WorldWideScience
1

Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right. The Rhine, one of the largest and most used waterways in central Europe, winds its way through five countries from the Swiss-Austrian Alps to the North Sea coast of the Netherlands. The river valley is densely populated, as seen in this image, which shows the French city of Strasbourg, the light blue and orange area in the upper left center; and the German cities of Kehl, across the river from Strasbourg and Offenburg, the bright area in right center. The fertile valley is famous for its wine production and most of the agricultural areas in the image, shown in purple patches, are vineyards. The light green areas are forest. Scientists can use radar images like this one to monitor the effects of urban and agricultural development on sensitive ecosystems such as the Rhine River valley. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is 34.2 kilometers by 33.2 kilometers (21.2 miles by 20.6 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 7.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

1994-01-01

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Non-native Gobiid species in the lower River Rhine (Germany): recent range extensions and densities.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 27, ?. 1 (2011), s. 153-155. ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : the lower River Rhine Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.869, year: 2011

Borcherding, J.; Staas, S.; Krüger, S.; Ondra?ková, Markéta; Šlapanský, Lud?k; Jurajda, Pavel

2011-01-01

3

Pollution Along the Rhine River  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout human history, water has played a dual role as a life-giving liquid and as a resource for waste disposal. Without careful management, these two roles can conflict, with potentially dangerous results. This video documents the polluted condition of the Rhine River and one of its tributaries, the Emscher, in 1990. It also shows how some pollutants enter the river, and discusses some studies which were conducted to examine the effects of the pollution on fish and seals in the river and in the North Sea, where it empties. The segment is three minutes forty-four seconds in length.

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Richness and diversity of parasite communities in European eels Anguilla anguilla of the River Rhine, Germany, with special reference to helminth parasites.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 121 European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from 2 sampling sites on the River Rhine were investigated in respect of their parasite communities. Special attention was given to the swim bladders, intestines, gills and fins of the fish. Twelve different parasite species were found to live in and on the eels. Data from each sampling site were kept separate. Parasites found in descending order of prevalence were: Anguillicola crassus, Trypanosoma granulosum, Myxobolus sp., Paratenuisentis ambiguus, Pseudodactylogyrus sp., Bothriocephalus claviceps, Myxidium giardi, Pomphorhynchus laevis, Trichodina sp., Raphidascaris acus, Acanthocephalus lucii and Acanthocephalus anguillae. Significantly different prevalences were reported for L3 larvae of A. crassus, adult P. ambiguus, B. claviceps and Myxobolus sp. at the 2 sampling sites. The highest number of parasite species was recorded from the intestine, which contained up to 6 different helminths. The coexistence of the acanthocephalans P. laevis and P. ambiguus, which showed clear patterns of distribution within the intestine of the respective hosts, was reported for the first time. Up to 3 different helminth species were found in the intestine of individual fish. Among those, acanthocephalans were the most prevalent worms with the eel-specific parasite P. ambiguus as the dominant species not only of the intestinal but also of the total component communities. Both infra and component communities exhibited low diversity and were dominated by this single species. The evenness reached only approximately 50% or less and it remained unclear why the helminth communities of the eels from the River Rhine with its huge catchment area exhibit such a low parasite diversity and high dominance. PMID:10503258

Sures, B; Knopf, K; Würtz, J; Hirt, J

1999-09-01

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The distribution of the lanthanum anomaly in the Dutch branches of the Rhine River  

Science.gov (United States)

The elements lanthanum to lutetium, usually referred as the REE, are increasingly used in numerous high technology products and processes. Such products are Gadolinium chelates, used as contrasting agents in medical imaging, and produce positive anthropogenic Gd-anomalies in rare earth shale normalized (Reenasc) patterns in rivers, surface and ground waters and shallow seas. Because of the increased use of the REE, the monitoring program of the Rhine-Meuse branches and surface water influenced by them in the Netherlands was extended from 2008 with the REE. In this monitoring program both the total and dissolved (monitoring station Lobith, where the River Rhine enters the Netherlands, the REEnasc-patterns show beside the well-known Gd-anomaly a distinct La-anomaly. This positive La-anomaly in the Rhine River is recently also reported by Kulaksiz and Bau (2011, sampling was done in 2009) and first occur in the Rhine River north of the city of Worms, 400km upstream of the Dutch-German border. Kulaksiz and Bau could show that this anomaly is of anthropogenic origin and can be traced back to the effluent from a production plant for fluid catalytic cracking catalysts at Rhine river-km 447.4. The amount of anthropogenic lanthanum in the total fraction in Lobith station is an order of magnitude larger than in the dissolved fraction indicating that the suspended matter in the Rhine River is the major carrier of the anthropogenic lanthanum. All REEnasc- patterns of the branches of the Rhine River show in addition to the Gd-anomaly a positive La-anomaly, while in the Meuse River only a Gd-anomaly is observed. In the influenced surface waters of the Rhine and Meuse Rivers always a Gd-anomaly occurs but in those influenced by the Rhine tributaries also the La-anomaly occurs. In the poster the load of lanthanum over the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 in the dissolved and total fraction at Lobith and the distribution of the La anomaly over the branches of the Rhine River in the Netherlands (4 monitoring stations) and influenced surface water (5 monitoring stations) will be shown. The Meuse monitoring stations will be given for comparison. Kulaksiz, S., Bau, M., 2011. Rare earth elements in the Rhine River, Germany: First case of anthropogenic lanthanum as a dissolved microcontaminant in the hydrosphere. Environment International, 37: 973-879.

Verheul, M.; Klaver, G.; Bakker, I.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

2011-12-01

6

Flood trends along the Rhine: the role of river training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several previous studies have detected positive trends in flood flows in German rivers, among others, at Rhine gauges over the past six decades. The presence and detectability of the climate change signal in flood records has been controversially discussed, particularly against the background of massive river training measures in the Rhine. In the past the Rhine catchment has been heavily trained, including the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. The present study investigates the role of river training on changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the effect of the Rhine weir cascade and of a series of detention basins was investigated. By homogenising the original flood flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be from a few percentage points to more than 10 percentage points smaller compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures, and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges during this period was partly caused by an unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. This superposition resulted from an acceleration of the Rhine waves due to the construction of the weir cascade and associated channelisation and dike heightening. However, at the same time, tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual maximum Rhine peaks, showed strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of another driver or drivers which acted alongside river training.

S. Vorogushyn

2013-10-01

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Complex fluvial response to Lateglacial and Holocene allogenic forcing in the Lower Rhine Valley (Germany)  

OpenAIRE

The Rhine catchment experienced strong changes in upstream allogenic forcing during the last 20,000 years. Climatic changes of the glacialeinterglacial transition and steadily growing human impact during the second half of the Holocene forced the Rhine to adapt, resulting in changes in the fluvial morphology. The lower Rhine left two late Weichselian terraces and many Holocene palaeo-meanders in the Lower Rhine Valley (western Germany). This well-preserved terrace sequence is used...

Erkens, G.; Hoffmann, T.; Gerlach, R.; Klostermann, J. E. M.

2011-01-01

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Invasive Ponto-Caspian Amphipods and Fish Increase the Distribution Range of the Acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the River Rhine  

OpenAIRE

Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Th...

Emde, Sebastian; Ru?ckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W.; Klimpel, Sven

2012-01-01

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Speciation of heavy metals in River Rhine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical speciation of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb in River Rhine was studied by measuring free ion concentration and distribution in nanoparticles, and by comparing the measurement with speciation modeling. Concentrations of free metal ions were determined in situ using Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT). The percentage of free over total (filtered) metal concentration is 52%, 33%, 2.6%, 0.48% and 0.12% for respectively Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu, i.e. the degree of metal complexation in the river is the lowest for Zn and the highest for Cu. Metals in 1-300 nm particles were analyzed using Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation (AsF-FFF), but the overall recovery is quite low. The nano-sized Cu detected is mainly associated with DOM of 1-5 nm, whereas Pb and Zn are dominantly associated with particles of iron hydroxides and clay of larger size (30-100 nm). Free ion concentrations calculated with the speciation modeling are in good agreement with the measurements, except for Pb. Based on the model, DOM-bound is the most important complexed form for Cu and Cd, whereas formation of (bi)carbonate and EDTA complexes are more important for Ni and Zn. Adsorption of Pb to DOM is probably overestimated by the model, whereas Pb adsorption to iron hydroxides is underestimated. PMID:23127623

Vega, Flora A; Weng, Liping

2013-01-01

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Extended reference precipitation and temperature dataset for the river Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

The need of a reliable and extended dataset for the river Rhine lies in the growing necessity of evaluating the effects of climate change. For the countries directly involved, which benefit and sometimes distract from the extreme discharges of the Rhine, these kinds of datasets are of great importance. They can act as reference for the correction of errors in precipitation predictions from General Circulation Models or from simulated datasets such as the ERA-40 and ERA-interim. These errors can lead to over/underestimations of hydrological simulation and latent use of hydrological forecasts. The purpose of this study is to present an extended reference dataset of daily values of precipitation and temperature, from 1961 until 2008, for the whole basin of the river Rhine. The proposed dataset is based on the historical data from 1961 until 1995 of the International Commission of the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (referred to as CHR). Our concern is to extend the CHR set until 2008, creating an updated reference for future studies. The Rhine basin is divided into three sub-catchments. These sub-catchments correspond to the German, French and Swiss basins of the river Rhine. For each sub-catchment, gridded datasets of daily values of precipitation and temperature are used. The datasets are obtained from REGNIE, University of Trier and MeteoSwiss-ETH, for the German, French and Swiss sub-catchment of the Rhine, respectively. Possible gaps that are found in the datasets, are filled with values from E_OBS Gridded Dataset, obtain from ECA&D. The subsets of these three sub-catchments are joined together and create a long term dataset that covers the entire Rhine basin. The extended dataset, referred to as CHR08, is rescaled to 25 km taking into account the topography of the catchment areas. In order to eliminate any artificial trend created in the CHR08 dataset, some homogeneity checks are performed, using the E_OBS dataset. Here, homogeneity tests of the variance, the mean and the maximum number of consecutive wet days are applied and presented. The CHR08 dataset is implemented, analyzed and presented with Delft-FEWS. To determine whether the CHR08 dataset contains useful and correct information about the discharges of the Rhine, the HBV-96 hydrological model is used. The HBV-96 model produces daily discharges of the Rhine in each sub-catchment. The observed maximum annual discharges are compared with the corresponding simulated discharges at each sub-catchment. The annual extreme discharges at Lobith (German-Dutch border) and the variation of extremes discharges for the years 1961 until 2008 are also presented.

Photiadou, Christiana; Weerts, Albrecht; van den Hurk, Bart

2010-05-01

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Contaminant variability in a sedimentation area of the river Rhine.  

OpenAIRE

Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended solids and erosion of deposited sediment in the shallow Dutch lakes (due to wave action) are likely to change contamination levels of sediments in these lakes, which is the subject of this thesis. The aim o...

Winkels, H. J.

1997-01-01

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Future flood risk estimates along the river Rhine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Europe, water management is moving from flood defence to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. It is expected that climate change and socio-economic development will lead to an increase in flood risk in the Rhine basin. To optimize spatial planning and flood management measures, studies are needed that quantify future flood risks and estimate their uncertainties. In this paper, we estimated the current and future fluvial flood risk in 2030 for the entire Rhine basin in a scenario study. The change in value at risk is based on two land-use projections derived from a land-use model representing two different socio-economic scenarios. Potential damage was calculated by a damage model, and changes in flood probabilities were derived from two climate scenarios and hydrological modeling. We aggregated the results into seven sections along the Rhine. It was found that the annual expected damage in the Rhine basin may increase by between 54% and 230%, of which the major part (~ three-quarters can be accounted for by climate change. The highest current potential damage can be found in the Netherlands (110 billion €, compared with the second (80 billion € and third (62 billion € highest values in two areas in Germany. Results further show that the area with the highest fluvial flood risk is located in the Lower Rhine in Nordrhein-Westfalen in Germany, and not in the Netherlands, as is often perceived. This is mainly due to the higher flood protection standards in the Netherlands as compared to Germany.

A. H. te Linde

2011-02-01

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Anthropogenic dissolved and colloid/nanoparticle-bound samarium, lanthanum and gadolinium in the Rhine River and the impending destruction of the natural rare earth element distribution in rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

The strong increase in the consumption of rare earth elements (REE) in high-tech products and processes is accompanied by increasing amounts of REE released into the environment. Following the first report of Gd contamination of the hydrosphere in 1996, anthropogenic Gd originating from contrast agents has now been reported worldwide from river and estuarine waters, coastal seawater, groundwater and tap water. Recently, microcontamination with La, that is derived from a point source where catalysts for petroleum refining are produced, has been detected in the Rhine River in Germany and the Netherlands. Here we report the occurrence of yet another REE microcontamination of river water: in addition to anthropogenic Gd and La, the Rhine River now also shows significant amounts of anthropogenic Sm. The anthropogenic Sm, which enters the Rhine River north of Worms, Germany, with the same industrial wastewater that carries the anthropogenic La, can be traced through the Middle and Lower Rhine to the Netherlands. At Leverkusen, Germany, some 250 km downstream from the point source at Worms, anthropogenic Sm still contributes up to 87% of the total dissolved Sm concentration of the Rhine River. Results from ultrafiltration suggest that while the anthropogenic Gd is not particle-reactive and hence exclusively present in the truly dissolved REE pool (levels at which ecotoxicological effects have been documented. Because of the increasing use of REE and other formerly "exotic" trace elements in high-tech applications, these critical metals have now become emerging contaminants that should be monitored, and it appears that studies of their biogeochemical behavior in natural freshwaters might soon no longer be possible.

Kulaks?z, Serkan; Bau, Michael

2013-01-01

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Decision support and river management strategies for the Rhine in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a methodology for assessing and comparing alternative river management strategies for the Dutch branches of the river Rhine. The three objectives considered in the analysis are: safety against flooding which is a necessary condition to maintain and enhance economic development of a major part of the Netherlands, improving inland navigation conditions along the river (the Rhine is a major transport route between the port of Rotterdam and Germany), and increasing the ecological values of the river system. This paper describes the methodology and models that are used to assess alternative ways of meeting these objectives. We used hydrodynamic modeling aided by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a new approach that has some important advantages compared to traditional approaches. The analysis shows the trade-offs for various strategies (for example safety versus nature, nature versus inland navigation, agriculture versus nature etc.) and looks for possibility to create win-win situations. It also produces scorecards for various strategies, which show their impacts on the functions of the river and their financial consequences. (author)

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Late Glacial fluvial response of the Niers-Rhine (western Germany) to climate and vegetation change  

Science.gov (United States)

The Niers valley was part of the Rhine system that came into existence during the maximum Saalian glaciation and was abandoned at the end of the Weichselian. The aim of the study was to explain the Late Pleniglacial and Late Glacial fluvial dynamics and to explore the external forcing factors: climate change, tectonics and sea level.The sedimentary units have been investigated by large-scale coring transects and detailed cross-sections over abandoned channels. The temporal fluvial development has been reconstructed by means of geomorphological relationships, pollen analysis and 14C dating.The Niers-Rhine experienced a channel pattern change from braided, via a transformational phase, to meandering in the early Late Glacial. This change in fluvial style is explained by climate amelioration at the Late Pleniglacial to Late Glacial transition (at ca. 12.5 k 14C yr BP) and climate-related hydrological, lithological and vegetation changes. A delayed fluvial response of ca. 400 14C yr (transitional phase) was established. The channel transformations are not related to tectonic effects and sea-level changes. Successive river systems have similar gradients of ca. 35-40 cm km-1.A meandering river system dominated the Allerød and Younger Dryas periods. The threshold towards braiding was not crossed during the Younger Dryas, but increased aeolian activity has been observed on the Younger Dryas point bars. The final abandonment of the Niers-Rhine was dated shortly after the Younger Dryas to Holocene transition.Traces of Laacher See pumice have been found in the Niers valley, indicating that the Niers-Rhine was still in use during the Younger Dryas. Copyright

Kasse, C.; Hoek, W. Z.; Bohncke, S. J. P.; Konert, M.; Weijers, J. W. H.; Cassee, M. L.; van der Zee, R. M.

2005-05-01

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The impact of climate change on the water quality of the Rhine river:  

OpenAIRE

In this research the effect of hydrological extremes on water quality are studied for the Rhine River, in order to assess potential water quality effects of climate change. The water quality of the Rhine was studied for the periods 1975-1977 and 1987-2005. During these periods eight hydrological extremes occured, five of which being classified as floods and three as periods of drought. The water quality during these hydrological extremes has been compared with the water quality in reference p...

Bokhoven, A. J.

2006-01-01

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How fish benefit from floodplain restoration along the lower River Rhine  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of this study were to test the beneficial value of newly created secondary channels and reconnected oxbow lakes along the lower River Rhine for fish and to give advice on position, shape and character of future water bodies. These water bodies should contribute to the rebuilding of the population of rheophilic cyprinids that are endangered due to embankment and normalization of the Rhine. The functions these water bodies fulfil during the life cycle of distinct fish species, we...

Grift, R. E.

2001-01-01

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Comparative Study of Flood Risk Management and Land Use in the Deltas of Rhine River, Yellow River and Mississippi River:  

OpenAIRE

The Rhine River in the Netherlands, the Yellow River in China and the Mississippi River in the U.S. are three great rivers in the world. Each of them is performing a significant role in the country. The delta area for each river, in particular, is served as the centre in importance and commonly the most developed region in the whole river basin. These three deltas are not excepted. All of them are the economic and cultural centre either in the district or in the whole country and all have ...

Huang B; Guangzhou, M.

2007-01-01

19

Development of Joint Climate and Discharge Projections for the International Rhine River Basin - the CHR RheinBlick2050 Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The anticipated climate change will lead to modified hydro-meteorological regimes that influence discharge behaviour and hydraulics of rivers. This has variable impacts on managed (anthropogenic) and unmanaged (natural) systems, depending on their sensitivity and vulnerability (ecology, economy, infrastructure, transport, energy production, water management, etc.). Decision makers in these contexts need adequate adaptation strategies to minimize adverse effects of climate change, i.e. an improved knowledge on the potential impacts including uncertainties means an extension of the informed options open to users. The goal of the highly applied study presented here is the development of joint, consistent climate and discharge projections for the international Rhine River catchments (Switzerland, France, Germany, Netherlands) in order to assess future changes of hydro-meteorological regimes in the meso- and macroscale Rhine River catchments and to derive and improve the understanding of such impacts on hydrologic and hydraulic processes. The RheinBlick2050 project is an international effort initiated by the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine Basin (CHR) in close cooperation with the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine. The core experiment design foresees a data-synthesis, multi-model approach where (transient) (bias- corrected) regional climate change projections are used as forcing data for existing calibrated hydrological (and hydraulic) models at a daily temporal resolution over mesoscale catchments of the Rhine River. Mainly for validation purposes, hydro-meteorological observations from national weather services are compiled into a new consistent 5 km x 5 km reference dataset from 1961 to 2005. RCM data are mainly used from the ENSEMBLES project and other existing dynamical downscaling model runs to derive probabilistic ensembles and thereby also access uncertainties on a regional scale. A benchmarking is helping to identify those atmospheric forcing data that ideally suit the needs for the subsequent hydrological model runs with the LARSIM and HBV models and evaluate those simulations too. As a result, usable information and quantifiable statements (e.g. extreme value statistics, uncertainty assessment, validation), that might form the basis for further planning or policy relevant decisions, are to be derived. Our analyses are highly influenced by the requirements of the potential users and stakeholders from government agencies who shall make use of the data and results. Here we present first results of the application of the complete data processing and modelling chain towards discharge projections on a subset of input data, albeit still without any bias correction applied to the meteorological forcing data.

Görgen, K.; Pfister, L.

2008-12-01

20

Mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV) could be introduced into Germany via migratory birds originating from Africa or southern Europe and subsequently transmitted to indigenous birds, humans, or horses by mosquitoes. Neither the virus itself nor antibodies against WNV have yet to be found in mosquitoes and horses, whereas antibodies have been detected in migrating birds and in humans that were in close contact with birds. At present, the West Nile virus itself has yet to be detected in Germany. This investigation was conducted primarily in major bird breeding, resting, and roosting habitats (hotspots) in the Upper Rhine Valley. Adult mosquitoes were trapped using CO2-baited Encephalitis Vector Surveillance (EVS)-traps and were tested for WNV by the VecTest WNV Antigen Assay. In 2007 and 2008, a total of 11,073 host-seeking adult female mosquitoes (13 species) were tested, and all tests were negative for WNV. Statistical calculations could be performed only where sufficient numbers of mosquitoes were trapped. For these sites, WNV infection among mosquitoes could be ruled out with 80% certainty. For the evaluation of the WNV situation in Germany, the results of this investigation are a further indication that the virus has not yet arrived. PMID:20618659

Timmermann, Ute; Becker, Norbert

2010-06-01

21

Migration of rheophilic fish in the large lowland rivers Meuse and Rhine, the Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

Large-scale migratory patterns of adult rheophilic fish [barbel, Barbus barbus (L.), chub, Leuciscus cephalus (L.), ide, Leuciscus idus (L.), nase, Chondrostoma nasus (L.)] were studied in relation to habitat quality and possible migration barriers in the lower rivers Meuse and Rhine, the Netherlands, using a telemetry system with transponders and detection stations based on inductive coupling. Most fish moved over short distances (

Leeuw, J. J.; Winter, H. V.

2008-01-01

22

Charred organic matter and phosphorus in black soils in the Lower Rhine Basin (Northwest Germany) indicate prehistoric agricultural burning  

OpenAIRE

We investigated the properties of dark soils, namely Luvic Phaeozems in the Lower Rhine Basin (NW-Germany). We discovered clusters of hundreds of regularly shaped pits that were always connected to the Bht horizons of adjacent Luvic Phaeozems. The occurrence of anthropogenic pits in connection with Phaeozems was never reported before, and we called them Phaeozem pits. We conducted archaeobotanical (charcoal analysis) and geochemical (black carbon, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentration...

Eckmeier, E.; Gerlach, R.; Tegtmeier, U.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

2008-01-01

23

Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Findings Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Wes...

Helmer Stefanie M; Krämer Alexander; Mikolajczyk Rafael T

2012-01-01

24

Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing ad...

Tobias Bölscher; Erik van Slobbe; Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Werners, Saskia E.

2013-01-01

25

Validation of two precipitation data sets for the Rhine River  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper evaluates a number of recently constructed or extended precipitation data sets used for hydrological applications and climate change studies in the Rhine basin. Firstly, the existing precipitation data set issued by the Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR, originally covering the period 1961–1995, was extended until 2008 using a number of additional precipitation data sets. The length extension permits the assessment of extreme discharge and precipitation values with lower uncertainty than the original version. Secondly, the E-OBS Version 4 (ECA&D gridded data set was evaluated for its performance in the Rhine basin for extreme events. The two extended precipitation data sets and a meteorological reanalysis data set were used to force a hydrological model, evaluating the influence of different precipitation forcings on the annual mean and extreme discharges compared to observational discharges for the period from 1990 until 2008. The extended version of CHR showed good agreement in terms of mean annual cycle, extreme discharge (both high and low flows, and spatial distribution of correlations with observed discharge. E-OBS performed well with respect to extreme discharge, but its performance of the mean annual cycle was rather poor in winter and remarkably well in the summer.

C. S. Photiadou

2011-06-01

26

Validation of two precipitation data sets for the Rhine River  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper evaluates a number of recently constructed or extended precipitation data sets used for hydrological applications and climate change studies in the Rhine basin. Firstly, the existing precipitation data set issued by the Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR), originally covering the period 1961-1995, was extended until 2008 using a number of additional precipitation data sets. The length extension permits the assessment of extreme discharge and precipitation values with lower uncertainty than the original version. Secondly, the E-OBS Version 4 (ECA&D gridded data set) was evaluated for its performance in the Rhine basin for extreme events. The two extended precipitation data sets and a meteorological reanalysis data set were used to force a hydrological model, evaluating the influence of different precipitation forcings on the annual mean and extreme discharges compared to observational discharges for the period from 1990 until 2008. The extended version of CHR showed good agreement in terms of mean annual cycle, extreme discharge (both high and low flows), and spatial distribution of correlations with observed discharge. E-OBS performed well with respect to extreme discharge, but its performance of the mean annual cycle was rather poor in winter and remarkably well in the summer.

Photiadou, C. S.; Weerts, A. H.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.

2011-06-01

27

Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens), Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454), Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695) and Orchestia cavimana (1,448) were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby) and invertebrates (amphipods) under special consideration of parasite dispersal. PMID:23300895

Emde, Sebastian; Rueckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

2012-01-01

28

Distribution and sources of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the River Rhine watershed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration profile of 40 polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface water along the River Rhine watershed from the Lake Constance to the North Sea was investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of point as well as diffuse sources, to estimate fluxes of PFAS into the North Sea and to identify replacement compounds of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the method performance was conducted. The PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) with concentrations up to 181 ng/L and 335 ng/L, respectively, which originated from industrial point sources. Fluxes of ?PFAS were estimated to be ?6 tonnes/year which is much higher than previous estimations. Both, the River Rhine and the River Scheldt, seem to act as important sources of PFAS into the North Sea. - The short-chained polyfluoroalkyl substances PFBA and PFBS replace PFOA and PFOA as dominating PFAS in surface waters in the River Rhine watershed.

29

From source to mouth: the sediment budget of the river Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rhine River is one of the most important waterways in Europe, but its river bed is not stable morphologically: long reaches of the river are subject to erosion or sedimentation, causing problems for navigation, infrastructure, ecology, water supply and flood safety. Commonly techniques to investigate erosion and sedimentation processes are echosoundings and sediment transport measurements. Unfortunately, these measurements fail to provide answers to essential questions such as: "Where are the sediments transported by the river coming from?", "Where are the eroded sediments going to?" and "How are the morphological processes in the upstream and downstream parts of the Rhine basin linked to each other?" This kind of information is crucial for optimizing dredging strategies and sediment supply strategies, and can only be obtained through the construction of a sediment budget, i.e. the balance between the amount of sediment entering a study area, the amount of sediment leaving the study area and the amount of sediment stored in the study area. The objective of this ongoing research project is to establish a sediment budget that starts at the source of the river Rhine in Switzerland and extends to its mouth in the Netherland. This implies quantification of the downstream fluxes of clay, silt, sand, gravel, cobbles and boulders through the river Rhine and identification and quantification of their sources and sinks. This is done by actualisation of existing sediment budgets, and by collection of essential, but hitherto missing data on the sediment input from tributaries and the exchange of channel sediment with floodplains and groyne fields. International cooperation is a prerequisite for success in this project. Up to now, budget calculations have been carried out for the German Upper, Middle and Lower Rhine. These calculations show that sand transport rates increase in the downstream direction, whereas gravel transport rates decrease, implying a net erosion of sand from the river bed and a net deposition of gravel. This is remarkable because ongoing erosion of sand in a gravel-bed river leads to bed coarsening (armouring), protecting the bed against further erosion. Part of the eroded sand travels as bed-load, but most is washed away in suspension, which implies that sand transport must be considered to be supply-limited, just as the transport of silt and clay; and that sand can be much faster supplied towards the river delta than is often assumed by river managers and geologists. Abrupt changes in sediment fluxes were observed to occur in the so-called gravel-sand transition zone close to the German-Dutch border. These preliminary calculations illustrate that sediment budget analysis does provide new insights into the Rhine system. In future more insight into the sedimentary coupling of the several Rhine reaches, as well as a better understanding of the long-term (climate change) and short-term (floods) river development are expected. Catchment-scale sediment budgets, such as the one aimed at in this study, also fulfil the requirements of recent legislation (e.g. the EU Water Framework Directive) which prescribes a catchment-scale analysis of hydrology, river morphology and ecology.

Frings, R. M.; Hillebrand, G.; Vollmer, S.

2012-04-01

30

Suitable habitats for 0-group fish in rehabilitated floodplains along the lower River Rhine  

OpenAIRE

The suitability of rehabilitated floodplains along the lower River Rhine for rheophilic cyprinids was assessed by investigating the spatial distribution of 0-group fish among, and within, three newly created secondary channels, an oxbow lake reconnected at its downstream end and several existing groyne fields. Fish were sampled during April through September 1997-1999 with seine nets and trawls and, for each sample, the habitat (physical environment) was characterized (flow, depth, substrate ...

Grift, R. E.; Buijse, A. D.; Densen, W. L. T.; Machiels, M. A. M.; Kranenbarg, S.; Breteler, J. P. K.; Backx, J. J. G. M.

2003-01-01

31

The operational flood forecasting system WAVOS for the Rivers Rhine, Elbe and Odra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extreme floods of the past decade at the river Rhine (1993 and 1995), at the river Odra (1997) and at the River Elbe (2002) caused serious damages and confirmed again the urgency of exact and reliable flood forecasting systems as tools for decision support in order to reduce flood damages. The Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) is developing suitable operational water level forecast models for the River Rhine (WAVOS Rhein), for the River Odra (WAVOS Oder), and for the River Elbe (ELBA and WAVOS Elbe). These forecast systems are continuously used by the Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration on a daily basis for low water forecasting to support inland navigation. In case of floods the systems are used by four Federal State Flood Centres for flood forecasting several times per day. In this paper the operational WAVOS water level forecasting system is described and for the three river basins examples of the forecasting results of the last floods are given. With the growing demand for prolonging the forecasting period, increasing the accuracy and spatial density of forecasts, the tasks for future improvements of the models are shown.(Author)

32

Human impact on the Middle and Late Holocene floodplain sediment characteristics along the River Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rhine catchment has an extensive history of human land use. Deforestation to create arable land started as early as 6300 cal BP, at the onset of the Late Neolithic. This caused increased erosion and sediment production on the hillslopes in the upstream part of the fluvial system. Recent studies show that this human-induced erosion also increased the suspended load sedimentation rates in the Rhine trunk valley and delta from approximately 3000 years ago. Besides such changes in the quantity of fine sediment, it is hypothesised that human land use may also change the source of the sediment supplied to the fluvial system. Sediment released by erosion during agricultural practises may be different than the sediments that erode under conditions of forest cover. If this is true, the Late Holocene floodplain sediments have different characteristics in terms of grain size and texture than older floodplain deposits (Middle Holocene). To test this, we collected 15 cores from three large stretches along the trunk Rhine River: the Upper Rhine Graben, the Lower Rhine Valley, and the Rhine Delta. Using detailed palaeogeographic reconstructions of the area, the cores were carefully selected in order to (i) to obtain the longest possible record (preferably up to 5000 years), and (ii) to have a continuous sedimentation record as much as possible. Cores are taken from residual channels, and distal flood basin and plains, although very distal sites were avoided to minimise the amount of peat or soil formation. Individual age-depth models are derived from radiocarbon dates taken in the cores, correlation of the regional deposits with a known age, and by using groundwater models (in the delta). Grain size characteristics of the siliciclastic sediment fraction were analysed every 2-5 cm, which yielded a record of grain size variations of the floodplains depositions in time. Using the end-member modelling algorithm EMMA it was possible to distinguish different groups of sediment mixtures in the floodplain reflecting the transport process (suspended and bed load sediments), and sediment source. The results show that in the last 2000-3000 years significantly more silt and fine sand are present in floodplain deposits. Because this signal is found throughout the entire catchment, it shows that (pre-historic) human impact was already capable of changing the sedimentation on the scale of the Rhine catchment before the modern era.

Erkens, G.; Prins, M.; Toonen, W.

2012-04-01

33

Geophysical prospecting of a slow active fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment, NW Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lower Rhine embayment, Germany, is currently one of the most active sectors of the Cenozoic rift system of western and central Europe. Historical records denote at least 21 earthquakes with epicentral intensities >=7, and instrumental records show a concentration of seismicity at the major bounding Peel Boundary, Erft, Feldbiss and Rurrand faults. Many fault segments were active in the recent past and formed numerous morphologic scarps. However, fault scarps are poorly preserved since low displacement rates are opposed to interference of fluvioglacial with tectonic processes, a dense vegetation cover, high precipitation rates, and human landscape modification. This makes it difficult to determine the exact location, size and geometry of active fault segments in this region and hampers estimation of long-term displacement rates and fault activity. To overcome these difficulties, we applied a combination of morphologic, geophysical, and geological methods. We carried out detailed studies at the Hemmerich site located in the Erft fault system, SE Lower Rhine embayment (6.918oE, 50.758oN). The site is characterized by a topographic scarp, 4 m high and several km long. We placed special emphasis on testing the applicability of fast and simple geophysical prospecting techniques to fault assessment, and on evaluating the scarp as a potential site to excavate the suspected fault. The geophysical methods applied comprise resistivity and chargeability tomography, ground penetrating radar, and shallow seismic reflection, all carried out along profiles perpendicular to the topographic scarp. In addition, electromagnetic and magnetic maps were acquired. Beside geophysical prospecting, we conducted microtopographic levelling and coring. We detected a major break in a shallow radar reflector, and a steep seismic velocity contrast discernible both by seismic refraction tomography and dispersion analysis. These features are in good spatial correlation with each other and with an abrupt near-surface conductivity change in the steepest sloping part of the topographic scarp. Resistivity tomography data showed a steep, narrow low-resistivity zone 20--30 m upslope from the other geophysical contrasts. Consequently, in subsequent coring, we narrowed drilling intervals in this zone and found a less than 2 m wide unit of clay. A 6-m offset of sedimentary units, and anomalous soil and sedimentary profiles in the vicinity of the clay suggest that this clay unit may mark a fault plane. Thus, joint analysis of all geophysical and coring data collected suggests, with some ambiguity, tectonic faulting at the site within the uppermost 10 m. Regional geologic assignment of cored units and pollen analysis roughly indicate middle to late Holocene activity. C14 dating is in progress. Our results underline the importance of combining geophysical prospecting with geologic investigations for successful fault detection. Future work will include trenching to adduce an unambiguous proof of a seismogenic origin of the observed features.

Streich, R.; Strecker, M.; Lück, E.; Scherbaum, F.; Schäbitz, F.; Spangenberg, U.

2003-04-01

34

Measurements concerning contamination preload of the river Rhine in 1978. Report 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Besides eventual traces of cerium-139 and cerium-144, zinc-65, cobalt-58 and niobium-95, as well as natural potassium-40, only the radionuclides iodine-131 and cesium-137 could be measured regularly. Jodine activities present varying values. The iodine activity determined by measuring water residue is lower than that determined by selective measurement of iodine-131. This is probably due to the fact that iodine evaporates while it is boiled down. The measured values for cesium-137 correspond approximately with the values measured in the river Rhine in 1977. (orig./DG)

35

Working and Training Conditions of Gynecology Residents in North Rhine-Westfalia, Germany  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: In 2002, gynecology residents in North Rhine-Westfalia (NRW) were asked how satisfied they were with their working and training conditions. A new extended survey of gynecology residents aimed to evaluate whether changes to specialist training regulations had affected residents? levels of job satisfaction and to identify areas where training conditions still urgently required improvement. Material and Methods: A total of 1223 questionnaires with 52 questions we...

Fehr, D.; Rein, D.; Fehm, T.; Fleisch, M.

2014-01-01

36

Uncertainties in simulating river/groundwater exchanges over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for an effective management of water resources. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on choices made to represent the river water stage in the model as well as on the hydrogeological parameters. Recently, a coupled surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin (Thierion et al., 2012). The present study aims at improving the estimation of the river/groundwater exchange, and thus, of the hydrodynamic of the alluvial aquifer, and at getting an idea of the associated uncertainty by performing a set of simulations that best take advantage of the different kinds of observed data. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources quantity and quality in small to regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the ISBA surface scheme that estimates the water balance, the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. In addition, the QtoZ module (Saleh et al., 2011) is used to calculate the river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river, according to three different approaches that are compared: a control experiment with constant river water stage, a rating curves approach derived from observed river discharges and river stages, and the Manning's formula, for which Manning's parameters are defined according to geomorphological parameterizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Supplementary sensitivity tests are also performed by using different hydrogeological parameter datasets (porosity and transmissivity). Two sources of DEM were used for this part. Additionally, sensitivity to the time step of the estimation (daily versus monthly) was studied. The evaluation is made against observed water levels and river discharges collected both from the french and german riversides of the alluvial plain. A heavy network of water table depth observations is also available to evaluate the simulated piezometric heads. Preliminary results show that the primary source of errors when simulating river stage - and hence groundwater-river interactions - is the uncertainties associated with the topographic data used to define the riverbed elevation. It confirms the need to access to more accurate DEM for estimating riverbed elevation and studying groundwater-river interactions, at least at regional scale. References Saleh, F., Flipo, N., Habets, F., Ducharne, A., Oudin, L., Viennot, P., Ledoux, E. Modeling the impact of in-stream water level fluctuations on stream-aquifer interactions at the regional scale (2011)Journal of Hydrology, 400 (3-4) pp 490-500 Thierion C., Longuevergne L., Habets F. Ledoux E., Ackerer P., Majdalani S., Leblois E., Lecluse S., Martin E, Queguiner S., Viennot P., Assessing the water balance of the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem, Journal of Hydrology 424-425 , pp. 68-83

Vergnes, Jean-Pierre; Habets, Florence

2014-05-01

37

Do eel parasites reflect the local crustacean community? A case study from the Rhine River system.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2003, the parasite fauna of 197 European eels Anguilla anguilla, captured at three different locations (Laufenburg, Karlsruhe and Beneeden Leeuwen) in the River Rhine, was analysed. The eels harboured a total of 18 species, among them the protozoa (Myxidium giardi, Myxobolus kotlani and Trypanosoma granulosum), acanthocephalans (Acanthocephalus anguillae, Acanthocephalus lucii, Echinorhynchus truttae, Pomphorhynchus laevis), nematodes (Paraquimperia tenerrima, Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, Camallanus lacustris, Raphidascaris acus, Spinitectus inermis and Anguillicola crassus), cestodes (Bothriocephalus claviceps and Proteocephalus macrocephalus) and monogeneans (Pseudodactylogyrus sp.). The parasite fauna at the different locations is discussed with respect to the crustacean fauna present at these locations. The investigation shows that changes in the composition of the crustacean fauna, due to the anthropogenic breakdown of a biogeographic barrier, are reflected in the composition of the intestinal eel parasite fauna. PMID:17578598

Thielen, Frankie; Münderle, Marcel; Taraschewski, Horst; Sures, Bernd

2007-06-01

38

Development and application of a 1D floodplain sedimentation model for the River Rhine in The Netherlands  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, concern about the morphological and ecological condition of the rivers Rhine and Meuse has increased. Simultaneously with the projects for rehabilitation, measures were proposed to improve the discharge capacity of the high-water floodway, in order to reduce the risk of river flooding. Although many studies focus on the impact of different landscaping measures on the river hydrodynamics (water level and discharge capacity), little attention is paid to the sustainability of the proposed measures with respect to sedimentation. In this study a one-dimensional (1D) floodplain sedimentation model was developed that estimates average sediment accumulation over floodplain sections and that can be used for estimation of changes in floodplain sedimentation caused by landscaping measures. The model was successfully calibrated and validated using sedimentation measurements carried out at different floodplain sections along the river Rhine in The Netherlands during floods. Application of the model to the main branches of the river Rhine in The Netherlands indicates that the average annual sediment accumulation equals 1.72 kg/m 2/yr, or 394 million kg/yr. This is about 13% of the total annual suspended sediment load transported into The Netherlands at Lobith.

Asselman, Nathalie E. M.; van Wijngaarden, Marjolein

2002-11-01

39

Impact of variable river water stage on the simulation of groundwater-river interactions over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for effective management of water resources, and hence is the main topic of the NAPROM project financed by the French Ministry of Ecology. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on the choice made to represent the river water stage in the model. Recently, a couple surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin. The river stage was first chosen to be constant over the major part of the basin for the computation of the groundwater-river interactions. The present study aims to introduce a variable river water stage to better simulate these interactions and to quantify the impact of this process over the simulated hydrological variables. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources and quality in regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. The input data consist in runoff and infiltration coming from a simulation of the ISBA land surface scheme covering the 1986-2003 period. The QtoZ module allows to calculate river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river. Two approaches are compared. The first one uses rating curves derived from observed river discharges and river stages. The second one is based on the Manning's formula. Manning's parameters are defined with geomorphological parametrizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). First results show a relatively good agreement between observed and simulated river water height. Taking into account a variable river stage seems to increase the amount of water exchanged between groundwater and river. Systematic biases are nevertheless found between simulated and observed mean river stage elevation. They show that the primary source of errors when simulating river stage - and hence groundwater-river interactions - is the uncertainties associated with the topographic data used to define the riverbed elevation. Thus, this study confirms the need to access to more accurate DEM for estimating riverbed elevation and studying groundwater-river interactions, at least at regional scale.

Habets, F.; Vergnes, J.

2013-12-01

40

Working and Training Conditions of Gynecology Residents in North Rhine-Westfalia, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: In 2002, gynecology residents in North Rhine-Westfalia (NRW) were asked how satisfied they were with their working and training conditions. A new extended survey of gynecology residents aimed to evaluate whether changes to specialist training regulations had affected residents' levels of job satisfaction and to identify areas where training conditions still urgently required improvement. Material and Methods: A total of 1223 questionnaires with 52 questions were sent to the 159 gynecology clinics in NRW. Responses could be dichotomous, multi-level or quantitative. The results were analyzed with regard to age, gender, family status and type of clinic and were additionally compared with the results of a previous survey. Results: The percentage of women residents has increased to 84.6?%. A workload of more than 48 hours per week has resulted in decreased motivation and lower levels of satisfaction during training, although overall levels of satisfaction have clearly improved compared to the previous survey. Use of a logbook to create a more structured training program has not achieved the desired effect. Nevertheless, seven of eight gynecology residents would study medicine again, although 28?% of the budding gynecologists are considering working abroad or in private industry. Conclusion: Both training and overall satisfaction with working conditions must be improved to preserve the appeal of gynecology for young academics. This survey aims to identify key factors which are responsible for (dis)satisfaction with working conditions. PMID:24741128

Fehr, D; Rein, D; Fehm, T; Fleisch, M

2014-02-01

41

Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization: the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA on the management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality.

Fehr Rainer

2003-01-01

42

Assessing the potential skill of seasonal streamflow forecasting for the River Rhine and the Upper Danube Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Reliable seasonal streamflow forecasts could be a valuable tool for the medium-term to long-term planning of many users of the water sector. Especially for the optimization of hydropower generation and the water-related logistic transportation chain the knowledge about the possible future evolution of streamflows within the next 1 to 6 months would be an important additional information in the decision process. Although there is a strong need for seasonal forecast products there is no operational forecasting system available for the large rivers in Germany. One of the main reasons is that the long-term meteorological predictability, especially for precipitation, is quite limited over Central Europe. Potential gain of predictability in the hydrological system that makes us believe that skillful seasonal streamflow forecasts in Central Europe are not out of reach is the hydrological memory and the delayed and damped system response of river basins. Natural (like snow pack, groundwater, soil moisture) as well as man-made reservoirs and dams have a large influence on the future runoff. In hydrological forecasting this memory is represented by the initial conditions of the hydrological model. In addition the streamflow at a gauge is an integrated system response with the meteorological variables as system input. If there is at least some valuable information in the numeric seasonal weather forecasts about the future evolution of precipitation and temperature as the main drivers of the hydrological processes, it could be possibly assessed through spatial (considering larger catchments) and temporal aggregation (e.g. monthly mean runoff values instead of daily values). In this contribution the potential skill of seasonal streamflow forecasting is evaluated for River Rhine and the Upper Danube Basin (up to the gauge Vienna). Different spatial and temporal scales are considered as well as different meteorological forcings. Two different hydrological models are applied in the two basins. For the River Rhine with a catchment area of approx. 185.000 km2 the semi-distributed HBV model with a time-step of one day and for the Upper Danube Basin (102.000 km2) the water balance model COSERO with a time-step of 1 month are applied. As observed meteorological input the ERA Interim dataset is used, which is statistically downscaled from its relatively coarse grid resolution to the subbasins of the models. As meteorological forecast input two different approaches are used for the 30-year hindcast period in this study: (a) the Extended Streamflow Prediction ESP - a resampling approach of historical meteorology - which is applied to asses the potential predictability arising from the initial conditions and (b) the ensemble re-forecasts of the ECMWF seasonal forecast system 4 - a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model - used to quantify the potential benefit of numerical weather forecasts. Bayesian Model Averaging BMA and Ensemble-Model Output statistics EMOS are applied to the generated seasonal ensemble streamflow forecasts for calibration and the estimation of the predictive probability density function. Different skill measures are used to verify the potential skill of the seasonal forecasts of the different methods.

Klein, B.; Meissner, D.; Gerl, N.; Hemri, S.; Gneiting, T. J.

2013-12-01

43

Evolution of a bifurcation in a meandering river with adjustable channel widths, Rhine delta apex, The Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

Rivers may dramatically change course on a fluvial plain. Such an avulsion temporarily leads to two active channels connected at a bifurcation. Here we study the effect of dynamic meandering at the bifurcation and the effect of channel width adjustment to changing discharge in both downstream branches on the evolution of a bifurcation and coexisting channels. As an example, we reconstructed the last major avulsion at the Rhine delta apex. We combined historical and geological data...

Kleinhans, M. G.; Cohen, K. M.; Hoekstra, P.; Ijmker, J. M.

2011-01-01

44

SAR Interferometry and Precise Leveling for the Determination of Vertical Displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The PS-InSAR (Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry) method and precise levelings provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of both measurement techniques are analyzed at Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in order to gain detailed insight into the velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). As central and most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, the seismically and tectonically active Rhine Graben is of steady geo-scientific interest. In the last decades, the URG is characterized by small tectonic movements (mining, groundwater usage, oil extraction, geothermal energy) inducing larger surface displacements. To assess the geohazards in the URG area, we aim to provide a map of the current 3D surface displacements with high precision and high spatial resolution. The InSAR and leveling data, and the location of permanent GNSS sites primarily analyzed for the horizontal velocity field, are displayed in Fig. 1. Precise levelings have been carried out by the surveying authorities of Germany, France and Switzerland over the last 100 years building a network of leveling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the leveling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates with accuracies of 0.2 to 0.4 mm/a. The biggest disadvantage of the leveling database is the sparse spatial distribution of the measurement points. Therefore, PS-InSAR is used to significantly increase the number of points within the leveling loops. To obtain a high accuracy for line of sight displacement rates, ERS-1/2 and Envisat data from ascending and descending orbits covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed using StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers). As the tectonic displacements cover a large area, the separation of atmospheric effects and orbit errors plays an important role in the PS-InSAR processing chain. Besides the tectonic signal, man-induced surface displacements caused by oil extraction are investigated. A comparison between the estimates from leveling and InSAR provides detailed insight into the temporal and spatial characteristics of the surface displacement as well as into the possibilities and limits of the measurement techniques.

