] [and others

1996-01-01

2

Rare earth elements in the Rhine River, Germany: first case of anthropogenic lanthanum as a dissolved microcontaminant in the hydrosphere.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The distribution of dissolved rare earth elements (REE) in the Rhine River, Germany, shows the anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd) microcontamination that is commonly observed in rivers in densely populated countries with a highly evolved health care system. However, the Rhine River also carries anomalously high concentrations of lanthanum (La), which produce very large positive La anomalies in normalized REE distribution patterns. These positive La anomalies first occur north of the City of Worms and then decrease in size downstream, but are still significant approximately 400 km downstream, close to the German-Dutch border. The strong La enrichment is of anthropogenic origin and can be traced back to effluent from a production plant for fluid catalytic cracking catalysts at Rhine river-km 447.4. This effluent is characterized by extremely high dissolved total REE and La concentrations of up to 52 mg/kg and 49 mg/kg, respectively. Such La concentrations are well-above those at which ecotoxicological effects have been observed. The Rhine River is the first case observed to date, where a river's dissolved REE inventory is affected and even dominated by anthropogenic La. Our results suggest that almost 1.5t of anthropogenic dissolved La is exported via the Rhine River into the North Sea per year. This reveals that the growing industrial use of REE (and other formerly "exotic" elements) results in their increasing release into the environment, and highlights the urgent need to determine their geogenic background concentrations in terrestrial surface waters.

Kulaks?z S; Bau M

2011-07-01

3

The antiquity of the Rhine River: stratigraphic coverage of the dinotheriensande (eppelsheim formation) of the Mainz Basin (Germany).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mammalian fossils from the Eppelsheim Formation (Dinotheriensande) have been a benchmark for Neogene vertebrate palaeontology since 200 years. Worldwide famous sites like Eppelsheim serve as key localities for biochronologic, palaeobiologic, environmental, and mammal community studies. So far the formation is considered to be of early Late Miocene age (~9.5 Ma, Vallesian), representing the oldest sediments of the Rhine River. The stratigraphic unity of the formation and of its fossil content was disputed at times, but persists unresolved. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigate a new fossil sample from Sprendlingen, composed by over 300 mammalian specimens and silicified wood. The mammals comprise entirely Middle Miocene species, like cervids Dicrocerus elegans, Paradicrocerus elegantulus, and deinotheres Deinotherium bavaricum and D. levius. A stratigraphic evaluation of Miocene Central European deer and deinothere species proof the stratigraphic inhomogenity of the sample, and suggest late Middle Miocene (~12.5 Ma) reworking of early Middle Miocene (~15 Ma) sediments. This results agree with taxonomic and palaeoclimatic analysis of plant fossils from above and within the mammalian assemblage. Based on the new fossil sample and published data three biochronologic levels within the Dinotheriensand fauna can be differentiated, corresponding to early Middle Miocene (late Orleanian to early Astaracian), late Middle Miocene (late Astaracian), and early Late Miocene (Vallesian) ages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study documents complex faunal mixing of classical Dinotheriensand fauna, covering at least six million years, during a time of low subsidence in the Mainz Basin and shifts back the origination of the Rhine River by some five million years. Our results have severe implications for biostratigraphy and palaeobiology of the Middle to Late Miocene. They suggest that turnover events may be obliterated and challenge the proposed 'supersaturated' biodiversity, caused by Middle Miocene superstites, of Vallesian ecosystems in Central Europe.

Böhme M; Aiglstorfer M; Uhl D; Kullmer O

2012-01-01

4

Biotest method in Rhine river surveillance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Against the background of the 1986 Sandoz chemical accident the national and international commission for the protection of the Rhine river was prompted to construct, a continuous supra-regional surveillance of the river. Its aim is a biological warning system which encompasses the exising chemical-physical monitoring of the water. The Biotest method was newly developed in a joint plan of eight separate projects. The bio-monitors are continuous or semi-continuous systems which make up for the time delay of chemical analyses. (BWI).

1994-01-01

5

Extended reference precipitation and temperature dataset for the river Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

The need of a reliable and extended dataset for the river Rhine lies in the growing necessity of evaluating the effects of climate change. For the countries directly involved, which benefit and sometimes distract from the extreme discharges of the Rhine, these kinds of datasets are of great importance. They can act as reference for the correction of errors in precipitation predictions from General Circulation Models or from simulated datasets such as the ERA-40 and ERA-interim. These errors can lead to over/underestimations of hydrological simulation and latent use of hydrological forecasts. The purpose of this study is to present an extended reference dataset of daily values of precipitation and temperature, from 1961 until 2008, for the whole basin of the river Rhine. The proposed dataset is based on the historical data from 1961 until 1995 of the International Commission of the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (referred to as CHR). Our concern is to extend the CHR set until 2008, creating an updated reference for future studies. The Rhine basin is divided into three sub-catchments. These sub-catchments correspond to the German, French and Swiss basins of the river Rhine. For each sub-catchment, gridded datasets of daily values of precipitation and temperature are used. The datasets are obtained from REGNIE, University of Trier and MeteoSwiss-ETH, for the German, French and Swiss sub-catchment of the Rhine, respectively. Possible gaps that are found in the datasets, are filled with values from E_OBS Gridded Dataset, obtain from ECA&D. The subsets of these three sub-catchments are joined together and create a long term dataset that covers the entire Rhine basin. The extended dataset, referred to as CHR08, is rescaled to 25 km taking into account the topography of the catchment areas. In order to eliminate any artificial trend created in the CHR08 dataset, some homogeneity checks are performed, using the E_OBS dataset. Here, homogeneity tests of the variance, the mean and the maximum number of consecutive wet days are applied and presented. The CHR08 dataset is implemented, analyzed and presented with Delft-FEWS. To determine whether the CHR08 dataset contains useful and correct information about the discharges of the Rhine, the HBV-96 hydrological model is used. The HBV-96 model produces daily discharges of the Rhine in each sub-catchment. The observed maximum annual discharges are compared with the corresponding simulated discharges at each sub-catchment. The annual extreme discharges at Lobith (German-Dutch border) and the variation of extremes discharges for the years 1961 until 2008 are also presented.

Photiadou, Christiana; Weerts, Albrecht; van den Hurk, Bart

2010-05-01

6

Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

2000-01-01

7

River Rhine: from sewer to the spring of life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water is the key issue in a number of declarations made by several eminent international commissions in recent years. The availability of clean and unpolluted water is crucial to sustainable development. The River Rhine was turned by pollution into the sewer of Western Europe; environmental protection measures, changes in industrial production and consumers' behaviour and remedial measures have drastically improved the quality of Rhine water, which, besides being the main water-way in Europe, also serves as a source of drinking water for a large population and is used for recreational purposes. Small occasional accidents, major spills, very remote accidents, war activities, etc. threaten the full recovery of what is the socially and economically most important watercourse in Europe. The organizational and technological measures taken to protect the Rhine from pollution can serve as an example of how other major freshwater sources could be protected from contamination or how existing pollution could be remedied.

Zehnder AJ

1993-01-01

8

Decision support and river management strategies for the Rhine in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes a methodology for assessing and comparing alternative river management strategies for the Dutch branches of the river Rhine. The three objectives considered in the analysis are: safety against flooding which is a necessary condition to maintain and enhance economic development of a major part of the Netherlands, improving inland navigation conditions along the river (the Rhine is a major transport route between the port of Rotterdam and Germany), and increasing the ecological values of the river system. This paper describes the methodology and models that are used to assess alternative ways of meeting these objectives. We used hydrodynamic modeling aided by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a new approach that has some important advantages compared to traditional approaches. The analysis shows the trade-offs for various strategies (for example safety versus nature, nature versus inland navigation, agriculture versus nature etc.) and looks for possibility to create win-win situations. It also produces scorecards for various strategies, which show their impacts on the functions of the river and their financial consequences. (author)

2007-01-01

9

Anthropogenic dissolved and colloid/nanoparticle-bound samarium, lanthanum and gadolinium in the Rhine River and the impending destruction of the natural rare earth element distribution in rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

The strong increase in the consumption of rare earth elements (REE) in high-tech products and processes is accompanied by increasing amounts of REE released into the environment. Following the first report of Gd contamination of the hydrosphere in 1996, anthropogenic Gd originating from contrast agents has now been reported worldwide from river and estuarine waters, coastal seawater, groundwater and tap water. Recently, microcontamination with La, that is derived from a point source where catalysts for petroleum refining are produced, has been detected in the Rhine River in Germany and the Netherlands. Here we report the occurrence of yet another REE microcontamination of river water: in addition to anthropogenic Gd and La, the Rhine River now also shows significant amounts of anthropogenic Sm. The anthropogenic Sm, which enters the Rhine River north of Worms, Germany, with the same industrial wastewater that carries the anthropogenic La, can be traced through the Middle and Lower Rhine to the Netherlands. At Leverkusen, Germany, some 250 km downstream from the point source at Worms, anthropogenic Sm still contributes up to 87% of the total dissolved Sm concentration of the Rhine River. Results from ultrafiltration suggest that while the anthropogenic Gd is not particle-reactive and hence exclusively present in the truly dissolved REE pool (<10 kDa), the anthropogenic La and Sm are also present in the colloidal/nanoparticulate REE pool (between 10 kDa and 0.2 ?m). Though difficult to quantify, our data suggest that the Rhine River may carry up to 5700 kg of anthropogenic La, up to 584 kg of anthropogenic Sm, and up to 730 kg of anthropogenic Gd per year toward the North Sea. There exist no regulatory limits for dissolved REE in natural waters, but total REE and Y (?REY) concentrations of up to 0.14 mg/kg in the plume downstream of and 52.2 mg/kg at the head of an effluent pipe at Rhine-km 447.3 at Worms get close to and well-above, respectively, the levels at which ecotoxicological effects have been documented. Because of the increasing use of REE and other formerly “exotic” trace elements in high-tech applications, these critical metals have now become emerging contaminants that should be monitored, and it appears that studies of their biogeochemical behavior in natural freshwaters might soon no longer be possible.

Kulaks?z, Serkan; Bau, Michael

2013-01-01

10

Cyclic sedimentation in Tertiary Lower-Rhine Basin, Germany - the `Liegendrucken` of the brown-coal opencast Fortuna mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Lower-Rhine Basin, at the northwestern headlands of the Schieferbegbirge in western Germany, the Oligocene-Miocene Koln Formation once was splendidly exposed in the former Fortuna mine, one of the open-cast mines of the regional brown-coal mining industry. There, a complex 60 m thick elastic marine shoreline succession was studied. Coastal marine sediments were formed along the coast in the basal sediment-fill of the basin. Due to repeated ingression of the Tertiary North Sea, a number of subtidal to supratidal coastal onlap cycles developed. This paper discusses cyclic sedimentation in the Tertiary of the Lower-Rhine Basin.

Schafer, A.; Hilger, D.; Gross, G.; Vonderhocht, F. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany). Inst. of Geology

1996-06-01

11

Surveys of new and rare microfungi in the Dusseltal (North Rhine-Westphalia)--Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the years 2003 and 2004 we have observed an about 70 hectare large area in the Düsseltal, the eastern part of the Neandertal in North Rhine-Westphalia. There we collected on trees, bushes and herbs and found about 150 microfungi of which some are new for Germany or the entire world. E.g.: Pseudocercospora populigena N. ALE-AGHA, U. BRAUN & G.B. FEIGE on Populus berolinensis; Vialaea insculpta (FR.) SACC. on Ilex aquifolium L.; Passalora amelopsidis (PECK.) U. BRAUN on Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) PLANCH.: Pleiochaeta setosa (KIRCHN.) HUGHES on Genista angelica L.; Cercospora mercurialis PASS. on Mercurialis perennis L. (new for NRW); Pleurocytospora vestita PETRAK on Ribes aureum PURSH.; Gonatobotrys simplex CORDA on Lolium perenne L.; Phomatospora berckleyi SACC. on Dactylis glomerata L. and so on. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha.

Ale-Agha N; Feige GB; Jensen M; Brassmann M; Kricke R

2005-01-01

12

Surveys of new and rare microfungi in the Düsseltal (North Rhine-Westphalia)--Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the years 2003 and 2004 we have observed an about 70 hectare large area in the Düsseltal, the eastern part of the Neandertal in North Rhine-Westphalia. There we collected on trees, bushes and herbs and found about 150 microfungi of which some are new for Germany or the entire world. E.g.: Pseudocercospora populigena N. ALE-AGHA, U. BRAUN & G.B. FEIGE on Populus berolinensis; Vialaea insculpta (FR.) SACC. on Ilex aquifolium L.; Passalora amelopsidis (PECK.) U. BRAUN on Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) PLANCH.: Pleiochaeta setosa (KIRCHN.) HUGHES on Genista angelica L.; Cercospora mercurialis PASS. on Mercurialis perennis L. (new for NRW); Pleurocytospora vestita PETRAK on Ribes aureum PURSH.; Gonatobotrys simplex CORDA on Lolium perenne L.; Phomatospora berckleyi SACC. on Dactylis glomerata L. and so on. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha. PMID:16637187

Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kricke, R

2005-01-01

13

High Rhine power plant Rheinfelden and hydroelectric power in Germany; Hochrheinkraftwerk Rheinfelden und Wasserkraft in Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Germany, electric energy had been generated from water power since 1880; in the beginning, it was a dominating factor along with energy generation from coal, but it lost its importance as from 1950 when crude oil, natural gas and nuclear power became dominant. Since 1991, however, many small hydroelectric power plants have again been put into operation, or have been newly built, as a consequence of the government aids granted. In the Hochrhein (High Rhine) region, the German-Swiss power plant Rheinfelden was reconstructed, and other major hydroelectric power plants are being modernized. Technically, a much greater potential could be used, but this is currently not practicable for economical and ecological reasons. (orig.)

Mazurkiewicz, Jacek [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2011-10-15

14

Microseismicity at two geothermal power plants at Landau and Insheim in the Upper Rhine Graben, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Rhine Graben in south-western Germany and especially the southern part of Rhineland-Palatinate is one of the regions with the highest potential for deep geothermal power generation in Germany. One geothermal power plant is operated since 2007 in the city of Landau and a second power plant since Oct. 2012 near Insheim (~4 km south-east of Landau). Further geothermal power plants are currently projected in this region. In 2009 two earthquakes with magnitudes (ML) of 2.4 and 2.7 occurred in direct vicinity of the geothermal reservoir below Landau (depth ~3 km) and were felt within a radius of several kilometres (intensity up to V+). Furthermore, two felt earthquakes with magnitudes (ML) of 2.2 and 2.4 occurred during the stimulation of the reservoir near Insheim in April 2010. Therefore, a temporary seismic network was deployed and is continuously extended by the Geophysical Institute of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology with 12 stations (surface and shallow borehole) of the KArlsruhe Broad Band Array KABBA. In total more than 35 stations are operated by four operators for the microseismic monitoring of the region around Landau. The main challenge of the monitoring is the detection of the microseismic events with a magnitude ML below 1 due to the high seismic noise conditions in the densely populated Upper Rhine Graben. The application of established short-term to long-term average trigger algorithms is not feasible due to the large amount of transient signals caused by human activity (e.g. traffic). We apply an automated detection of microseismic events based on a combined cross-correlation and correlation coefficient analysis with known seismic events. The detected events are localized for absolute (HYPOSAT) and relative (hypoDD) hypocentres. Furthermore, we determine the peak ground velocities and vibration intensities after the German standard (DIN 4150-2 Structural vibration: human exposure to vibration in buildings) to evaluate the perceptibility of the shallow seismic events with MLFKZ 0325191A-F) and supervised by Projektträger Jülich (PT-J).

Groos, Jörn; Zeiß, Jens; Grund, Michael; Ritter, Joachim

2013-04-01

15

Comparison of deterministic and stochastic earthquake simulators for fault interactions in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment requires a stochastic description of earthquake occurrences. While short-term seismicity models are well-constrained by observations, the recurrences of characteristic on-fault earthquakes are only derived from theoretical considerations, uncertain palaeo-events or proxy data. Despite the involved uncertainties and complexity, simple statistical models for a quasi-period recurrence of on-fault events are implemented in seismic hazard assessments. To test the applicability of statistical models, such as the Brownian relaxation oscillator or the stress release model, we perform a systematic comparison with deterministic simulations based on rate- and state-dependent friction, high-resolution representations of fault systems and quasi-dynamic rupture propagation. For the specific fault network of the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany, we run both stochastic and deterministic model simulations based on the same fault geometries and stress interactions. Our results indicate that the stochastic simulators are able to reproduce the first-order characteristics of the major earthquakes on isolated faults as well as for coupled faults with moderate stress interactions. However, we find that all tested statistical models fail to reproduce the characteristics of strongly coupled faults, because multisegment rupturing resulting from a spatiotemporally correlated stress field is underestimated in the stochastic simulators. Our results suggest that stochastic models have to be extended by multirupture probability distributions to provide more reliable results.

Hainzl, Sebastian; Zöller, Gert; Brietzke, Gilbert B.; Hinzen, Klaus-G.

2013-10-01

16

Comparison of deterministic and stochastic earthquake simulators for fault interactions in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment requires a stochastic description of earthquake occurrences. While short-term seismicity models are well-constrained by observations, the recurrences of characteristic on-fault earthquakes are only derived from theoretical considerations, uncertain palaeo-events or proxy data. Despite the involved uncertainties and complexity, simple statistical models for a quasi-period recurrence of on-fault events are implemented in seismic hazard assessments. To test the applicability of statistical models, such as the Brownian relaxation oscillator or the stress release model, we perform a systematic comparison with deterministic simulations based on rate- and state-dependent friction, high-resolution representations of fault systems and quasi-dynamic rupture propagation. For the specific fault network of the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany, we run both stochastic and deterministic model simulations based on the same fault geometries and stress interactions. Our results indicate that the stochastic simulators are able to reproduce the first-order characteristics of the major earthquakes on isolated faults as well as for coupled faults with moderate stress interactions. However, we find that all tested statistical models fail to reproduce the characteristics of strongly coupled faults, because multisegment rupturing resulting from a spatiotemporally correlated stress field is underestimated in the stochastic simulators. Our results suggest that stochastic models have to be extended by multirupture probability distributions to provide more reliable results.

Hainzl, Sebastian; Zöller, Gert; Brietzke, Gilbert B.; Hinzen, Klaus-G.

2013-08-01

17

Evaluation of the Non-Formal Forest Education Sector in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: Organisations, Programmes and Framework Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Although a large number of different organisations offer various forest education programmes within Germany, specific information (i.e., sectoral and programme content and provision at a state level) is lacking. This study used a survey of all 61 forest education organisations (43 respondents) in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, to…

Grimm, Anne; Mrosek, Thorsten; Martinsohn, Anna; Schulte, Andreas

2011-01-01

18

Diversification of clonal complex 5 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (Rhine-Hesse clone) within Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1995, a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone has spread in southern Germany. The strain was assigned to the Rhine-Hesse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type by the staphylococcal reference center and was highly similar to epidemic clones known to belong to clonal complex 5 (CC5; USA100) based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we analyzed a defined collection of strains assigned to the Rhine-Hesse/USA100 PFGE type. Using sequence-based typing methods (MLST, spa), the isolates were divided into two distinct clusters, ST5 and its single-locus variant ST225. These two lineages are not distinguishable by PFGE or phage typing. Most of the ST5 isolates were derived from patients and volunteers from the Tübingen area in southwest Germany, whereas the ST225 isolates were mostly from other locations in Germany. The locally restricted ST5 isolates were shown to contain different SSCmec islands and exhibited different antibiotic resistance profiles. In contrast, the ST225 isolates form a highly homogenous group and are emerging all over Germany. The two lineages are clearly distinguishable by their phage content and spa type: ST5 strains from Tübingen are characterized by a Sa7int phage that carries the virulence gene sak, which codes for staphylokinase, and ST225 isolates are characterized by a Sa1int phage. In conclusion, based on sequence typing and phage content, CC5 strains can be subdivided into two distinct lineages with different epidemicities. PMID:23135939

Schulte, Berit; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Pohl, Konstanze; Goerke, Christiane; Wolz, Christiane

2012-11-07

19

Diversification of clonal complex 5 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (Rhine-Hesse clone) within Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since 1995, a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone has spread in southern Germany. The strain was assigned to the Rhine-Hesse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type by the staphylococcal reference center and was highly similar to epidemic clones known to belong to clonal complex 5 (CC5; USA100) based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we analyzed a defined collection of strains assigned to the Rhine-Hesse/USA100 PFGE type. Using sequence-based typing methods (MLST, spa), the isolates were divided into two distinct clusters, ST5 and its single-locus variant ST225. These two lineages are not distinguishable by PFGE or phage typing. Most of the ST5 isolates were derived from patients and volunteers from the Tübingen area in southwest Germany, whereas the ST225 isolates were mostly from other locations in Germany. The locally restricted ST5 isolates were shown to contain different SSCmec islands and exhibited different antibiotic resistance profiles. In contrast, the ST225 isolates form a highly homogenous group and are emerging all over Germany. The two lineages are clearly distinguishable by their phage content and spa type: ST5 strains from Tübingen are characterized by a Sa7int phage that carries the virulence gene sak, which codes for staphylokinase, and ST225 isolates are characterized by a Sa1int phage. In conclusion, based on sequence typing and phage content, CC5 strains can be subdivided into two distinct lineages with different epidemicities.

Schulte B; Bierbaum G; Pohl K; Goerke C; Wolz C

2013-01-01

20

The operational flood forecasting system WAVOS for the Rivers Rhine, Elbe and Odra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extreme floods of the past decade at the river Rhine (1993 and 1995), at the river Odra (1997) and at the River Elbe (2002) caused serious damages and confirmed again the urgency of exact and reliable flood forecasting systems as tools for decision support in order to reduce flood damages. The Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) is developing suitable operational water level forecast models for the River Rhine (WAVOS Rhein), for the River Odra (WAVOS Oder), and for the River Elbe (ELBA and WAVOS Elbe). These forecast systems are continuously used by the Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration on a daily basis for low water forecasting to support inland navigation. In case of floods the systems are used by four Federal State Flood Centres for flood forecasting several times per day. In this paper the operational WAVOS water level forecasting system is described and for the three river basins examples of the forecasting results of the last floods are given. With the growing demand for prolonging the forecasting period, increasing the accuracy and spatial density of forecasts, the tasks for future improvements of the models are shown.(Author)

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Route choices, migration speeds and daily migration activity of European silver eels Anguilla anguilla in the River Rhine, north-west Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Downstream migration of Anguilla anguilla silver eels was studied in the Lower Rhine, Germany, and the Rhine Delta, The Netherlands, in 2004-2006. Fish (n = 457) released near Cologne with implanted transponders were tracked by remote telemetry at 12 fixed detection locations distributed along the different possible migration routes to the North Sea. Relatively more A. anguilla migrated via the Waal than the Nederrijn, as would be expected from the ratio of river discharges at the bifurcation point at Pannerden. Downstream migration from the release site to Rhine-Xanten, close to the German-Dutch border, generally occurred in the autumn of the year of release but migration speeds tended to be low and variable and unaffected by maturation status or river discharge rates. Detection frequencies were not significantly related to discharge peaks or lunar cycles, but there was a minor detection peak 1-6 h after sunset. Between 2004 and 2009, 43% of the 457 A. anguilla released were never detected and of the 260 detected entering the Netherlands, 83 (32%) were detected escaping to the sea, 78 (94%) via the Nieuwe Waterweg and three (4%) and two (2%) via the sluices in the Haringvlietdam and Afsluitdijk, respectively. Possible causes of non-detections are discussed and it is suggested that many A. anguilla temporarily ceased migration, but that fishing mortality could have been important during passage through the Dutch parts of the Rhine. Practical implications of the results for predicting emigration routes, timings and magnitudes and use in management initiatives to promote escapement of A. anguilla silver eels to the sea are critically discussed.

Breukelaar AW; Ingendahl D; Vriese FT; de Laak G; Staas S; Klein Breteler JG

2009-06-01

22

Route choices, migration speeds and daily migration activity of European silver eels Anguilla anguilla in the River Rhine, north-west Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Downstream migration of Anguilla anguilla silver eels was studied in the Lower Rhine, Germany, and the Rhine Delta, The Netherlands, in 2004-2006. Fish (n = 457) released near Cologne with implanted transponders were tracked by remote telemetry at 12 fixed detection locations distributed along the different possible migration routes to the North Sea. Relatively more A. anguilla migrated via the Waal than the Nederrijn, as would be expected from the ratio of river discharges at the bifurcation point at Pannerden. Downstream migration from the release site to Rhine-Xanten, close to the German-Dutch border, generally occurred in the autumn of the year of release but migration speeds tended to be low and variable and unaffected by maturation status or river discharge rates. Detection frequencies were not significantly related to discharge peaks or lunar cycles, but there was a minor detection peak 1-6 h after sunset. Between 2004 and 2009, 43% of the 457 A. anguilla released were never detected and of the 260 detected entering the Netherlands, 83 (32%) were detected escaping to the sea, 78 (94%) via the Nieuwe Waterweg and three (4%) and two (2%) via the sluices in the Haringvlietdam and Afsluitdijk, respectively. Possible causes of non-detections are discussed and it is suggested that many A. anguilla temporarily ceased migration, but that fishing mortality could have been important during passage through the Dutch parts of the Rhine. Practical implications of the results for predicting emigration routes, timings and magnitudes and use in management initiatives to promote escapement of A. anguilla silver eels to the sea are critically discussed. PMID:20735693

Breukelaar, A W; Ingendahl, D; Vriese, F T; de Laak, G; Staas, S; Klein Breteler, J G P

2009-06-01

23

Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing adaptive action. The paper shows that the moment at which salmon reintroduction may fail due to climate change can only be approximated because of inherent uncertainties in the interaction between salmon and its environment. The added value of the assessment presented in this paper is that it provides researchers with a set of questions that are useful from a policy perspective (by focusing on the feasibility of a concrete policy ambition under climate change). Thus, it offers opportunities to supply policy makers with practical insight in the relevance of climate change.

Tobias Bölscher; Erik van Slobbe; Michelle T.H. van Vliet; Saskia E. Werners

2013-01-01

24

The Representation of the Ethnic and Cultural 'Other' in Primary School Textboooks: A Comparative Case Study of North Rhine Westphalia (Germany) and Ireland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines and compares the representation of the ethnic and cultural ‘other’ in primary school textbooks in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), which has an established immigration history, and Ireland, where immigration is as a relatively new phenomenon. As a result of increased migration o...

Liese, Melanie

25

Nationalism, racism and propaganda in early Weimar Germany: contradictions in the campaign against the "black horror on the Rhine".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the early 1920s, an average of 25,000 colonial soldiers from North Africa, Senegal and Madagascar formed part of the French army of occupation in the Rhineland. The campaign against these troops, which used the racist epithet ‘black horror on the Rhine’ (schwarze Schmach am Rhein), was one of the most important propaganda efforts of the Weimar period. In black horror propaganda, images of alleged sexual violence against Rhenish women and children by African French soldiers served as metaphors for Germany’s ‘victimization’ through the Versailles Treaty. Because the campaign initially gained broad popular and official support, historians have tended to consider the black horror a successful nationalist movement bridging political divides and strengthening the German nation state. In contrast, this essay points to some of the contradictions within the campaign, which often crystallized around conflicts over the nature of effective propaganda. Extreme racist claims about the Rhineland’s alleged ‘mulattoization’ (Mulattisierung) increasingly alienated Rhinelanders and threatened to exacerbate traditional tensions between the predominantly Catholic Rhineland and the central state at a time when Germany’s western borders seemed rather precarious in the light of recent territorial losses and separatist agitation. There was a growing concern that radical strands within the black horror movement were detrimental to the cohesion of the German nation state and to Germany’s positive image abroad, and this was a major reason behind the campaign’s decline after 1921/22. The conflicts within the campaign also point to some hitherto neglected affinities between the black horror and subsequent Nazi propaganda.

Roos J

2012-01-01

26

Plant communities in relation to flooding and soil contamination in a lowland Rhine River floodplain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), relationships were investigated between plant species composition and flooding characteristics, heavy metal contamination and soil properties in a lowland floodplain of the Rhine River. Floodplain elevation and yearly average flooding duration turned out to be more important for explaining variation in plant species composition than soil heavy metal contamination. Nevertheless, plant species richness and diversity showed a significant decrease with the level of contamination. As single heavy metal concentrations seemed mostly too low for causing phytotoxic effects in plants, this trend is possibly explained by additive effects of multiple contaminants or by the concomitant influences of contamination and non-chemical stressors like flooding. These results suggest that impacts of soil contamination on plants in floodplains could be larger than expected from mere soil concentrations. In general, these findings emphasize the relevance of analyzing effects of toxic substances in concert with the effects of other relevant stressors. PMID:20933313

Schipper, Aafke M; Lotterman, Kim; Leuven, Rob S E W; Ragas, Ad M J; de Kroon, Hans; Hendriks, A Jan

2010-10-08

27

Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Findings Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was used (N=3,306). The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale with three dimensions (one internal and two external) and six aspects of health behaviour (smoking habits, alcohol use, drug consumption, being over-/ or underweight, physical activity, and importance of healthy nutrition) were evaluated. Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals with a stronger belief in health professionals were less likely to use drugs and paid more attention to healthy nutrition. Furthermore, higher scores in the second external locus of control dimension (beliefs in luck or chance) were associated with a higher likelihood of current smoking, lower physical activity and less attention to healthy nutrition. Conclusions Students engaged more strongly in unhealthy behaviour if they believed that luck determines health. In contrast, believing in having control over one’s own health was associated with more healthy behaviour. These findings support the need to consider health control beliefs while designing preventive strategies in this specific population.

Helmer Stefanie M; Krämer Alexander; Mikolajczyk Rafael T

2012-01-01

28

Air pollution monitoring in street canyons in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Road traffic is one of the most important sources of air pollution in cities. According to a new section in the Federal Clean Air Act (Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz, BImSchG, Article 40, Section 2) authorities may restrict or even ban motor vehicle traffic under certain conditions in order to prevent or reduce harmful effects to the environment by traffic-caused air pollution. An ordinance proposed by the Federal Government will define the details. To prepare the implementation of the ordinance, the North Rhine-Westphalia State Environment Agency started a pilot programme to measure nitrogen dioxide, benzene, soot and other air pollutants at two sites with heavy traffic in Duesseldorf and Essen. The essentials of the proposed ordinance, the monitoring programme and results of the measurements are presented. It has been found that the standards which are to go into effect initially according to the proposed ordinance have not been exceeded

Pfeffer, Hans-Ulrich; Friesel, Jurgen; Elbers, Gereon; Beier, Reinhold; Ellermann, Klemens [North Rhine-Westphalia State Environment Agency Wallneyer Strasse 6 D-45133 Essen (Germany)

1995-06-22

29

Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 1. Chronological bibliography and materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex I lists the references arranged in the order of authors and years of publication, presents a list of experts, an overview on research projects, current measuring and observation programmes on the river Rhine and makes proposals for future monitoring sites. (orig.).

1994-01-01

30

Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization: the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA) on the management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic) is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality.

Fehr Rainer; Mekel Odile; Lacombe Martin; Wolf Ulrike

2003-01-01

31

Discourse on 'metropolitan driving forces' and 'uneven development': Germany and the RhineRuhr Conurbation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Issues of state restructuring and rescaling are on the political agenda across Western Europe, but these processes of restructuring require different inflexions in different countries. This paper will concentrate on the case of Germany, and in particular will explore the establishment of a regime of...

Knapp, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Peter

32

Automation of hydro power on the upper Rhine and modernization of a power station at the confluence of the Rhine and Aare rivers; Automatisierung der Wasserwirtschaft am Hochrhein und Modernisierung eines Kraftwerkes am Zusammenfluss von Aare und Rhein  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the first barrage weir after the confluence of the Rhine and Aare rivers, a maximum storage level is determined and set that constitutes an operating optimum and takes the different inflow and outfall volumes as well as existing retention capacities into account. Moreover, the process control system ensures automatic operation of the three engine units of the power station including process control of the barrage weir and the external systems belonging to the Albbruck-Doggern hydroelectric power station on the Rhine (RADAG). (orig./RHM)

Beltzig, C.; Schlageter, G.

1996-12-31

33

Assimilating GRACE terrestrial water storage data into a conceptual hydrology model for the River Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is a key component of the terrestrial and global hydrological cycles, and plays a major role in the Earth’s climate. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin satellite mission provided the first space-based dataset of TWS variations, albeit with coarse resolution and limited accuracy. Here, we examine the value of assimilating GRACE observations into a well-calibrated conceptual hydrology model of the Rhine river basin. In this study, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) were applied to assimilate the GRACE TWS variation data into the HBV-96 rainfall run-off model, from February 2003 to December 2006. Two GRACE datasets were used, the DMT-1 models produced at TU Delft, and the CSR-RL04 models produced by UT-Austin . Each center uses its own data processing and filtering methods, yielding two different estimates of TWS variations and therefore two sets of assimilated TWS estimates. To validate the results, the model estimated discharge after the data assimilation was compared with measured discharge at several stations. As expected, the updated TWS was generally somewhere between the modeled and observed TWS in both experiments and the variance was also lower than both the prior error covariance and the assumed GRACE observation error. However, the impact on the discharge was found to depend heavily on the assimilation strategy used, in particular on how the TWS increments were applied to the individual storage terms of the hydrology model.

Widiastuti, E.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Gunter, B.; Weerts, A.; van de Giesen, N.

2009-12-01

34

Plant communities in relation to flooding and soil contamination in a lowland Rhine River floodplain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), relationships were investigated between plant species composition and flooding characteristics, heavy metal contamination and soil properties in a lowland floodplain of the Rhine River. Floodplain elevation and yearly average flooding duration turned out to be more important for explaining variation in plant species composition than soil heavy metal contamination. Nevertheless, plant species richness and diversity showed a significant decrease with the level of contamination. As single heavy metal concentrations seemed mostly too low for causing phytotoxic effects in plants, this trend is possibly explained by additive effects of multiple contaminants or by the concomitant influences of contamination and non-chemical stressors like flooding. These results suggest that impacts of soil contamination on plants in floodplains could be larger than expected from mere soil concentrations. In general, these findings emphasize the relevance of analyzing effects of toxic substances in concert with the effects of other relevant stressors. - Multiple contaminants and periodic flooding may pose cumulative stress to plants in lowland floodplains.

2011-01-01

35

Plant communities in relation to flooding and soil contamination in a lowland Rhine River floodplain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), relationships were investigated between plant species composition and flooding characteristics, heavy metal contamination and soil properties in a lowland floodplain of the Rhine River. Floodplain elevation and yearly average flooding duration turned out to be more important for explaining variation in plant species composition than soil heavy metal contamination. Nevertheless, plant species richness and diversity showed a significant decrease with the level of contamination. As single heavy metal concentrations seemed mostly too low for causing phytotoxic effects in plants, this trend is possibly explained by additive effects of multiple contaminants or by the concomitant influences of contamination and non-chemical stressors like flooding. These results suggest that impacts of soil contamination on plants in floodplains could be larger than expected from mere soil concentrations. In general, these findings emphasize the relevance of analyzing effects of toxic substances in concert with the effects of other relevant stressors. - Multiple contaminants and periodic flooding may pose cumulative stress to plants in lowland floodplains.

Schipper, Aafke M., E-mail: a.schipper@science.ru.n [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lotterman, Kim [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bureau Natuurbalans - Limes Divergens, P.O. Box 31070, 6503 CB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kroon, Hans de [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Experimental Plant Ecology, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hendriks, A. Jan [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2011-01-15

36

Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U. Braun (new for Germany) on Pastinaca sativa L., Podosphaera tridactyla (WalIr.) de Bary on Prunus laurocerasus L., Septoria cornicola Desm. on Cornus sanguinea L., Stigmina tinea (Sacc.) M.B.Ellis on Viburnum opulus L., Torula herbarum (Pers.) Link on Potentilla argentea L., etc. All species are located in the herbarium Mycotheca parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

Ale-Agha N; Brassmann M; Jensen M

2009-01-01

37

Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U. Braun (new for Germany) on Pastinaca sativa L., Podosphaera tridactyla (WalIr.) de Bary on Prunus laurocerasus L., Septoria cornicola Desm. on Cornus sanguinea L., Stigmina tinea (Sacc.) M.B.Ellis on Viburnum opulus L., Torula herbarum (Pers.) Link on Potentilla argentea L., etc. All species are located in the herbarium Mycotheca parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:20222564

Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

2009-01-01

38

Trend of herbicide loads in the river Rhine and its tributaries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many policies have been established and actions have been taken to reduce pesticide pollution of surface waters. However, the effectiveness of these initiatives was rarely tested on an empirical basis. This study suggests that evidence on the policy effects can be evaluated by analyzing the temporal changes in the loads rather than the concentrations of active ingredients in rivers. It is shown that the long-term change of pesticide emissions into surface waters can be tested statistically by the number of upward versus downward trends in river load. To evaluate the situation in Germany, 57 concentration time series of 14 herbicide substances at 7 river monitoring stations with a minimum of 24 analyses per year were assembled and annual substance river loads were calculated. The longest time course was 17 years (1990-2006). The significance of trends of data rows was analyzed by an univariate Mann-Kendall test that evaluates 27 (47.4%) of the 57 time series as statistically significant downward trended. It took a period of 10 years and longer before the high annual atrazine and simazine loads measured in the years 1990-1991 had been diminished to a drastically lowered level after ban of the herbicides. Data are available on the yearly consumption of 8 substances used in German agriculture. A total of 36 time series for this subset were tested with a partial Mann-Kendall test with the consumption as covariance factor, which reduces the number of significant trends in river load noticeably. Based on this test, only 7 (19.4% of 36) declining time series remain. As a result, the intended effect of measures to reduce surface water contamination by the use of pesticides seems to be only partially successful, however, the database to justify this statement is small. For the water monitoring strategies in Germany, it is recommend to enhance the sampling frequency at river stations. A minimum of a semimonthly sampling interval would facilitate the calculation of valuable annual river loads and would therefore allow a pronounced validation of the long-term change of pesticide emission into rivers. PMID:22275057

Bach, Martin; Frede, Hans-Georg

2012-03-13

39

Determination of the Dilution of Aqueous Effluents from the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in Old River Rhine Using exp 3 HHO Releases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the tritium releases in aqueous effluents from the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, water flow and dilution factors were determined at six positions at the Old River Rhine, which serves as a main canal. At the point of discharge, a water flow of 0...

M. Pimpl H. Schuettelkopf

1980-01-01

40

Post mining hazard assessment in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In North Rhine-Westphalia, large areas are affected by mining legacies endangering the ground surface and public safety. The problems arising and the current risk management are demonstrated at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district. Hazards especially result from outcrops of coal seams mined at shallow depths and shafts whilst galleries usually seem to be rather unperilous due to their depth and small dimension. In this paper, the design of hazard zones and the assignment of hazard classes are described. Recent scientific developments related to the size of hazard areas are described and an outlook on future procedures is given. (authors)

Heitfeld, M.; Mainz, M.; Schetelig, K. [IngenieurBuro Heitfeld-Schetelig, Aachen (Germany)

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Post mining hazard assessment in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In North Rhine-Westphalia, large areas are affected by mining legacies endangering the ground surface and public safety. The problems arising and the current risk management are demonstrated at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district. Hazards especially result from outcrops of coal seams mined at shallow depths and shafts whilst galleries usually seem to be rather unperilous due to their depth and small dimension. In this paper, the design of hazard zones and the assignment of hazard classes are described. Recent scientific developments related to the size of hazard areas are described and an outlook on future procedures is given. (authors)

2005-01-01

42

The health status of European silver eels, Anguilla anguilla, in the Dutch River Rhine Watershed and Lake IJsselmeer  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The worldwide decline of the eel population is thought to be caused by several factors, among which eel diseases. To investigate diseases of European silver eels Anguilla anguilla in the Netherlands, in Nov-Dec 2004 12 silver eels, and in Aug-Dec 2005 80 eels were caught in downstream parts (rivers) of the River Rhine and in Lake IJsselmeer. The eels were measured and weighed, necrotized, and individually checked for presence of external and internal parasites, bacterial infections and viruses, and blood smears were made for haematology. This is the first multidisciplinary study of the health of Dutch silver eels. In the small (2×6 eels) pilot study of 2004 in the River Rhine and Lake IJsselmeer respectively, most eels showed aspecific fin haemorrhages, some had ectoparasites, nearly none had parasites in the intestine, half of the groups had Anguillicola crassus in their swimbladder, only few had Trypanosoma's in their blood, and no primary virus or bacterial infections were found, although one eel from Lake IJsselmeer was positive for anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV-1, former Herpesvirus anguillae, HVA) in the PCR test only. The blood of all 6 and 2/6 of the eels respectively was considered abnormal, and the eels had a proper condition. In 2005, in 50 eels from the River Rhine and 30 from Lake IJsselmeer respectively, again aspecific fin haemorrhages were often seen, some of the eels had ectoparasites and parasites in the intestine, most eels had A. crassus in their swimbladder, 32% and 53% had Trypanosoma's in their blood, from 44% and 13% of the eels AngHV-1 was isolated, and 44% and 27% were tested positive by PCR, with a peak in August, 10% of both groups of eels had an internal bacterial infection, mostly due to Aeromonas spp. The blood of about half of the eels was considered abnormal, but the eels had a proper condition. It was concluded, that the silver eels of this study had a proper Fulton condition factor (values 2.00-2.26), with aspecific fin haemorrhages, often were Trypanosoma-, A. crassus- and AngHV-1-infected, dependent on the season, and often showed an abnormal haematology. A. crassus causes injuries and is a chronic stress factor, more than the other parasites, which were mostly found less prevalent. In fact, lymphocytosis was directly related to A. crassus infection. Stress and injuries by A. crassus might induce disease through the presence of virus (AngHV-1), relevant in the health status of the silver eels during their spawning migration if ambient water temperatures would enhance a clinical infection of AngHV-1 disease. Moreover this virus might potentially decrease the survival of the silver eels by itself, because spawning migration to the Sargasso Sea takes wild eels to temperate/tropical areas in which the clinical infection by AngHV-1 is surely enhanced.

Haenen OLM; Lehmann J; Engelsma MY; Stürenberg F-J; Roozenburg I; Kerkhoff S; Breteler JKlein

2010-11-01

43

Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels.

Schipper, Aafke M. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.schipper@science.ru.nl; Wijnhoven, Sander [Centre for Sustainable Management of Resources, Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Monitor Taskforce, P.O. Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke (Netherlands); Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2008-01-15

44

Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels

2008-01-01

45

Comparative genotoxicity testing of Rhine river sediment extracts using the comet assay with permanent fish cell lines (RTG-2 and RTL-W1) and the Ames test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whilst at least in Germany assessment strategies on the basis of chemical analysis and acute toxicity data dominated the last decades, the development of more specific biological endpoints and biomarkers in ecotoxicology is required in order to arrive at a good ecological potential and good chemical status of surface waters in the European river basins until the year 2015, as required by the European Water Framework Directive. Since sediments have for long been known to function both as a sink and as a source of pollutants in aquatic systems, and since part of the particle-associated substances have frequently been demonstrated to cause mutagenic and carcinogenic effects in aquatic organisms, particularly in fish, there is, among other requirements, an urgent need to develop, standardize and implement integrated vertebrate-based test systems addressing genotoxicity into recent sediment investigation strategies. Thus, the present study was designed to compare the suitability of two commonly used test systems, the comet assay and the Ames test, for the evaluation of the ecotoxicological burden of surface and core sediment samples from the river Rhine. Methods (or main features). In order to determine the importance of inherent enzymatic activities, two permanent fish cell lines with different biotransformation capacities, RTL-W1 and RTG-2, were compared with respect to their capability of detecting genotoxic effects in 18 surface and core sediment samples from 9 locations along the river Rhine in the comet assay with and without exogenous bioactivation. For further comparison, as a prokaryotic mutagenicity assay, the Salmonella plate incorporation assay (Ames test) with the test strains TA98 and TA100 with and without exogenous metabolic activation was used. Results and discussion. Whereas all sediment extracts induced genotoxic effects in the comet assay with RTL-W1 cells, only 12 out of 18 sediment extracts revealed significant genotoxicity in the tests with the less biotransformation-competent RTG-2 cells. Exogenous bioactivation by addition of {beta}-naphthoflavone / phenobarbital-induced S9 from rat liver resulted in both reduction or increase of genotoxicity in samples from different sites, however, without consistent reaction patterns. In general, the responses of RTL-W1 cells indicated higher biotransformation capacity than in RTG-2 cells without S9 complementation. In Ames tests using TA98 with S9, 16 out of 18 extracts induced significant mutagenicity with induction factors up to 4. Compared to TA98, the strain TA100 proved less sensitive, with maximum induction factors of 1.3, indicating the potential presence of substances inducing frameshift mutations, which can only be detected in the strain TA98. Chemical analyses revealed particularly high levels of hexachlorbenzene (up to 860 {mu}g/kg) and priority PAHs (up to 4.8 mg/kg); so far, however, no correlation could be found between compounds analyzed and the corresponding biotests. (orig.)

Kosmehl, T.; Braunbeck, T.; Hollert, H. [Dept. of Zoology, Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Krebs, F.; Manz, W. [German Federal Inst. of Hydrology, Koblenz (Germany); Erdinger, L. [Dept. for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Inst. for Hygiene, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

2004-07-01

46

Three-dimensional reconstruction of an in-situ Miocene peat forest from the lower Rhine Embayment, northwestern Germany - new methods in palaeovegetation analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New techniques have been developed for the analysis of stump horizons that result in a relatively detailed three-dimensional reconstruction of ancient forests. In addition, a rough estimate of their above-ground standing biomass can be calculated. These techniques are applied to an in-situ Miocene peat forest preserved in the Lower Rhine Embayment, northwestern Germany. In a study area of 2500 m[sup 2], 476 stumps were mapped and used in the forest reconstruction. Additionally, pollen samples and leaf remains have been analysed. The peat forest consists primarily of conifers (in particular Taxodiaceae and Pinaceae) with Sciadopitys being the most common genus. The only angiosperms in the wood flora were palms, but in the pollen flora, evidence for the Myricaceae, Mastixiaceae, Ericaceae and a few other angiosperms is also present. The forest was relatively dense with 1904 trees/ha and a basal area of 164 m[sup 2]. Mean trunk diameter was 28 cm, while mean tree height is calculated to have been 9.9 m. Estimated above ground biomass is 750 t/ha, but this value also includes dead or partly dead trees. This peat forest does not closely compare with previous reconstructions of Miocene peat forests. Its three dimensional structure and biomass differ from those of modern bald cypress swamps.

Mosbrugger, V.; Gee, C.T.; Belz, G.; Ashraf, A.R. (University of Tubingen, Tubingen (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Palaeontology)

1994-08-01

47

Bioassay responses and effects on benthos after pilot remediations in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemical and biological monitoring was carried out for 5 years following pilot remediations at two locations in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The remediations consisted of partial excavation of the contaminated sediments, followed by applying a clean layer of sandy material on top. After the remediation, a new silty sediment top layer was formed exhibiting a lower toxicity in five sediment/sediment pore water bioassays. Compared to the unremediated sites, lower metal and PAH concentrations were found at the remediated sites, but in one location at the same time elevated HCH, PCB and HCB levels were recorded. One year after the remediation, the differences became smaller, although effects-based classification showed that the remediated site showed a higher quality up to the last year. In both remediated sites a rapid recolonization of nematodes, oligochaetes and chironomids was observed, while the recolonization by bivalves was slower. A few years after the remediation the differences decrease. - Capping contaminated sediments can be an effective remediation measure in two large river deltas.

Besten, Pieter J. den [Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, PO Box 17, 8200 AA Lelystad (Netherlands)]. E-mail: p.dbesten@riza.rws.minvenw.nl; Brink, Paul J. van den [Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

2005-07-15

48

Bioassay responses and effects on benthos after pilot remediations in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical and biological monitoring was carried out for 5 years following pilot remediations at two locations in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The remediations consisted of partial excavation of the contaminated sediments, followed by applying a clean layer of sandy material on top. After the remediation, a new silty sediment top layer was formed exhibiting a lower toxicity in five sediment/sediment pore water bioassays. Compared to the unremediated sites, lower metal and PAH concentrations were found at the remediated sites, but in one location at the same time elevated HCH, PCB and HCB levels were recorded. One year after the remediation, the differences became smaller, although effects-based classification showed that the remediated site showed a higher quality up to the last year. In both remediated sites a rapid recolonization of nematodes, oligochaetes and chironomids was observed, while the recolonization by bivalves was slower. A few years after the remediation the differences decrease. - Capping contaminated sediments can be an effective remediation measure in two large river deltas.

2005-01-01

49

Heavy metal concentrations in floodplain surface soils, Lahn River, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Even relatively pristine drainage basins in industrial countries would appear to have received anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals. Investigation of floodplain surface soils in the Lahn River drainage basin, west-central Germany, indicates that the Cu concentration is 1.5 times the pre-industrial level, Pb and Zn contents twice the pre-industrial level; Cd, Co, and Cr concentrations are nearly equal to background metal values. Based on contamination standards developed for the Lahn River, floodplain soils are moderately contaminated with Pb and Zn, slightly contaminated with Cu. Metal contents are uniform across the floodplain, with the exception of a peak immediately adjacent to the Lahn River. Floodplain surface soil metal contents are less in the Lahn River basin than in larger drainage systems of Germany. Although Lahn River metalliferous sediments are presently immobile, they would, if eroded, contribute to downstream heavy metal concentrations. Consequently, metal storage in smaller drainage basins such as the Lahn should be considered in predictions of future metal loads in major river systems, for aggregate small basins could serve as significant metal contributors. (orig.)

Martin, C.W. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Geography

1997-03-01

50

Modeling metal bioaccumulation in the invasive mussels Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis in the rivers Rhine and Meuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The metal-specific covalent index and the species-specific size-based filtration rate were integrated into a biokinetic model estimating metal bioaccumulation in mussels from the dissolved phase and phytoplankton. The model was validated for zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the rivers Rhine and Meuse, the Netherlands. The model performed well in predicting tissue concentrations in different-sized zebra mussels from various sampling sites for (55) Mn, (56) Fe, (59) Co, (60) Ni, (82) Se, (111) Cd, (118) Sn, and (208) Pb (r(2) =0.71-0.99). Performance for (52) Cr, (63) Cu, (66) Zn, (68) Zn, and (112) Cd was moderate (r(2) <0.20). In quagga mussels, approximately 73 to 94% of the variability in concentrations of (82) Se, (111) Cd, (112) Cd, and (208) Pb was explained by the model (r(2) =0.73-0.94), followed by (52) Cr, (55) Mn, (56) Fe, (60) Ni, and (63) Cu (r(2) =0.48-0.61). Additionally, in both zebra and quagga mussels, average modeled concentrations were within approximately one order of magnitude of the measured values. In particular, in zebra mussels, estimations of (60) Ni and (82) Se concentrations were equal to 51 and 76% of the measurements, respectively. Higher deviations were observed for (52) Cr, (59) Co, (55) Mn, (56) Fe, (111) Cd, (63) Cu, and (112) Cd (underestimation), and (66) Zn, (68) Zn, (208) Pb, and (118) Sn (overestimation). For quagga mussels, modeled concentrations of (66) Zn and (68) Zn differed approximately 14% from the measured levels. Differences between predictions and measurements were higher for other metals.

Le TT; Leuven RS; Hendriks AJ

2011-12-01

51

[MRSA Bloodstream Infections According to the German Obligation for Notification - Data and Experience of the MDRO Network Rhine-Main, Germany, 2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since July 1st, 2009 in accord with the statuary order based on the German law for infectious diseases (Infektionsschutzgesetz), MRSA in blood and liquor have to be notified to the public health authorities. The aim of this extension of the notification to report is to improve the surveillance of nosocomial infections and the prevention of nosocomial MRSA infections. In this paper data of the notifications in the year 2011 within the MDRO-Net Rhine-Main, an association of 7 public health authorities in the region, are reported in order to investigate whether the aims of the obligation for notification could be achieved.In 2011, 138 MRSA bloodstream infections, including 1 MRSA in liquor culture, were notified to the 7 health protection authorities, resulting in an incidence rate of 5.6/100 000 inhabitants. In urban regions with more hospitals available, the incidence rate was higher than in rural districts with less medical facilities (6.9 vs. 4.4/100 000 inhabitants). Only 46 (35%) of the patients with MRSA cultured in their blood had been detected via anamnesis as patients on risk for MRSA, and 59 (45%) had been screened for MRSA on admission. The incidence rate in the different hospitals was 0.041±0.031/1 000 patient days (range 0-0.145/1 000 patient days).For the first time, data on notification of MRSA cultures in blood specimen are published from a whole MRE Network in Germany encompassing >2.1 million inhabitants. Incidence rates per 100 000 inhabitants alone do not seem adequate to cope with the aims of the obligation for notification. Instead, reference to patient days in the respective clinic enables an external comparison to other medical institutions in the region and is a better base for discussion with these institutions on improvements of surveillance, screening and hygiene.

Heudorf U; Mischler D; Bobyk D; Bornhofen B; Maiwald M; Merbs R; Mühlhaus R; Wendel L

2013-08-01

52

Load of different rivers in the Federal Republic of Germany by PAH (PAH-Profiles of surface water)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using a new glass-capillary-gas-chromatographic method, the mass concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (= PAH) in river and waste water of the Federal Republic of Germany has been determined. As a criterion of the load, 15 abundant PAH were selected among more than 100 polycyclic aromatic compounds. The mass concentrations of average samples (collecting time about 20 days) of Rhine, Danube, Neckar, Maine, Ruhr, Fulda and Weser range within one order, e.g. for benzo(e)pyrene 3.4 - 32.4 ng/1 and for benzo(a)pyrene 0.8-40.4 ng/1. The mass concentrations of spot checks of the rivers, the concentrations of PAH were somewhat higher. Furthermore, samples have been collected along the rivers Fulda, Werra, Weser, Lippe, and Emscher with similar results. In case of a refuse tip, the leachate and groundwater has been investigated (in the depth of 10-16 m resp. 27-33 m) with a little bit higher values. The highest PAH-concentration was measured in waste water of coke plants.

Grimmer, G.; Schneider, D.; Dettbarn, G.

1981-01-01

53

Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows are analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch–German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows are estimated, namely seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and weighted persistence (WP). These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices are estimated from: (1) observed low flows; (2) simulated low flows by the semi distributed HBV model using observed climate; (3) simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven climate scenarios for the current climate (1964–2007); (4) simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven climate scenarios for the future climate (2063–2098) including different emission scenarios. These four cases are compared to assess the effects of the hydrological model, forcing by different climate models and different emission scenarios on the three indices. The seven climate scenarios are based on different combinations of four General Circulation Models (GCMs), four Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Significant differences are found between cases 1 and 2. For instance, the HBV model is prone to overestimate SR and to underestimate WP and simulates very late WMODs compared to the estimated WMODs using observed discharges. Comparing the results of cases 2 and 3, the smallest difference is found in the SR index, whereas large differences are found in the WMOD and WP indices for the current climate. Finally, comparing the results of cases 3 and 4, we found that SR has decreased substantially by 2063–2098 in all seven subbasins of the River Rhine. The lower values of SR for the future climate indicate a shift from winter low flows (SR > 1) to summer low flows (SR < 1) in the two Alpine subbasins. The WMODs of low flows tend to be earlier than for the current climate in all subbasins except for the Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine subbasins. The WP values are slightly larger, showing that the predictability of low flow events increases as the variability in timing decreases for the future climate. From comparison of the uncertainty sources evaluated in this study, it is obvious that the RCM/GCM uncertainty has the largest influence on the variability in timing of low flows for future climate.

M. C. Demirel; M. J. Booij; A. Y. Hoekstra

2013-01-01

54

Determination of flow times, flow velocities and longitudinal dispersion in the Middle and Lower Rhine River using [sup 3]HHO as a tracer. Zur Bestimmung von Fliesszeiten, Fliessgeschwindigkeiten und longitudinaler Dispersion im Mittel- und Niederrhein mit [sup 3]HHO als Leitstoff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flow times, flow velocities and parameters describing the longitudinal dispersion in the Middle and Lower Rhine river under natural conditions were determined by use of intermittent emissions of tritated wastewater from nuclear power plants during normal operation situated on the Upper Rhine. In cases of accidental releases of radioactive materials, these data would be the basis of prognoses by which the dispersion behaviour of contaminated sections along the course of river Rhine can be described and radiological consequences within the socalled critical impact areas estimated. (orig.)

Krause, J. (Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany)); Mundschenk, H. (Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany))

1994-11-01

55

The "WFD-effect" on upstream-downstream relations in international river basins – insights from the Rhine and the Elbe basins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The upstream-downstream relationship in international river basins is a traditional challenge in water management. Water use in upstream countries often has a negative impact on water use in downstream countries. This is most evident in the classical example of industrial pollution in upstream countries hindering drinking water production downstream. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) gives new impetus to the river basin approach and to international co-operation in European catchments. It aims at transforming a mainly water quality oriented management into a more integrated approach of ecosystem management. After discussing the traditional upstream-downstream relationship, this article shows that the WFD has a balancing effect on upstream-downstream problems and that it enhances river basin solidarity in international basins. While it lifts the downstream countries to the same level as the upstream countries, it also leads to new duties for the downstream states. Following the ecosystem approach, measures taken by downstream countries become increasingly more important. For example, downstream countries need to take measures to allow for migrating fish species to reach upstream stretches of river systems. With the WFD, fish populations receive increased attention, as they are an important indicator for the ecological status. The European Commission acquires a new role of inspection and control in river basin management, which finally also leads to enhanced cooperation and solidarity among the states in a basin. In order to achieve better water quality and to mitigate upstream-downstream problems, also economic instruments can be applied and the WFD does not exclude the possibility of making use of financial compensations, if at the same time the polluter pays principle is taken into account. The results presented in this article originate from a broader study on integrated water resources management conducted at Bonn University and refer to the Rhine and Elbe basins (Moellenkamp, 2006).

S. Moellenkamp

2007-01-01

56

Integrated Assessment Methodologies For Land Use Changes and Flood Plain Restoration As Alternative Flood Protection Strategies In The River Basins of Rhine and Meuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Water policy and management decisions become increasingly better informed. Often a large number of studies is carried out before a decision is taken. In the Netherlands, some of these studies, such as environmental impact assessment, are obligatory by law if serious environmental impacts are expected. However, an integrated assessment based on these separate studies is lacking. In this study, an attempt was made to combine and where possible integrate procedures and methods from environmental, social and economic impact assessment. The main objective of the study is to assess, separately and in combination, the ecological, social and economic consequences of land use changes and floodplain restoration as alternative flood protection strategies in the river basins of the rivers Rhine and Meuse in the Netherlands. Based on scenarios of climate change, land subsidence and sea level rise over the next fifty years the associated hy drological changes are translated into the corresponding ecological, economic and social impacts, using a combination of expert judgement and advanced modelling techniques. These impacts are assessed and evaluated with the help of integrated assessment methods such as cost-benefit and multi-criteria analysis in order to support decision-making towards the implementation of new policy regarding flood protection. The outcome of the integrated assessment is related to other water policy objectives, including restoration of the resilience of water systems and nature conservation.

Brouwer, Roy; van Ek, Remco; Bouma, Jetske

57

Accumulation of metals, polycyclic (halogenated) aromatic hydrocarbons, and biocides in zebra mussel and eel from the Rhine and Meuse rivers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentrations of heavy metals and various groups of organic microcontaminants were measured in zebra mussel and eel from the Rhine-Meuse basin. Residues in mussel from the Rhine and Meuse were on average 2.3 and 2.9 times higher than in those from the reference location of IJsselmeer. Total body burdens of organic microcontaminants in mussel and eel varied between 0.05 to 0.07 mmol/kg fat weight in six out of seven samples. The largest contribution in mussels and eel came from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), respectively. Concentrations of bromodiphenyl-ethers, chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroterphenyls, and chlorobenzyltoluenes were lower. Total polybrominated biphenyl residues appear lower than total PCB levels. The largest chlorobiocide residues were noted for 4,4{prime}-DDE, toxaphene, trichlorophenylmethane, and {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane. An extraordinary high body burden of 1.2 mmol/kg fat weight, largely consisting of acenaphthene, was observed in one sample. Ratios of concentrations in organism fat and dry organic suspended solids varied between 1 and 10 for traditionally monitored organochlorines, independent of the octanol-water partition coefficient. The values did not deviate significantly from a value of about 3.3, expected for equilibrium partitioning of persistent chemicals. Lower values were observed for PAHs and some chloro(nitro)benzenes. Most ratios of concentrations in eel and mussel fat were within the range of 1 to 10, also largely independent of K{sub ow}. Yet, values tended to be higher at K{sub ow} > 10{sup 6}. Ratios below 1 were noted for pentabromodiphenylether, pentachloro(thio)anisol, chlorobenzyltoluenes, and some chloronitrobenzenes, chlorobiphenyls, and chlorobiocides. These field data confirm recent modeling efforts on bioconcentration and biomagnification. For heavy metals, atomic mass explained 67% of the variation in zebra mussel residues.

Hendriks, A.J. [RIZA, Lelystad (Netherlands). Inst. for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment; Pieters, H.; Boer, J. de [DLO-Netherlands Inst. for Fisheries Research, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

1998-10-01

58

Monitoring heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of the Moskva and Oka River system- Results of the Volga-Rhine-Project  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of the Volga-Rhine-Project sediment, water and pore water samples were collected on the Volga as well as the Moskva and Oka river systems. The sampling area discussed here is located south east of the city of Moscow. Sediment samples were taken along the Moskva River between Moscow and the city of Kolomna, which is approximately 100 km to the southeast of Moscow and in the Oka River close to the confluence with the Moskva River (Kolomna). The first sampling campaign in this region took place in 1993, followed by further sampling in 1997 and 2007. For evaluation of sediment quality classification systems are often used. The geo-accumulation index proposed by Mueller (1979) is a classification system which consists of seven classes given by the following expression: I = log2×Cn- geo 1.5×Bn Where Cn = measured concentration; Bn = background value (Turekian & Wedepol 1961) of element n and 1.5 = background matrix correction factor. The geo-accumulation index consists of seven grades (0-6) which indicate the enrichment of an element compared to the background value. These grades range from 'not polluted' to 'very strongly polluted'. Another possibility to express sediment contamination is to evaluate the effects on the ecosystem. The lowest effect level (LEL) gives the concentrations of the heavy metals in sediment below which no effect on the majority of the sediment dwelling organisms is expected. The probable effect level (PEL) represents the concentration of heavy metals above which the organisms frequently will show adverse effects. Both of these approaches were used to evaluate the results of the Volga-Rhine-Project. In the last two decades the concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments decreased by up to 60%. In 1993 sediments revealed high concentrations of several heavy metals such as chromium, cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, nickel and cobalt, whereas in 2007 only two sediment samples were classified as 'very strongly polluted' regarding lead and cadmium concentrations. Additionally six other sediment samples were found to be 'strongly polluted' with cadmium, zinc and lead, respectively. Using the ecotoxicological approach on the sediments, chromium, cadmium and zinc are above the PEL, whereas the content of lead exceeds the LEL. Thus, these metals may still cause toxic effects on the fresh water system. Although the input of heavy metals into the river systems has clearly decreased during the last 20 years, there are still some locations where high concentrations of heavy metals are found, suggesting point sources. Especially cadmium still shows significantly higher concentrations than the background value in the entire sampling area. There are even two sampling points where the cadmium concentrations reach approximately 100x the background value. To determine the temporal variation of the heavy metal input, sediment cores were taken. Heavy metal concentrations increase with depth in the cores and show a maximum at a depth of about 35-40 cm. Some part of this increase may be a result of early diagenesis as well as a result of reduced heavy metal input. The nature of the decline of the heavy metal concentrations is still in progress. Despite all the improvements achieved in environmental protection in Russia, still some problems have to be addressed. Especially in urban areas like the Moscow region the number and the size of illegal dump sites is increasing dramatically, leading to strong inputs of heavy metals and other pollutants into the river systems, with consequences for the sensitive eco systems.

Andresen, Höpke

2010-05-01

59

General rates for electricity supply of utilities. [in the 8 regions of the Federal Republic of Germany: Schleswig-Holstein and Hansestadt Hamburg; Berlin; Lower Saxony and Bremen; North Rhine Westphalia; Rhineland-Palatinate and Saar; Hesse; Baden-Wuerttemberg; Bavaria]. Allgemeine Tarifpreise fuer elektrische Energie der beteiligten Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen. Stand Juli 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity supply rates of the various utilities are tabulated separately for households, agricultural uses and industrial, occupational and other uses. There are tables for tariffs based on real consumption price standards, and minimum-load rates. There are 8 regions within the Federal Republic of Germany: Schleswig-Holstein and Hansestadt Hamburg; Berlin; Lower Saxony and Bremen; North Rhine Westphalia; Rhineland-Palatinate and Saar; Hesse; Baden-Wuerttemberg; Bavaria.

1981-01-01

60

Electric power imports into the Federal Republic of Germany, and into North-Rhine Westphalia in particular, and possible energy economy consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NRW diet plenary meeting is well aware of the importance of electric power imports as a subject of discussion. It has therefore agreed with the Committee of Economics, Trade and Technology to hear expert opinions evaluating electric power imports into the Federal Republic of Germany. Access is given to three of the contributions presented on the occasion of the public hearing on June 26, 1987, namely the Duesseldorf statement presented by the VIK manager, the answers to the list of questions submitted beforehand, and the statement submitted by the chair of the 8th resolution committee of the Federal Cartel Office of the Federal Republic of Germany, Prof. Markert. (orig./UA)

Budde, H.J.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Radioactivity in the Rhine - the LWA controls North-Rhine-Westphalian surface waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The State Authority for Water and Waste Management has been testing the Rhine and the most important surface waters of North-Rhine Westphalia for radioactivity ever since it was founded in 1969. Radiation exposure of human beings who use Rhine water is far below the permitted maximum values of the 'radiation protection ordinance'. Pollution of the Rhine and its tributaries in North-Rhine Westphalia with artificial radioactive substances has even slightly decreased over the past ten years; pollution of the River Emscher with natural radioactive material remained high, the Lippe River now contains less radium than before. (orig./PW)[de] Das Landesamt fuer Wasser und Abfall untersucht seit seiner Gruendung im Jahre 1969 den Rhein und die wichtigsten Gewaesser Nordrhein-Westfalens auf radioaktive Stoffe. Die Strahlenexposition des Menschen bei Nutzung des Rheinwassers liegt weit unter den zugelassenen Grenzwerten der Strahlenschutzverordnung. In den letzten 10 Jahren hat die Belastung des Rheins und seiner Nebenfluesse in Nordrhein-Westfalen mit kuenstlichen radioaktiven Stoffen sogar leicht abgenommen; die Belastung der Emscher mit natuerlichen radioaktiven Stoffen blieb hoch, waehrend die Lippe weniger Radium mitfuehrte. (orig./PW)

1985-01-01

62

Determination of flow times and flow velocities in the upper Rhine river using sup 3 HHO as tracer. Bestimmung von Fliesszeit und Fliessgeschwindigkeit im Hoch- und Oberrhein mit sup 3 HHO als Leitstoff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The behaviour of water bodies of the Upper Rhine river discretely traced with {sup 3}HHO-loaded waste waters from the nuclear power plants of Beznau, Fessenheim, Philippsburg and Biblis was investigated along a distance of nearly 385 km down to Nierstein. The passage of the distinct entrainment charged by different emissions was measured at the sampling points of Bad Saeckingen, Weil, Weisweil, Iffezheim and Nierstein. From these profiles the flow times and flow velocities were calculated for the discharge range from 0.6 to 1.7 MQ (mean discharge), taking the begin, end and duration of the individual releases into account. (orig./HP).

Krause, W.J.; Mundschenk, H. (Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany, F.R.))

1990-12-01

63

Interaction surface water - groundwater: Investigation in the Rhine Valley using environmental isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation area is located in the Rhine Valley, a floodplain composed of Upper Quaternary sediments near Karlsruhe, Germany. The upper two gravel layers build highly permeable and productive aquifers which are used by many drinking water supplies. These two layers are partial hydraulically divided by an impermeable interlayer which does not exist everywhere. On the other hand many gravel extraction sites are dug out, which form small artificial lakes. To overcome the conflict between both, water supply and gravel industry, a precise knowledge of the interaction of surface water - groundwater is absolutely necessary. The hydraulic relationship between the groundwater storey, the gravel pit lakes, and the rivers could not be adequately explained using only water level measurements. Only with the aid of the results from the hydro-chemical and isotope-hydrological investigations (?18O, ?2H, 3H), the components of the regional groundwater recharge, Rhine bank infiltration, lake bank filtration, as well as local specifically marked water types could be identified, classified and quantified in surface - and groundwater. Utilizing these methods it was shown that the deep pumping wells of the water supply have over 90% Rhine riverbank filtration water and have no inflow from any of the investigated gravel pit lakes. The groundwater in the two investigated upper aquifers differ mainly isotope-hydrological and respectively in age, less pronounced in their hydro-chemical properties. In both aquifers there is a zone of ca. 1 to 3 km wide, in parts reaching to the gravel quarry lakes, which generally follows the Rhine with a flow of depleted isotopic Rhine filtration water with varying ages. From the east-southeast there is an inflow from the lower terrace of relatively young and identifiably anthropogenic influenced as well as almost totally reduced in nitrate, In the aquifer below, the water is usually tritium-free, i.e., older than 50 years, not anthropogenic influenced and reduced in sulphate. Modeling tritium data the local recharge rate could be estimated. In all investigated gravel pit lakes, a high percentage of Rhine bank filtration was proven. The inflow of groundwater to the lakes and the outflow of the lake water are identifiable because of isotope-fractionation due to evaporation. The environmental isotopes build together with the hydro-geological and hydro-chemical investigations the basis for a detailed understanding of this complex flow system. (author)

2007-01-01

64

Données sur la croissance de l'anguille (Anguilla anguilla L.) dans le cours moyen du Rhin, région alsacienne Growth data of eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) in the Alsacian part of the river Rhine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La capture régulière, pendant cinq années (1990-94), d'anguilles marquées à la tétracycline au stade civelle et déversées dans le Rhin en mars 1989, confirme la forte variabilité individuelle de leur croissance. La croissance moyenne annuelle, sexes confondus, est de 55 mm, avec un accroissement voisin de 100 mm lors de la première année de vie en eau douce. Ces valeurs se situent dans les limites des résultats obtenus pour d'autres rivières, lacs ou lagunes de l'Europe occidentale. Elvers labelled with tetracycline were put in the river Rhine during March 1989 and regularly sampled over a five years period. The catches confirmed high individual variability of their growth. The mean annual growth rate of unsexed fish is around 55 mm with an increment near 100 mm for the first year of life in freshwater. These data fall between the two extremes obtained in other rivers, lakes and lagoons of western Europe.

MEUNIER F. J.

2008-01-01

65

Tracer experiments in the Rhine Basin: evaluation of the skewness of observed concentration distributions  

Science.gov (United States)

Field studies reporting on the propagation of a pollution wave travelling down a river mostly show persistence of the temporal skewness. As a result, in the Rhine Alarm-Model a constant skewness coefficient (equal to 1) has been applied. The appropriateness of this assumption has been proven by tracer experiments. This finding seems to be in conflict with the solution of the transient storage equations of the one-dimensional Fickian-type diffusion equations, the so-called dead-zone model, showing a continuous decrease of the skewness with the distance. On the other hand, based on these equations as an initial-boundary value problem for the transport of a spill in a river with dead zones Schmid [Schmid, B.H., 2002. Persistence of skewness in longitudinal dispersion data: can the dead zone model explain it after all?. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 128 (9), 848 854, September 1, ASCE], showed that the skewness can locally increase, if there are river reaches with different values of the mass-transfer coefficient between the main stream and the dead zone, or due to changing topography. This paper shows that by applying Schmid's [Schmid, B.H., 2002. Persistence of skewness in longitudinal dispersion data: can the dead zone model explain it after all?. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 128 (9), 848 854, September 1, ASCE] approach to the River Rhine and its tributaries Mosel (Germany) and Aare (Switzerland), the observed persistence of the skewness can be reproduced, taking into account the changes in the river topography. Moreover, it is demonstrated that irregularities of the riverbed and banks, and vegetation along the river borders, resulting in ‘natural dead zones’, contribute to the persistence of the skewness. In addition, the physical processes behind the observed mass-transfer coefficient have been analysed.

van Mazijk, A.; Veling, E. J. M.

2005-06-01

66

Influence of an intrusion on the extent of isomerism in acyclic isoprenoids in the Permian Kupferschiefer of the Lower Rhine Basin, N. W. Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intrusive body near Krefeld, North-West Germany, the so-called Krefeld High, is known to have increased the coalification of the Carboniferous coal seams in the western part of the Ruhr coal mining district. However, no evidence of its influence on the partly overlying Permian sediments has been given to date. Therefore, organic geochemical investigations on the extractable organic matter from 30 core samples of the Permian Kupferschiefer covering an area of about 600km{sup 2} were undertaken. The determination of selected molecular maturation parameters reveals a low average maturation of the Kupferschiefer within the area investigated. Locally varying thermal effects could be measured by the extent of isomerism of pristane and phytane. In an area not affected by the intrusive body the extent of isomerism is shown to be influenced only by the burial depth and by some minor tectonic events. In the proximity of the Krefeld High, the extent of isomerism is significantly higher than expected from the actual burial depth. The extent of pristane and phytane epimerisation have been used to deduce isolines for the characterisation of thermal effects in the area investigated. 32 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Puettmann, W.; Eckhardt, C.B. (Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle, Aachen (Germany, F.R.))

1989-01-01

67

The projects ''preventive flood protection in the catchment of the Lahn river'' and ''LAHoR'', contributions to the action plan on flood defence of the ICPR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the impression of the severe floods in 1993 and 1995 along the Meuse and the Rhine, the Action Plan on Flood Defence was brought up by the 12th Rhine Minister Conference in January 1998. The goal of this action plan is the improvement of the preventive flood protection along the Rhine within the next 20 years. As far as spatial planning is concerned, the responsible Ministers in France, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg set up a transnational working group ''Spatial Planning and Preventive Flood Protection Rhine/Meuse''. The European Union supports these activities with the operational programme IRMA (INTERREG-Rhine-Meuse-Aktivities) in the frame of the initiative INTERREG IIc. Under the umbrella of the IRMA-programme specific flood preventive measures are funded as well as the development of tools for the proof of the efficiency of these measures. In the IRMA-Project ''Preventive Flood Protection in the catchment of the Lahn River'' the establishment of planning concepts of preventive flood protection for the Lahn catchment is co-financed as well as the realisation of selected retention methods. This includes the estimation of the national and transnational effects using a rainfall-runoff-model for the Lahn catchment and a flood-routing-model for the Rhine until Lobith, the Netherlands. The project ''Quantification of the influence of the land surface and river training conditions in the Rhine basin (LAHoR)'', also co-financed by IRMA deals with the development and use of mathematical models for investigating the impacts of flood reducing measures in the entire catchment of the River Rhine from Maxau to Lobith. Here rainfall-runoff-models are used for the subcatchments and flood routing models are used for the Rhine and it's main tributaries Neckar, Main and Saar-Moselle. (orig.)

Lammersen, R.; Engel, H. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Hydrologie, Koblenz (Germany)

2000-07-01

68

Historical floods in the Dutch Rhine Delta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historical records provide direct information about the climatic impact on society. Especially great natural disasters such as river floods have been for long attracting the attention of humankind. Time series for flood development on the Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn/Lek and IJssel in the Dutch Rhine Delta are presented in this paper. In the case of the Waal it is even possible to compare historical flood frequencies based on documentary data with the recent development reconstructed from standardized instrumental measurements. In brief, we will also discuss various parameters concerning the structure of the flood series and the "human dimension" of natural disaster, i.e. the vulnerability of society when facing natural disasters.

R. Glaser; H. Stangl

2003-01-01

69

Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation: Review of River Basin Management Planning in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By the end of 2009, programmes of measures and river basin management plans under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) had for the first time been set up for all 10 river basin districts inGermany. They provide the water management planning tools for achieving good status of surface and groundwater by 2015. Since a good ecological status for many water bodies cannot be attained by this deadline, the Directive provides for two supplementary planning cycles running to 2021 and 2027 respectively. Owing to its ecological approach, the WFD has much in common with nature conservation. The project “Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation” sought to discover how the aims of the WFD and nature conservation are linked in the practice of river basin management planning and what possibilities there are for optimisation from a nature conservation point of view. On this basis, proposals were made for updating and implementing plans.

ALBRECHT J.; STRATMANN L.; WENDLER W.; SCHMIDT C.; HOFMANN M.

2012-01-01

70

Flood and flood protection in Germany 850 - 1850  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Germany floods were never a matter of national history like in China, Bangladesh or Egypt. Only in a few cases floods were mentioned in books on the German nationalhistory, mainly in connection with military actions. Of course, people in Germany countries had had painful experiences with floods for more than 1000 years. And this not only along the bigger rivers like Oder, Elbe, Rhine and Danube and their tributaries, but also at places far away, where normally the creeks show very little water most of the time and where nobody could imagine a big flood flow - until the people themselves experienced a catastrophic event. So there are many, many floods recorded in local and regional chronicles. In that way they became part of the local and/or regional history. The history of floods in what is today Germany is like a mosaic of thousands of local and regional flood reports scattered all over the country. (orig.)

Schmidt, M.

2000-07-01

71

Terminal Forecast Reference Notebook for Heidelberg AB, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heidelberg AAF lies in the Rhine River Valley approximately two miles southwest of the city of Heidelberg, which lies astride the Neckar River as it flows into the Rhine Valley. The topographic features that dominate the local area are relatively complex....

1982-01-01

72

Tritium/Helium-3 Dating of River Infiltration:An Example from the Oderbruch Area, Berlin, Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentrations of tritium, helium isotopes and neon have been measured in groundwater samples from a shallow and deep groundwater system recharged by bank infiltration from the Oder River in northeastern Berlin, Germany. The apparent 3H/3He ages show a distinct variation. They increased from only a few months to >40 years along the flow path. The farthest wells from the river have high concentration of 4He terrigenic which is around 5 × 10?5 (ccSTP/kg). The highest values for stable 3H (3H + 3Hetrit) were encountered at a 2.6 kmdistance from the river.

Hany El-Gamal

2013-01-01

73

The Rhine-Meuse-Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the years of 1973 and 1974 a study was performed aimed at the assessment of the radiological exposure of the population in the Upper Rhine Region from normal operation of nuclear facilities. These investigations were extended to the Rhine-Meuse Region in the years of 1975 to 1977; the results were published in 1978. In the discussion of the results of this study the recommendation was made to adapt the investigation from time to time to the current state of knowledge, accounting for recent developments and research results. This recommendation was the basis of a succeeding study published in 1981. The present paper in a much shortened form presents the most essential assumptions and results of the novel Rhine-Meuse Study. The complete assumptions, models and results may be found in the detailed version. (orig./RW)

1982-01-01

74

Identification of stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the Rhine basin using Q methodology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article identifies different stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the downstream parts of the Rhine basin in Germany and The Netherlands. The perspectives were identified using Q methodology, which proved to be a good, but time-intensive, method for eliciting and analyzing sta...

G. T. Raadgever; E. Mostert; N. C. van de Giesen

75

Pressures at larger spatial scales strongly influence the ecological status of heavily modified river water bodies in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

River biota are influenced by anthropogenic pressures that operate at different spatial scales. Understanding which pressures at which spatial scales affect biota is essential to manage and restore degraded rivers. In Europe, many river reaches were designated as Heavily Modified Water Bodies (HMWB) according to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), where the ecological potential might mainly be determined by pressures at larger spatial scales outside the HMWB (e.g. hydromorphological alterations at the river network and land use at the catchment scale). In Germany, hydromorphological alterations and diffuse pollution were the main pressures. Therefore, the three objectives of this study were to (i) identify the hydromorphological pressures at the site, reach, and river network scale, and land use categories at the catchment scale which significantly affect the ecological status of HMWB in Germany, (ii) quantify the relative importance of these pressures at different spatial scales, and (iii) analyse the differences in response between fish and macroinvertebrates. The results indicated that: (i) At the reach scale, fish were most strongly influenced by channel-bank conditions whilst the naturalness of channel-planform was the best proxy for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. At the catchment scale, urbanization was the most detrimental land use. (ii) The pressures at larger spatial scales (catchment land use and hydromorphological alterations in the river network) generally were more important than hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale. (iii) Fish were affected equally by both, hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale and large-scale pressures whereas the latter were far more important for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. In conclusion, these results indicated that large-scale pressures may often limit the efficiency of reach-scale restoration, especially for macroinvertebrates, even in the absence of saprobic pollution, and have to be considered for the management and restoration of HMWB in Germany and comparable degraded river reaches. PMID:23542480

Kail, Jochem; Wolter, Christian

2013-03-26

76

Pressures at larger spatial scales strongly influence the ecological status of heavily modified river water bodies in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

River biota are influenced by anthropogenic pressures that operate at different spatial scales. Understanding which pressures at which spatial scales affect biota is essential to manage and restore degraded rivers. In Europe, many river reaches were designated as Heavily Modified Water Bodies (HMWB) according to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), where the ecological potential might mainly be determined by pressures at larger spatial scales outside the HMWB (e.g. hydromorphological alterations at the river network and land use at the catchment scale). In Germany, hydromorphological alterations and diffuse pollution were the main pressures. Therefore, the three objectives of this study were to (i) identify the hydromorphological pressures at the site, reach, and river network scale, and land use categories at the catchment scale which significantly affect the ecological status of HMWB in Germany, (ii) quantify the relative importance of these pressures at different spatial scales, and (iii) analyse the differences in response between fish and macroinvertebrates. The results indicated that: (i) At the reach scale, fish were most strongly influenced by channel-bank conditions whilst the naturalness of channel-planform was the best proxy for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. At the catchment scale, urbanization was the most detrimental land use. (ii) The pressures at larger spatial scales (catchment land use and hydromorphological alterations in the river network) generally were more important than hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale. (iii) Fish were affected equally by both, hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale and large-scale pressures whereas the latter were far more important for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. In conclusion, these results indicated that large-scale pressures may often limit the efficiency of reach-scale restoration, especially for macroinvertebrates, even in the absence of saprobic pollution, and have to be considered for the management and restoration of HMWB in Germany and comparable degraded river reaches.

Kail J; Wolter C

2013-06-01

77

The "WFD-effect" on upstream-downstream relations in international river basins ? insights from the Rhine and the Elbe basins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The upstream-downstream relationship in international river basins is a traditional challenge in water management. Water use in upstream countries often has a negative impact on water use in downstream countries. This is most evident in the classical example of industrial pollution in upstream count...

Moellenkamp, S.

78

The "WFD-effect" on upstream-downstream relations in international river basins – insights from the Rhine and the Elbe basins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The upstream-downstream relationship in international river basins is a traditional challenge in water management. Water use in upstream countries often has a negative impact on water use in downstream countries. This is most evident in the classical example of industrial pollution in upstream count...

S. Moellenkamp

79

Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbe...

Thonon, I.; Klok, C.

80

Joint project of the Ruhrgas and Thyssengas companies, for laying a natural gas pipeline in the Rhine river bed; Ruhrgas und Thyssengas verlegen gemeinsam Erdgasleitung durch den Rhein  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the positioning of natural gas pipelines, rivers are one of the biggest technical challenges. Special equipment and technical know-how is required for laying of the underwater pipelines. The article explains details of the project. (orig./CB) [German] Bei der Verlegung von Versorgungs-Rohrleitungen ist die Ueberwindung von Wasserlaeufen eine grosse technische Herausforderung. Hier kommen Spezialkonstruktionen zum Einsatz - Dueker genannt. Neuestes Beispiel fuer den Einsatz eines solchen Duekers ist die Erdgasversorgungsleitung fuer das Kraftwerk Lausward der Stadtwerke Duesseldorf. Im Beitrag wird diese Technologie kurz vorgestellt. (orig./RHM)

Tschaetsch, H.U.

1999-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Identification of stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the Rhine basin using Q methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article identifies different stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the downstream parts of the Rhine basin in Germany and The Netherlands. The perspectives were identified using Q methodology, which proved to be a good, but time-intensive, method for eliciting and analyzing stakeholder perspectives in a structured and unbiased way. Three shared perspectives were found: A) "Anticipation and institutions", B) "Space for flooding" and C) "Knowledge and engineering". These three perspectives share a central concern for the provision of safety against flooding, but disagree on the expected autonomous developments and the preferred measures. In perspective A, the expected climate change and economic growth call for fast action. To deal with the increasing flood risk, mostly institutional measures are proposed, such as the development of a stronger basin commission. In perspective B, an increasing spatial pressure on the river area is expected, and the proposed measures are focused on mitigating damage, e.g., through controlled flooding and compartmentalization. In perspective C, the role of expert knowledge and technological improvements is emphasized. Preferred strategies include strengthening the dikes and differentiation of safety standards. An overview of stakeholder perspectives can be useful in natural resources management for 1) setting the research agenda, 2) identifying differences in values and interests that need to be discussed, 3) creating awareness among a broad range of stakeholders, and 4) developing scenarios.

G. T. Raadgever; E. Mostert; N. C. van de Giesen

2008-01-01

82

Sensitivity analysis of a mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM) in major river basins in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental models, in general, and hydrologic models, in particular, are prone to systematic and random errors that are related to many sources of uncertainty (e.g. data, model, parameters), which, in turn, affect their predictive skill. Within this framework, sensitivity analysis plays a fundamental role to improve our understanding of the dominant processes and their interdependencies as well as to investigate the robustness of the model predictions in presence of errors. In this study, the predictive uncertainty of the distributed mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM) coupled with a stochastic land cover simulation model was investigated in six major river basins in Germany (Danube, Main, Weser, Neckar, Mulde, Ems) ranging from 4000 to 43000 km2. mHM is forced with (4 x 4) km daily precipitation and temperature fields interpolated from 5600 rain gauges and 1100 meteorological stations operated by the German Meteorological Service (DWD). All parameters of mHM are regionalized with a multiscale parameter regionalization technique (MPR). The evaluation period is from 1950 to 2011. Within this framework we investigated the effects of scale, uncertainty, sub-grid variability of parameters as well as the effects of the kind of estimators or objective functions on model outputs such as discharge, upper layer soil moisture, and groundwater recharge. All analysis were carried out with two parametrization methods: hydrologic (homogeneous) response units and MPR. The sensitivity of the type of variogram and its parameters used for the interpolation of the meteorological variables with external drift Kriging was also analyzed. Additionally, we investigated the effects of land cover change on discharge. Results indicated that modeled water fluxes are extremely sensitive to the parameterization method employed as well as the sub-grid variability of the parameter fieds. HRU is scale dependent whereas MPR is almost scale invariant. Regarding model parameters, discharge and soil moisture are quite sensitive to those parameters related with the soil texture such as soil porosity and recession constants. Discharge is also extremely sensitive to routing parameters. Extreme high-flow events are highly sensitive to initial soil moisture conditions, which in turn is quite sensitive to land cover changes.

Samaniego, L. E.; Kumar, R.

2011-12-01

83

Comparison of sedimentary PAHs in the rivers of Ammer (Germany) and Liangtan (China): differences between early- and newly-industrialized countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a proxy to trace the impact of anthropogenic activity, sedimentary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compared between the early industrialized and newly industrialized countries of Germany and China, respectively. Surface sediment samples in the Ammer River of Germany and the Liangtan River of China were collected to compare concentration levels, distribution patterns, and diagnostic plots of sedimentary PAHs. Total concentrations of 16 PAHs in Ammer sediments were significantly higher by a factor of ~4.5 than those in Liangtan. This contrast agrees with an extensive literature survey of PAH levels found in Chinese versus European sediments. Distribution patterns of PAHs were similar across sites in the Ammer River, whereas they were highly varied in the Liangtan River. Pyrogenic sources dominated in both cases. Strong correlations of the sum of 16 PAHs and PAH groups with TOC contents in the Liangtan River may indicate coemission of PAHs and TOC. Poor correlations of PAHs with TOC in the Ammer River indicate that other factors exert stronger influences. Sedimentary PAHs in the Ammer River are primarily attributed to input of diffuse sources or legacy pollution, while sediments in the Liangtan River are probably affected by ongoing point source emissions. Providing further evidence of a more prolonged anthropogenic influence are the elevated black carbon fractions in sedimentary TOC in the Ammer compared to the Liangtan. This implies that the Liangtan River, like others in newly industrialized regions, still has a chance to avoid legacy pollution of sediment which is widespread in the Ammer River and other European waterways.

Liu Y; Beckingham B; Ruegner H; Li Z; Ma L; Schwientek M; Xie H; Zhao J; Grathwohl P

2013-01-01

84

Late Quaternary evolution of rivers, lakes and peatlands in northeast Germany reflecting past climatic and human impact – an overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of regional palaeohydrology is essential for understanding current environmental issues, such as the causes of recent hydrologic changes, impacts of land use strategies and effectiveness of wetland restoration measures. Even the interpretation of model results on future impacts of climatic and land-cover changes may be improved using (pre-)historic analogies. An overview of palaeohydrologic findings of the last c. 20,000 years is given for northeast Germany with its glacial landscapes of different age. River development is examined with a focus on valley(-floor) formation and depositional changes, river course and channel changes, and palaeodischarge/-floods. Major genetic differences exist among ‘old morainic’ (Elsterian, Saalian) and ‘young morainic’ (Weichselian) areas, and among topographically high- and low-lying valleys, the latter of which are strongly influenced by water-level changes in the North and Baltic Seas. Lake development was analysed with respect to lake formation, which was predominantly driven by late Pleistocene to early Holocene dead-ice dynamics, and with respect to depositional changes. Furthermore, lake-level changes have been in the focus, showing highly variable local records with some conformity. The overview on peatland development concentrated on phases of mire formation and on long-term groundwater dynamics. Close relationships between the development of rivers, lakes and peatlands existed particularly during the late Holocene by complex paludification processes in large river valleys. Until the late Holocene, regional hydrology was predominantly driven by climatic, geomorphic and nonanthropogenic biotic factors. Since the late Medieval times, human activities have strongly influenced the drainage pattern and the water cycle, for instance, by damming of rivers and lakes, construction of channels and dikes, and peatland cultivation. Indeed, the natural changes caused by long-term climatic and geomorphic processes have been exceeded by impacts resulting from short-term human actions in the last c. 50 years as discharge regulation, hydromelioration and formation of artificial lakes.

Knut Kaiser; Sebastian Lorenz; Sonja Germer; Olaf Juschus; Mathias Küster; Judy Libra; Oliver Bens; Reinhard F. Hüttl

2012-01-01

85

The cadastre of waste heat in the Upper Rhine Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The cadastre of waste heat provides the distribution in space and time of anthropogeneous waste heat emissions on a 2 x 2 km2 grid. In the case of the Upper Rhine Valley it serves as a basis for the numerical evaluations of climatic changes caused by man. Such a cadastre also allows to analyse the distribution of pollutant emissions and the heat or energy supply, respectively, of the region. In a close approximation the distribution of waste heat is equal to the distribution of energy consumption. As there are generally difficulties in obtaining data about the consumption of the types of energy on the grid level, methods were developed which allow to determine the local energy consumption by using the relevant structural data. The methods used for the Federal Republic of Germany and neighbouring countries and the results for the Upper Rhine Valley, obtained by these methods, are presented. The cadastre of waste heat is based on data of the year 1973 which was a time of great energy consumption. Only in 1978 this energy consumption was exceeded. To be able to estimate the change in the influence of the anthropogeneous waste heat during the next 20 years, the cadastre was extrapolated until the year 2000. (orig.)