Fuhrmann, T.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

2013-12-01

45

Source and origin of active and fossil thermal spring systems, northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal water samples and related young and fossil mineralization from a geothermal system at the northern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben have been investigated by combining hydrochemistry with stable and Sr isotope geochemistry. Actively discharging thermal springs and mineralization are present in a structural zone that extends over at least 60 km along strike, with two of the main centers of hydrothermal activity being Wiesbaden and Bad Nauheim. This setting provides the rare opportunity to link the chemistry and isotopic signatures of modern thermal waters directly with fossil mineralization dating back to at least 500–800 ka. The fossil thermal spring mineralization can be classified into two major types: barite-(pyrite) fracture filling associated with laterally-extensive silicification; and barite, goethite and silica impregnation mineralization in Tertiary sediments. Additionally, carbonatic sinters occur around active springs. Strontium isotope and trace element data suggest that mixing of a hot (>100 °C), deep-sourced thermal water with cooler groundwater from shallow aquifers is responsible for present-day thermal spring discharge and fossil mineralization. The correlation between both Sr and S isotope ratios and the elevation of the barite mineralization relative to the present-day water table in Wiesbaden is explained by mixing of deep-sourced thermal water having high 87Sr/86Sr and low ?34S with shallow groundwater up>34S with shallow groundwater of lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher ?34S. The Sr isotope data demonstrate that the hot thermal waters originate from an aquifer in the Variscan crystalline basement at depths of 3–5 km. The S isotope data show that impregnation-type mineralization is strongly influenced by mixing with SO4 that has high ?34S values. The fracture style mineralization formed by cooling of the thermal waters, whereas impregnation-type mineralization precipitated by mixing with SO4-rich groundwater percolating through the sediments.

46

The climate protection legislation in Germany. The example North Rhine-Westphalia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution on the climate protection legislation in Germany deals with the example Nordrhein-Westfalen. The covered topics include the legislative competence, climate protection targets, the climate protection plan, climate protection concepts and the climate commission and monitoring. The climate protection law is discusses in the view of sustainability and in respect with the consequences for the rural region in Nordrhein-Westfalen.

47

Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 2. Summary of results and conclusions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

48

Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U. Braun (new for Germany) on Pastinaca sativa L., Podosphaera tridactyla (WalIr.) de Bary on Prunus laurocerasus L., Septoria cornicola Desm. on Cornus sanguinea L., Stigmina tinea (Sacc.) M.B.Ellis on Viburnum opulus L., Torula herbarum (Pers.) Link on Potentilla argentea L., etc. All species are located in the herbarium Mycotheca parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:20222564

Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

2009-01-01

49

Application of the TELEMAC system to the simulation of dumping of excavated material in the River Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the framework of a comparative study of commercial hydrodynamic-numerical models different modules of the TELEMAC system have been applied to a real world test case. Experiences and results of this application are presented in this study. The area of investigation is a section of the River Rhine. Steady-state flow conditions are simulated and form the basis for studies related to sediment transport. The dumping of excavation material, the drifting of the suspended material, as well as the resuspension of the deposited sediment are simulated.

Weilbeer, H.; Zielke, W.

2000-09-01

50

Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Text volume  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex I lists the references arranged in the order of authors and years of publication, presents a list of experts, an overview on research projects, current measuring and observation programmes on the river Rhine and makes proposals for future monitoring sites. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

51

Biomonitoring with Gammarus pulex at the Meuse (NL), Aller (GER) and Rhine (F) rivers with the online Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological early warning systems represent a set of tools that may be able to respond to certain chemical monitoring requirements of recent European legislation, the Water Framework Directive (WFD2000/60/EC), that aims to improve and protect water quality across Europe. In situ biomonitoring was performed along the rivers Meuse (NL), Aller (GER) and Rhine (F) within the frame of the European Union-funded Project SWIFT-WFD. Gammarus pulex was used as a test organism during the evaluation of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor(R) (MFB), an online biomonitor to quantitatively record different behaviour patterns of animals. At the river Meuse G. pulex reacted to pulse exposure of either a mixture of trace metals or of several organic xenobiotics, by showing up to 20% decreased locomotory activity (already at the 1st pulse) and increased mortality (at 2nd or 3rd pulse only). G. pulex deployed within the MFB system were observed to survive well at the monitoring station on the Aller (100%) and monitoring did not result in the measurement of chemical irregularities. In contrast, deployment at the monitoring station on the Rhine river demonstrated that the test organism was able to detect chemical irregularities by up to 20% decreased locomotory activity in the animals. The MFB proved to be an alert system for water quality monitoring at sensitive sites and sites with accidental pollution. PMID:17726559

Gerhardt, Almut; Kienle, Cornelia; Allan, Ian J; Greenwood, Richard; Guigues, Nathalie; Fouillac, Anne-Marie; Mills, Graham A; Gonzalez, Catherine

2007-09-01

52

Investigations of the heat exchange river/atmosphere at the Rhine river downstream of the Philippsburg nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The control of the movement of the floating components of the mechanical construction above the river Rhine had been working insufficiently from the beginning. The friction between the column and the floating mast was reduced to avoid excessive damping of vertical motion due to changes in water height. Additionally, a special installation was provided in order to obtain a suitable support for lifting the pontoon sheares in case of iceflow. In the course of the repairs several cables were damaged and had to be renewed as well as several on-line amplifiers. Regarding the data gathering complex, there was a considerable delay in programming the processor code. This was due to hardware breakdowns of tape reader, memory driver and CAMAC Analog-Digital-Converters. As to the ADCs, the manufacturer finally worked out some alternations in the circuit to achieve a sufficient reliability in the recycling mode operation. The improvements have been suitable for software test purposes but the ADCs are not yet satisfactory for permanent automatic operation. (orig.)

53

Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river; Renouvellement de la concession de la chute hydro-electrique de Kembs sur le Rhin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

Baron, P.; Defoug, H.; Petit, D

2000-07-15

54

Investigations of effects of thermal discharges in Rhine river waters. Part of a coordinated programme on the physical and biological effects of cooling systems and thermal discharges at nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report envisages two aspects of cooling systems: heat exchange between water and atmosphere; cooling tower plume modelling. The author gives the estimated ''cooling capacity'' of German rivers and estuaries and describes a station at Rheinhausen, measuring directly the heat exchange between the river Rhine and the atmosphere. The influence of meteorological and topographical parameters is discussed and the total incertainty in extrapolating formular is assessed. A number of field studies have been carried out to measure plume behaviour of cooling towers and to provide the data basis for comparison of existing models. The average plume rise is well predicted. The experimental programme carried out in Germany since 1973 is described. The one dimensional models TOWER and SAUNA.S are in agreement with experimental results except for short plumes. The last plume model WALKURE shows considerable improvement. It is specially suited for the calculations of the cooling tower plume behaviour under influence of temperature and humidity stratifications in the ambient atmosphere

55

The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.

Grazhdankin A. S.

2012-01-01

56

The response of the River Rhine system following tectonic and climatic changes - New insights by OSL dating  

Science.gov (United States)

A very important requirement for getting an accurate chronological frame by OSL dating is the resetting of the OSL signal by sufficient sunlight-exposure during transportation. It is known that the resetting of most of fluvial sediments is incomplete. However, recent developments in optically stimulated luminescence techniques and statistical treatment made it possible to select ages only from the grains which received enough sunlight (WALLINGA 2002). OSL dating was applied to Holocene and last glacial fluvial sands and coversands deriving from the Lower Rhine Embayment and the Heidelberg basin which is located in the northern part of the Upper Rhine Graben. The aim of the study is to get a more reliable chronological frame for those deposits providing excellent records on the response of the River Rhine system to tectonics and climatic changes. Furthermore, a better correlation of the alpine glacial-interglacial cycles with those of Scandinavian glaciers is intended. The single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol was used for dose estimation. For all the fluvial samples the central age model (CAM) and the minimum age model (MAM3) were applied. The K, Th and U content which is needed for the estimation of the dose rate was obtained by high resolution gamma spectrometry. In addition in situ measurements were carried out using a NaI detector. For the last glacial period at least three aggredation periods could be verified by OSL dating. Significant hiatuses occurring in between the stacked fluvial units give evidence for an alteration of aggradation and erosion mainly controlled by climatic variations and tectonics. The dated coversands from the northern URG yield OSL age estimates of 9-11 ka indicating a period of strong morphodynamic activity for the transition from late Wuermian to early Holocene and a following stabilisation of landscape. The ongoing work is part of a PhD study in the frame of the "Leibniz Pakt für Forschung und Inovation" at the GGA-Institute in Hannover. It is focusing on the advancement and application of new OSL techniques and a reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental conditions within the Rhine system. Wallinga, J., 2002. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of fluvial deposits: a review. Boreas 31: 303-322.

Lauer, T.; Frechen, M.; Hoselmann, Ch.; Klostermann, J.; Tsukamoto, S.

2009-04-01

57

Radioactivity in the Rhine - the LWA controls North-Rhine-Westphalian surface waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The State Authority for Water and Waste Management has been testing the Rhine and the most important surface waters of North-Rhine Westphalia for radioactivity ever since it was founded in 1969. Radiation exposure of human beings who use Rhine water is far below the permitted maximum values of the 'radiation protection ordinance'. Pollution of the Rhine and its tributaries in North-Rhine Westphalia with artificial radioactive substances has even slightly decreased over the past ten years; pollution of the River Emscher with natural radioactive material remained high, the Lippe River now contains less radium than before. (orig./PW)

58

Chlorinated hydrocarbons in eels (Anguilla anguilla L. ) from the river Rhine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we report on the concentrations of selected chlorinated hydrocarbons in eels from the High Rhine. As the congeners show different physical, chemical, and toxicological characteristics depending on their degree of chlorination and structure congener-specific data are needed. Here, concentrations of some selected PCB congeners are given and compared with data from 1984 to detect trends. The results indicate a still considerable degree of contamination. (orig./MG).

Vecsei-Hohl, R.; Gourec, L.; Bruna, M. (Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung); Zeh, M.; Fent, K. (Swiss Federal Inst. for Water Resources and Water Pollution Control, Kastanienbaum (Switzerland))

1992-01-01

59

Provenance of Pleistocene Rhine River Middle Terrace sands between the Swiss-German border and Cologne based on U-Pb detrital zircon ages  

Science.gov (United States)

Detrital zircon U-Pb age distributions derived from samples representing ancient or relatively young large-scale continental drainage networks are commonly taken to reflect the geochronological evolution of the tapped continental area. Here, we present detrital zircon U-Pb ages and associated heavy mineral data from Pleistocene Rhine River Middle Terrace sands and equivalents between the Swiss-German border and Cologne in order to test the commonly assumed Alpine provenance of the material. Samples from eight localities were analyzed for their heavy mineral assemblages. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages were determined by laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry on selected samples from five locations along the Rhine River. The zircon age populations of all samples show a similar distribution, their main peaks being between 300 and 500 Ma. Minor age populations are recognized at 570 and 1,070 Ma. The 300-400 Ma maximum reflects the Variscan basement drained by or recycled into the Rhine River and its tributaries. The 400-500 Ma peak with predominantly Early Silurian ages points to Baltica or to the mid-German crystalline rise as original sources. One distinct peak at c. 570 Ma probably represents input from Cadomian terranes. The Precambrian U-Pb ages are compatible with derivation from sources in Baltica and in northern Gondwana. The heavy mineral populations of Middle Terrace sands and equivalents are characterized to a variable extend by garnet, epidote, and green hornblende. This association is often referred to as the Alpine spectrum and is considered to be indicative of an Alpine provenance. However, hornblende, epidote, and garnet are dominant heavy minerals of collisional orogens in general and may also be derived from Variscan and Caledonian units or from intermittent storage units. A remarkable feature of the detrital zircon age distribution in the Rhine River sediments from the Swiss-German border to Cologne is the absence of ages younger than 200 Ma and in particular of any ages reflecting the Alpine orogeny between c. 100 and 35 Ma. Sediments from rivers draining the equally collisional Himalaya orogen contain detrital zircons as young as 20 Ma. Our results question the assumption that Pleistocene Rhine River sediments were directly derived from the Alps. The lag time between the formation and deposition age of the youngest zircon in the studied Pleistocene Rhine River deposits is 200 Ma. Together with the absence of Alpine zircon ages, this stresses that detrital zircon age data from ancient sedimentary units found in poorly understood tectonic or paleogeographic settings need to be interpreted with great care, one could miss an entire orogenic cycle.

Krippner, Anne; Bahlburg, Heinrich

2013-04-01

60

Is telemonitoring an option against shortage of physicians in rural regions? attitude towards telemedical devices in the North Rhine-Westphalian health survey, Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GP in rural areas of Germany are struggling to find successors for their private practices. Telemonitoring at home offers an option to support remaining GPs and specialists in ambulatory care. Methods We assessed the knowledge and attitude towards telemedicine in the population of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW, Germany, in a population-based telephone survey. Results Out of 2,006 participants, 734 (36.6% reported an awareness of telemedical devices. Only 37 participants (1.8% have experience in using them. The majority of participants were in favour of using them in case of illness (72.2%. However, this approval declined with age. These findings were similar in rural and urban areas. Participants who were in favour of telemedicine (n = 1,480 strongly agreed that they would have to see their doctor less often, and that the doctor would recognize earlier relevant changes in their vital status. Participants who disliked to be monitored by telemedical devices preferred to receive immediate feedback from their physician. Especially, the elderly fear the loss of personal contact with their physician. They need the direct patient-physician communication. Conclusions The fear of being left alone with the technique needs to be compensated for today's elderly patients to enhance acceptance of home telemonitoring as support for remaining doctors either in the rural areas or cities.

Terschüren Claudia

2012-04-01

61

Fluid/rock Interaction History of a Faulted Rhyolite-Granite Contact, Eastern Rhine Graben Shoulder, SW-Germany : Alteration Processes Determined by Sr- Pb-Isotopes, Th/U-Disequilibria and Elemental Distributions  

OpenAIRE

The alteration history of the Schauenburg fault has been investigated with isotope and element distributions across the faulted granite-rhyolite contact. The Schauenburg fault zone is situated along the eastern Rhine Graben shoulder, close to Heidelberg (SW-Germany). Major and trace element analyses allow to obtain information concerning the chemical changes induced by alteration. Differences are partly petrographic because the profile crosses the granite-rhyolite contact, but they are also ...

Marbach, Thierry

2002-01-01

62

Provenance of Pleistocene Rhine River Middle Terrace sands between the Swiss–German border and Cologne based on U–Pb detrital zircon ages  

OpenAIRE

Detrital zircon U–Pb age distributions derived from samples representing ancient or relatively young large-scale continental drainage networks are commonly taken to reflect the geochronological evolution of the tapped continental area. Here, we present detrital zircon U–Pb ages and associated heavy mineral data from Pleistocene Rhine River Middle Terrace sands and equivalents between the Swiss–German border and Cologne in order to test the commonly assumed Alpine provenance of the mater...

Krippner, Anne; Bahlburg, Heinrich

2012-01-01

63

Evaluation of two precipitation data sets for the Rhine River using streamflow simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an extended version of a widely used precipitation data set and evaluates it along with a recently released precipitation data set, using streamflow simulations. First, the existing precipitation data set issued by the Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR, originally covering the period 1961–1995, was extended until 2008 using a number of additional precipitation data sets. Next, the extended version of the CHR, together with E-OBS Version 4 (ECA & D gridded data set were evaluated for their performance in the Rhine basin for extreme events. Finally, the two aforementioned precipitation data sets and a meteorological reanalysis data set were used to force a hydrological model, evaluating the influence of different precipitation forcings on the annual mean and extreme discharges compared to observational discharges for the period from 1990 until 2008. The extended version of CHR showed good agreement in terms of mean annual cycle, extreme discharge (both high and low flows, and spatial distribution of correlations with observed discharge. E-OBS performed well with respect to extreme discharge. However, its performance of the mean annual cycle in winter was rather poor and remarkably well in the summer. Also, CHR08 outperformed E-OBS in terms of temporal correlations in most of the analyzed sub-catchment means. The length extension for the CHR and the even longer length of E-OBS permit the assessment of extreme discharge and precipitation values with lower uncertainty for longer return periods. This assessment classifies both of the presented precipitation data sets as possible reference data sets for future studies in hydrological applications.

C. S. Photiadou

2011-11-01

64

Evaluation of two precipitation data sets for the Rhine River using streamflow simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an extended version of a widely used precipitation data set and evaluates it along with a recently released precipitation data set, using streamflow simulations. First, the existing precipitation data set issued by the Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR), originally covering the period 1961-1995, was extended until 2008 using a number of additional precipitation data sets. Next, the extended version of the CHR, together with E-OBS Version 4 (ECA & D gridded data set) were evaluated for their performance in the Rhine basin for extreme events. Finally, the two aforementioned precipitation data sets and a meteorological reanalysis data set were used to force a hydrological model, evaluating the influence of different precipitation forcings on the annual mean and extreme discharges compared to observational discharges for the period from 1990 until 2008. The extended version of CHR showed good agreement in terms of mean annual cycle, extreme discharge (both high and low flows), and spatial distribution of correlations with observed discharge. E-OBS performed well with respect to extreme discharge. However, its performance of the mean annual cycle in winter was rather poor and remarkably well in the summer. Also, CHR08 outperformed E-OBS in terms of temporal correlations in most of the analyzed sub-catchment means. The length extension for the CHR and the even longer length of E-OBS permit the assessment of extreme discharge and precipitation values with lower uncertainty for longer return periods. This assessment classifies both of the presented precipitation data sets as possible reference data sets for future studies in hydrological applications.

Photiadou, C. S.; Weerts, A. H.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.

2011-11-01

65

Flood risk along the upper Rhine since AD 1480  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the occurrence, cause and frequency changes of floods, their development and distribution along the southern part of the upper Rhine River and of 14 of its tributaries in France and Germany covering the period from 1480 BC. Special focus is given on the temporal and spatial variations and underlying meteorological causes which show a significant change over space and time. Examples are presented how long-term information can help to improve transnational risk and risk management analysis while connecting single historical and modern extreme events.

Himmelsbach, I.; Glaser, R.; Schoenbein, J.; Riemann, D.; Martin, B.

2015-01-01

66

Flood risk along the upper Rhine since AD 1480  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the occurrence, cause and frequency changes of floods, their development and distribution along the southern part of the upper Rhine River and of 14 of its tributaries in France and Germany covering the period from 1480 BC. Special focus is given on the temporal and spatial variations and underlying meteorological causes which show a significant change over space and time. Examples are presented how long-term information can help to improve transnational risk and risk management analysis while connecting single historical and modern extreme events.

I. Himmelsbach

2015-01-01

67

Temperature monitoring along the Rhine River based on airborne thermal infrared remote sensing: qualitative results compared to satellite data and validation with in situ measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Water temperature is an important parameter of water quality and influences other physical and chemical parameters. It also directly influences the survival and growth of animal and plant species in river ecosystems. In situ measurements do not allow for a total spatial coverage of water bodies and rivers that is necessary for monitoring and research at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany. Hence, the ability of different remote sensing products to identify and investigate water inflows and water temperatures in Federal waterways is evaluated within the research project 'Remote sensing of water surface temperature'. The research area for a case study is the Upper and Middle Rhine River from the barrage in Iffezheim to Koblenz. Satellite products (e. g. Landsat and ASTER imagery) can only be used for rivers at least twice as wide as the spatial resolution of the satellite images. They can help to identify different water bodies only at tributaries with larger inflow volume (Main and Mosel) or larger temperature differences between the inflow (e. g. from power plants working with high capacity) and the river water. To identify and investigate also smaller water inflows and temperature differences, thermal data with better ground and thermal resolution is required. An aerial survey of the research area was conducted in late October 2013. Data of the surface was acquired with two camera systems, a digital camera with R, G, B, and Near-IR channels, and a thermal imaging camera measuring the brightness temperature in the 8-12 m wavelength region (TIR). The resolution of the TIR camera allowed for a ground resolution of 4 m, covering the whole width of the main stream and larger branches. The RGB and NIR data allowed to eliminate land surface temperatures from the analysis and to identify clouds and shadows present during the data acquisition. By degrading the spatial resolution and adding sensor noise, artificial Landsat ETM+ and TIRS datasets were created to evaluate whether the methods applied to the aerial survey data are also applicable for satellite datasets. In situ measurements were obtained from water quality measurement stations and specifically deployed temperature loggers. Two alternative methods to correct for atmospheric influences were evaluated: calibration based on in situ water temperature measurements and atmospheric correction based on atmospheric parameters modelled with MODTRAN R5. Both methods rely on input data, the former on in situ measurements of the water temperature, the latter on data from climate stations. The results are validated by the dataset of independent in situ measurements. The remaining difference of the corrected aerial survey to the in situ measurements could be reduced to 0.0±0.2 C for the calibration and 0.1±0.3 C for the atmospheric correction. The variance of the atmospheric correction proved to be larger than of the in situ calibration method, but still smaller than the variance of atmospherically corrected, real LANDSAT ETM+ data. Inflows with differing water temperatures could be identified successfully with the change point analysis method even for smaller dischargers and the mixing processes of water bodies with different temperatures could be traced into great detail. With decreasing spatial resolution and increasing sensor noise, the ability to detect inflows remained the same, but at the cost of a higher number of 'false positive' change points.

Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn

2014-10-01

68

Propagation prognoses on rivers Rhine, Neckar, Main and Moselle based on 3HHO tracer dispersion investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intermittent discharges of 3HHO from nuclear installations have been used to determine flow times, flow velocities and values characterizing the longitudinal dispersion of soluble substances under natural conditions. The data and the knowledge thus gained are the basis for developing propagation prognoses. In case of an accidental input of radioactive or inactive water-soluble substances into the river, the flow and propagation behaviour in the contaminated river sections can be described, what permits also an estimation of the radiologic or toxic effects. The formal interrelation of the values required for a tabular presentation of prognoses on the longitudinal dispersion of these noxious substances is described and exemplified. (orig.)

69

Monitoring terbutryn pollution in small rivers of Hesse, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four small river systems in Hesse, Germany, were investigated with respect to seasonal and spatial concentrations of the herbicide terbutryn [2-(t-butylamino)-4-(ethylamino)-6-(methylthio)-s-triazine]. Despite introduction of a ban on its use as a herbicide in July 2003, terbutryn was still present in the rivers during the whole sampling period from September 2003 to September 2006, and there was no trend of decreasing concentration during this time. In the Weschnitz and Modau river systems the mean terbutryn concentration exceeded the German drinking water ordinance threshold value for single biocides. Maximum concentrations of up to 5.6 microg l(-1) were determined in the Weschnitz River. Higher terbutryn concentrations in summer are suggested to originate from agricultural sources, as well as from sediment redissolution. Effluents of two sewage treatment plants had high terbutryn concentrations, indicating that terbutryn enters the rivers from this source. Sources other than agriculture must explain terbutryn occurrence in the rivers during winter, when farm pesticide application typically ceases. The potential for mobilization of terbutryn from sediments and leaching from soils are discussed. PMID:18049772

Quednow, Kristin; Püttmann, Wilhelm

2007-12-01

70

Point stability at shallow depths: experience from tilt measurements in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany, and implications for high-resolution GPS and gravity recordings  

Science.gov (United States)

From 1996 to 1999, we have studied ground tilts at depths of between 2m and 5m at three sites in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), western Germany. The LRE is a tectonically active extensional sedimentary basin roughly 50km×100km. The purpose of the tilt measurements was (a) to provide insight into the magnitude, nature and variability of background tilts and (b) to assess possible limitations of high-resolution GPS campaigns and microgravity surveys due to natural ground deformation. The tilt readings, sensed by biaxial borehole tiltmeters of baselength 0.85m, cover a frequency range from 10-8Hz to 10-2Hz (periods from minutes to years). Assuming that the tilt signals represent ground displacements on a scale typically not larger than several times the tiltmeters' baselength, and that tilt signals at shallow depth could in a simple geometric way be related to changes in surface elevation and gravity, we try to estimate the magnitude level of point movements and corresponding Bouguer gravity effects that is generally not surpassed. The largest tilt signals observed were some +/-50µradyr-1. If they were observable over a ground section of extension, e.g. 10m, the converted rates may correspond to about +/-0.5mm per 10myr-1 in vertical ground displacement, and +/-0.1µgalyr-1 in Bouguer gravity effect, respectively. Large signals are mostly related to seasonal effects, probably linked to thermomechanical strain. Other causes of ground deformation identified include seepage effects after rainfalls (order of +/-10µrad) and diurnal strains due to thermal heating and/or fluctuations in the water consumption of nearby trees (order of +/-1µrad). Episodic step-like tilt anomalies with amplitudes up to 22µrad at one of the observation sites might reflect creep events associated to a nearby active fault. Except for short-term ground deformation caused by the passage of seismic waves from distant earthquakes, amplitudes of non-identified tilt signals in the studied frequency range seem not to exceed +/-2µrad. As the larger tilt signals are close to the precision achieved with modern GPS systems and superconducting gravimeters when converted into height and gravity changes, further enhancement in resolution of these techniques may require simultaneous recording of local ground deformation at the observation sites.

Kümpel, H.-J.; Lehmann, K.; Fabian, M.; Mentes, Gy.

2001-09-01

71

Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows were analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch-German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows were estimated, namely the seasonality ratio (SR, weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD and weighted persistence (WP. These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices were estimated from: (1 observed low flows; (2 simulated low flows by the semi-distributed HBV model using observed climate as input; (3 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven combinations of General Circulation Models (GCMs and Regional Climate Models (RCMs for the current climate (1964–2007; (4 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven combinations of GCMs and RCMs for the future climate (2063–2098 including three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. These four cases were compared to assess the effects of the hydrological model, forcing by different climate models and different emission scenarios on the three indices. Significant differences were found between cases 1 and 2. For instance, the HBV model is prone to overestimate SR and to underestimate WP and simulates very late WMODs compared to the estimated WMODs using observed discharges. Comparing the results of cases 2 and 3, the smallest difference was found for the SR index, whereas large differences were found for the WMOD and WP indices for the current climate. Finally, comparing the results of cases 3 and 4, we found that SR decreases substantially by 2063–2098 in all seven sub-basins of the River Rhine. The lower values of SR for the future climate indicate a shift from winter low flows (SR > 1 to summer low flows (SR < 1 in the two Alpine sub-basins. The WMODs of low flows tend to be earlier than for the current climate in all sub-basins except for the Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine sub-basins. The WP values are slightly larger, showing that the predictability of low flow events increases as the variability in timing decreases for the future climate. From comparison of the error sources evaluated in this study, it is obvious that different RCMs/GCMs have a larger influence on the timing of low flows than different emission scenarios. Finally, this study complements recent analyses of an international project (Rhineblick by analysing the seasonality aspects of low flows and extends the scope further to understand the effects of hydrological model errors and climate change on three important low flow seasonality properties: regime, timing and persistence.

M. C. Demirel

2013-10-01

72

Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows are analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch–German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows are estimated, namely seasonality ratio (SR, weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD and weighted persistence (WP. These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices are estimated from: (1 observed low flows; (2 simulated low flows by the semi distributed HBV model using observed climate; (3 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven climate scenarios for the current climate (1964–2007; (4 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven climate scenarios for the future climate (2063–2098 including different emission scenarios. These four cases are compared to assess the effects of the hydrological model, forcing by different climate models and different emission scenarios on the three indices. The seven climate scenarios are based on different combinations of four General Circulation Models (GCMs, four Regional Climate Models (RCMs and three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Significant differences are found between cases 1 and 2. For instance, the HBV model is prone to overestimate SR and to underestimate WP and simulates very late WMODs compared to the estimated WMODs using observed discharges. Comparing the results of cases 2 and 3, the smallest difference is found in the SR index, whereas large differences are found in the WMOD and WP indices for the current climate. Finally, comparing the results of cases 3 and 4, we found that SR has decreased substantially by 2063–2098 in all seven subbasins of the River Rhine. The lower values of SR for the future climate indicate a shift from winter low flows (SR > 1 to summer low flows (SR < 1 in the two Alpine subbasins. The WMODs of low flows tend to be earlier than for the current climate in all subbasins except for the Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine subbasins. The WP values are slightly larger, showing that the predictability of low flow events increases as the variability in timing decreases for the future climate. From comparison of the uncertainty sources evaluated in this study, it is obvious that the RCM/GCM uncertainty has the largest influence on the variability in timing of low flows for future climate.

M. C. Demirel

2013-05-01

73

Numerical tables. Physical and chemical analyses of Rhine water 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tables present the methods of analysis and the data obtained on inorganic, organic, and radioactive impurities in Rhine water. The measuring stations were located in Switzerland, France, West Germany, and the Netherlands. (HP)

74

The case of the Upper Rhine: unravelling the past, wrapping up the future  

Science.gov (United States)

The southern Upper Rhine was once the most prominent braided river system in Germany. However it lost its character during the last 200 years and is now a trained river used for electricity and carrying ships to Basel(CH). The river sector between Basel and Strasburg(F) was always different to the Hochrhein (Lake Constance Basel) and to the lower Upper Rhine (Strasburg Bingen(D)). This ancient braided river system changed downstream according to the transition of grain sizes from cobbles to gravel and sand. Between Strasburg and Lauterburg(F) the braids were replaced by meanders and this geomorphological change induced many other changes. At thesed times the ecology, including the use of water and land, riparian forests, the development of flood defence and navigation were different. In addition there was a further problem for people living in the time of enlightment: how should the boundary of a state be defined within a braided river? In the German language braided rivers were and are still called “verwildert” and this means the river is going wild. As such, somebody who was able to improve this situation would gain merits. This happened to Johann Gottfried Tulla. He became the responsible engineer for river construction in the Great Duchy Baden. In 1812 he created a memorandum with recommodations for the future development of the river Rhine. Only 5 years later he succeeded with the first cutoff of a meander next to Karlsruhe. After his death a treaty between France and Baden regulated the elimination of the braided system between Basel and Lauterburg. The construction took place between 1840 and 1875. This development was opposed locally and by the Prussian and Dutch authorities who claimed - after the huge flood of 1824 - that the abnormal flood peak was a result of the meander cutoffs created in Baden. Nevertheless the results of training the braided system were technically convincing: a deeper river channel, less floods, a well defined border and finally the first bigger steamboats entering the new harbor of Basel. The new situation was settled by the peace treaty of Versailles with its entrustment of the Rhine to France. This resulted in the construction of the Canal d’Alsace between the wars and after the last World War. Wrapping up the future of the Upper Rhine cannot be a turn back to the past, but should be an attempt to reduce the deficits and to amplify the ecological benefits. As already stated in 1824 the new river system causes more peaky floods and induces a deficit of bedload. The last problem was overcome by a bedload management scheme proposed by Felkel in 1970. For flood protection a German-French agreement defined the ’integrated Rhine programm’ in 1982 to create more flood storage capacity using the following approaches: - special operation of the power scheme, - construction of more weire and more flood polders. The largest retention measure so far is planned along the Restrhein between the weir at the entrance of the Canal d’Alsace and Breisach(D). A strip of approx. 95 m width the ancient floodplain on the German side will be excavated down to the groundwater level in order to develop a new artificial floodplain capable of storing approx. 25 million m3 of floodwater. This project will not only create a new river but will be encountered by 50 million m3 of sediments which have to be removed and sold. The development of the Upper Rhine is an extreme example for river genesis during the last 200 years. There is no way back to the future but only the possibility to create an improved and more sustainable riversystem for the next century.

Ergenzinger, P.; Bölscher, J.; de Jong, C.

2003-04-01

75

Accumulation of metals, polycyclic (halogenated) aromatic hydrocarbons, and biocides in zebra mussel and eel from the Rhine and Meuse rivers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentrations of heavy metals and various groups of organic microcontaminants were measured in zebra mussel and eel from the Rhine-Meuse basin. Residues in mussel from the Rhine and Meuse were on average 2.3 and 2.9 times higher than in those from the reference location of IJsselmeer. Total body burdens of organic microcontaminants in mussel and eel varied between 0.05 to 0.07 mmol/kg fat weight in six out of seven samples. The largest contribution in mussels and eel came from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), respectively. Concentrations of bromodiphenyl-ethers, chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroterphenyls, and chlorobenzyltoluenes were lower. Total polybrominated biphenyl residues appear lower than total PCB levels. The largest chlorobiocide residues were noted for 4,4{prime}-DDE, toxaphene, trichlorophenylmethane, and {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane. An extraordinary high body burden of 1.2 mmol/kg fat weight, largely consisting of acenaphthene, was observed in one sample. Ratios of concentrations in organism fat and dry organic suspended solids varied between 1 and 10 for traditionally monitored organochlorines, independent of the octanol-water partition coefficient. The values did not deviate significantly from a value of about 3.3, expected for equilibrium partitioning of persistent chemicals. Lower values were observed for PAHs and some chloro(nitro)benzenes. Most ratios of concentrations in eel and mussel fat were within the range of 1 to 10, also largely independent of K{sub ow}. Yet, values tended to be higher at K{sub ow} > 10{sup 6}. Ratios below 1 were noted for pentabromodiphenylether, pentachloro(thio)anisol, chlorobenzyltoluenes, and some chloronitrobenzenes, chlorobiphenyls, and chlorobiocides. These field data confirm recent modeling efforts on bioconcentration and biomagnification. For heavy metals, atomic mass explained 67% of the variation in zebra mussel residues.

Hendriks, A.J. [RIZA, Lelystad (Netherlands). Inst. for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment; Pieters, H.; Boer, J. de [DLO-Netherlands Inst. for Fisheries Research, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

1998-10-01

76

Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI):  

OpenAIRE

While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are negotiating the border between the river and the urban realm. This produces complex spatial constellations between the river system and the urban realm with a diverse set of interdependencies, where program...

Redeker, C.

2013-01-01

77

Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain.  

Science.gov (United States)

River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbers. Populations recover from cocoons that survive floods. If the period between two floods is too short such that cocoons cannot develop into reproductive adults, populations cannot sustain themselves. Both climate change and floodplain rehabilitation change the flooding frequency affecting earthworm populations. The present paper estimates the influence of climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on the viability of earthworm populations in a Dutch floodplain; the Afferdensche and Deestsche Waarden along the River Waal. This floodplain will be part of major river rehabilitation plans of the Dutch government. In those plans, the floodplain will experience the construction of a secondary channel and the removal of part of its minor embankment. To estimate the impact of these plans and climate change, we used a dataset of daily discharges for 1900-2003 for the River Rhine at the Dutch-German border. We perturbed this dataset to obtain two new datasets under climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2100. From the original and two projected datasets we derived the frequency distributions for the annual periods without inundations for the studied floodplain. We subsequently compared the duration of these inundation-free (dry) periods with the maturation age distribution for L. rubellus as derived from a Dynamic Energy Budget model. This comparison yielded in which parts of our study area and under which climate conditions the populations would still be viable, be able to adapt or become extinct. The results show that climate change has almost no adverse effect on earthworm viability. This is because climate change reduces the flooding frequency during the earthworms growing season. Floodplain rehabilitation, on the other hand, reduces the part of the floodplain area where populations can sustain themselves. Before rehabilitation, only 12% of the floodplain area cannot sustain a viable earthworm population. After rehabilitation, this increases to 59%, 28% of which is due to more frequent flooding. Enhanced exposure to soil contaminants may further suppress earthworm viability. This could frustrate further nature development and the viability of earthworm-dependent species such as the badger (Meles meles) or little owl (Athene noctua vidalli species), which is an objective of the river rehabilitation plans in the Netherlands. PMID:17140641

Thonon, Ivo; Klok, Chris

2007-01-01

78

Medicinal footprint of the population of the Rhine basin:  

OpenAIRE

The relation between pharmaceutical residues along the river Rhine and the demographic characteristics of the upstream population was studied. A sampling campaign was performed in which water samples from the Rhine were taken at 42 locations. Measurements were compared to a two parameter model with regional demographic data as main input. For 12 out of the 21 studied pharmaceuticals, a significant dominant demographic group could be identified. For 3 out of these 12 pharmaceuticals the male e...

Hut, R.; Giesen, N.; Houtman, C. J.

2013-01-01

79

Interaction surface water - groundwater: Investigation in the Rhine Valley using environmental isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation area is located in the Rhine Valley, a floodplain composed of Upper Quaternary sediments near Karlsruhe, Germany. The upper two gravel layers build highly permeable and productive aquifers which are used by many drinking water supplies. These two layers are partial hydraulically divided by an impermeable interlayer which does not exist everywhere. On the other hand many gravel extraction sites are dug out, which form small artificial lakes. To overcome the conflict between both, water supply and gravel industry, a precise knowledge of the interaction of surface water - groundwater is absolutely necessary. The hydraulic relationship between the groundwater storey, the gravel pit lakes, and the rivers could not be adequately explained using only water level measurements. Only with the aid of the results from the hydro-chemical and isotope-hydrological investigations (?18O, ?2H, 3H), the components of the regional groundwater recharge, Rhine bank infiltration, lake bank filtration, as well as local specifically marked water types could be identified, classified and quantified in surface - and groundwater. Utilizing these methods it was shown that the deep pumping wells of the water supply have over 90% Rhine riverbank filtration water and have no inflow from any of the investigated gravel pit lakes. The groundwater in the two investigated upper aquifers differ mainly isotope-hydrological and respectively in age, less pological and respectively in age, less pronounced in their hydro-chemical properties. In both aquifers there is a zone of ca. 1 to 3 km wide, in parts reaching to the gravel quarry lakes, which generally follows the Rhine with a flow of depleted isotopic Rhine filtration water with varying ages. From the east-southeast there is an inflow from the lower terrace of relatively young and identifiably anthropogenic influenced as well as almost totally reduced in nitrate, In the aquifer below, the water is usually tritium-free, i.e., older than 50 years, not anthropogenic influenced and reduced in sulphate. Modeling tritium data the local recharge rate could be estimated. In all investigated gravel pit lakes, a high percentage of Rhine bank filtration was proven. The inflow of groundwater to the lakes and the outflow of the lake water are identifiable because of isotope-fractionation due to evaporation. The environmental isotopes build together with the hydro-geological and hydro-chemical investigations the basis for a detailed understanding of this complex flow system. (author)

80

River flooding and landscape changes impact ecological conditions of a scour hole in the Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

A 400-year sediment record from an 18 m deep scour hole lake (Haarsteegse Wiel) near the Meuse River in the Netherlands was investigated for past changes in water quality, flooding frequency and landscape change using geophysical, geochemical and micropaleontological information. The results are highly significant for determining long-term trends of water quality, the impact of atmospheric (as SCP, spheroidal carbonaceous particles) and industrial (chromium) polluti...

Cremer, H.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Donders, T. H.; Hoek, W. Z.; Koolen-eekhout, M.; Koolmees, H. H.; Lavooi, E.

2010-01-01

81

Detection of human viruses in rivers of a densly-populated area in Germany using a virus adsorption elution method optimized for PCR analyses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transmission of viruses via surface water is a major public health concern. To determine the viral concentration in rivers of a densely-populated area in Germany, the virus adsorption elution (VIRADEL) method was optimized for downstream PCR applications. Using a high-salt alkaline phosphate buffer for elution, the median recovery efficiency from spiked 1l water samples ranged from 21.3% to 100% for JC polyomavirus, human adenovirus type 5, Echovirus 11, and norovirus genogroup I. Analyses of 41 water samples collected during the winter 2007/08 from the rivers Ruhr and Rhine yielded detection rates 97.5% for adenoviruses and human polyomavirus (JC, BK), and 90% for group A rotaviruses. Noroviruses genogroup II were detected in 31.7% of the samples and only one sample was positive for enteroviruses. Virus concentrations ranged from 9.4 to 2.3x10(4) gen.equ./l. However, the genome equivalents/liter determined for the RNA viruses and their detection frequency are only lower limits, since the concentration procedure leads to carry-over of inhibitors of the reverse transcription step. Sequence analyses of the PCR products revealed that the adenovirus and rotavirus PCRs used could cross-react with animal viruses from the respective virus families. These results suggest that detection of human polyomavirus genomes is the most sensitive and specific marker for contamination of surface water with viruses from human sewage. Although we could routinely detect nucleic acids of viral pathogens in river water by the PCR-optimized VIRADEL method, threshold levels of viral nucleic acids above which there is a risk of infection with viruses derived from human remain to be determined. PMID:19361832

Hamza, Ibrahim Ahmed; Jurzik, Lars; Stang, Alexander; Sure, Klaus; Uberla, Klaus; Wilhelm, Michael

2009-06-01

82

Interdisciplinary and transboundary approach of geohistorical reconstruction of the floods in the Rhine Graben (1400 - 2010)  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of its turbulent history, Alsace is one of French regions where the historic floods are the most underestimated. The damages connected to the wars (on 1870, 1914 - 1918, 1939 - 1945), the particular classification of archives and, especially, their writing in German during several periods of the recent history, is rebuffing numerous specialists Located in the same geographical area (the Rhine Graben), but by the other side of the the border constituted by the Rhine, the land of Bade is, him too, confronted with the problem of the misunderstanding of the historic floods, because of the destructions of the war also, but especially because of the harmful absence, for archives production, of a strong centralized state until the German unification after 1870. Hence the idea to set up a interdisciplinary French - German research program, to establish compared floods chronologies over several centuries in the Rhine Graben, both in France and in Germany, by associating historians, geographers, anthropologists and specialists of the languages from the universities of Mulhouse (France) and Freiburg in Breisgau (Germany). This program (called "TRANSRISK" 2008 - 2010), financed by the « Agence Nationale de la Recherche » and the « Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft , has multiple objectives: - filling the gaps in the knowledge of the floods in France and in Germany - building a common geohistory of the floods - optimizing the prevention and the information about the floods, thanks to the classification, the reconstruction and the mapping of the extreme phenomena - understanding the role of rivers developments responsible for an different floods evolution on both sides of the Rhine - contributing to the implementation of flood risk observatories on a French - German basis - contributing to define a common interdisciplinary vocabulary on risks (and a french - german - english glossary ). These works join the logic of the "European Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks" come into effects in november 2009 and will allow both regions, previously late, to take place in the forefront of innovation in knowledge on flood risks, including for small streams, and in mapping, two objectives were fixed for 2011 and 2013 by the European Directive. The first results are already spectacular because they are not less than 600 floods in Alsace and 400 in Bade who were able to be counted during the last 5 centuries, bringing to light, on one hand, totally forgotten extreme phenomena, and on the other hand significant breaks in compared floods chronologies, giving evidence of the essential role of the anthropological developments in the decrease or increase of flood risk... and in the production of archives.

Martin, Brice; Ansel, Romain; Guerrouah, Ouarda; With, Lauriane; -Chenel, Karine Dietrich; Vitoux, Marie-Claire; Glaser, Rudiger; Drescher, Axel; Himmelsbach, Iso

2010-05-01

83

Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation: Review of River Basin Management Planning in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By the end of 2009, programmes of measures and river basin management plans under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD had for the first time been set up for all 10 river basin districts inGermany. They provide the water management planning tools for achieving good status of surface and groundwater by 2015. Since a good ecological status for many water bodies cannot be attained by this deadline, the Directive provides for two supplementary planning cycles running to 2021 and 2027 respectively. Owing to its ecological approach, the WFD has much in common with nature conservation. The project “Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation” sought to discover how the aims of the WFD and nature conservation are linked in the practice of river basin management planning and what possibilities there are for optimisation from a nature conservation point of view. On this basis, proposals were made for updating and implementing plans.

SCHMIDT Catrin

2012-09-01

84

P-pollution in a heavily urbanized river basin from point and diffuse sources: the River Ruhr case study (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

An area-differentiated model approach (MEPhos) for the quantification of mean annual P-inputs from point and diffuse sources is presented. The following pathways are considered: artificial drainage, wash-off, groundwater outflow, soil erosion, rainwater sewers, combined sewer overflows, municipal waste water treatment plants and industrial effluents. Based on the modelling results "hot spots" for high P-loads can be localized and management option for the input reduction to surface waters proposed. The model is applied to the River Ruhr basin (4,485 km2) in Germany with contrasting natural conditions, land use patterns as well as population and industry densities. PMID:17710997

Tetzlaff, B; Wendland, F

2007-01-01

85

Holocene sediment budgets of the Rhine Delta (The Netherlands): a record of changing sediment delivery  

OpenAIRE

Holocene sedimentation in the Rhine-Meuse Delta is facilitated by sea-level rise and tectonics, but most important is the result of the sediment flux received through rivers from the hinterland. The majority of Rhine and Meuse sediment entering the delta was trapped between the apex and coastal barrier, at least during the Middle and Late Holocene. It is not known how much sediment was delivered to the delta over longer periods of time (>100 years), or how delivery rates var...

Erkens, Gijsbert; Cohen, K. M.; Gouw, M. J. P.; Middelkoop, H.; Hoek, W. Z.

2006-01-01

86

A joint probability approach using a 1-D hydrodynamic model for estimating high water level frequencies in the Lower Rhine Delta  

OpenAIRE

The Lower Rhine Delta, a transitional area between the River Rhine and Meuse and the North Sea, is at risk of flooding induced by infrequent events of a storm surge or upstream flooding, or by more infrequent events of a combination of both. A joint probability analysis of the astronomical tide, the wind induced storm surge, the Rhine flow and the Meuse flow at the boundaries is established in order to produce the joint probability distribution of potential flood events. Three individual join...

Zhong, H.; -j Overloop, P.; Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.

2013-01-01

87

Tritium/Helium-3 Dating of River Infiltration:An Example from the Oderbruch Area, Berlin, Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentrations of tritium, helium isotopes and neon have been measured in groundwater samples from a shallow and deep groundwater system recharged by bank infiltration from the Oder River in northeastern Berlin, Germany. The apparent 3H/3He ages show a distinct variation. They increased from only a few months to >40 years along the flow path. The farthest wells from the river have high concentration of 4He terrigenic which is around 5 × 10?5 (ccSTP/kg. The highest values for stable 3H (3H + 3Hetrit were encountered at a 2.6 kmdistance from the river.

Hany El-Gamal

2013-01-01

88

A 13 km Long Paleoseismological Trench in Western Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The expansion of an open pit lignite mine in this area makes it necessary to translocate one of Germany's most frequented, E-W trending highways for a length of 13 km during the next months and years. By this occasion, one of the largest faults of the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), the Rurrand Fault, was already cut in 2010. We applied geological mapping and surface-near geophysical techniques for investigating this possible candidate for the 1756 Düren earthquake (M>6; and considered as the strongest historical earthquake in Germany), and found clear hints for recent active faulting. The LRE in western Germany is one of the seismically most active areas in Central Europe. Earthquakes stronger than M6 have been documented by paleoseismological and archeoseismological investigations and written sources. Instrumental seismicity reached ML5.9 (Mw5.4; April 13th, 1992) in this densely populated area with alone nearby Cologne having more than one million inhabitants. Active faults trend NW-SE in a horst-graben system, parallel to the rivers Rhine and Rur. Recent studies reported that active faults in the study area are characterized by recurrence periods in the order of tens of ka. Those faults in western Germany are often not visible in the field due to relatively high erosion rates and therefore, the seismic hazard might be underestimated. The ongoing highway construction works will cut more (active) faults. We expect at least eight already mapped faults to be cut by the earth works, some of which capable of causing damaging earthquakes judging from their mere length. The construction work is a unique opportunity for paleoseismological investigations at already known, but yet unstudied faults. We hope to gather additional data for an improvement of seismic hazard estimations in Western Germany.

Grützner, C. H.; Reicherter, K.; Winandy, J.

2012-04-01

89

How extreme where the Floods of River Rhine in the pre-instrumental Period? A novel interdisciplinary approach to reconstruct and quantify pre-instrumental floods  

Science.gov (United States)

History of natural disasters has become a key topic during the last decade, not least because of the widespread impression that the world in our days is being hit by such events at more frequent intervals. The still very young scientific field of Historical Hydrology mainly concentrates on reconstructing flood events of the pre instrumental period, usually by specifying damages caused or occasionally by addressing the issue to inundation heights or meteorological reasons. This paper in contrast is going to shed light on discharge quantities of several pre instrumental floods in such a way that comparisons between instrumental measured and unmeasured pre instrumental floods can be drawn for the first time. Why Rhine floods at Basel? The evidence for this town from the Middle Ages up to the present days is well preserved, because Basel was never destroyed since the disastrous earthquake in 1356 which nearly annihilated the town. Narrative reports of several trustworthy contemporary town chroniclers are still at hand more or less without gaps from the thirteenth to the late seventeenth century. Most major events are so well documented that the maximum height of the flood as well as the size and location of inundated areas could be assessed. More recent events are documented with flood marks or with reports referring to flood-marks which were later destroyed. In 1808 a gauge was established near the (only) bridge. Daily readings are preserved up to the present overlapping with streamflow measurements after 1867. The traditional scheme of flood reporting documented in nineteenth century newspapers was compared with flood-marks and gauge readings especially from the example of the extreme flood in 18th September 1852. The intercomparison of narrative with instrumental evidence allowed calibrating flood information from the Medieval Period. Based on this calibration hydrologists attempted discharge calculations based upon software Flux/Floris2000. Moreover Base?s body of source material also implies the chance to reconstruct all floods of a certain height in as much the authorities - whenever a major flood took place - summoned up a bridge guard who had to protect the bridge from driftwood and similar jeopardies. The expenses for this guard, as was demonstrated by Gerhard Fouquet, have left their footprint in the weekly led books of account of Basel. A well fail-safe series of flood occurrences as well as an extension of extreme flood series into the pre instrumental period therefore could be obtained in this way. Both series will help to augment knowledge of coherencies between climatic variation, precipitation and flood events.

Wetter, O.; Pfister, C.; Weingarnter, R.; Röser, I.

2009-04-01

90

Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of subcatchments of the River Spree, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Lusatia is considered one of the driest regions of Germany. The climatic water balance is negative even under current climate conditions. Due to global climate change, increased temperatures and a shift of precipitation from summer to winter are expected. Therefore, it is of major interest whether the excess water in winter can be stored and to which extent it is used up on increasing evapotranspiration. Thus, this study focuses on estimating potential climate change impacts on the water balance of two subcatchments of the River Spree using the Soil and Water Integrated Model (SWIM). Climate input was taken from 100 realisations each of two scenarios of the STatistical Analogue Resampling scheme STAR assuming a further temperature increase of 0 K (scenario A) and 2 K by the year 2055 (scenario B) respectively. Resulting from increased temperatures and a shift in precipitation from summer to winter actual evapotranspiration is supposed to increase in winter and early spring, but to decrease in later spring and early summer. This is less pronounced for scenario A than for scenario B. Consequently, also the decrease in discharge and groundwater recharge in late spring is lower for scenario A than for scenario B. The highest differences of runoff generation and groundwater recharge between the two scenarios but also the highest ranges within the scenarios occur in summer and early autumn. It is planned to estimate potential climate change for the catchments of Spree, Schwarze Elster and Lusatian Neisse.

Pohle, I.; Koch, H.; Grünewald, U.

2012-12-01

91

River flooding and landscape changes impact water quality and species composition in a lake catchment of the Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands  

Science.gov (United States)

A 400-year sediment record from a deep water scour hole near the Meuse River in the Netherlands (Haarsteegse Wiel) was investigated for past changes in water quality, flooding regime and landscape change using a combined geochemical and micropaleontological (diatom and pollen analyses) approach. The results are highly significant for determining natural water quality, the impact of (atmospheric) pollution on the (aquatic) flora and the study of the impact and signals related to river floods. The sediment was dated by combining 137Cs activity measurements, biostratigraphical ages and historically documented floodings indicated by the magnetic susceptibility of the sediment. The first flooding event is indicated in the sediment at AD 1610 when the lake was created by water masses bursting through a dike. The extent of large historical river floods are well described in historical chronicles and present an opportunity to study how a flood signal is represented in the lake catchment and provide an additional age calibration point. The resulting chronology is highly accurate and shows that sedimentation rates decrease sharply with the widespread change from wheat cultivation to pasture land from around AD 1875 as a direct result of falling wheat prices and intensified cattle farming. Water quality changes and absolute phosphorous concentrations are reconstructed using diatom-based transfer function. Results show that the currently nutrient rich lake water has mostly been in a mesotrophic state prior to AD 1920, with the exception of several sharp eutrophication events. These events generally occur in sediments deposited during river floods. The river flooding also impacts the vegetation composition by importing allochtonous components such as Nymphaea candida (non-native waterlillies), and indirectly by the deposition of nutrients which have a clear impact on vegetation composition and richness. Magnetic susceptibility changes and pollen data show that from AD 1610-1730, within the Little Ice Age period, a higher number of previously undocumented floods seem to have occurred which requires further study. Documentation of the flooding signals in a high-resolution archive present the possibility to detect flooding regimes further back in time. Measured records of river flooding in the Netherlands span maximally 150 yr and are extrapolated and used to calculate the frequency of (extreme) flooding events. By ground-truthing the extrapolated observational data with long-term records of river dynamics from natural archives we can reduce the uncertainties in the return times of floods and study the effect of long-term climate changes and human impact on the river catchment.

Bunnik, F. P. M.; Cremer, H.; Donders, T. H.; Kroon, I. C.

2009-04-01

92

Measurement and modeling of bentazone in the river Main (Germany) originating from point and non-point sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Water Framework Directive pilot project combines measured data and model approaches to calculate fluxes and mass balance of the pesticide bentazone in an 81 km section of the river Main (Germany). During the study period (six weeks in spring 2004) the observed bentazone inflow and outflow in the river section amounted to 52.8 and 53.1 kg, respectively; the maximum concentrations reached 220 and 290 ng l(-1). Based on sampling of seven sewage treatment plants a specific loss of 0.87 g bentazone per farm was calculated. Extrapolation to the entire sub-basin results in 2.6 kg bentazone in total as point source contribution from farms. Diffuse input into the surface water network occurred after an intensive rainfall event on May 7th. Total bentazone load was simulated with the pesticide emission model DRIPS to be 23.2 kg. One third of this load was estimated to be degraded by photolysis before reaching the main waterway, the river Main. The ATV water quality model was applied to predict the concentration profile of bentazone in river Main between Schweinfurt and Würzburg with reasonable results. The difference between total measured and modeled fluxes amounted to 1.5 kg corresponding to 2% of the overall input. The combined approach of monitoring and modeling appears to be a valuable strategy to quantify the relevance of point and non-point sources and to focus effective mitigation measures to the most relevant origins within a river basin. PMID:20546837

Bach, M; Letzel, M; Kaul, U; Forstner, S; Metzner, G; Klasmeier, J; Reichenberger, S; Frede, H G

2010-06-01

93

Modeling the fate of organic micropollutants during river bank filtration (Berlin, Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are frequently detected in urban surface water and the adjacent groundwater and are therefore an increasing problem for potable water quality. River bank filtration (RBF) is a beneficial pretreatment step to improve surface water quality for potable use. Removal is mainly caused by microbial degradation of micropollutants, while sorption retards the transport. The quantification of biodegradation and adsorption parameters for EOCs at field scale is still scarce. In this study, the fate and behavior of a range of organic compounds during RBF were investigated using a two dimensional numerical flow- and transport model. The data base used emanated from a project conducted in Berlin, Germany (NASRI: Natural and Artificial Systems for Recharge and Infiltration). Oxygen isotope signatures and hydraulic head data were used for model calibration. Afterwards, twelve organic micropollutants were simulated with a reactive transport model. Three compounds (primidone, EDTA, and AMDOPH) showed conservative behavior (no biodegradation or sorption). For the nine remaining compounds (1.5 NDSA, AOX, AOI, MTBE, carbamazepine, clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole), degradation and/or sorption was observed. 1.5 NDSA and AOX were not sorbed, but slightly degraded with model results for ? = 2.25e- 3 1/d and 2.4e- 3 1/d. For AOI a ? = 0.0106 1/d and R = 1 were identified. MTBE could be characterized well assuming R = 1 and a low 1st order degradation rate constant (? = 0.0085 1/d). Carbamazepine degraded with a half life time of about 66 days after a threshold value of 0.2-0.3 ?g/L was exceeded and retarded slightly (R = 1.7). Breakthrough curves of clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole could be fitted less well, probably due to the dependency of degradation on temperature and redox conditions, which are highly transient at the RBF site. Conditions range from oxic to anoxic (up to iron-reducing), with the oxic and denitrifying zones moving spatially back and forth over time.

Henzler, Aline F.; Greskowiak, Janek; Massmann, Gudrun

2014-01-01

94

Downscaling of climate parameters in Bode river basin in Germany using Active Learning Method (ALM)  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is a part of main program RIMAX "risk management of extreme flood events", which concerns itself of "extremes floodwater and damage potential in the Bode river basin in Germany „with the variable occurrence of flood events in this area for the past 1000 years. The objective of the project is to produce the local climate time series (climate downscaling) as the input for a runoff model in the Bode basin for the last 1000 years on a grid of 5x5 km as well as the estimation of the spatial distributions and temporal variability of the precipitation, the amount of precipitation and further meteorological parameter (temperature, radiation and relative humidity) for this area. A nonlinear downscaling based on Fuzzy rules has been used to produce 1000 year climate time series. The global model ECHO from Max Planck institute for Meteorology (MPI) with T30 resolution and 1000 years data has been used as the global model (GCM). The regional model REMO, with 10 km resolution and 20 years data has been used as the regional input. The observations, which include 30 years precipitation, radiation, temperature, wind and relative humidity, have been used as output (predictand). In this study, two set fuzzy rules have been trained to describe the relationship between ECHO/REMO and REMO/Observation. The Fuzzy method used in this work is Active Learning Method (ALM). The heart of calculation of ALM is a fuzzy interpolation and curve fitting which is entitled Ink Drop Spread (IDS). The IDS searches fuzzily for continuous possible paths of interpolated data points on data planes. The ability of ALM to simulate the high values as well as the fluctuation of time series is much better than Takagi-Sugeno models, which have been used for downscaling in the last decade. In the next steps, considering predictors from the ECHO time series and predictands from the REMO grid points, some ALM models are developed, which describe the fuzzy rules and the relationship between global and regional scales. These models are verified using checking data and then considering ECHO/REMO models and on the basis of last 1000 years of ECHO, the REMO time series as well as the local data are simulated. These simulated data are used as input-data for the runoff model ARCEGMO.

Sodoudi, S.; Reimer, E.

2009-04-01

95

Identification of stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the Rhine basin using Q methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

This article identifies different stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the downstream parts of the Rhine basin in Germany and The Netherlands. The perspectives were identified using Q methodology, which proved to be a good, but time-intensive, method for eliciting and analyzing stakeholder perspectives in a structured and unbiased way. Three shared perspectives were found: A) "Anticipation and institutions", B) "Space for flooding" and C) "Knowledge and engineering". These three perspectives share a central concern for the provision of safety against flooding, but disagree on the expected autonomous developments and the preferred measures. In perspective A, the expected climate change and economic growth call for fast action. To deal with the increasing flood risk, mostly institutional measures are proposed, such as the development of a stronger basin commission. In perspective B, an increasing spatial pressure on the river area is expected, and the proposed measures are focused on mitigating damage, e.g., through controlled flooding and compartmentalization. In perspective C, the role of expert knowledge and technological improvements is emphasized. Preferred strategies include strengthening the dikes and differentiation of safety standards. An overview of stakeholder perspectives can be useful in natural resources management for 1) setting the research agenda, 2) identifying differences in values and interests that need to be discussed, 3) creating awareness among a broad range of stakeholders, and 4) developing scenarios.

Raadgever, G. T.; Mostert, E.; van de Giesen, N. C.

2008-08-01

96

Soil formation, microstructure and physical behaviour of late Weichselian and Holocene Rhine deposits in The Netherlands.  

OpenAIRE

Dutch Late Weichselian braided river deposits and Holocene meandering river deposits of the Rhine have been studied and compared. Cross sections demonstrate the lateral and vertical variations of the Late Weichselian sediments. Soil mapping of these deposits, even on a very detailed scale, proves very difficult. Best results have been obtained with a legend based on hydrology enabling the distinction of topo-hydrosequences of well drained brown soils, imperfectly drained mottled soils and poo...

Miedema, R.

1987-01-01

97

A multi-tracer approach for the exploration of deep geothermal energy potential and fault zone characterisation, applied in the Upper Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

Current methods of geothermal exploration rely on various expensive geophysical methods (e.g. 3D reflection seismics) to identify permeable fault zones and the geometry of geothermal aquifers. However this analysis alone does not allow for an estimation of an active fault's hydraulic permeability nor provides a characterisation of the chemical properties of the deep aquifer fluid. Both factors play an important role in optimising siting of geothermal wells and operation of a geothermal power plant. This work presents a low cost strategy characterizing deep hydrogeochemical reservoirs using a combination of methods from hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrology in hot springs and near surface groundwater. The main goal is to confine the area of interest for further, indirect geophysical investigation. For this purpose natural geochemical and isotopical tracers as well as rare earth elements, 3He/4He ratios, and radiogenic isotopes (Sr and Pb) are investigated. Data from the first sampling campaign in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, close to Groß-Gerau, Germany, shows promising results, indicating an area of increased interest where elevated helium ratios coincide with characteristic geochemical data, fault location and a previously known saltwater anomaly. Geochemical analyses exhibit three different types of fluids and various mixtures. CaHCO3-dominated waters represent Quaternary aquifer conditions whereas MgSO4-dominated waters are characterised by a Tertiary aquifer rock. Higher saline NaCl-dominated waters show an impact of mantle fluids revealed by 3He/4He isotope analysis. The ratio is highest where the main fault of the northern Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Rhine river. This suggests that the fault is hydraulically active and connects ascending deep fluids with the shallow aquifer. Further investigations of rare earth element patterns as well as radiogenic isotopes will identify the origin, the ascent as well as the retention time of the deep fluids more precisely. Water-rock interactions and mixtures of different fluids in the reservoir and during the ascent are estimated and simulated using geochemical and hydraulic models. Thus, the geometry of the aquifer, the temperature, the quantity and the quality of the ascending deep fluid in the reservoir is estimated. The retention time is a good indicator for the deep fluid being part of a fossil reservoir or being recharged naturally. The Upper Rhine Graben was chosen to test the multi-tracer method due to its well-studied geology and some significant preexisting geophysical data to allow for comparison and validation of the study's findings. The aim is to identify the most useful tracers of deep geothermal fluid circulation, which consecutively can be applied to other regions with less prior information.

Freundt, Florian; Najem, Sami Al; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Isenbeck-Schröter, Margot; Schmidt, Gerhard; Grobe, René; Kraml, Michael

2014-05-01

98

Late Quaternary evolution of rivers, lakes and peatlands in northeast Germany reflecting past climatic and human impact – an overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of regional palaeohydrology is essential for understanding current environmental issues, such as the causes of recent hydrologic changes, impacts of land use strategies and effectiveness of wetland restoration measures. Even the interpretation of model results on future impacts of climatic and land-cover changes may be improved using (pre-historic analogies. An overview of palaeohydrologic findings of the last c. 20,000 years is given for northeast Germany with its glacial landscapes of different age. River development is examined with a focus on valley(-floor formation and depositional changes, river course and channel changes, and palaeodischarge/-floods. Major genetic differences exist among ‘old morainic’ (Elsterian, Saalian and ‘young morainic’ (Weichselian areas, and among topographically high- and low-lying valleys, the latter of which are strongly influenced by water-level changes in the North and Baltic Seas. Lake development was analysed with respect to lake formation, which was predominantly driven by late Pleistocene to early Holocene dead-ice dynamics, and with respect to depositional changes. Furthermore, lake-level changes have been in the focus, showing highly variable local records with some conformity. The overview on peatland development concentrated on phases of mire formation and on long-term groundwater dynamics. Close relationships between the development of rivers, lakes and peatlands existed particularly during the late Holocene by complex paludification processes in large river valleys. Until the late Holocene, regional hydrology was predominantly driven by climatic, geomorphic and nonanthropogenic biotic factors. Since the late Medieval times, human activities have strongly influenced the drainage pattern and the water cycle, for instance, by damming of rivers and lakes, construction of channels and dikes, and peatland cultivation. Indeed, the natural changes caused by long-term climatic and geomorphic processes have been exceeded by impacts resulting from short-term human actions in the last c. 50 years as discharge regulation, hydromelioration and formation of artificial lakes.

Knut Kaiser

2012-07-01

99

Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in the sediment of the Roter Main river, Bayreuth, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems. Their sources are known but few studies about their accumulation potential in river sediments exist. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in sediments in relation to their levels in river water receiving effluent from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). PFOS accumulates by a factor of about 40 relative to river water, PFOA only up to threefold. In contrast to previous suggestions, in this case the enrichment on sediment is not correlated to the total organic carbon contents. - River sediments constitute a sink of perfluorinated surfactants released from the waste water treatment plant.

Becker, Anna M.; Gerstmann, Silke [Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstr. 30, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Frank, Hartmut [Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstr. 30, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)], E-mail: encetox@uni-bayreuth.de

2008-12-15

100

Tracing the Anthropocene in the Rhine-Meuse delta  

Science.gov (United States)

The Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta developed during the past ~8000 yr under a first rapid and later decreasing sea level rise in a back-barrier area along the North Sea. After about 3500 yr BP, natural delta evolution became increasingly influenced by humans, with different types of imprints: increased discharge and sediment load associated with deforestation in the hinterland affecting channel geometry and deposition; artificial avulsion; large-scale peat excavation; reclamation and drainage of flood basins resulting in compaction and oxidation of peat; river embankment preventing delta-wide overbank deposition and finalizing avulsion; channelization, changing channel belt geometry and causing shifts in sediment deposition within the delta. After the onset of the industrial revolution, contaminants have been deposited along with the river sediment on the embanked floodplains and in the estuary. The extremely well-documented human-affected evolution of the delta provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate how the Anthropocene can manifest itself in such an environment. We give an overview of human-affected processes in the Rhine-Meuse delta and discuss their effect on fluvial architecture, morphology and sediment composition, and how these may remain preserved within the delta sedimentary record.

Middelkoop, Hans; van der Perk, Marcel; Cohen, Kim M.; Stouthamer, Esther; Hoek, Wim Z.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Erkens, Gilles; Jansma, Esther

2014-05-01

101

Coupling of primary production and diel nitrate dynamics in a eutrophic lowland river system in central Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

River ecosystem nutrient cycling and export are closely tied to the metabolic activity of primary producers. Although general patterns of diel variation in nutrient concentrations are known, recently developed in situ nutrient sensors allow description of fine-scale patterns of variation for extended durations, and they can potentially be used to quantify autotrophic assimilation. We used high frequency in situ measurements of nitrate (NO3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Bode River system of the TERENO hydrological Observatory of the Helmholtz-Association in central Germany to i) evaluate seasonal variation and river scale dependency of GPP and to ii) generate independent estimates of assimilatory nitrogen demand. We analyzed two year continues data (15 min interval) from four measurement stations ranging from the Selke third order forested stream in the lower mountain range to the sixth order lowland Bode River. We are able to show that GPP follows a clear seasonal variation with highest values of up to 3 gO2m-2d-1 in spring and an additional second peak during litter fall in autumn in the small forested stream. The lowland river shows a similar but less pronounced pattern with distinct higher GPP values of up to 6 gO2m-2d-1. Surprisingly this two modal behavior was not found for the mid sized fourth order arable Selke stream with higher light availability. GPP strongly corresponded to the day length in the growing season showing the highest GPP of up to 8 gO2 m-2d-1 in summer. This may be caused by high periphyton growth due to low dense riparian vegetation. A clear relationship of GPP and diel amplitudes of nitrate concentration could be observed in all streams and rivers but these relationships could only be identified for periods with highest GPP of each individual streams. In addition corresponding correlations (r) ranged between 0.5 and 0.6. The results show that high frequency in situ measurements potentially allow quantifying GPP and assimilatory nutrient uptake and may help to better calculate nutrient retention in rivers.

Rode, Michael; Halbebel, Susanne; Rehan Anis, Muhammad; Weitere, Markus

2014-05-01

102

Determination of 3D surface displacement rates in the Upper Rhine Graben based on GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network)  

Science.gov (United States)

In September 2008, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre) and the Geodetic Institute of Karlsruhe University (now: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) established the transnational cooperation GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative, these institutions are cooperating in order to carry out geo-scientific research in the framework of the transnational project TOPO-WECEP (Western and Central European Platform; link: http://www.topo-wecep.eu/), which succeeded the former project URGENT (Upper Rhine Graben Evolution and NeoTectonics; link: http://comp1.geol.unibas.ch) of the EUCOR universities (European Confederation of Upper Rhine Universities). The Rhine Graben is the central segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100 km. GURN focusses on the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). The URG is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges Mountains and to the east by the Black Forest Mountains, culminating in elevations of approx. 1500 m. The uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif bounds the URG to the north. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette, and Vendlincourt folds represent the northernmost structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. Present-day distribution of the seismicity in the URG area is classified as moderate but not null. Expected velocities and strain rates are very low (relative velocities lower than 0.1mm/yr). The research is actually based on data of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems). A highly precise and highly sensitive geodetic network of permanently operating GNSS sites region has been established in the URG region in order to detect recent short-term (data base starting in year 2002) crustal movements based on displacements of GNSS sites. The regional network GURN actually consists of approx. 80 permanently operating GNSS sites of different data providers in Germany, France and Switzerland. The first work steps in the context of GURN were dominated by a detailed analysis of the GNSS data base (e.g., instrumental change artefacts). This analysis included a comparison of the working group related results (EOST, GIK), where different software packages and data handling strategies were used to derive 3D coordinate time series as basis for the determination of a 3D surface displacement field. Due to very small expected velocities in the URG region, the recent GURN focus is on the reliable derivation of site velocities, therefore effects of datum realisation have to be handled with care. The presentation gives an insight into the joint venture GURN focussing on recent results (e.g., 3D surface velocity field).

Mayer, M.; Knöpfler, A.; Masson, F.; Ulrich, P.; Heck, B.

2012-04-01

103

Evaluating a 1D and 2D water quality modeling framework: A case study of the lower Bode River, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bode River catchment in the Harz Mountain area of central Germany is heavily influenced by anthropogenic factors. 70% of the catchment is dominated by agriculture, 23 % by forest and the rest 7% is urban in nature. The area of the catchment is approximately 3300 km2 and is characterized by sharp gradients in temperature, precipitation and land use. In order to acquire better understanding of the hydrological nature of the catchment and biogeochemical characteristics of the Bode River various monitoring stations have been deployed as a part of the larger earth observation network initiative named Terrestrial Environmental Observatories. One of the major issues with the catchment is the problem of eutrophication due to solute inputs from agriculture. The research presented here evaluated the application and development of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models in the downstream area of the Bode River. A stretch of 30 kms between Hadmersleeben and Stassfurt in the downstream area of the Bode River was modeled using 1D model HEC-RAS, the focus of the water quality modeling was transport and uptake of nitrate in the aforementioned modeled stretch. Flood events of varying peak magnitude at different times of the year were modeled. As regards to 2D modeling, TELEMAC-2D model was applied for the same reach. The hydrodynamic simulation results were validated with the help of free surface elevation at Athensleben, 8 kms upstream from the downstream end at Stassfurt. Water quality modeling, focusing on the Nitrate removal for the aforementioned stretch, is applied and developed for both 1D and 2D modeling framework. Results from hydrodynamic and water quality modeling were validated with RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) value of 0.074 and 0.36 for the modeled state variables across various events simulated. For the nutrient-rich reach modeled in this research it was found that the nutrient removal capacity of the stream is directly proportional to the incoming nitrate concentration.

Sinha, Sumit; Rode, Michael; Borchardt, Dietrich

2014-05-01

104

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in finished drinking water in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study 83 finished drinking water samples from 50 cities in Germany were analyzed for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) content with a detection limit of 10 ng/L. The detection frequency was 46% and the concentrations ranged between 17 and 712 ng/L. Highest concentrations were found in the community water systems (CWSs) of Leuna and Spergau in Saxony-Anhalt. These CWSs are supplied with water possibly affected by MTBE contaminated groundwater. MTBE was detected at concentrations lower than 100 ng/L in drinking water supplied by CWSs using bank filtered water from Rhine and Main Rivers. The results from Leuna and Spergau show that large groundwater contaminations in the vicinity of CWSs pose the highest risk for MTBE contamination in drinking water. CWSs using bank filtered water from Rhine and Main Rivers are susceptible to low MTBE contaminations in finished drinking water. All measured MTBE concentrations were below proposed limit values for drinking water. - MTBE in drinking water comes from different sources of MTBE in the aquatic environment.

Kolb, Axel [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Mineralogy, Department of Analytical Environmental Chemistry, Georg-Voigt-Str. 14, D-60054 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: a.kolb@kristall.uni-frankfurt.de; Puettmann, Wilhelm [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Mineralogy, Department of Analytical Environmental Chemistry, Georg-Voigt-Str. 14, D-60054 Frankfurt (Germany)

2006-03-15

105

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in finished drinking water in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study 83 finished drinking water samples from 50 cities in Germany were analyzed for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) content with a detection limit of 10 ng/L. The detection frequency was 46% and the concentrations ranged between 17 and 712 ng/L. Highest concentrations were found in the community water systems (CWSs) of Leuna and Spergau in Saxony-Anhalt. These CWSs are supplied with water possibly affected by MTBE contaminated groundwater. MTBE was detected at concentrations lower than 100 ng/L in drinking water supplied by CWSs using bank filtered water from Rhine and Main Rivers. The results from Leuna and Spergau show that large groundwater contaminations in the vicinity of CWSs pose the highest risk for MTBE contamination in drinking water. CWSs using bank filtered water from Rhine and Main Rivers are susceptible to low MTBE contaminations in finished drinking water. All measured MTBE concentrations were below proposed limit values for drinking water. - MTBE in drinking water comes from different sources of MTBE in the aquatic environment

106

Comparison of Cross-bordering River Systems: A Case Study From the Country Triangle of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Two exemplary mesoscale river catchments at the northern slope of the High Venn mountains in the country triangle of Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany are compared. Here, an analysis of the fluctuations and temporal-spatial dispersal patterns of concentrations of inorganic nutrient compounds in relation to a satellite-derived land use classification has been carried out. The three countries are showing distinct discrepancies in land use patterns, water management and the evolution of the cultural landscape. Therefore, the ecological conditions of the fluvial systems vary considerably and are controlled by high nutrient influx from agriculture and settlements via point and non-point sources. In addition, seasonal effects and complex transport mechanisms have an impact. Our results emphasize the need to improve the water quality with the aid of an integrated catchment management, as it is provided by the European water framework directive. The reduction of nutrient inputs from non-point sources plays a major role in this task. Furthermore, the ecological classification of river systems in frontier areas should involve country-specific characteristics as the form of land use, the settlement structures, or the people's perception of the natural and cultural landscape. Such catchment parameters are apparently of significance for the water quality, their emphasis has to be specified in future investigations.

Bluemel, H.; Nilson, E.; Moennig, C.; Lehmkuhl, F.

2004-05-01

107

Library Consortia in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Looking at the present situation in Germany consortia show a considerable variety of organizational forms. Only in the case of the Friedrich-Althoff-Consortium in Berlin-Brandenburg a corporate body with deed of partnership does exist. In other German states consortia have been formed which are represented by an individual library (e.g. Baden-Württemberg or by a central institution such as the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Bavaria or the Hochschulbibliothekszentrum NRW in North Rhine-Westphalia. Rarely contracts for nationwide consortia have been signed; resulting from an initiative of a professional society, the „Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker“, an agreement was reached allowing for the use of the Beilstein-Crossfire-database in participating universities all over Germany.

Werner Reinhardt

2001-07-01

108

Comparison of sedimentary PAHs in the rivers of Ammer (Germany) and Liangtan (China): differences between early- and newly-industrialized countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a proxy to trace the impact of anthropogenic activity, sedimentary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compared between the early industrialized and newly industrialized countries of Germany and China, respectively. Surface sediment samples in the Ammer River of Germany and the Liangtan River of China were collected to compare concentration levels, distribution patterns, and diagnostic plots of sedimentary PAHs. Total concentrations of 16 PAHs in Ammer sediments were significantly higher by a factor of ~4.5 than those in Liangtan. This contrast agrees with an extensive literature survey of PAH levels found in Chinese versus European sediments. Distribution patterns of PAHs were similar across sites in the Ammer River, whereas they were highly varied in the Liangtan River. Pyrogenic sources dominated in both cases. Strong correlations of the sum of 16 PAHs and PAH groups with TOC contents in the Liangtan River may indicate coemission of PAHs and TOC. Poor correlations of PAHs with TOC in the Ammer River indicate that other factors exert stronger influences. Sedimentary PAHs in the Ammer River are primarily attributed to input of diffuse sources or legacy pollution, while sediments in the Liangtan River are probably affected by ongoing point source emissions. Providing further evidence of a more prolonged anthropogenic influence are the elevated black carbon fractions in sedimentary TOC in the Ammer compared to the Liangtan. This implies that the Liangtan River, like others in newly industrialized regions, still has a chance to avoid legacy pollution of sediment which is widespread in the Ammer River and other European waterways. PMID:23252503

Liu, Ying; Beckingham, Barbara; Ruegner, Hermann; Li, Zhe; Ma, Limin; Schwientek, Marc; Xie, Huan; Zhao, Jianfu; Grathwohl, Peter

2013-01-15

109

Morphodynamic processes of the Elbe River estuary, Germany: the Coriolis effect, tidal asymmetry and human dredging  

Science.gov (United States)

The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the historical sea-charts and on-site hydrological records were used to examine the morphological change of the Elbe River estuary. The results show that siltation predominated in the tidal flat in the northern estuary, with a net siltation rate of 1.8 cm·a-1 during 1927-2006. In contrast, a continuous erosion prevailed in the main river channel, south of the estuary, with a net erosion rate of 2.5 cm·a-1 in the same time. In addition, a seaward shift of the estuarine island has happened with the old island coalescing to the northern tidal flat and new one emerging through siltation process. The tidal asymmetry via ebbing flow (maximum at 140 cm·s-1, and average at 76 cm·s-1) prevailed in the tidal flat, meaning continuous aggradation northwestward, while flooding flow (maximum at 100 cm ·s-1, and average at 67 cm·s-1) dominated in the main river channel with deepening thaweg at south, showing a landward sedimentation via the tidal pumping processes. This dextral extension of the estuarine morphology is due to the Coriolis force, leading to the inconsistent directions of in-out flows, which enables to facilitate the estuarine siltation. Human dredging prevailing in the estuary has dramatically altered the nature of the silted river channel to erosional since the last century. This is characterized by a net erosion rate of 3.2 cm·a-1 derived from the DEMs mapping, but only partially accounting for the dredging amount of 1994-2006, when the total dredging volume was 67 × 106 m3, equal to 5.9 cm·a-1.

Li, Maotian; Ge, Jianzhong; Kappenberg, Jens; Much, Dagmar; Nino, Ohle; Chen, Zhongyuan

2014-06-01

110

Paleoenvironmental aspects of middle ordovician (Black River and Trenton) carbonates; Germany Valley, Pendleton County, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

The McGraw/McGlone and Nealmont Limestones and the Dolly Ridge Formation in Germany Valley were deposited on a gentle carbonate slope. Five suites of microfacies were recognized: micrites, biomicrites, echinoderm bryozoan biosparites, biosparites (with biopelsparites and intrabiopelsparites), and pelsparites. The micrites were deposited in quiet water environments at all depths. Normal salinity and open circulation prevailed, and the substrate consistency varied from soupy to firm. Terrigenous influxes were partly responsible for low abundances of organisms. The biomicrites were patches of organisms inhabiting these mud substrata, and graded laterally into the micrites. Water movement occurred, but energy was low. The echinoderm bryozoan biosparites were deposited as localized, high energy, wave base sands. Water was shallow and salinity and circulation were open marine. The shifting sand produced an unstable substratum.

Carter, B. D., III

111

The "Redynamisation of the Old Rhine", an international and interdisciplinary INTERREG project focused on for channel braiding restoration - 2009-2013  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Rhine between France and Germany has been heavily impacted by channelization for navigation and then by dams works during the last two centuries. Most of the flows are now conveyed in a canalized section, a minimum discharge been reserved in the old section, so called the "Old Rhine". Between Huningue and Neuf-Breisach (45 km), the longest disconnected section, engineering works induced simplification and stabilization of the channel pattern from a formerly braiding reach to a single incised channel (incision of 7m between 184 and 1920 before Kembs dam construction), hydrological modifications, channel bottom armouring due to bedload decrease, and thus ecological alterations. Within the framework of current research works on river restoration, a new international and interdisciplinary project on the Upper Rhine entitled "INTERREG IV - Redynamisation of the Old Rhine" began in early 2009 running for four years. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of an important hydro-morphological and ecological restoration plan on the 45 km reach, expanding and gathering some independent national projects, by a closed partnership between French and German scientists, water management organisations and practitioners. The finality of the project is to provide possible prospective scenarios, in order to partially restore a braiding channel pattern on the Old Rhine channel, by promoting left bank erosion, channel enlargement and/or artificial sediment inputs. The Alsace Region will conduct the project administratively, and the scientific group will be coordinated by the University of Lyon (UMR 5600 CNRS). The study will involve historical, hydro-morphological, ecological and sociological parts. On one hand a historical approach, led by UMR 5600 and Electricité de France (EDF), will be necessary to understand long term channel changes since 1800 and thus to orientate restoration strategies. This task will be based on old maps, aerial photographs and topographical data analysis using a GIS. On the other hand, a hydro-morphological approach will be performed to determine the equilibrium between the sediment transport capacity of the channel and the sediment volume to be introduced in order to restore the morphological dynamics without increasing overflows. It will consist (i) in in situ experiments (controlled bank erosion conducted by EDF and artificial sediment introduction, and field monitoring by UMR 5600) and (ii) in hydro-dynamic modelling (LWI laboratory and the Cemagref). Lastly, an ecological approach (University of Strasbourg and environmental organisations - Conservatoire des Sites Alsaciens and Association de la Petite Camargue Alsacienne) will evaluate gravel introduction benefits on the different components of the ecosystem. The compromise of conciliation between social uses and ecological issues will also be evaluated using a sociological approach (University of Strasbourg). Results of these complementary approaches will permit to propose large scale and long term innovative, international and inter-disciplinary restoration scenarios, on the large scale of one of the largest rivers in Europe, over a twenty year period.

Piégay, H.; Béal, D.; Rollet, A.-J.; Arnaud, F.; Schmitt, L.

2009-04-01

112

The timing of river terrace formation - possibilities and challenges of luminescence dating methods: a case study from Northern Bavaria, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluvial terraces are widespread geomorphic features of Quaternary landscapes. Besides tectonics, their formation is predominantly controlled by climatic conditions. Changes in either conditions cause changes in fluvial discharge and sediment load. Therefore, fluvial terraces can be used as important non-continuous sedimentary archives for paleotectonic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The information gained from fluvial archives and their significance for paleoenvironmental research, however, strongly depend on a precise dating of the terrace formation. In the past, numerical dating of fluvial sediments has often been proved to be difficult. Radiocarbon dating has been applied on fluvial sediments frequently, but it depends on the presence of organic remains and its dating range is limited to the last ca. 40-50 ka. In contrast, luminescence dating enables the dating of fluvial sediments far beyond the last glacial-interglacial cycle and due to the general abundances of quartz and feldspar, there is almost no limitation of dateable material. Thus, luminescence dating has become a commonly applied method for yielding sedimentation ages of fluvial deposits. Applying luminescence dating techniques to fluvial archives is, however, still far from being a standard method. Several problems, such as incomplete bleaching of the dated material, dosimetric inaccuracies due to the heterogeneity of terrace gravels and difficulties in estimating accurate water contents, have to be considered. Thus, the calculation of OSL ages for fluvial deposits often proves to be challenging and their implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions always demand a careful interpretation. This contribution illustrates the informative value of fluvial archives for paleoenvironmental research and reveals some of the difficulties that may occur when luminescence dating techniques are applied to river terraces. The presented results are based on a case study, located in an oversized valley north of the city of Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany. Here, within the headwaters of the River Main, five Pleistocene terraces are distinguished. The terraces are interpreted as the result of a complex landscape evolution, which is characterized by an at least twofold river deflection. To shed light on the question of Pleistocene environmental conditions for terrace formation, we investigate the timing of the river terrace accumulation by establishing a terrace chronostratigraphy based on optically stimulated luminescence dating. Despite the described methodological problems, the obtained OSL dating results clearly show the potential to provide a reliable time frame for the terrace formation. They improve the knowledge about the Quaternary landscape evolution within the research area. Indicating significantly older sedimentation ages, these results clearly are in conflict with established explanations of terrace formation based on traditional concepts. They show that the response of fluvial systems to environmental changes is complex and strongly depends on local conditions.

Kolb, Thomas; Fuchs, Markus; Zöller, Ludwig

2014-05-01

113

Transparency of floodplain lakes; a study of plankton and suspended matter along the lower Rhine  

OpenAIRE

This thesis starts with an analysis of factors that determine turbidity of a large set of lakes (Chapter 2). In August 1999, 93 floodplain lakes situated in the floodplains of the Lower River Rhine have been sampled in search for morphometric and other factors that explain their contribution to clarity. The results showed that lakes with a drop in summer water level were less turbid at the time of sampling, mainly due to a lower inorganic suspended solids concentration. Older lakes were more ...

Roozen, F. C. J. M.

2005-01-01

114

Effects of Climate Change on Water Resource and Hydrological Extremes in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Different studies show that the expected climate change has already influenced the hydrological cycle and the runoff behavior of catchments in Germany, and the more frequent extreme events rose to be a particular concern during the recent years. In Germany, where hydrological and climatic patterns differ in various regions, it is an important task to assess both the extent and the spatial distribution of these impacts, as it helps an overall decision making for the country scale. The process-based ecohydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was applied for the whole of Germany, and the simulated results were calibrated (from 1981 to 1990) and validated (from 1961 to 1980) at several selected gauges in the five largest river basins (lower Rhine, upper Danube, Elbe, Weser and Ems). The potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources are assessed by simulating with the scenarios derived from statistic downscaled climate model STAR (scenario period: 2009-2060) and the dynamic downscaled model CCLM (scenario period: 2001-2010). Different indicators were applied to compare the simulation results for the reference period (1961-1990) and scenario periods (2051-2060 for STAR with 100 realizations and 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 for CCLM with 1 realization). The indicators, such as average seasonal river discharge, average annual water components (i.e., water runoff, groundwater flow and actual evapotranspiration) assess the impacts on hydrological cycle and the runoff pattern for the whole Germany, while the annual maximum daily discharge, the annual minimum 7-day average of discharge and the river discharge values exceeded between 0.1% and 99.9% of the time were used especially for extreme analysis. The results simulated with the realizations from model STAR show that in summer time, all the five rivers will have less river flows and the decline is substantially strong in river Elbe and Danube. Higher actual evapotranspiration is expected in most part of Germany mainly due to the increased temperature. The East Germany may face severe water stresses in the future while in northwest, it may become wetter especially in winters. The scenarios taken from the dynamic climate model CCLM lead to a moderate impact on the hydrological components. Floods may become higher and more frequently in the scenario periods in most rivers while the decreasing annual minimum low flow indicates that even in northwest wet regions, the summer low flow condition can be a serious problem and the river management should be adapted.

Huang, Shaochun; Krysanova, Valentina; Hattermann, Fred F.

2010-05-01

115

Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH4NO3-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. - Soils in the Elbe river floodplains are highly polluted with metals and arsenic and a critical enrichment in the grassland herbage seems to be most likely in flood channels or within special plant species

116

Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. - Soils in the Elbe river floodplains are highly polluted with metals and arsenic and a critical enrichment in the grassland herbage seems to be most likely in flood channels or within special plant species.

Overesch, M. [Department for Geo- and Agroecology, Institute of Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive Agriculture, University of Vechta, P.O. Box 1553, D-49364 Vechta (Germany)]. E-mail: moveresch@ispa.uni-vechta.de; Rinklebe, J. [Department of Soil Science, UFZ Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: joerg.rinklebe@ufz.de; Broll, G. [Department for Geo- and Agroecology, Institute of Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive Agriculture, University of Vechta, P.O. Box 1553, D-49364 Vechta (Germany)]. E-mail: gbroll@ispa.uni-vechta.de; Neue, H.-U. [Department of Soil Science, UFZ Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: heinz-ulrich.neue@ufz.de

2007-02-15

117

Nuclear energy controversy in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

How can the fact be explained that there are twice as many nuclear power plants operating in France as in the F.R. of Germany in 1983. The book defeats the common thesis that there are hardly any adversaries of nuclear energy on the other side of the Rhine River while the wide protest morement in the F.R. of Germany has prevented the expansion of nuclear energy. The majority of people in the F.R. of Germany and France show a similar reaction to nuclear energy and its risks. But the manifestations and effects of the protests are different. On the other hand, other historically grown political cultures and governmental-administrative structures are responsible. For years the expansion of nuclear energy had been shielded from the population of France. The unsettled conflict between the supporters and adressaries of nuclear energy contains more explosive power there than in the F.R. of Germany, particularly in the long term. (orig.)

118

A joint probability approach using a 1-D hydrodynamic model for estimating high water level frequencies in the Lower Rhine Delta  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lower Rhine Delta, a transitional area between the River Rhine and Meuse and the North Sea, is at risk of flooding induced by infrequent events of a storm surge or upstream flooding, or by more infrequent events of a combination of both. A joint probability analysis of the astronomical tide, the wind induced storm surge, the Rhine flow and the Meuse flow at the boundaries is established in order to produce the joint probability distribution of potential flood events. Three individual joint probability distributions are established corresponding to three potential flooding causes: storm surges and normal Rhine discharges, normal sea levels and high Rhine discharges, and storm surges and high Rhine discharges. For each category, its corresponding joint probability distribution is applied, in order to stochastically simulate a large number of scenarios. These scenarios can be used as inputs to a deterministic 1-D hydrodynamic model in order to estimate the high water level frequency curves at the transitional locations. The results present the exceedance probability of the present design water level for the economically important cities of Rotterdam and Dordrecht. The calculated exceedance probability is evaluated and compared to the governmental norm. Moreover, the impact of climate change on the high water level frequency curves is quantified for the year 2050 in order to assist in decisions regarding the adaptation of the operational water management system and the flood defense system.

Zhong, H.; van Overloop, P.-J.; van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.

2013-07-01

119

A joint probability approach using a 1-D hydrodynamic model for estimating high water level frequencies in the Lower Rhine Delta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Lower Rhine Delta, a transitional area between the River Rhine and Meuse and the North Sea, is at risk of flooding induced by infrequent events of a storm surge or upstream flooding, or by more infrequent events of a combination of both. A joint probability analysis of the astronomical tide, the wind induced storm surge, the Rhine flow and the Meuse flow at the boundaries is established in order to produce the joint probability distribution of potential flood events. Three individual joint probability distributions are established corresponding to three potential flooding causes: storm surges and normal Rhine discharges, normal sea levels and high Rhine discharges, and storm surges and high Rhine discharges. For each category, its corresponding joint probability distribution is applied, in order to stochastically simulate a large number of scenarios. These scenarios can be used as inputs to a deterministic 1-D hydrodynamic model in order to estimate the high water level frequency curves at the transitional locations. The results present the exceedance probability of the present design water level for the economically important cities of Rotterdam and Dordrecht. The calculated exceedance probability is evaluated and compared to the governmental norm. Moreover, the impact of climate change on the high water level frequency curves is quantified for the year 2050 in order to assist in decisions regarding the adaptation of the operational water management system and the flood defense system.