1980-01-01

86

Rhine brown coal basin (part II)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes the Rhine basin brown coal deposit, brown coal use in power plants, environmental policy in the FRG and publications on the Rhine basin. The following aspects are discussed: geology (stratification, coal seam thickness, dip angles, types of rock in the overburden, aquifers), coal properties (calorific value, ash and sulfur content, carbon content, chemical properties of ash from coal combustion, volatile matter), surface coal mines (Ville, Frenchen, Bergheim, Fortuna-Garsdorf, Frimmersdorf-Garzweiler, Zukunft, Inden, Hambach and Neurath-Nord), power plants fired with brown coal from the Rhine basin, technologies and equipment for air pollution control used in power plants, literature in Polish and German on the Rhine basin, basin history and development. 7 refs.

Pilecki, J.

1988-01-01

87

The Rhine-Maas-analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The most important preconditions and results of the new study are described as follows: 1. Local, regional, and global analyses. 2. Description of the Rhine-Maas region. 3. Installed electric power on a nuclear basis - a forecast until the year of 2000. 4. Radionuclide emission rates. 5. Environmental exposure pathways and calculation of the radiological exposure. 6. Radiological exposure caused by the emissions of nuclear power plants. 6.1 Exposure via the air pathway. 6.2 Exposure via the water pathway. 6.3 A comparison air pathway:water pathway. 7. Radiological exposure caused by the world-wide nuclear engineering. 8. Radiological exposure caused by non-nuclear technical sources. 9. A comparison of all radiological exposures. (orig./HP)

1981-05-22

88

Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in the sediment of the Roter Main river, Bayreuth, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems. Their sources are known but few studies about their accumulation potential in river sediments exist. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in sediments in relation to their levels in river water receiving effluent from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). PFOS accumulates by a factor of about 40 relative to river water, PFOA only up to threefold. In contrast to previous suggestions, in this case the enrichment on sediment is not correlated to the total organic carbon contents. - River sediments constitute a sink of perfluorinated surfactants released from the waste water treatment plant.

2008-01-01

89

Air pollution in the Rhine-Ruhr-area.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decades air pollution could be effectively reduced in the Rhine Ruhr area, a highly industrialized region in western Germany. Today the concentrations of the most important pollutants are far lower than the limit values of the German technical instructions for air quality control (TA Luft, 1986). For some carcinogenic substances, however, German target values (State Committee for Emission Control, 1992. Raumordnung und Landwirtschaft des Landes Nordhein-Westfalen, LAI, Düsseldorf) are still exceeded. Furthermore the concentrations of fine particles are higher than values discussed in the European union. The main sources of these pollutants are road traffic, certain industries concentrated in the area and secondary aerosols. To achieve lower pollutant concentrations a combined reduction of the emissions of road traffic, industry and agriculture is necessary. PMID:9820678

Gladtke, D

1998-08-01

90

Air pollution in the Rhine-Ruhr-area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the last decades air pollution could be effectively reduced in the Rhine Ruhr area, a highly industrialized region in western Germany. Today the concentrations of the most important pollutants are far lower than the limit values of the German technical instructions for air quality control (TA Luft, 1986). For some carcinogenic substances, however, German target values (State Committee for Emission Control, 1992. Raumordnung und Landwirtschaft des Landes Nordhein-Westfalen, LAI, Düsseldorf) are still exceeded. Furthermore the concentrations of fine particles are higher than values discussed in the European union. The main sources of these pollutants are road traffic, certain industries concentrated in the area and secondary aerosols. To achieve lower pollutant concentrations a combined reduction of the emissions of road traffic, industry and agriculture is necessary.

Gladtke D

1998-08-01

91

Comparison of sedimentary PAHs in the rivers of Ammer (Germany) and Liangtan (China): differences between early- and newly-industrialized countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a proxy to trace the impact of anthropogenic activity, sedimentary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compared between the early industrialized and newly industrialized countries of Germany and China, respectively. Surface sediment samples in the Ammer River of Germany and the Liangtan River of China were collected to compare concentration levels, distribution patterns, and diagnostic plots of sedimentary PAHs. Total concentrations of 16 PAHs in Ammer sediments were significantly higher by a factor of ~4.5 than those in Liangtan. This contrast agrees with an extensive literature survey of PAH levels found in Chinese versus European sediments. Distribution patterns of PAHs were similar across sites in the Ammer River, whereas they were highly varied in the Liangtan River. Pyrogenic sources dominated in both cases. Strong correlations of the sum of 16 PAHs and PAH groups with TOC contents in the Liangtan River may indicate coemission of PAHs and TOC. Poor correlations of PAHs with TOC in the Ammer River indicate that other factors exert stronger influences. Sedimentary PAHs in the Ammer River are primarily attributed to input of diffuse sources or legacy pollution, while sediments in the Liangtan River are probably affected by ongoing point source emissions. Providing further evidence of a more prolonged anthropogenic influence are the elevated black carbon fractions in sedimentary TOC in the Ammer compared to the Liangtan. This implies that the Liangtan River, like others in newly industrialized regions, still has a chance to avoid legacy pollution of sediment which is widespread in the Ammer River and other European waterways. PMID:23252503

Liu, Ying; Beckingham, Barbara; Ruegner, Hermann; Li, Zhe; Ma, Limin; Schwientek, Marc; Xie, Huan; Zhao, Jianfu; Grathwohl, Peter

2013-01-07

92

Nitrate elimination by denitrification in hardwood forest soils of the Upper Rhine floodplain - correlation with redox potential and organic matter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Denitrification in floodplains is a major issue for river- and groundwater quality. In the Upper Rhine valley, floodplain forests are about to be restored to serve as flood retention areas (polders). Besides flood attenuation in downstream areas, improvement of water quality became recently a major ...

Brettar, Ingrid; Trémolières, Michèle; Sanchez-Pérez, José-Miguel

93

Danube, Meuse and Rhine MEMORANDUM 2008; Donau -, Maas - und Rhein - MEMORANDUM 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The preventive water protection is the highest priority for water supply utilities as well as social and economical groups of interests using waters of most different kind. Under this aspect, the International Association of Waterworks in the Rhine catchment area (IAWR, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany) compiled the Danube, Meuse and Rhine memorandum 2008. It considers the conversion of the EU Water Framework Directive and concretely contains demands on a sustainable water protection and target values for substances in water. For politicians, authorities and decision makers in industry and water management, the memorandum under consideration should be an assistance and orientation for necessary improvements of surface waters used for the production of drinking water.

NONE

2008-07-01

94

Library Consortia in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Looking at the present situation in Germany consortia show a considerable variety of organizational forms. Only in the case of the Friedrich-Althoff-Consortium in Berlin-Brandenburg a corporate body with deed of partnership does exist. In other German states consortia have been formed which are represented by an individual library (e.g. Baden-Württemberg) or by a central institution such as the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Bavaria or the Hochschulbibliothekszentrum NRW in North Rhine-Westphalia. Rarely contracts for nationwide consortia have been signed; resulting from an initiative of a professional society, the „Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker“, an agreement was reached allowing for the use of the Beilstein-Crossfire-database in participating universities all over Germany.

Werner Reinhardt; Peter Te Boekhorst

2001-01-01

95

On the identity of the fossil hydrophilid beetles from the Tertiary localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses on the beetles from the Oligocene localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Brunstatt: France, Alsace; and Kleinkems: Germany, Baden-Württemberg) assigned to the family Hydrophilidae by previous authors. The identity of Escheria convexa Förster, 1891 is fixed by t...

Martin Fikácek; Jiri Hajek; Heiko Schmied

96

Non biodegradable and weakly adsorbing substances in the river Elbe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quality of the river Elbe in East Germany has been investigated in a research project subsidized by the German minstry of research and technology, iwth respect to drinking water quality and treatment using laboratory methods similar to the treatment processes in waterworks. The experiments included analysis of sum- and group-parameters before and after biological degradation and a study of adsorption on activated carbon. Comparing these results with data already published from the river Rhine in West Germany, the water of the river Elbe showed approximately double the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and ion-pair-extractable organic sulphur (IOS). Mathematical models have been used to obtain further information from these measurements about the origin of the organic substances in the river Elbe. As a consequence, an important part of the relatively high DOC-concentration in the Elbe-river is due to natural humic substances. Therefore the operation of better waste water treatment plants along the elbe-river might reduce the concentration of organic halogen and sulphur substances in particular, whereas the concentration of DOC will decrease only slightly in the future. (orig.).

1993-01-01

97

Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH4NO3-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. - Soils in the Elbe river floodplains are highly polluted with metals and arsenic and a critical enrichment in the grassland herbage seems to be most likely in flood channels or within special plant species.

2007-01-01

98

Cytotoxicity of settling particulate matter and sediments of the Neckar River (Germany) during a winter flood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of settling particulate matter (SPM) carried by the Neckar River, a well-studied model for a lock-regulated river in central Europe, during a flood, acute cytotoxicity was investigated using the fibroblast-like fish cell line RTG-2 with the neutral red retention, the succinic acid dehydrogenase (MTT), and the lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) release assays as well as microscopic inspection as endpoints. Genotoxicity of water, pore water, sediments, and SPM were assessed using the Ames test. Different extraction methods (Soxhlet extraction with solvents of variable polarity as well as a fluid/fluid extraction according to pH) in addition to a supplementation of biotests with 59 fractions from the liver of {beta}-naphthoflavone/phenobarbital-induced rats allowed a further characterization of the biological damage. Both sediments and SPM extracts caused cytotoxic effects in RTG-2 cells. Cytotoxicity was found to increase significantly with polarity of extracting solvents. Following extraction according to pH, cytotoxicity could be attributed mainly to neutral substances, whereas the slightly acid and basic fractions already showed little or no cytotoxicity. Samples taken during the period of flood rise showed the highest cytotoxic activities. Cytotoxicity was significantly enhanced by the addition of S9 preparations. In contrast, no genotoxic activity was found in native surface waters, pore waters, and SPM.

Hollert, H.; Duerr, M.; Erdinger, L.; Braunbeck, T.

2000-03-01

99

Transport of Algal Cells in Hyporheic Sediments of the River Elbe (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

The advective transport of algal cells into the interstices of the hyporheic zone of the River Elbe was spatially and temporally heterogenous. Even deep sediment layers were reached by large phytoplankton species. Therefore, it is suggested that (i) the advective interstitial transport patterns vary between different algal sizes and morphotypes and (ii) sediment characteristics, expressed by the permeability coefficient kf of porous media, affect retention and retardation of surface water algae during subsurface transport. The transport behaviour of different green algae (Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus acuminatus, Desmodesmus communis, and Pediastrum duplex) and algal sized microspheres was tested in flow-through column experiments with hyporheic sediments. The algal cell transport was directly related to the permeability of the column sediments. (

Kloep, Frank; Röske, Isolde

2004-01-01

100

Hydroclimatic signal and LBK cultural activity in the Upper and Lower Rhine, inferred from abandoned channel fill deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely populated Upper Rhine Graben with those from the more peripheral Lower Rhine valley to decipher anthropogenic impacts from natural environmental circumstances. Moreover, we try to discriminate the local to the regional signals recorded in the fluvial archives, by comparing the proxy data with the pedo-sedimentary context. The ultimate goal is to model socio-environmental interactions during the LBK culture progression to Western Europe with MMA.

Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Investigation of channel morphology in a restored river/floodplain interconnection at the embanked Danube between Neuburg and Ingolstadt (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper part of the Danube was straightened and embanked since the mid of the 19th century and flows between dikes without any contact to its floodplain. Additionally, since the 1970ies hydropower stations are influencing the river continuity and the ground water level of the floodplain negatively. The presented investigations are part of a floodplain restoration project that aims to bring back new dynamics to the floodplain, like water, groundwater and morphological features, as the key processes for floodplain habitats and species.They give a drive to enliven the natural processes in the riparian areas. This project ("Remediation of riparian areas on the Danube floodplain between Neuburg and Ingolstadt", Germany) takes place in a project area of 2.100 hectares of riparian forests. The project consists of two major parts - A permanent flow of water (up to 5 m3/s) bypassing the dam of the power station. The new river will develop on the floodplain partly following old oxbows, but partly eroding its way naturally in the new modelled channel. - Controlled flooding (up to 30 m3/s) of parts of the floodplain during peak discharge of the Danube (600-1.100 m3/s; statistically one to three times a year) The project, conducted by the Bavarian Water Authority, will start at the beginning of February 2010. The Floodplain Institute Neuburg and the Department of Physical Geography of the Catholic University of Eichstaett together with some other Institutes established a comprehensive monitoring program including vegetation, fauna, hydrological and morphological data. This monitoring program is founded by the BfN (Federal Agency for Nature Conservation). From the beginning of the flooding a new morphological activity will start which might be self sustaining or self cumulative. For example the new river banks are prone to lateral erosion and new undercut slopes will develop. The transport, erosion and deposit of sediment will depend on the outflow which is man-controlled and adjusted to the Danube water level. To understand the developement of this new river channel the status quo was recorded by several surveys. The goals of these preliminary investigations are to get as much knowledge of the starting conditions in the channel as possible (channel topography and sediment distribution). Therefore methods are ranging from standard grain size analyses over cross profile measurements and high resolution aerial photos (taken from a helicopter), up to highly sophisticated Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) measurements using a Riegl LMS Z 420i. Laser scanning is a very powerful tool for high-resolution data acquisition of geomorphic surfaces. This application investigation may also contribute to the understanding and monitoring of sedimentation processes and quantification of erosion and sedimentation in a semi-natural modelled channel.Further analyses in the next 5 years will show the development of the channel after its flooding. Due to the fact that the phase of construction will be finished at the End of January 2010, research is still at its beginning. So the suggested poster presentation will show the concept of the investigations, but also first results.

Fischer, Peter; Haas, Florian; Heckmann, Tobias; Stammel, Barbara; Cyffka, Bernd

2010-05-01

102

Germany as a seismic region. Erdbebengebiet Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book discusses international earthquake research in general, the earthquake phenomenon, problems, aids, and methods of research into seismic areas, earthquake intensities, earthquake recording, and early detection. Germany is discussed as a unique seismic region. One reason for its uniqueness is the rare occurrence of fault trenches such as the Upper Rhine Plane. The other reason is the sudden occurrence of an active seismic area on November 16, 1911.

Heck, H.D.; Schick, R.

1980-01-01

103

Exposure to water from the lower Rhine induces a stress response in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The water quality of the river Rhine has improved in recent years and populations of salmonids are increasing. Nevertheless at present, the water from the lower Rhine still contains a complex mixture of low levels of many pollutants and it is not known whether exposure to such water is stressful to salmonid fish. For 31 days we continuously exposed the trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to water from the lower Rhine in the Netherlands and measured a variety of physiological, biochemical, and histological parameters, including the stress parameters cortisol and glucose. Exposure to Rhine water significantly increased cortisol and glucose after 3 h. At 21 and 31 days, cortisol was lower in exposed fish, indicating inhibition or exhaustion of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Electron microscopical analysis of the skin and gill epithelia revealed stressor-related effects that reflected disruption of the skin epithelium, the interface between the fish and the environment. This had little influence on hydromineral balance, as neither gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity nor plasma Na+ and Cl- were altered, although intestine- and kidney-specific Na+/K+-ATPase activities were affected. Analysis of heavy metal concentrations in the liver, kidney, and intestine indicated no bioaccumulation. Immunostimulation was reflected by increased respiratory burst activity of the head kidney leukocytes. From 7 days onwards, the body weight of the Rhine water fish was significantly lower than that of control fish. Overall, the data show that acute exposure to present day water from the lower Rhine induced a stress response in the fish that, during chronic exposure, was followed by impairment of the HPI axis, reduced growth, and prolonged immunostimulation.

Nolan DT; Spanings FA; Ruane NM; Hadderingh RH; Jenner HA; Wendelaar Bonga SE

2003-08-01

104

Propagation prognoses on rivers Rhine, Neckar, Main and Moselle based on {sup 3}HHO tracer dispersion investigations; Erstellung von Ausbreitungsprognosen an Rhein, Neckar, Main und Mosel aufgrund von Dispersionsuntersuchungen mit {sup 3}HHO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intermittent discharges of {sup 3}HHO from nuclear installations have been used to determine flow times, flow velocities and values characterizing the longitudinal dispersion of soluble substances under natural conditions. The data and the knowledge thus gained are the basis for developing propagation prognoses. In case of an accidental input of radioactive or inactive water-soluble substances into the river, the flow and propagation behaviour in the contaminated river sections can be described, what permits also an estimation of the radiologic or toxic effects. The formal interrelation of the values required for a tabular presentation of prognoses on the longitudinal dispersion of these noxious substances is described and exemplified. (orig.) [German] Intermittierende Einleitungen von {sup 3}HHO aus kerntechnischen Anlagen wurden genutzt, um Fliesszeiten, Fliessgeschwindigkeiten und Kenndaten zur longitudinalen Dispersion von geloesten Stoffen unter natuerlichen Bedingungen zu ermitteln. Die hierbei gewonnenen Daten und Erkenntnisse bilden die Grundlage fuer Ausbreitungsprognosen, anhand der im Falle eines stoerfallbedingten Eintrags radioaktiver oder auch inaktiver wasserloeslicher Stoffe in die Vorfluter das Fliess- und Ausbreitungsverhalten des kontaminierten Flussabschnitts beschrieben und die radiologischen oder toxikologischen Auswirkungen fuer unterliegende Nutzungsbereiche abgeschaetzt werden koennen. Der zur tabellarischen Darstellung von Prognosen zur longitudinalen Ausbreitung dieser Schadstoffe erforderliche formale Zusammenhang der benoetigten Groessen wird beschrieben und beispielhaft verdeutlicht. (orig.)

Krause, W.J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany)

1998-07-01

105

Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in two fish species collected from the Roter Main River, Bayreuth, Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely distributed in the environment. In this study the accumulation potential of PFOA and PFOS in two fish species with different feeding strategies, i.e. chub (Leuciscus cephalus) and river goby (Gobio gobio) inhabiting a river receiving treated waste waters from a municipal waste water treatment plant, were estimated. PFOS was detected in chub (7-250 microg kg(-1) wet weight) and river goby (70-400 microg kg(-1) wet weight) with bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of 4600 (liver) and 11,000 (organs). PFOA concentrations in both fish were low and in chub mostly below detection limit.

Becker AM; Gerstmann S; Frank H

2010-01-01

106

Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the upper Rhine using sup 3 HHO as a tracer. Zur Bestimmung von Fliesszeiten und longitudinaler Dispersion im Hoch- und Oberrhein mit sup 3 HHO als Tracer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine river under natural conditions are determined by use of single emissions of tritiated waste water from nuclear power plants within normal operation. The influence of the discharge of the Rhine on the most relevant parameters is investigated thoroughly. In a case of accidental release of radioactive material, these data would be the basis of a prognosis by which the behaviour of the contaminated river section along the course can be described and the radiological consequences within the so-called critical impact area estimated. (orig.).

Mundschenk, H.; Krause, W.J. (Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany))

1991-10-01

107

Comparing model performance of two rainfall-runoff models in the Rhine basin using different atmospheric forcing data sets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the growing wish and necessity to simulate the possible effects of climate change on the discharge regime on large rivers such as the Rhine in Europe, there is a need for well performing hydrological models that can be applied in climate change scenario studies. There exists large variety in available models and there is an ongoing debate in research on rainfall-runoff modelling on whether or not physically based distributed models better represent observed discharges than conceptual lumped model approaches do. In this paper, the hydrological models HBV and VIC were compared for the Rhine basin by testing their performance in simulating discharge. Overall, the semi-distributed conceptual HBV model performed much better than the distributed physically based VIC model (E=0.62, r2=0.65 vs. E=0.31, r2=0.54 at Lobith). It is argued here that even for a well-documented river basin such as the Rhine, more complex modelling does not automatically lead to better results. Moreover, it is concluded that meteorological forcing data has a considerable influence on model performance, irrespectively to the type of model structure and the need for ground-based meteorological measurements is emphasized.

A. H. te Linde; J. C. J. H. Aerts; R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; M. Eberle

2007-01-01

108

Comparing model performance of two rainfall-runoff models in the Rhine basin using different atmospheric forcing data sets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the growing wish and necessity to simulate the possible effects of climate change on the discharge regime on large rivers such as the Rhine in Europe, there is a need for well performing hydrological models that can be applied in climate change scenario studies. There exists large variety in available models and there is an ongoing debate in research on rainfall-runoff modelling on whether or not physically based distributed models better represent observed discharges than conceptual lumped model approaches do. In addition, it is argued that Land Surface Models (LSMs) carry the potential to accurately estimate hydrological partitioning, because they solve the coupled water and energy balance. In this paper, the hydrological models HBV and VIC were compared for the Rhine basin by testing their performance in simulating discharge. Overall, the semi-distributed conceptual HBV model performed much better than the distributed land surface model VIC (E=0.62, r2=0.65 vs. E=0.31, r2=0.54 at Lobith). It is argued here that even for a well-documented river basin such as the Rhine, more complex modelling does not automatically lead to better results. Moreover, it is concluded that meteorological forcing data has a considerable influence on model performance, irrespectively to the type of model structure and the need for ground-based meteorological measurements is emphasized.

A. H. te Linde; J. C. J. H. Aerts; R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; M. Eberle

2008-01-01

109

Laboratory shake flask batch tests can predict field biodegradation of aniline in the Rhine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to compare degradation rates of aniline in laboratory shake flask simulation tests with field rates in the river Rhine. The combined events of a low flow situation in the Rhine and residual aniline concentrations in the effluent from the BASF treatment plant in Ludwigshafen temporarily higher than normal, made it possible to monitor aniline at trace concentrations in the river water downstream the wastewater outlet by means of a sensitive GC headspace analytical method. Aniline was analyzed along a downstream gradient and the dilution along the gradient was calculated from measurements of conductivity, sulfate and a non-readily biodegradable substance, 1,4-dioxane. Compensating dilution, field first-order degradation rate constants downstream the discharge of BASF were estimated at 1.8 day(-1) for two different dates with water temperatures of 21.9 and 14.7 degreesC, respectively. This field rate estimate was compared with results from 38 laboratory shake flask batch tests with Rhinewater which averaged 1.5 day(-1) at 15 degreesC and 2.0 day(-1) at 20 degreesC. These results indicate that laboratory shake flask batch tests with low concentrations of test substance can be good predictors of degradation rates in natural water bodies-at least as ascertained here for short duration tests with readily degradable compounds among which aniline is a commonly used reference. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Toräng, Lars; Reuschenbach, P.

2001-01-01

110

Spatial and temporal characterisation of stable isotopes in river water as indicators of groundwater contribution and confirmation of modelling results; a study of the Weser river, Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

River water samples were analysed for stable isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) collected from 46 sites during spring 2008, and from monthly samples at the outlets of seven sub-basins of the River Weser (46,200 km(2) basin area in total) over a five year period from 2003 to 2007, to characterise temporal and spatial isotope patterns of river water. Results indicate a pronounced elevation effect (0.2 per thousand and 1 to 2 per thousand per 100 m for delta(18)O and delta(2)H, respectively) as well as influence of seawater mixing for a few coastal locations. A lumped parameter modelling approach was used to compare residence times and relative amounts of direct flow, fast and slow groundwater with those derived from a combined water balance and tritium balance modelling approach. Residence times of direct runoff were estimated to be between one and three and a half months. Much longer groundwater residence times are necessary to explain tritium recession in river water. The modelling fits for stable isotope data in river water, derived with residence times and base flow amounts combined from a water and tritium balance approach, emphasise that beneath a characterisation of a direct flow component, seasonal variations of stable isotope values in river water carry information on groundwater contribution.

Koeniger P; Leibundgut C; Stichler W

2009-12-01

111

Spatial and temporal characterisation of stable isotopes in river water as indicators of groundwater contribution and confirmation of modelling results; a study of the Weser river, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

River water samples were analysed for stable isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) collected from 46 sites during spring 2008, and from monthly samples at the outlets of seven sub-basins of the River Weser (46,200 km(2) basin area in total) over a five year period from 2003 to 2007, to characterise temporal and spatial isotope patterns of river water. Results indicate a pronounced elevation effect (0.2 per thousand and 1 to 2 per thousand per 100 m for delta(18)O and delta(2)H, respectively) as well as influence of seawater mixing for a few coastal locations. A lumped parameter modelling approach was used to compare residence times and relative amounts of direct flow, fast and slow groundwater with those derived from a combined water balance and tritium balance modelling approach. Residence times of direct runoff were estimated to be between one and three and a half months. Much longer groundwater residence times are necessary to explain tritium recession in river water. The modelling fits for stable isotope data in river water, derived with residence times and base flow amounts combined from a water and tritium balance approach, emphasise that beneath a characterisation of a direct flow component, seasonal variations of stable isotope values in river water carry information on groundwater contribution. PMID:20183240

Koeniger, Paul; Leibundgut, Christian; Stichler, Willibald

2009-12-01

112

Air quality assessment by tree bark biomonitoring in urban, industrial and rural environments of the Rhine Valley: PCDD/Fs, PCBs and trace metal evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tree barks were used as biomonitors to evaluate past atmospheric pollution within and around the industrial zones of Strasbourg (France) and Kehl (Germany) in the Rhine Valley. The here estimated residence time for trace metals, PCBs and PCDD/Fs in tree bark is >10 years. Thus, all pollution observed by tree bark biomonitoring can be older than 10 years. The PCB baseline concentration (sum of seven PCB indicators (?(7)PCB(ind))) determined on tree barks from a remote area in the Vosges mountains is 4 ng g(-1) and corresponds to 0.36 × 10(-3)ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) g(-1) for the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs). The northern Rhine harbor suffered especially from steel plant, waste incinerator and thermal power plant emissions. The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) concentrations analyzed in tree barks from this industrial area range between 392 and 1420 ng kg(-1) dry-weight (dw) corresponding to 3.9 ng TEQ(PCDD/Fs) kg(-1) to 17.8 ng TEQ(PCDD/Fs) kg(-1), respectively. Highest PCDD/F values of 7.2 ng TEQ kg(-1) to 17.8 ng TEQ kg(-1) have been observed close to and at a distance of pollutions since recent long-term measurements at the same sites indicate that the atmospheric PCB concentrations are close to baseline. Emissions from an old landfill of waste and/or great fires might have been the reasons of these PCB enrichments. Other urban environments of the cities of Kehl and Strasbourg show significantly lower ?(7)PCB(ind) concentrations. They suffer especially from road and river traffic and have typically ?(7)PCB(ind) concentrations ranging from 11 ng g(-1) to 29 ng g(-1). The PCB concentration of 29 ng g(-1) has been found in tree bark close to the railway station of Strasbourg. Nevertheless, the corresponding TEQ(DL-PCB) are low and range between 0.2 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1) and 7 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1). Samples collected near road traffic are enriched in Fe, Sb, Sn and Pb. Cd enrichments were found close to almost all types of industries. Rural environments not far from industrial sites suffered from organic and inorganic pollution. In this case, TEQ(DL-PCB) values may reach up to 58 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1) and the corresponding V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Cd concentrations are comparatively high. PMID:21726892

Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Millet, Maurice

2011-07-02

113

Potential gains from mergers in local public transport: an efficiency analysis applied to Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze potential gains from hypothetical mergers in local public transport using the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis with bias corrections by means of bootstrapping. Our sample consists of 41 public transport companies from Germany's most densely populated region, North Rhine-Westphalia...

Walter, Matthias; Cullmann, Astrid

114

Cohabiting unions in France and West Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares the non-marital birth pattern in France and West Germany. Since the beginning of the eighties, France witnessed a steady increase in non-marital birth rates, while in West Germany non-marital birth rates have remained at a relatively low level. We attribute these differences to the institutional and legal constraints from both sides of the Rhine which hamper or foster childbearing in cohabiting unions. Using data from the French and German Family and Fertility Survey, we apply event history modeling to the transition to marriage and first birth. Our results indicate a polarization of family forms in both countries. In West Germany, we find a polarization in a "family sector" and a "non-family sector" while in France there is a polarization in a "marriage sector" and a "cohabiting sector".

Le Goff Jean-Marie

2002-01-01

115

Influence of a Storm Surge Barrier’s Operation on the Flood Frequency in the Rhine Delta Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Rhine River Delta is crucial to the Dutch economy. The Maeslant barrier was built in 1997 to protect the Rhine estuary, with the city and port of Rotterdam, from storm surges. This research takes a simple approach to quantify the influence of the Maeslant storm surge barrier on design water levels behind the barrier. The dikes in the area are supposed to be able to withstand these levels. Equal Level Curves approach is used to calculate the Rotterdam water levels by using Rhine discharges and sea water levels as input. Their joint probability function generates the occurrence frequency of a certain combination that will lead to a certain high water level in Rotterdam. The results show that the flood frequency in Rotterdam is reduced effectively with the controlled barrier in current and in future scenarios influenced by climate change. In addition, an investigation of the sensitivity of the operational parameters suggests that there is a negligible influence on the high water level frequency when the decision closing water level for the barrier is set higher due to the benefits of navigation (but not exceeding the design safety level 4 m MSL).

Hua Zhong; Peter-Jules van Overloop; Pieter van Gelder; Ties Rijcken

2012-01-01

116

Determination of nitrogen reduction levels necessary to reach groundwater quality targets in large river basins: the Weser basin case study, Germany  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We used the interdisciplinary model network REGFLUD to predict the actual mean nitrate concentration in percolation water at the scale of the Weser river basin (Germany) using an area--differentiated (100 m x 100 m) approach. REGFLUD combines the agro-economic model RAUMIS for estimating nitrogen surpluses and the hydrological models GROWA/DENUZ for assessing the nitrate leaching from the soil. The areas showing predicted nitrate concentrations in percolation water above the EU groundwater quality standard of 50 mg NO?/l, have been identified as priority areas for implementing nitrogen reduction measures. For these “hot spot” areas a backward modelling approach was used to quantify the maximal permissible nitrogen surplus levels in agriculture to guarantee a mean long-term nitrate concentration in percolation water below 50 mg NO?/l. Research work will directly support the implementation of the EU-Water Framework Directive in the Weser basin, e.g. by using the maximal permissible nitrogen surplus levels as a framework for the derivation of regionally adapted and hence effective nitrogen reduction measures.

Wendland F; Behrendt H; Gömann H; Hirt U; Kreins P; Kuhn U; Kunkel R; Tetzlaff B

2009-09-01

117

Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile

2007-01-01

118

Towards a Risk Governance Culture in Flood Policy—Findings from the Implementation of the “Floods Directive” in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks is likely to cause changes to flood policy in Germany and other member states. With its risk governance approach, it introduces a holistic and catchment-oriented flood risk management and tries to overcome shortcomings of the past, such as the event-driven construction of mainly structural measures. However, there is leeway for interpretation in implementing the directive. The present paper gives an overview on the implementation of the floods directive in Germany and is divided into two qualitative empirical case studies. Case Study I investigates the level of acceptance of the floods directive among decision-makers in the German part of the Rhine river basin. Findings show that the federal states respond differently to the impulse given by the floods directive. Whereas some decision-makers opt for a pro-forma implementation, others take it as a starting point to systematically improve their flood policy. Case Study II presents recommendations for a successful implementation of flood risk management plans that have been developed within a project for the water authority in Bavaria and might be interesting for other federal/member states. For a participation of the interested parties on the level of shared decision-making, the planning process has to work on sub-management-plan level (15–20 communities). The water resources authority has to adopt a multi-faceted role (expert, responsible or interested party depending on the discussed topics).

Marc Daniel Heintz; Maria Hagemeier-Klose; Klaus Wagner

2012-01-01

119

Geochronology of priority pollutants in sedimentation zones of the Volga and Danube delta in comparison with the Rhine delta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Six sediment cores were taken in sedimentation zones of the Volga river (located in the southern part of the Russian Federation) and, additionally, 6 sediment cores were taken in several lakes (sedimentation zones) in the central and western part of the Danube delta in Romania. Priority pollutants (8 metals, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined in all samples of all cores. Present-day and historical levels of pollutants since the late 1930s were established through the use of radionuclide time tracers (137Cs, 134Cs). For the persistent metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trends in the concentration profiles during the last 5 decades are described. Low and hardly changing concentrations of As, Cu, Zn and all studied PAHs were observed during the last five decades in the sediments of the Volga river. Recently deposited sediments show slightly increasing levels for the heavy metals Zn and Cr and As in the Volga delta. For the studied metals and PAHs, maximum concentrations were found around 1987 in the sediments of the Danube delta. Sediments deposited around 1940 and recently deposited sediments in the Danube delta showed lower pollutant levels. If the contents of heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments in the deltas of the rivers Rhine, Danube and Volga are compared, it is clear that the Volga delta is and was the cleanest delta during the last 5 decades. Nowadays the contents of heavy metals (except Cu and Ni), PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments of the river Rhine are still highest compared to the other two rivers. The recent load of heavy metals (except Cd and Zn) in the sediments of the river Danube is the highest compared to the other two rivers. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

1998-07-01

120

Geochronology of priority pollutants in sedimentation zones of the Volga and Danube delta in comparison with the Rhine delta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six sediment cores were taken in sedimentation zones of the Volga river (located in the southern part of the Russian Federation) and, additionally, 6 sediment cores were taken in several lakes (sedimentation zones) in the central and western part of the Danube delta in Romania. Priority pollutants (8 metals, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined in all samples of all cores. Present-day and historical levels of pollutants since the late 1930s were established through the use of radionuclide time tracers ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs). For the persistent metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trends in the concentration profiles during the last 5 decades are described. Low and hardly changing concentrations of As, Cu, Zn and all studied PAHs were observed during the last five decades in the sediments of the Volga river. Recently deposited sediments show slightly increasing levels for the heavy metals Zn and Cr and As in the Volga delta. For the studied metals and PAHs, maximum concentrations were found around 1987 in the sediments of the Danube delta. Sediments deposited around 1940 and recently deposited sediments in the Danube delta showed lower pollutant levels. If the contents of heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments in the deltas of the rivers Rhine, Danube and Volga are compared, it is clear that the Volga delta is and was the cleanest delta during the last 5 decades. Nowadays the contents of heavy metals (except Cu and Ni), PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments of the river Rhine are still highest compared to the other two rivers. The recent load of heavy metals (except Cd and Zn) in the sediments of the river Danube is the highest compared to the other two rivers. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

Winkels, H.J.; Kroonenberg, S.B.; Lychagin, M.Y.; Marin, G.; Rusakov, G.V.; Kasimov, N.S. [Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment, Rijkswaterstaat, P.O. Box 17, 8200 AA Lelystad (Netherlands)

1998-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

A review of Gobiid expansion along the Danube-Rhine corridor – geopolitical change as a driver for invasion Une revue de l’expansion des Gobiidae le long du corridor Danube-Rhin – les changements géopolitiques comme moteur pour l’invasion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five Gobiid fish species have recently increased their ranges along the Danube/Rhine river corridor. Studies to date, however, have tended to be local, site specific and reactive, examining just one or few species. As such, overall range has tended to be assumed based on a summary of patchy, and sometimes contradictory, data. This study provides an up-to-date literature review of first records of occurrence for all five species along their expansion route. In addition, available shipping data are examined to identify possible proximal causes of introduction. Three main discontinuous population centres were identified; all at or near important container ports: Vienna, Duisburg and Rotterdam. Shipping is confirmed as an important factor in the rapid national and international expansion of Ponto-Caspian Gobiids, with downstream drift, rip-rap and heavy boat traffic contributing to rapid spread on the Rhine. Geopolitical factors, however, such as the fall of communism and the Balkan conflict, have been key in influencing where, when, and by which route gobies first appear. Rapid expansion of Gobiids in the Rhine raises the possibility of establishment throughout mainland Europe via two new potential invasion corridors across Germany/Poland and France. Cinq espèces de poissons Gobiidae ont récemment étendu leurs répartitions dans le corridor Danube/Rhin. Les études menées à ce jour ont cependant tendance à être locales, spécifiques au site, et n’examinent seulement qu’une ou quelques espèces. De ce fait, la répartition globale a tendance à être évaluée sur la base d’un résumé de données fragmentaires et parfois contradictoires. Cette étude est une synthèse de la littérature des premiers signalements de présence pour les cinq espèces le long de leur itinéraire d’expansion. En outre, les données de navigation disponibles sont examinées afin de déterminer les causes proximales possibles d’introduction. Trois principaux centres de population disjoints ont été identifiés, tous dans ou près des ports à conteneurs importants : Vienne, Duisbourg et Rotterdam. La navigation est confirmée comme un facteur important dans l’expansion nationale et internationale rapide des Gobiidae pontocaspiens, avec une dérive vers l’aval; les enrochements et la circulation de gros bateaux contribuant à la propagation rapide sur le Rhin. Des facteurs géopolitiques, cependant, comme la chute du communisme et le conflit des Balkans, ont joué un rôle clé en influençant où, quand et par quelle voie les gobies apparaissent en premier. L’expansion rapide des Gobiidae dans le Rhin soulève la possibilité d’implantation dans toute l’Europe continentale via deux nouveaux corridors d’invasion potentiels à travers l’Allemagne/Pologne et la France.

Roche K.F.; Jana? M.; Jurajda P.

2013-01-01

122

The Rhine red, the fish dead-the 1986 Schweizerhalle disaster, a retrospect and long-term impact assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The November 1, 1986 fire at a Sandoz Ltd. storehouse at Schweizerhalle, an industrial area near Basel, Switzerland, resulted in chemical contamination of the environment. The storehouse, which was completely destroyed by the fire, contained pesticides, solvents, dyes, and various raw and intermediate materials. The majority of the approximately 1,250 t of stored chemicals was destroyed in the fire, but large quantities were introduced into the atmosphere, into the Rhine River through runoff of the fire-fighting water, and into the soil and groundwater at the site. The chemicals discharged into the Rhine caused massive kills of benthic organisms and fish, particularly eels and salmonids. Public and private reaction to the fire and subsequent chemical spill was very strong. This happened only a few months after the Chernobyl accident and it destroyed the myth of immunity of Switzerland regarding such catastrophes. AIM: This article reviews the damaging events of November 1986 and aims at striking stock two decades later. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In the aftermath of this once-per-century accident, the aim was to obtain new knowledge for the environmental sciences and to achieve progress for water pollution control issues. The following themes are discussed: mitigation measures by the chemical industry and by the governmental authorities, activities of environmental protection organizations, chemical and biological monitoring, alert organization, ecological damages, ecotoxicological effects assessment, recovery and alteration of the river biology, return of the salmon, drinking water supplies, research programs, education of environmental scientists, and visions for the future. CONCLUSIONS: The catastrophic pollution of the Rhine in November 1986 has triggered by the openly visible damages of the river biology that subsequently significant progress was made towards the prevention of such environmental catastrophes. The crucial risk reduction measures in the chemical industry, legal regulations and controls as well as chemical and biological monitoring of the river water quality were substantially improved. Politics and chemical industry have learned their lectures and have proceeded accordingly. RECOMMENDATIONS: A drastic acute contamination, as it has happened at Schweizerhalle in 1986, is clearly recognizable by the toxic effects, which it is causing. This can lead to mitigation activities, which are positive considering a long-term perspective. However, the less obvious effects of chronic water pollution should receive more attention as well as the ongoing alteration of the biocenosis. A high water quality must be demanded for using water from the Rhine to produce drinking water. In that context, micropollutants should also be considered and particular attention should be payed to emerging contaminants. PERSPECTIVES: The big chemical storehouse fire of 1986 had an important impact on the transboundary cooperation and has improved the willingness for international cooperation. The fire catastrophe of Schweizerhalle has triggered many activities in particular for the Rhine River. Overall, the effects are positive on the basis of a long-term perspective. The applied whole basin approach gives an example on a global basis for other river systems, which still are more heavily polluted.

Giger W

2009-08-01

123

Characterization of fault zones in shell lime of the Upper Rhine Graben. Digestion analogue studies; Charakterisierung von Stoerungszonen im Muschelkalk des Oberrheingrabens. Aufschlussanalogstudien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors of the contribution under consideration present first results on the features of fault zones with different displacements in the shell limestone of the region Kraichgau (Federal Republic of Germany) as digestion analogues for the shell limestone of the Upper Rhine Graben. At small displacements, the fault nuclei are not so mighty. However, the failure zones are well expressed also at small fault zones. These results are significant for the permeability of the reservoir especially during the inactive phases of the fault zones.

Meier, Silke; Bauer, Johanna F.; Philipp, Sonja L. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Strukturgeologie

2012-10-16

124

The hydro-meteorological forecast and the management of EDF electricity production structures in case of flood: the example of the floods of February and May 1999 on the Rhine river; La prevision hydrometeorologique et la conduite en crue des ouvrages EDF de production d'electricite: l'exemple des crues de fevrier et mai 1999 sur le Rhin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whether flash on small mountainous catchments or slower on some big hydrographical basins, the food is a major concern for the safety management of electricity production structures. To face it up, EDF has set up an integrated system of supervision and hydro-meteorological forecast which allows to alert the dam operators early enough and brings them a precious assistance to come to a decision. We describe the system and its organisation, from the field measurement and the hydrological forecast to the reach of decision and the experimental returns. The recent event of the Rhine's flood of February and May 1999 is taken as an example. After a description of the phenomenons, of its follow-up, of the ensuing experiment returns, we show what such a supervision brings to the right management of dams in terms of operation safety, floods control and navigation. (authors)

Lallement, Ch. [Electricite de France (EDF-DTG), 38 - Grenoble (France); Hirth, R.; Schittly, J. [Electricite de France, 68 - Mulhouse (France)

2000-07-01

125

Environmental impacts of river floods in the Netherlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Floods of the Rhine and Meuse rivers have struck the Netherlands in 1993 and 1995. The environmental impact of these floods is assessed in terms of the suspended matter composition in the rivers and its ecotoxicological effects. River floods are generally accompanied by a decreasing contamination of the suspended matter, especially in the Meuse river. This is a short-term phenomenon which is related to increased erosion of (unpolluted) soils in the catchment basin of the rivers. On the longer term, however, river floods may lead to a deterioration of the suspended matter quality, due to erosion of recently deposited sediments, exposing ancient sediment layers (which are far more polluted) at the surface. This hypothesis is supported by the HCB content of the suspended matter in the Rhine river (station Lobith), which increases slowly but continously since 1994. (orig.)

Zwolsman, J.G.; Kouer, R.M. [National Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), Dordrecht (Netherlands); Hendriks, A.J.

2000-07-01

126

Heavenly energy saving - the 'Skyhouse' Ratingen-West. The greatest Low-energy house North Rhine-Westfalia; Himmlisch energiesparend - das 'Himmelshaus' Ratingen-West. Nordrhein-Westfalens groesstes Niedrigenergiehaus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Ratingen-West (Federal Republic of Germany), one of the largest projects of modernization was performed by LEG Landesentwicklungsgesellschaft NRW GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany). Between 2007 and 2009, LEG Landesentwicklungsgesellschaft NRW GmbH has modernized a part of its housing stock in a suburb nearby Duesseldorf. At the same time, the all around renewed 'Skyhouse' is the largest low-energy building in North Rhine-Westphalia. Besides this, the architect Andreas Hanke (Dortmund, Federal Republic of Germany) and the colour designer Hans-Albrecht Schilling (Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany) designed facades saliently to a wide visible centre of the populated area Ratingen-West.

Hanke, Andreas [Stadtbildplanung Dortmund GmbH (Germany); Mendolia, Astrid [LEG Management GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany). Stabsbereich Unternehmenskommunikation; Schilling, Hans-Albrecht

2010-07-01

127

Air quality assessment by tree bark biomonitoring in urban, industrial and rural environments of the Rhine Valley: PCDD/Fs, PCBs and trace metal evidence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tree barks were used as biomonitors to evaluate past atmospheric pollution within and around the industrial zones of Strasbourg (France) and Kehl (Germany) in the Rhine Valley. The here estimated residence time for trace metals, PCBs and PCDD/Fs in tree bark is >10 years. Thus, all pollution observed by tree bark biomonitoring can be older than 10 years. The PCB baseline concentration (sum of seven PCB indicators (?(7)PCB(ind))) determined on tree barks from a remote area in the Vosges mountains is 4 ng g(-1) and corresponds to 0.36 × 10(-3)ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) g(-1) for the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs). The northern Rhine harbor suffered especially from steel plant, waste incinerator and thermal power plant emissions. The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) concentrations analyzed in tree barks from this industrial area range between 392 and 1420 ng kg(-1) dry-weight (dw) corresponding to 3.9 ng TEQ(PCDD/Fs) kg(-1) to 17.8 ng TEQ(PCDD/Fs) kg(-1), respectively. Highest PCDD/F values of 7.2 ng TEQ kg(-1) to 17.8 ng TEQ kg(-1) have been observed close to and at a distance of <2 km southwest of the chemical waste incinerator. However, very close to this incinerator lowest TEQ dioxin-like PCB (TEQ(DL-PCB)) values of 0.006 ng TEQ g(-1) have been found. On the other hand close to and southwest and northeast of the steel plant the values are comparatively higher and range between 0.011 ng TEQ g(-1) and 0.026 ng TEQ g(-1). However, even stronger ?(7)PCB(ind) enrichments have been observed at a few places in the city center of Kehl, where ?DL-PCB values of up to 0.11 ng TEQ g(-1) have been detected. These enrichments, however, are the result of ancient pollutions since recent long-term measurements at the same sites indicate that the atmospheric PCB concentrations are close to baseline. Emissions from an old landfill of waste and/or great fires might have been the reasons of these PCB enrichments. Other urban environments of the cities of Kehl and Strasbourg show significantly lower ?(7)PCB(ind) concentrations. They suffer especially from road and river traffic and have typically ?(7)PCB(ind) concentrations ranging from 11 ng g(-1) to 29 ng g(-1). The PCB concentration of 29 ng g(-1) has been found in tree bark close to the railway station of Strasbourg. Nevertheless, the corresponding TEQ(DL-PCB) are low and range between 0.2 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1) and 7 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1). Samples collected near road traffic are enriched in Fe, Sb, Sn and Pb. Cd enrichments were found close to almost all types of industries. Rural environments not far from industrial sites suffered from organic and inorganic pollution. In this case, TEQ(DL-PCB) values may reach up to 58 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1) and the corresponding V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Cd concentrations are comparatively high.

Guéguen F; Stille P; Millet M

2011-09-01

128

Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine using {sup 3}HHO as a tracer; Zur Bestimmung von Fliesszeiten und longitudinaler Dispersion im Rhein mit {sup 3}HHO als Tracer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine river under natural conditions are determined by use of single emissions of tritiated waste water from nuclear power plants during normal operation. The influence of the discharge of the Rhine on the most relevant parameters is investigated thoroughly. In a case of accidental release of radioactive material, these data would be the basis of a prognosis by which the behaviour of the contaminated river section along the course can be described and the radiological consequences within the so-called critical impact area estimated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Einleitungen von Tritium aus Kernkraftwerken bei Normalbetrieb werden zur Bestimming von Fliesszeiten und longitudinaler Dispersion im Rhein und deren Abflussabhaengigkeit genutzt. Die erhaltenen Kenndaten bilden die Basis von Ausbreitungsprognosen, anhand der im Falle eines stoerfallbedingten Eintrages das Fliess- und Dispersionsverhalten geloester radioaktiver Stoffe beschrieben und die radiologischen Auswirkungen fuer unterliegende Nutzungsbereiche abgeschaetzt werden koennen. (orig.)

Krause, W.J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany); Mundschenk, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany)

1993-12-31

129

[Experiences with the North Rhine-Westphalia PsyKG (mental health regulation) exemplified by the city of Munster  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The law on assistance and precautionary measures in cases of mental illnesses (PsychKG) for North Rhine Westphalia came into force on 1.1.1970. It replaced the "law on committal" of 1956. Thus the PsychKG of North Rhine Westphalia has been in force for more than twice as long as its predecessor which had been, as in other Federal states of Germany, a special part of the police regulations. The new North Rhine Westphalian provision of 1970 was the first to take the step towards a genuine law for mental patients (Saage/Göppinger 1994). It laid the foundations for a right of mental patients to assistance from their local authority--as a duty (section 3, section 5)--and already spelled out the principle of an assistance planned individually and focussed on the person. This principle is still in use today. While the sections about committal have been replaced by a Federal law ("Law on voluntary jurisdiction", (FGG), section 70), the other parts on precautionary assistance, on care during committal and on after-care for mental patients are still in force. A legal review planned already ten years back was abandoned after two years of discussion, for two reasons: firstly, because the setting of standards of quality and equipment for the ambulant care, which had been called for by the providers of social-psychiatric services seemed impossible to finance. Secondly, it was decided to wait until other new laws would be enforced, such as the "Law on care" (1992) and the new North Rhine-Westphalian law on Public Health care services (1997). In his article, the author examines the practical experience in applying the PsychKG NW from the viewpoint of a socio-psychiatric service provided by the local authority, and of the co-ordination of psychiatric activities between such services. These perspectives survey the remarkable variety of possible courses of action for different local authorities on the basis of a unitary legal norm. The article also presents the basic ideas developed over the last ten years in the Association of Social-Psychiatric Services of North Rhine-Westphalia (of whose executive committee the author is a member) with regard to the reform and implementation of the PsychKG: the legal duty to ensure care for all mental patients according to their needs, to provide for their medical, mental (psychic) and social requirements in the sense of the WHO guidelines, the duty of all parties concerned to co-ordinate and co-operate, and the inclusion of modern principles (which had, however, been developed already 30 years ago) such as the priority of out-patient treatment over inpatient treatment in the further development of care-service structures.

Gollmer E

1999-11-01

130

Cegelec Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

2011-01-01

131

Net employment effects of an extension of renewable-energy systems in the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable-energy potential exists in the Federal Republic of Germany to a great extent, but is barely used as yet. A change in the power-supply structure seems to be too risky with regard to finance and the sensitive labour market. Nevertheless, an extension of renewable energy systems in the German state North-Rhine Westphalia would lead to improved employment prospects. (Author)

2000-01-01

132

Further specimens of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) trapped in southwest Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After two previous demonstrations of introductions of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, into southern Germany in 2007 and 2011, another three specimens were trapped in the city of Freiburg in the Upper Rhine Valley. The females were caught in early September 2011 (n = 2) and mid-July 2012 (n = 1). The trap was located at a railway container station where cargo is transferred to trains from trucks predominantly coming from southern Europe where A. albopictus is widely distributed. The reported findings confirm vehicle transport of A. albopictus to be an important and probably frequent mode of importation, and suggest that more regular and intense monitoring for invasive mosquito species in the Upper Rhine Valley should be undertaken in order to detect an establishment and implement adequate control measures in good time.

Kampen H; Kronefeld M; Zielke D; Werner D

2013-02-01

133

Correlation of Greenland ice-core isotope profiles and the terrestrial record of the Alpine Rhine glacier for the period 32–15 ka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a newly extended stratigraphic subdivision of the Greenland NGRIP, GRIP and GISP2 ice cores for the period 32–15 ka. Our classification emphasizes the multiscale nature of the climatic oscillations. Spectral trend analysis of isotopic data supports this interpretation. We compare this time series with the stratigraphy of the last major Pleistocene (Weichselian, Würmian) glaciation in the area of the Rhine glacier (Germany and Austria) as chronicled by a detailed inventory of landforms and deposits, dated in part with 14C analyses, and their interpretation in terms of climate change. Both time series show a major climatic oscillation, consisting of a colder period (glaciation) followed by a warmer period (deglaciation). The available dates allow the time of change, at 23.4 ka, to be correlated between the two. Pattern analysis clearly indicates that higher-order oscillations were superimposed on the major oscillation in both areas, emphasizing the multiscale nature of the underlying pattern of climate change. The correlation between the two areas is sufficiently good to propose that the pattern of climate change was synchronous (within the available time resolution) between Greenland and the Rhine glacier area. Comparison of our results with other high resolution climate proxies is expected to further improve the understanding of the climate changes during the Late Weichselian.

M. G. G. De Jong; L. W. S. de Graaff; A. C. Seijmonsbergen; A. R. Böhm

2011-01-01

134

From the 1980 report of the Mining Authorities of North Rhine Westphalia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of the mining industry is reviewed along with the tasks of the North Rhine Westphalian Mining Authorities in the fields of mining and safety, industrial safety and health, and environmental aspects of mining.

Kaiser, E.

1981-12-17

135

Excerpt from the 1982 annual meeting of the mining authorities of North Rhine Westphalia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The output of the various branches of the mining industry of North Rhine Westphalia is presented in tables. Activities of the mining authorities are mentioned. Accidents, safety at work, and environmental aspects are discussed.

Kaiser, E.

1984-02-09

136

Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den Emissionspfaden als auch nach den grossen Flussgebieten Donau, Rhein, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, Nordsee und Ostsee. Zusaetzlich wurden Listen der zehn groessten industriellen Direkteinleiter erstellt. (orig.)

Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

2000-11-01

137

Charles Darwin's Observations on the Behaviour of Earthworms and the Evolutionary History of a Giant Endemic Species from Germany, Lumbricus badensis (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809/1882) began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881). Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae) and the role of these annelids as global ecosystem re workers (concept of bioturbation). In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Bio geographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.

2010-01-01

138

Geochemical signatures (C, N, delta13C, delta15N, metals) of suspended matter in the river Weisse Elster (central Germany): their seasonal and flow-related distribution 1997-2001.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Geochemical studies of carbon, nitrogen, delta13C, delta15N as well as Fe, Mn, Cd, Zn, Cr and Hg in suspended matter taken from the river Weisse Elster (central Germany) between 1997 and 2001 reveal significant changes to the composition of the organic sediment load, which correlate with the hydrological period and flow rate. Using C/N ratios and the isotope values of carbon and nitrogen as source indicators, it was found that the organic suspended matter fractions in hydrological winter periods comprise both resuspended mortal plankton material from the riverbed and terrigenous C3 plant material from the clastic input. During the 6 month summer periods, increased bioproductivity results in more dissolved carbon and mineral nitrogen compounds being taken up by the freshly formed aquatic organic substance (freshwater plankton). These compounds stem from bacterial breakdown processes affecting organic components of the river sediment and/or the peripheral soil zone. Increasing fractions of freshwater plankton during the summer period are accompanied by an increase in the nitrogen content and by isotope signatures shifting (delta13C to lower but delta15N to higher values) in the suspended matter. Seasonally opposite correlations between metal contents (e.g. Cd, Zn, Cr, Hg and Fe) and the carbon and nitrogen levels of suspended matter (significantly positive in winter and significantly negative in summer) show that in suspended matter these elements mostly bind to resuspended mortal (rather than the freshly formed living aquatic) organic substance. According to long-term measuring series, between 1993 and 2002 the levels of heavy metals (especially cadmium) in the suspended matter of the river Weisse Elster decreased. Similarly, between 1997 and 2001 the oxygen level in the river Weisse Elster improved. This caused the faster breakdown of organic substance on the riverbed, resulting in the increased uptake of 15N-rich nitrogen compounds into the fresh aquatic organic substance formed every year, and an increase in the conversion of dissolved manganese in the water into insoluble manganese compounds in the river sediment.

Junge FW; Hanisch C; Zerling L; Gehre M

2005-06-01

139

Fragility analysis of flood protection structures in earthquake and flood prone areas around Cologne, Germany for multi-hazard risk assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The work presents a methodology for fragility analyses of fluvial earthen dikes in earthquake and flood prone areas. Fragility estimates are being integrated into the multi-hazard (earthquake-flood) risk analysis being undertaken within the framework of the EU FP7 project MATRIX (New Multi-Hazard and Multi-Risk Assessment Methods for Europe) for the city of Cologne, Germany. Scenarios of probable cascading events due to the earthquake-triggered failure of flood protection dikes and the subsequent inundation of surroundings are analyzed for the area between the gauges Andernach and Düsseldorf along the Rhine River. Along this river stretch, urban areas are partly protected by earthen dikes, which may be prone to failure during exceptional floods and/or earthquakes. The seismic fragility of the dikes is considered in terms of liquefaction potential (factor of safety), estimated by the use of the simplified procedure of Seed and Idriss. It is assumed that initiation of liquefaction at any point throughout the earthen dikes' body corresponds to the failure of the dike and, therefore, this should be taken into account for the flood risk calculations. The estimated damage potential of such structures is presented as a two-dimensional surface (as a function of seismic hazard and water level). Uncertainties in geometrical and geotechnical dike parameters are considered within the framework of Monte Carlo simulations. Taking into consideration the spatial configuration of the existing flood protection system within the area under consideration, seismic hazard curves (in terms of PGA) are calculated for sites along the river segment of interest at intervals of 1 km. The obtained estimates are used to calculate the flood risk when considering the temporal coincidence of seismic and flood events. Changes in flood risk for the considered hazard cascade scenarios are quantified and compared to the single-hazard scenarios.

Tyagunov, Sergey; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Munoz Jimenez, Cristina; Parolai, Stefano; Fleming, Kevin; Merz, Bruno; Zschau, Jochen

2013-04-01

140

Differences in sensitivity of native and exotic fish species to changes in river temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the effects that temperature changes in the Rhine river distributaries have on native and exotic fish diversity. Site-specific potentially affected fractions (PAFs) of the regional fish species pool were derived using species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for water temperature. The number of fish species in the river distributaries has changed remarkably over the last century. The number of native rheophilous species declined up until 1980 due to anthropogenic disturbances such as commercial fishing, river regulation, migration barriers, habitat deterioration and water pollution. In spite of progress in river rehabilitation, the native rheophilous fish fauna has only partially recovered thus far. The total number of species has strongly increased due to the appearance of more exotic species. After the opening of the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway in 1992, many fish species originating from the Ponto-Caspian area colonized the Rhine basin. The yearly minimum and maximum river temperatures at Lobith have increased by circa 4 0C over the period 1908-2010. Exotic species show lower PAFs than native species at both ends of the temperature range. The interspecific variation in the temperature tolerance of exotic fish species was found to be large. Using temporal trends in river temperature allowed past predictions of PAFs to demonstrate that the increase in maximum river temperature negatively affected a higher percentage of native fish species than exotic species. Our results support the hypothesis that alterations of the river Rhine’s temperature regime caused by thermal pollution and global warming limit the full recovery of native fish fauna and facilitate the establishment of exotic species which thereby increases competition between native and exotic species. Thermal refuges are important for the survival of native fish species under extreme summer or winter temperature conditions [Current Zoology 57 (6): 852–862, 2011].

R.S.E.W. LEUVEN, A.J. HENDRIKS, M.A.J. HUIJBREGTS, H.J.R. LENDERS,J. MATTHEWS, G. VAN DER VELDE

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Behaviour of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and selected trace metals during the 2002 summer flood in the River Elbe (Germany) at Magdeburg monitoring station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In August 2002, in the worst flooding in more than 100 years, the River Elbe destroyed built-up areas and caused widespread erosion and the relocation of soils and river sediments. To assess the pollutants entering the water, surveys of dissolved constituents and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were carried out daily during the flood at a monitoring station near Magdeburg. The sampling point is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE). The results were compared with those of previous flood studies which used the same sampling strategy. Unlike past floods, the 2002 flood was characterised by the transport of relatively fine suspended material with a low mass concentration. Owing to different input sources, the maxima of dry weight and of particle number concentration occurred at different times. Hg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr showed a maximum concentration concurrent with the dry weight of the SPM, whereas the maximum concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd coincided with the particle number concentration peak. The concentration of particulate matter decreased rapidly, unlike the concentrations of dissolved substances such as DOC and trace metals, as well as the values of UV extinction, all of which remained high for a longer period. Comparing the results of the 2002 flood with the winter floods in 1995, 1999 and 2000, revealed increased values of As and Pb as well as higher concentrations of dissolved compounds. Keywords: river, flood, transport, suspended particulate matter, trace metals, dissolved compounds, Elbe

M. Baborowski; W. von Tümpling, jr.; K. Friese

2004-01-01

142

The city and the river A reconstruction of the strategical position of early 9th century Dorestad, The Netherlands  

Science.gov (United States)

Why was the Early-medieval trade-port of Dorestad located at a relatively inland position in the Rhine delta and not at the coast, as one would expect? We combined palaeogeographical, environmental-archaeological, geomorphological/geological and laser-altimetry data to propose an answer to this question. Local Dorestad data had to be combined with a regional paleogeographical reconstruction of active river branches in the 9th-century Rhine delta to come to a satisfactory answer. The location of Dorestad on a high natural levee along a relatively stable navigable branch of the Rhine in the central Rhine delta was perfect for trade. The high levee gave protection from the annual river floods. Although this branch of the Rhine was fairly stable in the heydays of Dorestad, the meanders near Dorestad slowly migrated. Excavations at Dorestad show that the harbour works of Dorestad were constantly adapted to this migration, thereby following the meander on which they were located. Ships could reach the port from the sea through at least three navigable Rhine branches: the Lek, the Old Rhine and the Vecht rivers. Dorestad was thus easily accessible and yet far enough from the coast to be safe from storm floods - but was it located at its specific location for these reasons alone? We combined existing geomorphological and geological maps with recent nation-wide laser-altimetry (AHN, General Elevation model of the Netherlands') for a regional palaeogeographical reconstruction of 9th-century active Rhine branches in a GIS. This reconstruction revealed that river connections with the Flemish, French and German hinterland were perfect. Other delta branches ensured safe connections to the Zeeland delta and the open Flemish coast, all the way to Dover Straight to the south and to the open Frisian coast all the way to present Southern Denmark in the North. The dangerously closed coast of Holland without any safe shelter places for storms could thus be avoided by ships coming in both from the South and from the North. This interdisciplinary approach not only gave insight in the changing river activity, but also in the reasons why Dorestad could rise to its glory, and the possible reason for its demise as important Rhine branches silted up, while new branches developed into navigable waterways. The demise of Dorestad gave room for later river towns such as Tiel, Dordrecht and the cities along the IJssel.

Kosian, Menne; Weerts, Henk; Steur, Roeland; Abrahamse, Jaap-Evert

2013-04-01

144

Heavy metals in the rivers Nahe, Lahn, Mosel and Saar as investigated by the Landesamt fuer Gewaesserkunde Rheinland-Pfalz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The big tributaries of the Rhine River, the Nahe, the Lahn, the Mosel and the Saar have been investigated regularly at different points on the traces of six heavy metals. The concentrations, loads and the trends of the annual mean values were examined for the period from 1975 to 1980. The results lead to the statement that the load of the tributaries is predominantly decreasing. No critical values were reached to be alarmed about, especially in view of the fact that river water is utilized for drinking water purposes. The loads of the investigated tributaries upon the Rhine are not serious.

Rinne, D.

1984-01-01

145

One year of operating experience with the largest river-water reverse osmosis plant in Germany; Ein Jahr Betrieb mit der groessten Flusswasser-Umkehrosmoseanlage in Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A water treatment plant has been put into operation for a new gas and steam plant with a thermal capacity of 390 MJ/s (129 MW). The total consumption of fully desalinated water amounts to 375 t/h, of which 225 t/h is distilled and conditioned for steam and electricity production; the remaining quantity serves as process water for different consumers on site. For reasons of ground and potable water resource conservation, this demand for water is abstracted from the River Saale, whereby the heavily pre-loaded River Saale water (1300 to 2200 {mu}S/cm) for economic reasons cannot be treated by the normal ion exchanger technique. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die neue GuD-Anlage mit einer thermischen Leistung von 390 MJ/s (129 MW) wurde eine Wasseraufbereitungsanlage in Betrieb genommen. Der Gesamtverbrauch an vollentsalztem Wasser betraegt 375 t/h, davon 225 t/h entgast und konditioniert fuer die Dampf- und Stromproduktion; die restliche Menge dient als Prozesswasser fuer verschiedene Verbraucher am Standort. Aus Gruenden der Grund- und Trinkwasserressourcenschonung wird dieser Wasserbedarf aus der Saale entnommen, wobei das stark vorbelastete Saalewasser (1300 bis 2200 {mu}S/cm) aus wirtschaftlichen Gruenden nicht ueber die uebliche Ionenaustauschertechnik aufbereitet werden kann. (orig.)

Thiemann, H. [STEAG Aktiengesellschaft, Essen (Germany); Weiler, H. [STEAG Aktiengesellschaft, Essen (Germany)

1996-12-01

146

Antibiotic resistance, population structure and spread of Staphylococcus aureus in nursing homes in the Euregion Meuse-Rhine.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the spread of Staphylococcus aureus within and between nursing home (NH) residents in the Euregion Meuse-Rhine, a cross-border region of the Netherlands and Germany, we investigated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, genetic background and population structure of both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. A total of 245 S. aureus isolates were collected from NH residents. Susceptibility testing was performed with microbroth dilution. The genetic background was determined using spa typing, SCCmec typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Differences in the prevalence of resistance between the German and Dutch MSSA isolates were observed for the macrolides (15 % vs. 2 %, p?=?0.003), clindamycin (15 % vs. 0 %, p?=?0.003) and ciprofloxacin (34 % vs. 25 %). The macrolide and ciprofloxacin resistance varied between the NHs, while trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was low in all residents. The MRSA prevalence was 3.5 % and spread of two MRSA clones was observed within and between the German NHs, but not between the Dutch and German NHs. Differences in the prevalence of resistance and the prevalence of MRSA between NHs on both sides of the border warrant the continuation of surveillance at a local level. PMID:23733319

van der Donk, C F M; Schols, J M G A; Schneiders, V; Grimm, K-H; Stobberingh, E E

2013-06-04

147

Walckenaeria simplex new to Germany (Araneae, Linyphiidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rare money spider Walckenaeria simplex Chyzer, 1894 was found in 2007 near the city of Meißen (Germany) on a rock overlooking the river Elbe. This is the northernmost occurrence of the species. W. simplex is distributed from Central to South Eastern Europe. The species is thermophilous and prefers wooded slopes with a southern exposition.

Kielhorn, Karl-Hinrich

2008-01-01

148

Electricity in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity in Germany, from FT Energy, provides a clear analysis of Germany`s power market looking at the current situation and the new contracting and power purchasing strategies being developed. It assesses the potential effects on electricity prices, the patterns of buying and selling of power and how these are likely to develop over the next two to five years. (author)

Knight, S.

1997-09-01

149

Relative chronology of deep circulations within the fractured basement of the Upper Rhine Graben  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Upper Rhine Graben, geothermal projects are strongly under development, particularly for the exploitation of fluid within the top of the basement. This type of reservoirs constitutes a fractured dominated system. However, the hydraulic behaviour of the fracture network is poorly known, such a...

Dezayes, Chrystel; Lerouge, Catherine; Ramboz, Claire; Wille, Guillaume

150

Soft meiofauna of sand from the Delta region of the Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A brief survey of sands in the Rhine Delta Area was undertaken in September 1967 and revealed a fairly diverse meiofauna. A list of the distribution of the Cnidaria, larger Turbellaria, Gastrotricha and Annelida is given and details of the sampling localities presented. The probable effect of change...

Boaden, P.J.S.

151

Silt measurement and monitoring on Rhine canal sections between Basle and Strasbourg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author describes EDF methods for monitoring the development of silt deposits on Rhine canal sections between Basle and Strasburg as well as removel technics designed to insure uninterrupted flow of flood-waters and maintenance of normal cross-section of the international navigable channel.

Soyer, G.

1981-01-01

152

Energy research in North Rhine Westphalia. Exemplary innovations; Energieforschung in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Beispielhafte Innovationen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution under consideration presents exemplary innovations in the energy research in North Rhine-Westphalia. The main focuses are a central power generation (fossil, nuclear and solar), a decentralized power generation (hydrogen technology, fuel cells, photovoltaics, decentralized system engineering, electrical and thermal energy storage systems), biological production of energy sources (innovative plant production, plant processing, bio-economy), energy networks and energy economy.

NONE

2011-07-01

153

Cross-Comparison of Climate Change adaptation Strategies Across Large River Basins in Europe, Africa and Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and ...

Krysanova, V.; Dickens, Ch.; Timmerman, J.; Varela Ortega, C.; Schlüter, M.; Roest, C.W.J.; Huntjens, P.; Jaspers, A.M.J.

154

Cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across large river basins in Europe, Africa and Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and ...

Krysanova, Valentina; Dickens, Chris; Timmerman, Jos; Varela Ortega, Consuelo; Schlüter, Maja; Roest, Koen; Huntjens, Patrick

155

Multi-purpose calibration of HBV models for the Rhine with OpenDA  

Science.gov (United States)

Calibration strategies for hydrological models nearly always depend on user interests. These interests are strongly determined by the eventual practical application of the model: what information should the model primarily provide, e.g. low flows, high flows, or accumulated inflows; what spatial and temporal information density is available in terms of data, and what information needed in terms of practical use; should parameter uncertainty estimation of the hydrological model be included? The Open-source Data Assimilation toolbox (OpenDA) is an open software framework for calibration and data-assimilation of hydrological models. In this contribution, we show that OpenDA can be used to rapidly calibrate a hydrological model, which is to be used for different purposes or under different circumstances such as mentioned above. To this end, OpenDA includes a number of calibration algorithms, can communicate with a multitude of hydrological and hydraulic models, and can handle multiple calibration signals in one calibration experiment. It can therefore be employed in complex calibration experiments. New algorithms and models can be included efficiently in the software. Our case study focuses on an HBV model structure for the international Rhine basin (area ~ 185.000 km2), consisting of 134 sub-catchment units containing many different gauging stations. This model is embedded in Delft-FEWS, an operational forecasting system which can also be used for offline data management and model integration. We performed a recalibration focussing on two applications: • FEWS-Rivers / FEWS-BfG (operational forecasting): Simulations of snow pack and melt within HBV performed poorly in this application. The model was optimized on hourly time scale. Parameters, related to snow processes were identified and optimized on a large number of available gauge data sets, using the Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm. • FEWS-GRADE (extreme discharges for dike design): In this application, very long synthetic discharge series are simulated on a daily basis. Because of the high return periods of interest (1/1250 years), uncertainty of these estimates should be taken into account. Therefore, calibration has been performed using the GLUE algorithm. GLUE is used to select an ensemble of parameter sets, rather than one single set. Parameter performance was tested with specific criteria for extreme high discharges.

van Verseveld, W. J.; Sperna-Weiland, F.; Meissner, D.; Winsemius, H. C.; Weerts, A. H.; Hummel, S.; Sumihar, J. H.; Hegnauer, M.

2012-04-01

156

Brominated flame retardants and dechloranes in eels from German Rivers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The levels of PBDEs, alternate BFRs and dechloranes in European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) samples (elvers, yellow and silver eels) were investigated to compare the contamination of eels from the rivers Elbe and Rhine and to estimate the BFR contamination throughout the eel's life cycle. PBDEs were the dominating flame retardants (FRs) in muscle tissues of yellow and silver eels, while the alternate BFR 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) and the Dechlorane 602 were the dominating FRs in elvers (juvenile eels). Concentrations of FRs in silver eels from river Rhine were generally higher than concentrations in other eels analysed with up to 46 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) ?PBDEs. The concentrations in yellow and silver eels from river Elbe were similar with an average of 9.0±5.1 ng g(-1)ww and 8.1±3.7 ng g(-1)ww respectively. PBDE concentrations in elvers were comparably low (0.02 (BDE-100) to 0.1 (BDE-183) ng g(-1)ww), which lead to the conclusion that these contaminants were mostly ingested within the rivers. Among the alternate BFRs and dechloranes, DPTE as well as the Dechlorane 602 and Dechlorane Plus (DP) were found in all life cycle stages and rivers with concentrations between 0.01 ng g(-1)ww and 0.7 ng g(-1)ww. Dechlorane 603 could only be detected in silver eels from river Rhine. Pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) was only found in yellow and silver eels and bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP) could only be detected in elvers. These are the first reports of Dec-602 and 603 in aquatic organisms from Europe. The results of this study show the lasting relevance of PBDEs as contaminants in rivers and river-dwelling species but also the growing relevance of emerging contaminants such as alternate BFRs and dechloranes.

Sühring R; Möller A; Freese M; Pohlmann JD; Wolschke H; Sturm R; Xie Z; Hanel R; Ebinghaus R

2013-01-01

157

Fault Plane Solutions of Microseismic Events near Landau and Insheim, SW Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

We study micro-earthquakes that occurred between 2009 and 2011 in the Upper Rhine Graben, Southwest Germany. Close to the villages of Landau and Insheim a series of induced events happened which are caused by the exploitation of geothermal energy. A temporary seismic network was deployed and is continuously extended by the Geophysical Institute of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology with 12 stations (surface and shallow borehole) using instruments of the KArlsruhe BroadBand Array (KABBA). In total more than 35 stations are currently operated by four operators for the microseismic monitoring of the region. Besides the precise localisation of the events (see Groos et al., this volume), we want to determine the fault planes and rupture mechanisms. A major obstacle is the low signal-to-noise ratio of the weak events which are recorded in the very noisy sedimentary setting of the densely populated Upper Rhine Graben. Furthermore, the ray paths are not well known yet, because the 3D seismic velocity structure is poorly known. We present focal mechanisms which were determined with P- and S-wave onset polarities using the FOCMEC code. The main feature in these fault plane solutions is a normal faulting component. This study is part of the research project MAGS (Microseismic Activity of Geothermal Systems) which is funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of the Federal Republic of Germany (FKZ 0325191A-F) and supervised by Projektträger Jülich (PT-J).

Ritter, Joachim; Gassner, Laura; Groos, Jörn

2013-04-01

158

Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large-scale groundwater models involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries are still rare due to a lack of hydrogeological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution) to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Although the method that we used to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater model is considered as an offline-coupling procedure (i.e. the simulations of both models were performed separately), results are promising. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reproduce the observed groundwater head time series reasonably well. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the current offline-coupling technique simplifies dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

E. H. Sutanudjaja; L. P. H. van Beek; S. M. de Jong; F. C. van Geer; M. F. P. Bierkens

2011-01-01

159

Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution) to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Results are promising despite the fact that we still use an offline procedure to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater models (i.e. the simulations of both models are separately performed). The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydro-geological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reasonably well reproduce the observed groundwater head time series. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the offline-coupling technique simplifies the dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

E. H. Sutanudjaja; L. P. H. van Beek; S. M. de Jong; F. C. van Geer; M. F. P. Bierkens

2011-01-01

160

Antibiotic resistance, population structure and spread of Staphylococcus aureus in nursing homes in the Euregion Meuse-Rhine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the spread of Staphylococcus aureus within and between nursing home (NH) residents in the Euregion Meuse-Rhine, a cross-border region of the Netherlands and Germany, we investigated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, genetic background and population structure of both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. A total of 245 S. aureus isolates were collected from NH residents. Susceptibility testing was performed with microbroth dilution. The genetic background was determined using spa typing, SCCmec typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Differences in the prevalence of resistance between the German and Dutch MSSA isolates were observed for the macrolides (15 % vs. 2 %, p?=?0.003), clindamycin (15 % vs. 0 %, p?=?0.003) and ciprofloxacin (34 % vs. 25 %). The macrolide and ciprofloxacin resistance varied between the NHs, while trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was low in all residents. The MRSA prevalence was 3.5 % and <1 % among the German and Dutch NH residents, respectively (p?=?0.005). The German MRSAs, isolated in 7 out of 10 NHs, belonged to ST22-MRSA-IV or ST225-MRSA-II. spa clonal complexes (spa-CCs) 015 and 002 were prevalent among the German MSSA isolates and spa-CCs 024 and 1716 were prevalent among the Dutch MSSA isolates. The antibiotic resistance of MSSA and the MRSA prevalence were significantly higher among the German NH residents. The spread of two MRSA clones was observed within and between the German NHs, but not between the Dutch and German NHs. Differences in the prevalence of resistance and the prevalence of MRSA between NHs on both sides of the border warrant the continuation of surveillance at a local level.

van der Donk CF; Schols JM; Schneiders V; Grimm KH; Stobberingh EE

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in floodplain soils of the Mosel and Saar river  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have gained serious attention in the scientific community due to their persistence and toxic potential in the environment. PAHs may pose a risk to ecosystem health. Along the Mosel River, a tributary of the river Rhine, PAHs were found at higher concentrations than the German national guideline value Z2 (> 20 mg kg-1). These high concentrations were detected during the construction of a storm water retention basin, in which the contaminated soils had to be removed and treated as hazardous waste. Hence, for future flood prevention projects, it is necessary to estimate the extent of PAH contamination along the Mosel River. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of PAH contamination in soils collected along the Mosel and Saar River, and to obtain a first insight into the origin of the PAH contamination in this region. In total twenty-six sample sites were investigated. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 2 m with a stainless steel corer (diameter 8 cm). Each 2 m sample was further separated into two sub-samples (0-1m and 1-2 m). The sixteen EPA PAHs and three additional PAHs (1Methylnaphthalene, 2Methylnaphthalene and Perylene) were analysed with gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). For soil characterisation, total organic carbon (TOC), grain size, microscope analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses were performed.Grain size for all soil samples was classified as a sand and silt mixture. XRD analysis showed that all samples were dominated by quartz. Some clay minerals, such as illite and montmorillonite and feldspars, i.e. anorthoclase and orthoclase, were found in minor quantities. TOC ranged from 0.1 % to 13 % and correlated with the PAH concentrations. Microscope analyses show black coal particles in the majority of the soils collected from the Saar River and part of the Mosel River (downstream of where the Saar joins with the Mosel). The black particles were not found further upstream along the Mosel River. The sum of the nineteen PAH concentrations in the same soil samples was as high as 81 mg kg-1 dry weight (dw), exceeding the Z2 guideline value of 20 mg kg-1. The soil samples collected from the Saar River and the Mosel River, after the Saar estuary, showed a correlation between the presence of coal particles and PAH concentrations. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in all soil samples collected from Saar River and downstream Mosel River. Due to former coal mining activities in the Saarland, Germany, there is a strong evidence that the majority of the PAH contamination in the soils downstream Mosel River are linked to these mining activities. Upstream Mosel River coal particles were hardly found although PAH concentrations were high. Therefore another PAH source has to be responsible for these concentrations. PAH distribution patterns indicate a pyrogenic PAH input upstream Mosel River and a mixed input (petrogenic and pyrogenic) downstream Mosel River. (orig.)

Pies, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geoscience, Applied Geosciences; Yi Yang; Hofmann, T. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Environmental Geosciences

2007-08-15

162

Network "Rodent-borne pathogens" in Germany: longitudinal studies on the geographical distribution and prevalence of hantavirus infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hantavirus infections are known in Germany since the 1980s. While the overall antibody prevalence against hantaviruses in the general human population was estimated to be about 1-2%, an average of 100-200 clinical cases are recorded annually. In the years 2005 and 2007 in particular, a large increase of the number of human hantavirus infections in Germany was observed. The most affected regions were located in the federal states of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bavaria, North Rhine Westphalia, and Lower Saxony. In contrast to the well-documented situation in humans, the knowledge of the geographical distribution and frequency of hantavirus infections in their rodent reservoirs as well as any changes thereof was very limited. Hence, the network "Rodent-borne pathogens" was established in Germany allowing synergistic investigations of the rodent population dynamics, the prevalence and evolution of hantaviruses and other rodent-associated pathogens as well as their underlying mechanisms in order to understand their impact on the frequency of human infections. A monitoring of hantaviruses in rodents from endemic regions (Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bavaria, North Rhine Westphalia, Lower Saxony) and regions with a low number of human cases (Mecklenburg Western-Pomerania, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt) was initiated. Within outbreak regions, a high prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV) was detected in bank voles. Initial longitudinal studies in North Rhine Westphalia (city of Cologne), Bavaria (Lower Bavaria), and Lower Saxony (rural region close to Osnabrück) demonstrated a continuing presence of PUUV in the bank vole populations. These longitudinal studies will allow conclusions about the evolution of hantaviruses and other rodent-borne pathogens and changes in their distribution, which can be used for a risk assessment of human infections. This may become very important in order to evaluate changes in the epidemiology of rodent-borne pathogens in the light of expected global climate changes in the future. PMID:19030894

Ulrich, R G; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Schlegel, M; Jacob, J; Pelz, H-J; Mertens, M; Wenk, M; Büchner, T; Masur, D; Sevke, K; Groschup, M H; Gerstengarbe, F-W; Pfeffer, M; Oehme, R; Wegener, W; Bemmann, M; Ohlmeyer, L; Wolf, R; Zoller, H; Koch, J; Brockmann, S; Heckel, G; Essbauer, S S

2008-11-23

163

Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

Koch, E. [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

1995-12-31

164

Development of accidents in coalmining in North-Rhine Westphalia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Statistical data are presented in two tables, one covering the period 1891 to 1950, the second, 1951 to 1985. The statistics are based on reports in the Mining, Iron and Salt Works Journal for the State of Prussia, and the Statistical Bulletin of the Mines Inspectorate of the Federal Republic of Germany. The number of employed men has been converted to the reference value of million working hours to provide some meaningful comparison. The period 1943 to 1949 was calculated using statistical data from the Dortmund Mines Inspectorate. Accident trends are analysed, in particular the period since 1946. Extreme fluctuations are due to expansions of the work force, and the employment of prisoners during the two World Wars.

Flaskamp, K.

1987-05-21

165

Occurance, origin and degradation of polycyclic aromatic carbon-hydrogen-compounds in the river Rhine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The different sources of the origin of polycyclic aromatics are dealt with an example and in hydrological aspects. At the same time the problems of distribution of these matters are, between suspended substance- and water-phase, the biochemical decomposition in the stream and the possible accumulation, investigated. The bibliographical data concerning the topic are to some extent contradictory.

Hellmann, H.

1980-04-01

166

Bias correction of temperature and precipitation data for regional climate model application to the Rhine basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many climate impact studies hydrological models are forced with meteorological forcing data without an attempt to assess the quality of these forcing data. The objective of this study is to compare downscaled ERA15 (ECMWF-reanalysis data) precipitation and temperature with observed precipitation and temperature and apply a bias correction to these forcing variables. The bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data will be used in another study as input for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Observations were available for 134 sub-basins throughout the Rhine basin at a temporal resolution of one day from the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR). Precipitation is corrected by fitting the mean and coefficient of variation (CV) of the observations. Temperature is corrected by fitting the mean and standard deviation of the observations. It seems that the uncorrected ERA15 is too warm and too wet for most of the Rhine basin. The bias correction leads to satisfactory results, precipitation and temperature differences decreased significantly. Corrections were largest during summer for both precipitation and temperature, and for September and October for precipitation only. Besides the statistics the correction method was intended to correct for, it is also found to improve the correlations for the fraction of wet days and lag-1 autocorrelations between ERA15 and the observations.

W. Terink; R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; P. J. J. F. Torfs; R. Uijlenhoet

2009-01-01

167

Report on the 1992 study trip on the Weser aboard the laboratory ship 'Max-Pruess' of the Land North-Rhine-Westfalia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As agreed by the standing committee of the Weser task force ('Arge Weser'), regular trips on the river for taking measurements have been made since 1965. The ninth trip, from May 8th to 14th, 1992 aboard the ''Max Pruess'', a ship equipped with measuring instruments and a laboratory and owned by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia, was concerned with three areas of investigation: A) the Fulda and Werra estuaries, B) the upper and middle Weser (Hann.-Muenden (km 0.0) to Bremen (km 361.1)), C) the lower Weser (Bremen (km 0.0) to Kolumbuskai (km 67.8)). A uniform water quality longitudinal profile of the Weser was established during this trip by means of chemico-physical and biological tests. While investigations by measuring stations cover a longer period of time, the measurements taken during a voyage reflect a transient condition and complement long-term trend investigations. The voyage also permits to gain an overview of relative changes in the condition of the river at various points of its course. The evaluation of the results of this trip is facilitated by investigations of Arge Weser already carried through for the duration of several years and information obtained by previous trips. (orig./EF)

1993-01-01

168

Results of the Rhine-Ruhr international materials conference and award 2005. Materials for energy technology in the 21st century - Documentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper contains the origin wording of 16 lectures (speech) and discussions, which were held on the first Rhine-Ruhr International Materials Conference in Essen, Germany, on October 23 and 24, 2005. The focus of the gathering was on materials research, development and production in the field of energy engineering. The following topics are dealt with: Energy Concepts for Closing the Gap between Demand and Environmental Protection (Klaus Toepfer); Materials Science: The Competitive Factor in the Global Energy Technology Development (Roland Schenkel); The Necessity for Innovation in the EU as Seen by a New Member State (K.J. Kurzydlowski); New Pathways for Cooperation between Materials Science and Industry (Paul M. Siffert); Energy Demand and Environmental Protection - how to get both in line (Mark Radka); Chinese Energy Efficiency Policy leading to cleaner Production in China (Ming Yang); The Global Significance of Solar Energy Supply (Adolf Goetzberger); The Vision of Sustainable Development of Nuclear Energy (Patrick Ledermann); Improving the Efficiency of Energy Technology with Novel Materials (Johannes Teyssen); New Material Concepts for High Efficiency and Low Risk Exploitation of Energy (Koichi Yagi); Materials Systems for Tomorrow's Gas Turbines (Wilfried Kurz); Science and Technological Advances in Fusion Energy Research, ITER and beyond (Bernard Saoutic); Materials, Systems and Milestones for Economically and Environmentally Attractive Fusion Power Plants (Ian Cook); Fuel Cells - The State of the Art: Applications, Feasibility, Technology and Outlook for the Next Decade (Roland Diethelm); Wind Energy - Significance and Challenges for Tomorrow (Christian Nath); Solar Energy - Time Scale for the Full Application (Volker Wittwer).

2005-01-01

169

Communities of resistance. Nuclear and chemical pollution cross frontiers, and so did the protesters of the Upper Rhine. [Against nuclear and chemical pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This recounts the successful nonviolent protests against pollution threats in the Upper Rhine area. The first part is concerned with the siting of a lead factory in Alsace. The second part is concerned with the resistance of the people in South Baden in Germany and of Kaiserangst in Switzerland against the building of nuclear power stations. In the early 1970s there were plans to build at Fessenheim, Breisach and Kaiserangst. Later, although the licensing procedure for a reactor at Breisach was suspended, another reactor was planned for Whyl. This provoked big demonstrations and, in 1975, the site was occupied by protesters. These events are recounted in detail. A long debate continued involving the law and the various political groupings; the regional government was in favour of the project. In October 1983 it was announced that the nuclear power plant was no longer required until the year 2000, and would be deferred. The importance of Whyl to the anti-nuclear-power movement is assessed.

Rawlinson, R.

1986-01-01

170

On the identity of the fossil aquatic beetles from the Tertiary localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the fossil beetles assigned previously to the family Hydrophilidae described from the localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben: Brunstatt (France, Alsace) and Kleinkems (Germany, Baden-Württemberg) (both dated ca. to Eocene-Oligocene boundary, 34 Ma). The identity of Escheria convexa Förster, 1891 is fixed by the designation of its neotype, the species is redescribed, illustrated, transferred from the hydrophilid genus Hydrobius Leach, 1815 to the genus Copelatus Erichson, 1832 (Coleoptera: Adephaga: Dytiscidae) and compared with other fossil representatives of Copelatus. The identity of the remaining three species, Hydrobius crassipunctatus (Förster, 1891), Hydrobius dimidiatus (Förster, 1891) and Hydrobius punctulatus (Förster, 1891),is briefly evaluated on the basis of the original descriptions and illustrations only, because their types were lost or destroyed during World War II; all three species are removed from the fossil record of the Hydrophiloidea and placed into Polyphagaincertae sedis. The geology and stratigraphy of Brunnstatt and Kleinkems are discussed briefly. PMID:21594154

Martin, Fiká?ek; Hájek, Ji?í; Schmied, Heiko

2011-01-28

171

Germany's Solar Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

This NOVA video podcast is about Germany's solar experiment. Munich's solar panel farm lines the Autobahn and countryside in a massive effort to prove solar's feasibility as a practical renewable energy source.

Nova

172

CIS technology in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crystalline silicon modules are set to lose some of their market share: CIS thin-film cells will soon be going into mass production. There are three manufacturers in Germany: Shell Solar, Wuerth Solar and Sulfurcell. (orig.)

Iken, J.

2004-07-01

173

Germany at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

2001-01-01

174

The fast breeder reactor programmes in Germany, Japan, USA and USSR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The fast reactor programmes in Germany, Japan, USA and USSR are outlined and future developments indicated. A table is given of characteristics of five reactors - BN350, BN600, SNR300, Clinch River and Monju. (U.K.)

1981-01-01

175

Environmental radioactivity and water supply. Pt. 3. The contamination of surface waters in Germany after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the reactor accident, german surface waters have been monitored in numerous positions over a long period of time. The highest concentrations of iodine 131 occurred in the lower german region of the Danube river with more than 200 Bg/l whereas the Rhine river had the lowest concentrations. The sudden rise of the radioactivity of the river water have been followed by a slower decrease but nevertheless much faster than the radioactive decay. Probably this is caused by the interaction with river sediments. For the german lakes and reservoirs it was very important whether the water masses have been stratified or not when the radioactive cloud arrived. Where this was the case, the radioactive contaminants remained predominantly in the upper layer, the epilimnion for a long period of time

1988-01-01

176

Experimental and theoretical studies on heat exchange of a river to the atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes above the river Rhine as well as other meteorologic parameters carried out at the Rheinhausen measuring station were evaluated according to the following viewpoints: Agreement of the measured transfer coefficients with theory and with experimental results (ocean measurements). Recommendation of averaged heat transfer coefficients for use in practical calculations. Experimental test of the Bowen ratio concept. Studies on the influence of topographic environment on exchange conditions. (orig.)

1980-01-01

177

Estimation des caractéristiques biologiques des truites de mer adultes (Salmo trutta) du Rhin supérieur Estimation of biological characteristics of adult sea trout (Salmo trutta) in the Upper Rhine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'analyse des longueurs totales et des écailles d'un échantillon de 120 truites de mer adultes capturées essentiellement par pêche à l'électricité dans le Rhin supérieur (700 km de la mer du Nord) de 1989 à 1996 a permis de caractériser la population de cette ressource piscicole en voie de restauration. L'utilisation des Captures Par Unité d'Effort (CPUE), calculées pour les pêches de 1994 à 1996, permet d'appréhender le rythme de migration et d'améliorer l'estimation des caractéristiques générales de la population. Dans cette partie du Rhin, la migration anadrome de la truite de mer se déroule en deux pics successifs de juin à décembre, les individus les plus âgés arrivant les premiers. La population est caractérisée par une très forte prédominance des groupes d'âge de mer 1 + (49,2 %) et 2+ (45,8 %), soit un Age Moyen de Mer (AMM) de 1,54 an. L'Age Moyen de Smoltification (AMS) et de première Reproduction (AMR) sont estimés respectivement à 1,30 an et 1,39 an. Par ailleurs, il est constaté que l'âge marin de première maturité des adultes du Rhin augmente quand leur âge de smoltification diminue. Les résultats sont discutés en fonction de la méthodologie employée et comparés à ceux obtenus sur d'autres populations françaises et plus nordiques. Il ressort que les caractéristiques de la population de truite de mer du Rhin traduisent bien la position latitudinale mais aussi l'importance de ce réseau hydrographique. An analysis of the total length and scales of a sample of 120 adult sea trout caught for the most part by electrofishing in the upper Rhine (700 km from the North Sea) from 1989 to 1996 lent information to characterize this population under restoration. The calculation of the Catch Per Unit of Effort (CPUE) with data from 1994 to 1996 allowed to study the migration pattern and to improve the estimation of the general population characteristics. In this part of the Rhine, anadromous migration of sea trout occurs with two successive peaks from June to December, the older fish arriving first. The population is characterized by a predominance of fish aged 1+ (49,2 %) and 2+ (45,8 %) years at sea, that is to say an average sea age (AMM) of 1.54 year. The average smolting age (AMS) and sea age at maturity (AMR) are respectively estimated at 1.30 and 1.39 year. Moreover, in this population, sea age at maturity increases when smolt age decreases. The results are discussed according to the methods and are compared with results obtained from other French or more northern rivers populations. Thus, the characteristics of the Rhine sea trout population correspond to what could be expected from its latitudinal situation and its great river status.