H. Zhong

2013-07-01

120

Hydroclimatic signal and LBK cultural activity in the Upper and Lower Rhine, inferred from abandoned channel fill deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely populated Upper Rhine Graben with those from the more peripheral Lower Rhine valley to decipher anthropogenic impacts from natural environmental circumstances. Moreover, we try to discriminate the local to the regional signals recorded in the fluvial archives, by comparing the proxy data with the pedo-sedimentary context. The ultimate goal is to model socio-environmental interactions during the LBK culture progression to Western Europe with MMA.

Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.

2012-04-01

121

The Rhine Delta - a record of sediment trapping over time scales from millennia to decades  

Science.gov (United States)

At the land-ocean interface, large river deltas are major sinks of sediments and associated matter. Over the past decennia, many studies have been conducted on the palaeogeographic, historic and sub-recent overbank deposition on the Rhine floodplains. In this study these research results are synthesises with special focus on the amounts and changes of overbank fines trapped in the Rhine delta at different time scales in the past, present, and future. This contribution forms an update of the results presented at the EGU 2009 in session HS11.3 (Sediment response to catchment disturbances). Sediment trapping in the Rhine delta throughout the Holocene was quantified using a detailed database of the Holocene delta architecture. Additional historic data allowed the reconstruction of the development of the river floodplains during the period of direct human interference on the river. Using heavy metals as tracers, overbank deposition rates over the past century were determined. Measurements of overbank deposition and channel bed sediment transport in recent years, together with modelling studies of sediment transport and deposition have provided detailed insight in the present-day sediment deposition on the floodplains, as well as their controls. Estimated annual suspended sediment delivery rates were about 1.4 Mton (million tons) yr-1 between 6000-3000 yr BP and increased to about 2.1 Mton yr-1 between 3000-1000 yr BP. After embankment between 1100 and 1350 AD the amount of sediment trapped in the floodplains reduced to about 0.92 Mton yr-1. However, when accounting for sediment reworking, the actual sediment trapping of the embanked floodplains was about 1.6 Mton yr-1. Downstream of the lower Waal branch an inland delta developed that trapped another 0.4 Mton yr-1 of overbank fines. Since channel normalisation around 1850, the average deposition amounts on the embanked floodplains have been 1.15 Mton yr-1. Scenario studies show that the future sediment trapping in the lower Rhine floodplains might double. The variations in sediment deposited in the Rhine delta during the Holocene are largely attributed to changes in land use in the upstream basin. At present, the sediment trapping is low and heavily influenced by river regulation and engineering works. Upstream changes in climate and land use, and particularly direct measures for flood reduction in the lower floodplains may again change the amounts of sediments trapped by the lower floodplains in the forthcoming decennia.

Middelkoop, Hans; Erkens, Gilles; van der Perk, Marcel

2010-05-01

122

Analyses of the fluxes of water, sediment, nutrients and metals, after restoration of the tidal regime of a former polder in the River Rhine estuarine, part of The Netherlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

A tidal freshwater wetland, the Mariapolder, was restored in the southwestern part of The Netherlands that involved reconnecting the site to the Rhine estuary. Restoration of tidal dynamics has resulted in the establishment of erosion and sedimentation processes, fluxes of nutrients, metals, and other dissolved substances, and plant and animal communities associated with tidal freshwater wetlands. This paper describes the consequences of the 1994 opening of the dike around the Mariapolder, formerly a polder of 25 ha that had been managed as grasslands. Following restoration, the tidal range within the polder has varied between 0.6 and 0.8 m at the inlet and tidal velocity as high as 4 m3/s have been measured at the same site during incoming tides. Within the restored area, tidal water level amplitude has varied between 0.4 and 0.5 m. Automated water level recorders have been used to estimate water fluxes into and from the Mariapolder over 48-hour study periods. From physical and chemical analyses of water collected during the 48-hour periods, balances of suspended sediments, dissolved nutrients, and metals were calculated. There has been a consistent net flux of suspended sediments into the Mariapolder leading to an average raise of 1 - 2 mm/y in surface elevation. The Mariapolder appears to be a net yearly sink for nitrate-nitrogen and a net exporter of some dissolved metals. The mechanisms that control the sink-source dynamics are not yet fully understood and need further investigation. Following restoration, most of the agricultural grassland vegetation has disappeared and pioneer vegetation typical of TFW has developed within the Mariapolder.

Bleuten, W.; Borren, W.; Barendregt, A.

2009-04-01

123

Exploring the Prospects for Cross-Border Climate Change Adaptation between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change will have various effects on river basins: precipitation levels and water temperature may change, floods and also droughts may occur more frequently. These effects do not respect man-made borders, so climate adaptation in itself is a transnational challenge. Adaptation can reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change effects. Within the Rhine river basin, North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands are dealing with climate adaptation governance, both on the national and on the transboundary level. The aim of this paper is to get a better understanding of factors that stimulate or constrain transboundary governance of climate change adaptation. Our presumption is that the level of congruence between policy arrangements on both sides of the border has an impact on the prospects for cooperation. By applying the Policy Arrangement Approach we found similarities and differences between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands. The two arrangements are similar in their involvement of multiple actors on multiple levels, the degree of decentralization of policy making, a relatively strong feeling of urgency (though framed differently and the availability of knowledge resources. However, in the Netherlands adaptation is primarily water related and sector based, while in North Rhine-Westphalia the focus is more integrated, aiming at a balancing of different values and interests. Other differences are related to the amount and division of financial resources available and to actors’ responsibilities. The latter is geared towards a public responsibility in the Netherlands, while in North Rhine-Westphalia dealing with flood risks is also a responsibility of civilians and other private parties. We conclude that the degree of congruence between the two states is fairly high and will present argument as to why this offers good opportunities for further cooperation.

Marjolein C.J. Van Eerd

2014-05-01

124

Numeric simulation of the Permocarbon in the northern Upper Rhine Graben; Numerische Modellierung des Permokarbon im noerdlichen Oberrheingraben  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the large countersink depths and broader lateral extension, the sediments of the permocarbon in the Upper Rhine Graben are a potential geothermal reservoir. The Saar Nahe basin as an intramontainous basin of the Variscan Orogen between Alsace-Lorraine and Bad Kreuznach (Federal Republic of Germany) proceeds in the deep underground of the northern Upper Rhine Graben. Neighboured recent and former upper sections of the Central German Crystalline Threshold in S-SE and subordinated to the Taunus mountain in NW are the former supply areas for the Saar Nahe basin. Recently, large-dimensioned exposures in the Saar Nahe basin offer excellent opportunities for reservoir analogue studies of the Rotliegend rock in the underground of the northern Upper Rhine Graben. Based on reprocessed 2D seismology from the 1970ies and 1980ies and based on the data from exploration drillings, a lithofacial and petrophysical database is established for the Rotliegend rock. This database is supplemented by a newly acquired 2D seismology from actual geothermal energy projects. The integrated dataset was interpreted with high-resolution. The resulting static 3D model includes 10 stratigraphic horizons and a fault modelling. The tie-depth-conversion is based on the Geophon sinking measurement and stack velocities. Facial analyses of the digestion analogons as well as further drilling data were implemented in the facies model covering the northern sub basin of the northern Upper Rhine Graben. This implemented structural, stratigraphic and facial model forms the input data set for a pursuing dynamic modelling. The objective is the temporal and spatial simulation of heat distribution and fluid transport within the Permocarbon in the future use of geothermal energy. Coarse sandstone units as well as plugged micro conglomerate units from digestion analogous studies justify the expectation of the existence of suitable reservoir units with a large lateral continuity of the northern Upper Rhine Graben. The present data and 3D models present large-dimensioned fault systems with enhanced amounts of displacement within the Upper Rhine Graben as well as increasing countersink depths in the direction north-west. The temperature profiles of the boreholes and the first results of the thermo-hydraulic modelling present an intraformational fluid transport as well as a good connectivity along the fault systems. Based on the available results, the northern Upper Rhine Graben possesses an enhanced potential for the hydrothermal power generation in the range of fault zones.

Rohrer, L.; Zuehlke, R. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Wenke, A. [GeoThermal Engineering GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Spath, F. [Ueberlandwerke Gross-Gerau GmbH, Gross-Gerau (Germany)

2012-10-16

125

The winter distribution of nutrients in the Southern Bight of the North Sea (1961-1978) and in the estuaries of the scheldt and the rhine/meuse  

Science.gov (United States)

In many years the winter distribution of nutrients in the eastern part of the Southern Bight is influenced by phytoplankton growth, always in February, sometimes in January but not in January 1961 and 1978, months with a relatively low insolation and high wind strength. The Scheldt river has higher nutrient concentrations than the rivers Rhine and Seine. The waters of the Scheldt river plume are distinguished from those of the Seine and the Rhine/Meuse with dissolved silica as a tracer. The extension of the Scheldt river plume is related to wind direction. The increase of inorganic nutrients from January 1961 to January 1978 in the northern part of the Southern Bight is related to the increase in the river Rhine. The increase in the Strait of Dover is related to discharges from the river Seine and the English coast. Only data outside the Scheldt river plume were selected for the comparison. An increase of nutrient concentrations is measurable over the entire salinity range and is largest for phosphate (up to 3 times at low salinities), less for nitrate (about 1.5 times for all salinities) and hardly noticeable for silicic acid. Nitrate extrapolation to low salinity agrees with upstream river values, but phosphate extrapolation gives higher concentrations, probably due to discharges of phosphogypsum in estuaries.

van Bennekom, A. J.; Wetsteijn, F. J.

126

Unraveling the Quaternary river incision in the Moselle valley (Rhenish Massif, Germany): new insights from cosmogenic nuclide dating (10Be/26Al) of the Main Terrace complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the whole river network of the Rhenish Massif, the terrace complex of the so-called Main Terrace forms the morphological transition between a wide upper palaeovalley (plateau valley) and a deeply incised lower valley. The youngest level of this Main Terrace complex (YMT), directly located at the edge of the incised valley, represents a dominant geomorphic feature in the terrace flight; it is often used as a reference level to identify the start of the main middle Pleistocene incision episode (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). The latter probably reflects the major tectonic pulse that affected the whole Massif and was related to an acceleration of the uplift rates (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). The Main terraces are particularly well preserved in the lower Moselle valley and are characterized by a constant absolute elevation of their base along a 150 km-long reach. Despite that various hypotheses have been proposed to explain this horizontality (updoming, faulting...), all studies assumed an age of ca. 800 ka for the YMT, mainly based on the questionable extrapolation of palaeomagnetic data obtained in the Rhine valley. Therefore, a reliable chronological framework is still required to unravel the spatio-temporal characteristics of the Pleistocene evolution of the Moselle valley. In this study, we apply cosmogenic nuclide dating (10Be/26Al) to fluvial sediments pertaining to the Main Terrace complex or to the upper Middle Terraces. Several sites along the lower Moselle were sampled following two distinct sampling strategies: (i) depth profiles where the original terrace (palaeo-)surface is well preserved and did not experience much postdepositional burial (e.g., loess cover); and (ii) the isochron technique where the sediment thickness exceeds 3 m. Cosmogenic nuclide ages recently obtained for three rivers in the Meuse catchment in the western Rhenish Massif demonstrated that the Main Terraces were younger than expected and their abandonment was diachronic along the hydrographic network (Rixhon et al., 2011). These results are consistent with the reconstruction proposed for the Middle and Lower Terraces of the Moselle (Cordier, 2006). Here, we present preliminary results of this ongoing study, aiming at discussing their significance to improve the knowledge of the river incision mechanisms in response to combined tectonic and climatic signals. References Cordier, S., Harmand, D., Frechen, M., Beiner, M., 2006. Fluvial system response to Middle and Upper Pleistocene climate change in the Meurthe and Moselle valleys (Eastern Paris Basin and Rhenish Massif). Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 1460-1474. Demoulin, A., Hallot, E., 2009. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe). Tectonophysics 474, 696-708. Rixhon, G., Braucher, R., Bourlès, D., Siame, L., Bovy, B., Demoulin, A., 2011. Quaternary river incision in NE Ardennes (Belgium) - Insights from 10Be/26Al dating of river terraces. Quaternary Geochronology 6, 273-284.

Rixhon, Gilles; Cordier, Stéphane; Harmand, Dominique; May, Simon Matthias; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Dunai, Tibor; Binnie, Steven; Brückner, Helmut

2014-05-01

127

[Assistive Services in the Workplace of People with Hearing Impairment in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of the Study: Assistive services in the workplace are an important aspect of the participation of people with hearing impairment in working life. This article presents the results of the GINKO study and an survey conducted by the University of Cologne on behalf of the MAIS in order to provide a comprehensive examination of the employment situation of hearing impaired people in North Rhine-Westphalia. The GINKO study examines the impact of laws on the integration of hard-of-hearing and deaf people as well as people who have become deaf as adults, focusing on communication and organizations; this project was funded by the German Federal Ministry for Labour and Social Affairs (BMAS). Method: In the GINKO study, conducted in cooperation with the German Association of the Hard of Hearing and the German Association of the Deaf, a standardised questionnaire with questions about the workplace was administered to employed people with hearing impairments. The questionnaire was administered on paper and was also available online accompanied by sign language videos. The University of Cologne study in North Rhine-Westphalia examined the service situation of hard-of-hearing, deaf and deaf-blind people through face-to-face interviews and government statistics. Results: The results of the nationwide GINKO study show that hearing-impaired people in North Rhine-Westphalia draw on assistive services in employment more often than hearing-impaired people in the rest of Germany. The study found statistically significant differences in the categories of "maintenance and development of professional knowledge and skills" and "psychosocial support in conflict situations resulting from disability". Conclusion: One reason for the more positive evaluations of the participants in North Rhine-Westphalia as compared to other regions in Germany could be the particular network of support services in that state. However, the overall positive results from North Rhine-Westphalia should not obscure the fact that a majority of participants in many areas of North Rhine-Westphalia reported much less positive evaluations. They reported that they did not (yet) have an accessible workplace and that assistive services are not available to all hearing impaired workers. PMID:25137308

Weber, A; Menzel, F; Weber, U; Niehaus, M; Kaul, T; Schlenker-Schulte, C

2014-08-19

128

From Sandoz to Salmon: Conceptualizing resource and institutional dynamics in the Rhine watershed through the SES framework  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we use a case study of the Rhine River to examine the relevance of Common Pool Resource (CPR) Theory for two conditions in which it has not been extensively tested: large scale international water management and pollution problems. For that purpose, we link variation in pollution abatement to a set of explanatory variables proposed by CPR theory. Causal inference is established through process tracing and a series of within-case comparison across actor groups (i.e. riparian nati...

Sergio Villamayor-Tomas; Fleischman, Forrest D.; Irene Perez Ibarra; Andreas Thiel; Frank van Laerhoven

2014-01-01

129

Sedimentary architecture and optical dating of Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse deposits – fluvial response to climate change, sea-level fluctuation and glaciation :  

OpenAIRE

Eight continuous corings in the west-central Netherlands show a 15 to 25 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to gravelly channel-belt deposits of the Rhine-Meuse system. This succession of fluvial sediments was deposited under net subsiding conditions in the southern part of the North Sea Basin and documents the response of the Rhine-Meuse river system to climate and sea-level change and to the glaciation history. On the basis of grain size characteristics, sedimentological structures,...

Busschers, F. S.; Weerts, H. J. T.; Wallinga, J.; Cleveringa, P.; Kasse, C.; Wolf, H.; Cohen, K. M.

2005-01-01

130

Sediment dynamics in the Rhine catchment : Quantification of fluvial response to climate change and human impact  

OpenAIRE

Fluvial systems are strongly responsive to changes in climate and land use — but take their time to show it. Accurate prediction of the timing and degree of future fluvial response requires comprehensive understanding of fluvial response in the past. This PhD-thesis studied the response of the river Rhine over the last 20,000 years, as recorded in the morphology, composition and volumes of its sediment. Borehole data and various dating techniques were combined to time-slice cross-sections a...

Erkens, Gilles

2009-01-01

131

The Rhine delta. A record of sediment trapping over time scales from millennia to decades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the land-ocean interface, large river deltas are major sinks of sediments and associated matter. Over the past decennia, many studies have been conducted on the palaeogeographic development of the Rhine delta and overbank deposition on the Rhine floodplains. This paper aims to synthesise these research results with special focus on the amounts and changes of overbank fines trapped in the Rhine delta and their controls at different time scales in the past, present and future. Sediment trapping in the Rhine delta throughout the Holocene was quantified using a detailed database of the Holocene delta architecture. Additional historic data allowed the reconstruction of the development of the river's floodplain during the period of direct human modification of the river. Using heavy metals as tracers, overbank deposition rates over the past century were determined. Measurements of overbank deposition and channel bed sediment transport in recent years, together with modelling studies of sediment transport and deposition have provided detailed insight in the present-day sediment deposition on the floodplains, as well as their controls. Estimated annual suspended sediment deposition rates were about 1.4 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1} between 6,000 and 3,000 years BP and increased to about 2.1 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1} between 3,000 and 1,000 years BP. After the rivers were embanked by artificial levees between 1100 and 1300 AD, the amount of sediment trapped in the floodplains reduced to about 1.16 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1}. However, when accounting for re-entrainment of previously deposited sediment, the actual sediment trapping of the embanked floodplains was about 1.86 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1}. Downstream of the lower Waal branch an inland delta developed that trapped another 0.4 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1} of overbank fines. Since the width of channel was artificially reduced and the banks were fixed by a regular array of groynes around 1850, the average rates of deposition on the embanked floodplains have been 1.15 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1}. Scenario studies show that the future sediment trapping in the lower Rhine floodplains might double. The variations in amounts of sediment trapped in the Rhine delta during the past 6,000 years are largely attributed to changes in land use in the upstream basin. At present, the sediment trapping efficiency of the floodplains is low and heavily influenced by river regulation and engineering works. Upstream changes in climate and land use, and direct measures for flood reduction in the lower floodplains, may again change the amounts of sediments trapped by the lower floodplains in the forthcoming decades. (orig.)

Middelkoop, Hans; Perk, Marcel van der [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Physical Geography; Erkens, Gilles [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Physical Geography; Deltares, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2010-06-15

132

On the identity of the fossil hydrophilid beetles from the Tertiary localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae)  

OpenAIRE

This study focuses on the beetles from the Oligocene localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Brunstatt: France, Alsace; and Kleinkems: Germany, Baden-Württemberg) assigned to the family Hydrophilidae by previous authors. The identity of Escheria convexa Förster, 1891 is fixed by the designation of its neotype, the species is redescribed, illustrated and transferred from the hydrophilid genus Hydrobius Leach, 1815 to the genus Copelatus Erichson, 1832 (Coleoptera: Adephaga...

Heiko Schmied; Jiri Hajek; Martin Fikácek

2011-01-01

133

On the identity of the fossil aquatic beetles from the Tertiary localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae)  

OpenAIRE

This study focuses on the fossil beetles assigned previously to the family Hydrophilidae described from the localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben: Brunstatt (France, Alsace) and Kleinkems (Germany, Baden-Württemberg) (both dated ca. to Eocene-Oligocene boundary, 34 Ma). The identity of Escheria convexa Förster, 1891 is fixed by the designation of its neotype, the species is redescribed, illustrated, transferred from the hydrophilid genus Hydrobius Leach, 1815 to the genu...

Martin, Fika?c?ek; Ha?jek, Jir?i?; Schmied, Heiko

2011-01-01

134

River corridor plants in North-western Germany are threatened by small population size and short-term environmental events  

OpenAIRE

River corridor plants in Central Europe account for an above-average proportion of endangered species. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of habitat fragmentation and abiotic conditions on the survival and changes in population size of four endangered, long-lived river corridor plant species (Euphorbia palustris, Pseudolysimachion longifolium, Sanguisorba officinalis, and Senecio paludosus) over the course of at least ten years. We sampled altogether 138 populations i...

Wa?rner, Christina; Wosniok, Werner; Diekmann, Martin

2014-01-01

135

Structure-based geoelectrical models derived from genetic algorithms: A case study for hydrogeological investigations along Elbe River coastal area, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Vertical electrical sounding (VES) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys are performed to assess the hydrogeological conditions along Elbe River coastal area, Germany. Because the interpretation of actual resistivity data still has a degree of non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning, linear and non-linear inversion methods have been applied in this paper for optimal interpretation of the measured data. The 1D model generation using hybrid genetic algorithms (GA) represents an accurate and quick solution to image the subsurface resistivity distributions; freshwater aquifer and two highly conductive zones of perched saltwater and seawater intrusion. The longitudinal conductance of the interpreted layers above the water table is calculated to explain why the vulnerable zone to the perched saltwater concentrates at the central and southern parts of the area investigated.

Attwa, Mohamed; Akca, Irfan; Basokur, Ahmet T.; Günther, Thomas

2014-04-01

136

Assessment of the structural quality of streams in Germany--basic description and current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifteen years ago, the first mapping guidelines for the recording and evaluation of river physical habitat quality in Germany, closely following the Länder Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser (LAWA) field survey, have been published. In light of this experience, a revised version has now been developed for North Rhine-Westphalia (West Germany). For the assessment, the streams are divided into segments serving as survey units. The survey is performed primarily in the field from the mouth to the source by an on-site recording of data. Defined reference conditions of the relevant morphological stream types serve as basis of the evaluation. Two evaluation procedures are carried out independently to validate the quality of the data. The proven basic concept operates as follows: the local scale habitat variables are grouped into 31 single parameters, which are then aggregated into six main parameters. These can further be aggregated into three zones: streambed, banks and adjacent land. The main modifications of the presented version are the following: (1) a larger differentiation of morphological stream types and (2) a higher level of detail concerning the mapping of relevant habitat characteristics. The last point allows additional evaluation options related to the morphological needs of the instream biota and a differentiated survey of anthropogenic degradation. Despite all modifications, the comparability with previous surveys has been largely maintained. By qualitative comparison of this method with other European mapping guidelines, different concepts of hydromorphological mapping are finally discussed. PMID:24473681

Gellert, Georg; Pottgiesser, Tanja; Euler, Thomas

2014-06-01

137

Spatial and temporal characterisation of stable isotopes in river water as indicators of groundwater contribution and confirmation of modelling results; a study of the Weser river, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

River water samples were analysed for stable isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) collected from 46 sites during spring 2008, and from monthly samples at the outlets of seven sub-basins of the River Weser (46,200 km(2) basin area in total) over a five year period from 2003 to 2007, to characterise temporal and spatial isotope patterns of river water. Results indicate a pronounced elevation effect (0.2 per thousand and 1 to 2 per thousand per 100 m for delta(18)O and delta(2)H, respectively) as well as influence of seawater mixing for a few coastal locations. A lumped parameter modelling approach was used to compare residence times and relative amounts of direct flow, fast and slow groundwater with those derived from a combined water balance and tritium balance modelling approach. Residence times of direct runoff were estimated to be between one and three and a half months. Much longer groundwater residence times are necessary to explain tritium recession in river water. The modelling fits for stable isotope data in river water, derived with residence times and base flow amounts combined from a water and tritium balance approach, emphasise that beneath a characterisation of a direct flow component, seasonal variations of stable isotope values in river water carry information on groundwater contribution. PMID:20183240

Koeniger, Paul; Leibundgut, Christian; Stichler, Willibald

2009-12-01

138

The simultaneous occurrence of surge and discharge extremes for the Rhine delta  

Science.gov (United States)

The low-lying Netherlands is at risk from multiple threats of sea level rise, storm surges and extreme river discharges. Should these occur simultaneously, a catastrophe will be at hand. Knowledge about the likelihood of simultaneous occurrence or the so-called "compound effect" of such threats is essential to provide guidance on legislation for dike heights, flood barrier design and water management in general. In this study, we explore the simultaneous threats of North Sea storm surges and extreme Rhine river discharge for the current and future climate in a large 17-member global climate model ensemble. We use a simple approach, taking proxies of north-northwesterly winds over the North Sea and multiple~day precipitation averaged over the Rhine basin for storm surge and discharge respectively, so that a sensitivity analysis is straightforward to apply. By investigating soft extremes, we circumvent the need to extrapolate the data and thereby permit the model's synoptic development of the extreme events to be inspected. Our principle finding based on the climate model data is that, for the current climate, the probability of extreme surge conditions following extreme 20-day precipitation sums is around 3 times higher than that estimated from treating extreme surge and discharge probabilities as independent, as previously assumed. For the future climate (2070-2100), the assumption of independence cannot be rejected, at least not for precipitation sums exceeding 7 days.

Kew, S. F.; Selten, F. M.; Lenderink, G.; Hazeleger, W.

2013-08-01

139

The simultaneous occurrence of surge and discharge extremes for the Rhine delta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The low-lying Netherlands is at risk from multiple threats of sea level rise, storm surges and extreme river discharges. Should these occur simultaneously, a catastrophe will be at hand. Knowledge about the likelihood of simultaneous occurrence or the so-called "compound effect" of such threats is essential to provide guidance on legislation for dike heights, flood barrier design and water management in general. In this study, we explore the simultaneous threats of North Sea storm surges and extreme Rhine river discharge for the current and future climate in a large 17-member global climate model ensemble. We use a simple approach, taking proxies of north-northwesterly winds over the North Sea and multiple~day precipitation averaged over the Rhine basin for storm surge and discharge respectively, so that a sensitivity analysis is straightforward to apply. By investigating soft extremes, we circumvent the need to extrapolate the data and thereby permit the model's synoptic development of the extreme events to be inspected. Our principle finding based on the climate model data is that, for the current climate, the probability of extreme surge conditions following extreme 20-day precipitation sums is around 3 times higher than that estimated from treating extreme surge and discharge probabilities as independent, as previously assumed. For the future climate (2070–2100, the assumption of independence cannot be rejected, at least not for precipitation sums exceeding 7 days.

S. F. Kew

2013-08-01

140

Laboratory shake flask batch tests can predict field biodegradation of aniline in the Rhine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to compare degradation rates of aniline in laboratory shake flask simulation tests with field rates in the river Rhine. The combined events of a low flow situation in the Rhine and residual aniline concentrations in the effluent from the BASF treatment plant in Ludwigshafen temporarily higher than normal, made it possible to monitor aniline at trace concentrations in the river water downstream the wastewater outlet by means of a sensitive GC headspace analytical method. Aniline was analyzed along a downstream gradient and the dilution along the gradient was calculated from measurements of conductivity, sulfate and a non-readily biodegradable substance, 1,4-dioxane. Compensating dilution, field first-order degradation rate constants downstream the discharge of BASF were estimated at 1.8 day(-1) for two different dates with water temperatures of 21.9 and 14.7 degreesC, respectively. This field rate estimate was compared with results from 38 laboratory shake flask batch tests with Rhinewater which averaged 1.5 day(-1) at 15 degreesC and 2.0 day(-1) at 20 degreesC. These results indicate that laboratory shake flask batch tests with low concentrations of test substance can be good predictors of degradation rates in natural water bodies-at least as ascertained here for short duration tests with readily degradable compounds among which aniline is a commonly used reference. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Toräng, Lars; Reuschenbach, P.

2001-01-01

141

French – German flood risk geohistory in the Rhine Graben  

OpenAIRE

Because of its turbulent history, Alsace is one of French regions where the historic floods are the most underestimated. The damages connected to the wars (on 1870, 1914 - 1918, 1939 - 1945), the particular classification of archives and, especially, their writing in German during several periods of the recent history, is rebuffing numerous specialists Located in the same geographical area (the Rhine Graben), but by the other side of the the border constituted by the Rhine, the land of Bade i...

Martin, Brice; Himmelsbach, Iso; Glaser, Ru?diger; With, Lauriane; Guerrouah, Ouarda; Vitoux, Marie-claire; Drescher, Axel; Ansel, Romain; Dietrich-chenel, Karin

2010-01-01

142

Periodic Stratification in the Rhine ROFI in the North Sea  

OpenAIRE

The nature of the physical regime in the vicinity of the Rhine ROFI (Region Of Freshwater Influence) has been determined in a series of collaborative observations. Extensive surveys with shipboard CTD/rosette systems have been used to complement time series observations by an array of moorings instrumented with currentmeters, transmissometers and fluorimeters. The observations reveal a highly variable system in which the influence of the freshwater input from the Rhine extends northeastwards ...

Simpson, John H.; Bos, Wim G.; Schirmer, Florian; Souza, Alejandro J.; Rippeth, Thomas P.; Jones, Sarah E.; Hydes, David

1993-01-01

143

From a dump to a energy park and recycling park. The Rhine-Main dump park in Floersheim-Wicker; Von der Muellkippe zum Energie- und Recyclingpark. Der Rhein-Main-Deponiepark in Floersheim-Wicker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If dumps are shut down, aftercare measures are necessary for a time period of several decades. The question arises whether the infrastructure, operating equipment and operating personnel of dumps can be used in the aftercare phase for subsequent utilisations. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the Rhine-Main dump park in Floersheim-Wicker (Federal Republic of Germany). Subsequently to the introduction according to the subsequent utilisation of dump locations, the author reports on the concept of the Rhine Main dump park, on the power generation in the Rhine-Main dump park, on the processing of wastes to fuels for the power production and on the dump as recycling park.

Mehler, Gerd [Rhein-Main Deponie GmbH, Floersheim am Main (Germany)

2008-07-01

144

[Nematode infections of the respiratory tract in dogs in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have shown that the risk of lungworm infection may have increased in dogs in Germany in recent years. Analysis of the fecal examination of dogs has shown that Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus are endemic in Germany. Infections with A. vasorum were diagnosed in 223 of the examined dogs. A total of 102 A. vasorum-positive dogs were located in Baden-Wuerttemberg, 65 in North Rhine-Westphalia, 27 in Saarland, 15 in Bavaria, 7 in Rhineland-Palatinate, 5 in Hessen and 2 in Brandenburg. A total of 170 dogs were infected with C. vulpis, 54 of which came from North Rhine-Westphalia, 40 from Baden-Wuerttemberg, 30 from Bavaria, 17 from Rhineland-Palatinate, 17 from Saarland, 9 from Hessen and 1 each from Lower Saxony, Berlin and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Infections with E. aerophilus were detected in 83 dogs, of which 23 lived in Baden-Wuerttemberg, 20 in North Rhine-Westphalia, 17 in Bavaria, 11 in Rhineland-Palatinate, 7 in Hessen, 4 in Saarland and 1 in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Lungworm infections in dogs appear to be well established in Germany. The aim of the study presented was to assess the main facts, occurrence, geographical distribution, clinical signs, diagnosis and therapy of lungworm infections in dogs. PMID:24127030

Barutzki, D

2013-01-01

145

Uncertainty in the future change of extreme precipitation over the Rhine basin: the role of internal climate variability  

Science.gov (United States)

Future changes in extreme multi-day precipitation will influence the probability of floods in the river Rhine basin. In this paper the spread of the changes projected by climate models at the end of this century (2081-2100) is studied for a 17-member ensemble of a single Global Climate Model (GCM) and results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble. All climate models were driven by the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario. An analysis of variance model is formulated to disentangle the contributions from systematic differences between GCMs and internal climate variability. Both the changes in the mean and characteristics of extremes are considered. To estimate variances due to internal climate variability a bootstrap method was used. The changes from the GCM simulations were linked to the local scale using an advanced non-linear delta change approach. This approach uses climate responses of the GCM to transform the daily precipitation of 134 sub-basins of the river Rhine. The transformed precipitation series was used as input for the hydrological Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning model to simulate future river discharges. Internal climate variability accounts for about 30 % of the total variance in the projected climate trends of average winter precipitation in the CMIP3 ensemble and explains a larger fraction of the total variance in the projected climate trends of extreme precipitation in the winter half-year. There is a good correspondence between the direction and spread of the changes in the return levels of extreme river discharges and extreme 10-day precipitation over the Rhine basin. This suggests that also for extreme discharges a large fraction of the total variance can be attributed to internal climate variability.

van Pelt, S. C.; Beersma, J. J.; Buishand, T. A.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Schellekens, J.

2015-04-01

146

Uncertainty in the future change of extreme precipitation over the Rhine basin: the role of internal climate variability  

Science.gov (United States)

Future changes in extreme multi-day precipitation will influence the probability of floods in the river Rhine basin. In this paper the spread of the changes projected by climate models at the end of this century (2081-2100) is studied for a 17-member ensemble of a single Global Climate Model (GCM) and results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble. All climate models were driven by the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario. An analysis of variance model is formulated to disentangle the contributions from systematic differences between GCMs and internal climate variability. Both the changes in the mean and characteristics of extremes are considered. To estimate variances due to internal climate variability a bootstrap method was used. The changes from the GCM simulations were linked to the local scale using an advanced non-linear delta change approach. This approach uses climate responses of the GCM to transform the daily precipitation of 134 sub-basins of the river Rhine. The transformed precipitation series was used as input for the hydrological Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning model to simulate future river discharges. Internal climate variability accounts for about 30 % of the total variance in the projected climate trends of average winter precipitation in the CMIP3 ensemble and explains a larger fraction of the total variance in the projected climate trends of extreme precipitation in the winter half-year. There is a good correspondence between the direction and spread of the changes in the return levels of extreme river discharges and extreme 10-day precipitation over the Rhine basin. This suggests that also for extreme discharges a large fraction of the total variance can be attributed to internal climate variability.

van Pelt, S. C.; Beersma, J. J.; Buishand, T. A.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Schellekens, J.

2014-08-01

147

Influence of a Storm Surge Barrier’s Operation on the Flood Frequency in the Rhine Delta Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Rhine River Delta is crucial to the Dutch economy. The Maeslant barrier was built in 1997 to protect the Rhine estuary, with the city and port of Rotterdam, from storm surges. This research takes a simple approach to quantify the influence of the Maeslant storm surge barrier on design water levels behind the barrier. The dikes in the area are supposed to be able to withstand these levels. Equal Level Curves approach is used to calculate the Rotterdam water levels by using Rhine discharges and sea water levels as input. Their joint probability function generates the occurrence frequency of a certain combination that will lead to a certain high water level in Rotterdam. The results show that the flood frequency in Rotterdam is reduced effectively with the controlled barrier in current and in future scenarios influenced by climate change. In addition, an investigation of the sensitivity of the operational parameters suggests that there is a negligible influence on the high water level frequency when the decision closing water level for the barrier is set higher due to the benefits of navigation (but not exceeding the design safety level 4 m MSL.

Hua Zhong

2012-05-01

148

Latest Pliocene to recent thick-skinned tectonics at the Upper Rhine Graben - Jura Mountains junction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The southernmost Upper Rhine Graben and adjacent Jura experienced basement-rooted shortening that occurred after the deposition of the Pliocene fluvial 'Sundgau gravels'. Folds affecting the base of these gravels systematically trend NE to ENE. Combined evidence from reflection seismic lines and contour maps of the base-Tertiary and base-Pliocene levels indicates that these folds probably formed by thick-skinned reactivation of both NNE-SSW and WSW-ENE-striking faults. This thick-skinned shortening is NW-SE oriented, i.e. parallel to the maximum horizontal stresses inferred from seismotectonics. NNE-SSW-striking faults (paralleling the Upper Rhine Graben) have been reactivated in sinistral strike-slip mode. However, dextrally transpressive reactivation of the WSW-ENE-trending faults that belong to the Rhine-Bresse Transfer Zone is interpreted to predominate. Deflections of recent river courses around the crests of en-echelon-aligned surface anticlines suggest that the deformation is ongoing at present. Retro-deformation of the folds affecting the base of the Sundgau gravels indicates horizontal displacement rates of about 0.05 mm/a. This corresponds to a minimum strain rate in the order of 2*10-16 s-1, given the maximum time span of 2.9 Ma for this deformation, i.e. the biostratigraphically determined minimum age of the gravels. A change from thin-skinned tectonics, that prevailed during the main phase of Jura folding, to very probably still ongo Jura folding, to very probably still ongoing thick-skinned tectonics is inferred to have occurred in the Late Pliocene. We speculate that this change might be linked to the incipient inversion of Permo-Carboniferous troughs within the Alpine foreland in general. This inversion in dextrally transpressive or purely compressive mode along a WNW-ESE-trending basement fault, that is part of the Rhine-Bresse Transfer Zone, which in turn was prestructured during the formation of the Permo-Carboniferous troughs, could have triggered the 1356 Basel earthquake. (author)

149

Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile.

Kronimus, Alexander [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: kronimus@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, Jan [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de

2007-05-15

150

Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile

151

The co-incidence of storm surges and extreme discharges within the Rhine–Meuse Delta  

Science.gov (United States)

The Netherlands is a low-lying coastal area and therefore threatened by both extreme river discharges from the Meuse and Rhine rivers and storm surges along the North Sea coastline. To date, in most flood risk analyses these two hazardous phenomena are considered independent. However, if there were a dependence between high sea water levels and extreme discharges this might result in higher design water levels, which might consequently have implications for flood protection policy in the Netherlands. In this study we explore the relation between high sea water levels at Hoek van Holland and high river discharges at Lobith. Different from previous studies, we use physical models forced by the same atmospheric forcing leading to concomitant and consistent time series of storm surge conditions and river discharge. These time series were generated for present day conditions as well as future climate projections and analysed for dependence within the upper tails of their distribution. In this study, dependence between the discharge at Lobith and storm surge at Hoek van Holland was found, and the dependence was highest for a lag of six days between the two processes. As no significant dependence of the threats was found for cases without time lag, there is no need for considering dependence in flood protection and policy making. Although future climate change is expected to lead to more extreme conditions in river discharges, we cannot conclude from this study that it will change the magnitude of the dependence for extreme conditions.

Klerk, W. J.; Winsemius, H. C.; van Verseveld, W. J.; Bakker, A. M. R.; Diermanse, F. L. M.

2015-03-01

152

Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.  

Science.gov (United States)

Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing. PMID:25468383

Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

2015-03-01

153

The N-isotope effect and fractionation of nitrification in the tidal influenced Elbe River estuary, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Estuaries act as a nutrient filter for coastal waters. The eutrophic Elbe River estuary is loaded with fertilizer-derived nitrogen, but management efforts have started to reduce this load effectively. However, an internal nitrate source in turn gained in importance and the estuary changed from a sink to a source of reactive nitrogen. Nitrification plays a key role in this estuarine nutrient regeneration but has to be quantified. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of nitrification on seasonal nitrogen loads and turnover using stable N- isotopes to identify the natural fractionation factor of nitrification. Therefor we measured the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (ammonium, nitrite and nitrate), their stable isotope signatures and the in-situ nitrification rates in the tidal influenced part of the river during 9 cruises from August 2011 to August 2013. The DIN load was higher in winter than in summer, the main compound was nitrate. In summer concentrations of nitrate entering the estuary were between 50 and 100 ?M and ?15N and ?18O were enriched to 15.5 to 21.5 o and 7.5 to 11.5 o respectively. Strong nitrification was found in the Hamburg port region. The nitrate concentrations increased significantly downstream after the port of Hamburg, along with a decrease of isotope values. Ammonium and nitrite peaked in the Hamburg port region with up to 25 ?M and 12 ?M, respectively. In July 2013, ?15N of ammonium has shown a mean value of 16.2±3.3 o and nitrite of -9.8±4.7 ‰The N-fractionation of nitrification in July 2013 was 15?nit -10o the sub-process ammonia oxidation 15?amox-24o and the nitrite oxidation of 15?niox 13o while fractionation was less pronounced during the other cruises Our data show that N-isotope fractionation generally confirmed culture experiments, but that it strongly depended on discharge, availability of substrate, temperature and the coupling of ammonia and nitrite oxidation.

Sanders, Tina; Dähnke, Kirstin

2014-05-01

154

Analysis of possible impacts of climate change on the hydrological regimes of different regions in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the impact of climate change scenarios on the hydrological regimes of five different regions in Germany is investigated. These regions (Northwest Germany, Northeast Germany and East German basins, upper and lower Rhine, pre-Alps differ with respect to present climate and projected climate change. The physically based SVAT-model SIMULAT is applied to theoretical soil columns based on combinations of land use, soil texture and groundwater depth to quantify climate change effects on the hydrological regime. Observed climate, measured at climate stations of the German Weather Service (1991–2007, is used for comparison with climate projections (2071–2100 generated by the regional scale climate model WETTREG.

While all climate scenarios implicate an increase in precipitation in winter, a decrease in precipitation in summer and an increase in temperature, the simulated impacts on the hydrological regime are regionally different. In the Rhine region and in Northwest Germany, an increase in the annual runoff and groundwater recharge is simulated despite the increase in temperature and potential evapotranspiration. In the Eastern part of Germany and the pre-Alps, annual runoff and groundwater recharge will decrease. Due to dry conditions in summer, the soil moisture deficit will increase (in Northeast Germany and the East German basins in particular or remain constant (Rhine region. In all regions the seasonal variability in runoff and soil moisture status will increase. Despite regional warming actual evapotranspiration will decrease in most regions except in areas with shallow groundwater tables and the lower Rhine. Although the study is limited by the fact that only one climate model was used to drive one hydrologic model, the study shows that the hydrological regime will be affected by climate change. The direction of the expected changes seems to be obvious as well as the necessity of the adaptation of future water management strategies.

H. Bormann

2009-08-01

155

Spatial b-value variations in the Upper Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

The natural seismicity of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is of growing interest for science and society, since the management of deep geothermal power plants requires local hazard assessment. The availability of new bulletin data and the combination of catalogues from Germany, France and Switzerland allows us to analyse the spatial changes in the magnitude-frequency distribution along the Graben axis in detail. We derive magnitude conversions between the different bulletins to obtain a uniform earthquake catalogue and decluster the data to extract fore- and aftershocks resulting in a Poissonian event distribution. Since the density of monitoring seismometers has improved over time, we determine several intervals of magnitude completeness. Generally, our catalogue is complete for magnitudes ML ? 2.0 since 1982 for the entire URG. To incorporate high magnitude events it is essential to use historic earthquake data. Those magnitudes are estimated by their macroseismic intensity distribution, and thus, they have a high uncertainty compared to instrumental magnitudes. We show that historic earthquake magnitudes are overestimated by 0.4 magnitude units in the URG. We apply a spatial window on the final dataset and move it along the Graben axis. For each set of 50 events we determine local variations of the magnitude frequency distribution after Gutenberg-Richter by a maximum likelihood estimation. The seismicity rate for ML ? 2.0 varies between 2 per year per 1000 km2 in the southern URG and 0.2 per year per 1000 km2 in the northern URG. The b-values vary between 0.8 and 1.4 with the highest values around Freiburg, showing a high variability of the magnitude distribution in the URG. Additionally, we examine the hypocentral depth distribution along the Graben, which results in a seismically active upper and lower crust in the southern and northern parts, separated by the central part with missing seismicity in the lower crust. According to the spatial distribution of b-values and seismogenic depths we discriminate four zones of differing seismicity that cover the regions around Basel, Freiburg, the central and the northern URG.

Barth, A.

2012-04-01

156

Reconstruction of the Tectonic Evolution of the Helvetic Zone between Lake Chiemsee and Saalach River, East Upper Bavaria, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed geological mapping of the Helvetic zone between Lake Chiemsee and Saalach river, near the village of Teisendorf, provides data to unravel the tectonic history of the Meso-European continental margin from Lower Cretaceous until Oligocene time. Focus on tectonic structures, combined with age dating of marlstones using foraminifera, is the basis for reconstruction of overthrusting of both Ultrahelvetic and Rhenodanubian Flysch sediments onto the Helvetic shelf during Alpine orogenesis. Sedimentation history of Helvetic, Ultrahelvetic and Rhenodanubian Flysch zones is interpreted in combination with tectonic activity embedded into the plate tectonic model. Overthrusting of Ultrahelvetic and Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes onto subsiding Helvetic sediments, already overlain by the Molasse sediments of the Schöneck Formation (Schönecker Fischschiefer), during Oligocene and internal folding of the Helvetic sediments is shown in detail. New insight into the evolution history of the northern Alpine margin east of Lake Chiemsee is obtained by systematic analysis of a limited number of remnants of tectonic structures, sediment outcrops and drillings. The widely covered Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments, in an area strongly affected by Pleistocene glacial activity and Holocene erosion processes, still reveal a sufficient number of characteristic structures for detailed reconstruction of the tectonically less investigated, but structurally important Helvetic zone.

Blaha, U.; Rochow, H. v.; Freimoser, M.; Teipel, U.

2012-04-01

157

Waste heat project for the Upper Rhine region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This third semiannual report gives a picture of the progress made in the work of sub-projects. Interim results are given for the fields treated by sub-projects 1 to 4. Among others, this report for the first time presents the final official survey on thermal pollution in the upper Rhine region for the year of reference 1973. Analyses and evaluations of waste heat effects in the upper Rhine region have not been carried out yet at the present state of the project. (orig.)

158

Robust assessment of future changes in extreme precipitation over the Rhine basin using a GCM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimates of future changes in extremes of multiday precipitation sums are critical for estimates of future discharge extremes of large river basins. Here we use a large ensemble of global climate model SRES A1b scenario simulations to estimate changes in extremes of 1–20 day precipitation sums over the Rhine basin, projected for the period 2071–2100 with reference to 1961–1990.

We find that in winter, an increase of order 10%, for the 99th percentile precipitation sum, is approximately fixed across the selected range of multiday sums, whereas in summer, the changes become increasingly negative as the summation time lengthens. Explanations for these results are presented that have implications for simple scaling methods for creating time series of a future climate. We show that this scaling behavior is sensitive to the ensemble size and indicate that currently available discharge estimates from previous studies are based on insufficiently long time series.