OMBREDANE D.; ROCHE P.; BAGLINIERE J. L.; EDEL G.; GERLIER M.; GIPPET B.

2008-01-01

178

Investigation of the dispersion of airborne pollutants in the Upper Rhine and Lake Constance region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the project is to calculate the regional flow and propagation conditions using the expensive three-dimensional meteorological model, the ''Karlsruher Atmosphaerisches Mesoskaliges Modell'' (KAMM) in order to derive the immission and the deposition of the conducting substance of pollutant matter, i.e., sulphur dioxide. In this report, calculations of the flowing field are described for the region Upper Rhine - Lake of Constance''. In the last part, the concentration fields for SO2 are calculated for the region for typical large-area atmospheric conditions with disclosure of sources. An appraising discussion of the results concludes this work. (orig.).

1991-01-01

179

[Municipal health conferences in North Rhine-westphalia. Experience and perspectives].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health conferences are established structural elements in the field of health prevention and health-care in North Rhine-Westphalia. This applies to the state level (state health conferences) as well as to the municipal and city levels of government (local health conferences). After being tested in a pilot project in the period 1995-1998, the foundation of local conferences became obligatory in all municipalities when the public health service act of 1998 came into effect. The present article describes the relevant structures, developments and results.

Werse W

2010-03-01

180

QUALITY OF MUST AND RHINE RIESLING WINE OF KUTJEVO VINEYARD AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantities of sugar and acid in the must of Riesling Rhine of Kutjevo vineyard area were observed on the Jakobovic Family Estate in the period of five years, from 1999 to 2003. The analysis shows varying quality of must and wine due to climatic conditions of a particular year. In the year 2000 and 2003 the quantities of sugar were exceptionally high and the content of all acids considerably lower which reflected later on the quantity of alcohol and acid in wine, as well as on organoleptic traits of wine.

Snježana Jakobovi?; Mario Jakobovi?

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Book of tables on the physico-chemical investigation of the Rhine water 1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The tables of figures on the physico-chemical investigation of the Rhine water comprise the sampling dates, the organic, entrophying and inorganic substances found, the metals and organic micro-pollutions found, and radioactivity. Other tables indicate the location of measuring places, method of sampling, and method of analysis. (DG)[de] Die Zahlentafeln der physikalisch-chemischen Untersuchungen des Rheinwassers umfassen Angaben zum Entnahmetag der Proben, den enthaltenen organischen, entrophierenden u. anorganischen Stoffen, den enthaltenen Metallen und organischen Mikroverunreinigungen sowie zur Radioaktivitaet. Tabellen geben einen Ueberblick zur Lage der Messstellen, der Art der Probenahme und zu den Analysenverfahren. (DG)

1986-01-01

182

Electricity in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report provides an analysis of Germany`s power market looking at the current situation and the new contracting and power purchasing strategies being developed, including the new coal aid systems. It assesses the potential effects on electricity prices, the patterns of buying and selling of power and how these are likely to develop over the next two to five years. Studies of some of the key industrial consumers showing how they are adjusting themselves to more competitive market conditions. It also includes detailed case studies of German power companies, large, medium and small - offering an insight into their future strategies. 1 app.

Knight, S.

1997-09-01

183

Continuous Training in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using data from the German Socio Economic Panel, I analyze the incidence, financing, and returns to workplace training in Germany for the years 1986 to 1989. Much of this training seems general, and is provided to workers by their employer at no direct cost. While workers typically report larger pro...

Pischke, Jörn-Steffen

184

Natural gas in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Organisation of the German natural gas industry; Natural gas sourcing and storage; Gas pricing and taxes; Energy legislation; Developments in Eastern Germany; Gas transport; Long-distance gas transport companies; Major gas distributors; Conclusions. (Author)

Knight, Sara

1999-07-01

185

Medical devices in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pressure from health-insurance companies, difficulties in getting innovative products to market and a new breed of purchasing associations are threatening the future livelihood of manufacturers in Germany. This article puts forward a cooperative concept that may suit every player's needs.

Wildau HJ; Grohs B

1998-11-01

186

Medical devices in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pressure from health-insurance companies, difficulties in getting innovative products to market and a new breed of purchasing associations are threatening the future livelihood of manufacturers in Germany. This article puts forward a cooperative concept that may suit every player's needs. PMID:10344882

Wildau, H J; Grohs, B

1998-11-01

187

Report: "Health in Germany"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Life expectancy is rising and the general health situation is good, but the number of people who smoke, are too fat, take too little exercise and/or drink too much alcohol is still too high. These are the main conclusions of the health report entitled "Health in Germany", which has just been publish...

188

Election in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This week's In The News focuses on the forthcoming general election in Germany. The seven sources discussed provide background, news, analysis, and commentary. On Sunday September 27, Germany's 60 million voters will elect a chancellor to lead them into the 21st century. Incumbent Helmut Kohl, a 68-year-old Christian Democrat who has been chancellor since 1982, is running for an unprecedented fifth term. During Kohl's sixteen years in power as a major world leader, he has presided over the reunification of Germany after the fall of the Berlin wall, advocated European unity while strengthening ties with the US, and ardently endorsed Germany's participation in Europe's single currency, the Euro. However, the problems of modernizing the economy in the formerly communist eastern Germany--where seventeen percent of the workers are unemployed--compounded by the difficulties of high taxes, expensive social programs, and fleeing investments, have convinced many voters that is time for a change of leadership. Kohl's opponent in the general election, Gerhard Schroder, is a 54-year-old Social Democrat currently serving as the Prime Minister of the northern state of Lower Saxony. The telegenic Schroder considers himself a New Middle leftist and models his political style after UK Prime Minister Tony Blair and US President Bill Clinton; he has, in fact, used consultants from Clinton's last campaign to bolster his image. According to political pundits, both Kohl and Schroder have similar moderate platforms, which has made this race a campaign of competing personalities rather than of substantive issues. Recent polls have indicated a dead heat between the candidates leading into the final week of the campaign.

Osmond, Andrew.

189

Modelling Turkish Migration to Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study develops a time series model of Turkish migration to Germany for the period 1963-2004 using the cointegration technique. A single cointegrating relation between the migration flow variable and the relative income ratio between Germany and Turkey, the unemployment rates in Germany and Turk...

Akkoyunlu, Sule; Siliverstovs, Boriss

190

[Screening diabetic retinopathy using a telediagnosis system. Results of the upper Rhine survey].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to present the results of diabetic retinopathy screening using a nonmydriatic fundus camera in the upper Rhine (France). METHOD: The screening period took place from September 2004 to December 2007. Patients came to three referring medical centers (Altkirch, Mulhouse, Thann) and all had three fundus photographs on both eyes without pupillary dilatation. The data were stored on a website. The photographs were then analyzed by the team of experts from the Department of Ophthalmology of the Mulhouse General Hospital. The results were sent to the general practitioner with treatment guidelines. The campaign was evaluated at the end of the screening period using a questionnaire. RESULTS: In this study, 1050 diabetics patients were screened: 18% had diabetic retinopathy; of these 1.5% had proliferative or serious nonproliferative diabetic retinopathies and 74.2% mild nonproliferative forms. The mean value of hemoglobin A1C was 9.3% (+/-2.55), the patients' mean age of patients was 61.5 (+/-14.3) years, and the mean onset of diabetes was 16.6 (+/-7.9) years before screening. After screening, 70% of the patients consulted an ophthalmologist. Ninety percent of the referent practitioners received the results of the screening. CONCLUSION: The diabetic retinopathy screening campaign in the upper Rhine provided a real benefit in terms of public health and prevention of diabetic retinal complications.

Lenoble P; Kheliouen M; Bourderont D; Klinger V; Nasica X; Benseddik Y; Holl P

2009-02-01

191

Geothermal power in the upper Rhine valley. Power source under ground; Geothermie am Oberrhein. Energie unter uns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The geological conditions of the upper Rhine valley are well suited for harnessing safe and environment-friendly geothermal power. This 6-minute animated film in English and German shows why this is so, and what manner of utilisation is possible. (orig.)

Leuchtner, J.; Schneider, J. (comps.)

2007-07-01

192

Genetic variation in brown trout Salmo trutta across the Danube, Rhine, and Elbe headwaters: a failure of the phylogeographic paradigm?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Brown trout Salmo trutta have been described in terms of five major mtDNA lineages, four of which correspond to major ocean basins, and one, according to some authors, to a distinct taxon, marbled trout Salmo marmoratus. The Atlantic and Danubian lineages of brown trout meet in a poorly documented contact zone in Central Europe. The natural versus human mediated origin of the Atlantic lineage in the upper Danube is a question of both theoretical and practical importance with respect to conservation management. We provide a comprehensive population genetic analysis of brown trout in the region with the aim of evaluating the geographic distribution and genetic integrity of these two lineages in and around their contact zone. Results Genetic screening of 114 populations of brown trout across the Danube/Rhine/Elbe catchments revealed a counter-intuitive phylogeographic structure with near fixation of the Atlantic lineage in the sampled portions of the Bavarian Danube. Along the Austrian Danube, phylogeographic informative markers revealed increasing percentages of Danube-specific alleles with downstream distance. Pure Danube lineage populations were restricted to peri-alpine isolates within previously glaciated regions. Both empirical data and simulated hybrid comparisons support that trout in non-glaciated regions north and northeast of the Alps have an admixed origin largely based on natural colonization. In contrast, the presence of Atlantic basin alleles south and southeast of the Alps stems from hatchery introductions and subsequent introgression. Despite extensive stocking of the Atlantic lineage, little evidence of first generation stocked fish or F1 hybrids were found implying that admixture has been established over time. Conclusions A purely phylogeographic paradigm fails to describe the distribution of genetic lineages of Salmo in Central Europe. The distribution pattern of the Atlantic and Danube lineages is extremely difficult to explain without invoking very strong biological mechanisms. The peri-alpine distribution of relict populations of pure Danubian lineage brown trout implies that they colonized headwater river courses post-glacially ahead of the expansion of the Atlantic lineage. The recognition of natural as opposed to anthropogenic introgression of the Atlantic lineage into Danubian gene pools is of fundamental importance to management strategies.

2013-01-01

193

Genetic variation in brown trout Salmo trutta across the Danube, Rhine, and Elbe headwaters: a failure of the phylogeographic paradigm?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Brown trout Salmo trutta have been described in terms of five major mtDNA lineages, four of which correspond to major ocean basins, and one, according to some authors, to a distinct taxon, marbled trout Salmo marmoratus. The Atlantic and Danubian lineages of brown trout meet in a poorly documented contact zone in Central Europe. The natural versus human mediated origin of the Atlantic lineage in the upper Danube is a question of both theoretical and practical importance with respect to conservation management. We provide a comprehensive population genetic analysis of brown trout in the region with the aim of evaluating the geographic distribution and genetic integrity of these two lineages in and around their contact zone. RESULTS: Genetic screening of 114 populations of brown trout across the Danube/Rhine/Elbe catchments revealed a counter-intuitive phylogeographic structure with near fixation of the Atlantic lineage in the sampled portions of the Bavarian Danube. Along the Austrian Danube, phylogeographic informative markers revealed increasing percentages of Danube-specific alleles with downstream distance. Pure Danube lineage populations were restricted to peri-alpine isolates within previously glaciated regions. Both empirical data and simulated hybrid comparisons support that trout in non-glaciated regions north and northeast of the Alps have an admixed origin largely based on natural colonization. In contrast, the presence of Atlantic basin alleles south and southeast of the Alps stems from hatchery introductions and subsequent introgression. Despite extensive stocking of the Atlantic lineage, little evidence of first generation stocked fish or F1 hybrids were found implying that admixture has been established over time. CONCLUSIONS: A purely phylogeographic paradigm fails to describe the distribution of genetic lineages of Salmo in Central Europe. The distribution pattern of the Atlantic and Danube lineages is extremely difficult to explain without invoking very strong biological mechanisms.The peri-alpine distribution of relict populations of pure Danubian lineage brown trout implies that they colonized headwater river courses post-glacially ahead of the expansion of the Atlantic lineage. The recognition of natural as opposed to anthropogenic introgression of the Atlantic lineage into Danubian gene pools is of fundamental importance to management strategies.

Lerceteau-Köhler E; Schliewen U; Kopun T; Weiss S

2013-08-01

194

Injury mortality in East Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effects of social changes in East Germany since 1989 on patterns of injury mortality. METHODS: Death certificate data regarding injuries from 1980 through 1995 and police data regarding traffic injuries in East Germany from 1980 through 1998 were compared with similar data from West Germany. RESULTS: The number of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths in East Germany increased dramatically between 1989 and 1991, whereas those in West Germany declined slightly. The increased mortality in the more rural East has especially involved young men driving automobiles on rural roads and has persisted since reunification of East and West Germany. Falls, other accidents, and suicides have shown no such effect. Homicide among East German men has increased but remains uncommon. CONCLUSIONS: Recent social changes in East Germany, including increased access to motor vehicles and decreased restrictions on personal freedom, have been associated with increased motor vehicle crashes and mortality, especially among young men and on rural roads.

Clark DE; Wildner M; Bergmann KE

2000-11-01

195

Continuous Training in Germany  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Continuous Training in GermanyUsing data from the German Socio Economic Panel, I analyze the incidence, financing, andreturns to workplace training in Germany for the years 1986 to 1989. Much of this training seemsgeneral, and is provided to workers by their employer at no direct cost. While workers typicallyreport larger productivity gains from the training during work hours, such training has lowerreturns than training undertaken during leisure time. Workers with higher earnings growth seemmore likely to participate in training. I deal with this selection problem by estimating models thatallow for individual level heterogeneity in earnings growth rates.JEL Classification: J 24, J 31Keywords: On-the-job-training, human capital model, returns to trainingJrn-Steffen PischkeDepartment of EconomicsMIT50 Memorial DriveCambridge, MA 02142USATel.: +1-617-253-1942Fax: +1-617-253-1330,Email: jsp@mit.eduI am grateful to John Abowd, Daron Acemoglu...

Jrn-steffen Pischke

196

Germany knows mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

NONE

2006-11-15

197

[The mutagenicity of surface water, waste water and drinking water in the Rhine-Neckar region in the Salmonella microsome test (Ames Test)].  

Science.gov (United States)

We have shown recently that the quality of surface water in urban and industrialized regions is of dubious hygienic. Therefore, in further studies we examined 46 water samples between October and November 1986 from the Rhine-river and its tributaries between km 400 and 440 using the Salmonella mutagenicity test (Ames-test). Additionally, we examined 8 samples from the waterworks of Mannheim and 4 samples from a lake in the Mannheim area. Each of our 464 samples was examined using Salmonella strains TA 97, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without Aroclor-1254-induced S9-fraction from rat liver. 9.7% of the water samples showed mutagenic effects in the Ames test, the majority (70%) with low activity. High mutagenic effects were found in the waste water of the purification plants of Mannheim and Ludwigshafen and of some small but very highly contaminated brooks (Kraichbach, Leimbach). Two out of 8 untreated water samples of the waterworks of Mannheim showed mutagenic effects in the undiluted water following metabolic activation. We never found mutagenic effects in all samples taken from the same site. The Ames-test is a useful screening procedure for the determination of mutagenic or cancerogenic effects of environmental contaminants. It allows an evaluation of mixtures of anthropogenically polluted environmental samples for potentially genotoxic effects. Our results show that our water resources pose ecological hazards. This should be prevented by a better control of the industrial and communal waste water before it is allowed to flow into the river. PMID:3131988

Mersch-Sundermann, V; Dickgiesser, N; Kötter, K; Harre, M

1988-01-01

198

[The mutagenicity of surface water, waste water and drinking water in the Rhine-Neckar region in the Salmonella microsome test (Ames Test)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have shown recently that the quality of surface water in urban and industrialized regions is of dubious hygienic. Therefore, in further studies we examined 46 water samples between October and November 1986 from the Rhine-river and its tributaries between km 400 and 440 using the Salmonella mutagenicity test (Ames-test). Additionally, we examined 8 samples from the waterworks of Mannheim and 4 samples from a lake in the Mannheim area. Each of our 464 samples was examined using Salmonella strains TA 97, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without Aroclor-1254-induced S9-fraction from rat liver. 9.7% of the water samples showed mutagenic effects in the Ames test, the majority (70%) with low activity. High mutagenic effects were found in the waste water of the purification plants of Mannheim and Ludwigshafen and of some small but very highly contaminated brooks (Kraichbach, Leimbach). Two out of 8 untreated water samples of the waterworks of Mannheim showed mutagenic effects in the undiluted water following metabolic activation. We never found mutagenic effects in all samples taken from the same site. The Ames-test is a useful screening procedure for the determination of mutagenic or cancerogenic effects of environmental contaminants. It allows an evaluation of mixtures of anthropogenically polluted environmental samples for potentially genotoxic effects. Our results show that our water resources pose ecological hazards. This should be prevented by a better control of the industrial and communal waste water before it is allowed to flow into the river.

Mersch-Sundermann V; Dickgiesser N; Kötter K; Harre M

1988-01-01

199

Molecular confirmation of the occurrence in Germany of Anopheles daciae (Diptera, Culicidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles daciae, a newly described member of the Maculipennis group, was recently reported from western, southern and eastern Europe. Before its recognition, it had commonly been listed under the name of An. messeae, due to its extreme morphological and genetic similarities. As the sibling species of the Maculipennis group are known to differ in their vector competences for malaria parasites and other pathogens, the occurrence of An. daciae in a given region might have an impact on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquito collections from different localities in Germany were therefore screened for An. daciae. Methods Adult and immature Maculipennis group mosquitoes were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 at 23 different sites in eight federal states of Germany. A standard PCR assay was used to differentiate the previously known sibling species while the ITS2 rDNA of specimens preliminarily identified as An. messeae/daciae was sequenced and analysed for species-specific nucleotide differences. Results Four hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles specimens were successively identified to Maculipennis group level by morphology and to species level by DNA-based methods. Four species of the Maculipennis group were registered: An. messeae (n?=?384), An. maculipennis (n?=?82), An. daciae (n?=?10) and An. atroparvus (n?=?1). Anopheles daciae occurred at four sites in three federal states of Germany, three of the sites being located in north-eastern Germany (federal states of Brandenburg and Saxony) while one collection site was situated in the northern Upper Rhine Valley in the federal state of Hesse, south-western Germany. Conclusions The detection of An. daciae represents the first recognition of this species in Germany where it was found to occur in sympatry with An. messeae and An. maculipennis. As the collection sites were in both north-eastern and south-western parts of Germany, the species is probably even more widely distributed in Germany than demonstrated, albeit apparently with low population densities. Research is needed that confirms the species status of An. daciae and elucidates its vector competence as compared to An. messeae and the other species of the Maculipennis group, in order to optimize management of possible future outbreaks of diseases caused by pathogen transmission through Maculipennis group mosquitoes.

Kronefeld Mandy; Dittmann Marko; Zielke Dorothee; Werner Doreen; Kampen Helge

2012-01-01

200

Nuclear power in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Environmental policy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous forms, emergence, and development of German environ-politics from 1900 to the present day are looked into by means of so far disregarded sources. The main lines of ecological and technological environ-politics are described and the difficulties in formulating and getting through adequate state measures of environment protection are shown quoting cases. The influence of structural pre-conditions, of the constitutional state, political culture and global development of Germany is examined as to its influence on environ-politics. The work must be understood as a historical argument in favor of a more conscious, reasonable political formation of environment in the sense of an ecological concept. (orig.).

1982-01-01

202

Regional and temporal variability of the isotope composition (O, S) of atmospheric sulphate in the region of Freiberg, Germany, and consequences for dissolved sulphate in groundwater and river water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The isotope composition of dissolved sulphate and strontium in atmospheric deposition, groundwater, mine water and river water in the region of Freiberg was investigated to better understand the fate of these components in the regional and global water cycle. Most of the isotope variations of dissolved sulphates in atmospheric deposition from three locations sampled bi- or tri-monthly can be explained by fractionation processes leading to lower [Formula: see text] (of about 2-3‰) and higher [Formula: see text] (of about 8-10‰) values in summer compared with the winter period. These samples showed a negative correlation between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] values and a weak positive correlation between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] values. They reflect the sulphate formed by aqueous oxidation from long-range transport in clouds. However, these isotope variations were superimposed by changes of the dominating atmospheric sulphate source. At two of the sampling points, large variations of mean annual [Formula: see text] values from atmospheric bulk deposition were recorded. From 2008 to 2009, the mean annual [Formula: see text] value increased by about 5‰; and decreased by about 4‰ from 2009 to 2010. A change in the dominating sulphate source or oxidation pathways of SO(2) in the atmosphere is proposed to cause these shifts. No changes were found in corresponding [Formula: see text] values. Groundwater, river water and some mine waters (where groundwater was the dominating sulphate source) also showed temporal shifts in their [Formula: see text] values corresponding to those of bulk atmospheric deposition, albeit to a lower degree. The mean transit time of atmospheric sulphur through the soil into the groundwater and river water was less than a year and therefore much shorter than previously suggested. Mining activities of about 800 years in the Freiberg region may have led to large subsurface areas with an enhanced groundwater flow along fractures and mined-refilled ore lodes which may shorten transit times of sulphate from precipitation through groundwater into river water.

Tichomirowa M; Heidel C

2012-01-01

203

A new focus of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) distribution in Western Germany: rapid spread or a further introduction event?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, a potential vector of several viruses, was first detected in Germany in 2008 on the Swiss-German border. In the following years, this invasive species apparently succeeded in establishing populations in southern Germany and in spreading northwards. In 2011, its distribution area already covered large areas of the federal state of Baden-Wurttemberg, and its northernmost German collection point was reported to be close to Stuttgart. Several independent submissions to our laboratories of Ae. j. japonicus specimens in July 2012, originating from the same area in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, western Germany, prompted us to carry out an immediate surveillance in this region in the expectation of finding a further distribution focus of Ae. j. japonicus in Germany. Methods After inspecting the places of residence of the collectors of the submitted mosquito specimens, all kinds of water containers in 123 cemeteries in surrounding towns and villages were checked for mosquito developmental stages. These were collected and kept to produce adults for morphological species identification. One specimen per collection site was identified genetically by COI sequence analysis. Results Aedes j. japonicus adults and immature stages were found in 36 towns/villages that were checked (29%) over an area of approximately 2,000 km2 in southern North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland Palatinate. The species could not be demonstrated further south when monitoring towards the northernmost previous collection sites in southern Germany. It therefore remains to be elucidated whether the species has entered western Germany from the south, from Belgium in the west where it has been demonstrated to occur locally since 2002, or through a new introduction. Conclusions Aedes j. japonicus is obviously much more widely distributed in Germany than previously thought. It appears to be well adapted, to have a strong expansion tendency and to replace indigenous mosquito species. Thus, a further spread is anticipated and elimination seems hardly possible anymore. The vector potency of the species should be reason enough to thoroughly monitor its future development in Germany.

Kampen Helge; Zielke Dorothee; Werner Doreen

2012-01-01

204

Temperature-derived potential for the establishment of phlebotomine sandflies and visceral leishmaniasis in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is expected to manifest in the shift of organisms to regions where they were not present in the past, potentially entailing previously unseen biological risks. However, studies evaluating these future trends are scarce. Here, an important group of vectors (sandflies) and the pathogen transmitted (Leishmania infantum complex) causing the infectious disease visceral leishmaniasis is investigated, focussing on potential establishment in Germany during the 21st century. As the most important habitat factor, temperature requirements of pathogen and vector were derived from the literature and compared with recent climate records - provided by worldclim - and climate change scenarios. Climate data from the Regional Climate Model REMO were obtained and averaged over the time periods 2011- 2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. Projected temperature changes (based on the A1B and A2 scenarios) were correlated with the constraints of vector and pathogen. Simulated potentially suitable habitat areas for vector and pathogen were merged to generate a temperature-derived risk map of visceral leishmaniasis. Temperature conditions seem to become suitable for the vector across large swaths of Germany. Nevertheless, temperature constraints for the pathogen may defer the establishment of the parasitic disease, particularly during the first half of the 21st century. Long-lasting epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis are therefore not expected in Germany during the next few decades, although during extremely warm years an increase in autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis may occur. The southwest (Upper Rhine Valley) and west (Cologne Bight) of Germany are identified as risk areas. The time of potential establishment and corresponding rise in biological risk varies between scenarios, due to differences in the predicted rate of temperature increase. PMID:21080321

Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie M; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

2010-11-01

205

Tests with reverse electrodialysis for the treatment of water from the Rhine for use as boiler feedwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By means of reverse electrodialysis it is possible to remove ionally dissolved materials with ion selective membranes from water. The driving force for this process is a potential difference which is applied to membranes. Some experiments with town water were first undertaken, for familiarization with the apparatus. Following these introductory experiments Rhine water was used as make-up water for the reverse electrodialysis. The initial results showed that Rhine water can be desalinated to a high degree (97%) with very low energy consumption (in total 1 kWh per 1.3 m/sup 3/ of water product). This preliminary desalination means in practice that ion exchangers fitted on the load side are less loaded. The period of operation between the two regenerations is extended and the consumption of the regenerating agent as well as the quantity of waste water to be disposed of are reduced.

Enoch, G.D.; Tigchelaar, P.; Lefers, J.B.; Overman, L.J.; Venderbosch, H.W.

1988-05-01

206

Rising Wage Inequality in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper investigates the evolution of wages and wage inequality in Germany based on samples from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) 1984 to 2005. Real gross hourly wages for prime age dependent male workers increased on average by 23 percent between 1984 and 1994 in West Germany and the wage d...

Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Gernandt, Johannes

207

Rising Wage Inequality in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the evolution of wages and the recent tendency to rising wage inequality in Germany, based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) for 1984 to 2004. Between 1984 and 1994 the wage distribution was fairly stable. Wage inequality started to increase around 1994 in Germany fo...

Gernandt, Johannes; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm

208

Rising Wage Inequality in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper investigates the evolution of wages and wage inequality in Germany based on samples from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) 1984 to 2005. Real gross hourly wages for prime age dependent male workers increased on average by 23 percent between 1984 and 1994 in West Germany and the wage ...

Gernandt, Johannes; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm

209

Training reactors in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Training reactors contribute to the maintenance and enhance nuclear know-how and competence. Even today with the current political circumstances in Germany, characterized by phasing out nuclear power, there is considerable demand for young engineers and scientists in the nuclear sector. The demand is driven by retirement of staff members at existing NPP and nuclear industrial suppliers, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, continued work in the field of basic nuclear physics research, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, waste disposal, nuclear medicine, and the regulatory bodies, technical inspection organizations or international organizations. For students, the training reactors in Stuttgart, Furtwangen, Ulm and Dresden provide a unique opportunity to get a hands-on experience of neutronics in addition to their theoretical education. (orig.)

2012-01-01

210

Germany Under Reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Offered as part of the University of Wisconsin Digital Collection's History collection, Germany Under Reconstruction provides the public with access to a variety of publications in English and German from the early days following World War II. The documents cover a wide range of topics, and they include works that look at the political, economic, and cultural milieu in the nation during the period. All told, there are 516 documents included here, and visitors can perform complex searches or just browse through them at their leisure. Some of the more notable English language items include the 1945 work "After Nazism-Democracy? A symposium by four Germans" and Elmer Beck's 1948 book "The trade union press in the U.S. occupied area". The site is rounded out by the complete run of the Weekly Information Bulletin, published by the United States European Theater's Military Army of Occupation from 1945 to 1948.

211

CAS School in Germany  

CERN Document Server

The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

CERN Accelerator School

212

LOFAR in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The LOw Frequency ARray – LOFAR – is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz centered in the Netherlands. In May 2006 ten German institutes formed the German LOng Wavelength consortium – GLOW – to coordinate its contributions and scientific interests to the LOFAR project. The first LOFAR station CS1 was installed in summer 2006 near Exloo/Netherlands. The second station IS-G1 is presently been placed in the immediate vicinity of the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope near Bad Münstereifel/Germany. This contribution briefly describes the basic properties and aims of LOFAR, the aims of the GLOW consortium and the actual activities to install a LOFAR station at the Effelsberg site.

W. Reich

2007-01-01

213

Germany at CERN  

CERN Document Server

From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

C. Laignel / FI-DI

2005-01-01

214

Germany AT CERN  

CERN Document Server

From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

2005-01-01

215

Germany AT CERN  

CERN Document Server

From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

C. Laignel / FI-DI

2005-01-01

216

River flood defence. Vol. 2. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proceedings consist of two volumes with the following sections: Vol. 1: A-Introduction, B-History of Flood Defence, C-Hydrological Data and Precipitation, D-Precipitation-Runoff Modeling, E-Pollutants and Disease Pathogens, F-Flood Risk, Vol. 2: G-New Developments in Flood Prevention, H-IRMA Session, I-EXPO 2000 Session, K-Posters. In the session H-IRMA contributions to the European Community program ''INTERREG Rhine-Meuse-Activities'' are collected. In Section I - EXPO the worldwide project ''Environmentally oriented Flood Defence in Northern Hesse: the Bauna River Example'' is presented. (orig.)

Toensmann, F. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydraulik and Water-Resources Engineering; Koch, M. (eds.) [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geohydraulics and Engineering Hydrology

2000-07-01

217

Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in the Rhine Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1) the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2) the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3) the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.

Sabine Moellenkamp; Machiel Lamers; Christian Huesmann; Sophie Rotter; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Karina Speil; Wiebke Pohl

2010-01-01

218

Do high levels of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in sediments of Rhine and Meuse floodplains affect structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded.

Rozema, Jelte [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Notten, Martje J.M.; Aerts, Rien [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Hobbelen, Peter H.F. [Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hamers, Timo H.M. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2008-12-01

219

Uptake of 134/137Cs in soil by cereals as a function of several soil parameters of three soil types in Upper Swabia and North Rhine-Westphalia (FRG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1988 and 1989 soil and winter cereals contaminated with long-lived radionuclides derived from the accident at Chernobyl were sampled in Upper Swabia and North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW). 134Cs, 137Cs and 40K were measured and transfer factors Soil-to-Plant (TFSP) were determined for radiocaesium in the grain and straw of barley and wheat. Due to the lower deposition of radiocaesium in NRW after the Chernobyl accident, radiocaesium was not detectable in cereals from NRW. In samples from Upper Swabia, one of the most highly contaminated areas in Germany after the reactor accident (43 000 Bq 137Cs/m2), the concentration of radiocaesium in grain was found to be more than one hundred times lower than the concentration of natural 40K. The variation of TFSP by about factor of 43 (grain) and 18 (straw) can be explained by the potassium content of the soil. TFSP values show a pronounced increase below 0.2 meq exchangeable potassium/100 g soil, but do not exceed the value given as a basis for calculation in the German Regulatory guide of 0.05. Other soil parameters, such as pH value, organic matter content or soil texture, did not have any influence on TFSP. (author)

1993-01-01

220

Fate modeling of nonylphenol ethoxylates and their metabolites in the Dutch Scheldt and Rhine estuaries: validation with new field data  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental behavior of nonylphenol ethoxylates (A9PEO) in the Rhine and Scheldt estuaries (The Netherlands) was investigated using a hydrodynamic advection-dispersion fate model (ECoS 3). The model was validated with the results of field studies, in which A9PEO as well as the metabolites nonylphenoxy ethoxy acetic acids (A9PEC) and nonylphenol (NP) were analyzed in sediment, water and suspended particulate material (SPM) samples using LC MS methods. Maximum actual concentrations observed in surface sediments were 620, 560 and 1100 ng g-1 d.w. for A9PEO, A9PEC and NP, respectively. In the dissolved phase, maximum observed concentrations amounted to 1100 ng L-1 (A9PEO), 6500 ng L-1 (A9PEC) and 960 ng L-1 (NP). Clear spatial trends were observed for dissolved A9PEO and metabolites in the Scheldt estuary, with decreasing concentrations going downstream. This concentration decrease was steeper than for conservatively behaving compounds. This trend was not visible in the Rhine estuary. The fate model was applied to A9PEO and metabolites in both estuaries. Transport of chemicals in the water column was considered as a longitudinal one-dimensional process through a number of estuary segments. For the Rhine estuary, to cope with the stratification observed, a model structure was chosen consisting of two water layers above each other, between which exchange was possible. Sedimentation/erosion processes were included in the model. A biodegradation scheme was incorporated, and rates were adjusted to fit the calculated concentration profiles with the actual profiles of both A9PEO and its metabolites. In this way, field biodegradation rates for A9PEO, A9PEC and NP could be derived, which were in agreement with values from literature. The measured dissolved concentration profiles as well as salinity and concentrations of SPM could be described successfully by the model. The concentrations calculated in SPM and sediment were of the same order of magnitude as the actual concentrations. In the Rhine estuary, additional sources of A9PEO had to be included to account for the relatively high concentrations in the middle of the estuary. The fate model for the Scheldt estuary could be slightly improved by using salinity-dependent biodegradation rates. A sensitivity analysis of the model showed that in the Scheldt estuary, the environmental process with the strongest influence on the dissolved concentration profiles of A9PEO and metabolites is biodegradation. In the Rhine estuary, the water residence time is too short for significant biodegradation to occur, and in this estuary the dissolved concentration profiles were mainly influenced by the additional A9PEO sources.

Jonkers, Niels; Laane, Remi W. P. M.; de Graaf, Chris; de Voogt, Pim

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Reworked planktonic Foraminifera from the Late Rupelian of the southern Upper Rhine Graben and their palaeogeographic and biostratigraphic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

During the Late Rupelian the widespread second transgression (corresponding to international Ru2-3 transgressions; BERGER et al. 2005) affected the whole Upper Rhine Graben basin and led to the deposition of the several hundred meters thick marine "Série grise". An abrupt transition (erosion surface) between the uppermost "Série grise" and Niederroedern Formation indicates the change to fluviatile and lacustrine conditions throughout the basin close to the Late Rupelian / Early Chattian boundary. Abundant reworked Middle to Late Cretaceous (e.g., Marginotruncana pseudolinneiana) and Late Paleocene to Late Eocene (e.g., Acarinina bullbrooki, Morozovella subbotinae, Turborotalia cocoaensis) ranging planktonic Foraminifera occur in the "Série Grise" and equivalent lithological units of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Mainz Basin (e.g., FISCHER 1965, PIRKENSEER 2007, SCHÄFER & KUHN 2004). At least Late Cretaceous, Ypresian, Lutetian and Priabonian ages of source sediments are indicated by the overlapping biostratigraphic ranges of the reworked specimens. Abundant reworked material first appears in the lower "Couches à Mélettes" and reaches its acme in the increasingly "Marnes à Cyrènes" (terminal "Série grise"). Only sparse records are documented from the subsequent terrestrial Niederroedern Formation. These reworking events are linked to intervals of increased clastic input throughout the "Série grise". The planktonic Foraminifera are proposed to be reworked from related alpine deposits (later Helvetikum?) via a northwards trending fluviatile system, as no autochthonous Cretaceous and Early to Middle Eocene marine sediments were deposited within the graben basin. Furthermore other possible source areas (e.g., Paris Basin) were either not connected to the Upper Rhine Graben or were not subject to erosion in the Late Rupelian. This accords with the proposition (ROUSSÉ 2006) of a vast northwards prograding delta-system that was located close to the southern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben. Reworked Mesozoic and Paleogene calcareous nannoplankton from the Upper Rhine Graben and the Mainz Basin confirms the data derived from planktonic Foraminifera. The existence of reworked planktonic Foraminifera influences the biostratigraphic interpretation of the assemblage ranges attributed to "Série grise" samples. Facultatively reworked planktonic Foraminifera as Subbotina utilisindex and Pseudohastigerina micra ranging from the Lutetian to the Late Rupelian should not be included in the biostratigraphic analyses, as the occurrences of these facultatively reworked species are always linked to those of exclusively Cretaceous and Eocene age. Therefore the age of the "Série grise" deposits at Allschwil-2 is most likely to be placed within the "Chiloguembelina cubensis - Globigerinella obesa / Globorotaloides variabilis"-assemblage range of Mid P20 to Final P21a, lasting considerably longer than the very short Mid P20 range based on the presence of Pseudohastigerina micra as "last occurrence"-marker (PIRKENSEER 2007). This study was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation projects 109457 and 118025. References: BERGER, J.-P., REICHENBACHER, B., BECKER, D., et al. (2005): Eocene-Pliocene time scale and stratigraphy of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB). - International Journal of Earth Sciences, 94, 4: 711-731. FISCHER, H. (1965): Geologie des Gebietes zwischen Blauen und Pfirter Jura. - Beiträge zur geologischen Karte der Schweiz, NF 122: 106p. PIRKENSEER, C. (2007): Foraminifera, Ostracoda and other microfossils of the Southern Upper Rhine Graben - Palaeoecology, biostratigraphy, palaeogeography and geodynamic implications. - PhD thesis: 340p, Fribourg. ROUSSÉ, S. (2006): Architecture et dynamique des séries marines et continentales de ?Oligocène Moyen et Supérieur du Sud du Fossé Rhénan: Evolution des milieux de dépôt en contexte de rift en marge de ?avant-pays alpin.

Pirkenseer, C.; Spezzaferri, S.; Berger, J.-P.

2009-04-01

222

Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germany?s European policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1) the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2) at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3) in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) are reluctant to (re-)strengthen the European idea; and (4) the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

Michèle Knodt; Nicola Staeck

1999-01-01

223

Vaccination recommendations for Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is an effective means of preventing infectious diseases. In Germany, the Standing Vaccination Committee at the Robert Koch Institute (Ständige Impfkommission, STIKO) issues recommendations on vaccination to prevent the occurrence and spread of infectious diseases in the nation's population. METHODS: Selective literature review, including consideration of the current STIKO recommendations. RESULTS: The annually updated vaccination calendar currently includes recommendations for vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, type b Haemophilus influenzae, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, and pneumococci, beginning at the age of eight weeks. From the age of twelve months onward, children should be vaccinated against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and serogroup C meningococci. In later childhood and adolescence, booster vaccinations are recommended, in addition to the provision of any vaccinations that may have been missed. Girls aged 12 to 17 years should be vaccinated against human papilloma virus. Adults should have their tetanus and diphtheria vaccinations refreshed regularly, and their pertussis vaccination refreshed once; from age 60 onward, they should be vaccinated against pneumococci and influenza. CONCLUSIONS: The vaccinations recommended by the STIKO are available to all German citizens free of charge and provide effective protection against infectious disease.

Wiese-Posselt M; Tertilt C; Zepp F

2011-11-01

224

GERMANY AT CERN  

CERN Document Server

13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

2001-01-01

225

Incidence and prevalence of chronic bronchitis: impact of smoking and welding. The RHINE study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and incidence rate of chronic bronchitis (CB) in relation to smoking habits and exposure to welding fumes in a general population sample. METHODS: Subjects from Northern Europe born between 1945 and 1971 who participated in Stage 1 (1989-1994) of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey were mailed a respiratory questionnaire in 1999-2001 (the RHINE study); 15,909 answered the questionnaire and gave complete data on smoking. CB was defined as chronic productive cough of at least 3 months a year for 2 consecutive years. The questionnaire comprised an item about age when CB started and items about exposure to welding fumes. The incidence of CB was retrospectively assessed for the observation period 1980-2001. RESULTS: CB had a prevalence of 5.4%, and was associated with current smoking and welding exposure. The incidence rate of CB was 1.9 per 1000 person-years, and was increased in relation to welding exposure (low exposure HR 1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.8; high exposure HR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.7) and in relation to smoking (HR 2.1, 95%CI 1.8-2.5). CONCLUSION: Smoking and occupational exposure to welding fumes are both associated with an increased risk of CB.

Holm M; Kim JL; Lillienberg L; Storaas T; Jögi R; Svanes C; Schlünssen V; Forsberg B; Gíslason T; Janson C; Torén K

2012-04-01

226

Actual smog thresholds as applied to past smog episodes in the Rhine/Ruhr-Area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sampling of solid and gaseous air pollutants is performed by the use of different instruments. Also an internationally adopted definition of so called smog episodes is not available at present. The study uses different actual smog thresholds to characterize past smog situations in the Rhine/Ruhr-Area with its very high air pollution at that time. Nearly 75% of cited cases belonged to situations posing high health risks of the general population. Unfortunately, no confident informations from the medical point of view are now available to support the technical results. As a practical consequence, the standardization of sampling and evaluation methods is recommended. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Probenahme gas- und staubfoermiger Komponenten in der Aussenluft werden verschiedene Sammelgeraete eingesetzt. Die erhaltenen Messwerte dienen zur Beurteilung der Schadstoffsituation z.B. beim Smogwarndienst. In der vorliegenden Studie werden deutsche und amerikanische Grenzwerte benutzt, um fruehere Smog-Episoden im Rhein-Ruhrgebiet zu charakterisieren. Hiernach waren 75% aller aufgefuehrten Situationen fuer die Bevoelkerung mit erhoehtem Gesundheitsrisiko verbunden. Ungluecklicherweise sind die technischen Informationen nicht durch parallellaufende epidemiologische Untersuchungsreihen gestuetzt worden. Der technische Vergleich zwischen deutschen und amerikanischen Grenzwerten weist keine grossen Unterschiede auf. (orig.)

Friedrichs, K.H.; Behrendt, H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Dermatologie; Armbruster, L. [Deutsche Montan Technologie, Essen (Germany). Abt. Staubtechnologie

1997-07-01

227

[Waste management in hospitals. Current situation in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 20 hospitals in North Rhine-Westphalia in-plant handling wastes and the delivery of the waste to the disposer were examined. Deficits were seen regarding risk assessment and operating instructions, support by company doctors, personal protection equipment, and break areas for the waste collecting personnel. Also the qualification of the waste management officer and his/her time contingent, correct declaration of the wastes, the training of the waste collecting personnel, the cleaning of multi-use containers and transportation vehicles, storage of the wastes at the collecting points, and the use of sharp collecting boxes were to be partly criticized. Consequences and recommendations are given, concerning the company's obligations (e.g., provide risk assessment, operating instructions), waste management officer (e.g., qualification, enough time contingent, regular inspections), waste collecting personnel (e.g., training courses), industrial safety (e.g., protection equipment, break area wash places), company doctors, transportation vehicles in the house (e.g., regular cleaning), one-way collectors (e.g., labelling at the site of the collection), multi-use collectors (e.g., cleaning), and compressing containers (e.g., larger maintenance openings).

Popp W; Hansen D; Hilgenhöner M; Grandek M; Heinemann A; Blättler T

2009-07-01

228

[Waste management in hospitals. Current situation in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 20 hospitals in North Rhine-Westphalia in-plant handling wastes and the delivery of the waste to the disposer were examined. Deficits were seen regarding risk assessment and operating instructions, support by company doctors, personal protection equipment, and break areas for the waste collecting personnel. Also the qualification of the waste management officer and his/her time contingent, correct declaration of the wastes, the training of the waste collecting personnel, the cleaning of multi-use containers and transportation vehicles, storage of the wastes at the collecting points, and the use of sharp collecting boxes were to be partly criticized. Consequences and recommendations are given, concerning the company's obligations (e.g., provide risk assessment, operating instructions), waste management officer (e.g., qualification, enough time contingent, regular inspections), waste collecting personnel (e.g., training courses), industrial safety (e.g., protection equipment, break area wash places), company doctors, transportation vehicles in the house (e.g., regular cleaning), one-way collectors (e.g., labelling at the site of the collection), multi-use collectors (e.g., cleaning), and compressing containers (e.g., larger maintenance openings). PMID:19626285

Popp, W; Hansen, D; Hilgenhöner, M; Grandek, M; Heinemann, A; Blättler, T

2009-07-01

229

Ambient vibration measurements in the Southern Rhine Graben close to Basle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents results of ambient noise measurements from temporary single station and small-scale array deployments in the northeast of Basle. H/V spectral ratios were determined along various profiles crossing the eastern masterfault of the Rhine Rift Valley and the adjacent sedimentary rift fills. The fundamental H/V peak frequencies are decreasing along the profile towards the eastern direction being consistent with the dip of the tertiary sediments within the rift. Using existing empirical relationships between H/V frequency peaks and the depth of the dominant seismic contrast, derived on basis of the ?/4-resonance hypothesis and a power law depth dependence of the S-wave velocity, we obtain thicknesses of the rift fill from about 155 m in the west to 280 m in the east. This is in agreement with previous studies. The array analysis of the ambient noise wavefield yielded a stable dispersion relation consistent with Rayleigh wave propagation velocities. We conclude that a significant amount of surface waves is contained in the observed wavefield. The computed ellipticity for fundamental mode Rayleigh waves for the velocity depth models used for the estimation of the sediment thicknesses is in agreement with the observed H/V spectra over a large frequency band.

A. Köhler; M. Ohrnberger; F. Scherbaum; S. Stange; F. Kind

2004-01-01

230

Incidence and prevalence of chronic bronchitis : impact of smoking and welding. The RHINE study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and incidence rate of chronic bronchitis (CB) in relation to smoking habits and exposure to welding fumes in a general population sample.METHODS: Subjects from Northern Europe born between 1945 and 1971 who participated in Stage 1 (1989-1994) of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey were mailed a respiratory questionnaire in 1999-2001 (the RHINE study); 15?909 answered the questionnaire and gave complete data on smoking. CB was defined as chronic productive cough of at least 3 months a year for 2 consecutive years. The questionnaire comprised an item about age when CB started and items about exposure to welding fumes. The incidence of CB was retrospectively assessed for the observation period 1980-2001.RESULTS: CB had a prevalence of 5.4%, and was associated with current smoking and welding exposure. The incidence rate of CB was 1.9 per 1000 person-years, and was increased in relation to welding exposure (low exposure HR 1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.8; high exposure HR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.7) and in relation to smoking (HR 2.1, 95%CI 1.8-2.5).CONCLUSION: Smoking and occupational exposure to welding fumes are both associated with an increased risk of CB.

Holm, M; Kim, J-L

2012-01-01

231

A probabilistic view on the August 2005 floods in the upper Rhine catchment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Appropriate precautions in the case of flood occurrence often require long lead times (several days) in hydrological forecasting. This in turn implies large uncertainties that are mainly inherited from the meteorological precipitation forecast. Here we present a case study of the extreme flood event of August 2005 in the Swiss part of the Rhine catchment (total area 34 550 km2). This event caused tremendous damage and was associated with precipitation amounts and flood peaks with return periods beyond 10 to 100 years. To deal with the underlying intrinsic predictability limitations, a probabilistic forecasting system is tested, which is based on a hydrological-meteorological ensemble prediction system. The meteorological component of the system is the operational limited-area COSMO-LEPS that downscales the ECMWF ensemble prediction system to a horizontal resolution of 10 km, while the hydrological component is based on the semi-distributed hydrological model PREVAH with a spatial resolution of 500 m. We document the setup of the coupled system and assess its performance for the flood event under consideration. We show that the probabilistic meteorological-hydrological ensemble prediction chain is quite effective and provides additional guidance for extreme event forecasting, in comparison to a purely deterministic forecasting system. For the case studied, it is also shown that most of the benefits of the probabilistic approach may be realized with a comparatively small ensemble size of 10 members.

S. Jaun; B. Ahrens; A. Walser; T. Ewen; C. Schär

2008-01-01

232

Simulation of air pollution with nested models in North Rhine-Westphalia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High resolution modeling of air pollution events requires nested models. CARLOS is a combination of two comprehensive air quality simulation models that calculate chemistry and transport on regional and local scales. Both models apply nesting techniques to describe the influx of tracers into the inner highly resolved modeling domain. High resolution emission inventories are available for the innermost nest on the large scale, which allow the separate treatment of traffic and point sources. Results of a simulation for North Rhine-Westphalia in August 1997 are presented for two nesting levels, increasing the resolution from 27km in Central Europe to 3km in the domain of the second nest. One result is also presented for the local scale employing two nesting levels with a resolution of 1km and 333m, respectively. Statistical indices are used to indicate the quality of the predictions of ozone. Comparison of observations at the stations Koeln-Chorweiler and Wuppertal with modeled concentrations shows good agreement of ozone and reasonable reproduction of NO2 concentrations. (Author)

2001-01-01

233

Measuring perspectives on future flood management on the Rhine: application and discussion of Q methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An overview of stakeholder perspectives promises to be useful in the agenda setting phase of water management policy processes. This paper compares different methods to measure perspectives, and identifies Q methodology as a structured method that allows for unbiased analysis. It is one of the first water management papers about Q methodology, and it presents a detailed discussion of the practical possibilities and limitations of the method, using future flood management in the Rhine basin as a case study. The application shows that there are three different stakeholder perspectives that are shared within groups of respondents: A) "Anticipation and institutions", B) "Space for flooding" and C) "Knowledge and engineering". The paper concludes that Q methodology can be used in practice to comprehensively elicit individual perspectives, to aggregate them in an objective way, and to identify major knowledge gaps and divergent goals. Because the method requires quite some skills and time from the analyst, and the sorting task may be difficult for the respondents, it is most appropriate for in-depth analysis. Additional research is required on how to use stakeholder perspectives in the development of mutual understanding and consensus in water management policy processes.

G. T. Raadgever; E. Mostert; N. C. van de Giesen

2008-01-01

234

Germany Phases Out Nuclear Power  

Science.gov (United States)

This video excerpt from FRONTLINE: Nuclear Aftershocks explores the debate behind Germany's decision to phase out its nuclear energy program and revert back to coal as “the bridge” that will eventually allow greater reliance on renewable energy.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-08-31

235

Colonisation of the Rhine basin by non-native gobiids: an update of the situation in France Colonisation du bassin du Rhin par les gobiidés non natifs : actualisation de la situation en France  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three of the four species of non-native gobiids currently reported in the Rhine basin were recently recorded in France: the Western tubenose goby in 2007, the bighead goby in 2010 and the round goby in 2011. The bighead goby and the round goby displayed a very high rate of range expansion, suggesting a human-assisted colonisation through inland navigation. An assessment of the invasiveness potential by the FISK (Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit) reveals a medium risk for the Western tubenose goby, while the bighead goby and the round goby are at high risk of becoming invasive in France. This assessment is consistent with our observations since there has been a steady increase in the range of the Western tubenose goby, although in low numbers, while the relative abundance of bighead goby and round goby, recently arrived in the French part of the Rhine River and Moselle River, can be high. Given their fast expansion, it can be assumed that these species will soon reach other French basins, particularly in the south (Rhône basin) and in the west (Seine basin), and the implementation of measures to limit their spread should be considered. Trois des quatre espèces de gobiidés non natifs actuellement signalées dans le bassin du Rhin ont atteint sa partie française : le gobie demi-lune en 2007, le gobie de Kessler en 2010 et le gobie à tache noire en 2011. Le gobie de Kessler et le gobie à tache noire ont fait preuve d’une vitesse de colonisation très rapide suggérant une migration facilitée par la navigation. L’évaluation du potentiel invasif par la méthode FISK (Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit) révèle un risque moyen pour le gobie demi-lune tandis que le gobie de Kessler et le gobie à tache noire présentent un risque élevé de devenir envahissants en France. Cette évaluation est conforme à nos observations d’une progression constante de l’aire de répartition du gobie demi-lune, bien qu’en faible effectif, tandis que les abondances relatives du gobie de Kessler et du gobie à tache noire, arrivés récemment dans la partie française du Rhin et de la Moselle, peuvent être importantes. Compte tenu de leur rapide progression, on peut supposer que ces espèces coloniseront à court terme d’autres bassins français, en particulier en direction du sud (bassin du Rhône) et de l’ouest (bassin de la Seine) et la mise en place de mesures destinées à en limiter la propagation devrait donc être envisagée.

Manné S.; Poulet N.; Dembski S.

2013-01-01

236

Migrations from Yugoslavia to Germany: Migrants, emigrants, refugees and asylum-seekers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Migrations from Yugoslavia to Germany have a long tradition. There have been various economic and social causes, and in some periods even political ones for that phenomenon. Taking into consideration the historical aspect and also the contemporary migration flows, the dynamics of migrations of the Yugoslav population to Germany has the following stages in its development. The first stage had begun in late XIX century and ended with the World War I. Although the overseas migration flows prevailed, yet the German agriculture and its mine industry attracted a part of the Yugoslav population. Between the two world wars mostly "Westfahl Slovenes" and Croats and Serbs from Bosnia-Herzegovina got "temporary employed" in the Rhine-Westfahl industrial area, along with several thousand Serb-Croat-Slovene agricultural seasonal workers per year. The second stage began immediately after the Second World War when most of about 200,000 citizens from the former Yugoslavia, being mostly refugees, moved from the West European to overseas countries, but some of them stayed in Germany. Involuntary migrants and refugees, however, returned in great number from Germany to Yugoslavia. At that stage non-extradition of war criminals on the part of the West occupying powers on German territory, then disregard of West German Governments of the anti-Yugoslav activities of the part of extreme Yugoslav emigration, and different interpretation of the bilateral agreement on extradition, became the essential problem in relations between SFR Yugoslavia and FR Germany. The third stage in development of migrations commenced in early 1960s. At that time, Germany and other Western countries became prominently immigrational, while since mid-1960s till 1973 economic emigrants from Yugoslavia became more and more important in the German economic space. From 1954 to 1967 migration of Yugoslav citizens had not yet been intensive and their intention was mostly to work abroad. Illegal employment was, however, prominent at that time. Due to the normalisation of political relations, re-establishment of diplomatic relations and conclusion of bilateral agreements that legally defined employment of foreign workers, since 1968 till 1973 a great number of Yugoslavs got employed in FR Germany. The contemporary migrations from FR Yugoslavia to Germany resulted from the economic and political crisis in the former SFRY as well as from the civil wars that were waged in the Yugoslav territory. FR Germany became the most important destination country of Yugoslav migrants - workers, refugees, false asylum-seekers and political emigrants. Different categories of migrants from Yugoslavia to Germany enjoy the treatment that is in accordance with the immigration policies of the German governments as well as with the degree of development of the German-Yugoslav political and economic relations, and the degree of the established co-operation in the field of legal assistance and social welfare. Migrant workers, who have legally regulated their employment and residence status, could in the future expect to gain assistance from their mother country in getting efficient protection of their rights and interests in all stages of the migration process. Numerous migrants asylum-seekers, in spite of the proclaimed international protection, share, however, the fate resulting from the politically motivated measures and actions taken by the German authorities within the arbitrary decision-making of the right and/or abuse of the right to asylum. This is the reason why as early as in late 1994 the Government of FRG announced that it would expel foreigners from the country. The remaining refugees, or actually the so-called false asylum-seekers in FR Germany, share the fate of forced repatriation. Within this category special emphasis should be placed on the attitude of the German government to the Albanians and Roma from Kosovo. At first, the Germans treated the Albanians from Kosovo as politically persecuted persons, offering them refuge. Then they declared them (and Roma also) to

Pavlica Branko

2005-01-01

237

Wind energy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.).

1994-01-01

238

Nursing in Nazi Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

German nursing did indeed change during the Nazi period. There were external changes, in terms of the improved social status of nursing, the tightening and unification of professional nursing organizations, the laws affecting nursing, and the politicization of the profession. Articles written by nurses at the time and more recent interviews suggest that there were internal changes as well. It appears that at least a portion of German nurses accepted the National Socialism reinterpretation of professional nursing ethics and humanitarian principles in the assumption that through their obedience they were doing good. This historical research points to clear lessons for contemporary nurses. Nurses in Nazi Germany were under the illusion that they were remaining true to their professional ethics, unaffected by the social change around them. This apolitical professional consciousness made it possible for the profession to be subsumed as a part of the larger political system. I believe that we must be clear that nursing never takes place in a value-free, neutral context; it is always a socially significant force. This means that we cannot simply observe what is taking place around us but must take a stand and get involved, helping to shape sociopolitical developments. I also believe that we must deal with the history of our profession, especially its darkest hours, so that we may remain sensitive to any signs of inhumanity. We must call into question traditional principles, such as obedience, and replace them with professional competence, professionalism, and creative self-consciousness. And not least, we have a moral obligation to the millions of victims of National Socialism, even if it only means that, through historical research, we assure that they are not forgotten. By taking responsibility for this part of our history, we can become more sensitive for the future, with eyes and ears open for all social injustices.

Steppe H

1992-12-01

239

Modeling flood damages under climate change - a case study for Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The study presents and discusses possible trends in flood generation in Germany and related damages and impacts on the German insurance sector under climate change conditions. The study makes use of future climate scenarios regionalized for the main river basins in Germany. A hydrological model was applied to transform the regional climate scenarios into river runoff for more than 5000 river reaches. Previously, the model has been calibrated and validated for the main gauges within the German river basins. Extreme Value Distributions have been fitted to the hydrographs of the river reaches to derive the basic flood statistics. The results for each river reach have been linked to related damage functions as provided by the German Insurance Association considering damages on buildings and small enterprises. The result is that under the specific scenario conditions a significant increase in flood losses can be expected in Germany. However, the results are associated with high uncertainty, and additional studies are recommended to improve the understanding of the underlying processes and possible trends.

Hattermann, F. F.; Huang, S.; Burghoff, O.; Willems, W.; Österle, H.; Büchner, M.; Kundzewisz, Z.

2012-04-01

240

Rehabilitation status of old plants in North-Rhine Westphalia in accordance with TA Luft 86 (Clean Air Technical Guide)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A coordination office - KoTAL - was installed in the North-Rhine Westphalian Ministry of Environment in order to uniformly realize the Clean Air Technical Guide (TA Luft), which was revised in 1986. This office observes the rehabilitation of old plants by means of computers. Among 9000 plants which emit air pollutants and are subject to licensing, there are 4010 plants requiring rehabilitation. In the framework of the TA Luft execution, 1665 supplementary orders were given by the supervisory authorities, and 686 declarations of renunciation were received. In 366 cases, rehabilitation has been started with the licensing procedure. 20% of the rehabilitation measures envisaged have already been terminated.

Kruber, H.; Toennessen, J.; Wittenbrink, B.

1989-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Foehn signals detected by sodar wind and turbulence measurements in the Rhine Valley, Austria, during the MAP field phase  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the Mesoscale Alpine Programme MAP conducted in autumn 1999, the vertical structure and the temporal evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the Rhine Valley 2 km south of Lake Constance were observed with a Remtech PA2 sodar (sound-detection-and-ranging instrument) rendering half-hour averages of the three-dimensional wind profile within the lowest kilometre above ground. During Foehn events, tethered balloon soundings and wind profiler measurements were conducted in addition to the rawinsonde network which was built up for the MAP field campaign.

Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Piringer, M.

2004-01-01

242

Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mauer mandible, holotype of Homo heidelbergensis, was found in 1907 in fluvial sands deposited by the Neckar River 10 km southeast of Heidelberg, Germany. The fossil is an important key to understanding early human occupation of Europe north of the Alps. Given the associated mammal fauna and the...

Wagner, Günther A.; Krbetschek, Matthias; Degering, Detlev; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Shao, Qingfeng; Falguères, Christophe

243

Arthroplasty register for Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and/or hospitals, provide annual reports and publish scientific articles and/or presentations. The effects of the arthroplasty registers on clinical practice and on health political decisions in the time after the introduction of these registers are documented in some countries. The influence on cost savings for health services is also reported. Discussion: The most important legal and ethical aspect is the patient’s data protection and, therefore, the requirement of patient’s consent. The involvement of the physicians in the data collection process is a further organisational and legal challenge. The 100% data collection, which is the aim of the registers due to their definition, should not cause disadvantages for certain groups of patients.ConclusionThe arthroplasty registers have a large medical and health-economic potential. Aspects of the patient’s data protection and the guaranteed financial support of the registers should be clarified before the introduction of a register.

Gorenoi, Vitali; Schönermark, Matthias P.; Hagen, Anja

2009-01-01

244

Fish fauna as a biological indicator in the evaluation of morphological changes in the large rivers of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Development and testing of a method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of the project is to develop further a method for the quantification of fishes in the Rhine and Neckar rivers, which will permit permanent observation of the fish fauna in these rivers. The method makes use of the fact that fish arrive in large numbers at the cooling water take-off points of large thermal power stations and that they may be counted and their numbers evaluated. As sampling carried out at three power stations in the northern part of the Upper Rhine from 1989 to 1990 shows, it is indispensable to extend the current range of sampling techniques by the described method.-The investigation comprises two stages: In stage 1, thermal power stations on the southern part of the Upper Rhine and the Neckar, which borrow at least 10 m3/s of cooling water, are tested as to their suitability as sampling stations. In phase 2 it is envisaged to develop further and test the initial method. The devices used are the coarse and fine screens and sieve belts of the take-off points. The hydrological and chemico-physical parameters are recorded in standardized form by the power plant operators and are available for evaluation. (orig./VHE)

1994-01-01

245

[Specialized pain care in Germany].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In order to characterize the pain care situation in Germany, a health technology assessment (HTA) was carried out on behalf of the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI). METHODS: An up to date literature search was conducted using the database Pubmed. Reviews and studies which describe the pain care in Germany were included. The Physicians' Health Insurance Associations conducted an additional database survey. RESULTS: Overall 12 studies were included and the results of the analysis showed that there is a lack of some 2,500 curative pain care institutions in Germany. There is also clear under use of inpatient and outpatient institutions in palliative care. The results prove the benefits of the interdisciplinary approach in pain care. DISCUSSION: Further development should strive to increase the provision of pain and palliative care. There is a great need for pain care research in order to concrete the needs.

Dietl M; Korczak D

2013-04-01

246

The Case of (East-) Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a long tradition of thinking on Civic Education in Western Germany, mainly after World War II. Aims and means have been discussed thoroughly, experiences in teaching politics (the most common name for the school subject) have been reported on. After the (re-)union of the two Germanies in 1990, Western concepts were brought to and adopted by Eastern Germany. Transformation of civic education (politische Bildung) faces the problem that the democratic system is open to conflicts and competition and does not lead and direct the citizen in an authoritative manner. Democracy asks for different abilities on the side of its citizens than an authoritarian system does. Research data show the difficulties of learning for democracy.

Sibylle Reinhardt

2008-01-01

247

[Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

2012-04-04

248

[Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany.

Sennekamp J; Joest M; Sander I; Engelhart S; Raulf-Heimsoth M

2012-05-01

249

Germany`s EVs (Electric vehicles) need political muscle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Real traffic test programmes, battery and drive technology research bearing fruit, the introduction of EVs for urban services and resort transport, and manufacturers preparing production lines means Germany is poised for the widespread introduction of EVs. But while good air quality is a popular cause, politicians seem uncommitted and the law provides scant support. (Author)

Naunin, D. [Technical University of Berlin (Germany)

1995-12-31

250

Spatial and temporal variations of river nitrogen exports from major basins in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provincial-level data for population, livestock, land use, economic growth, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment rates were used to construct a river nitrogen (N) export model in this paper. Despite uncertainties, our results indicated that river N export to coastal waters increased from 531 to 1,244 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Changjiang River basin, 107 to 223 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Huanghe River basin, and 412 to 1,219 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Zhujiang River basin from 1980 to 2010 as a result of rapid population and economic growth. Significant temporal changes in water N sources showed that as the percentage of runoff from croplands increased, contributions of natural system runoff and rural human and livestock excreta decreased in the three basins from 1980 to 2010. Moreover, the nonpoint source N decreased from 72 to 58 % in the Changjiang River basin, 80 to 67 % in the Huanghe River basin, and 69 to 51 % in the Zhujiang River basin, while the contributions of point sources increased greatly during the same period. Estimated results indicated that the N concentrations in the Changjiang, Huanghe, and Zhujiang rivers during 1980-2004 were higher than those in the St. Lawrence River in Canada and lower than those in the Thames, Donau, Rhine, Seine, and Han rivers during the same period. River N export will reduce by 58, 54, and 57 % for the Changjiang River, Huanghe River, and Zhujiang River in the control scenario in 2050 compared with the basic scenario.

Ti C; Yan X

2013-09-01

251

Genotypes and phenotypes of an ex situ Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris (Gmel.) Beger germplasm collection from the Upper Rhine Valley  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wild grapevine Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris species are endangered in their natural habitats by modern landscape use and thus there is need of further collection and preservation of these species in ex situ collections or the preservation in situ. In this study 34 wild Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris accessions from the Upper Rhine Valley including a defined subpopulation are described and compared with six accessions from the former Yugoslavia stored in an ex situ collection. The accessions are described by means of ampelographic descriptors and genotyped at six SSR loci. Both marker types were helpful to characterize the V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ex situ collection. Differentiation in accession groups was found based on genotypic variation. Ampelographic traits split the accession in two major groups, where one group holds mostly accessions from the Ketsch area and the Upper Rhine Valley. Preservation of V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris genotypes is essential for the maintenance of genetic diversity and the resistance of genetic erosion. More accessions of this species should be collected and conserved for conversation and future breeding applications.

Barth Susanne; Forneck Astrid; Verzeletti Fabienne; Blaich Rolf; Schumann Fritz

2009-12-01

252

Palaeoprecipitation reconstruction by inverse modelling using the isotopic signal of loess organic matter: application to the Nussloch loess sequence (Rhine Valley, Germany)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A modified version of the Biome4 vegetation model for simulation of the mean {delta}{sup 13}C of plant communities is presented, and used to reconstruct palaeoprecipitation. We treat all fractionations by C3 and C4 plants in all coexistent Plant Functional Types, weighted by their respective net primary production. We constrain the range of variation in the intracellular versus atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by fixing a lower limit. Finally, we replace some constant parameters by functions of external forcing to account for their responses to environmental variation. The new version of Biome4 was applied as an inverse model and tested on three modern data sets. The fit between observations and simulations is very close to the 1:1 relationship, with respective slopes of 0.90{+-}0.02 (r {sup 2}=0.98, n=29) for {delta}{sup 13}C and 0.97{+-}0.06 (r {sup 2}=0.90, n=29) for precipitation. Inverse modelling was applied using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to the Nussloch loess sequence. Over the last glaciation, simulated palaeoprecipitation varies between 240 mm year{sup -1} and 400 mm year{sup -1}. This study clearly demonstrates atmospheric teleconnections with the Greenland ice-sheet extension, by matching Dansgaard-Oeschger events with precipitation increase of ca. 100-200 mm year{sup -1}. (orig.)

Hatte, C. [UMR CEA-CNRS, LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Guiot, J. [UMR 6635 CNRS/Universite d' Aix-Marseille III, CEREGE, Europole Mediterraneen de l' Arbois, Aix-en-Provence (France)

2005-08-01

253

Prevalence and distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wastewater and the surface, drinking and ground waters in the Lower Rhine, Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Samples from different water sources (n = 396) were collected during 2009 and 2011. Wastewater (2-5 l) was purified by aluminium sulphate flocculation. Surface, ground and drinking waters (400-6400 l) were collected by filtration. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were further concentrated by sucrose centrifugation. (Oo)cysts were identified by IFT (immunofluorescence test), DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining and DICM (difference interference contrast microscopy). Out of 206 wastewater samples, 134 (65·0%) were found to be positive for Giardia cysts and 64 (31·1%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Parasite numbers ranged from 0 to 2436 cysts/l and 0 to 1745 oocysts/l. Eight (4·2%) surface and drinking water samples (n = 190) were found to be positive for Giardia cysts (0-56000/100 l), and 18 (9·5%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts (2400/100 l). The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence and concentrations of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. by detecting (oo)cysts from water samples. This study provides substantial evidence that G. lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts are able to enter and circulate in the aquatic environment with negative implications for public health.

Gallas-Lindemann C; Sotiriadou I; Plutzer J; Karanis P

2013-01-01

254

Implications of Germany's Declining Defense Spending.  

Science.gov (United States)

With its reunification on 3 October 1990, Germany regained its full sovereignty and stands now in a position of greater global responsibility. Faced with dramatically increased demands on and expectations for Germany's armed forces, it must answer the que...

J. Merrath

2000-01-01

255

Wind power forecasting on the Lower Rhine; Die Wind-Horcher vom Niederrhein  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In rough terrain, forecasting of wind conditions is particularly difficult. Windtest Grevenbroich GmbH have been working in this field since 1996. Their expert knowledge in assessing difficult wind conditions is much sought after, both in Germany and other countries. [German] Vor allem in unruhigem Gelaende erfordert die richtige Beurteilung der Windverhaeltnisse viel Knowhow. Seit 1996 betaetigt sich die Windtest Grevenbroich GmbH auf diesem Gebiet als Forschungsinstitut und Gutachter. Ihre Spezialitaet - die Beurteilung schwieriger Windverhaeltnisse - wird zum gefragten Exportartikel. (orig.)

Vollrath, K.

2003-01-27

256

Solar housing in Westfalia and on the Rhine. Solar architecture; Westfalen und Rheinlaender siedeln solar. Solararchitektur  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar architecture is on the march not only in the sunny southern parts of Germany but also in the rainy West. The Nordrhein-Westfalen programme '50 solar housing developments' is an example. [German] Das Bauen mit der Sonne traegt nicht nur im sonnigen Sueden Fruechte, sondern auch im 'grauen Westen'. Das Programm '50 Solarsiedlungen' in Nordrhein-Westfalen soll diese Erkenntnis populaer machen. (orig.)

Meyer, J.P.

2003-06-28

257

Lifetime earnings inequality in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper documents the magnitude, pattern, and evolution of lifetime earnings inequality in Germany. Based on a large sample of earning biographies from social security records, we show that the intra-generational distribution of lifetime earnings of male workers has a Gini coefficient around .2 f...

Bönke, Timm; Corneo, Giacomo; Lüthen, Holger

258

Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Among 310 fleas collected from dogs and cats in Germany, Rickettsia felis was detected in all specimens (34) of Archaeopsylla erinacei (hedgehog flea) and in 9% (24/226) of Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea). R. helvetica was detected in 1 Ceratophyllus gallinae (hen flea).

Gilles, Jérémie; Just, Frank Thomas; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pradel, Ingrid; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Lengauer, Heidi

259

Report: operational experiences and legal aspects of co-combustion in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From 2000-2001, a project entitled "Analysis of effects on environment from waste incineration in industrial facilities" was undertaken by Prognos AG. The project was funded by the German Environmental Agency and the North Rhine-Westphalian Ministry for Environment and Conservation, Agriculture and Consumer Protection. This paper presents a summary of the main results. The most important industrial processes with practised waste-to-energy are identified, respectively cement kilns, steel works, installations in the non ferrous industry and large combustion plants. The amount of waste being co-incinerated is determined in permitting procedures. In general the volume of permitted and practised co-incineration is increasing in Germany. For the greatest possible use of waste it is necessary to establish suitable measures to prevent or to limit, as far as possible, environmental pollution. Emission limit values are determined according to the requirements set out in the German Standards, 17th BImSchV and TA Luft. Plant operators meet generally the air emission limit values fixed in the respective granted permits.

Marton C; Alwast H

2002-10-01

260

Report: operational experiences and legal aspects of co-combustion in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

From 2000-2001, a project entitled "Analysis of effects on environment from waste incineration in industrial facilities" was undertaken by Prognos AG. The project was funded by the German Environmental Agency and the North Rhine-Westphalian Ministry for Environment and Conservation, Agriculture and Consumer Protection. This paper presents a summary of the main results. The most important industrial processes with practised waste-to-energy are identified, respectively cement kilns, steel works, installations in the non ferrous industry and large combustion plants. The amount of waste being co-incinerated is determined in permitting procedures. In general the volume of permitted and practised co-incineration is increasing in Germany. For the greatest possible use of waste it is necessary to establish suitable measures to prevent or to limit, as far as possible, environmental pollution. Emission limit values are determined according to the requirements set out in the German Standards, 17th BImSchV and TA Luft. Plant operators meet generally the air emission limit values fixed in the respective granted permits. PMID:12498484

Marton, Csaba; Alwast, Holger

2002-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Modeling seismic hazard in the Lower Rhine Graben using a fault-based source model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lower Rhine Graben (LRG) is an active tectonic structure in intraplate NW Europe. It is characterized by NW-SE oriented normal faults, and moderate but rather continuous seismic activity. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PHSA) in this region have hitherto been based on area source models, in which the LRG is modeled as a single or a small number of seismotectonic zones, where the occurrence of earthquakes is assumed to be uniform. Hazard engines usually model earthquakes in area sources as point sources or finite ruptures in a horizontal plane at a fixed depth. The past few years, efforts have increasingly been directed to using fault sources in PSHA, in order to obtain more realistic patterns of ground motion. This requires an inventory of all fault sources, and definition of their physical properties (at least length, width, strike, dip, rake, slip rate, and maximum magnitude). The LRG is one of the few regions in intraplate NW Europe where seismic activity can be linked to active faults. In the frame of the EC project SHARE ("Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe", http://www.share-eu.org/), we have compiled the first parameterized fault model for the LRG that can be used in PSHA studies. We construct the magnitude-frequency distribution (MFD) of each fault from two contributions: 1) up to the largest observed magnitude (M=5.7), we use the MFD determined from the historical and instrumental earthquake catalog, weighted in proportion to the total moment rate, and 2) the frequency of the maximum earthquake predicted by the fault model. We consider the ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) that were selected in the SHARE project for active shallow crust. This selection includes GMPE's with different distance metrics, the main difference being whether depth of rupture is taken into account or not. Seismic hazard is computed with OpenQuake (http://openquake.org/), an open-source hazard and risk engine that is developed in the frame of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). Compared to other commonly-used, non-commercial hazard engines, OpenQuake offers better support for fault sources with simple or complex geometries. We compute hazard maps for return periods of 475, 2375, and 10,000 yr, and compare the results with hazard maps based on area sources. In addition, we conduct sensitivity tests to determine the impact of various parameter choices, e.g. maximum magnitude, inclusion of a background zone to account for lower magnitudes, and GMPE distance metric.

Vanneste, Kris; Vleminckx, Bart; Verbeeck, Koen; Camelbeeck, Thierry

2013-04-01

262

[Drug advertising--users want information. Report of telephone survey conducted by North-Rhine Westphalia Public Health Service on the topic of drug advertising and drug information for users].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Germany, drug advertising of non-prescription drugs is a controversial subject. On the one hand, consumer organisations plead for placing a ban on advertising or at least to offer a detailed description of medical risks in respect of protection. On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industry is keen on liberalizing the specific advertising law for drugs. A representative telephone survey among the population of North Rhine-Westphalia was conducted in April and May 1999. It showed consumer interest in advertising, the value of information on risks, the institution with maximum credibility in drug information for consumers, the importance of the now obligatory sentence after every advertisement: Regarding risks and side effects read the leaflet in the package and ask your physician or pharmacist, and to what extend the consumer would take advice from independent experts over the telephone about drugs. It was found that, in particular women, about 30% are occasionally interested in advertising, younger people are more open-minded about advertising than older people; and that doctors and pharmacists have the most credibility and are consulted for further information. It was also found that more than 80% of the population demanded precise information on the side effects of drugs. One-third of the consumers declared that the obligatory sentence (see above) led to greater demand for information from doctors or to read attentively the instruction leaflet. Nevertheless, there is a need for more information from more than half of the consumers, who would take advantage of an independent advice centre if this should exist. PMID:11103563

Puteanus, U

2000-10-01

263

Ectomycorrhizal diversity at five different tree species in forests of the Taunus Mountains in Central Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi were investigated on five different forest tree species growing in pure stands on the south slope of the Taunus Mountains, which are situated at the northern end of the Rhine rift valley in Central Germany. Mycorrhizal fungi accompanying the genus Xerocomus were identified and their frequencies counted. Using ITS markers, 22 different fungal species were identified down to species level and 6 down to genus level. On European beech (Fagus sylvatica) 16 fungal species and 4 genera were identified and on Sessile oak (Quercus petraea) 16 ectomycorrhizal species and 2 genera were determined. On both deciduous trees we observed exclusively: Cortinarius subsertipes, Genea hispidula, Lactarius quietus, Tylopilus felleus and a Melanogaster genus. On Norway spruce (Picea abies) we identified 13 different mycorrhizal species and 3 different genera, on Silver fir (Abies alba) 12 species and 3 genera, and in association with European larch (Larix decidua) 11 species and 3 genera. On these conifers Cortinarius anomalus, Lactarius necator and a Piloderma genus occurred exclusively. Comparisons with published data of ectomycorrhizal diversity on the same five tree species, growing in different areas of Germany and Europe, led to the conclusion that there is relative site specificity for ectomycorrhizal communities. Upper soil compartments of the stands investigated in the Taunus Mountainssuffer from soil acidification (pH-H20 ~3.7 to ~4.8). However, a clear correlation between upper soil pH-values and fungal diversity was not observed. On the other hand, nitrate concentrations in upper soil compartments (~26 to ~91 kgNO3-/ha) were higher in older stands as compared to younger ones. Higher nitrate concentrations in upper soils correlated with lower numbers of mycorrhizal individuals.

Uwe Schirkonyer; Christine Bauer; Gunter M. Rothe

2013-01-01

264

Bayesian frequency analysis of extreme river discharges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Probabilistic design of river dikes is usually based on estimates of a design discharge. In The Netherlands, a design discharge is defined as the discharge with an average return period of 1,250 years. Design discharges are currently estimated using classical statistical methods. A shortcoming of this approach is that statistical uncertainties are not taken into account and that probability distributions are given equal weight. In the paper, a method based on Bayesian statistics is presented. Using Bayes' theorem, the prior distribution representing information about the uncertainty of the statistical parameters can be updated to the posterior distribution as soon as data becomes available. Seven predictive probability distributions are investigated for determining extreme quantiles of discharges: the exponential, Rayleigh, normal, lognormal, gamma, Weibull and Gumbel. The Bayesian method has been successfully applied to estimate the design discharge of the river Rhine while taking account of the statistical uncertainties involved. The Bayes estimates are compared to the classical maximum-likelihood estimates. Furthermore, so-called Bayes factors are used to determine weights corresponding to how well a probability distribution fits the observed data; that is, the better the fit, the higher the weighting. (orig.)

Chbab, E.H. [Ministry of Transport, Public Works, and Water Management, Lelystad (Netherlands); Noortwijk, J.M. van; Duits, M.T. [HKV Consultants, Lelystad (Netherlands)

2000-07-01

265

Impacts of using reformulated and oxygenated fuel blends on the regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE), the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High temporal and spatial emission inventories are available allowing relevant and realistic modifications of the emission inventories. The calculation period, i.e., 11 May 1998, corresponds to a regional photochemical ozone pollution episode during which ozone concentrations exceeded several times the information threshold of the ozone directive of the European Union (180 µg m?3 as 1 hourly average). New emission inventories are set up using specific emission factors related to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gasoline passenger cars (from 50% to 100%) using the three fuel blends. Then air quality modeling simulations are performed using these emission inventories over the upper Rhine valley. The impact of alternative fuels on regional air quality is evaluated by comparing these simulations with the one using a reference emission inventory, e.g., where no modifications of the fuel composition are included. The results are analyzed by focusing on peak levels and daily averaged concentrations. The use of the alternative fuels leads to general reductions of ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC) and increases of NOx levels. We found different behaviors related to the type of the area of concern i.e. rural or urban. The impacts on ozone are enhanced in urban areas where 15% reduction of the ozone peak and daily averaged concentrations can be reached. This behavior is similar for the NOx for which, in addition, an increase of the levels can be noted in urban plumes over rural areas. The most important decreases of the total VOC levels are mainly located over rural areas (more than 5% reduction of the levels except in urban plumes). By comparing these results with those from a local study related to the air quality of Strasbourg, we estimate that the regional contribution to the urban air quality of Strasbourg allows an enhancement of the results by using alternative fuel blends at the regional scale.

J.-F. Vinuesa; Ph. Mirabel; J.-L. Ponche

2005-01-01

266

Impacts of using reformulated and oxygenated fuel blends on the regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE), the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High temporal and spatial emission inventories are available allowing relevant and realistic modifications of the emission inventories. The calculation period, i.e., 11 May 1998, corresponds to a regional photochemical ozone pollution episode during which ozone concentrations exceeded several times the information threshold of the ozone directive of the European Union (180 ?g m-3 as 1 hourly average). New emission inventories are set up using specific emission factors related to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gasoline passenger cars (from 50% to 100%) using the three fuel blends. Then air quality modeling simulations are performed using these emission inventories over the upper Rhine valley. The impact of alternative fuels on regional air quality is evaluated by comparing these simulations with the one using a reference emission inventory, e.g., where no modifications of the fuel composition are included. The results are analyzed by focusing on peak levels and daily averaged concentrations. The use of the alternative fuels leads to general reductions of ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC) and increases of NOx levels. We found different behaviors related to the type of the area of concern i.e. rural or urban. The impacts on ozone are enhanced in urban areas where 15% reduction of the ozone peak and daily averaged concentrations can be reached. This behavior is similar for the NOx for which, in addition, an increase of the levels can be noted in urban plumes over rural areas. The most important decreases of the total VOC levels are mainly located over rural areas (more than 5% reduction of the levels except in urban plumes). By comparing these results with those from a local study related to the air quality of Strasbourg, we estimate that the regional contribution to the urban air quality of Strasbourg allows an enhancement of the results by using alternative fuel blends at the regional scale.

J.-F. Vinuesa; Ph. Mirabel; J.-L. Ponche

2006-01-01

267

New records of Atypus muralis (Araneae: Atypidae) in Saxony-Anhalt (Germany)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents new records of the spider Atypus muralis Bertkau, 1890 in the valleys of the rivers Saale and Unstrut in the south of Saxony-Anhalt in Middle Germany. All specimens were males, caught by pitfall traps in xerothermic steppic grasslands on steep slopes. The geographic distribution of Atypus muralis in the eastern parts of Germany and habitat traits are discussed with special reference to regional climate, vegetation type and soil conditions. The phenology of aboveground activity of Atypus muralis males is shown.

Trost, Martin

2005-01-01

268

Historical change of large alluvial rivers: Western Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent decades have witnessed a rapid growth in man's understanding of environmental changes over the 10,000-15,000 year timescale and in the 10-50 year timescale. Substantial efforts have been made to link space and time but greater effort is needed to consider changes over the historical timescale of 100-500 years - the period of intensifying human impact culminating in the creation of truly manmade rivers. The synthesis of information from a wide range of sources has enabled general statements on the history of the large alluvial rivers of western Europe to be made. Some of these statements have been compiled into a book which examines the sequence of early river engineering works; cartographic data analyses and applications to channel change; a French case study; the use of geochemical analyses and flood plain stratigraphy in deriving pollution histories; paleoecological methods using fossil invertebrates from alluvial sediments; a case study of the Lower Rhine; reconstruction of fish faunas; historical development of fisheries of the Elbe; Douro, and Ebro; and the variability of historical models of river development as applied to the Garonne, Meuse, Weser, and Rhone rivers. This book marks the first step in the development of a European Network of Scientific Cooperation for the improved management of large rivers, ideally encouraging and advancing the historical analysis of rivers not only in western Europe but worldwide. Such studies will contribute to more rational approaches to river management, to further resource development and to better conservation practice. Separate abstracts have been processed for two papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Petts, G.E.; Moeller, H.; Roux, A.L. (eds.)

1989-01-01

269

Trig River  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about and use a right triangle to determine the width of a pretend river. Working in teams, they estimate of the width of the river, measure it and compare their results with classmates.

White, Jeff; Axelrad, Penny; Yowell, Janet; Zarske, Malinda S.

2010-01-01

270

Germany: solidarity at a price.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The health care system of the Federal Republic of Germany relies on the private sector for the financing, delivery, and payment of care. However, the private sector is regulated by the government to ensure that broad societal interests are being fulfilled. The system has managed to achieve comprehensive coverage and equal access for all citizens, freedom of choice for patients, high-quality medical care, and cost containment. The reason for this success is a combination of decentralized power and decision making and the establishment of an effective negotiation system that takes place at federal, state, and local levels. The system suffers from some problems, however, which will have to be addressed: the present structuring of hospital and ambulatory care results in excessively long lengths of stay in hospital; drugs are overprescribed; the supply of health professionals does not meet the country's needs; more nursing homes are needed; and eastern Germany must be fully integrated into the system.

Graf van der Schulenburg JM

1992-01-01

271

Undergraduate medical education in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years), clinical science (3 years) and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

Chenot, Jean-François

2009-01-01

272

Optimization of the pool and weir fishway at the Wyhlen Rhine-Power Plant; Optimierung des Beckenfischpasses am Rheinkraftwerk Wyhlen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past, fish counts in the old fishway at the Wyhlen power-plant showed good results. However, the fishway had some deficits in particular at the entrance and in the structure of the pools. In view of the fact that there were limited possibilities to change the technical aspects of the fishway, the measures to optimize it showed very good results, the best achieved at the Rhine section between Basel and the Lake of Constance. The occurrence of small fish species proves best how efficienct the measures have been. By evaluating the counting results, it has been possible to prove that several fishways at the same dam do complement one another. For the first time a fish count has been carried out in a catchment basin. (orig.)

Ulrich, Jochen [Energiedienst Holding AG, Laufenburg (Switzerland)

2010-07-01

273

Joining forces - a market transformation network for pushing white LED-technology in North Rhine-Westphalia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the activities of the LED (light-emitting diodes) competence network in North Rhine-Westphalia and its role for enhancing market transformation. With the recent development of the LED, new lighting applications have been arisen such as space lighting, object illumination, headlamps for cars and others. Current RandD aims at taking advantage from the specific features of the LED-technology, as there are high energy efficiency and extreme long lifetime. In order to foster this development and to strengthen the competitiveness of domestic players, the State of North Rhine-Westphalia has founded a LED competence network. It serves as a platform to coordinate actors from policy, science, research and industry. Market players along the whole product chain are bundled in key projects to develop or to improve products of strategic importance for future market growth. Examples are daylight headlamps for cars, OLEDs (organic LEDs) for space illumination, the development of a very bright white source of LED-light, the so called white LED power chip, and the project 'LED instead of neon light'. Furthermore a design competition for the best LED lamp has been launched, and in order to generate practical value for its participants the LED-network undertakes patent investigations and organizes information events. In this context, the paper outlines recent and future developments of the white LED technology and its advantages, estimates possible energy savings, describes the process of launching the LED-network and illustrates some outstanding examples, discusses the performance of the network as a tool for market transformation policies and points out general lessons concerning the success of market transformation networks.

Barthel, Claus; Ramesohl, Stephan [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany)

2003-07-01

274

Expected fluid residence times, thermal breakthrough, and tracer test design for characterizing a hydrothermal system in the Upper Rhine Rift Valley  

Science.gov (United States)

Relying on the structural-hydrogeological model proposed by J. Meixner (2009) for a particular hydrothermal system in South-West Germany (on the East side of the Upper Rhine Rift, this reservoir being used to demonstrate electricity production by means of a well doublet), we set up a distributed-parameter model (using Feflow) enabling to numerically simulate fluid ages, temperature evolutions and tracer test signals for a number of contrasting assumptions w. r. to (a) the nature of boundary conditions and hydrogeological characteristics of remotely situated, large-scale natural faults, (b) the degree of permeability contrast between different system compartments, (c) the hydrogeological characteristics of a naturally-occurring fault, located between injection and production wells. It appears that a spike dimensioning allowing for tracer signals to become detectable during the first three years after tracer injection in all of the contrasting a/b/c scenarios is not feasible in practice. In some of the a/b/c cases considered, the system will act like a very large reservoir, with fluid residence times in the order of decades, and extreme dilution of injected tracers. Even using preparative-scale cleaning of samples, brine separation, sample enrichment by solid phase extraction, evaporative concentrating etc. followed by state-of-the-art chromatography techniques to separate between tracer and natural background, it will not be possible to lower tracer detection limits below a certain threshold, which is mainly dictated by the amount of certain naturally-occurring aromatics in the reservoir fluids. On practical reasons, the spike dimensioning will be limited to some hundred kilogram of one or two organic tracers. This implies that part of the above-mentioned, contrasting a/b/c scenarios will remain indistinguishable during the first three years after tracer injection. However, for this reservoir structure, there is not a bijective correspondence between early-vs.-late appearance of tracer and small-vs.-large reservoir. Therefore, we further examine the questions: How much information will be lost, and what degree of uncertainty will affect temperature predictions, as a consequence of the chosen practical ceiling on injected tracer quantities? Can single-well, dual-tracer push-pull tests (to be conducted at the geothermal re-injection and/or at the geothermal production well) contribute to reducing the ambiguity of inter-well early-signal inversion? Acknowledgement: This work pertains to a research project jointly funded by Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW) and by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU, project key: 0325111B), with operational support from local Energy and Water Supply Plants (EWB), from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Hydrogeology Group), and from the European Institute for Energy Research (EIfER, Dr. Zorn).

Ghergut, I.; Meixner, J.; Rettenmaier, D.; Maier, F.; Nottebohm, M.; Ptak, T.; Sauter, M.

2012-04-01

275

Palliative care practices in Germany’s health system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the discipline of palliative care is new, it has rapidly gained its place in other areas of medicine. The most important reason for its fast development is that the provision of the necessary care and treatment for incurable patients has acquired increasing importance today. Palliative care considers that dying is a natural process of life. The main aim of palliative care services is to support both the patients and their family during the patient’s life and after their death. Support with respect to possible physical and emotional problems should also be offered. Developed countries like Germany have made important progress with regard to palliative care applications. If palliative care models implemented in such countries become known in our country, it will aid their easier integration into the health care system and also facilitate the process for health professionals. For this purpose, palliative care offered in Germany and its application into the health care system are introduced in this review.

Beyhan BAG

2012-01-01

276

Endocrine disruptors in freshwater streams of Hesse, Germany: Changes in concentration levels in the time span from 2003 to 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four small freshwater streams in the region known as Hessisches Ried in Germany were investigated with respect to the temporal and spatial concentration variations of the endocrine disruptors bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP), and the technical isomer mixture of 4-nonylphenol (tech.-4-NP). Measured concentrations of the target compounds in the river water samples ranged from

2008-01-01

277

Break preclusion concept in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Break Preclusion Concept, often called Leak-before-Break (LBB), in Germany as applied since 1979 is based on the basic safety concept. The general concept, the prerequisites and the application to the primary coolant piping are described in detail in a logic chart for the different steps: basic safety, in-service redundancies, LBB, break preclusion (BP) and the break postulates derived from the BP. The safety of the primary piping against break was proven by research programs performed at MPA, Siemens, Interatom, which included fracture mechanics tests on representative pipings under relevant loading conditions. (J.S.). 7 refs., 17 figs

1995-01-01

278

Break preclusion concept in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Break Preclusion Concept, often called Leak-before-Break (LBB), in Germany as applied since 1979 is based on the basic safety concept. The general concept, the prerequisites and the application to the primary coolant piping are described in detail in a logic chart for the different steps: basic safety, in-service redundancies, LBB, break preclusion (BP) and the break postulates derived from the BP. The safety of the primary piping against break was proven by research programs performed at MPA, Siemens, Interatom, which included fracture mechanics tests on representative pipings under relevant loading conditions. (J.S.). 7 refs., 17 figs.

Bartholome, G.

1995-05-01

279

Recycling of plastics in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO2, representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling.