S. F. Kew

2010-11-01

159

Maximum magnitude in the Lower Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating Mmax, the assumed magnitude of the largest future earthquakes expected on a fault or in an area, involves large uncertainties. No theoretical basis exists to infer Mmax because even where we know the long-term rate of motion across a plate boundary fault, or the deformation rate across an intraplate zone, neither predict how strain will be released. As a result, quite different estimates can be made based on the assumptions used. All one can say with certainty is that Mmax is at least as large as the largest earthquake in the available record. However, because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, larger earthquakes than anticipated often occur. Estimating Mmax is especially challenging within plates, where deformation rates are poorly constrained, large earthquakes are rarer and variable in space and time, and often occur on previously unrecognized faults. We explore this issue for the Lower Rhine Graben seismic zone where the largest known earthquake, the 1756 Düren earthquake, has magnitude 5.7 and should occur on average about every 400 years. However, paleoseismic studies suggest that earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. What to assume for Mmax is crucial for critical facilities like nuclear power plants that should be designed to withstand the maximum shaking in 10,000 years. Using the observed earthquake frequency-magnitude data, we generate synthetic earthquake histories, and sample them over shorter intervals corresponding to the real catalog's completeness. The maximum magnitudes appearing most often in the simulations tend to be those of earthquakes with mean recurrence time equal to the catalog length. Because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, we expect larger earthquakes than observed to date to occur. In a next step, we will compute hazard maps for different return periods based on the synthetic catalogs, in order to determine the influence of underestimating Mmax.

Vanneste, Kris; Merino, Miguel; Stein, Seth; Vleminckx, Bart; Brooks, Eddie; Camelbeeck, Thierry

2014-05-01

160

Biogas in EEG 2012. Regional structural effects and income effects in North Rhine-Westphalia. Financial Report ''Impact analysis of legislative modifications within renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia''; Biogas im EEG 2012. Regionale Struktur- und Einkommenswirkungen in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Abschlussbericht ''Wirkungsanalyse gesetzlicher Aenderungen im Bereich erneuerbarer Energien aus Sicht von Landwirtschaft und laendlichen Raeumen in Nordrhein-Westfalen''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The promotion of renewable energies is a main topic of the energy economic policy. The EEG (Renewable Energy Law) should be the main instrument at this point. The contribution of the renewable energy could be increased significantly in the last decade. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an impact analysis of legislative modifications in the area of renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia (Federal Republic of Germany).

Braun, Juergen; Lorleberg, Wolf; Stauss, Wolfgang

2012-07-01

161

18O/16O ratio in groundwater of the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 900 groundwater samples of 480 municipal water factories were collected at the area of the Federal Republic of Germany. The 18O/16O-ratio decreases from the north (-7per mill) to south (below -11per mill) due to an increasing distance from the south ('continental effect') and an increasing altitude above sealevel ('altitude effect'). The decrease of the 18O/16O-ratio per 1000 m altitude above sea level is 2.8per mill, per 1000 km distance from the sea 2.4per mill. At the coast an initial value of -7.2per mill results from the multicorrelation analysis. Except of two cases, some samples near to the coast and alongside river Rhine, the groundwater samples represent the mean oxygen isotope ratio of the local precipitation. This oxygen isotope ratio will be found in the conductive tissues of the plants (trees), too. Therefore the knowledge of the natural variation of the oxygen isotope ratio can serve as a tool in studies of plant physiology, water ecology, palaeclimatology and food analysis. (orig.)

162

From Sandoz to Salmon: Conceptualizing resource and institutional dynamics in the Rhine watershed through the SES framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we use a case study of the Rhine River to examine the relevance of Common Pool Resource (CPR Theory for two conditions in which it has not been extensively tested: large scale international water management and pollution problems. For that purpose, we link variation in pollution abatement to a set of explanatory variables proposed by CPR theory. Causal inference is established through process tracing and a series of within-case comparison across actor groups (i.e. riparian nations, industry, and agriculture, resource types (i.e. point source, and non-point source pollutants, and time periods (1976–1986, when treaties provided a limited basis for collective action and pollution abatement, and 1987–2001, when the Rhine Action Plan proved more successful. According to our analysis, a number of CPR variables can help understanding cooperation for pollution abatement in the Rhine case. These include physical attributes such as clear hydrological boundaries; governance factors such as the articulation of monitoring and decision-making at different governance levels and the proportional allocation of costs and benefits of abating pollution; and actor factors like the small size, trust and homogeneity of some actor groups and leadership. Other variables proposed by CPR theory proved to be irrelevant or in need of qualification. These include the right to self-organize and to participate in decision-making, communication and resource-dependence. Finally, two variables, not emphasized by CPR theory, proved relevant: the occurrence of external disturbances and the role of interest groups. We conclude that CPR theory is valuable for explaining pollution management in large trans-boundary river basins, but requires qualification and extension.

Sergio Villamayor-Tomas

2014-08-01

163

Health care transition in Germany – standardization of procedures and improvement actions  

OpenAIRE

Claudia Pieper, Izabela KolankowskaInstitute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, GermanyAbstract: Previous studies have assessed an increase in the number of people in need and emphasized the advantages of structured discharge management and health care transition. Therefore, our study evaluated the status quo of transition in a major German city after standardization of procedures and implementation of standard form...

Pieper C; Kolankowska I

2011-01-01

164

Hare-to-human transmission of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 2012, a group of 7 persons who participated in a hare hunt in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, acquired tularemia. Two F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates were cultivated from human and hare biopsy material. Both isolates belonged to the FTN002-00 genetic subclade (derived for single nucleotide polymorphisms B.10 and B.18), thus indicating likely hare-to-human transmission. PMID:25531286

Otto, Peter; Kohlmann, Rebekka; Müller, Wolfgang; Julich, Sandra; Geis, Gabriele; Gatermann, Sören G; Peters, Martin; Wolf, Peter Johannes; Karlsson, Edvin; Forsman, Mats; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Tomaso, Herbert

2015-01-01

165

School Assistance in Special Schools in North Rhine-Westphalia: Initial Position, Study Design, and First Results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School assistance, where it is practiced in Germany, appears to be a permanent personnel resource in the daily routine of special schools, as the first initial surveys in the counties ofBavaria and Thuringia show. To clarify the situation in special schools in the counry of North Rhine-Westphalia, a study was designed to examine the topic from the perspective of the school management, class teachers, and school assistants using a questionnaire-based survey. In this article, in addition to the study design, the results of the survey from the school management questionnaire are presented. Among other things, it shows that the utilization of school assistants has increased more than thirtyfold between the school years 2000/2001 and 2010/2011. The consequences of this development are discussed in terms of inclusive education in general schools.

Rüdiger Kißgen

2013-09-01

166

Geothermal energy - hydrothermal utilisation of geothermal energy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this phase of developing and utilisation of geothermal potentials the hydrothermal sector plays a very important role due to its possibilities of supplying heat in the MW-range at any time of day or night or year. The heat is contained in thermal water extracted from depth between 2000 and 2500 m by means of deep drilling. In Germany there are hydrothermal potentials in the South (Rhine Valley) and North. The following article describes the geological, technological and economic aspects of thermal water utilisation for the generation of thermal energy. (orig.)

167

International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany is situated in Central Europe. It covers an area of 250,000 square kilometres and has a population of 60 millions. The Federal Republic consists of 10 individual states. The capital of the country is Bonn. The northern and northwestern parts of the country are formed of flat lowlands, the Norddeutsche Tiefebene. Towards the south follow hilly and mountainous regions with elevations not exceeding 1000 m. In the southwestern and southeastern regions the elevations may reach 1500m in the Black Forest and Bayerischer Wald. The foreland of the Alps and the northern part of the Alps itself with elevations close to 3000 m make up the southern part of the Federal Republic. The main rivers - Rhine, Weser and Elbe - are directed towards northwest and drain the country to the North Sea. Only the southern part is drained by the southeast running river Danube. The climate is moderate, generally with frequent snow during the winter season and warm periods during the summer. The precipitation is distributed uniformly throughout the year. Due to the high industrialization a dense network of railroads, highways and motorroads exists.According to what is geologically known about the country, the chances for the discovery of large quantities of low-coast uranium resources must be considered to be limited. The potential for new discoveries of those deposits can be estimated to be around 10 000 t U. The potential for very low-grade uranium ore, such as granites, low-grade sedimentary rocks (sandstones, shales) can be estimated to range between 10,000 - 50,000 t U or possibly more taking into account very low-grade concentrations in shales. This material is not mineable under present conditions. Environmental considerations may prevent mining in the future

168

Quaternay geological landscape evolution across borders: linking the Scheldt to Rhine-Thames Land.  

Science.gov (United States)

This poster presents paleogeographical scenario maps for the southwestern North Sea Basin, where onshore and offshore territories of Belgium, The Netherlands, France and England meet. Originally prepared and published as a backdrop for paleolithical geoarcheological research (Hijma et al. 2012; JQS), we are now expanding this with fieldwork in NW Belgium. NW Belgium is a key area to resolve current debates on the timing and rates of erosion and landscape change in this area over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. With the Thames Estuary, it shares a history of drastic river valley network reconfigurations between successive glacials in the youngest 500,000 years. With the SW Netherlands it shares the sea level rise history in Eemian and Holocene. With NW France and SE England, it shares the river incision history that accelerates and changes in position with the opening of the Strait of Dover in the last 500,000 years. What are regionally separated issues in surrounding countries, comes together and superimposes in the Belgian Quaternary record. Our fieldwork aims at logging and sampling for a long-term landscape erosion studies, progressively over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles, and for generic regional quaternary geological mapping and dating. Reference: Hijma, M.P, K.M. Cohen, W. Roebroeks, W.E. Westerhoff, F.S. Busschers. 2012. Pleistocene Rhine-Thames landscapes: geological background for hominin occupation of the southern North Sea region. Journal of Quaternary Science, Vol 27, 17-32. DOI: 10.1002/jqs.1549

Cohen, Kim M.; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Hijma, Marc P.; Gibbard, Phill L.; Busschers, Freek S.; Vandenberghe, Dimitri

2013-04-01

169

Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) Rhine-Meuse: A Cross-Border Network  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the case of the cross-border RCE Rhine-Meuse established as the first Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) on Education for Sustainable Development in Europe. RCE Rhine-Meuse is an initiative of two institutions of higher education in the South of The Netherlands, but reaching out to the German and…

Rikers, Jos H. A. N.; Hermans, Jos H. C. L. M.

2008-01-01

170

Heavy-metal contamination of rivers by mining gallery waters during the flood in 2002 in Saxony/Germany and low-cost rapid analysis of contaminated river sediments by XRF  

Science.gov (United States)

Dieter Mucke, Rolf Kumann, Susanne Mucke GEOMONTAN Gesellschaft für Geologie und Bergbau mbH&Co.KG, Muldentalstrasse 56, 09603 Rothenfurth, Saxony/Germany The Ore Mountains between Bohemia and Saxony are effected by age-long mining for silver mining and winning of other ores. A lot of galleries were driven to keep water away from the mines. Today they still drain off water into the rivers which are used as receiving streams. Sulphide- and sulpharsenide-minerals are unstable. The decomposition of these minerals is caused by the influence of oxygenated drainage water. As a result of this process free cations of iron, copper, lead, zinc, cadmium and residuals of acid (sulphuric acid, acid sulphur, arsenous acid). Already during the transport in the gallery water transformations and precipitations proceed: iron precipitates as sol of iron-(III)-hydroxide-flocks and carries manganese and arsenic, as well as a part of zinc and copper along, on the other hand a bigger part of cadmium keeps in dissolution. From 1844 until 1877 in the silver mining area of Freiberg/Brand-Erbisdorf/Halsbrücke the gallery "Rothschönberger Stolln" was driven with a length of 50 km. In 1995/1996 we determined during four measuring cycles the loads of selected contaminants of five different measuring points in a gallery segment, which takes 29 km. As the annual input into the stream system Triebisch/Elbe with the mudflat of the North Sea as receiving stream we determined: • 19.000 t solid matter (hereof 10.400 t gypsum) • 820 kg cadmium • 420 kg arsenic • 1450 kg lead • 1140 kg copper • 111 t zinc During the flood in August 2002 occurred: • a total sinking of the Münzbach • a partial sinking of the Freiberger Mulde into the Rothschönberger Stolln. Thereby its flow increased from 600 l/sec in average to 10 m3/sec. Over three days during the flood in 2002 water samples were taken and analysed and the discharge was detected. So it was possible to calculate the loads. There was?t a dilution of the loads, in fact the contents and loads increased: mean value daily value increase factor 1995/1996 14.08.2002 mg/l mg/l n-fold content: 0,067 1,340 20 lead 5,080 7,590 1,5 zinc 0,038 0,068 1,8 cadmium 0,019 0,230 12 arsenic load: kg/d kg/d n-fold lead 4,0 626 167 zinc 303,3 3548 12 cadmium 2,3 318 14 arsenic 1,1 108 9,5 Parts of these contaminants do?t arrive the ocean, but deposit on the continuing flow path of the rivers. The maintenance of the water bodies and during construction works stream sediments need to be removed and depolluted. With the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) a very low-cost and - with a measurement period of 30 seconds - a very quick method for the rough calculation of contaminant loads is available. The results of investigations of the sediments of the Freiberger Mulde and the Triebisch in 2011/2012 are presented. High contents of arsenic, cadmium, thallium and lead are identified as waste, which needs to be controlled.

Mucke, D.; Kumann, R.; Mucke, S.

2012-04-01

171

Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on the Fate and Transport of Sediment Sorbed HCB and Cd in the Elbe River Basin (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sediment-sorbed concentrations of Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Cadmium (Cd) in sections of the Elbe River basin significantly exceed maximum allowable concentrations established by the European Commission. Even though concentrations of both contaminants have decreased significantly over the past 15 years, levels remain elevated. In addition, previous studies have documented that downstream transport of contaminated sediment occurs primarily during high water events. Given anticipated climate-change induced changes in mean discharge, potentially including an increase in the magnitude of high and low water discharge events, this study seeks to evaluate the role of climate change in mediating the long-term fate and transport of HCB and Cd in the Elbe River basin. To better understand the transport of cohesive sediments and associated contaminants, a hydrodynamic and cohesive sediment transport model for a 230 km segment of the Middle Elbe River was developed. Of particular interest is contaminant transport to floodplains and retention time in the numerous groyne fields that line the banks of the Elbe River. Multiple climate change scenarios involving changes in the amplitude and phase of yearly streamflow were used to simulate contaminant transport throughout the Elbe River basin at 10, 15, and 25 years in the future. Integration of modeling output with the results of recently collected (2010, 2011) sediment data enabled an enhanced understanding of the dynamics of HCB, Cd and cohesive sediment in the Elbe River basin. Modeling results, challenges simulating transport in groyne fields, techniques for resolving

Moshenberg, K.; Heise, S.

2012-04-01

172

Net employment effects of an extension of renewable-energy systems in the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable-energy potential exists in the Federal Republic of Germany to a great extent, but is barely used as yet. A change in the power-supply structure seems to be too risky with regard to finance and the sensitive labour market. Nevertheless, an extension of renewable energy systems in the German state North-Rhine Westphalia would lead to improved employment prospects. (Author)

173

Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization: the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) / Vers une évaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la privatisation de l'eau de boisson: l'exemple des substances cancérogènes véhiculées par l'eau dans l'Etat de Nord-Rhin-Westphalie (Allemagne) / Hacia la evaluación del impacto sanitario de la privatización del agua potable: ejemplo de los carcinógenos presentes en el agua en Renania del Norte-Westfalia (Alemania)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se observa en todo el mundo una tendencia a la desregulación en muchos sectores de política, lo que incluye por ejemplo la liberalización y privatización de la administración del agua potable. Ahora bien, la preocupación por los efectos perjudiciales que ello pudiera acarrear para la salud humana ob [...] liga a hacer una evaluación prospectiva del impacto sanitario (EIS) de la gestión del agua potable. Basándose en un procedimiento genérico y comprobado de EIS en 10 pasos y en los métodos de evaluación de riesgos, este artículo tiene por objeto aportar estimaciones cuantitativas de los efectos sanitarios del aumento de la exposición a carcinógenos en el agua potable. Utilizando los datos correspondientes a Renania del Norte-Westfalia, Alemania, se presentan estimaciones probabilísticas del exceso de riesgo de cáncer a lo largo de la vida, así como estimaciones de los casos adicionales de cáncer debidos al aumento de la exposición a carcinógenos. Los resultados indican que la exposición a contaminantes que se encuentran de hecho dentro de los límites en vigor podría dar lugar a aumentos sustanciales del riesgo de cáncer y del número de casos. Sobre la base de los actuales análisis, sugerimos que, en un contexto de aumento uniforme de los niveles de contaminantes, un solo producto químico (el arsénico) es responsable de una gran proporción del riesgo adicional previsto. El estudio ilustra también la incertidumbre inherente a la predicción del impacto sanitario de las variaciones de la calidad del agua. Los futuros análisis deberían abarcar otros carcinógenos, riesgos distintos del cáncer, incluidos los asociados a la contaminación microbiana, y las repercusiones de los fallos de los sistemas y de las actividades ilegales, que tienden a ocurrir con mayor frecuencia cuando se instauran nuevos mecanismos de ordenación del agua. Si pese a esos motivos de preocupación el agua se privatiza, es muy importante asegurar una vigilancia adecuada de su calidad. Abstract in english Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA) on t [...] he management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic) is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality.

Rainer, Fehr; Odile, Mekel; Martin, Lacombe; Ulrike, Wolf.

174

The influence of floodplain morphology and river works on spatial patterns of overbank deposition  

OpenAIRE

Floodplain topography and related hydraulic patterns of overbank flow constitute a major control on the amounts and patterns of sediment deposition on floodplains. We studied the differences in sediment deposition at two scales along two river branches of the lower River Rhine in the Netherlands: the Waal and IJssel River. Human alterations like levelling and embankment construction have severely impacted the floodplains along the Waal River branch (average discharge: 1500 m3·s–1), whereas...

Thonon, I.; Middelkoop, H.; Perk, M.

2007-01-01

175

Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den Emissionspfaden als auch nach den grossen Flussgebieten Donau, Rhein, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, Nordsee und Ostsee. Zusaetzlich wurden Listen der zehn groessten industriellen Direkteinleiter erstellt. (orig.)

Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

2000-11-01

176

Interoperable overhead contact line SICAT H1.0 for high-speed line Cologne-Rhine/Main; Interoperable Oberleitung SICAT H1.0 der Schnellfahrstrecke Koeln-Rhein/Main  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new long high-speed line Cologne-Rhine/Main connects the conurbations Rhine/Ruhr and Rhine/Main with each other and with the lines to Southern Germany and Switzerland as well as to the main lines to the Netherlands, Belgium and France. The new line has been designed for a commercial speed of 300 km/h and is equipped with the interoperable overhead contact line SICAT {sup trademark} H1.0. From the requirements established by the line, design, planning, construction and commissioning of this overhead contact line are derived. (orig.) [German] Die neue Schnellfahrstrecke Koeln-Rhein/Main verbindet die Ballungsgebiete Rhein/Ruhr und Rhein/Main miteinander und mit den Anschlussstrecken nach Sueddeutschland und der Schweiz sowie den Niederlanden, Belgien und Frankreich. Sie ist fuer 300 km/h Betriebsgeschwindigkeit ausgelegt und mit der interoperablen Oberleitung SICAT {sup trademark} H1.0 ausgeruestet. Von den Anforderungen an die Strecke leiten sich Aufbau, Planung, Errichtung und Inbetriebnahme dieser Oberleitung ab. (orig.)

Kohlhaas, J. [Eisenbahn-Bundesamt, Aussenstelle Frankfurt/Saarbruecken, Frankfurt (Germany); Ortstaedt, W. [DBBauprojekt GmbH, Koeln-Rhein/Main, Frankfurt (Germany); Puschmann, R.; Schmidt, H. [Siemens AG, Transportation Systems, Electrification TS EL, Erlangen (Germany)

2002-07-01

177

Charles Darwin's Observations on the Behaviour of Earthworms and the Evolutionary History of a Giant Endemic Species from Germany, Lumbricus badensis (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809/1882) began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881). Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae) and the role of these annelids as global ecosystem re workers (concept of bioturbation). In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Bio geographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.

178

HABITAT USE OF AGE - 0 TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX LACÉPÈDE, 1803 IN THE TIDAL FRESHWATER REGION OF THE ELBE RIVER, GERMANY.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Between April and August 1997 the distribution of twaite shad larvae in the lower Elbe River downstream the city of Hamburg was examined by ring net, lift net and pop net sampling. During each haul six environmental parameters - water depth, water temperature, conductivity, oxygen concentration, distance from shore line and distance from river channel - were estimated. Twaite shad larvae were found from 26 May to 10 July. Yolk sac larvae were present from 26 May to 25 June. High abundances of twaite shad larvae were found in the side channels and main channels. A canonical correspondence analysis was calculated to evaluate the importance of measured environmental parameters for the distribution of age - 0 fishes. Water depth, distance from shore line and distance from river channel were identified as main parameters for the distribution of species. Twaite shad larvae preferred maximum water depth and distance from shore line and short distances to the river channel. An upstream displacement of the spawning grounds of twaite shad was observed, following a trend first noticed in the early 90th. Nowadays, the location of spawning grounds corresponds to the situation at the beginning of the 19th century. Reduced water pollution is believed to be the main reason for this phenomenon.

GERKENS M.

2001-07-01

179

Vertical displacement rates in the Upper Rhine Graben area derived from precise leveling  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent vertical displacement field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) located in the tri-national region between Germany, France and Switzerland is investigated using repeatedly measured leveling data. We estimate vertical displacement rates at leveling benchmarks by applying a kinematic network adjustment on more than 40,000 height differences measured by German, French and Swiss surveying agencies. Focusing on an optimal solution for the adjusted rates in the URG area also historical data (measured before 1900) are used, significantly increasing the time span of available measurements and the number of transnational connections between the three countries. To account for inhomogeneities apparent in the database, we apply an iterative variance component estimation within the adjustment procedure, particularly revealing more realistic information on the accuracy of the estimated rates. A special focus within our analysis is put on the statistical testing of gross errors in the observations and model-related errors at benchmarks with non-linear movement. As some of the estimated vertical rates behave significantly different compared to the vertical rates of adjacent benchmarks, a filtering of outliers is applied after the adjustment procedure. The resulting map of linear height changes in an area of 280 km in N-S and 230 km in E-W direction provides detailed insight into the recent vertical displacements of the URG and neighboring regions. In the German part of the study area, it was possible for the first time to consistently constrain an average subsidence rate of 0.5 mm/a (0.2 mm/a) of the Graben interior w.r.t. the Black Forest. In addition to the tectonic displacements, some man-induced surface movements, e.g., caused by oil and groundwater extraction, are observed and discussed.

Fuhrmann, Thomas; Westerhaus, Malte; Zippelt, Karl; Heck, Bernhard

2014-08-01

180

Fluvial deposits as a record for Late Quaternary neotectonic activity in the Rhine-Meuse delta,The Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

Neotectonic movements have caused differential subsidence in the Lower Rhine Embayment during the Quaternary. The Late Weichselian and Holocene Rhine-Meuse fluvial archive in the central Netherlands was used to quantify neotectonic movements in a setting that was primarily controlled by sea-level rise and climate change. Evidence for neotectonic activity in the central Netherlands is reviewed. Sedimentary evidence shows that fluvial deposits of Late Weichselian and Holocene Rhine and Meuse (M...

Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Berendsen, H. J. A.

2002-01-01

181

Behaviour of suspended particulate matter (SPM and selected trace metals during the 2002 summer flood in the River Elbe (Germany at Magdeburg monitoring station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In August 2002, in the worst flooding in more than 100 years, the River Elbe destroyed built-up areas and caused widespread erosion and the relocation of soils and river sediments. To assess the pollutants entering the water, surveys of dissolved constituents and suspended particulate matter (SPM were carried out daily during the flood at a monitoring station near Magdeburg. The sampling point is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The results were compared with those of previous flood studies which used the same sampling strategy. Unlike past floods, the 2002 flood was characterised by the transport of relatively fine suspended material with a low mass concentration. Owing to different input sources, the maxima of dry weight and of particle number concentration occurred at different times. Hg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr showed a maximum concentration concurrent with the dry weight of the SPM, whereas the maximum concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd coincided with the particle number concentration peak. The concentration of particulate matter decreased rapidly, unlike the concentrations of dissolved substances such as DOC and trace metals, as well as the values of UV extinction, all of which remained high for a longer period. Comparing the results of the 2002 flood with the winter floods in 1995, 1999 and 2000, revealed increased values of As and Pb as well as higher concentrations of dissolved compounds. Keywords: river, flood, transport, suspended particulate matter, trace metals, dissolved compounds, Elbe

M. Baborowski

2004-01-01

182

Differences in sensitivity of native and exotic fish species to changes in river temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the effects that temperature changes in the Rhine river distributaries have on native and exotic fish diversity. Site-specific potentially affected fractions (PAFs of the regional fish species pool were derived using species sensitivity distributions (SSDs for water temperature. The number of fish species in the river distributaries has changed remarkably over the last century. The number of native rheophilous species declined up until 1980 due to anthropogenic disturbances such as commercial fishing, river regulation, migration barriers, habitat deterioration and water pollution. In spite of progress in river rehabilitation, the native rheophilous fish fauna has only partially recovered thus far. The total number of species has strongly increased due to the appearance of more exotic species. After the opening of the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway in 1992, many fish species originating from the Ponto-Caspian area colonized the Rhine basin. The yearly minimum and maximum river temperatures at Lobith have increased by circa 4 0C over the period 1908-2010. Exotic species show lower PAFs than native species at both ends of the temperature range. The interspecific variation in the temperature tolerance of exotic fish species was found to be large. Using temporal trends in river temperature allowed past predictions of PAFs to demonstrate that the increase in maximum river temperature negatively affected a higher percentage of native fish species than exotic species. Our results support the hypothesis that alterations of the river Rhine’s temperature regime caused by thermal pollution and global warming limit the full recovery of native fish fauna and facilitate the establishment of exotic species which thereby increases competition between native and exotic species. Thermal refuges are important for the survival of native fish species under extreme summer or winter temperature conditions [Current Zoology 57 (6: 852–862, 2011].

R.S.E.W. LEUVEN, A.J. HENDRIKS, M.A.J. HUIJBREGTS, H.J.R. LENDERS,J. MATTHEWS, G. VAN DER VELDE

2011-12-01

183

On the identity of the fossil hydrophilid beetles from the Tertiary localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focuses on the beetles from the Oligocene localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Brunstatt: France, Alsace; and Kleinkems: Germany, Baden-Württemberg assigned to the family Hydrophilidae by previous authors. The identity of Escheria convexa Förster, 1891 is fixed by the designation of its neotype, the species is redescribed, illustrated and transferred from the hydrophilid genus Hydrobius Leach, 1815 to the genus Copelatus Erichson, 1832 (Coleoptera: Adephaga: Dytiscidae and compared with other fossil representatives of Copelatus. The identity of the remaining three species is briefly evaluated on the basis of the original descriptions and illustrations only, because their types were lost or destroyed during World War II; all three species are removed from the fossil record of the Hydrophiloidea and placed into Polyphaga incertae sedis. The geology and stratigraphy of both fossil outcrops is discussed briefly.

Heiko Schmied

2011-01-01

184

Germany’s agri-biotechnology policy  

OpenAIRE

In Germany, the precautionary principle (PP) is a well-established legal principle in environmental law, especially for regulating agribiotechnology. This article uses the analytical concept of issue-framing to identify different views of the PP and how they have informed changes in the German regulatory arena. In the 1990s Germany’s genetically modified (GM) crop policy was dominated by a discourse of innovation and international competitiveness, combined with narrow accounts of precaution...

Boschert, Karin; Gill, Bernhard

2005-01-01

185

Remarkable Urban Uplift in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany: Observations from TerraSAR-X InSAR and Leveling from 2008 to 2011  

OpenAIRE

As geothermal energy is of increasing importance as a renewable energy source, there is a high demand for comprehensive studies to prevent failure during implementation, as is the case in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany. The drilling of seven wells for the geothermal heating of the city hall in 2007 is thought to have disturbed the existing hydro-geological system in the complex structured transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif. This event has led to uplift, related...

Hermann Kaufmann; Hans-Ulrich Wetzel; Christin Lubitz; Mahdi Motagh

2013-01-01

186

Challenges and Approaches in River Delta Planning - Annexes to report on training workshop  

OpenAIRE

Programme, participants and all powerpoint presentations of the Delta Alliance Training Workshop: Challenges and approaches in river delta planning, sharing experiences from SE Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta. 22-26 October 2012, WACC, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Wosten, J. H. M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

2012-01-01

187

PCR identification and distribution of Anopheles daciae (Diptera, Culicidae) in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based primarily on nucleotide polymorphisms in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA, Anopheles daciae was recently described as an additional member of the Maculipennis Group of species, separate from Anopheles messeae with which it had previously been confused due to morphological and genetic similarity. Species differentiation between A. messeae and A. daciae was possible only by ITS2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by DNA sequencing or RFLP analysis. In addition to its siblings, Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles atroparvus and A. messeae, A. daciae has been shown to occur in Germany, although with limited distribution. We here describe additional collection sites for this species in Germany, showing concentrations in East Germany and the northern Upper Rhine Valley in Southwest Germany. A species-specific multiplex PCR assay is presented that is able to differentiate the four Maculipennis Group sibling species occurring in Germany plus Anopheles sacharovi, Anopheles melanoon and Anopheles labranchiae. The correct identification and detailed knowledge of the biology of A. daciae are of relevance since it might be a vector of disease agents, as suggested by the vector potential of its siblings and the recent finding of an A. daciae female infected with Dirofilaria repens in southern Germany. PMID:24696275

Kronefeld, Mandy; Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

2014-06-01

188

Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly related to a cold period with permafrost formation. At other positions in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered directly by calcareous and silicate gyttias. These parts may (1) either not have been affected by assumed fluvial activity or (2) peat formation as such only started later here. Finally, an extended lake filled the basin from the later parts of the late-glacial on. Its sedimentation history is well recorded in calcareous and silicate gyttjas, whereas sedimentary units derived from organic and inorganic carbon content as well as grain size distribution allows a stratigraphical comparison of different profiles. Several delta cones in lake sediments give evidence of still considerable fluvial influx. High lake levels are indicated by lake terraces at 51 m and 43 m a.s.l., yet the timing of these high stands is still unclear. A third terrace at 41 m a.s.l. represents lower water level in historic times, during which two smaller lakes ('Dobbiner Plage' and 'Klädener Plage') existed in the basin. Both lakes vanished due to drainage after 1798. The uppermost sediment sequence in the basins is represented by a pattern of strongly decomposed peat and lacustrine sand.

Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; S?owi?ski, Micha?; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard

2014-05-01

189

Ground Motion Relations for the Upper Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquake in Europe are primarily located within the Euro-Mediterranean domain. However, the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) region regularly suffers earthquakes which are felt physically by inhabitants and cause damage to private property and the industrial infrastructure. In 1356, a major earthquake (I0 = X) destroyed part of the city of Basel. Recently, several events having M > 5 have shaken this area. In the framework of an INTERREG III project funded by the European community, a microzonation study has been achieved across the "three borders" area including the cities of Basel and Mulhouse. In particular, the ground motion was studied. The URG, which belongs to the ECRIS (European Cenozoic Rift System), is characterized by rift-related sedimentary basins with several hundreds meters of tertiary sediments overlaying the basement. Such a subsurface geology leads to strong site effects. Predictive attenuation laws and their related uncertainties are evaluated considering strong motions records and velocimetric records from small to moderate local events (Magnitude ranging 3

Calbini, V.; Granet, M.; Camelbeeck, T.

2006-12-01

190

Numerical tables on physical and chemical analyses of Rhine water 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The numerical tables contain the measuring results of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water for the year 1983. The tables are arranged by general parameters, organic matter, eutrophicating substances, anorganic matter, metals, organic micropollution as well as by radioactivity (total alpha- or beta- and T-activity). (MM)

191

Numerical tables of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water 1979  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The numerical tables of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water contain measurements on separate samples, continuous measurements during 2 weeks, on 14-days mixed samples as well as on 8-weeks mixed samples, and chloride measurements as well as measurements of the total-?-activity and the specific tritium activity. (HK)

192

Predictions of river flow in NW Europe using a coupled hydrological and regional climate model.  

OpenAIRE

Regional Climate Models (RCMs) offer significant improvements over Global Cli- mate Models in terms of their representation of rainfall at the spatial and temporal scales required for hydrological modelling. Here we test a new implementation of a grid-based hydrological model embedded in a model of land-surface climatology (the Joint UK Land Exchange Scheme; JULES) against observed river flows in several ma- jor NW European rivers, including the Rhine, Maas, Elbe, Danube, Loire, and Seine. ...

Dadson, Simon; Bell, Victoria; Jones, R.

2006-01-01

193

Evaluation of a grid-based river flow model using regional climate model output over Europe  

OpenAIRE

Regional Climate Models (RCMs) offer significant improvements over Global Cli- mate Models in terms of their representation of rainfall at the spatial and temporal scales required for hydrological modelling. Here we test a new implementation of a grid-based hydrological model embedded in a model of land-surface climatology (the Joint UK Land Exchange Scheme; JULES) against observed river flows in sev- eral major NW European rivers, including the Rhine, Maas, Elbe, Danube, Loire, and Seine. Ou...

Dadson, S. J.; Bell, V. A.; Jones, R. G.

2008-01-01

194

The distribution of anthropogenic REE in the Dutch distributaries of the Rhine: the role of suspended matter  

Science.gov (United States)

In nature rare earth elements (REE) occur in fixed ratios; contamination with a single rare earth element causes a clear deviation from the natural NASC normalized REE-patterns: an anomaly. REE are progressively used in many high technology products and processes. For example, gadolinium-containing chelates have been used since the '80s as contrasting agent in MRI-imaging. The pertaining anomaly is currently used as a tracer for distinguishing waste water from water unaffected by anthropogenic contamination. In the Dutch monitoring program in the Rhine-Meuse distributaries, total (10% HNO3 digested) and dissolved (plant for catalysts used in petroleum refining in the German city of Worms. Since the spring of 2011, samarium (Sm) is used in the same process, resulting in matching La- and Sm-anomalies. The anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are predominantly present in the total fraction, which suggests that the anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are associated with suspended matter. The anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are lower in the suspended matter samples collected with the centrifuge, suggesting a bias of these La and Sm concentrations in the finer fraction of the suspended matter. The anthropogenic La en Sm concentrations remain relatively constant throughout the rivers, but close to Lake IJsselmeer and the North Sea, sedimentation causes a sharp decrease in the anthropogenic concentrations. Detailed sampling of sediments, suspended matter and water could give a clear insight in the sedimentation rates in the area. The off-set between the introductions of the two anthropogenic contaminants can be used throughout the Rhine catchment downstream of Worms to distinguish new suspended matter and resuspended older sediments and the sedimentation of these two fractions. Although the La- and Sm-anomalies largely disappear towards the North Sea, the La-anomaly in the sediments is still larger in the coastal areas than at the more distant sampling points. In order to gain more insight in the processes that take place at the freshwater-saltwater interface (e.g. desorption and sedimentation), more research is planned.

Roskam, Gerlinde; Verheul, Marc; Klaver, Gerard; Bakker, Ingrid

2014-05-01

195

Diasporic Second Language Englishes in the African Communities of Germany’s Ruhr Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Ruhr Area is a metropolitan area located in the federal state of North Rhine-Westfalia in Germany. The region, which has a long history of migration and multilingualism, has recently attracted growing numbers of individuals who bring second language varieties of English to the area, which originate from postcolonial countries in Asia, on the African continent, or on the Indian subcontinent. African communities in particular form close-knit networks in the diaspora and engage in numerous associations, whilst at the same time maintaining ties with their original home countries. Their Englishes, both standardised and pidginised, which developed as a result of language contact in the respective home countries, are subject to a secondary language contact with German, resulting in further language change. This paper describes the sociolinguistics of the various communities, before it documents the African communities’ language preferences and discusses how the Englishes spoken in one individual community, Cameroon English and Cameroon Pidgin English, adapt in the new linguistic ecology. It argues that such diasporic Englishes pose important new territory for the study of English and offer opportunities to extend traditional frameworks towards integrating present-day societies’ realities.

Christiane Meierkord

2015-01-01

196

Brominated flame retardants and dechloranes in eels from German Rivers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The levels of PBDEs, alternate BFRs and dechloranes in European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) samples (elvers, yellow and silver eels) were investigated to compare the contamination of eels from the rivers Elbe and Rhine and to estimate the BFR contamination throughout the eel's life cycle. PBDEs were the dominating flame retardants (FRs) in muscle tissues of yellow and silver eels, while the alternate BFR 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) and the Dechlorane 602 were the dominating FRs in elvers (juvenile eels). Concentrations of FRs in silver eels from river Rhine were generally higher than concentrations in other eels analysed with up to 46 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) ?PBDEs. The concentrations in yellow and silver eels from river Elbe were similar with an average of 9.0±5.1 ng g(-1)ww and 8.1±3.7 ng g(-1)ww respectively. PBDE concentrations in elvers were comparably low (0.02 (BDE-100) to 0.1 (BDE-183) ng g(-1)ww), which lead to the conclusion that these contaminants were mostly ingested within the rivers. Among the alternate BFRs and dechloranes, DPTE as well as the Dechlorane 602 and Dechlorane Plus (DP) were found in all life cycle stages and rivers with concentrations between 0.01 ng g(-1)ww and 0.7 ng g(-1)ww. Dechlorane 603 could only be detected in silver eels from river Rhine. Pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) was only found in yellow and silver eels and bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP) could only be detected in elvers. These are the first reports of Dec-602 and 603 in aquatic organisms from Europe. The results of this study show the lasting relevance of PBDEs as contaminants in rivers and river-dwelling species but also the growing relevance of emerging contaminants such as alternate BFRs and dechloranes. PMID:22985592

Sühring, Roxana; Möller, Axel; Freese, Marko; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Wolschke, Hendrik; Sturm, Renate; Xie, Zhiyong; Hanel, Reinhold; Ebinghaus, Ralf

2013-01-01

197

Free primary school choice: How are ethnic groups affected by the new school law in NRW, Germany?  

OpenAIRE

In 2008, school districts were abolished in North-Rhine Westphalia, the most populous German state. Critics have argued that free school choice will lead to increasing segregation and educational disparities. The data used is from Wuppertal, one major city in NRW. Since the Turkish population is the largest, but also the least integrated, minority in Germany, the focus is on the effect of the new school law on choice of Turkish (Muslim) versus non-Turkish (non-Muslim) families. Free school ch...

Schneider, Kerstin; Schuchart, Claudia; Weishaupt, Horst; Riedel, Andrea

2010-01-01

198

Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Results are promising despite the fact that we still use an offline procedure to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater models (i.e. the simulations of both models are separately performed. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydro-geological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reasonably well reproduce the observed groundwater head time series. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the offline-coupling technique simplifies the dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

E. H. Sutanudjaja

2011-09-01

199

Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large-scale groundwater models involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries are still rare due to a lack of hydrogeological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Although the method that we used to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater model is considered as an offline-coupling procedure (i.e. the simulations of both models were performed separately, results are promising. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reproduce the observed groundwater head time series reasonably well. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the current offline-coupling technique simplifies dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

E. H. Sutanudjaja

2011-03-01

200

New paleoseismologic evidence for a historical surface-rupturing earthquake in the Belgian Maas valley, Lower Rhine graben area  

Science.gov (United States)

In the framework of the EC-project "SAFE" (Slow Active Faults in Europe), we are investigating the Geleen fault, part of the SW border fault system of the Roer Valley Graben, in the Belgian Maas valley. This is the extension of the Bree fault scarp, which we investigated in previous years. Compared to the Bree fault scarp, the topographic expression of the border faults in the Maas valley is much reduced. This is due to the low slip rates of these faults (valley. The trench confirmed the presence of an active normal fault at the predicted position. The fault consists of two subvertical, upward-diverging strands, almost reaching to the ground surface. In between the two fault strands, layers are tilted. The late Weichselian fluvial gravels, as well as overlying eolian sands and loams, are displaced 80 cm directly on the fault, and 100 cm including warping. There is no evidence of growth faulting; the observed offset was produced in a single event. Numerous soft-sediment deformations attest the coseismic nature of the faulting. The most important evidence, however, comes from an archeological finding in the hanging wall: a buried stone pavement, probably dating to the Bronze Age, is clearly affected by an underlying soft-sediment deformation, while the sediment above has a colluvial origin. We hope to date this colluvium with pollen and radiocarbon datings, which should yield a better age constrain for the youngest faulting event than along the Bree fault scarp. These new findings provide indisputable evidence for the coseismic nature of faulting in the intraplate setting of the Lower Rhine graben area, and are in agreement with recent studies of damaged archeological remains in Germany. Contrary to the segmented aspect of the fault at surface, the Bouguer gravity map suggests that the fault is continuos with the Bree fault scarp, which would imply rather large magnitudes.

Vanneste, K.; Petermans, T.; Verbeeck, K.; Béatse, H.

2003-04-01

201

Analysis of interactions between channel dynamics and vegetation development following damming: example of the Old Rhine downstream of Kembs (1949-2009)  

Science.gov (United States)

The 45 km-long reach of the Rhine River from Kembs to Breisach has been heavily impacted by engineering works during the last two centuries. The Kembs dam and the lateral “Grand Canal d’Alsace” achieved in 1959 induced significant decrease in sediment transport and diversion of most of the flow in the lateral canal so that the by-passed “Old Rhine” runs now a minimum flow (3% of the mean annual discharge during 300 days per year). Two combined approaches were performed to understand the Old Rhine morphological response to “dewatering”, peak flow reduction and sediment transport disruption in particular the vegetation expansion process and its potential feedback impacts on the channel hydraulics and the sediment transport: i) a space-time approach using series of aerial photographs and historical cross-sections and ii) 1D morphodynamic simulations. Sets of aerial photographs integrated in a GIS environment have been used to map the extent of water bodies, gravel bars, riparian vegetation (grasslands, shrubs, trees identified using differences in colour, texture and structure) and anthropogenic features every 10 years since the 1950s. Results show a strong channel narrowing and associated vegetation expansion until 1982. Tests conducted on the different dates underlined homogeneous segments and downstream progression of the processes through time, demonstrating different patterns of adjustments. Cross-sections of 1950 and 1990 were overlaid with land cover layers, demonstrating that incision and sedimentation areas are spatially linked with the planform changes. From these findings, we hypothesised that vegetation encroachment modified hydraulic conditions, enabling sediment transport, winnowing and deposition processes despite of peak flow reduction and armour layer development due to intense incision following channelization works. In order to test these causality hypothesis, the mean sediment mobility along the homogeneous segments was assessed using 1D hydromorphodynamical simulations. Indeed, numerical modelling is able to calculate the bed shear stress over the critical shear stress ratio for different grain sizes according to the type of vegetation observed and the magnitude and duration of floods occurred. Finally, both GIS study and 1D modelling are complementary revealing the channel and vegetation evolution and underlined the significant impact of vegetation development on the bed dynamics over decades.

Arnaud, F.; Béraud, C.; Piégay, H.; Schmitt, L.; Rollet, A.; Johnstone, K.; Hoenen, D.; Béal, D.

2010-12-01

202

Disaggregation of silver nanoparticle homoaggregates in a river water matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) could be found in aquatic systems in the near future. Although the interplay between aggregate formation and disaggregation is an important factor for mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of Ag NPs in surface waters, the factors controlling disaggregation of Ag NP homoaggregates are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the reversibility of homoaggregation of citrate coated Ag NPs in a Rhine River water matrix. We characterized the disaggregation of Ag NP homoaggregates by ionic strength reduction and addition of Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) in the presence of strong and weak shear forces. In order to understand the disaggregation processes, we also studied the nature of homoaggregates and their formation dynamics under the influence of SRHA, Ca(2+) concentration and nanoparticle concentration. Even in the presence of SRHA and at low particle concentrations (10?gL(-1)), aggregates formed rapidly in filtered Rhine water. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) of Ca(2+) in reconstituted Rhine water was 1.5mmolL(-1) and was shifted towards higher values in the presence of SRHA. Analysis of the attachment efficiency as a function of Ca(2+) concentration showed that SRHA induces electrosteric stabilization at low Ca(2+) concentrations and cation-bridging flocculation at high Ca(2+) concentrations. Shear forces in the form of mechanical shaking or ultrasound were necessary for breaking the aggregates. Without ultrasound, SRHA also induced disaggregation, but it required several days to reach a stable size of dense aggregates still larger than the primary particles. Citrate stabilized Ag NPs may be in the form of reaction limited aggregates in aquatic systems similar to the Rhine River. The size and the structure of these aggregates will be dynamic and be determined by the solution conditions. Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of natural waters can result in a sedimentation-release cycle of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:25433382

Metreveli, George; Philippe, Allan; Schaumann, Gabriele E

2014-11-26

203

Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

Koch, E. [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

1995-12-31

204

Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in street dust of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in street dust samples was investigated using pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Street dust samples were taken from rural, urban, industrial and industrially influenced urban areas. PCB6 concentrations ranged from 5090±2200?g/kg (average±standard error of mean) in dusts from industrial premises to 29±8.7?g/kg in rural areas. Concentration ranges were for dioxin-like PCB toxicity equivalents (dl-PCB TEQ) from 362±164ng/kg (industrial premises) to 6.5±1.8ng/kg (rural areas), and for PCDD/PCDF TEQ from 503±448ng/kg to 2.4±0.13ng/kg, respectively. Area concentrations of PCB6 (0.040?g/m(2)-22?g/m(2)), dl-PCB TEQ (0.0038ng/m(2)-2.6ng/m(2)) and PCDD/PCDF TEQs (14pg/m(2)-1980pg/m(2)) were estimated. Furthermore, particle size related concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in street dusts were analysed showing throughout almost all samples a distinctive trend of increasing concentrations with decreasing particle sizes. Characterization of homologue patterns of PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs in street dusts was performed showing a dependence of homologue patterns on different area types, especially for PCBs. It could be demonstrated that the analysis of concentrations in combination with specific homologue patterns of PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs in street dust samples enables allocation of potential emission sources. PMID:25531591

Klees, Marcel; Hiester, Ernst; Bruckmann, Peter; Molt, Karl; Schmidt, Torsten C

2015-04-01

205

Germany's Solar Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

This NOVA video podcast is about Germany's solar experiment. Munich's solar panel farm lines the Autobahn and countryside in a massive effort to prove solar's feasibility as a practical renewable energy source.