1999-01-01

280

Error propagation in hydrodynamics of lowland rivers due to uncertainty in vegetation roughness parameterization  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate water level prediction for the design discharge of large rivers is of main importance for the flood safety of large embanked areas in The Netherlands. Within a larger framework of uncertainty assessment, this report focusses on the effect of uncertainty in roughness parameterization in a 2D hydrodynamic model. Two key elements are considered in this roughness parameterization. Firstly the manually classified ecotope map that provides base data for roughness classes, and secondly the lookup table that translates roughness classes to vegetation structural characteristics. The aim is to quantify the effects of these two error sources on the following hydrodynamic aspects: 1. the discharge distribution at the bifurcation points within the river Rhine 2. peak water levels at a stationary discharge of 16000 m3/s. To assess the effect of the first error source, new realisations of ecotope maps were made based on the current ecotope map and an error matrix of the classification. Using these realisations of the ecotope maps, twelve succesfull model runs were carried out of the Rhine distributaries at design discharge. The classification error leads to a standard deviation of the water levels per river kilometer of 0.08, 0.05 and 0.10 m for Upper Rhine- Waal, Pannerdensch Kanaal-Nederrijn-Lek and the IJssel river respectively. The range is maximum range in water levels is 0.40, 0.40 and 0.57 m for these river sections respectively. Largest effects are found in the IJssel river and the Pannerdensch Kanaal. For the second error source, the accuracy of the values in the lookup table, a compilation was made of 445 field measurements of vegetation structure was carried out. For each of the vegetation types, the minimum, 25-percentile, median, 75-percentile and maximum for vegetation height and density were computed. These five values were subsequently put in the lookup table that was used for the hydrodynamic model. The interquartile range in vegetation height and density in the lookup table led to a difference in water levels of 0.20, 0.20, and 0.36 m for Upper Rhine- Waal, Pannerdensch Kanaal-Nederrijn-Lek and the IJssel river respectively. The discharge distribution at the Pannerdensche Kop bifurcation point is 165 m3/s for both error sources, classification and lookup table. The discharge distribution at the IJsselkop is more sensitive for classification error than for errors in the lookup table (160 vs. 70 m3/s for range in classification error and interquartile range in lookup table error). Priority should be given to increasing the classification accuracy as this generates the largest error for water levels as well as discharge distribution. The quantification of the uncertainty in water levels and discharge distribution will help to make decisions more realistically as the error bands are substantiated. It can also influence the assessment of the height of the embankments as insight is given in the variability of the outcome of the flow models at design discharge. Moreover, the error bands may serve as an incentive to quantify the desired accuracy in the vegetation structural characteristics. This means that an upper limit can be put on the variation in water levels that is accepted from errors in the roughness parameterization.

Straatsma, Menno

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Utility Tax Avoidance Program in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective was to determine whether DOD is effectively using the Utility Tax Avoidance Program (UTAP) in Germany and the Netherlands. This report addresses the UTAP in Germany, and Report No. D-2010-0030, 'Utility Tax Relief Program in the Netherlands,...

2010-01-01

282

Integrated solid waste management in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report covers Germany`s experience with integrated solid waste management programs. The municipal solid waste practices of four cities include practices and procedures that waste facility managers with local or state governments may consider for managing their own day-to-day operations.

NONE

1995-07-01

283

Medical documentation and record management in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the mid-1960s, the author was assigned the responsibility of modifying American medical record concepts, policies, procedures, and technology for a new university medical center in Berlin. Her basic design is now the law of the land in Germany. Here she describes health record information practices in Germany.

Oeffen GH

1991-10-01

284

Medical documentation and record management in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the mid-1960s, the author was assigned the responsibility of modifying American medical record concepts, policies, procedures, and technology for a new university medical center in Berlin. Her basic design is now the law of the land in Germany. Here she describes health record information practices in Germany. PMID:10113925

Oeffen, G H

1991-10-01

285

48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 false Warranty of construction (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252...246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4...clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In...

2009-10-01

286

48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252...252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70...following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported...

2010-10-01

287

Waste management strategy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany intends to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The Federal Government made a pronounced change in energy policy since 1998, the most important feature of which is phasing out of nuclear energy, finally set in force by the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. According to the new approach to waste management and disposal, further sites in various host rocks shall be investigated for their suitability based on repository site selection criteria and respective procedures developed by a special expert group. The objective of the site selection procedure is to identify with public participation potential disposal sites in a comprehensible and reliable way. (author)

2004-01-01

288

Fine sediment transport by tidal asymmetry in the high-concentrated Ems River: indications for a regimeshift in response to channel deepening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes an analysis of the observed up-river transport of fine sediments in the Ems River, Germany/Netherlands, using a 1DV POINT MODEL, accounting for turbulence-induced flocculation and sediment-induced buoyancy destruction. From this analysis, it is inferred that the net up-river tra...

Winterwerp, J.C.

289

Monitoring and estimating concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and furans in cattle milk and soils of Rhine-Delta floodplains.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Rhine-Delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. Here, soil and cattle milk samples were taken from three floodplains and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Based on 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin equivalents, total PCDD and PCDF residues in milk did not exceed the quality standard of 0.006 microg/kg fat weight. This was still the case if non- and mono-ortho PCBs were added to the total. Yet, the floodplains investigated were only moderately polluted according to previous studies and one cannot exclude higher levels in milk from other floodplains. Bioconcentration ratios of milk fat vs soil organic matter were about 0.01 to 0.1 for persistent PCBs. These values are in accordance with a few literature data found for other persistent compounds. Yet, ratios are lower than expected from equilibrium partitioning. Ratios for PCDDs and PCDFs were even lower, possibly due to biotransformation. PMID:8781079

Hendriks, A J; Wever, H; Olie, K; van de Guchte, K; Liem, A K; van Oosterom, R A; van Zorge, J

1996-08-01

290

Monitoring and estimating concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and furans in cattle milk and soils of Rhine-Delta floodplains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the Rhine-Delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. Here, soil and cattle milk samples were taken from three floodplains and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Based on 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin equivalents, total PCDD and PCDF residues in milk did not exceed the quality standard of 0.006 microg/kg fat weight. This was still the case if non- and mono-ortho PCBs were added to the total. Yet, the floodplains investigated were only moderately polluted according to previous studies and one cannot exclude higher levels in milk from other floodplains. Bioconcentration ratios of milk fat vs soil organic matter were about 0.01 to 0.1 for persistent PCBs. These values are in accordance with a few literature data found for other persistent compounds. Yet, ratios are lower than expected from equilibrium partitioning. Ratios for PCDDs and PCDFs were even lower, possibly due to biotransformation.

Hendriks AJ; Wever H; Olie K; van de Guchte K; Liem AK; van Oosterom RA; van Zorge J

1996-08-01

291

Flore algale du Rhin canalisé : données récentes Survey of the algal flora of Rhine canal : recent data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La communauté algale de trois stations du Rhin canalisé (Grand canal d'Alsace), au niveau du Centre de Production Nucléaire de Fessenheim, fait l'objet d'un suivi depuis 1977. Les présents résultats concernent la période 1988-1995. Ils mettent en évidence une stabilité de la flore algale au niveau de la diversité spécifique et de la répartition des espèces dominantes. L'inventaire diatomique s'enrichit d'une trentaine de taxons inédits pour ces stations. Ces données récentes confirment, au niveau de la communauté algale, l'absence d'impact visible du C R N . de Fessenheim. The algal community of canalized Rhine (Grand canal d'Alsace) has been surveyed since 1977. The present study concerns the period 1988-1995. Samples were taken from three localities, on each side, as well as on the actual site of the nuclear plant power, at Fessenheim (Haut-Rhin, France). The present results display the stability of the algal flora, both in specific diversity and repartition of the most abundant species. About thirty species are new for these stations. These recent data do not indicate any modification liable to be directly connected to the operation of nuclear plant power at Fessenheim.

PIERRE J. F.

2008-01-01

292

Simulation of drought for a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the southern upper Rhine plain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the period 1978 to 2001, the physically based model BROOK90 has been applied to simulate the water balance of the Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the forest meteorological experimental site Hartheim with emphasis on drought. The forest is located in the southern upper Rhine plain, which shows climate conditions similar to those predicted by regional climate models for Central Europe. The transpiration index (ratio of actual transpiration and potential transpiration) has been chosen as an ecophysiologically based drought index on a daily basis. Simulations exhibit that the transpiration index depends not only on the weather conditions but also on forest characteristics like maximum leaf conductance and projected leaf area index. Taking into account different time scales for the transpiration index (daily, monthly and annual basis), a tendency of the occurrence of drought significant to the forest could not be determined for the investigation period. August turned out to be the month with the highest drought risk. Drought for the forest was most pronounced in the year 1991 (annual transpiration index: 0.53), whereas the year 2000 was the only one with an optimal water supply of the Scots pine forest (annual transpiration index: 1.0). (orig.)

Wellpott, A. [Forestry Commission, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Scotland (United Kingdom); Imbery, F.; Schindler, D.; Mayer, H. [Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Freiburg (Germany)

2005-04-01

293

Prostate cancer in Germany among migrants from the Former Soviet Union  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available : In Germany, prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer and the third leading cause of death from cancer in males. We investigate prostate cancer in Gernmany among migrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and compare them to indigenous German population with regard to prostate cancer incidence, mortality and longitudinal effects.: Data were obtained from two migrant cohorts residing in the federal states of North Rhine Westphalia (n=34,393) and Saarland (n=18,619). Vital status was ascertained through local population registries. Causes of death were obtained from the federal statistical office or from local health authorities. Cancer incidence of the Saarland cohort was derived from the Saarland Cancer Registry using record linkage.: From 1990 to 2005 we observed 3360 deaths of which 28 were due to prostate cancer. In the Saarland cohort 35 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer during the respective period. Migrants had lower prostate cancer incidence (SIR 0.74 (95% CI: 0.52–1.03)) and mortality (SMR 0.57 (95% CI: 0.38–0.83)) compared to the German population. Multivariate analysis showed a strong age effect on incidence meaning young migrants (below age 60) were diagnosed significantly more often with prostate cancer compared to Germans of the same age. However, mortality did not show any effects.: Lower prostate cancer mortality and incidence among migrants may reflect an ongoing situation in the FSU. Additionally, longitudinal analysis did not reveal convergence of migrant prostate cancer to German rates as expected from lifestyle driven cancer sites. Therefore, our results support the hypothesis of a genetic effect on prostate cancer risk.

Volker Winkler; Bernd Holleczek; Christa Stegmaier; Heiko Becher

2012-01-01

294

Livestock associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) and its relevance for humans in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) are mainly associated with the clonal complex (CC) 398. Although having its main reservoir as MRSA in livestock such as pigs, poultry or cattle LA-MRSA CC398 has no pronounced host specificity and can colonize or infect other animals such as horses and dogs and also humans. In German conventional farming systems nasal colonization of the animals and of humans occupationally exposed to them (up to 86%) are frequent. Further human-to-human dissemination in households occurs more rarely in general (?4% of humans living on farms but without occupational exposition). Nasal colonization with LA-MRSA of humans at hospital admission is found in 0.08-0.2% for Germany in general. However, this proportion is higher in areas with a high density of livestock production such as in northwestern North Rhine-Westphalia or Lower Saxony. LA-MRSA CC398 is not less pathogenic for humans than S. aureus in general. Hence, LA-MRSA accounts for ?15% of all MRSA isolates from deep-seated skin and soft-tissue infections in the community and for about 0.8-2% of all MRSA isolated from clinical specimens obtained in hospital settings. When introduced into the hospital it can cause postoperative wound infections and even septicemia. Differently from hospital-associated MRSA clones, LA-MRSA CC398 has obviously limited capacity to spread in the nosocomial setting so far (proportion of ?1.8% among MRSA from nosocomial infections, the proportion among MRSA from blood cultures is ?1%). PMID:23607972

Cuny, Christiane; Köck, Robin; Witte, Wolfgang

2013-04-20

295

Livestock associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) and its relevance for humans in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) are mainly associated with the clonal complex (CC) 398. Although having its main reservoir as MRSA in livestock such as pigs, poultry or cattle LA-MRSA CC398 has no pronounced host specificity and can colonize or infect other animals such as horses and dogs and also humans. In German conventional farming systems nasal colonization of the animals and of humans occupationally exposed to them (up to 86%) are frequent. Further human-to-human dissemination in households occurs more rarely in general (?4% of humans living on farms but without occupational exposition). Nasal colonization with LA-MRSA of humans at hospital admission is found in 0.08-0.2% for Germany in general. However, this proportion is higher in areas with a high density of livestock production such as in northwestern North Rhine-Westphalia or Lower Saxony. LA-MRSA CC398 is not less pathogenic for humans than S. aureus in general. Hence, LA-MRSA accounts for ?15% of all MRSA isolates from deep-seated skin and soft-tissue infections in the community and for about 0.8-2% of all MRSA isolated from clinical specimens obtained in hospital settings. When introduced into the hospital it can cause postoperative wound infections and even septicemia. Differently from hospital-associated MRSA clones, LA-MRSA CC398 has obviously limited capacity to spread in the nosocomial setting so far (proportion of ?1.8% among MRSA from nosocomial infections, the proportion among MRSA from blood cultures is ?1%).

Cuny C; Köck R; Witte W

2013-08-01

296

Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate released from a waste water treatment plant in Bavaria, Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and precursors and derivatives thereof have been employed as surfactants and anti-adhesives. PFOA and PFOS are environmentally persistent and the discharge of municipal waste waters is one of the principal routes of these compounds into the aquatic environment. In a previous study, the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in grab samples collected from the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) of Bayreuth, a city of 72,000 inhabitants in Bavaria, Germany, during two periods showed considerable variability. For a better estimate of average mass flows, the surfactants were monitored (five samplings) from 16 March to 18 May 2007. In a second campaign, river water receiving the WWTP effluent was sampled twice a day for five consecutive days. METHODS: Quantitative analysis was done by stable-isotope dilution, pre-cleaning, and pre-concentration by solid-phase extraction, and liquid chromatography followed by electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The mass flows of PFOA and PFOS through the WWTP were determined. PFOA is fully discharged into the river, while about half of PFOS is retained in the sewage sludge. The average daily mass load of the river Roter Main by the WWTP of Bayreuth is about 1.2?±?0.5 g PFOA and 5?±?2 g PFOS, with variations of up to 140% within one day. CONCLUSION: Overall, the total annual release to the rivers of Germany may be in the range of several hundred kilograms of PFOA and several tons of PFOS.

Becker AM; Suchan M; Gerstmann S; Frank H

2010-11-01

297

Report on the 1992 study trip on the Weser aboard the laboratory ship `Max-Pruess` of the Land North-Rhine-Westfalia; Bericht Weseruntersuchungsfahrt 1992 mit dem Mess- und Laborschiff `Max Pruess` des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As agreed by the standing committee of the Weser task force (`Arge Weser`), regular trips on the river for taking measurements have been made since 1965. The ninth trip, from May 8th to 14th, 1992 aboard the ``Max Pruess``, a ship equipped with measuring instruments and a laboratory and owned by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia, was concerned with three areas of investigation: (A) the Fulda and Werra estuaries, (B) the upper and middle Weser (Hann.-Muenden (km 0.0) to Bremen (km 361.1)), (C) the lower Weser (Bremen (km 0.0) to Kolumbuskai (km 67.8)). A uniform water quality longitudinal profile of the Weser was established during this trip by means of chemico-physical and biological tests. While investigations by measuring stations cover a longer period of time, the measurements taken during a voyage reflect a transient condition and complement long-term trend investigations. The voyage also permits to gain an overview of relative changes in the condition of the river at various points of its course. The evaluation of the results of this trip is facilitated by investigations of Arge Weser already carried through for the duration of several years and information obtained by previous trips. (orig./EF) [Deutsch] Auf Beschluss des staendigen Ausschusses der Arge Weser werden seit 1965 regelmaessig Messfahrten entlang der Weser durchgefuehrt. Die neunte Messfahrt vom 08. bis 14. Mai 1992 mit dem Mess- und Laborschiff ``Max Pruess`` des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen beinhaltete drei Untersuchungsbereiche: A) Muendungsbereiche von Fulda und Werra; B) Ober- und Mittelweser (Hann.-Muenden (km 0,0) bis Bremen (km 361,1)); C) Unterweser (Bremen (km 0,0) bis Kolumbuskai (km 67,8)). Mit Hilfe von chemisch-physikalischen und biologischen Untersuchungen wurde waehrend dieser Fahrt ein einheitliches Gewaesserguete-Laengsprofil der Weser ermittelt. Waehrend Untersuchungen in Messstationen einen laengeren Zeitraum abdecken, sind die Messergebnisse einer Messfahrt als Momentaufnahme anzusehen und stellen eine Ergaenzung der langfristigen Trenduntersuchungen dar. Durch die Messfahrt wird dabei eine gute Uebersicht ueber die relativen Aenderungen von Beschaffenheitsmerkmalen im Gesamtverlauf der Weser ermittelt. Fuer die Auswertung der Messergebnisse dieser Messfahrt stehen langjaehrige Untersuchungen der Arge Weser und die Erkenntnisse vorheriger Messfahrten zur Verfuegung. (orig./EF)

1993-12-31

298

Germany and the European economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany has traditionally been the powerhouse of the European economy and integration. In this article, an attempt is made to put its economic development in a European context by comparing it with the achievements of the total group of more developed members of the European Union, the EU-15, prior to the current global crisis. The author applies both the methods of statistical analysis and models of mathematical economics to show the combined influence of growth mechanism regularities, economic policy and international economic relations on the long-term development of the German and European economy. Viewing economic growth as the central problem, he investigates the factors of its deviations from the equilibrium state, as well as the regularities affecting productivity and technical progress. His main conclusion is that the current economic crisis can be surmounted with the help of a growthoriented economic policy based on the intensification of technical progress and, first of all, of its creative component, which would create favorable conditions for improving competitiveness.

Simon György Jr.

2011-01-01

299

Climate of Germany. Pt. 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The series of publications ''Climate in Germany'' provides readers with tables, maps and a detailed narrative on the most important elements of climate in one issue each. It is because of the scope of the entire work that separate issues are produced. Parts already published are nos. 1 and 2 (23) (11), which deal with the element of precipitation, and part 3 (14), which describes the element of air temperature. The spatial distribution of fog frequency described in this volume gives an excellent overview on differences in the mesoscale climate with its seasonal variations in relation to small areas. In order to assess them properly, the publication deals first of all with the observations carried through by the German Weather Service with the problems they pose, as well as the further editing work they required. (orig./KW)[de] Die Veroeffentlichungsreihe ''Das Klima der Bundesrepublik Deutschland'' bietet dem Leser zu den wichtigsten Klimaelementen Tabellen, Karten und einen ausfuehrlichen Text in einer Lieferung an. Wegen des grossen Umgangs werden Teillieferungen publiziert. Bisher sind die Lieferungen 1 und 2 (23) (11), die das Element Niederschlag behandeln, sowie Lieferung 3 (14), die das Element Lufttemperatur beschreibt, erschienen. Die in diesem Band dargestellte raeumliche Verteilung der Nebelhaeufigkeit gibt einen ausgezeichneten Ueberblick ueber die kleinraeumigen Unterschiede des mesoskaligen Klimas mit seinen jahreszeitlichen Schwankungen. Um sie richtig einschaetzen zu koennen, wird zunaechst auf die im Deutschen Wetterdienst durchgefuehrten Beobachtungen und ihre Problematik eingegangen, sowie auf die bei der Bearbeitung notwendigen unterstuetzenden Massnahmen. (orig./KW)

1992-01-01

300

The Clinical Research Unit at Ulm, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Clinical Research Unit at Ulm, Germany is an outstanding unit at an extremely progressive university. The present scientific program at the Clinical Research Unit in the Department of Physiology is on experimental hematology, studying cell system phys...

C. R. Valeri

1971-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Latrodectus mactans introduced into Germany (Araneae: Theridiidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) was recorded from Germany. The species was most likely introduced with cargo from Chicago, USA. Characters of the single female are illustrated for future identification.

Jäger, Peter

2009-01-01

302

Opportunities for smart meters in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles.

2010-01-01

303

Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Germany, 2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed. Methods Participants of the triathlon were contacted by e-mail and were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. In addition, they were asked to supply a serum sample for laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis. A confirmed case patient was defined as a clinical case (i.e. fever and at least one additional symptom suggestive for leptospirosis) with at least two of the following tests positive: ELISA IgM, latex agglutination testing, or microscopic agglutination testing. Rainfall and temperature records were obtained. Results A total of 142 of 507 triathletes were contacted; among these, five confirmed leptospirosis cases were found. Open wounds were identified as the only significant risk factor for illness (p = 0.02). Heavy rains that preceded the swimming event likely increased leptospiral contamination of the Neckar River. Discussion This is the first outbreak of leptospirosis related to a competitive sports event in Germany. Among people with contact to freshwater, the risk of contracting leptospirosis should be considered by health care providers also in temperate countries, particularly in the summer after heavy rains.

Brockmann Stefan; Piechotowski Isolde; Bock-Hensley Oswinde; Winter Christian; Oehme Rainer; Zimmermann Stefan; Hartelt Katrin; Luge Enno; Nöckler Karsten; Schneider Thomas; Stark Klaus; Jansen Andreas

2010-01-01

304

Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Germany, 2006.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed. METHODS: Participants of the triathlon were contacted by e-mail and were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. In addition, they were asked to supply a serum sample for laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis. A confirmed case patient was defined as a clinical case (i.e. fever and at least one additional symptom suggestive for leptospirosis) with at least two of the following tests positive: ELISA IgM, latex agglutination testing, or microscopic agglutination testing. Rainfall and temperature records were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 142 of 507 triathletes were contacted; among these, five confirmed leptospirosis cases were found. Open wounds were identified as the only significant risk factor for illness (p = 0.02). Heavy rains that preceded the swimming event likely increased leptospiral contamination of the Neckar River. DISCUSSION: This is the first outbreak of leptospirosis related to a competitive sports event in Germany. Among people with contact to freshwater, the risk of contracting leptospirosis should be considered by health care providers also in temperate countries, particularly in the summer after heavy rains.

Brockmann S; Piechotowski I; Bock-Hensley O; Winter C; Oehme R; Zimmermann S; Hartelt K; Luge E; Nöckler K; Schneider T; Stark K; Jansen A

2010-01-01

305

Tritium Based Water Balance Modelling In The Weser Catchment, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The Institute of Hydrology of the Freiburg University (IHF) in conjunction with the German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) are to integrating tritium data for a water balance model. Tritium observations in precipitation and river water covering a period of 30 years are used to establish a tritium aided water balance for a 46.300 km2 area in Germany (Weser catchment). Environmental tritium in precipitation, that was mainly introduced into the water cycle by nuclear weapon testing in the 60s, and wastewater from nuclear power plants located in the catchment area are sources of the tritium input. The model is established in combination with a software routine (TRIBIL), which was developed for semi distributed water and tritium balance calculations. A mesoscale, physically based model approach with spatial classification of sub areas is used and will consider evaporation, transpiration, soil characteristics, vegetation and different runoff components. The modelling is performed in monthly time steps. Hydrological, meteorological and land use data are available from different German authorities. An outline of the project, model structure and input data as well as first results for the tributary river systems Fulda and Werra will be presented. Including the conser- vative tracer tritium into large scale modelling is a rather new approach. Feasibilities and possibilities will be tested within this project. Balancing of solutes in catchment studies can be improved and this approach can serve as an additional validation tool for water balance models.

Koeniger, P.; Krause, W.; Leibundgut, Ch.; Reisewitz, R.

306

Contamination measurements in Austria and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on cumulative Cs-137 and Sr-90 depositions both from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident in Austria, Germany, UK and USA are given as well as the time dependence of Cs-137 concentrations from 1986 to 1992 in nutrients and drinking water in Austria and Germany. Finally the dose-to-population from the Chernobyl accident is compared to the natural radiation and even to that resulting from energy-saving sealing measures in living rooms. (Quittner).

1992-01-01

307

Trauma care in India and Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Road traffic accidents are among the leading causes of death worldwide in individuals younger than 45 years. In both India and Germany, there has been an increase in registered motor vehicles over the last decades. However, while the number of traffic accident victims steadily dropped in Germany, there has been a sustained increase in India. We analyze this considering the sustained differences in rescue and trauma system status. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We compared India and Germany in terms of (1) vehicular infrastructure and causes of road traffic accident-related trauma, (2) burden of trauma, and (3) current trauma care and prevention, and (4) based on these observations, we suggested how India and other countries can enhance trauma care and prevention. METHODS: Data for Germany were obtained from federal statistical databases, German Automobile Club, and German Trauma Registry. Data from India were available from the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. We also performed a standardized literature search of PubMed for India and Germany using the following key words: "road traffic accidents", "prevention", "prehospital trauma care", "trauma system", "trauma registry", "trauma centers", and "development of vehicles." RESULTS: The total number of registered motor vehicles increased 473-fold in India and 100-fold in Germany from 1951 to 2011. The number of road traffic deaths increased in both countries until 1970, but thereafter decreased in Germany (3606 in 2012) while continuing to increase in India (142,485 in 2011). The differences between Germany and India relate to the relative sizes and populations of the countries (1:9 and 1:15, respectively), and differences in prevention and prehospital care (nationwide versus big cities) and hospital trauma systems (nationwide versus exceptional). CONCLUSIONS: Improvement requires attention to three major issues: (1) prevention through infrastructure, traffic laws, mandatory licensing; (2) establishment of a prehospital care system; and (3) establishment of regional trauma centers and a trauma registry.

Oestern HJ; Garg B; Kotwal P

2013-09-01

308

Wind power in Germany - a success story  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The successful introduction of wind power to the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany is described using graphic representations to illustrate the industry's growth over the last twenty years. The history of the wind market is discussed, together with the importance of stakeholders as a way of funding the industry. The author concludes that public support for environmentally sensitive power generation was the key factor leading to the success of the wind power industry in Germany. (UK)

1996-01-01

309

Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germanys European policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1) the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2) at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3) in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) are reluctant to (re-)strengthen the European idea; and (4) the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

Michèle Knodt; Nicola Staeck

1999-01-01

310

Infrastructure of the fault zones in a variegated sandstone of the Upper Rhine Graben. Digestion analogous studies; Infrastruktur von Stoerungszonen im Buntsandstein des Oberrheingrabens. Aufschlussanalogstudien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prestigious for the variegated sandstone of the Upper Rhine Graben, the authors of the contribution under consideration describe the features of the single areas of the normal fault from the lower variegated sandstone in a digestion analogue in Cleebourg (France). The fault zone has a relatively moderate developed fracture zone with a smooth transition to the leftover rock while the core area is clearly defined and can be subdivided into a central and distal area. The scleroscope hardness determined by means of a Schmidt hammer increases towards the leftover rock in correlation with the compressive strength.

Bauer, Johanna F.; Meier, Silke; Philipp, Sonja L. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum

2012-10-16

311

[Cochlear implant treatment in Germany].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Restoration of impaired auditory function through cochlear implant is possible, with high reliably and great success. Nevertheless, there are regular disputes between patients and insurance companies due to high costs. In Germany, approx. 1.9 Mio. people are severely hearing impaired. It can be estimated that for adequate hearing rehabilitation about 30,000 cochlear implants/year are necessary. Currently, less than 10% of those affected are offered cochlear implant. DISCUSSION: A handicap is defined if there is deviation from normal hearing for more than 6 months. This sets a time frame for the supply with cochlear implant after sudden deafness. The professional code requires to advice all medical options to a person seeking help for hearing loss. This includes benefit-risk consideration. At this point, the economic aspect plays no role. The indication for medical treatment is only subject to the treating physician and should not be modified by non-physicians or organizations. It should be noted that a supply of hearing aids is qualitatively different to the help from a cochlear implant, which provides a restoration of lost function. In social law (SGB V and IX) doctors are requested to advise and recommend all measures which contribute to normal hearing (both sides). This indicates that doctors may be prosecuted for not offering help when medically possible, just because health insurance employees did not approve the cost balance. CONCLUSION: The current situation, with insufficient medical care for the hearing impaired, needs clarifying. To do this, patients, health insurance companies, the political institutions, legislation and professional societies need to accept their responsibilities.

Jacob R; Stelzig Y

2013-01-01

312

European Energy Report Profiles - Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the country has a long history of protest against nuclear power, the broader environmental awareness of the ordinary German in the street is now beginning to drive political decisions related to other energy forms and not only in Germany. The Brent Spar episode, where protest by the German public played a not insignificant role in stopping Shell UK from dumping an oil storage platform in the Atlantic Ocean, showed that public opinion counts. Deutsche Shell has had to resort to full page adverts in over 100 major newspapers costing over DM3m in an attempt to win back customers and its shredded image. German brown coal production ash has come under fire. It is no surprise to find the Green party objecting to a perpetuation of brown coal use through the opening up of a new opencast mine in 2006: after all brown coal is the fossil fuel with the highest specific CO{sub 2} emissions. However, resistance is also growing strongly amongst the population faced with the prospect of resettlement when they lose their homes to the brown coal excavators. The use of natural gas, most from Russia with an increasing proportion from Norway, is growing. It is particularly popular for coking and space heating, as it is perceived as being a clean fuel. Another, more involved `clean energy` affair is being played out in the electricity sector, this time over use of renewables. The utilities have attempted to undermine the electricity feed law (EFL), which requires them to purchase renewables-generated electricity at a premium price. Three utilities have refused to pay the full EFL price, hoping to provoke a legal battle which would eventually have the EFL declared unconstitutional. However, their flouting of the law caused political uproar the utilities have beaten a retreat.

NONE

1995-07-21

313

Evaluation of a bias correction method applied to downscaled precipitation and temperature reanalysis data for the Rhine basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many climate impact studies hydrological models are forced with meteorological data without an attempt to assess the quality of these data. The objective of this study was to compare downscaled ERA15 (ECMWF-reanalysis data) precipitation and temperature with observed precipitation and temperature and apply a bias correction to these forcing variables. Precipitation is corrected by fitting it to the mean and coefficient of variation (CV) of the observations. Temperature is corrected by fitting it to the mean and standard deviation of the observations. It appears that the uncorrected ERA15 is too warm and too wet for most of the Rhine basin. The bias correction leads to satisfactory results, precipitation and temperature differences decreased significantly, although there are a few years for which the correction of precipitation is less satisfying. Corrections were largest during summer for both precipitation and temperature. For precipitation alone large corrections were applied during September and October as well. Besides the statistics the correction method was intended to correct for, it is also found to improve the correlations for the fraction of wet days and lag-1 autocorrelations between ERA15 and the observations. For the validation period temperature is corrected very well, but for precipitation the RMSE of the daily difference between modeled and observed precipitation has increased for the corrected situation. When taking random years for calibration, and the remaining years for validation, the spread in the mean bias error (MBE) becomes larger for the corrected precipitation during validation, but the overal average MBE has decreased.

W. Terink; R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; P. J. J. F. Torfs; R. Uijlenhoet

2010-01-01

314

3D fracture zon network in the crystalline geothermal reservoir of Soultz-sous-Forêts (Upper Rhine Graben, France)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Soultz experimental geothermal site is located in the French part of the Upper Rhine Graben, nearby its western regional boundary fault. The structure of the granite reservoir is constituted by both a nearly vertical major fracture zone network, connected to a dense network of small-scale fractures. Fracture zones are complex brecciated and fractured zones having irregular shape. The permeability of these fracture zones could be enhanced by hydraulic/chemical stimulations. They constitute the major pathways and their characterization is of prime importance for the reservoir knowledge. Based on borehole data of the Soultz geothermal site, 39 fracture zones have been characterized in six wells between 1400 and 5000m depth. The direction of the major set of fracture zone is N160°E±10° with high dip westward and eastward. These fracture zones are spatially concentrated in three clusters with depth. The upper cluster at 1800-2000m TVD (True Vertical Depth) is highly naturally permeable and mainly dipping to the East. At 3000-3400m TVD, the intermediate cluster constitutes a dense network developed in an altered matrix and constituted the upper reservoir. In the lower part of the wells, the deeper cluster appears as a fractured reservoir corresponding to isolated discrete faults developed within a low permeable matrix at about 4500-5000m TVD. In the two deep clusters, fracture zones are mainly dipping to the West. The geometry of these fracture zones has been integrated in a 3D model, in addition with the location of induced microseismicity as well as structures derived from vertical seismic profile (VSP) data interpretation. This 3D representation allows correlating geophysical and geological data in order to illustrate the complexity of 3D fracture network in crystalline rocks characterized at borehole scale (meter) and extended in 3D at reservoir scale (kilometer).

Dezayes, C.; Sausse, J.; Genter, A.

2009-04-01

315

Geothermal reservoir properties of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) sediments in the Saar Nahe Basin (South-West Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

The geothermal potential of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) in the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the Saar-Nahe-Basin (Germany) has been shown in large scale regional studies. To further assess the geothermal potential of the different lithostratigraphical units and facies types within this Variscan intramontane basin, knowledge of their thermophysical and hydraulic properties is indispensable. Where the Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous molasse basin, the top of the up to two kilometers thick Permocarboniferous deposits is located at a depth of one to three kilometers and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. Therefore, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150°C, making it suitable for geothermal power production. Lithologically the Permocarboniferous deposits consist of different formations and facies types including fine, middle and coarse grained sandstones, arcosic sandstones, siltstones, volcanics and carbonates. Within the framework of the study presented here, outcrop analogue studies west of the Graben in the Saar-Nahe-Basin, and east of the Graben in the Wetterau and the Wetterau-Fulda-Basin are conducted. Each lithostratigraphic formation and lithofacies type is sampled in various outcrops to generate a statistically sufficient amount of samples of the different sedimentary rocks in order to determine their petrophysical, sedimentological and geochemical characteristics. The petrophysical parameters measured include the porosity, permeability, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and uniaxial compressive strength. So far, the petrophysical properties of samples of more than 70 locations have been measured in our lab facilities, showing a clear correlation with the facies type. Excluding the coarse grained sandstones of the Donnersberg formation at the beginning of the Nahe-subgroup of the Upper Rotliegend, the geothermal reservoir properties are more suitable in the Glan-subgroup of the Lower Rotliegend due to the increasing fraction of fluviatil facies with low sinuosity meander belts, that transported coarse grained and feldspar-rich sediments from along the basin axis. The next steps will include geochemical as well as petrographic-sedimentological analysis of each sample to study the mineral composition, the intergranular volume and diagenesis. Furthermore, the rock mass permeability is evaluated using hydraulic test data of wells intersecting the Permocarboniferous in the Saar Nahe Basin and other analogue areas, already showing a link between hydraulic conductivity and fault structures within the basin. Based on drilling and seismic data as well as geological maps together with the compiled petrophysical and hydraulic data, it is planned to establish a 3D reservoir model of the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the western Saar-Nahe-Basin. Due to the importance of fault zones, lithostratigraphical units and facies types, detailed modelling will allow a more reliable assessment of the geothermal potential. This model could be used for a better prediction of reservoir temperatures and production rates and will decrease the exploration risk.

Aretz, A.; Bär, K.; Sass, I.

2012-04-01

316

Distance Education at Conventional Universities in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established.Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University) in West Germany in 1975, there were significant developments in distance education occurring at the major universities in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). After German reunification in 1990, the new unitary state launched programs to advance the development of distance education programs at conventional universities.Germany’s campus-based universities (Präsenzuniversitäten) created various entities, including central units and consortia of universities to design and market distance education programs. Hybridisation provides the necessary prerequisites for dual mode delivery, such as basic and continuing education programs, as well as for the combination of distance and campus-based education (Präsenzstudium). Hybridisation also has also opened the door for the creation of new programs.Following an initial phase in which distance education research is expected to centralize a trend towards decentralisation is likely to follow. The German Association for Distance Education (AG-F) offers a viable research network in distance education. Two dual mode case studies are also be surveyed: The Master of Arts degree, offered by the University of Koblenz-Landau, with Library Science as the second major, and the University of Kaiserslautern, where basic education will continue to be captured within the domain of the Präsenzstudium or campus-based education.The area in which distance education is flourishing most is within the field of academic continuing education, where external experts and authors are broadening the horizon of the campus. Multimedia networks will comprise the third generation of distance education.

Hans-Henning Kappel; Burkhard Lehmann; Joachim Loeper

2002-01-01

317

Solution by dilution?-A review on the pollution status of the Yangtze River.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Yangtze River has been a source of life and prosperity for the Chinese people for centuries and is a habitat for a remarkable variety of aquatic species. But the river suffers from huge amounts of urban sewage, agricultural effluents, and industrial wastewater as well as ship navigation wastes along its course. With respect to the vast amounts of water and sediments discharged by the Yangtze River, it is reasonable to ask whether the pollution problem may be solved by simple dilution. This article reviews the past two decades of published research on organic pollutants in the Yangtze River and several adjacent water bodies connected to the main stream, according to a holistic approach. Organic pollutant levels and potential effects of water and sediments on wildlife and humans, measured in vitro, in vivo, and in situ, were critically reviewed. The contamination with organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and others, of water and sediment along the river was described. Especially Wuhan section and the Yangtze Estuary exhibited stronger pollution than other sections. Bioassays, displaying predominantly the endpoints mutagenicity and endocrine disruption, applied at sediments, drinking water, and surface water indicated a potential health risk in several areas. Aquatic organisms exhibited detectable concentrations of toxic compounds like PCBs, OCPs, PBDEs, and PFCs. Genotoxic effects could also be assessed in situ in fish. To summarize, it can be stated that dilution reduces the ecotoxicological risk in the Yangtze River, but does not eliminate it. Keeping in mind an approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared to the major European river Rhine, the absolute pollution mass transfer of the Yangtze River is of severe concern for the environmental quality of its estuary and the East China Sea. Based on the review, further research needs have been identified.

Floehr T; Xiao H; Scholz-Starke B; Wu L; Hou J; Yin D; Zhang X; Ji R; Yuan X; Ottermanns R; Roß-Nickoll M; Schäffer A; Hollert H

2013-10-01

318

The protection of transboundary rivers in Europe - on the effectiveness of international environmental regimes; Der Schutz grenzueberschreitender Fluesse in Europa - zur Effektivitaet internationaler Umweltregime  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study `The protection of transboundary rivers in Europe - on the effectiveness of international environmental regimes` addresses three main scientific questions. 1. Is the regime for the protection of the river Rhine effective in protecting a transboundary river? 2. Does the regime include measurable - and by the Central and Eastern European states subjectively observable - mechanisms, which could help to establish effective environmental protection regimes for transboundary rivers in Central and Eastern Europe? 3. Are there any negative or positive effects, caused by the transformation processes, which have a major impact on the water protection policy in Central and Eastern Europe? 3. Are there any negative or positive effects, caused by the transformation processes, which have a major impact on the water protection policy in Central and Eastern Europe? To answer these questions, different case studies were carried out on the rivers Rhine, Elbe, Odra, Vistula, Bug, Nemunas and Daugava. The results of the case studies show that the regime for the protection of the river Rhine worked effectively for the protection of the river. The main reason for this could be found in the way the regime was specifically designed for institutional cooperation. To be a model for transboundary river protection in Central and Eastern Europe, the complex system of institutionalized cooperation mechanisms of the river Rhine regime should be carried over in its basic systematic structure. This should be done, however, in a flexible way. Thus, new regimes should include the possibility to reconsider and react on the specific ecological conditions of the specific river system and socio-economic demands, which result from the ongoing transformation processes in that region. Monitoring- and implementation control systems, verification systems, working groups or a cooperation at various administrative and political levels are main elements for the effectiveness of every environmental regime. The question which is more decisive is, how to organize and put these cooperation mechanisms to work to solve the problem. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Studie `Der Schutz grosser grenzueberschreitender Fluesse in Europa - zur Effektivitaet internationaler Umweltregime` lagen drei zentrale Fragen zugrunde. Erstens: Stellt das Rheinregime ein effektives Regime fuer die Sanierung und den Schutz eines grenzueberschreitenden Flusses dar? Zweitens: Besitzt das Rheinregime messbare und von den Staaten Ostmittel- und Osteuropas subjektiv wahrgenommene wirksame Mechanismen fuer die Entwicklung und Umsetzung neuer Umweltregime und den Schutz von Fluessen in Ostmittel- und Osteuropa? Drittens: Welche negativen oder positiven Einfluesse ueben die gegenwaertigen Transformationsprozesse in Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft auf die Umsetzung der Gewaesserschutzpolitik in den Staaten Ostmittel- und Osteuropas aus? Um diese Fragen zu beantworten, wurden Fallstudien zu den Flusslaeufern Rhein, Elbe, Oder, Weichsel, Bug, Nemunas (Memel) und Daugava (Duena) durchgefuehrt. Die Studie zeigte, dass sich das Regime zum Schutz des Rheins als effektiv erwiesen hat. Dies ist auch seiner institutionellen Konfiguration zu verdanken. Grundsaetzlich ist das komplexe System der institutionellen Kooperation des Rheinregimes in seiner systematischen Grundstruktur als Modell fuer Flussregime in Mittel- und Osteuropa uebertragbar. Dort sollten neue Regime zum Schutz grenzueberchreitender Fluesse jedoch nach dem Flexibilitaetsprinzip so gestaltet sein, dass sie in der Lage sind, sich sowohl den besonderen oekologischen Beduerfnissen als auch den Rahmenbedingungen, wie sie sich aus den Transformationsprozessen der MOE-Staaten ergeben, anzupassen. Die Existenz von Monitoringsystemen, Implementierungskontrollen, Verifikation, Arbeitsgruppen und Kooperationsstrukturen auf verschiedenen administrativ-politischen Ebenen ist die elementare Voraussetzung fuer den Erfolg eines jeden Regimes. Entscheidend aber ist die Frage der Anwendung und Organisation dieser Mechanismen im Hinblick auf die zu loesender

Holtrup, P.

1999-03-01

319

Electric rivers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

James Bay II, the projected Canadian hydroelectric power plant of gigantic dimensions, is to deliver its electricity to Europe: in the USA, opposition to power imports from James Bay is growing. Its realization means the flooding of an area as big as the Federal Republic of Germany; the native territory and hunting grounds of the Cree indians would be inundated. The interests of the European power industry in the James Bay project and the consequences for Europe are described in an appendix (EQHHPP project, project management Hydro-Quebec and Ludwig Boelkow Foundation, hydrogen production through electrolysis, methods for transporting hydrogen to Hamburg). (orig./HP).

1992-01-01

320

Mercury emissions from flooded soils and sediments in Germany are an underestimated problem: challenges for reliable risk assessments and management strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Environmental pollution by mercury is a world-wide problem. Particularly floodplain ecosystems are frequently affected. One example is the Elbe River in Germany and its catchment areas; large amounts of Hg from a range of anthropogenic and geogenic sources have been accumulated in the soils of thes...

Rinklebe J.; Wennrich R.; Laing G. Du; Stärk H.-J.; Mothes S.

 
 
 
 
321

Impact of decreasing water demand on bank filtration in Saxony, Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bank filtration has been of great importance to the drinking water supply in Germany for many decades. The water quality of pumped raw water from bank filtration sites depends to a high degree on the water quality of the infiltrating surface water and the landside groundwater, the mixed portion of both, as well as the flow and transport conditions in the aquifer. Following the improvement of river water quality and a drastic decrease in water demand during the last 20 years in Germany, the influence of landside groundwater quality has become more important for the raw water quality of waterworks relying on bank filtration. The hydrogeologic analysis of three bank filtration sites in Saxony and the management of abstraction rates and well operation in response to fluctuating water demand are discussed.

T. Grischek; D. Schoenheinz; C. Syhre; K. Saupe

2010-01-01

322

Impact of decreasing water demand on bank filtration in Saxony, Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bank filtration has been of main importance for the drinking water supply in Germany for many decades. The water quality of pumped raw water from bank filtration sites depends to a high degree on the water quality of the infiltrating surface water and the landside groundwater, the mixing portion of both as well as the flow and transport conditions in the aquifer. Since the improvement of river water quality and a drastic decrease in water demand during the last 15 years in Germany, the influence of landside groundwater quality has become more important for the raw water quality of waterworks relying on bank filtration. The hydrogeologic analysis of three bank filtration sites in Saxony and the management of abstraction rates and well operation in response to fluctuating water demand are discussed. In conclusion, a general overview on management options for bank filtration sites is provided.

T. Grischek; D. Schoenheinz; C. Syhre; K. Saupe

2009-01-01

323

Germany - a pioneer on earthen feet?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Germany is one of the two OECD countries having achieved substantial greenhouse gas reductions in the last decade. While a part was large reductions in industry after the economic crash in East Germany, a relevant share is due to the huge public infrastructure investments in East Germany. The real success of German climate policy in the past decade is the strong reduction of methane and nitrous oxide which has been almost unnoticed. German climate policy is a good example of how lobbying of interest groups leads to a complex maze of hundreds of measures whose effects are difficult to evaluate. Paradoxically, policies have focused on expensive measures and Germany clearly is a pioneer in the most expensive forms of renewable energy. Concerning cost-effective measures and market instruments, Germany is a laggard. Only slowly, policymakers start to notice this distortion and first, shaky steps towards a more cost-efficient policy are made. Several challenges such as nuclear phase-out and trends in household energy consumption will put pressure on government to embrace the Kyoto Mechanisms and to refocus domestic instruments well before the first commitment period. (Author)

Michaelowa, Axel [Hamburg Inst. of International Economics, Programme ' International Climate Policy' , Hamburg (Germany)

2003-07-01

324

Germany. A pioneer on earthen feet?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Germany is one of the two OECD countries having achieved substantial greenhouse gas reductions in the last decade. While a part was large reductions in industry after the economic crash in East Germany, a relevant share is due to the huge public infrastructure investments in East Germany. The real success of German climate policy in the past decade is the strong reduction of methane and nitrous oxide which has been almost unnoticed. German climate policy is a good example of how lobbying of interest groups leads to a complex maze of hundreds of measures whose effects are difficult to evaluate. Paradoxically, policies have focused on expensive measures and Germany clearly is a pioneer in the most expensive forms of renewable energy. Concerning cost-effective measures and market instruments, Germany is a laggard. Only slowly, policymakers start to notice this distortion and first, shaky steps towards a more cost-efficient policy are made. Several challenges such as nuclear phase-out and trends in household energy consumption will put pressure on government to embrace the Kyoto Mechanisms and to refocus domestic instruments well before the first commitment period

2003-01-01

325

Germany, a pioneer on earthen feet?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Germany is one of the two OECD countries having achieved substantial greenhouse gas reductions in the last decade. While a part was large reductions in industry after the economic crash in East Germany, a relevant share is due to the huge public infrastructure investments in East Germany. The real success of German climate policy in the past decade is the strong reduction of methane and nitrous oxide which has been almost unnoticed. German climate policy is a good example of how lobbying of interest groups leads to a complex maze of hundreds of measures whose effects are difficult to evaluate. Paradoxically, policies have focused on expensive measures and Germany clearly is a pioneer in the most expensive forms of renewable energy. Concerning cost-effective measures and market instruments, Germany is a laggard. Only slowly, policymakers start to notice this distortion and first, shaky steps towards a more cost-efficient policy are made. Several challenges such as nuclear phase-out and trends in household energy consumption will put pressure on government to embrace the Kyoto Mechanisms and to refocus domestic instruments well before the first commitment period.