NOVA

206

Cross-Comparison of Climate Change adaptation Strategies Across Large River Basins in Europe, Africa and Asia  

OpenAIRE

A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and the Amudarya basin is in Central Asia. The evaluation was based mainly on the opinions of policy makers and water management experts in the river basins. The adaptation strategies were evaluated co...

Krysanova, Valentina; Dickens, Chris; Timmerman, Jos; Varela Ortega, Consuelo; Schlu?ter, Maja; Roest, Koen; Huntjens, Patrick; Jaspers, Fons; Buiteveld, Hendrik; Moreno, Edinson; Pedraza Carrera, Javier; Sla?mova, Romana; Marti?nkova?, Marta; Blanco Gutie?rrez, Irene; Esteve Bengoechea, Paloma

2010-01-01

207

Conformity Assessment in Germany  

OpenAIRE

The present study was mandated by the Federal Ministry of Economics in 2004 with the objective of drawing up options for a future conformity assessment structure in Germany. It was motivated by the need to gain an overview of the use of conformity assessment in Germany and of its institutional structures, which appeared to be rather fragmented on the level of accreditation and designation. The wish to improve the transparency and the effectiveness of the national conformity assessment system ...

Ro?hl, Hans Christian; Schreiber, Yvonne

2008-01-01

208

Germany at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

2001-01-01

209

Paleogeographic evolution and avulsion history of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

Approximately 200,000 lithological borehole descriptions, 1200 14C dates, 36,000 dated archaeological artifacts, and gradients of palaeochannels were used to reconstruct the Holocene evolution of the fluvial part of the Rhine-Meuse delta. Ages of all Holocene channel belts were stored in a Geographical Information System database that enables generation of palaeogeographic maps for any time during the Holocene. The time resolution of the palaeogeographic reconstruction is about 200 years. ...

Berendsen, H. J. A.; Stouthamer, E.

2002-01-01

210

Relative chronology of deep circulations within the fractured basement of the Upper Rhine Graben  

OpenAIRE

In the Upper Rhine Graben, geothermal projects are strongly under development, particularly for the exploitation of fluid within the top of the basement. This type of reservoirs constitutes a fractured dominated system. However, the hydraulic behaviour of the fracture network is poorly known, such as connexion, main fluid flow direction, role of the fault zone versus minor fractures, the deformation types (cataclase, fault, crack...). We propose two approaches to understand the fluid flow for...

Dezayes, Chrystel; Lerouge, Catherine; Ramboz, Claire; Wille, Guillaume

2013-01-01

211

Modification of magnetic properties in granite during hydrothermal alteration (EPS-1 borehole, Upper Rhine Graben)  

OpenAIRE

Rock magnetic properties and petrological investigations of the magnetite-bearing Variscan Soultz granite from the EPS-1 borehole (Upper Rhine Graben) provided a significant contribution for the understanding of the “old” (Middle Carboniferous to Permo-Triassic) hydrothermal alteration history. This alteration history is generally subdivided into two stages. Stage I alteration is related to processes during magma cooling and solidification of the plutonic body in Middle Carboniferous time...

Just, Jana

2005-01-01

212

Revised palaeogeographical reconstruction and avulsion history of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

In the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta, the geography, architecture, and chronology of the channel belts and their flood basins is known in exceptional high detail. This is due to a long history of intensive geological, geomorphological, and archeological research by various universities and knowledge institutes and archaeological consultancy companies. A first reconstruction showing the build-up and palaeogeographical development of the delta in 500 year time-slices was pu...

Stouthamer, E.; Cohen, K. M.; Hoek, W. Z.; Pierik, H. J.; Taal, L. J.; Hijma, M. P.; Bos, I. J.

2013-01-01

213

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Sand-Containing Basin Fills in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse  

OpenAIRE

The quantitative significance of coarse-grained deposits in the overbank realm, such as crevasse-splay deposits, has not been studied at the delta scale or at the Holocene timescale. Such knowledge would be beneficial for understanding and explaining sediment distribution in delta plains. This study addresses delta-scale distribution of sand-containing basin fills and their sand-body proportion variability, based on eight valleywide cross sections in the Holocene Rhine- Meuse delt...

Bos, I. J.; Stouthamer, E.

2011-01-01

214

The implementation of the new EU water directives on different scales - two examples from the region of Trier (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

The EU water directives in Germany are being implemented and are at the moment in the process of being transformed into concrete measures. These measures mainly concern land use management and, if necessary, actions on site. For the implementation of on-site measures as well as for land use management, the field of observation and its scale lead to various challenges. The number of stakeholders and the im-pact of the EU water directives depend on the size of the catchment. The scale of the impact range from single inhabitants to local or federal planning communities and can even impact cultural heritage management. The conflict potential increases as more interests are included in the decision making process, therefore different adaptation strategies are necessary. Issues, especially those involving the divergence between individual and public interests, nature con-servation, flood prevention and economic concerns demand creative solutions. The two examples located in the region of Trier (Germany) show conflicts during the imple-mentation of the EU water directives on different scales. The Mosel, a first order river, passes through three countries on the way to the Rhine. The river gives a natural boundary to the settlement areas and forms the shape of the city of Trier. Regarding the EU Flood Water Di-rective, flood hazard and risk maps should be developed for all catchments. This can lead to conflicts between settlement developments and flood protection, as well as to loss of the eco-nomic value of private estates. A case study in Trier will be presented, where a building site as shown on the land development plan is an area prone to flooding. Up till now this area is still zoned for building and not as a flood area. Accordingly, local and spatial planning need to go hand in hand with water management. The Olewiger Bach is a small creek (3rd order), which is strongly affected by urban rain water discharge. Primarily, the removal of fixed elements within the brook such as weirs and paved sectors are necessary to achieve the objectives of the directives. This is only possible when the spillway overflows existing in the brook are at the same time improved. This will be cru-cial to the sustainable management of the receiving water during flood events and to prevent the erosion caused by the removal of fixed elements. These two examples and especially the comparison between the different scales drive home the message that, concerning the EU water directives, varying requirements for the implemen-tation are necessary and depend on the catchment size as well as on the planning scale and the stakeholders involved. Different adaptation and participation strategies need to be developed to offer adapted solutions. As these two examples are diverse with regard to different scales, they can be used as examples outside of Germany, and are especially helpful when developing approaches for flood hazard and risk maps and flood risk management plans.

Gellweiler, I.; Meyer, B.

2009-04-01

215

Bias correction of temperature and precipitation data for regional climate model application to the Rhine basin  

Science.gov (United States)

In many climate impact studies hydrological models are forced with meteorological forcing data without an attempt to assess the quality of these forcing data. The objective of this study is to compare downscaled ERA15 (ECMWF-reanalysis data) precipitation and temperature with observed precipitation and temperature and apply a bias correction to these forcing variables. The bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data will be used in another study as input for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Observations were available for 134 sub-basins throughout the Rhine basin at a temporal resolution of one day from the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR). Precipitation is corrected by fitting the mean and coefficient of variation (CV) of the observations. Temperature is corrected by fitting the mean and standard deviation of the observations. It seems that the uncorrected ERA15 is too warm and too wet for most of the Rhine basin. The bias correction leads to satisfactory results, precipitation and temperature differences decreased significantly. Corrections were largest during summer for both precipitation and temperature, and for September and October for precipitation only. Besides the statistics the correction method was intended to correct for, it is also found to improve the correlations for the fraction of wet days and lag-1 autocorrelations between ERA15 and the observations.

Terink, W.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Uijlenhoet, R.

2009-08-01

216

Bias correction of temperature and precipitation data for regional climate model application to the Rhine basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many climate impact studies hydrological models are forced with meteorological forcing data without an attempt to assess the quality of these forcing data. The objective of this study is to compare downscaled ERA15 (ECMWF-reanalysis data precipitation and temperature with observed precipitation and temperature and apply a bias correction to these forcing variables. The bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data will be used in another study as input for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC model. Observations were available for 134 sub-basins throughout the Rhine basin at a temporal resolution of one day from the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR. Precipitation is corrected by fitting the mean and coefficient of variation (CV of the observations. Temperature is corrected by fitting the mean and standard deviation of the observations. It seems that the uncorrected ERA15 is too warm and too wet for most of the Rhine basin. The bias correction leads to satisfactory results, precipitation and temperature differences decreased significantly. Corrections were largest during summer for both precipitation and temperature, and for September and October for precipitation only. Besides the statistics the correction method was intended to correct for, it is also found to improve the correlations for the fraction of wet days and lag-1 autocorrelations between ERA15 and the observations.

W. Terink

2009-08-01

217

Rehabilitating closed mining sites in North Rhine Westphalia's coal basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ruhr is a German region undergoing a reconversion. In recent years, several thousand jobs have been lost in the coal, iron and steel industries, especially in coal mines. This trend is going to continue. Rehabilitating former industrial sites so that they can welcome new industries and businesses, is decisive for this region. A rapid and financially advantageous reconversion requires coherence and continuity in the rehabilitation measures undertaken by the companies that serve as receivers, by local authorities and by investors who want to launch new projects. All these parties must manage the various phases of this process in a spirit of coordination. Germany can boast of a series of successful reconversions into industrial areas, exhibition facilities, nature reserves, tourist centers and leisure and rest places

218

Cytogenetic changes in fish exposed to water of the river Rhine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The induction of chromosome aberrations in fishes, exposed to Rhinewater, was investigated. The mudminnow, Umbra pygmaea, was chosen for this study, because of its ideal karyotype of 22 large chromosomes. Gill cells were used for chromosome studies. Fish, kept in Rhinewater for 11 days had chromosome breaks in approximately 30% of the metaphases studied. Control fish, exposed to a very good quality of untreated groundwater had breaks in about 8% of the metaphases. Several Rhinewater extracts were tested for their mutagenic potential in the Salmonella-microsome test. The fraction of aromatic compounds was found to be positive. This may indicate that one or more of the compounds present in this fraction were also responsible for the cytogenetic changes found in the fish. For comparison several Rhinewater extracts were tested for their mutagenic potential by means of a bacterial mutagenicity test. In addition the radioactivity of the water samples was measured in order to evaluate any likely cytogenetic effects arising from ionising radiation. (Auth.)

219

Report on the 1992 study trip on the Weser aboard the laboratory ship 'Max-Pruess' of the Land North-Rhine-Westfalia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As agreed by the standing committee of the Weser task force ('Arge Weser'), regular trips on the river for taking measurements have been made since 1965. The ninth trip, from May 8th to 14th, 1992 aboard the ''Max Pruess'', a ship equipped with measuring instruments and a laboratory and owned by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia, was concerned with three areas of investigation: A) the Fulda and Werra estuaries, B) the upper and middle Weser (Hann.-Muenden (km 0.0) to Bremen (km 361.1)), C) the lower Weser (Bremen (km 0.0) to Kolumbuskai (km 67.8)). A uniform water quality longitudinal profile of the Weser was established during this trip by means of chemico-physical and biological tests. While investigations by measuring stations cover a longer period of time, the measurements taken during a voyage reflect a transient condition and complement long-term trend investigations. The voyage also permits to gain an overview of relative changes in the condition of the river at various points of its course. The evaluation of the results of this trip is facilitated by investigations of Arge Weser already carried through for the duration of several years and information obtained by previous trips. (orig./EF)

220

Natural radionuclides in the environment. Ocurrence, anthropogenic effects and radiological relevance in selected mining areas in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main goal of the investigations described in this work was to assemble and evaluate data to the occurence and distribution of natural radionuclides in selected areas of the hard coal mining, as well as in the former uranium mining areas in Germany, to improve the knowledge about the behaviour of these nuclides in terrestrial ecosystems. Afterwards the evaluated data should be used for the realistic estimation of the radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in the investigation areas by using probabilistic methods and the models of the German calculation basis for determination of the radiation exposure in mining areas (Berechnungsgrundlagen Bergbau). For reaching this goal, the results of the research-project ''displacement of pollutants during the river Elbe flood in August 2002'' as well as the results of the expertise ''radiological assessment of mine waters - discharges of the hard coal mining in the lower Rhine area to the Fossa Eugeniana'' was evaluated and the data concerning the occurence and distribution of natural radionuclides, as relevant for the determination of the radiation exposure due to this nuclides, was extracted. To account for the areas affected by the former uranium mining and milling activities in Saxony, the final reports of the project ''radiological acquisition, investigation and assessment of mining legacies - legacy register'' (Altlastenkataster) were evaluated. In particular 13 potentially affected areas (Verdachtsflaechen) deflly affected areas (Verdachtsflaechen) defined in this project were evaluated together with the results of the side-project ''radionuclides in sediments and alluvial soils'' to extract data for the determination of the radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in this areas. As a result of the evaluations performed in this work representative values for the concentrations of natural radionuclide in the environmental compartments sediment, soil, surface water, ground water, drinking water and biomaterials as well as their distribution were derived for the different investigation areas. The expectation values and variabilities of the radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides for each relevant exposure path and the total exposure were investigated using Monte-Carlo-techniques. This was done by assuming for each parameter of the model a distribution of values described by an expectation value and a variance instead of using only a point estimator. With this approach, the variability of the radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides was calculated for selected areas of the former uranium mining in Saxony, as well as for the areas affected by the discharges of hard coal mining at the lower Rhine and afterwards compared with national and international mean values. Consequently, this work makes a contribution to the realistic determination of the radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides as recommended by the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) and as demanded by the Euratom-directive 96/29 to be implemented in national laws. (orig.)

221

Germany: Management of decommissioning waste in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past two decades, Germany has gained a substantial amount of experience in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities of different types and sizes. Many research reactors and all prototype nuclear power plants, as well as a few larger nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, are currently at varying stages of decommissioning. Several facilities have been fully dismantled and the sites have been cleared for reuse. The decommissioning projects comprise 18 power and prototype reactors, 33 research reactors and 11 fuel cycle facilities which are being or have been decommissioned. In the future, further nuclear power plants will be shut down and decommissioned in accordance with Germany?s energy policy to phase out the use of nuclear power for commercial electricity generation as given in the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. Radioactive waste, from operations as well as from decommissioning activities, is to be conditioned in such a way as to comply with the waste acceptance requirements of a repository. In Germany, all types of radioactive waste (i.e., short-lived and long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. A distinction is being made for heat generating waste (i.e., high level waste) and waste with negligible heat generation (i.e., low level and intermediate level waste). Radioactive decommissioning waste is waste with negligible heat generation. Waste acceptance requirements of a repository are of particular importanof a repository are of particular importance for the conditioning of radioactive waste, including decommissioning waste. The waste acceptance requirements, as they resulted from the Konrad licensing procedure, are being applied by the waste generators for the conditioning of decommissioning waste. Compliance with these requirements must be demonstrated through the waste package quality control, even if the waste will be disposed of in the future. In 2002 the Konrad repository was licensed for the disposal of all types of waste with negligible heat generation. Konrad is an abandoned iron-ore mine to be reconstructed for use as disposal facility. It is not yet in operation as the license is actually examined by court. Dismissal of legal action is an important prerequisite for the realization of the Konrad project. Furthermore, the Federal Government needs to take a final decision on the reconstruction and operation of the Konrad repository. (author)

222

On the identity of the fossil aquatic beetles from the Tertiary localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the fossil beetles assigned previously to the family Hydrophilidae described from the localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben: Brunstatt (France, Alsace) and Kleinkems (Germany, Baden-Württemberg) (both dated ca. to Eocene-Oligocene boundary, 34 Ma). The identity of Escheria convexa Förster, 1891 is fixed by the designation of its neotype, the species is redescribed, illustrated, transferred from the hydrophilid genus Hydrobius Leach, 1815 to the genus Copelatus Erichson, 1832 (Coleoptera: Adephaga: Dytiscidae) and compared with other fossil representatives of Copelatus. The identity of the remaining three species, Hydrobius crassipunctatus (Förster, 1891), Hydrobius dimidiatus (Förster, 1891) and Hydrobius punctulatus (Förster, 1891),is briefly evaluated on the basis of the original descriptions and illustrations only, because their types were lost or destroyed during World War II; all three species are removed from the fossil record of the Hydrophiloidea and placed into Polyphagaincertae sedis. The geology and stratigraphy of Brunnstatt and Kleinkems are discussed briefly. PMID:21594154

Martin, Fiká?ek; Hájek, Ji?í; Schmied, Heiko

2011-01-01

223

Germany after Federal elections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety

224

An advanced method for flood risk analysis in river deltas, applied to societal flood fatality risk in the Netherlands  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a new method for flood risk assessment in river deltas. Flood risk analysis of river deltas is complex, because both storm surges and river discharges may cause flooding and the effect of upstream breaches on downstream water levels and flood risk must be taken into account. This paper presents a Monte Carlo-based flood risk analysis framework for policy making, which considers both storm surges and river flood waves and includes effects from hydrodynamic interaction on flood risk. It was applied to analyse societal flood fatality risk in the Rhine-Meuse delta.

de Bruijn, K. M.; Diermanse, F. L. M.; Beckers, J. V. L.

2014-10-01

225

Leishmaniasis in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2000, a reference center was created to systematically record leishmaniases in Germany. We analyzed 58 cases of leishmaniases imported during a 2-year period. These findings will serve as a baseline for the sandfly vector’s anticipated northward move because of global warming and as an advisory for immunocompromised persons traveling to leishmaniasis-endemic areas. PMID:12890332

Schönian, Gabriele; Feldmeier, Hermann

2003-01-01

226

Structure of the genetic diversity in Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) populations across European river systems: consequences for conservation and restoration  

OpenAIRE

Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is a keystone species for riparian ecosystems in Europe. We analysed the structure of genetic diversity of 17 populations from 11 river valleys that are part of seven catchment systems (Danube, Ebro, Elbe, Po, Rhine, Rhone, and Usk) in Europe, in relation to geography and river management. In total, 1069 trees were genotyped using AFLP and microsatellite markers. The trees had an observed heterozygosity of 0.74 (range 0.59¿0.82 across microsatellite loci). The...

Smulders, M. J. M.; Cottrell, J. E.; Lefevre, F.; Schoot, J.; Arens, P. F. P.; Vosman, B.; Tabbener, H. E.; Grassi, F.; Fossati, T.; Castiglione, S.; Krystufek, V.; Fluch, S.; Burg, K.; Vornam, B.; Pohl, A.

2008-01-01

227

Election in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This week's In The News focuses on the forthcoming general election in Germany. The seven sources discussed provide background, news, analysis, and commentary. On Sunday September 27, Germany's 60 million voters will elect a chancellor to lead them into the 21st century. Incumbent Helmut Kohl, a 68-year-old Christian Democrat who has been chancellor since 1982, is running for an unprecedented fifth term. During Kohl's sixteen years in power as a major world leader, he has presided over the reunification of Germany after the fall of the Berlin wall, advocated European unity while strengthening ties with the US, and ardently endorsed Germany's participation in Europe's single currency, the Euro. However, the problems of modernizing the economy in the formerly communist eastern Germany--where seventeen percent of the workers are unemployed--compounded by the difficulties of high taxes, expensive social programs, and fleeing investments, have convinced many voters that is time for a change of leadership. Kohl's opponent in the general election, Gerhard Schroder, is a 54-year-old Social Democrat currently serving as the Prime Minister of the northern state of Lower Saxony. The telegenic Schroder considers himself a New Middle leftist and models his political style after UK Prime Minister Tony Blair and US President Bill Clinton; he has, in fact, used consultants from Clinton's last campaign to bolster his image. According to political pundits, both Kohl and Schroder have similar moderate platforms, which has made this race a campaign of competing personalities rather than of substantive issues. Recent polls have indicated a dead heat between the candidates leading into the final week of the campaign.

Osmond, Andrew.

228

Interactive management of international river basins; Experiences in Northern America and Western Europe  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with the experiences of international water commissions with a more interactive way in dealing with society and water system. The first experiences with co-operation in international institutions between water managers already started many centuries ago. For the river Rhine it formally began in 1885 with agreements on navigation and fishery, for the border waters of the United States and Mexico with a border treaty in 1889 and for the boundary waters of the United States and ...

Ast, J. A.

2000-01-01

229

Experimental and theoretical studies on heat exchange of a river to the atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes above the river Rhine as well as other meteorologic parameters carried out at the Rheinhausen measuring station were evaluated according to the following viewpoints: Agreement of the measured transfer coefficients with theory and with experimental results (ocean measurements). Recommendation of averaged heat transfer coefficients for use in practical calculations. Experimental test of the Bowen ratio concept. Studies on the influence of topographic environment on exchange conditions. (orig.)

230

Germany at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

2005-01-01

231

Radon control in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of measurements of radon activity concentrations in about 6000 dwellings in the Federal Republic of Germany, annual dose equivalents have been estimated. The mean activity concentration of around 50 Bq is a factor of five below the ICRP recommended upper level. Recommendations have been made to the Federal Minister for the Environment about informing the public and possible remedial measures for those houses in excess of 250 Bq per m3. (UK)

232

Ethnic segregation in Germany  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides a comprehensive description of the nature and extent of ethnic segregation in Germany. Using matched employer-employee data for the universe of German workers over the period 1975 to 2008, I show that there is substantial ethnic segregation across both workplaces and residential locations and that the extent of segregation has been relatively stable over the last 30 years. Workplace segregation is particularly pronounced in agriculture and mining, construction, and the ser...

Glitz, Albrecht

2012-01-01

233

Germany: Administration Meets Community  

OpenAIRE

In Germany the role of the citizen is a topical issue. Following the reunification of the country, there have been several indications of political dissatisfaction. In connection with this, local democracy may be of particular relevance for closing the growing gap between citizens and government. Two cities have been studied, namely Nuertingen and Leipzig. In both cities, the emphasis lies on co-operation between citizens and the local administration. The strengthening of ...

Edwards, A. R.; Meer, J.

2000-01-01

234

Coal Mining, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This simulated natural color ASTER image in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia covers an area of 30 by 36 km, and was acquired on August 26, 2000. On the right side of the image are 3 enormous opencast coalmines. The Hambach opencast coal mine has recently been brought to full output capacity through the addition of the No. 293 giant bucket wheel excavator. This is the largest machine in the world; it is twice as long as a soccer field and as tall as a building with 30 floors. To uncover the 2.4 billion tons of brown coal (lignite) found at Hambach, five years were required to remove a 200-m-thick layer of waste sand and to redeposit it off site. The mine currently yields 30 million tons of lignite annually, with annual capacity scheduled to increase to 40 million tons in coming years.The image is centered at 51 degrees north latitude, 6.4 degrees east longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

2001-01-01

235

Radiation research in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

''The Technical Association for Radiation Protection is very worried about the decline in radiation research in Germany.'' This is the opening sentence of a statement by the Technical Association for Radiation Protection (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz, FS) about the situation of radiation research in Germany published in April 2002. In March and October 2002, experts from the scientific community and the competent Federal Ministries for Education and Research (BMBF) and for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) discussed the subject at workshops in Cologne and Giessen in an effort to work out clearcut concepts for the continuation of radiation research. Facts, arguments, and reasons are summarized which demonstrate the rank of, and the need for, intense radiation research in Germany. Existing deficits are highlighted in a stocktaking exercise, and possible future developments are outlined. These proposals include, in particular, the establishment of Centers of Competence in Radiobiology, a program to be run by the German Research Association (DFG), and adequate project funding by the BMU. (orig.)

236

Petrophysical characteristics and fluid flow zones in the Buntsandstein sandstones reservoir according well cores and outcrop analysis (Upper Rhine Graben, France)  

Science.gov (United States)

Buntsandstein Sandstones (Lower Triassic), located in the Upper Rhine Graben, appears as an easy target for geothermal exploitation. This sedimentary reservoir links more or less permeable argillaceous sandstones intersected by many major faults to the regional thermal anomaly. Petrophysical analysis (permeability, porosity, thermal conductivity, P-wave velocity), performed on cores from several boreholes and samples from several outcrops in the Vosgian Mountain, drive us to characterise fluid and heat transfer capability of the different sedimentary facies present in the Buntsandstein sandstones. First data from well cores analysis indicate that the more permeable and porous (respectively >100mD & >15%) facies are the Playa Lake and fluvial and aeolian sand-sheet, and the fluvial-aeolian marginal erg, whereas the more common facies, the braided rivers within arid alluvial plain, presents permeability fracturation dispersion and petrophysical modifications induced by fracture and fault in the sandstone series. Barite and quartz precipitation in fracture indicate us fracture orientation and position, compare to major fault position, in which fluid flow has occurs. All data acquired allow us to build a schematic geological block model: this block represent the Buntsandstein sandstone reservoir at depth with the different facies, above the Palaeozoic Granit and below the Muschelkalk limestones, intersecting by faults according the regional major azimuth. According each particular direction the particular fracturation is raised according outcrop data. This bloc points the major zones in which fluid circulation occurs.

Sébastien, H.; Géraud, Y.; Diraison, M.; Dezayes, C.

2012-04-01

237

Cellular changes in the skin of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) after short-term exposure to increased water temperature: Part 2: Experiments with Rhine water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study on the title subject is to show that salmonides in a simulated cooling water outlet area of an electric power plant along the river Rhine do not experience long-term or permanent negative consequences of their presence in the heated water. Laboratory experiments were carried out with 'test trouts'. The water in which the trouts were kept was heated up from 9C to 16C in 30 minutes. The temperature of 16C was maintained for 3 hours. After the heating up skin samples were taken at different periods for 35 days. Histochemical and electron microscopic investigations were carried out. The short term increase of the water temperature clearly effected the ultrastructure of the fish. The changes in the epidermis did not recover within 35 days. It is suggested that a number of the found cellular reactions can be used as indicators for environmental stress. These reactions concern the production of lysosomes and the migration of macrophages in the epidermis. No serious effects as skin decomposition and an excess of mucous secretion were found

238

Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fishbones, shells, human bones or food crusts on pottery from sites next to rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in rivers containing considerable amounts of dissolved 14C-free carbonates can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. For accurate radiocarbon dating of freshwater-based samples, the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect as well as the degree of variability has to be known. The initial problem in this case was the accurate dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude and variability that can also be expected for the past. Water DIC from different seasons, and from the same season in different years, has been dated because it is the carbon source in photosynthesis and thus at the basis of the rivers’ food webs. The radiocarbon ages of underwater plants and different parts (underwater or floating) of emerging water plants are compared, as it might be expected that the reservoir age is higher for plants that assimilate DIC as for plants or parts of plants that assimilate atmospheric CO2. Mollusc shells as well as flesh and bone collagen of fish are dated as well. Radiocarbon datings of archaeological samples from the two Mesolithic sites will be analysed, considering the insights provided by the study of modern material.

Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

239

“Room for river” measures and public visions in the Netherlands: A survey on river perceptions among riverside residents  

Science.gov (United States)

Dutch river management is moving from traditional dike reinforcements toward "room for river" measures to assure flood protection and to serve other societal goals. With that, the engineering paradigm shifts from mastership over nature to a more partnership-like attitude toward nature. Are these values shared by Dutch riverside residents? Are the measures proposed under the new paradigm accepted? This paper investigates these two questions on the basis of semistructured interviews and a survey in communities along the floodplain of the river Waal (i.e., Rhine). The analyses show that even though their visions of nature are remarkably ecocentric, partnership with nature is not the dominant idea within that ecocentric realm. Partly as a consequence of that and partly because the respondents do not perceive the measures as natural, the investigated room for river measures are not endorsed.

de Groot, Mirjam; de Groot, Wouter T.

2009-07-01

240

A review of Gobiid expansion along the Danube-Rhine corridor – geopolitical change as a driver for invasion.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 411, 01 (2013), 01. ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gobiidae * Danube * Rhine * range expansion * drivers Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.622, year: 2013

Roche, Kevin Francis; Janá?, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

2013-01-01

241

Nuclear power in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

242

Country report: Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic principles for waste management in Germany are established in the Atomic Energy Act and in the waste management concept of the German Government which gives greater substance to the statutory requirements and the principles of the waste management provisions for nuclear power plants. The resolution passed on 28 September 1979 by the heads of the State and Federal Governments confirms the integral waste management concept; it is based in general on onsite and offsite interim storage followed by reprocessing of spent fuel, recovery of radioactive materials, and conditioning for the final disposal of radioactive waste

243

Destination Poland and Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson was designed to provide students the opportunity to conduct research using a variety of print and electronic resources in order to gather information about the countries of Poland and Germany. In small groups, the students will scavenger through online and print resources including: a dictionary, thesaurus, encyclopedia, and atlas. They will create a poster with the accompanying information to present to the whole class. This lesson is usually taught at the start of the Holocaust novel study unit Daniel's Story by Carol Matas, however, it can easily be adapted for any country or novel.

Kris Ryan

2012-06-29

244

Cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across large river basins in Europe, Africa and Asia.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 24, ?. 14 (2010), s. 4121-4160. ISSN 0920-4741 Grant ostatní: EU(XE) FP6 IP 511179-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : adaptation to climate change * water management * questionnaire * barrier * driver * climate change * river basin * Amudarya * Elbe * Guadiana * Nile equatorial lakes region * Orange * Rhine Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2010

Krysanova, V.; Dickens, C.; Timmerman, J.; Varela-Ortega, C.; Schlüter, M.; Roest, K.; Huntjens, P.; Jaspers, F.; Buiteveld, H.; Moreno, E.; de Pedraza Carrera, J.; Slámová, Romana; Martínková, M.; Blanco, I.; Esteve, P.; Pringle, K.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Kabat, P.

2010-01-01

245

The effect of groynes on rivers: literature review:  

OpenAIRE

Groynes are structures constructed at an angle to the flow in order to deflect the flowing water away from critical zones. They are made of stone, gravel, rock, earth, or piles, beginning at the riverbank with a root and ending at the regulation line with a head. They serve to maintain a desirable channel for the purpose of flood control, improved navigation and erosion control. In the River Rhine, which is considered the backbone of North-western European waterways network, the primary objec...

Yossef, M. F. M.

2002-01-01

246

Molecular confirmation of the occurrence in Germany of Anopheles daciae (Diptera, Culicidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles daciae, a newly described member of the Maculipennis group, was recently reported from western, southern and eastern Europe. Before its recognition, it had commonly been listed under the name of An. messeae, due to its extreme morphological and genetic similarities. As the sibling species of the Maculipennis group are known to differ in their vector competences for malaria parasites and other pathogens, the occurrence of An. daciae in a given region might have an impact on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquito collections from different localities in Germany were therefore screened for An. daciae. Methods Adult and immature Maculipennis group mosquitoes were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 at 23 different sites in eight federal states of Germany. A standard PCR assay was used to differentiate the previously known sibling species while the ITS2 rDNA of specimens preliminarily identified as An. messeae/daciae was sequenced and analysed for species-specific nucleotide differences. Results Four hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles specimens were successively identified to Maculipennis group level by morphology and to species level by DNA-based methods. Four species of the Maculipennis group were registered: An. messeae (n?=?384, An. maculipennis (n?=?82, An. daciae (n?=?10 and An. atroparvus (n?=?1. Anopheles daciae occurred at four sites in three federal states of Germany, three of the sites being located in north-eastern Germany (federal states of Brandenburg and Saxony while one collection site was situated in the northern Upper Rhine Valley in the federal state of Hesse, south-western Germany. Conclusions The detection of An. daciae represents the first recognition of this species in Germany where it was found to occur in sympatry with An. messeae and An. maculipennis. As the collection sites were in both north-eastern and south-western parts of Germany, the species is probably even more widely distributed in Germany than demonstrated, albeit apparently with low population densities. Research is needed that confirms the species status of An. daciae and elucidates its vector competence as compared to An. messeae and the other species of the Maculipennis group, in order to optimize management of possible future outbreaks of diseases caused by pathogen transmission through Maculipennis group mosquitoes.

Kronefeld Mandy

2012-11-01

247

A new focus of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901 (Diptera, Culicidae distribution in Western Germany: rapid spread or a further introduction event?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, a potential vector of several viruses, was first detected in Germany in 2008 on the Swiss-German border. In the following years, this invasive species apparently succeeded in establishing populations in southern Germany and in spreading northwards. In 2011, its distribution area already covered large areas of the federal state of Baden-Wurttemberg, and its northernmost German collection point was reported to be close to Stuttgart. Several independent submissions to our laboratories of Ae. j. japonicus specimens in July 2012, originating from the same area in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, western Germany, prompted us to carry out an immediate surveillance in this region in the expectation of finding a further distribution focus of Ae. j. japonicus in Germany. Methods After inspecting the places of residence of the collectors of the submitted mosquito specimens, all kinds of water containers in 123 cemeteries in surrounding towns and villages were checked for mosquito developmental stages. These were collected and kept to produce adults for morphological species identification. One specimen per collection site was identified genetically by COI sequence analysis. Results Aedes j. japonicus adults and immature stages were found in 36 towns/villages that were checked (29% over an area of approximately 2,000 km2 in southern North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland Palatinate. The species could not be demonstrated further south when monitoring towards the northernmost previous collection sites in southern Germany. It therefore remains to be elucidated whether the species has entered western Germany from the south, from Belgium in the west where it has been demonstrated to occur locally since 2002, or through a new introduction. Conclusions Aedes j. japonicus is obviously much more widely distributed in Germany than previously thought. It appears to be well adapted, to have a strong expansion tendency and to replace indigenous mosquito species. Thus, a further spread is anticipated and elimination seems hardly possible anymore. The vector potency of the species should be reason enough to thoroughly monitor its future development in Germany.

Kampen Helge

2012-12-01

248

Germany: Europe’s China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyses Germany's ascent not only as Europe's most important economic power, but also as its leader. Figures show that Germany overcame the crisis; in fact the crisis legitimized its development model. Which would be Germany's main strategic choices, confirmed by the historic evolution of the recent years? First, its option for manufacturing, which allowed Germany to turn into Europe's factory. Second, the option for reform. "Agenda 2010", initiated by Gerhard Schroeder in 2003, is a crucial moment in the country's evolution. Special attention is paid to Germany's position on the single currency. Germany's performance is that it managed to turn the euro into a kind of European Dmark. The euro now formally "obeys" German rules, agreed upon from the very beginning, and is mainly coupled to the evolution of German economy. Germany is now sitting its most important exam: the European one. Today, Germany is Europe's most powerful state, but it must become its leader, whose development model would be accepted throughout the continent. Some German economic options are strikingly similar to China's.

Paul Dobrescu

2013-06-01

249

Germany Under Reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Offered as part of the University of Wisconsin Digital Collection's History collection, Germany Under Reconstruction provides the public with access to a variety of publications in English and German from the early days following World War II. The documents cover a wide range of topics, and they include works that look at the political, economic, and cultural milieu in the nation during the period. All told, there are 516 documents included here, and visitors can perform complex searches or just browse through them at their leisure. Some of the more notable English language items include the 1945 work "After Nazism-Democracy? A symposium by four Germans" and Elmer Beck's 1948 book "The trade union press in the U.S. occupied area". The site is rounded out by the complete run of the Weekly Information Bulletin, published by the United States European Theater's Military Army of Occupation from 1945 to 1948.

250

Mining in Germany 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papers were presented on the following subjects: Mining in the new German states; Development of knowledge-based consulting systems for waste disposal and mine savitation operations; Advantages and drawbacks of underground leaching of uranium ores - proposals for environmentally compatible termination of mining operations; Backfilling of open shafts; The final operation plan -legal fundamentals of mine abandonment; stability assessment of subsurface workings of the Ehrenfriedersdorf tin mine and conclusions for safety measures; Experience and problems of landscaping measures for abandoved mines in densely populated areas; Performance of pipeless shaft drilling machines in hard and extremely hard rock; subsurface tunnelling in subsidence areas; Selective cutters in potassium mining in Alsace-Rock salt mining at Bernburg; Problems of stabilisation of abandoned shafts in potassium mines in central Germany. Six of the papers have been recorded as separate entries in this database. (orig./HS)

251

CAS School in Germany  

CERN Multimedia

The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

CERN Accelerator School

252

Final disposal in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disposal of radioactive waste is planned and has been carried out in Germany in deep geological formations only. From 1965 until 1978, procedures and techniques for the emplacement of waste packages were developed and tested in the abandoned Asse salt mine. At present, three sites are considered for disposal. The Gorleben salt dome in the north-east of Niedersachsen is being investigated for its suitability for disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste. The abandoned Konrad iron ore mine in Niedersachsen is envisaged for the disposal of radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. The former Morsleben salt mine in Sachsen-Anhalt, which was used as a repository for short-lived low and intermediate level waste from 1981 until 1991 resumed its. (orig./HP)

253

Natural infections of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis in dogs in Germany (2007-2009).  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to assess the occurrence and regional geographical distribution of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis in Germany, faecal samples of 810 dogs with clinical symptoms of respiratory and circulatory disease, bleeding disorder and/or neurological signs were collected from September 2007 to March 2009. The zinc chloride/sodium chloride flotation and Baermann funnel technique were used to examine the samples for presence of lungworm larvae. Infections with lungworms were diagnosed in 105 (13.0%) of the examined dogs. A. vasorum and C. vulpis were found in 60 (7.4%) and 49 (6.0%) faecal samples, respectively. 33 A. vasorum- and 12 C. vulpis-positive dogs were located in Baden-Württemberg, 13 and 12 in North Rhine-Westphalia, 3 and 4 in Bavaria, 1 and 7 in Rhineland-Palatinate, 7 and 4 in Saarland, 1 and 2 in Saxony, respectively. In Brandenburg only 2 dogs with A. vasorum and in Hesse a total of 5 dogs with C. vulpis were detected. In Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Lower Saxony and Thuringia only 1 dog with C. vulpis was detected at a time. 4 dogs were coinfected with A. vasorum and C. vulpis. These surprisingly high prevalence rates indicate that both parasites are endemic in Germany. PMID:19575224

Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

2009-08-01

254

Present day and geologic deformation rates in the Ardenne and the lower Rhine embayment (North-western Europe)  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Roer Graben and the Belgian Ardenne, there is a difference of an order of magnitude in the inferred vertical crustal movements deduced on one side from geological information (0.1 mm/yr) and on the other side from repeated levellings since the end of the 19th century (~1 mm/yr). We present a new analysis of the repeated levellings: generally, they are not significant enough to infer actual vertical ground displacements. We also reconsider the interpretation of the significant measurements with crustal movements: observed vertical movements in areas with a thick cover of unconsolidated sediments, which is generally the case in the Roer Valley Graben, can be related to the local geological conditions rather than to true crustal movements. An example is the man-made subsidence induced by water pumping to prevent large open-cast mines in Germany from being flooded, observed by repeated levellings, GPS, INSAR and gravity measurements. To measure the present crustal deformations for the interpretation of the slip rates along the active-faults in the Lower-Rhine Embayment, we have performed two very-long-term experiments. First, continuous measurements of the movements across the Feldbiss fault have been recorded by two GPS permanent stations (Bree &Meeuwen) on either side of the fault since 1997. No observable relative vertical (horizontal resp.) movement larger than 0.5 mm/yr (0.3 mm/yr resp.) has been observed for the last 5 years. These values are already less than the results deduced from repeated levellings. Secondly, since 1999, we undertook a series of biannual campaigns of absolute gravity measurements (AG) along an 8-station profile running over 140 km across the Ardenne and the Roer valley rift system. We present the first results and they show that, in all the stations but Jülich, there is no detectable gravity rate of change larger than 2 µGal/yr. This is equivalent to an uplift of 10 mm/yr, using a deformational gradient of -0.2 µGal/mm. Jülich lies in the Roer valley and suffers from man-induced subsidence, where a gravity rate of change of 3.1+/-1.9 µGal/yr is observed. To ensure that the absolute gravimeter is giving accurate results it has been compared regularly with the superconducting gravimeter installed at the Membach reference station, which belongs to the profile. There, a low trend in gravity of -0.44+/-0.10 µGal/year is observed among 80 AG measurements since 1996. In particular, we show a good correlation between the gravity measurements and the continuous GPS measurements performed since 1997 at 3 km from the station. We compare these measurements with those recorded at the two other stations at Bree and Meeuwen, and discuss the results. The observed crustal deformations, which must be confirmed, could be linked to active faults in the Ardenne and/or bordering the Roer Valley Graben, or perhaps also to the post-glacial rebound or to the Eifel plume.

van Camp, M.; Camelbeeck, T.; Vanneste, K.; Warnant, R.

2003-04-01

255

Outcrop Analogue Studies in Geothermal Exploration - Characterization of fault zones in Triassic Muschelkalk limestones of the Upper Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of fault zones is of particular importance in geothermal reservoirs since there may be great effects on fluid flow. Fault zones generally consist of two major hydromechanical units: the fault core and the damage zone, surrounded by the host rock. To improve predictions of fracture system parameters for each unit and resulting estimations of reservoir permeabilities at depths we perform outcrop analogue studies. We analyze Middle Triassic Muschelkalk limestones that form one geothermal reservoir formation in the Upper Rhine Graben (southwest Germany) in quarries on its eastern graben shoulder. We measure the orientations and displacements of various fault zones and characterize the fracture systems within the fault zone units and in the host rock. Our studies show that damage zones are well developed even in smaller fault zones. Their fault cores, however, are narrow compared with that of fault zones with large displacements and comprise brecciated material, clay smear, host rock lenses or zones of mineralization. Based on the field data we use analytical models to estimate the permeabilities of the analyzed fracture systems. Results show increased fracture frequencies in the fault zone damage zones and larger fracture apertures parallel or subparallel to fault zone strike that lead to enhanced permeability compared with other orientations. Mineralized fractures accumulated in this direction in the 'Nussloch'-quarry indicate that these fractures were pathways for fault zone parallel fluid flow in the past. This shows that open fractures with orientations parallel to fault zones may be pathways for fault zone parallel fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs. By contrast, well-developed fault cores may be potential barriers for fluid flow in inactive fault zones. To build numerical models to analyze local stress fields and effects on fracture propagation for different fault zone types and geometries information on rock mechanical properties is necessary. Therefore we take representative rock samples in the quarries to determine uniaxial compressive and tensile strengths as well as Young's Moduli in the laboratory. Additionally we measure the rebound hardness distribution across fault zones with a 'Schmidt-Hammer' to analyze mechanical property variations. First results show that the rebound hardness increases with increasing distance from the fault core. The presented studies help to predict the permeability of fault-related geothermal reservoir rocks and minimize the exploration risk of geothermal projects. This project is part of the Research and Development Project AuGE (Outcrop Analogue Studies in Geothermal Exploration). Project partners are the companies Geothermal Engineering GmbH and GeoEnergy GmbH as well as the Universities of Heidelberg and Erlangen. The project is funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) within the framework of the 5th Energy Research Program (FKZ 0325302).

Meier, S.; Bauer, J. F.; Philipp, S. L.

2013-12-01

256

Status and prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany; Stand und Aussichten der Tiefengeothermie in Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article summarizes the geothermal potential, the status and the prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany and arrives at the following conclusions: Even in a country like Germany with no active vulcanism the resources for geothermal power production and direct use are very high and exceed those of conventional energy sources by far. Geothermal use in Germany however is still in its initial stage. The installed capacity in 2005 amounted to 135 MW{sub th} for direct use and to only 230 kW{sub el} for power production. The uprating of the allowance for geothermal power from 0.09 Euro/kWh to 0.15 Euro/kWh in 2004 and the R and D-programme for renewable energy of the Ministry of Environment has initiated a great number of new projects especially in the Upper Rhine Valley and in the Fore Alp Region near Munich. The success of these projects will be critical for the development of geothermal power production in Germany in the near future. Geothermal energy use in Germany is so far restricted to deep seated hot water aquifers. One of the major barriers for a wider application of this resource is our poor knowledge about the hydraulic properties of these aquifers leading to a great and in many cases unacceptable risk for potential investors. For this reason a geothermal information system is under development at the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics in Hannover which will help to supply investors with the best information available and to quantify the risk for insurance companies and geothermal funds. Though hot water aquifers suitable for geothermal power production are rare in Germany the size of this resource is comparable to the German oil and gas resources. Nevertheless their contribution to the national power production will remain small and will hardly exceed a few hundred MW{sub el}. Their potential for direct use is much higher. But since heat has to be produced very close to the consumer to prevent excessive costs for transportation this huge resource can only be used in regions where a suitable aquifer is situated in an industrialized and densely populated area. A much wider application of geothermal energy in Germany can be expected when techniques for geothermal energy production from tight sediments or igneous rock are available. This resource is by at least two orders of magnitude larger than that of the aquifers and is available at almost any location.

Jung, R. [GGA-Inst., Hannover (Germany)

2007-02-15

257

The influence of tidal straining and wind on suspended matter and phytoplankton distribution in the Rhine outflow region  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To study the short-term effects of the physical environment on phytoplankton dynamics in the Rhine outflow area. changes in salinity, beam attenuation and phytoplankton distribution were observed in a series of high resolution measurements. During periods of weak wind and neap tide (low turbulent kinetic energy, TKE), the system was dominated by tidal straining that resulted in semi-diurnal oscillations in stratification. Phytoplankton was kept in resuspension at about 10-15 m depth. Subsequent strong wind and tidal mixing (high TKE) broke down stratification, enhanced horizontal gradients and suppressed estuarine transport. It is hypothesised that during low TKE, tidal straining and frontal circulation determined the phytoplankton distribution; and at high TKE, input by wind and tide enhanced conditions for growth, which resulted in a bloom in the surface layer of the Rhine Plume, where light and nutrients were available. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Joordens, J.C.A.; Souza, A.J.