Michaelowa, Axel [Programme ' International Climate Policy' , Hamburg Institute of International Economics, Neuer Jungfernstieg 21, 20347 Hamburg (Germany)

2003-07-01

326

Germany. A pioneer on earthen feet?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Germany is one of the two OECD countries having achieved substantial greenhouse gas reductions in the last decade. While a part was large reductions in industry after the economic crash in East Germany, a relevant share is due to the huge public infrastructure investments in East Germany. The real success of German climate policy in the past decade is the strong reduction of methane and nitrous oxide which has been almost unnoticed. German climate policy is a good example of how lobbying of interest groups leads to a complex maze of hundreds of measures whose effects are difficult to evaluate. Paradoxically, policies have focused on expensive measures and Germany clearly is a pioneer in the most expensive forms of renewable energy. Concerning cost-effective measures and market instruments, Germany is a laggard. Only slowly, policymakers start to notice this distortion and first, shaky steps towards a more cost-efficient policy are made. Several challenges such as nuclear phase-out and trends in household energy consumption will put pressure on government to embrace the Kyoto Mechanisms and to refocus domestic instruments well before the first commitment period.

Michaelowa, A. [Programme ' International Climate Policy' , Hamburg Institute of International Economics, Neuer Jungfernstieg 21, 20347, Hamburg (Germany)

2003-07-01

327

River deep  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mississippi River has historically been the major route for coal exports down into the Gulf of Mexico. But recently, a tight barge availability and a water-way system in need of some modernisation is causing some exporters to switch to ports offering both rail and water access, such as Mobile. Corpus Christi may also compete in the future. 5 figs.

NONE

1996-03-01

328

Avoidance and recycling of residual products fron iron, steel and malleable cast iron foundries in North-Rhine Westphalia. Vermeidung und Verwertung von Reststoffen aus Eisen-, Stahl- und Tempergiessereien in Nordrhein-Westfalen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The iron and steel industry produces 21%, and thereby the largest individual portion, of North-Rhine-Westphalia's trade waste. Arguably, therefore, this sector of industry is now also being given advice on how to minimize waste or recycle some parts of it. The article describes methods, results and prospects. The response has been very favourable. (orig.)

Bartholot, H.D. (Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Raumordnung und Landwirtschaft des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany)); Alwast, H. (Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Umweltschutz)

1994-07-01

329

78 Asthma Admission Rates in Germany: An Analysis of the Nationwide DRG-Statistic of the Year 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Within the OECD Health Care Quality Indicators (HCQI) Project up to 21 countries participated in calculations of 6 indicators on care for chronic conditions. Those so-called Health Promotion, Prevention and Primary Care Indicators originally had been introduced by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and rely on the principal diagnoses of an adult hospitalization stored in a hospital administrative database. 2007 age-sex standardized asthma admission rates varied considerably across the countries and ranged from 17 (Italy) to 120 (United States) admissions per 100,000 population (OECD mean: 51). It was concluded that asthma outpatient treatment was not optimal in countries reporting higher rates. Germany provided the third lowest asthma admission rate of 21 (Health at a Glance 2009 OECD Indicators. http://www.oecd.org/health/healthataglance). As data collections from various countries can differ in, e.g. coding responsibility, incentives for coding, and implementation of coding guidelines, international variations cannot exclusively be explained by differences in health system performance. This study aimed to calculate asthma admission rates separately for all 16 Federal States of Germany, assuming national comparisons are not biased by these factors. Methods Using the 2009 nationwide Diagnosis Related Groups statistic we calculated age-sex standardized asthma admission rates according to the OECD HCQI Data Collection Guidelines. Results Among all adult hospitalizations (15 years or older) we found 14,399 admissions with a principal diagnosis code of asthma. Related to the corresponding population of 70,779,623, the crude rate is 20.34 admissions per 100,000. Age and sex standardized rate is 20.20 (95% Confidence-Interval, 19.86-20.54). Among the 16 Federal States of Germany age-standardized rates ranges from 7.62 in Berlin (95% CI, 6.17-9.08) to 20.26 in North Rhine-Westphalia (95% CI, 19.13-21.39) among men and from 16.15 in Berlin (95% CI, 14.07-18.23) to 36.70 in Bremen (95% CI, 29.89-43.98) among women, respectively. Conclusions Prevention Quality Indicators calculated on national hospital administrative databases might be a useful tool to identify national variations of asthma admission rates reflecting areas with differences in outpatient care. Reasons for the differences found, e.g., a varying regional density of primary care providers or regional differences on asthma prevalence are in focus of further investigations.

Weyermann, Maria; Knorr, Silke; Drosler, Saskia E.

2012-01-01

330

AREVA Germany. International competence in nuclear technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] AREVA NP was created in 2001 by the merger of the French nuclear technology specialist Framatome with the nuclear sector of Siemens. The company is headquartered in Paris and has regional subsidiaries in Germany and the United States. The joint venture's strength lies in its all-round competence in nuclear power plants, from reactor development to power plant services and modernization of operating plants, design and production of fuel assemblies and turn-key construction of nuclear power reactors. Major core competences are located in Germany including the test facilities which are unique in the entire group as well as electrical engineering and instrumentation and control systems. AREVA NP is part of the globally acting AREVA group which pursues a unique integrated business model. The concept covers the entire nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to reprocessing used fuel assemblies. At present, AREVA has 48,000 employees worldwide, of which 5,700 are Germany-based. (orig.)

2011-01-01

331

Germany: facing the Nazi past today  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the changing debate on National Socialism and the question of guilt in German society. Memory had a different meaning in different generations, shaping distinct phases of dealing with the past, from silence and avoidance to sceptical debate, from painful “Vergangenheitsbewältigung” to a general memory of suffering. In present-day Germany, memory as collective personal memory has faded away. At the same time, literature has lost its role as a main medium to mass media like cinema and television. Furthermore, memory has become fragmented. Large groups of members of the German society, like immigrants, see the past from a different perspective altogether. Although the remembrance of the time of National Socialism is still a distinctive part of Germany’s political culture, it has become more generalised, with “Holocaust memory” as a globalised symbol for a fundamental “break” in Western culture.

I. Laurien

2009-01-01

332

Germany's power market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After reunification in 1990, private power initiatives began in Germany. Progress has been slow. Germany is not having an easy time with its electric utility infrastructure after the unexpected and sudden reunification of the two parts of the country in October 1990. Issues under consideration range from ownership of facilities in the east to how to lay off coal miners in both east and west. Some of the larger US companies have been quietly testing the waters, and two of them are now closing a major deal. Finding itself in need of energy alternatives, the German government invited companies into the marketplace to help it privatize eastern assets. With Germany's utilities undergoing such radical changes during reunification, it has become more difficult than ever for outside observers to correlate the developments they hear of into a coherent picture. 2 figs.

Ruddy, T.

1993-11-01

333

Germany, high-tech country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national and European aspects and emphasizing, in particular, the important function of ENS. Uranium enrichment as an European project was subject of the report by Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. The General Manager of Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman of Belgatom, Guy Frederic, examined the economic viability of nuclear power, appealing to the audience to reduce capital costs by innovation without detracting from safety. (orig./DG)[de] Die jaehrlich gemeinsam vom Deutschen Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. und der Kerntechnischen Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. veranstaltete Jahrestagung Kerntechnik fand vom 13. bis 15.5.97 in Aachen statt. Rund 1000 Teilnehmer aus 17 Laendern hatten das Angebot angenommen, sich zum Informationsaustausch mit Fachleuten aus Industrie, Forschung, Wissenschaft und Politik zu treffen. Im Gegensatz zu frueheren Jahrestagungen fand keine Stoerung durch Demonstranten statt. Der Praesident des DAtF, Dr. Wilfried Steuer, konnte als Redner zur Eroeffnung des Plenartages Aachens Stadtdirektor, Joachim H. Witt begruessen, der die Grussworte seiner Stadt ueberbrachte. Energiepolitik und globaler Wettbewerb waren das Thema von Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parlamentarischer Staatssektretaer beim Bundesminister fuer Wirtschaft, mit dem Fazit, die Chancen expandierender Weltmaerkte durch Strukturreformen im Energiebereich zu nutzen. Den Stellenwert der Kernenergie in der europaeischen Forschungspolitik erlaeuterte Fabricio Caccia Dominioni als Vertreter der Europaeischen Kommission. Die Energieversorgungsunternehmen wurden von Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Vorstandsvorsitzender der RWE AG, repraesentiert, der die Sicherheit bei Energieinvestitionen ansprach. Eine nachdenklich stimmende Analyse des Industriestandortes Deutschland gab Prof. Dr. Herbert Henzler, McKinsey und Company Inc. Der Praesident der European Nuclear Society, Ger R. Kuepers, zeichnete die Entwicklung der Kernenergie in den Niederlanden nach und verband dabei nationale mit europaeischen Aspekten, wobei er die wichtige Funktion der ENS hervorhob. Ueber die Urananreicherung als europaeisches Projekt berichtete Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. Der General Manager von Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman der Belgatom, Guy Frederic, stellte die Frage der Wirtschaftlichkeit der Kernenergie auf den Pruefstand, mit dem Appell, durch Innovationen die Investitionskosten zu senken ohne Verlust an Sicherheit. (orig./DG)

1997-01-01

334

Electricity in Germany. 2nd ed.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The second edition of Electricity in Germany provides a full updated analysis of the market structure, highlighting the many changes that have occurred in the three years since the first edition was published. It provides the latest details on generation, consumption, new and important legislation, price structures and movements. Revised company profiles on the most important utilities as well as information about the new players are presented in a comprehensive and user-friendly format and the experience of smaller utilities, IPPs and autogenerators are fully explored. Electricity in Germany also reviews and analyses the new trends and developments and predicts the likely future path of the electricity sector.

Knight, S.

2000-10-01

335

Lunar rivers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mature meanders in lunar sinuous rills strongly suggests that the rills are features of surface erosion by water. Such erosion could occur under a pressurizing ice cover in the absence of a lunar atmosphere. Water, outgassed from the lunar interior and trapped beneath a layer of permafrost, could be released by a meteoritic impact and overflow the crater to form an ice-covered river. A sinuous rill could be eroded in about 100 years.

Lingenfelter RE; Peale SJ; Schubert G

1968-07-01

336

River sediments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

River history is reflected in the nature of the sediments carried and deposited over time. Using examples drawn from around the world, this account illustrates how river sediments have been used to reconstruct past environmental changes at a variety of scales in time and space. Problems arising from a patchy alluvial record and from influences external to the river basin can make interpretation difficult. The Nile is treated in some detail because its history is further complicated by tectonic, volcanic and climatic events in its headwaters and by enduring human impacts. It arose soon after 30 Ma. Since that time approximately 100,000 km(3) of rock have been eroded from its Ethiopian sources and deposited in the eastern Mediterranean, with minor amounts of sediment laid down along its former flood plains in Egypt and Sudan. From these fragmentary alluvial remains, a detailed history of Nile floods and droughts has been reconstructed for the last 15 kyr, and, with less detail, for the past 150 kyr, which shows strong accordance with global fluctuations in the strength of the summer monsoon, which are in turn perhaps modulated by changes in solar insolation caused by changes in the Earth's orbit and by variations in solar irradiance.

Williams M

2012-05-01

337

T869 Climate change: from science to lived experience. The lived experience of climate change: water case study on the nile and rhine river basins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Lived experience of climate change: interdisciplinary e-module development and virtual mobility project concerns education and lifelong learning in relation to climate change, to contribute to an informed and active European citizenry and to inform EU policy on this major challenge. Focusing on ...

Taye, Meron Teferi; Willems, Patrick; Scheltinga, Catharien Terwisscha van; Kroeze, Carolien; Nicolau, Paula Bacelar

338

Prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the rivers Meuse, Rhine and New Meuse Prevalentie van antibioticaresistente bacteriën in Maas, Rijn en Nieuwe Maas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In de grote Nederlandse rivieren de Maas, de Rijn en de Nieuwe Maas komen bacteriën voor waarvan hoge percentages resistent zijn tegen een of meer soorten antibiotica. Dit blijkt uit verkennend onderzoek van het RIVM.

Blootstelling via oppervlaktewater: Als mensen aan veron...

Blaak H; van Rooijen SR; Schuijt MS; Docters van Leeuwen AE; Italiaander R; van den Berg FHJL; Lodder-Verschoor F

339

The geothermal energy concept 'Bonner Bogen'. Energy for a luxurious hotel; Das Geothermiekonzept ''Bonner Bogen''. Energie fuer ein Luxushotel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the late autumn of 2009, the Life and Style hotel 'Kameha Grand Bonn' (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) was opened. It lies regionally beautiful at the 'Bonn Bogen' on the right side of the River Rhine. Owner and investor of the 100 million Euro expensive project is the private inventory owner BonnVisio Real Estate GmbH and Co. KG (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany). The extravagant and unmistakable hotel architecture with a building silhouette dropping to the River Rhine was developed by the architect Karl-Heinz Schommer (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany). By means of a symbiosis from passive solar power, cooling system and resources conservating climate concept based on geothermal energy, the hotel fulfils the requirements of a Green Building.

Anon.

2010-07-01

340

Germany restores funds to grant agencies  

CERN Document Server

Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

Schiermeier, Q

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Macroeconomic trends and reforms in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper traces the main macroeconomic developments in the German economy from national unification. Its performance is compared with that of the rest of the euro area and its largest economies. The study documents as GermanyÕs modest growth in the later 1990s was due to the restrictive impact on domestic demand coming from the deep restructuring and modernization of the production system, followed by sweeping reforms after the turn of the century. Rapid productivity increases and prolonged wage moderation, especially in industry, fuelled a large and mounting current account surplus in Germany, that compares with the deficits registered in most European countries. The study retraces the recent debate on how to correct those imbalances, recalling the arguments for and against the thesis that the countries with a current payments surplus, above all Germany, must also play an active role in fostering the adjustment of the deficit countries. A possible synthesis is proposed, based on an analysis of the formation of national income and the use of resources according to the national accounts system. The implication is that Germany may contribute to the correction of imbalances within the euro area not so much by altering the wage formation mechanism as by creating incentives for domestic investment, hence fostering employment creation, in the service sectors that are currently lagging behind the extraordinary perfomance of a number of core activities in the industry.

Roberto Sabbatini

2010-01-01

342

The IMEMME 1992 travelling scholarship to Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author describes a visit to Germany funded by the Institution of Mining Electrical and Mining Mechanical Engineers' 1992 Travelling Scholarship. Details are given of visits to the Walsum, Niederberg and Lohberg collieries, Rheinberg shaft. Borth salt mine, Mulheim an der Ruhr Stadtbahn, Emscher Aufbereitung coal pulverization plant and various mining equipment manufacturers. 8 figs.

Ford, J.A. (British Coal Corporation (United Kingdom). Littleton Colliery)

1993-04-01

343

Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the e...

Michels Ingo; Stöver Heino; Gerlach Ralf

344

Zimiris doriai (Araneae: Prodidomidae) – introduced to Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two specimens of Zimiris doriai Simon, 1882 have been found in a container shipped from Vietnam. The family Prodidomidae has not been recorded yet from Germany, and is characterised by 1. the anterior position and the elongated shape of the anterior-lateral spinnerets and 2. by their strongly procurved posterior eye row. Characters for identifying the species are presented.

Jäger, Peter

2005-01-01

345

Thuringia (Germany): uranium makes Cat radiant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In eastern Germany, near Chemnitz, the closure in 1991 of the huge surface and underground uranium mines has left important contaminated surfaces which have to be rehabilitated. This paper gives a general overview of the remedial action in progress in this region and of the equipments required. (J.S.)

1997-01-01

346

Agro-environmental policies in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Agricultural activities always have impacts on the environment. Whereas soil erosion is a minor problem in Germany water pollution due to modern and intensive agriculture is of major concern. At first the paper discusses to what extent agriculture contributes to environmental pollution in Germany, in particular to the pollution of surface waters (as well as hydroelectric power constructions on the Danube) and groundwater by nutrients and pesticides. Agro-environmental policy in Germany is dominated by command-and-control-measures. Hence, in the second section, recent developments of the most important legal and institutional settings concerning water conservation policies are surveyed with special emphasis on the Federal Water Act and the Implementation of the Nitrate Directive into German legislation by the Fertilizer Ordinance. Thirdly, impacts of alternative water conservation policies are investigated using a regionalized agricultural sector model. Information obtained by this model analysis cover the development of N-balances, potential nitrate concentrations in the recharged groundwater, costs potentially effected by this and resulting agricultural incomes on the country level of the former Federal Republic Germany. The last section focuses on programs promoting environmentally sound farming practices, which gained increasing importance in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in the last years. It is argued that this development will also continue in the future. (author)

1997-01-01

347

HABITAT USE OF AGE - 0 TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX LACÉPÈDE, 1803) IN THE TIDAL FRESHWATER REGION OF THE ELBE RIVER, GERMANY. STRATÉGIES D’UTILISATION DE L’HABITAT PAR LES ALEVINS D’ALOSE FEINTE (ALOSA FALLAX LACÉPÈDE,1803) DANS LA RÉGION D’EAU DOUCE À MARÉE DE LA RIVIÈRE ELBE, ALLEMAGNE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Between April and August 1997 the distribution of twaite shad larvae in the lower Elbe River downstream the city of Hamburg was examined by ring net, lift net and pop net sampling. During each haul six environmental parameters - water depth, water temperature, conductivity, oxygen concentration, distance from shore line and distance from river channel - were estimated. Twaite shad larvae were found from 26 May to 10 July. Yolk sac larvae were present from 26 May to 25 June. High abundances of twaite shad larvae were found in the side channels and main channels. A canonical correspondence analysis was calculated to evaluate the importance of measured environmental parameters for the distribution of age - 0 fishes. Water depth, distance from shore line and distance from river channel were identified as main parameters for the distribution of species. Twaite shad larvae preferred maximum water depth and distance from shore line and short distances to the river channel. An upstream displacement of the spawning grounds of twaite shad was observed, following a trend first noticed in the early 90th. Nowadays, the location of spawning grounds corresponds to the situation at the beginning of the 19th century. Reduced water pollution is believed to be the main reason for this phenomenon. La distribution des larves d’alose feinte dans la rivière Elbe, en aval de Hambourg, a été examinée entre avril et août 1997 par capture d´individus à la seine, au carrelet et au filet à ballast. Parallèlement aux prises six paramètres environnementaux ont été mesurés : profondeur, température de l’eau, conductivité, concentration d’oxygène, distance par rapport à la rive et par rapport au courant fluvial. Des alevins d’alose feinte ont été capturés entre le 26 mai et le 10 juillet. Les alevins vésiculés étaient présents dans les captures effectuées entre le 26 mai et le 25 juin. Une abondance élevée fut observée dans les canaux latéraux ainsi que dans le courant principal. L’effet des facteurs environnementaux sur la répartition des larves a été calculé par analyse canonique des correspondances. Les larves d’alose feinte préfèrent les milieux profonds à l’écart de la rive et proches du courant principal. Un déplacement en amont de la frayère d’alose feinte fut observé, correspondant à une tendance auparavant notée au début des années 90. Aujourd’hui l’emplacement des frayères correspond à la situation observée au début du ème siècle. Il est probable que l’amélioration de la qualité de l’eau de la rivière Elbe soit la cause principale de ce phénomène.

GERKENS M.; THIEL R.

2008-01-01

348

Reprint of: "I'm always entirely happy when I'm here!" Urban blue enhancing human health and well-being in Cologne and Dusseldorf, Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water is one of the most important landscape elements. In settled areas, planners rediscovered urban blue in the form of rivers as a soft location factor in post-industrial times. Although the recognition of the need for recreational or 'healthy' places like urban green or urban blue in cities is increasing, current urban planning is mostly conducted without taking beneficial health issues into account. In this paper an extended concept of therapeutic landscapes is used to analyse two promenades on the river Rhine in the centres of two German cities (Cologne and Düsseldorf). A complex of qualitative and quantitative methods from diverse disciplines is applied to obtain a multi-dimensional image of salutogenic health processes. The results show that the promenades are favourite places to spend leisure time and to engage in recreational activities, in addition to providing restoration from everyday stresses. Water is a strong predictor of preference and positive perceptive experiences in urban environments. Users of the promenades also report strong emotional attachments to the place. Urban blue space may be interpreted as a therapeutic landscape in various ways. The study forms a contribution to planning issues, particularly considering benefits for human health, and enhances current research concerning therapeutic landscapes.

Völker S; Kistemann T

2013-08-01

349

"I'm always entirely happy when I'm here!" Urban blue enhancing human health and well-being in Cologne and Dusseldorf, Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water is one of the most important landscape elements. In settled areas, planners rediscovered urban blue in the form of rivers as a soft location factor in post-industrial times. Although the recognition of the need for recreational or 'healthy' places like urban green or urban blue in cities is increasing, current urban planning is mostly conducted without taking beneficial health issues into account. In this paper an extended concept of therapeutic landscapes is used to analyse two promenades on the river Rhine in the centres of two German cities (Cologne and Düsseldorf). A complex of qualitative and quantitative methods from diverse disciplines is applied to obtain a multi-dimensional image of salutogenic health processes. The results show that the promenades are favourite places to spend leisure time and to engage in recreational activities, in addition to providing restoration from everyday stresses. Water is a strong predictor of preference and positive perceptive experiences in urban environments. Users of the promenades also report strong emotional attachments to the place. Urban blue space may be interpreted as a therapeutic landscape in various ways. The study forms a contribution to planning issues, particularly considering benefits for human health, and enhances current research concerning therapeutic landscapes.

Völker S; Kistemann T

2013-02-01

350

Remarkable Urban Uplift in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany: Observations from TerraSAR-X InSAR and Leveling from 2008 to 2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As geothermal energy is of increasing importance as a renewable energy source, there is a high demand for comprehensive studies to prevent failure during implementation, as is the case in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany. The drilling of seven wells for the geothermal heating of the city hall in 2007 is thought to have disturbed the existing hydro-geological system in the complex structured transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif. This event has led to uplift, related to the transformation of anhydrite to gypsum, which affects the infrastructure of the city centre via the generation of large cracks. This study focuses on the application of the InSAR Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) approach using 50 X-band radar images from the German TerraSAR-X satellite (TSX) to map the spatial and temporal patterns of the deformation field in detail. X-band InSAR time series analysis for the three-year time period from July 2008 through May 2011 indicates maximum velocities of ~12 cm/yr in the line of sight (LOS) direction, from the ground to the satellite, approximately 50 m northeast of the drilling field. In comparison with leveling data for the same time period, TSX data analysis better delineates the border of the deformation area, and it is able to map the amount of deformation associated with different parts of the city. Moreover, this comparison indicates contributions of horizontal motion, as is expected for uplift patterns.

Christin Lubitz; Mahdi Motagh; Hans-Ulrich Wetzel; Hermann Kaufmann

2013-01-01

351

Hantaviruses as zoonotic pathogens in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hantavirus disease is a zoonosis of increasing clinical importance. A new incidence peak was reached in Germany in 2012, with more than 2800 reported cases. These viruses are transmitted from small mammals to human beings. The disease begins with high fever and non-pathognomonic manifestations that can end in shock and organ failure. METHODS: This article is based on a selective literature search, on the authors' experiences at the National Referral Laboratory for Hantavirus Infections (Nationales Konsiliarlaboratorium für Hantaviren), and on published recommendations from Germany and abroad. RESULTS: Two hantavirus species cause clinically relevant infections in Germany. Puumala virus, which is transmitted by bank voles, causes large outbreaks of disease every 2 to 3 years in the southwestern and western regions of Germany and in the Bavarian Forest. Dobrava-Belgrad virus, transmitted by striped field mice, causes infections in the north and east of the country. Serological tests are available for primary and confirmatory diagnosis; moreover, viral nucleic acids can be amplified in the early phase of illness and compared with the viral nucleic acids from the reservoir hosts of the corresponding type of infection. Infections with American types of hantavirus have ca. 35% case fatality, and hantaviruses from southeastern Europe and Asia are also highly pathogenic; in contrast, the febrile illnesses caused by hantaviruses in Germany are usually relatively mild. CONCLUSION: When persons living in high-risk areas present with fever of unknown origin or with renal dysfunction of unknown origin, physicians should consider the possibility of a hantavirus infection and should initiate the appropriate diagnostic evaluation.

Krüger DH; Ulrich RG; Hofmann J

2013-07-01

352

The outlook for natural gas in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a generally stagnant energy market, gas will be the energy with the highest growth rate in Germany, especially because of its steadily rising shares in the residential and commercial sector. In western Germany there is to be accepted that the demand forecasts, which were raised from one conference to the next, have passed their zenith. Great uncertainty exists as regards the future use of gas for power generation. In the absence of any significant expansion of this market sector, which is considered rather improbable in western Germany, it can be stated that anticipated gas demand up to the year 2005 is already covered by existing import contracts and scheduled domestic production. The picture is completely different in eastern Germany, where a doubling of consumption is quite feasible. To achieve the requisite diversification of supplies, substantial additional imports from western sources will have to be contracted. Russia can and should remain eastern Germany's main supplier in the long run, but Russian deliveries must be placed on a reliable, long-term contractual basis. As far as new gas projects are concerned, deliveries from Norway, to a limited extent from the United Kingdom and above all as part of the new Russian export initiative are under discussion. Generally speaking, transit will be an increasingly significant issue, especially for additional supplies from Russia. The efficiency and reliability of gas marketing companies will become far more important in an environment characterised by growing uncertainties. The reliable customer offering a dependable market outlet will be increasingly sought. With energy prices likely to increase only slightly, the management of uncertainties and the safeguarding of economic driving forces will be the main challenge facing our supply projects. 15 figs.

1993-05-12

353

Economic and Social Perspectives of Immigrant Children in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Overall, children in Germany live in households with below average incomes; therefore social policies that address the vulnerable position of Germany?s children are necessary. These policies should cover targeted financial transfers as well as improvements in day care provision for children. With re...

Frick, Joachim R.; Wagner, Gert G.

354

Was Germany ever united? Borders and domestic trade, 1885 - 1933  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Was Germany ever united? Given the historical circumstances of Germany?s unification in the 19th century there is no obvious answer to this question. But such an answer can affect the prospects of the post-1989 unification process, and beyond this of European integration. We provide an econometric a...

Wolf, Nikolaus

355

Identification of 3-dimensional flow pattern in a local quaternary gravel aquifer system using environmental isotope studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The study area is situated in the Rhine-Graben about 15 km north of Karlsruhe (Germany). The river Rhine forms the western boundary of the area of investigation, which extends to about 25 km2. The in situ quaternary porous aquifer is used as reservoir for gravel extraction. On the other hand this aquifer represents important potable water resource for the whole region, which implies serious conflicts. Isotope hydrological investigations (stable isotope deuterium, oxygen 18 and tritium) essentially contribute to a better insight into this complex hydrological system

2004-01-01

356

YELLOWSTONE RIVER WATCH (YRW)  

Science.gov (United States)

Yellowstone River Watch seeks to expand its monitoring and education efforts throughout the Yellowstone River Basin by actively recruiting and training new teacher members. Yellowstone River Watch also seeks to advance existing school programs by offering quality assurance/quali...

357

[The conflict between work and private life and its relationship with burnout - results of a physician survey in breast cancer centers in North Rhine-Westphalia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigates the conflict between work and private life (work-life conflict and life-work conflict) and its relationship with burnout among physicians in breast cancer centers in North Rhine-Westphalia (n=378). With regard to the construct burnout, we differentiated between the 3 subscales emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment of the Maslach burnout inventory. In a structural equation model it was seen that above all the work-life conflict is positively associated with emotional exhaustion whereas the life-work conflict has a stronger positive correlation with depersonalisation and a negative relationship with personal accomplishment. Altogether, the results emphasise the importance of a successful interaction between professional work and private life ("work-life balance") for the health of medical personnel.

Nitzsche A; Driller E; Kowalski C; Ansmann L; Pfaff H

2013-05-01

358

Building with the sun. Fifty solar energy residential areas in North-Rhine Westphalia; Bauen mit der Sonne. 50 Solarsiedlungen in Nordrhein-Westfalen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the following years fifty forward-looking residential area projects are supposed to be realised in North-Rhine Westphalia. Only those projects, which meet exactly defined energetic, ecological and social requirements will be subsidised with corresponding incentives. These requirements have been determined in a specially elaborated planning guide line. Despite the strict requirements acceptance by communities is very good. Five projects are already being constructed or are close to the beginning of construction. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Nordrhein-Westfalen sollen in den kommenden Jahren 50 zukunftsweisende Siedlungsprojekte realisiert werden. Nur solche Projekte, die genau definierte energetische, oekologische und soziale Anforderungen erfuellen, kommen in den Genuss der entsprechenden Foerdermittel. Festgelegt sind diese Anforderungen in einem eigens erarbeiteten Planungsleitfaden. Trotz der hohen Ansprueche ist die Resonanz der Kommunen gut. Fuenf Projekte sind schon im Bau bzw. stehen kurz davor. (orig.)

Everding, D. [Ministerium fuer Bauen und Wohnen des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany)

1999-01-01

359

Villes et infrastructures de transport du Rhin supérieur : des grands équipements structurants ? Cities and transport infrastructures in the Upper Rhine area: major structuring facilities?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’espace franco-germano-suisse du Rhin supérieur dispose d’un maillage de villes performantes : métropole de Mannheim, Eurodistrict de Strasbourg, agglomération trinationale de Bâle... De par sa situation géographique, le sillon rhénan est aussi un couloir de transit d’importance européenne. Une coopération fonctionnelle dans différents domaines du transport comme les aéroports, les gares ou les ports, peut hisser cette région au plan européen et mondial.Cette étude analyse les interactions entre les projets d’équipements transport et les villes et s’articule autour des points suivants : les métropoles en tant que plates-formes intermodales, les corridors : réalités, projets, enjeux ; les agglomérations et les jeux transfrontaliers. Elle s’efforce de présenter les évolutions d’infrastructures des différents modes de transport en corrélation avec les projets de villes.The French-German-Swiss area of the upper Rhine offers a meshing of successful cities: metropolis of Mannheim, Eurodistrict of Strasbourg, Basel trinational agglomeration... Because of its geographical situation, the Rhine valley is also a transit corridor of European importance. A functional cooperation in various transport fields such as airports, railway stations or ports, may advance this area to European and worldwide level.This study analyzes the interactions between cities and transport facilities projects.?It is based on the following points: metropolises as intermodal platforms; corridors: realities, projects, stakes; towns and cross-border games, and it tries to present the infrastructure developments of various modes in conjunction with the towns’ projects.

Joël Forthoffer

2012-01-01

360

Lost in Translation: The Participatory Imperative and Local Water Governance in North Thailand and Southwest Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD), while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two watersheds in North Thailand and Southwest Germany, this paper analyses how the participatory imperative in water governance is translated at the local level. Evidence suggests that in both countries public participation in water management is still in its infancy, with legislative and executive responsibilities being divided between a variety of state agencies and local authorities. Bureaucratic restructuring and technocratic attitudes, passive resistance on the part of administrative staff towards inclusive processes, and a trend towards the (re)centralization of responsibilities for water governance in both study regions undermines community-based and stakeholder-driven water governance institutions, thus calling into question the subsidiarity principle. State-driven participatory processes tend to remain episodic and ceremonial and have not (yet) gone beyond the informative and consultative stage. Meaningful public participation, promised on paper and in speeches, gets lost in translation too often.

Andreas Neef

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010) were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs) which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

Michael Dauderstädt

2013-01-01

362

Assessment of the river habitat quality in undeveloped areas of Serbia applying the RHS (river habitat survey) method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paper's main goal is to establish 'RHS reference site', which will be the basis for future classification of river habitat quality in other regions of Serbia. River habitats in Golijska Moravica and Jerma basin have been assessed and classified by RHS method, and reference values are determined (which would serve for the next research of river habitats in Serbia). In Golijska Moravica and Jerma basin semi-natural and predominantly unmodified habitats with high diversity are dominant. If we compare HQA index of Moravica and Jerma with HQA indexes in some European countries (Austria, Germany) of same river type (small, shallow mountain rivers) we can conclude that sites in Moravica and Jerma basin have higher habitat diversity. Within river basins there are spatial differences of HQA index value. River sites in Moravica and Jerma basin have lower values of HMS index than sites in European countries. The impact of individual characteristics on total HQA and HMS score is also determined in this paper. Results of this paper are important for conservation of natural habitats, for river basin management plans and to estimate environmental impact of future water management activities in these basins.

Urošev Marko; Milanovi? Ana; Milijaševi? Dragana

2009-01-01

363

The United States’ Policy toward Germany 1933--1938  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Britain was the main conflict in the west. And the United States’ policy toward Germany was subject to this conflict. In order to create in Europe a balance of power which was in the United States’ favor, and to prevent Britain and France from controlling Europe completely, the United States adopted a neutral policy toward Germany, and did help the recovery of Germany. And Germany wanted to absorb a lot of fund to recover her economy and rebuild her army, with the hope of regaining the position as one of the western powers. So it was necessary for both two countries to maintain good relationship between them. But with the rise of Nazi Germany, Hitler did adopt a very aggressive diplomatic policy, which seriously harmed the United States’ interests. So the United States’ policy toward Germany began to change. This thesis tries to analyze the United States’ policy toward Germany before the breakout of Second World War.

Jian Xu

2009-01-01

364

Development of intensive care medicine in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As of 1991, intensive care medicine in Germany is not an independent medical specialty but a part of other main medical specialities such as anesthesiology, internal medicine, surgery, and pediatrics. Accordingly, there is neither formal training nor a separate board examination in intensive care medicine. As in other countries, intensive care units (ICUs) were established during the 1950s and 1960s, triggered by the positive experience with consolidation of polio victims in special respiratory care units. Surgical (or operative) ICUs predominantly are operated by anesthesiology departments, as anesthesiologists' expertise in respiratory and hemodynamic support qualifies them for the management of the critically ill patient in the perioperative phase. This article gives a brief review of the development of intensive care medicine in Germany, thereby providing the historical background for its present national and regional organization, facilities, and education and training programs.

Prien T; Meyer J; Lawin P

1991-05-01

365

Second births in western Germany and France  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We compare second birth risks in France and western Germany using data from the Family and Fertility Survey. Second birth risks are higher for highly educated women than for women with lower education in both countries. In western Germany, the positive effect weakens after controlling for the education level of the partner. The positive effect of French women's education remains unchanged, even after controlling for the partners' characteristics. We interpret this finding in the sense that work and family life are more compatible in France, where highly educated women can turn their education more often into work opportunities and income. West German women often have to make a decision between an employment career and motherhood as two exclusive life options. In such a situation, it is primarily the partners' earning potential that influences fertility.

Katja Köppen

2006-01-01

366

Prevention among immigrants: the example of Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A large and increasing part of the European population has a history of migration. Germany, for example, is home to about 15 million people with migrant background, which amounts to 19% of its population. Migrants may have differences in their lifestyle, health beliefs and risk factors compared to the autochthonous populations. Discussion As for example studies on children's participation in routine prevention activities have shown, these differences can have a relevant impact on the access of migrants to the health care system and are likely to lower their participation in prevention programs compared to the autochthonous population. To increase the uptake of prevention programs, barriers to access must be identified and approaches to reduce them must be developed. Summary Taking the example of Germany, a need exists for prevention programs that include (migrant sensitive) and specifically address (migrant specific) migrants. These should be of sufficient scale, evidence-based, sustainable and evaluated at regular intervals.

Spallek Jacob; Zeeb Hajo; Razum Oliver

2010-01-01

367

Aquifer thermal energy stores in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes the state of essential demonstration projects of heat and cold storage in aquifers in Germany. Into the energy supply system of the buildings of the German Parliament in Berlin, there are integrated both a deep brine-bearing aquifer for the seasonal storage of waste heat from power and heat cogeneration and a shallow-freshwater bearing aquifer for cold storage. In Neubrandenburg, a geothermal heating plant which uses a 1.200 m deep aquifer is being retrofitted into an aquifer heat storage system which can be charged with the waste heat from a gas and steam cogeneration plant. The first centralised solar heating plant including an aquifer thermal energy store in Germany was constructed in Rostock. Solar collectors with a total area of 1000m2 serve for the heating of a complex of buildings with 108 flats. A shallow freshwater-bearing aquifer is used for thermal energy storage. (Authors)

2000-01-01

368

[BSE and scrapie diagnosis in Germany].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The detection of pathological prion protein is considered as pathognomonic for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. According to the EU regulations cattle older than 30 months of age (Germany 24 months) and slaughtered for human consumption must be tested by using BSE rapid tests. Likewise must be fallen stock and clinically affected animals. This article gives an overview over the diagnostic hierarchy and organization of the diagnostic system for BSE and scrapie in Germany. All suspect cases found by rapid testing are reinvestigated and clarified by the National reference laboratory for these diseases which is part of the recently founded Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases at the Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals located on the isle of Riems. Until the end of 2001 130 BSE cases were confirmed out of 230 submissions.

Groschup MH; Stolze A

2002-03-01

369

Macroeconomic Uncertainty and Economic Performance for Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study finds that uncertainties in interest rates, commodity prices and money aggregate affect economic outcomes for Germany. Both interest rate and monetary policy uncertainty measures are positively correlated with interest rates, while commodity price uncertainty is negatively correlated with the output level. However, uncertainties in exchange rate, price and income do not have a statistically significant predictive power for income, prices or the interest rate.

Hakan Berument

2005-01-01

370

The Radiation Protection Register in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Radiation Protection Register is currently being established in Germany. It will compile all personal data from physical radiation protection control of occupationally exposed individuals, including control data from personal dose and incorporation measurements as well as data on the registration of radiation passes for persons working at alternating facility sites. The collected data will be used for long-term and transregional control of legally permissible exposure limits, as a source for radiological information on individuals, and for scientific evaluation. (orig.)

Nitschke, J. (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene)

1993-08-01

371

Electricity - Germany must strengthen its grid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As Germany decided to phase out nuclear and to bet on new electricity sources, it must adapt and renew its high voltage grid in order to accommodate the possible fluctuations of wind energy and solar energy productions: some wind turbines had to be stopped because the grid was unable to transport the produced electricity. Four companies are involved in the grid management. Investments for new lines are important. Technological options are studied: underground cables, high temperature cables

2012-02-02

372

Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pensionsystem in Germany. The authorís goal was to present both, past and present solutions employed by the Germanís pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular German approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of implementing in the German reality the special smart card system for pensioners.

Jaros?aw Poteraj

2008-01-01

373

[Transplantation and organ donation in Germany  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since the first kidney transplantation in Germany 1963 organ transplantation progressed in quality and quantity. Despite a very successful development the national transplant program stagnates since 1990 with even regression in renal transplantation. As number of patients in need of renal replacement therapy has grown now to about 40,000 it is of great importance to improve the situation especially in regard to kidney transplantation.

Schoeppe W; Smit H

1996-06-01

374

[Transplantation and organ donation in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the first kidney transplantation in Germany 1963 organ transplantation progressed in quality and quantity. Despite a very successful development the national transplant program stagnates since 1990 with even regression in renal transplantation. As number of patients in need of renal replacement therapy has grown now to about 40,000 it is of great importance to improve the situation especially in regard to kidney transplantation. PMID:8737542

Schoeppe, W; Smit, H

1996-06-01

375

EU Policy. Germany debates ownership unbundling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The European Commission has proposed an extensive overhaul of Europe's energy market with the aim to improve competition, spark infrastructure investments and create a cross-border European power market. However, ownership unbundling (OU), has been met with resistance, particularly in Germany, where four powerful energy companies rule over an oligopoly that many say is causing high energy prices. Several experts in this field have serious doubts if OU will drive down prices.

Nicola, S.

2008-01-15

376

Germany to Compensate Nazi Slave Laborers  

Science.gov (United States)

On Wednesday May 30, 2001, German lawmakers voted nearly unanimously to remove the final legal obstacle to free a $4.5 billion fund to begin to compensate over 1.5 million survivors of Nazi slave labor camps. Germany has already paid over $60 billion in restitution to victims of the Nazis, but this is the first time that slave labor has been specifically included. German companies have long admitted they used slave labor during the Nazi regime but insist they did so only because they'd been pressured by the Nazis. However, 6,300 German companies have already pledged contributions to the industry fund drive, which was started three years ago to stave off lawsuits from American firms against some of Germany's biggest manufacturers including Volkswagen, BMW, and Dailmer-Benz for their participation in slave labor in the earlier half of the 20th century. The plan for compensation calls for two categories of slave labor: $6,600 will be given to those forced to work under life-threatening conditions including concentration camps, and $2,200 will be given to the victims who were forced to work under "less onerous conditions." While these payment are seen as a merely symbolic gesture, German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder explained that the compensation "sends a signal that Germany is fully conscious of the terrible crimes of its past, and will remain so."

Missner, Emily D.

377

[Pain management after ambulatory surgery in Germany].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An increasing percentage of surgical procedures are performed in an ambulatory setting. However, a fairly high number of patients experience moderate to severe postoperative pain and pain is a common reason for unanticipated hospital admission. An adequate postoperative pain therapy in the ambulatory setting is therefore essential not only for ethical reasons or improvements in recovery but also for economic reasons but - in Germany - still remains inadequate. The following article deals with the problems that cause inadequat pain therapy after ambulatory surgery in Germany and introduces different therapeutic options, strategies and drugs relevant to optimize pain therapy after ambulatory surgery. Major aspects are education of the patient, the use of adequate non-opioid analgesics and implementation of regional analgesia techniques. Non-opioid analgesics are known to be effective to reduce opioid requirements and side effects; however, not all non-opioid analgesics are similar effective. Furthermore side effects and risks of these drugs need to be considered in individual patients. Benefits from regional anesthesia and analgesia techniques are well known after sugery. Experiences from other countries demonstrate improved analgesia, less side effects (e.g. sedation, insomnia) and increased patients satisfaction associated with continuous peripheral nerve blocks at home. In Germany, these techniques are not frequently used but need to be considered in the future to optimize postoperative pain management after ambulatory surgery.

Englbrecht JS; Pogatzki-Zahn EM

2010-01-01

378

Propagation characteristics of thunderstorms in southern Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The propagation of thunderstorms in southern Germany was investigated. The thunderstorms were observed by a lightning position system during the summer months of the years 1992 to 1996. On average every second day thunderstorms were observed anywhere in southern Germany. In general thunderstorms approach from westerly and south-westerly directions. The average speed is 13 m/s. No significant relation between the occurrence of thunderstorms and the large scale synoptic pattern described by the Grosswetterlagen (large scale weather pattern) was found. Thunderstorms were observed during almost all Grosswetterlagen. The reduction to 8 weather pattern based on the low-level flow in southern Germany showed that thunderstorms are likely when the flow has westerly directions (43%) or easterly directions (20%). Three distinct groups of different lightning patterns could be identified; stationary, moving thunderstorms and thunderstorm lines. The convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the wind shear were retrieved from the radio soundings from Muenchen and Stuttgart. On average CAPE was 583 J/kg for stationary, 701 J/kg for moving thunderstorms, and 876 J/kg for thunderstorm lines. The average bulk Richardson numbers are 152, 80 and 52 for stationary, moving thunderstorms and thunderstorm lines, respectively. The steering level was found to be at about 3 and 6 km m.s.l. However, it should be noted, that in most cases the soundings do not completely describe the local environment of thunderstorms, since radio soundings are only available twice a day. (orig.)

Hagen, M.; Bartenschlager, B.; Finke, U.

1998-05-01

379

Experience with the SE in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rather significant proportion of the Societas Europaeas (the European Company, or SE) formed to date have had German roots. German corporate law has been enriched by an interesting alternative which meanwhile seems to have gained momentum. This contribution focuses on SEs incorporated by German entrepreneurs and provides an interesting account concerning the use of SEs in Germany in practice, such as Allianz, Fresenius, BASF and Porsche. Has the SE been used to circumvent rigid company law provisions or is it a more flexible and effective tool, perhaps, for company mobility? The practical motives behind setting up this company form are also reflected upon. These include: the facilitation of cross-border mergers; transfer of the registered office; the ‘European’ image; a more flexible form of co-determination in large companies (reduction of the number of supervisory board members); avoidance and freezing of co-determination for medium-sized enterprises; the appeal of the one-tier system and its endangerment by German co-determination; and flat and uniform structures for company groups. The author also briefly discusses some of the problems arising from the formation of SEs in Germany. He ultimately concludes that practice has shown that it is possible to work with the legal regime of the SE in Germany, which adds a new company form to those available in that Member State.

Jochem Reichert

2008-01-01

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