2001-01-01

258

Country report Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany, there are 19 operating nuclear power plants, with a total installed capacity of 21.4 GWe. In 2002, the electricity production of these 19 nuclear power plants amounted to 165 TWh, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity production. The average availability of the German nuclear power plants was 85.6 % (this low value is due to the unexpected outage of some NPPs). The expressed goal of the German Federal Government is to phase out of nuclear energy without paying compensations to the utilities. On 11 June 2001, the final agreement between the German utilities and the German Federal Government was signed, and the amendment to the German Atomic Law (AtG-Novelle) was enforced on 27 April 2002. The overall objective of the new AtG is changed from 'support of nuclear energy' to 'fix phase-out of nuclear energy'. After the German parliament elections, the new Government coalition formulated a Coalition Contract which has the following statements on Nuclear Energy: - Work out an energy research programme which gives first priority to renewable energies and energy efficiency, - Assess termination of EURATOM membership, - Terminate nuclear electricity production on the base of a guaranteed total amount of electricity produced (in GWh),No reprocessing after 2005, - Erection of interim storages at nuclear power plant sites, - Support of research to improve safety of existing reactors, - Stop of national support for development of techniques for nuclear energy production (this iques for nuclear energy production (this includes fission and fusion). The German Committee on a Selection Procedure for Repository Sites (AkEnd) was established 1998 by the Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) reached agreement on the following main issues: - One final repository concept, - Storage in deep geological formation starting about 2030, - Isolation for 1 million years, - Under-ground exploration of at lease two sites, - One selection criteria for the final repository is the transparency of selection procedure. As regards the nuclear energy research in Germany, the 'Alliance for Competence in Nuclear Technology' with the main partners FZK, FZJ, FZR, GRS, and associated universities compiled a summary report on the status of nuclear safety research in the country. The mission of this Alliance is to increase the efficiency of existing R and D activities in the areas of nuclear safety and repository research, to preserve complementary competence at universities, and to support the Federal Government in fulfilling its legal duties. The Alliance established an industry funded project for PhD students in order to strengthen education in nuclear technology and to prevent a loss of competence. The two nuclear research centers Karlsruhe (FZK) and Juelich (FZJ) are members of the Helmholtz Association (HGF). The mission of the HGF is to perform and foster research in the field of natural sciences and medicine which is of national importance and public interest. The HGF is the largest science organisation in Germany, encompassing 15 centres with 24000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2.1 billion EUR. The HGF covers six research areas: health, energy, environment, structure of matter, transportation and space, and key technologies. Within the energy research area, there are four programmes: renewable energies, efficient conversion of energy, fusion technology, and nuclear safety research. The programme Nuclear Safety Research is divided into two programme topics (PT). The programme Nuclear Safety Research was evaluated in February 2003 by an international Evaluation Committee with the following main results: The proposed research programme is scientifically excellent and well embedded in international cooperations and programmes; The strategy and long-term perspectives in PT1 are limited according to the given research-political restrictions (no work using public funding on innovative reactor systems is permitted); The recruitment and education of young scientists and engineers has to be improved by participation in int

259

A review of the past and present status of anadromous fish species in the Netherlands: is restocking the Rhine feasible?  

OpenAIRE

The paper reviews the past, present and future of eight anadromous fish species inhabiting the Lower Rhine (The Netherlands), viz. -sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), whitefish and houting (Coregonus lavaretus, C. oxyrinchus), smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), allis and twaite shad (Alosa alosa, A. fallax), sea trout (Salmo trutta) and salmon (Salmo salar). All species are under threat or became extinct (e.g. sturgeon, allis shad). It is not possible to single out a specific factor for the decline or disa...

Groot, S. J.

2002-01-01

260

Identification of the fractured basement/cover unconformity on former oil seismic profiles in the Upper Rhine Graben.  

OpenAIRE

Fluid circulation at fractured basement/cover unconformity is of first importance for geothermal energy exploitation especially in continental rifting as the Upper Rhine Graben. This unconformity presents lot of natural fractures which constitute a large permeable fracture network driving brine movement. That constitutes a reservoir of hot water, which is exploited by several geothermal power projects at great depth with flow rate between 50 and 80 l/s of water produced. On the French territo...

Dezayes, Chrystel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Capar, Laure; Chenin, Pauline

2011-01-01

261

Germany after March 11th  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective since March 11th is presented with stress on the Fukushima accident, political situation in Germany, media and public opinion. Fukushima has devastated the trust in expert opinions about safety of NPPs. Germany’s Turn in Energy - consensus for nuclear phase-out exists between All political parties. The government has already announced adoption of the recommendations of the ethics commission. The 7 oldest units will remain shut-down. Further 7 units will be shut down until 2021. The youngest 3 units will be permanently shut down until 2022

262

GERMANY AT CERN  

CERN Multimedia

13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

2001-01-01

263

Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germany?s European policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

Michèle Knodt

1999-03-01

264

Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in the Rhine Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.

Karina Speil

2010-12-01

265

Germany Phases Out Nuclear Power  

Science.gov (United States)

This video excerpt from FRONTLINE: Nuclear Aftershocks explores the debate behind Germany's decision to phase out its nuclear energy program and revert back to coal as “the bridge” that will eventually allow greater reliance on renewable energy.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2012-08-31

266

Germany – two demographically different states?  

OpenAIRE

The paper is an attempt of an answer how belonging to different political, economical and cultural structures has influenced diverse population processes and structures and their spatial diversity. As an example to the research of these phenomena there was chosen Germany that until 1990 were two separated socio-political and economical formations (the German Democratic Republic (GDR ) and the Federal Republic of Germany FRG ). This state, with a population number about 82 milli...

Szyman?ska, Daniela; S?roda-murawska, Stefania; Biegan?ska, Jadwiga

2008-01-01

267

Undergraduate medical education in Germany  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between ...

Chenot, Jean-franc?ois

2009-01-01

268

Uptake of 134/137Cs in soil by cereals as a function of several soil parameters of three soil types in Upper Swabia and North Rhine-Westphalia (FRG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1988 and 1989 soil and winter cereals contaminated with long-lived radionuclides derived from the accident at Chernobyl were sampled in Upper Swabia and North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW). 134Cs, 137Cs and 40K were measured and transfer factors Soil-to-Plant (TFSP) were determined for radiocaesium in the grain and straw of barley and wheat. Due to the lower deposition of radiocaesium in NRW after the Chernobyl accident, radiocaesium was not detectable in cereals from NRW. In samples from Upper Swabia, one of the most highly contaminated areas in Germany after the reactor accident (43 000 Bq 137Cs/m2), the concentration of radiocaesium in grain was found to be more than one hundred times lower than the concentration of natural 40K. The variation of TFSP by about factor of 43 (grain) and 18 (straw) can be explained by the potassium content of the soil. TFSP values show a pronounced increase below 0.2 meq exchangeable potassium/100 g soil, but do not exceed the value given as a basis for calculation in the German Regulatory guide of 0.05. Other soil parameters, such as pH value, organic matter content or soil texture, did not have any influence on TFSP. (author)

269

Fate modeling of nonylphenol ethoxylates and their metabolites in the Dutch Scheldt and Rhine estuaries: validation with new field data  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental behavior of nonylphenol ethoxylates (A 9PEO) in the Rhine and Scheldt estuaries (The Netherlands) was investigated using a hydrodynamic advection-dispersion fate model (ECoS 3). The model was validated with the results of field studies, in which A 9PEO as well as the metabolites nonylphenoxy ethoxy acetic acids (A 9PEC) and nonylphenol (NP) were analyzed in sediment, water and suspended particulate material (SPM) samples using LC-MS methods. Maximum actual concentrations observed in surface sediments were 620, 560 and 1100 ng g -1 d.w. for A 9PEO, A 9PEC and NP, respectively. In the dissolved phase, maximum observed concentrations amounted to 1100 ng L -1 (A 9PEO), 6500 ng L -1 (A 9PEC) and 960 ng L -1 (NP). Clear spatial trends were observed for dissolved A 9PEO and metabolites in the Scheldt estuary, with decreasing concentrations going downstream. This concentration decrease was steeper than for conservatively behaving compounds. This trend was not visible in the Rhine estuary. The fate model was applied to A 9PEO and metabolites in both estuaries. Transport of chemicals in the water column was considered as a longitudinal one-dimensional process through a number of estuary segments. For the Rhine estuary, to cope with the stratification observed, a model structure was chosen consisting of two water layers above each other, between which exchange was possible. Sedimentation/erosion processes were included in the model. A biodegradation scheme was incorporated, and rates were adjusted to fit the calculated concentration profiles with the actual profiles of both A 9PEO and its metabolites. In this way, field biodegradation rates for A 9PEO, A 9PEC and NP could be derived, which were in agreement with values from literature. The measured dissolved concentration profiles as well as salinity and concentrations of SPM could be described successfully by the model. The concentrations calculated in SPM and sediment were of the same order of magnitude as the actual concentrations. In the Rhine estuary, additional sources of A 9PEO had to be included to account for the relatively high concentrations in the middle of the estuary. The fate model for the Scheldt estuary could be slightly improved by using salinity-dependent biodegradation rates. A sensitivity analysis of the model showed that in the Scheldt estuary, the environmental process with the strongest influence on the dissolved concentration profiles of A 9PEO and metabolites is biodegradation. In the Rhine estuary, the water residence time is too short for significant biodegradation to occur, and in this estuary the dissolved concentration profiles were mainly influenced by the additional A 9PEO sources.

Jonkers, Niels; Laane, Remi W. P. M.; de Graaf, Chris; de Voogt, Pim

2005-01-01

270

Germany keeps to HEU  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to INFCE, major international programs have been started to eliminate the danger of proliferation by theft or diversion of HEU from the nuclear fuel element cycle of research reactors. The German Federal Republic too has implemented extensive measures to convert its research reactors, which were formerly operated with HEU, for operation with LEU. Whereas after qualification of the new nuclear fuel U3Si2 for a density of 4.8 g U/ss, many reactors were converted world wide, the USA and the German Federal Republic were the only countries which started new research reactor projects in the mideighties using HEU. The project in the USA has already been terminated in 1994, among other reasons because of the envisaged utilisation of HEU. Whereas world wide since 20 years new high power reactors have been planned, built and commissioned only with LEU, the FRM-II is the only one which is still dedicated to HEU. France and the USA are investing in the development of very highly compacted nuclear fuels, whereas the German Federal Republic has so far not spent a single Mark on that. In West Europe all large research reactors have been converted for LEU, except for Germany and the EC, whose reactor in Petten is, however, scheduled for conversion too. After the market for HEU had practically died out, it is now being revived by Russia. Here the supply of HEU for the FRM-II would be a great enticement which is already encouraging Russia to contemplate already encouraging Russia to contemplate further sales. This would be the death blow for efforts to reduce enrichment. If the dissemination of strategic U is to be stopped, Wilfried Krull demands of the German Federal Republic that the FRM-II should be converted immediately for operation with lower-enriched uranium of LEU, as well as conversion of the other research reactors and a delivery stop for Russian HEU. (orig.)

271

Mammography screening in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available data suggest that early detection of breast cancer by mammography screening can reduce mortality by about 25%. Intensified monitoring of women with a family history of breast cancer and regular general screening have recently been introduced in Germany. The screening program is expected to be fully established by 2008. Following its successful introduction (participation rates between 65 and 80%), the German screening program will be conducted and evaluated in accordance with the European guidelines. At least in the screening trials that were conducted prior to the now established screening program the quality criteria were more than fulfilled (e.g. cancer detection rate in Bremen 8.7, Wiesbaden 9.4, Weser-Ems region 8.3/1000). Additional parameters that can be taken into account for quality assurance are the overdiagnosis bias, lead time bias, length bias and selection bias. Moreover, there are some factors that are specific to the German program compared with the breast cancer screening programs already established in other countries. One of these is the intensified screening program for high-risk women (ca. 5% of all carcinomas) and as a result fewer women with an increased genetic risk of breast cancer will be represented in the general screening program. The German screening program involves only a few university centers and hospital-based physicians, which may have adverse effects on research and development as well as mammography training in the futur well as mammography training in the future. Therefore, the screening program should also provide for the investigation of new techniques or emerging techniques (e.g. CAD systems in screening mammography) in the future. (orig.)

272

Wind energy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction ller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

273

River Blindness  

Science.gov (United States)

... About Low Vision & Blindness > Vision Disorders > River Blindness River Blindness What Is River Blindness? River blindness is an eye and skin disease caused by a tiny worm called onchocerca volvulus, ...

274

Reworked planktonic Foraminifera from the Late Rupelian of the southern Upper Rhine Graben and their palaeogeographic and biostratigraphic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

During the Late Rupelian the widespread second transgression (corresponding to international Ru2-3 transgressions; BERGER et al. 2005) affected the whole Upper Rhine Graben basin and led to the deposition of the several hundred meters thick marine "Série grise". An abrupt transition (erosion surface) between the uppermost "Série grise" and Niederroedern Formation indicates the change to fluviatile and lacustrine conditions throughout the basin close to the Late Rupelian / Early Chattian boundary. Abundant reworked Middle to Late Cretaceous (e.g., Marginotruncana pseudolinneiana) and Late Paleocene to Late Eocene (e.g., Acarinina bullbrooki, Morozovella subbotinae, Turborotalia cocoaensis) ranging planktonic Foraminifera occur in the "Série Grise" and equivalent lithological units of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Mainz Basin (e.g., FISCHER 1965, PIRKENSEER 2007, SCHÄFER & KUHN 2004). At least Late Cretaceous, Ypresian, Lutetian and Priabonian ages of source sediments are indicated by the overlapping biostratigraphic ranges of the reworked specimens. Abundant reworked material first appears in the lower "Couches à Mélettes" and reaches its acme in the increasingly "Marnes à Cyrènes" (terminal "Série grise"). Only sparse records are documented from the subsequent terrestrial Niederroedern Formation. These reworking events are linked to intervals of increased clastic input throughout the "Série grise". The planktonic Foraminifera are proposed to be reworked from related alpine deposits (later Helvetikum?) via a northwards trending fluviatile system, as no autochthonous Cretaceous and Early to Middle Eocene marine sediments were deposited within the graben basin. Furthermore other possible source areas (e.g., Paris Basin) were either not connected to the Upper Rhine Graben or were not subject to erosion in the Late Rupelian. This accords with the proposition (ROUSSÉ 2006) of a vast northwards prograding delta-system that was located close to the southern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben. Reworked Mesozoic and Paleogene calcareous nannoplankton from the Upper Rhine Graben and the Mainz Basin confirms the data derived from planktonic Foraminifera. The existence of reworked planktonic Foraminifera influences the biostratigraphic interpretation of the assemblage ranges attributed to "Série grise" samples. Facultatively reworked planktonic Foraminifera as Subbotina utilisindex and Pseudohastigerina micra ranging from the Lutetian to the Late Rupelian should not be included in the biostratigraphic analyses, as the occurrences of these facultatively reworked species are always linked to those of exclusively Cretaceous and Eocene age. Therefore the age of the "Série grise" deposits at Allschwil-2 is most likely to be placed within the "Chiloguembelina cubensis - Globigerinella obesa / Globorotaloides variabilis"-assemblage range of Mid P20 to Final P21a, lasting considerably longer than the very short Mid P20 range based on the presence of Pseudohastigerina micra as "last occurrence"-marker (PIRKENSEER 2007). This study was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation projects 109457 and 118025. References: BERGER, J.-P., REICHENBACHER, B., BECKER, D., et al. (2005): Eocene-Pliocene time scale and stratigraphy of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB). - International Journal of Earth Sciences, 94, 4: 711-731. FISCHER, H. (1965): Geologie des Gebietes zwischen Blauen und Pfirter Jura. - Beiträge zur geologischen Karte der Schweiz, NF 122: 106p. PIRKENSEER, C. (2007): Foraminifera, Ostracoda and other microfossils of the Southern Upper Rhine Graben - Palaeoecology, biostratigraphy, palaeogeography and geodynamic implications. - PhD thesis: 340p, Fribourg. ROUSSÉ, S. (2006): Architecture et dynamique des séries marines et continentales de ?Oligocène Moyen et Supérieur du Sud du Fossé Rhénan: Evolution des milieux de dépôt en contexte de rift en marge de ?avant-pays alpin.

Pirkenseer, C.; Spezzaferri, S.; Berger, J.-P.

2009-04-01

275

Geothermal, structural and petrophysical characteristics of Buntsandstein sandstone reservoir in the Upper Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

Petrophysical measurements, including porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and P-waves velocity, were performed on cores of EPS1 borehole (Soultz-sous-Forêts, Upper Rhine Graben, France) in order to characterise Buntsandstein sandstone (lower Triassic) reservoir properties. Temperature gradient analysis, made from (1) thermal conductivity measurements performed on cores and (2) a temperature profile, suggest that fluid flow occurs locally in the reservoir. Petrophysical measurements and structural analysis of flow zones suggest that they are controlled first by a macroscopic network: with two major fault zones, and second by a matrix network: formed by sedimentary or diagenetic processes within two distinguishable facies: the Playa-lake and Fluvio-aeolian marginal erg facies. In order to validate the previous proposed methodology and reservoir model, we propose to simulate fluid flow in the Buntsandstein reservoir, thanks to TOUGH2 software, especially by copying temperature profile from static reservoir model. This model integrates, with horizontal layers, the lithostratigraphic context described from cores observation, and with vertical layers, two faults corresponding to the Soultz-sous-Forêts horst boundary. Petrophysical characteristics are integrated thanks to previous measurements. Two cases are tested. In the first, the temperature profile is determined in a model in which there is no fluid circulation between faults; heat transfer is governed only by conduction. In the second, the temperature profile is determined in a model in which there is flow circulation between faults. In the first case, same overpressures (10 bars) are applied at the base of both faults, whereas in the second case, two different pressures are applied (5 and 10 bars). In one hand, temperature profile obtained in the first case show an opposite global trend to those measured in the borehole. In the other hand, temperature profile obtained in the second case indicates a global trend similar to those measured in the borehole. In the last case, fluid circulation occurs in faults zones and in three lithostratigraphic levels, previously identified as fluid circulation zones in the reservoir. The differential pressure between faults, driving to the fluid flow inside the rock formation, could be explained by a tilt of the horst, as what was noticed at Soultz-sous-Forêts. Data obtained from thermal gradients analysis are associated to those obtained from different outcrops analysis. Two 3D conceptual bloc models have been built for the Buntsandstein sandstones reservoir of the Upper Rhine Graben: the first integrated solely fracturation of the reservoir, whereas the second takes into account data of fracturation, sedimentology and fluid flow. These models appear as new kind of data important for future exploration and exploitation of the reservoir.

Haffen, Sébastien; Geraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Dezayes, Chrystel; Siffert, Déborah; Garcia, Michel

2014-05-01

276

Mercury speciation in soils and river sediments of the industrialised Thur river catchment (Alsace, France)  

Science.gov (United States)

The mobility of mercury (Hg), particularly organic Hg, has been studied in the Thur river basin using an ultra-sensitive and specific analytical equipment (High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with on-line CVAFS detection). The Thur river, sub-tributary of the Rhine river is polluted by mercury since the beginning of the 20th century because of industrial effluents from chlorine and soda industry. This study allows to determine in different environmental compartments (soils and river sediments) the total mercury contents (THg) and, for the first time in such an industrialized catchment, the methyl mercury concentrations (MeHg). The ratio between MeHg and THg concentrations is higher in the grassland soils than in the industrial and alluvial soils even if MeHg and THg contents are higher in these latters. The highest MeHg/THg ratios can be observed for lowest C/N ratios and slightly acidic soils. MeHg/THg ratio is very low in the industrial channel despite high MeHg and THg concentrations. For river sediments, MeHg/THg ratios are higher in the suspended matters than in the bottom sediments. These first results are very helpful to better understand the transformation of Hg species in the different compartments and the processes of Hg transfer from one compartment to another.

Remy, S.; Prudent, P.; Hissler, C.; Probst, J. L.

2003-05-01

277

Distribution and genetic structure of Aedes japonicus japonicus populations (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the number of imported cases of arthropod-borne diseases in Europe, such as dengue fever, has increased steadily, as did the emergence and distribution of invasive insect vectors. Consequently, the risk of disease spreading into previously unaffected regions through invasive mosquitoes is also increasing. One example of an invasive mosquito is Aedes japonicus japonicus (A. j. japonicus), which spread from its original habitat in Japan to North America and Europe. This species has been shown to act as a vector for Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. In Europe, A. j. japonicus has been detected in Switzerland, Belgium, Slovenia, and Germany, where it has become a resident species. Here, we describe the recent spread and genetic structure of A. j. japonicus populations in Germany. By monitoring the species in Baden-Württemberg in 2011 and 2012, we observed a considerable enlargement of the infested area from 54 municipalities in 2011 to 124 municipalities in 2012. To elucidate the colonization of Europe by A. j. japonicus, seven microsatellite loci were studied in 106 individuals sampled in Germany and Switzerland in 2012. The same markers were genotyped in 31 North American and 26 Japanese specimens. Population genetic analyses indicated that A. j. japonicus in Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia represented two genetically distinct populations with FST-values of 0.073-0.152, suggesting that they originated from two independent introduction events in the past. These results are of particular interest in light of vectorial variability for the transmission of viruses and other pathogens in Europe. PMID:25056941

Huber, Katrin; Schuldt, Kathrin; Rudolf, Martin; Marklewitz, Marco; Fonseca, Dina M; Kaufmann, Christian; Tsuda, Yoshio; Junglen, Sandra; Krüger, Andreas; Becker, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Becker, Stefanie C

2014-09-01

278

Green energy. Germany 2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy development is the effort to provide sufficient primary energy sources and secondary energy forms for supply, cost, impact on air pollution and water pollution, mitigation of climate change with renewable energy. Technologically advanced societies have become increasingly dependent on external energy sources for transportation, the production of many manufactured goods, and the delivery of energy services. This energy allows people who can afford the cost to live under otherwise unfavorable climatic conditions through the use of heating, ventilation, and/or air conditioning. Level of use of external energy sources differs across societies, as do the climate, convenience, levels of traffic congestion, pollution and availability of domestic energy sources.All terrestrial energy sources except nuclear, geothermal and tidal are from current solar insolation or from fossil remains of plant and animal life that relied directly and indirectly upon sunlight, respectively. Ultimately, solar energy itself is the result of the Sun's nuclear fusion. Geothermal power from hot, hardened rock above the magma of the Earth's core is the result of the decay of radioactive materials present beneath the Earth's crust, and nuclear fission relies on man-made fission of heavy radioactive elements in the Earth's crust; in both cases these elements were produced in supernova explosions before the formation of the solar system.Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables. Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.

Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Petrescu, Florian Ion

2012-07-01

279

Migrations from Yugoslavia to Germany: Migrants, emigrants, refugees and asylum-seekers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Migrations from Yugoslavia to Germany have a long tradition. There have been various economic and social causes, and in some periods even political ones for that phenomenon. Taking into consideration the historical aspect and also the contemporary migration flows, the dynamics of migrations of the Yugoslav population to Germany has the following stages in its development. The first stage had begun in late XIX century and ended with the World War I. Although the overseas migration flows prevailed, yet the German agriculture and its mine industry attracted a part of the Yugoslav population. Between the two world wars mostly "Westfahl Slovenes" and Croats and Serbs from Bosnia-Herzegovina got "temporary employed" in the Rhine-Westfahl industrial area, along with several thousand Serb-Croat-Slovene agricultural seasonal workers per year. The second stage began immediately after the Second World War when most of about 200,000 citizens from the former Yugoslavia, being mostly refugees, moved from the West European to overseas countries, but some of them stayed in Germany. Involuntary migrants and refugees, however, returned in great number from Germany to Yugoslavia. At that stage non-extradition of war criminals on the part of the West occupying powers on German territory, then disregard of West German Governments of the anti-Yugoslav activities of the part of extreme Yugoslav emigration, and different interpretation of the bilateral agreement on extradition, became the essential problem in relations between SFR Yugoslavia and FR Germany. The third stage in development of migrations commenced in early 1960s. At that time, Germany and other Western countries became prominently immigrational, while since mid-1960s till 1973 economic emigrants from Yugoslavia became more and more important in the German economic space. From 1954 to 1967 migration of Yugoslav citizens had not yet been intensive and their intention was mostly to work abroad. Illegal employment was, however, prominent at that time. Due to the normalisation of political relations, re-establishment of diplomatic relations and conclusion of bilateral agreements that legally defined employment of foreign workers, since 1968 till 1973 a great number of Yugoslavs got employed in FR Germany. The contemporary migrations from FR Yugoslavia to Germany resulted from the economic and political crisis in the former SFRY as well as from the civil wars that were waged in the Yugoslav territory. FR Germany became the most important destination country of Yugoslav migrants - workers, refugees, false asylum-seekers and political emigrants. Different categories of migrants from Yugoslavia to Germany enjoy the treatment that is in accordance with the immigration policies of the German governments as well as with the degree of development of the German-Yugoslav political and economic relations, and the degree of the established co-operation in the field of legal assistance and social welfare. Migrant workers, who have legally regulated their employment and residence status, could in the future expect to gain assistance from their mother country in getting efficient protection of their rights and interests in all stages of the migration process. Numerous migrants asylum-seekers, in spite of the proclaimed international protection, share, however, the fate resulting from the politically motivated measures and actions taken by the German authorities within the arbitrary decision-making of the right and/or abuse of the right to asylum. This is the reason why as early as in late 1994 the Government of FRG announced that it would expel foreigners from the country. The remaining refugees, or actually the so-called false asylum-seekers in FR Germany, share the fate of forced repatriation. Within this category special emphasis should be placed on the attitude of the German government to the Albanians and Roma from Kosovo. At first, the Germans treated the Albanians from Kosovo as politically persecuted persons, offering them refuge. Then they declared them (and Roma also to

Pavlica Branko

2005-01-01

280

Ambient vibration measurements in the Southern Rhine Graben close to Basle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents results of ambient noise measurements from temporary single station and small-scale array deployments in the northeast of Basle. H/V spectral ratios were determined along various profiles crossing the eastern masterfault of the Rhine Rift Valley and the adjacent sedimentary rift fills. The fundamental H/V peak frequencies are decreasing along the profile towards the eastern direction being consistent with the dip of the tertiary sediments within the rift. Using existing empirical relationships between H/V frequency peaks and the depth of the dominant seismic contrast, derived on basis of the ?/4-resonance hypothesis and a power law depth dependence of the S-wave velocity, we obtain thicknesses of the rift fill from about 155 m in the west to 280 m in the east. This is in agreement with previous studies. The array analysis of the ambient noise wavefield yielded a stable dispersion relation consistent with Rayleigh wave propagation velocities. We conclude that a significant amount of surface waves is contained in the observed wavefield. The computed ellipticity for fundamental mode Rayleigh waves for the velocity depth models used for the estimation of the sediment thicknesses is in agreement with the observed H/V spectra over a large frequency band.

F. Kind

2004-06-01

281

Incidence and prevalence of chronic bronchitis : impact of smoking and welding. The RHINE study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and incidence rate of chronic bronchitis (CB) in relation to smoking habits and exposure to welding fumes in a general population sample.METHODS: Subjects from Northern Europe born between 1945 and 1971 who participated in Stage 1 (1989-1994) of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey were mailed a respiratory questionnaire in 1999-2001 (the RHINE study); 15?909 answered the questionnaire and gave complete data on smoking. CB was defined as chronic productive cough of at least 3 months a year for 2 consecutive years. The questionnaire comprised an item about age when CB started and items about exposure to welding fumes. The incidence of CB was retrospectively assessed for the observation period 1980-2001.RESULTS: CB had a prevalence of 5.4%, and was associated with current smoking and welding exposure. The incidence rate of CB was 1.9 per 1000 person-years, and was increased in relation to welding exposure (low exposure HR 1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.8; high exposure HR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.7) and in relation to smoking (HR 2.1, 95%CI 1.8-2.5).CONCLUSION: Smoking and occupational exposure to welding fumes are both associated with an increased risk of CB.

Holm, M; Kim, J-L

2012-01-01

282

Simulation of air pollution with nested models in North Rhine-Westphalia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High resolution modeling of air pollution events requires nested models. CARLOS is a combination of two comprehensive air quality simulation models that calculate chemistry and transport on regional and local scales. Both models apply nesting techniques to describe the influx of tracers into the inner highly resolved modeling domain. High resolution emission inventories are available for the innermost nest on the large scale, which allow the separate treatment of traffic and point sources. Results of a simulation for North Rhine-Westphalia in August 1997 are presented for two nesting levels, increasing the resolution from 27km in Central Europe to 3km in the domain of the second nest. One result is also presented for the local scale employing two nesting levels with a resolution of 1km and 333m, respectively. Statistical indices are used to indicate the quality of the predictions of ozone. Comparison of observations at the stations Koeln-Chorweiler and Wuppertal with modeled concentrations shows good agreement of ozone and reasonable reproduction of NO2 concentrations. (Author)

283

Self-formed meandering river created in the laboratory using an upstream migrating boundary  

Science.gov (United States)

Braided rivers are relatively easily formed in the laboratory, whereas self-formed meandering rivers in the lab have proven very difficult to form, indicating a lack of understanding of the necessary and sufficient conditions for meandering. Our objective is to create self-formed dynamic meandering rivers and floodplains in a laboratory. Early experiments attempted to initiate meandering with upstream inflow at a fixed angle different from the general flow direction. The resulting bends were fixed at one position, which is not the dynamic meandering observed in nature. Another important condition for meandering is to have banks stronger than the non-cohesive bed sediment, which has been attained by growing vegetation. Furthermore, finer or light-weight sediment has been used to let chute channels fill up where otherwise multi-thread channels would have evolved, which is braiding. Yet the fixed-angle inflow kept meander migration and channel belt width and complexity limited. We accomplished dynamic meandering in the laboratory by using an upstream migrating boundary, which simulates a meander migrating into the flume. Our experiments were conducted in a circulated flume of 11x6 meter, with a constant discharge and sediment feed consisting of a sediment mixture ranging from silt to fine gravel (Kleinhans et al., 2010, this conference). The downstream boundary is a lake into which the river built a branched fan delta (Van de Lageweg et al., 2010, this conference). The morphology was recorded by high-resolution (0.5 mm) line-laser scanning and digital Single Lens Reflex (SLR) camera used for channel-floodplain segmentation and particle size estimation, at an interval of 8 hours. Furthermore a large number of smaller-scale auxiliary experiments were conducted to explore meandering tendency in a large range of parameters. Initial alternate ‘forced’ bars were formed at fixed positions with low sinuosity when the upstream boundary was at one fixed position. Migration of the upstream boundary caused further erosion of the outer banks and formation of point bars in inner bends, so that sinuosity increased to about 1.25. When the upstream boundary reversed migration direction chute cut-offs formed and meander bends reformed in the opposite direction. Hence in the first meander sweep the reworked floodplain showed nodes and antinodes at a wave length in agreement with linear bar stability analysis. After 260 hours experimental time the floodplain had become much more complex, exhibiting meandering channels, point bars, chutes, abandoned and partially filled channels, and slightly cohesive floodplains similar to natural meandering gravel-bed rivers such as the Allier near Moulins (France) and the Rhine near Emmerich (Germany). The flow became even more confined to a single-thread channel when pulses of silica flour were fed during short flood events, which significantly enhanced cohesive floodplain formation. The strengthened floodplains decreased channel mobility, however. We conclude that the necessary and sufficient conditions for meandering are a dynamic upstream boundary and active floodplain formation by fines.

van Dijk, W. M.; van de Lageweg, W. I.; Kleinhans, M. G.

2010-12-01

284

Nuclear power in Germany today  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1989. By the end of 1989 the country will have 24 nuclear power stations - 21 light water reactors, 2 gas cooled pebble bed reactors and a fast reactor, but new orders for nuclear power plants are not expected before the mid-90s. Also public confidence in nuclear power has been decreasing during the 1980s, which was made much worse by the Chernobyl accident and the Transnuklear scandal. Reprocessing and radioactive waste disposal in West Germany are also discussed. (U.K.)

285

Business Cycle Volatility in Germany  

OpenAIRE

Stylized facts suggest that output volatility in OECD countries has declined in recent years. However, the causes and the nature of this decline have so far been analyzed mainly for the United States. In this paper, we analyze whether structural breaks in the dynamics and the volatility of the real output process in Germany can be detected. We report evidence that output volatility has declined in Germany. Yet, this decline in output volatility is not as clear-cut as it is in the case of the ...

Buch, Claudia M.; Doepke, Joerg; Pierdzioch, Christian

2002-01-01

286

Integrated assessment of sustainable cereal straw potential and different straw-based energy applications in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Sustainable straw potentials can be determined with the help of humus balance tools. • A sustainable straw potential of 8–13 Tg is estimated to be available in Germany. • Energetic use of this straw could lead to GHG emission reduction of 73.3–92.3% compared to fossil references. • Lowest GHG emissions occur for straw-based heat production. • Highest reduction potential can be achieved with combined heat and power production. - Abstract: The energetic use of residues from agriculture can foster the transition towards a more renewable energy supply. However, sustainability issues have to be considered along the entire provision chain as they affect the resource and energy potential as well as the achievable contribution to climate mitigation. Straw is one of the most important agricultural residues in Germany. It is not yet used for energy purposes extensively and compared to other agricultural feedstock it shows low competition with food, feed or fiber. This paper analyses on the one hand the sustainable potential of cereal straw for energy application in Germany considering the actual agricultural conditions, and on the other hand the global warming potential from different energy provision chains based on straw. Different humus-balance tools that are able to assess the organic matter (OM) demand to presume soil fertility. The analysis of straw potentials was applied at NUTS 3 level for Germany, based on statistical data. The results of this analysis were used as input data for the modeling of concepts for straw provision and use. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were calculated for each concept in order to compare the global warming potential of various energy applications, to investigate the relative contribution of different production steps and to compare them with fossil energy applications. In total, 29.8 Tg of straw (fresh matter) are produced annually in Germany (1999–2007). Approximately 4.8 Tg of the total straw occurrence are annually required by animal husbandry. Between 7.97 and 13.25 Tg straw can be classified as sustainable straw. Highest straw potential (3.99 Mg ha?1) can be found in parts of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg–West Pomerania, North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. But there are also regions that show a net deficit. The cumulated GHG emissions for the resulting concepts are between 8 and 35 g CO2-eq. MJ?1. In comparison to fossil energy applications, the highest reduction potential occurs for concepts for combined heat and power (CHP) provision, i.e. 223gCO2-eq.MJel-1. This study highlights the possible contribution of straw as renewable energy carrier, but also demonstrates that there are regional restrictions for straw use

287

Seismicity of the northern Upper Rhine Graben - Constraints on the present-day stress field from focal mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

We present new results for the microseismic activity in the northern Upper Rhine Graben by analyzing seismogram recordings from two temporary networks of up to 13 broad-band stations in combination with data from permanent stations. Previous studies have mainly focused on the southern and intermediate sections of the Upper Rhine Graben, where the station coverage by regional networks is more dense. Between October 2010 and September 2013 we recorded 56 earthquakes that occurred within the immediate vicinity of the northern Upper Rhine Graben with local magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 3.2. The majority of the hypocenters are located beneath the eastern graben shoulder and in the graben itself, while activity observed along the western graben shoulder is lower. A further active region is located along the southern rim of the Taunus Mountains to the northwest of the study area. The seismicity extends to a depth of 25 km; the hypocentral depth distribution exhibits a pronounced peak of seismic energy release in the depth range between 12 and 18 km. Fault plane solutions for a total of 58 earthquakes (including data from previous recordings) were derived from P-polarities and SV/P amplitude ratios. This new data set more than quadruples the number of available data for regional stress field analysis. The majority of the focal mechanisms show predominantly strike-slip movements; only a few events are of reverse or normal-faulting type. T-axis trends are oriented NE-SW. The calculated focal mechanisms presented in this study confirm that the area is in transtension, however, in contrast to previous studies, a stronger strike-slip component is identified. We also derived the azimuths of the principal stress axes by inverting the fault plane solutions and calculated the direction of the maximum horizontal stress, which is mainly oriented N135°E.

Homuth, B.; Rümpker, G.; Deckert, H.; Kracht, M.

2014-09-01

288

Germany’s water footprint of transport fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Water footprint of Germany meeting EU biofuel targets was investigated. • Trade analysis ascertained the source and magnitude of the external water footprint. • Policy implementation increased the water footprint of the transport fuel sector 64%. • This study improves upon a previous one undertaken at the EU level. - Abstract: Germany is required by European Union legislation to achieve a 10% mixture of renewable energy in all road transport fuels by the year 2020. This paper intends to quantify the water use impacts of Germany’s compliance with the transport fuel goal of the EU Renewables Directive. Although the stated purpose of this Directive is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector and address energy security concerns, a more encompassing analysis considering sustainable development paths must include other environmental impacts, including water resource use. The water footprint indicator can contribute to a more intelligent environmental analysis of biofuel targets, although it alone cannot attest to the sustainability of human water use. This research builds upon the results of a similar study that aimed to quantify the freshwater impacts of meeting this EU transport fuel goal across Member States. By looking more closely at the case of Germany, country-specific data can be used in the analysis that lead to different results than those reached in the previous study. Results indicate that achieving a 10% mixture of biofuels in the road transport sector could lead to a 64% increase in the water footprint of the transport fuel sector when compared to a baseline scenario of no policy implementation

289

Evaluating the effect of snow and ice melt in an Alpine headwater catchment and further downstream in the River Rhine  

OpenAIRE

Le régime hydrologique des bassins versants amont glaciaires dans les Alpes est essentiellement caractérisé par la fonte de neige et de glace. Les hauts bassins versants alpins influencent les débits du Rhin loin en aval. Avec le changement climatique, des faibles débits seront possibles en période estivale en raison de la forte diminution de la fonte de neige et de glace. Cette étude tente de quantifier les contributions actuelles et futures de la fonte de neige et de glace dans l'éc...

Junghans, Nadine; Cullmann, Johannes; Huss, Matthias

2011-01-01

290

New Adenovirus in Bats, Germany  

OpenAIRE

We tested 55 deceased vespertilionid bats of 12 species from southern Germany for virus infections. A new adenovirus was isolated from tissue samples of 2 Pipistrellus pipistrellus bats, which represents the only chiropteran virus isolate found in Europe besides lyssavirus (rabies virus). Evidence was found for adenovirus transmission between bats.

Sonntag, Michael; Mu?hldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas

2009-01-01

291

Germany as We Saw It.  

Science.gov (United States)

Close-up studies of German life in the Stuttgart area are reported by participants of Stanford University's 1961 National Defense Education Act second-level institute for secondary school teachers of German, held at Bad Boll, Germany. Topics covered include: (1) religious life, (2) political life, (3) problems of settlement, (4) occupational…

Stanford Univ., CA.

292

Lignite processes planned in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper shows how extensive lignite holdings in West Germany will allow for production of gas and liquid fuels in plants of various designs including those using nuclear heat for processing. The discussion covers two main topics: (1) the present position (production of synthesis gas, natural gas substitute, liquid products); and (2) process options. Economic considerations are included

293

Fish fauna as a biological indicator in the evaluation of morphological changes in the large rivers of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Development and testing of a method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the project is to develop further a method for the quantification of fishes in the Rhine and Neckar rivers, which will permit permanent observation of the fish fauna in these rivers. The method makes use of the fact that fish arrive in large numbers at the cooling water take-off points of large thermal power stations and that they may be counted and their numbers evaluated. As sampling carried out at three power stations in the northern part of the Upper Rhine from 1989 to 1990 shows, it is indispensable to extend the current range of sampling techniques by the described method.-The investigation comprises two stages: In stage 1, thermal power stations on the southern part of the Upper Rhine and the Neckar, which borrow at least 10 m3/s of cooling water, are tested as to their suitability as sampling stations. In phase 2 it is envisaged to develop further and test the initial method. The devices used are the coarse and fine screens and sieve belts of the take-off points. The hydrological and chemico-physical parameters are recorded in standardized form by the power plant operators and are available for evaluation. (orig./VHE)

294

Determination of displacements in the upper Rhine graben Area from GPS and leveling data  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Rhine graben is a north northeast trending rift system, which belongs to the European Cenozoic rift system. Today, the southern part of the graben is seismically still active. Earthquakes of magnitude 5 have a recurrence time of approximately 30 years. In order to monitor and to determine the displacements in the study area, GPS measurements have been carried out in two campaigns (1999 and 2000), and observations of the available permanent stations have been processed in 2002. Owing to the small size of deformations expected, high accuracy requirements must be met by the GPS processing. In order to achieve these requirements, precise antenna modeling has been introduced into the processing. As expected the short time span has not enabled to detect significant displacements from the GPS measurements. The deformation analysis shows that the horizontal displacement rates do not exceed 1 mm/year, which is compatible with the geological information. Owing to the fact that the accuracy of positioning with GPS for the vertical coordinates is lower than for the horizontal coordinates, the determination of vertical displacements has been carried out using the leveling technique. In the area of Freiburg, first-order and second-order leveling lines have been chosen for the detection of local displacements on the Weinstetten, on the Lehen-Schönberg and on the Main Border Fault (MBF). Some sections of these faults are still active today. Significant vertical displacements have been observed at the Weinstetten fault in the area of Bad Krozingen and on the MBF in Freiburg. The displacement rates (1925 1984) are 0.17±0.01 mm/year and 0.25±0.02 mm/year respectively. The results agree very well with the results of seismotectonic investigations, and show that ongoing displacements can be found on the northern part of the Lehen-Schönberg fault in the vicinity of Eichstetten, and on the MBF in the vicinity of Freiburg.

Rózsa, Sz.; Heck, B.; Mayer, M.; Seitz, K.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.

2005-09-01

295

Modelling flood damages under climate change conditions - a case study for Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study is to analyze and discuss possible climate change impacts on flood damages in Germany. The study was initiated and supported by the German insurance sector whereby the main goal was to identify general climate-related trends in flood hazard and damages and to explore sensitivity of results to climate scenario uncertainty. The study makes use of climate scenarios regionalized for the main river basins in Germany. A hydrological model (SWIM) that had been calibrated and validated for the main river gauges, was applied to transform these scenarios into discharge for more than 5000 river reaches. Extreme value distribution has been fitted to the time series of river discharge to derive the flood frequency statistics. The hydrological results for each river reach have been linked using the flood statistics to related damage functions provided by the German Insurance Association, considering damages on buildings and small enterprises. The result is that, under the specific scenario conditions, a considerable increase in flood related losses can be expected in Germany in future, warmer, climate.

Hattermann, F. F.; Huang, S.; Burghoff, O.; Willems, W.; Österle, H.; Büchner, M.; Kundzewicz, Z.

2014-12-01

296

Distance education at conventional universities in Germany  

OpenAIRE

Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established. Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University) in Wes...

Hans-Henning Kappel; Burkhard Lehmann; Joachim Loeper

2010-01-01

297

Underground Measurements of Electromagnetic Radiation Related to Stress-induced Fractures in the Odenwald Mountains (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

The regional stress field at Wald-Michelbach (Odenwald Mountains, Germany) induces a secondary stress field around the space of the local railway tunnel. Resulting maximum shear stresses produce microfractures, which emit electromagnetic radiation (EMR). From EMR measured along the cross section and the long axis of the tunnel, the regional stress field is determined by a correlation of detected impulses per time with stresses calculated from the orientation of the tunnel, its diameter, and topographic load. The major horizontal principal stress has an azimuth of 103°. At times, strongly alternating EMR values are observed, which indicate electromagnetic disturbances of unknown origin. Such disturbances are identified by repeated measurements and are not evaluated. The repeated measurements, which are not disturbed, differ with median 112 impulses per 100 ms. This difference corresponds to 0.037 MPa and indicates a good reproducibility of the results. Regional stress magnitudes and the WNW-ESE orientation of the major horizontal principal stress indicate a minor N S directed tensional force at the western shoulder of the Upper Rhine Graben.

Lichtenberger, Marco

2006-08-01

298

Program status of the high temperature reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of the HTR development program in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1984 is characterized by the beginning of a transition phase from a national program to a commercial program. In the last 20 years the HTR technology program was strongly, nearly completely supported by the Federal Government and the State Government of North-Rhine-Westfalia. Funding of the program up to now exceeded 5 billion DM. Within this framework it was possible to establish competent-reactor-system companies, to enable industries to supply HTR- specific components including fuel elements and nuclear graphites, to maintain the strong engagement of the national centre KFA Juelich in general R and D activities, to build and operate the AVR-plant for more than 16 years, to erect the demonstration plant THTR-300 now approaching completion and to build and operate many efficient test facilities. Thereby the HTR technology development achieved a stage of maturity which is not only considered to be most advanced, but is also ready now for commerical deployment. The assessment report which comprised both the fast breeder and the HTR development included all major impacts, such as history, status, prospects, benefits, industrial aspects and international developments of the technology. The program description is facilitated by distinguishing the five major program elements: AVR, THTR-300, THTR follow-up plant, nuclear process heat program, fuel cycle activities

299

A Magnetic Analysis of the Nussloch Loess sequences (Germany): Implications for Environmental and Palaeomagnetic Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This study involves an extensive rock magnetic analysis of the Nussloch loess-palaeosols sequences (Rhine Valley in Germany, 49°18'59''N; 8°43'54''E). A 17m section of the P8 sequence sub-sampled at a 5cm resolution, continuously as bulk material and discreetly in oriented cubes, is investigated. The P8 (present - 60 kyrs) sequence overlaps and extends further in time the previously studied P4 (18 - 35 kyrs) sequence. The main objectives of the present study are two-fold. First, to characterise the mineral magnetic response of the loess-palaeosols deposit to environmental and climatic changes occurring in Western Europe. Second, to evaluate the efficiency of the deposit as a palaeomagnetic field recorder. Presented here are the results and interpretation of the bulk magnetic properties (low-field susceptibility, hysteresis, their derived parameters, IRM and ARM measurements, low-temperature magnetism), directional data and magnetic anisotropy data. The bulk magnetic parameters of P8 compare favourably with those of P4, attesting at least, to a regional response of the loess-palaeosols magnetism to environmental change. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data help constrain the depositional and post-depositional history of the deposit, which is fundamentally important for both objectives. The directional data combined with the AMS data has identified the intervals that have recorded the Earth's magnetic and from which an attempt to extract a relative palaeointensity record was undertaken.

Taylor, S. N.; Lagroix, F.

2013-12-01

300

Germany?s Continued Productivity Slump: An Industry Analysis  

OpenAIRE

US productivity growth surged twice post 1995 and post 2000. In contrast Germany registered two successive productivity reductions during that same period of time. Previous analysis of the post-2000 decline has been limited, however, by the short time series of the available data. In this paper we extend the Ifo Industry Growth Accounting Database that provides detailed industry-level investment information up to 2004. While much attention has focused on the reduction in German labor hours, o...

Eicher, Theo S.; Strobel, Thomas

2008-01-01

301

Colonization history of the Swiss Rhine basin by the bullhead (Cottus gobio): inference under a Bayesian spatially explicit framework.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present distribution of freshwater fish in the Alpine region has been strongly affected by colonization events occurring after the last glacial maximum (LGM), some 20,000 years ago. We use here a spatially explicit simulation framework to model and better understand their colonization dynamics in the Swiss Rhine basin. This approach is applied to the European bullhead (Cottus gobio), which is an ideal model organism to study fish past demographic processes since it has not been managed by humans. The molecular diversity of eight sampled populations is simulated and compared to observed data at six microsatellite loci under an approximate Bayesian computation framework to estimate the parameters of the colonization process. Our demographic estimates fit well with current knowledge about the biology of this species, but they suggest that the Swiss Rhine basin was colonized very recently, after the Younger Dryas some 6600 years ago. We discuss the implication of this result, as well as the strengths and limits of the spatially explicit approach coupled to the approximate Bayesian computation framework. PMID:18194169

Neuenschwander, Samuel; Largiadèr, Carlo R; Ray, Nicolas; Currat, Mathias; Vonlanthen, Pascal; Excoffier, Laurent

2008-02-01

302

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its effects with regard to surface waters and the drinking water supply in the Land North-Rhine Westphalia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a general survey of the aerosol activity in North-Rhine Westphalia (NRW) due to the Chernobyl fallout, the report explains the effects on soil, surface waters, fish, sediments, and the drinking water. Finally, an assessment of the radiation exposure of the population resulting from the surface water contamination in NRW is presented. (PW)

303

XIXth century earthquakes in Belgium, the Netherlands and western Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the last quarter of the XXth century, the rules of the historic criticism are applied in the study of the past earthquakes thanks to the collaboration between seismologists and historians. Various monographs have already been published on the historic seismicity of Belgium, Netherlands and nearby regions but few about the XIXth century. The list of the shocks arisen in those regions is not clearly established. For the major earthquakes, we can find useful monographs that where published at the time of the events. However there is a lack of information about smaller earthquakes that are mentioned in the Belgian, Dutch, French and German catalogs. For those smaller events it is often not possible to determine the zone of perceptibility. Sometimes we cannot even take for sure that the reported event is a real one. The aim of our study is to overcome this gap. Taking into account the rules of historical criticism, we read all the available bibliography, undertook researches in the archives and made an analysis of the press in order to establish a reliable list of earthquakes. Several categories of sources were used: narrative and administrative sources, contemporaneous studies, letters sent to the scientific institutions and press. We could confirm that 84 earthquakes are real and determine a list of fake earthquakes that are unfortunately present in the traditional catalogs. In the list of fake earthquakes, we highlighted several events that we consider doubtful and that require additional researches, especially several earthquakes in mining zone. We compiled our results as a four-column table providing the date of the earthquake, the supposed epicenter, the number of founded sources and the number of macroseismic datapoints. Based on the macroseismic datapoints, we estimated the intensities for every great phenomenon according to EMS-98 scale. The map of the epicenters indicates that the most active zone in the area during the XIXth century is the Lower Rhine Graben, at the border between Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. Keywords: historical seismicity, doubtful earthquake, fake earthquake, macroseismic map.

Knuts, Elisabeth; Dost, Bernard; Alexandre, Pierre; Camelbeeck, Thierry

2014-05-01

304

Ectomycorrhizal diversity at five different tree species in forests of the Taunus Mountains in Central Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi were investigated on five different forest tree species growing in pure stands on the south slope of the Taunus Mountains, which are situated at the northern end of the Rhine rift valley in Central Germany. Mycorrhizal fungi accompanying the genus Xerocomus were identified and their frequencies counted. Using ITS markers, 22 different fungal species were identified down to species level and 6 down to genus level. On European beech (Fagus sylvatica 16 fungal species and 4 genera were identified and on Sessile oak (Quercus petraea 16 ectomycorrhizal species and 2 genera were determined. On both deciduous trees we observed exclusively: Cortinarius subsertipes, Genea hispidula, Lactarius quietus, Tylopilus felleus and a Melanogaster genus. On Norway spruce (Picea abies we identified 13 different mycorrhizal species and 3 different genera, on Silver fir (Abies alba 12 species and 3 genera, and in association with European larch (Larix decidua 11 species and 3 genera. On these conifers Cortinarius anomalus, Lactarius necator and a Piloderma genus occurred exclusively. Comparisons with published data of ectomycorrhizal diversity on the same five tree species, growing in different areas of Germany and Europe, led to the conclusion that there is relative site specificity for ectomycorrhizal communities. Upper soil compartments of the stands investigated in the Taunus Mountainssuffer from soil acidification (pH-H20 ~3.7 to ~4.8. However, a clear correlation between upper soil pH-values and fungal diversity was not observed. On the other hand, nitrate concentrations in upper soil compartments (~26 to ~91 kgNO3-/ha were higher in older stands as compared to younger ones. Higher nitrate concentrations in upper soils correlated with lower numbers of mycorrhizal individuals.

Gunter M. Rothe

2013-02-01

305

Germany: energy transition or revolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany has decided to phase out nuclear power by 2022 but it wants also to get rid of fossil energies by 2050. Those ambitious goals imply to be able to cut by half the demand for primary energy by 2050 which will be only possible if the need for building heating is cut by 80%, the constraint on transport is less important: one million of electrical vehicles will have to be on the road by 2020 and 3 millions 10 years later. In 2012 the production of electricity was made mainly from coal (44.7%), renewable energies (21.9%), nuclear energy (16%), natural gas (11.3%) and other energies (fuel...) (6.1%). Today the renewable energy sector is a major industrial sector in Germany, it represents about 382000 jobs directly or indirectly, it means more than the sector of conventional energies. (A.C.)

306

The economic integration of Germany  

OpenAIRE

In the integration of the two Germanies two countries will be united which differ widely in their institutional and constitutional arrangements as well as in their monetary systems and real economic conditions. Integration therefore means - harmonization of the institutional systems, - introduction of a common currency and a unified monetary policy, and - adjustment in the real economies. In the process of integration, these three aspects of institutional harmonization, establishing a single ...

Siebert, Horst

1990-01-01

307

Law And Economics In Germany  

OpenAIRE

Law and economics in Germany was dominated by regulation, competition, and ?German Ordnungspolitik? until the early 1970s. Since then, German scholars have published a broad body of work in German and in the English language, covering fields like contract law, environmental law, labor law, public law, bankruptcy law, constitutional economics and legal procedure. Also in the 1970s, teaching activities were started at German universities. In addition to this, several (bi)annual conferences on l...

Kirstein, Roland

1997-01-01

308

Company Law Reform in Germany  

OpenAIRE

The paper was submitted to the conference on company law reform at the University of Cambridge, July 4th, 2002. Since the introduction of corporation laws in the individual German states during the first half of the 19th Century, Germany has repeatedly amended and reformed its company law. Such reforms and amendments were prompted in part by stock exchange fraud and the collapse of large corporations, but also by a routine adjustment of law to changing commercial and societal conditions. Duri...

Baums, Theodor

2002-01-01

309

Federal Statistical Office of Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

With over 2,800 employees, the Federal Statistical Office of Germany collects and processes statistical information for the country out of their three main offices in Weisbaden, Bonn, and Berlin. From their home page, individuals can access dozens of summary statistical tables dealing with almost every aspect of the country, including employment rates, education, environment, transport, foreign trade, wages, tourism, and population. Within each section, individuals can read a brief introduction to the Office's most recent findings in each thematic area and, in many instances, access detailed tables of data, where statistics are broken down by month. The Federal Statistical Office also conducts a microcensus every year, which involves one percent of all households in Germany. Information about this microcensus is available on the site. Most of the site is available in English, but the publications of the Office are only available in German. This site will be quite helpful to those persons working in demography, or for those looking for general data about Germany.

2003-01-01

310

Cegelec Germany; Cegelec Deutschland. Unternehmensportraet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

NONE

2011-03-15

311

Valley evolution of the Lower Rhine in LGM, Lateglacial and Early Holocene.  

OpenAIRE

The impact of transient climate change, for example at glacial-interglacial transitions, on the alluvial valley of the lower reaches of larger river systems has become a classic topic of fluvial geomorphology and quaternary geological study. The process of contraction of Holocene river activity into a narrower channel belt than in LGM counterparts of the last cycle, links to terrace flight formation over multiple glacial cycles in inland reaches. Not only were valley reaches affected by the p...

Cohen, K. M.; Hoek, W. Z.; Stouthamer, E.; Geurts, A. H.; Janssens, M.; Kasse, C.; Busschers, F. S.; Hijma, M. P.; Erkens, G.

2013-01-01

312

Modeling seismic hazard in the Lower Rhine Graben using a fault-based source model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lower Rhine Graben (LRG) is an active tectonic structure in intraplate NW Europe. It is characterized by NW-SE oriented normal faults, and moderate but rather continuous seismic activity. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PHSA) in this region have hitherto been based on area source models, in which the LRG is modeled as a single or a small number of seismotectonic zones, where the occurrence of earthquakes is assumed to be uniform. Hazard engines usually model earthquakes in area sources as point sources or finite ruptures in a horizontal plane at a fixed depth. The past few years, efforts have increasingly been directed to using fault sources in PSHA, in order to obtain more realistic patterns of ground motion. This requires an inventory of all fault sources, and definition of their physical properties (at least length, width, strike, dip, rake, slip rate, and maximum magnitude). The LRG is one of the few regions in intraplate NW Europe where seismic activity can be linked to active faults. In the frame of the EC project SHARE ("Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe", http://www.share-eu.org/), we have compiled the first parameterized fault model for the LRG that can be used in PSHA studies. We construct the magnitude-frequency distribution (MFD) of each fault from two contributions: 1) up to the largest observed magnitude (M=5.7), we use the MFD determined from the historical and instrumental earthquake catalog, weighted in proportion to the total moment rate, and 2) the frequency of the maximum earthquake predicted by the fault model. We consider the ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) that were selected in the SHARE project for active shallow crust. This selection includes GMPE's with different distance metrics, the main difference being whether depth of rupture is taken into account or not. Seismic hazard is computed with OpenQuake (http://openquake.org/), an open-source hazard and risk engine that is developed in the frame of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). Compared to other commonly-used, non-commercial hazard engines, OpenQuake offers better support for fault sources with simple or complex geometries. We compute hazard maps for return periods of 475, 2375, and 10,000 yr, and compare the results with hazard maps based on area sources. In addition, we conduct sensitivity tests to determine the impact of various parameter choices, e.g. maximum magnitude, inclusion of a background zone to account for lower magnitudes, and GMPE distance metric.

Vanneste, Kris; Vleminckx, Bart; Verbeeck, Koen; Camelbeeck, Thierry

2013-04-01

313

Bias correction of temperature and precipitation data for regional climate model application to the Rhine basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management group of Wageningen University is involved in the EU research project NeWater. The objective of this project is to develop tools which provide medium range hydrological predictions by coupling catchment-scale water balance models and ensembles from mesoscale climate models. The catchment-scale distributed hydrological model used in this study is the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. This hydrological model in combination with an ensemble from the climate model ECHAM5 (developed by Max Plank Institute für Meteorologie (MPI-M), Hamburg) is being used to evaluate the effects of climate change on the hydrological regime of the Rhine basin and to assess the uncertainties involved in the ensembles from the climate model used in this study. Three future scenarios (2001-2100) are used in this study, which are downscaled ECHAM5 runs which were forced by the IPCC carbon emission scenarios B1, A1B and A2. A downscaled ECHAM5 "Climate of the 20th Century" run (1951-2000) is used as the reference climate. Downscaled ERA15 data is used to calibrate the VIC model. Downscaling of both the ECHAM5 and ERA15 model was carried out with the regional climate model REMO at MPI-M to a resolution of 0.088 degrees. The assessment of uncertainties involved in the climate model ensembles is performed by comparing the model (ECHAM5-REMO and ERA15-REMO) ensemble precipitation and temperature data with observations. This resulted in the detection of a bias in both the downscaled reference climate data and downscaled ERA15 data. A bias-correction has been applied to both the downscaled ERA15 data and the reference climate data. This bias-correction corrects for the mean and coefficient of variation for precipitation and the mean and standard deviation for temperature. The results of the applied bias-correction are analyzed spatially and temporally. Despite the fact that the bias-correction only uses two parameters, the coefficient of variation, standard deviation and mean of the bias-corrected data sets showed significant improvements for both precipitation and temperature. Even statistics that were not taken into account in the bias-correction, such as the fraction of wet days, the lag-one autocorrelation and the exceedance probabilities have improved as well.

Terink, W.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Warmerdam, P. M. M.

2009-04-01

314

RiverCare: towards self-sustaining multifunctional rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Rivers are inherently dynamic water systems involving complex interactions among hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. In many deltas around the world lowland rivers are intensively managed to meet objectives like safety, navigation, hydropower and water supply. With the increasing pressure of growing population and climate change it will become even more challenging to reach or maintain these objectives and probably also more demanding from a management point of view. In the meantime there is a growing awareness that rivers are natural systems and that, rather than further regulation works, the dynamic natural processes should be better utilized (or restored) to reach the multifunctional objectives. Currently many integrated river management projects are initiated all over the world, in large rivers as well as streams. Examples of large scale projects in the Netherlands are 'Room for the River' (Rhine), the 'Maaswerken' (Meuse), the Deltaprogramme and projects originating from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). These projects include innovative measures executed never before on this scale and include for example longitudinal training dams, side channels, removal of bank protection, remeandering of streams, dredging/nourishment and floodplain rehabilitation. Although estimates have been made on the effects of these measures for many of the individual projects, the overall effects on the various management objectives remains uncertain, especially if all projects are considered in connection. For all stakeholders with vested interests in the river system it is important to know how that system evolves at intermediate and longer time scales (10 to 100 years) and what the consequences will be for the various river functions. If the total, integrated response of the system can be predicted, the system may be managed in a more effective way, making optimum use of natural processes. In this way, maintenance costs may be reduced, the system remains more natural and more self-sustaining and ecosystem services such as safety, navigability, biodiversity and climate buffering can be safeguarded or even enhanced. The unprecedented extent of these interventions, together with comprehensive in-situ monitoring now offer an excellent opportunity to gain extensive knowledge about their intermediate and long-term impacts. RiverCare is a large research programme that will start in 2014 in which 5 universities, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment, Deltares, consultancy firms and other public and private parties collaborate to get a better understanding of the fundamental processes that drive ecomorphological changes, predict the intermediate and long-term developments, make uncertainties explicit and reduce them where possible and develop best practices to reduce the maintenance costs and increase the benefits of interventions. The projects currently or soon to be carried out in the Netherlands provide a unique opportunity to achieve these objectives and use the results to develop or improve models, guidelines and tools that can be used for river management in the Netherlands and abroad.

Augustijn, Denie; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne

2014-05-01

315

New records of Atypus muralis (Araneae: Atypidae in Saxony-Anhalt (Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents new records of the spider Atypus muralis Bertkau, 1890 in the valleys of the rivers Saale and Unstrut in the south of Saxony-Anhalt in Middle Germany. All specimens were males, caught by pitfall traps in xerothermic steppic grasslands on steep slopes. The geographic distribution of Atypus muralis in the eastern parts of Germany and habitat traits are discussed with special reference to regional climate, vegetation type and soil conditions. The phenology of aboveground activity of Atypus muralis males is shown.

Trost, Martin

2005-06-01

316

Country report for Germany [Fast reactors in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The primary energy consumption in Germany in 2005 was about 492.6 MtSKE in total. The distribution on the main energy sources is: mineral oil: 36.4%, natural gas 22.4%, black coal 13.5%, brown coal 11.4%, nuclear energy 12.6%, water and wind 1.2%, others 2.5%. The net electricity production in Germany in 2005 was about 495.9 billion kWh. The distribution is: nuclear energy 32%, lignite coal 28.9%, black coal 23.1%, oil 0.2%, natural gas 9.1%, water 4.7%, others (being biomass, photovoltaics, wind) 2.0%. In 2005, 18 nuclear power plants were in operation in Germany. In May 2005 the KWO Obrigheim was closed due to the new Atomic law which fixes the phase out of nuclear power production. The net installed nuclear power was 20.7GWel, the net nuclear electricity production was 163TWh, the time availability was 88%. Nuclear makes up for about 50% of the base-load electricity production in Germany. In absolute numbers, Germany is number 5 in nuclear electricity production. Among the top ten nuclear power plants world-wide, in 2005 there were 7 German plants including the plant with the highest amount of electricity produced, being NPP Brokdorf with 1440MWel and 11.98TWhel. The net electricity output of the nuclear power plants is constantly increasing due to power upgrading and higher time availabilities. As for the renewable energies, there is no significant absolute increase except for wind. About 50% of the government support for renewable energies from the Envupport for renewable energies from the Environmental Ministry goes to photovoltaics. The Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (HGF), summarising 15 national research centres, 24.000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2,1 billion Euro is the largest research organisation in Germany. The HGF identifies and works on complex and urgent questions of society, science and economy, especially concentrating on systems of high complexity. There are six research areas, being energy, earth and environment, health, key technologies, structure of matter, traffic and space. Within energy, there are four programmes: efficient energy conversion, fusion technology, nuclear safety research, renewable energies. - In 2005/2006, there was an evaluation of the research programme and long-term future of FZK by an internationally composed Perspective Commission set up by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The Commission supports the concentration of FZK on 3 columns: energy (?50%), including the effects of energy use on the atmosphere and climate, nano- and microtechnology (33%) and astroparticle physics (17%). Becoming the preeminent energy laboratory for Germany, it should take the lead in developing an energy R and D strategy for Germany including the aspect of societal understanding and acceptance of new energy sources. It is recommended that FZK should be the German liaison to the international R and D effort on Generation IV fission reactors. However, this recommendation still needs the approval of the German government. As for nuclear energy research, the Alliance for Competence in Nuclear Technology set up a consistent and efficiency nuclear R and D programme including all nuclear stake holders in Germany. In this context, some seven heads of nuclear institutes (e.g. nuclear technology, reactor physics, actinide chemistry, repository research) are presently being replaced. This is in line with a survey of 2004 which set the need for about 6300 academic nuclear personnel in 2010, out of which about 2000 have to be newly positioned. Having the decision for an EPR in Finland this number of required academics is even increasing. German nuclear institutions are involved in all major international programmes and projects in the areas of reactor safety, partitioning and transmutation, and waste disposal. Due to the research-political conditions, a German contribution to the Generation IV Initiative using government budget is not yet possible. (author)

317

Seismicity of the northern Upper Rhine Graben - Constraints on the present-day stress field from focal mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

The seismicity of the northern Upper-Rhine Graben and its seismic hazard have recently attracted new attention due to the potential of this region for geothermal power generation. The natural seismicity can be used to determine active fault zones and stress conditions within the crust. It also provides important background information for the estimation of seismic hazard and possible induced seismicity. The natural seismicity of this area is also interesting because of swarm earthquakes which occurred in the 19th century. The characterization of the natural seismicity in this region is one of the main goals of the project SiMoN (Seismic Monitoring of the Northern Upper-Rhine Graben), which is funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). We present new results for the microseismic activity in an area of approximately 50 x 50 km by analyzing seismogram recordings from a temporary network of up to 13 broad-band stations in combination with data from permanent stations. The network will soon be expanded by several borehole stations to accommodate for the relatively high noise levels in the densely populated Rhine-Main region. Since November 2010 a number of 64 local earthquakes have been recorded within the immediate vicinity of the network with magnitudes in the range between ML = 0.5 and ML = 3.2. The detection threshold is a local magnitude of approximately 1.0, the magnitude of completeness is Mc = 1.3. The observed seismicity extends to a depth of 24 km with a pronounced maximum in the depth distribution between 9 to 18 km. In addition to the data recorded by the SiMoN stations we used recordings provided by the regional seismological services to determine focal mechanisms and to derive the current stress field. The associated fault-plane solutions show predominantly strike-slip mechanisms, whereas normal and reverse faulting mechanisms rarely occur. An inversion of the focal mechanisms leads to an orientation of the maximum horizontal stress in N135°E. In the center of the study area a shift in the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress by almost 90° can be observed. We apply 3-dimensional geomechanical modeling to explain this observation.

Homuth, Benjamin; Rümpker, Georg; Deckert, Hagen; Kracht, Matthias

2014-05-01

318

Geodetic monitoring strategy at the geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen (Upper Rhine Graben, France)  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Cenozoic rift system, and in particular the Upper Rhine Graben offers a high potential of deep geothermal energy due to the well known geothermal anomaly and to the number of subsurface temperature data from oil exploration in the Upper Rhine Graben. One example is the Soultz-sous-Forêts Enhance Geothermal System (EGS) located in the French part of the Upper Rhine Graben. The Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS started in 1987 as a deep geothermal research site. The wells are drilled in naturally fractured and altered granites from 3200 to 5260 m depth located in the vicinity of quasi North-South faults. It is the first EGS site connected to the electric network, its electric production capacity is of 1.5MWe. A second EGS site, ECOGI, is in development near the village of Rittershoffen located at 7 km from Soultz-sous-Forêts. The objective of ECOGI is to produce 24MWth energy for an industrial use with a doublet configuration of wells at depths around 2500 and 3000 meters. Both EGS sites benefit of the natural circulation of geothermal water. Some challenges in geothermal power plant are to understand the long-term behavior of the geothermal system and the induced seismicity. In the Soultz-sous-Forêts plant, borehole measures give evidences of aseismic slip (Bailleux et al., 2013). And previous geodetic monitoring studies of other deep geothermal plants show subsidence and horizontal displacements due to geothermal exploitation (e.g. Massonnet et al., 1997; Nishijima et al., 2005; Fialko and Simons, 2000). The ability of geodesy tools to provide information about dynamic behaviour and the change in the local stress field around the geothermal site make them a suitable method to meet these challenges. Therefore, we establish a long-term geodetic monitoring system of the two geothermal sites. This work presents the monitoring strategy and the preliminary results. We install a network of continuous GNSS and INSAR data are in acquisition. Our aim is to monitor local surface displacement in natural, in stimulation and production states of the geothermal plants. GNSS and INSAR are two spatial geodetic methods with millimeter accuracy. The GNSS provides information about the absolute 3D displacement at some point location. And the INSAR method gives high spatial (meters) information of relative displacement.

Heimlich, Christine; Masson, Frédéric; Gourmelen, Noël

2014-05-01

319

A consistent magnetic polarity stratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene fluvial sediments from the Heidelberg Basin (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep drillings in the Heidelberg Basins provide access to one of the thickest and most complete successions of Quaternary and Upper Pliocene continental sediments in Central-Europe [1]. In absence of any comprehensive chronostratigraphic model, these sediments are so far classified by lithological and hydrogeological criteria. Therefore the age of this sequence is still controversially discussed ([1], [2]). In spite of the fact that fluvial sediments are a fundamental challenge for the application of magnetic polarity stratigraphy we performed a thorough study on four drilling cores (from Heidelberg, Ludwigshafen and nearby Viernheim). Here, we present the results from the analyses of these cores, which yield to a consistent chronostratigraphic framework. The components of natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) were separated by alternating field and thermal demagnetisation techniques and the characteristic remanent magnetisations (ChRM) were isolated by principle component analysis [3]. Due to the coring technique solely inclination data of the ChRM is used for the determination of the magnetic polarity stratigraphy. Rock magnetic proxies were applied to identify the carriers of the remanent magnetisation. The investigations prove the NRM as a stable, largely primary magnetisation acquired shortly after deposition (PDRM). The Matuyama-Gauss boundary is clearly defined by a polarity change in each core, as suggested in previous work [4]. These findings are in good agreement with the biostratigraphic definition of the base of the Quaternary ([5], [6], [7]). The Brunhes-Matuyama boundary could be identified in core Heidelberg UniNord 1 and 2 only. Consequently, the position of the Jaramillo and Olduvai subchron can be inferred from the lithostratigraphy and the development of fluvial facies architecture in the Rhine system. The continuation of the magnetic polarity stratigraphy into the Gilbert chron (Upper Pliocene) allows alternative correlation schemes for the cores Viernheim and Heidelberg. All things considered, the application of magnetic polarity stratigraphy on Pliocene and Pleistocene fluvial sediments from the Heidelberg Basin provides a consistent and independent chronology and opens the perspective for global correlations where other approaches hardly come to results. [1] GABRIEL, G., ELLWANGER, D., HOSELMANN, C. & WEIDENFELLER, M. 2008. Preface: The HeidelbergBasin Drilling Project. E & G (Quaternary Science Journal), 57, 253-260. [2] ELLWANGER, D. & WIELAND-SCHUSTER, U. 2012. Fotodokumentation und Schichtenverzeichnis der Forschungsbohrungen Heidelberg UniNord I und II. LGRB-Informationen, 26, 25-86. [3] KIRSCHVINK, J. L. 1980. The least-squares line and plane and the analysis of palaeomagnetic data. Geophysical Journal, Royal Astronomical Society, 62, 699-718. [4] ROLF, C., HAMBACH, U. & WEIDENFELLER, M. 2008. Rock and palaeomagnetic evidence for the Plio-/Pleistocene palaeoclimatic change recorded in Upper Rhine Graben sediments (Core Ludwigshafen-Parkinsel), Neth. J. Geosci., 87 (1), 41-50. [5] KNIPPING, M. 2008. Early and Middle Pleistocene pollen assemblages of deep core drillings in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany, Neth. J. Geosci., 87(1), 51-65. [6] HEUMANN, G., pers. Comm. [7] HAHNE, J., pers. Comm.

Scheidt, Stephanie; Hambach, Ulrich; Rolf, Christian

2014-05-01

320

Palliative care practices in Germany’s health system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the discipline of palliative care is new, it has rapidly gained its place in other areas of medicine. The most important reason for its fast development is that the provision of the necessary care and treatment for incurable patients has acquired increasing importance today. Palliative care considers that dying is a natural process of life. The main aim of palliative care services is to support both the patients and their family during the patient’s life and after their death. Support with respect to possible physical and emotional problems should also be offered. Developed countries like Germany have made important progress with regard to palliative care applications. If palliative care models implemented in such countries become known in our country, it will aid their easier integration into the health care system and also facilitate the process for health professionals. For this purpose, palliative care offered in Germany and its application into the health care system are introduced in this review.

Beyhan BAG

2012-01-01

321

Break preclusion concept in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Break Preclusion Concept, often called Leak-before-Break (LBB), in Germany as applied since 1979 is based on the basic safety concept. The general concept, the prerequisites and the application to the primary coolant piping are described in detail in a logic chart for the different steps: basic safety, in-service redundancies, LBB, break preclusion (BP) and the break postulates derived from the BP. The safety of the primary piping against break was proven by research programs performed at MPA, Siemens, Interatom, which included fracture mechanics tests on representative pipings under relevant loading conditions. (J.S.). 7 refs., 17 figs

322

The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

2014-05-01

323

Gender, migration, remittances: evidence from Germany  

OpenAIRE

Gender-specific determinants of remittances are the subject of this study based on German SOEP data (2001-2006). In 2007, about 7.3 million foreigners were living in Germany. While the total number of foreigners has decreased over the last decade, female migration to Germany has increased. Today, women constitute 48.6% of migratory flows to Germany, although the proportion varies significantly by country of origin. A feminization of migration is observable all over the world, and is changing ...

Holst, Elke; Scha?fer, Andrea; Schrooten, Mechthild

2008-01-01

324

Germany's capital market and corporate governance  

OpenAIRE

Germany?s capital market relies on bank-intermediated products and not so much on capital market processes. Two of the pillars in Germany?s three-pillar banking system, the savings banks and the cooperative banks, have special statutes and are not exposed to the control of the capital market through the usual threat of a change in ownership. Savings banks enjoy public guarantees. In the financing of firms, bank credits are far more important relative to market products - equity and bonds - th...

Siebert, Horst

2004-01-01

325

Recycling of plastics in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO2, representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technologicaacilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

326

Air crew monitoring in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

327

Natural fracture permeability in Triassic sediments of the Upper Rhine Graben from deep geothermal boreholes  

Science.gov (United States)

Geothermal anomalies (Soultz-sous-Forêts, Rittershoffen, Landau, ...) in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), are mainly interpreted as the effect of natural brine advection inside a nearly vertical fracture network extending from the deep-seated Triassic sediments to the crystalline basement. At Soultz, within the first kilometer of sediments, where the temperature reaches up to 110° C, the dominating thermal regime remains conductive. Accordingly the fracture system in this region, made of normal faults, does not have a significant impact on temperature profiles. Deeper, in the clastic sediments and in the crystalline basement, a convective regime is evidenced by a reduction of the effective geothermal gradient (~10° /km) and localized negative thermal anomalies that match with the occurrence of natural fractures. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the top of the convective cell structure based on a combined analysis of borehole geothermal logs recorded around the sediment/basement interface. The first part consists in analyzing geological and geophysical data available from the Soultz wells which characterize the natural permeability: partial or total drilling mud losses, natural outflow, occurrences of Helium gas and drilling mud temperature variations. A series of eleven permeable fracture zones has been outlined in GPK-2, GPK-3 and GPK-4 wells. Within the Muschelkalk limestones, 3 fracture zones are located in GPK-2, 2 in GPK-3 and 3 in GPK-4 respectively. In the Buntsandstein sandstones, a total of 8 zones were detected in GPK-2, GPK-3 and GPK-4. In GPK-2, less than 50% of the detected zones are permeable, in GPK-3, more than 80% and in GPK-4, 100% but the thermal impact of those fracture zones is not clearly visible on temperature profiles. To support those results, geophysical logs and mud logging data of the sedimentary part of GPK-1 were spatially correlated. Two fracture zones have been located in the Keuper and Lettenkohle, two in the Muschelkalk and nine in the Buntsandstein. All the thirteen zones present permeability indicators. In the EPS-1 well, partial mud losses recorded at a depth of 1205m, match with the occurrence of a fracture zone within the Buntsandstein. BHTV images show that the fracture is N-S oriented and dipping westward. Core samples of this zone show that it is partly filled with barite and galena. In the 4550 well, total losses were recorded at a depth of 1280m in Buntsandstein which fits in depth with a fracture zone. BHTV images clearly exhibit the westward dipping of the conjugate small-scale fracture system. Interestingly it corresponds to a sharp negative thermal anomaly on the temperature profile. In the Soultz and Rittershoffen areas, the uppermost sedimentary domain extending from late Trias to Tertiary is rather impermeable and governed by a conductive thermal regime. The uppermost structure of the convective cell corresponds to hydrothermal circulations percolating within the vertical fracture network from the top of the Paleozoic granite basement, to the Muschelkalk through the fractured Buntsandstein. The Keuper is assumed to be a horizontal barrier to the vertical per ascensum convective flow and behaves as a geothermal cap rock.

Vidal, Jeanne; Genter, Albert; Duringer, Philippe; Schmittbuhl, Jean

2014-05-01

328

Investigation of the heat exchange river/atmosphere at the Rhine River downstream of the Philippsburg nuclear power station. A contribution of heat loss models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All probes and interfaces with exception of those for oxygen solution in water, water surface flow, roughness of surface, water level and fog density have been installed and are under operation. Automatic data processing is accomplished either by computer or by a 12 channel analog printer. Presently the final calibration of the signal transmission lines is being completed. The data processing software is in a preliminary configuration yet. Another 8 k memory extension box has been installed in order to allow the addition of modules such as powerfail-restart routines, I/O subroutines for magnetic cassettes and tapes and storage capacity for windspeed direction values. The present output is restricted to 10 mins. teletype messages, comprehending the most essential data. Data collection difficulties have generally been overcome. A survey on the water surface temperature distribution in the surrounding of the station has been performed and revealed no inhomogenities in the vicinity of the mast within a accuracy of about 0.20C. (orig.)

329

Trig River  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about and use a right triangle to determine the width of a pretend river. Working in teams, they estimate of the width of the river, measure it and compare their results with classmates.

Jeff White

2010-01-01

330

River Watch  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Weather Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has launched the River Watch site, providing up-to-date river forecast information for the nation's largest river basins: the Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, and Ohio River Basins). Daily river level summaries are provided for each basin, in addition to five-day forecasts for river stage heights (in feet). This site also offers hyperlinks to river forecast sites for the other major regions of the US (Southern, Central, and Eastern Regions), and other related sites. For current information on river level conditions in the US, this is a top-notch resource, made more valuable by the geographical extent of its coverage.

331

Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part II; Qualitaetskontrolle der ambulanten bildgebenden Diagnostik in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Teil II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: In the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part II of this study aims to determine the quality of the process and outcome. The reference standard is the assessment of both radiologists and physicians without board certification in radiology working at a university hospital and in outpatient facilities. Materials and Methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. A file was created for each of the 394 patients with image documentation of at least one examination. Each file, which included medical history, physical findings, imaging documentation and written report, was sequentially forwarded to a board-certified radiologist and to a physician without board certification in radiology working in a university hospital and in an outpatient facility. All physicians were requested to complete a structured questionnaire for each file. Results: The referral diagnoses were rated as medically plausible in 81%, the indications for imaging found correct in 76%, the examination techniques considered appropriate in 69%, the clinical question answered in 63%, the interpretation judged medically correct in 50% and all incidental findings documented in 49%. In retrospect, 32% of the examinations were judged superfluous. The sequence of multiple examinations performed on a particular patient was rated as appropriate in 51%. The interpretation revealed specialty-related differences. The plausibility of the referral diagnoses had a significant impact on the appropriateness of subsequent diagnostic investigations. Marked deficits showed sonography, performance by non-radiologists, self-referrals by GPs, gastroenterologic radiology and the ICD-10 coding (suspicion of cardiovascular disease). (orig.) [German] Fragestellung: In Nordrhein-Westfalen wurden die von Hausaerzten indizierte bildgebende Diagnostik ueberprueft. Ziel des zweiten Teils der Auswertungen war die Erfassung der Prozess- und Ergebnisqualitaet. Als Referenz dienten Expertenbewertungen durch Radiologen und Teilradiologen aus dem universitaeren und ambulanten Versorgungsbereich. Material und Methode: Alle Hausaerzte in NRW wurden um Mitarbeit gebeten. Kooperierende Hausaerzte beantworteten pro rekrutiertem Patienten einen Fragebogen. Jeder Patient protokollierte alle zur Klaerung seiner Beschwerden durchgefuehrten diagnostischen Leistungen. Die beteiligten Fachaerzte wurden gebeten, ihre Bilddokumentationen und Befundungen zur Verfuegung zu stellen und einen Fragebogen zu beantworten. Anschliessend wurde fuer 394 Patienten, fuer die wenigstens eine Untersuchung in bildlicher Dokumentation vorlag, eine Akte angelegt, die die anamnestisch-klinischen Angaben, Befundberichte und Bilddokumentationen enthielt. Die Vorgaenge wurden nacheinander jeweils einem radiologischen und teilradiologischen Fachgebietsarzt aus dem universitaeren und ambulanten Versorgungsbereich zur Bewertung anhand strukturierter Ergebungsboegen zugeleitet. Ergebnisse: 81% der Verdachtsdiagnosen wurden fuer medizinisch plausibel, 76% der Indikationen zur Durchfuehrung einer bildgebenden Diagnostik als richtig, 69% der eingesetzten Untersuchungsmethoden als diagnostisch angemessen, 63% der klinischen Fragestellungen als beantwortet, 50% der Befunde als medizinisch korrekt und 49% aller Nebenbefunde als erfasst eingestuft. Retrospektiv haette auf 32% der Untersuchungen verzichtet werden koennen. Die Reihenfolge von mehreren bei einem Patienten durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen war zu 51% diagnostisch angemessen. Unterschiedliche Bewertungen der einzelnen Auswerter zeigten fachspezifische Tendenzen. Die Plausibilitaet der Verdachtsdiagnose hatte wesentlichen Einfluss auf die Qualitaet der nachfolgenden Untersuchungsschritte. Stae

Krug, B.; Boettge, M.; Zaehringer, M. [Univ. Koeln (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Reinecke, T.; Coburger, S. [Univ. Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik, Informatik und Epidemiologie; Harnischmacher, U.; Luengen, M. [Univ. Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Gesundheitsoekonomie und Klinische Epidemiologie; Lauterbach, K.W. [Univ. Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Gesundheitsoekonomie und Klinische Epidemiologie; Lehmacher, W. [Univ. Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik, Informatik und Epidemiologie; Lackner, K. [Univ. Koeln (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

2003-03-01

332

Expected fluid residence times, thermal breakthrough, and tracer test design for characterizing a hydrothermal system in the Upper Rhine Rift Valley  

Science.gov (United States)

Relying on the structural-hydrogeological model proposed by J. Meixner (2009) for a particular hydrothermal system in South-West Germany (on the East side of the Upper Rhine Rift, this reservoir being used to demonstrate electricity production by means of a well doublet), we set up a distributed-parameter model (using Feflow) enabling to numerically simulate fluid ages, temperature evolutions and tracer test signals for a number of contrasting assumptions w. r. to (a) the nature of boundary conditions and hydrogeological characteristics of remotely situated, large-scale natural faults, (b) the degree of permeability contrast between different system compartments, (c) the hydrogeological characteristics of a naturally-occurring fault, located between injection and production wells. It appears that a spike dimensioning allowing for tracer signals to become detectable during the first three years after tracer injection in all of the contrasting a/b/c scenarios is not feasible in practice. In some of the a/b/c cases considered, the system will act like a very large reservoir, with fluid residence times in the order of decades, and extreme dilution of injected tracers. Even using preparative-scale cleaning of samples, brine separation, sample enrichment by solid phase extraction, evaporative concentrating etc. followed by state-of-the-art chromatography techniques to separate between tracer and natural background, it will not be possible to lower tracer detection limits below a certain threshold, which is mainly dictated by the amount of certain naturally-occurring aromatics in the reservoir fluids. On practical reasons, the spike dimensioning will be limited to some hundred kilogram of one or two organic tracers. This implies that part of the above-mentioned, contrasting a/b/c scenarios will remain indistinguishable during the first three years after tracer injection. However, for this reservoir structure, there is not a bijective correspondence between early-vs.-late appearance of tracer and small-vs.-large reservoir. Therefore, we further examine the questions: How much information will be lost, and what degree of uncertainty will affect temperature predictions, as a consequence of the chosen practical ceiling on injected tracer quantities? Can single-well, dual-tracer push-pull tests (to be conducted at the geothermal re-injection and/or at the geothermal production well) contribute to reducing the ambiguity of inter-well early-signal inversion? Acknowledgement: This work pertains to a research project jointly funded by Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW) and by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU, project key: 0325111B), with operational support from local Energy and Water Supply Plants (EWB), from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Hydrogeology Group), and from the European Institute for Energy Research (EIfER, Dr. Zorn).

Ghergut, I.; Meixner, J.; Rettenmaier, D.; Maier, F.; Nottebohm, M.; Ptak, T.; Sauter, M.

2012-04-01

333

Investigation of DOM in a coastal discharge (Northwest Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

River systems play a major role in the global chemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. DOM in rivers exhibits a wide compositional diversity reflecting different organic matter sources related to the bioproduction in the drainage area, seasonal variations and anthropogenic influence. The chemical structure of riverine DOM is still largely unknown. The major part of DOM in natural waters consists of humic matter which is formed during degradation of plant- and animal-derived organic matter as a result of various abiotic and microbial transformation processes. As a cosequence, humic matter has a complex polymer-like structure. Humic-matter-rich water was collected from the Neuharlingersieltief, which is a brown-water river in a marshy region in Northwest Germany. After filtration (phenolic hydroxyl groups into their methyl derivatives. In this study a large number of different compounds are presented. The identified compounds of isolated fractions show different abundances and cover a wide variety of different chemical structures which are mainly substituted aromatics such as benzenes, phenols and furans. Furthermore, the product distributions at different pyrolysis temperatures (300 - 700°C) were studied.

Gebhardt, S.; Rullkötter, J.

2003-04-01

334

Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany  

OpenAIRE

The Mauer mandible, holotype of Homo heidelbergensis, was found in 1907 in fluvial sands deposited by the Neckar River 10 km southeast of Heidelberg, Germany. The fossil is an important key to understanding early human occupation of Europe north of the Alps. Given the associated mammal fauna and the geological context, the find layer has been placed in the early Middle Pleistocene, but confirmatory chronometric evidence has hitherto been missing. Here we show that two independent techniques, ...

Wagner, Gu?nther A.; Krbetschek, Matthias; Degering, Detlev; Bahain, Jean-jacques; Shao, Qingfeng; Falgue?res, Christophe; Voinchet, Pierre; Dolo, Jean-michel; Garcia, Tristan; Rightmire, G. Philip

2010-01-01

335

External forcing and emergence in fluvial systems: results from a fluvial system model compared with observations from the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta  

OpenAIRE

We use the Rhine-Meuse fluvial deposits to evaluate our findings from the modelling study. Using paleogeographic maps representing the delta evolution over the Holocene, we calculated time series of bifurcation frequency, avulsion frequency, and the number of co-existing active channel belts on the floodplain (Stouthamer and Berendsen, 2001; Stouthamer and Berendsen, 2007). These time series show a similar periodicity in fluvial system dynamics simulated by our model thus confi...

Karssenberg, D. J.; Stouthamer, E.; Bridge, John S.

2010-01-01

336

The Economic Development of Postwar Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)

Dinan, Desmond

1993-01-01

337

Waste management strategy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany intends to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The Federal Government made a pronounced change in energy policy since 1998, the most important feature of which is phasing out of nuclear energy, finally set in force by the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. According to the new approach to waste management and disposal, further sites in various host rocks shall be investigated for their suitability based on repository site selection criteria and respective procedures developed by a special expert group. The objective of the site selection procedure is to identify with public participation potential disposal sites in a comprehensible and reliable way. (author)

338

[Influx of prostitution into Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

Movement of international prostitution as it has been known for a long time usually takes place in two different ways. One way is that men travel as customers to so-called low-cost tourist countries where they spend some time with prostitutes. In the other instance young women from developing countries and also from the former Eastern European countries are being lured into Germany. These women are trying to escape miserable conditions in their countries and often arrive with great expectations. There is no statistical information available about the numbers of these young women. Recently inquiries have been made from all public health advisory centres for venereal diseases to obtain such information. We report on the method of the Berlin public health advisory centres for venereal diseases to improve the state of health of these women who were dragged from their homelands. PMID:8019067

Hörnle, R

1994-04-01

339

Children's "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children with disabilities were killed during the Nazi era, often by nurses. Some nurses killed children, saying that they were under orders. Propaganda about the need for "racial purity" was all pervasive and influenced much of the population, including nurses. The German people accepted the "mercy" killing of children with disabilities. We describe the children's "euthanasia" program, explore the influence of propaganda, ask why it was acceptable to kill children, and provide historical context demonstrating "slippery slopes" which can lead to abrogation of ethical principles. Discussion of such history is essential as the ethical principles which were breached are still the cornerstone of nursing practice today. Only by openly discussing past wrongs can we attempt to ensure that they do not happen again. Archival documents from Germany and Israel, including trial depositions and transcripts, provided material, supplemented by secondary classic sources. PMID:19931148

Benedict, Susan; Shields, Linda; O'Donnell, Alison J

2009-12-01

340

Observed shift towards earlier spring discharge in the main Alpine rivers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we analyse the observed long-term discharge time-series of the Rhine, the Danube, the Rhone and the Po rivers. These rivers are characterised by different seasonal cycles reflecting the diverse climates and morphologies of the Alpine basins. However, despite the intensive and varied water management adopted in the four basins, we found common features in the trend and low-frequency variability of the spring discharge timings. All the discharge time-series display a tendency towards earlier spring peaks of more than two weeks per century. These results can be explained in terms of snowmelt, total precipitation (i.e. the sum of snowfall and rainfall) and rainfall variability. The relative importance of these factors might be different in each basin. However, we show that the change of seasonality of total precipitation plays a major role in the earlier spring runoff over most of the Alps. PMID:25005239

Zampieri, Matteo; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Gualdi, Silvio; Navarra, Antonio

2015-01-15

341

48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Warranty of construction (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252...246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4...clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In...

2010-10-01

342

48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252...252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70...following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported...

2010-10-01

343

Modeling pesticide losses from diffuse sources in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

A GIS-based model estimates the losses from diffuse sources in surface waters in Germany for 42 active ingredients applied to 11 field crops, vineyards and orchards. For the following pathways of entry: tile drainage, runoff and spray drift, the calculated mean pesticide input amounts to 1490 kg/year, 9060 kg/year and 3350 kg/year, respectively, in 1994. The model results are highly sensitive to the model parameters, primarily the chemical properties of the active ingredients. The modeled water inputs were compared with measured pesticide loads in smaller catchments and large river basins to validate model results. Both datasets agree as to the order of magnitude, nevertheless due to the scale of the study the results should be addressed mainly to comparative interpretations with the focus on the proportions between different active ingredients, soil regions, climates and application periods. PMID:11724487

Bach, M; Huber, A; Frede, H G

2001-01-01

344

Barriers and needs in paediatric palliative home care in Germany: a qualitative interview study with professional experts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In North-Rhine Westphalia (Germany a pilot project for an extensive service provision of palliative care for children and adolescents has been implemented. Accompanying research was undertaken with the aim to assess the status quo of service delivery at the outset of the project and to evaluate the effects of the pilot project. As part of the research, barriers and needs with respect to paediatric palliative home care in the target region were explored. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 24 experts in the field of paediatrics, palliative and hospice care have been conducted and were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results Four main categories emerged from the interviews: (1 specific challenges and demands in palliative care for children and adolescents, (2 lack of clear legal and financial regulations, (3 gaps in the existing care delivery, and (4 access to services. Generally the interviews reflected the observation that the whole field is currently expanding and that certain deficits are temporary barriers that will be resolvable in the medium-term perspective. Conclusions Predominant barriers were seen in the lack of clear legal and financial regulations which take into account the specific challenges of palliative care in children and adolescents, as well as in a shortcoming of specialist services for a local based care provision throughout the federal country.

Kern Martina

2010-06-01

345

Geothermal conditions south of the Kaiserstuhl. The Hartheim Basin in the southern upper rhine graben; Geothermische Verhaeltnisse suedlich des Kaiserstuhls. Das Hartheimer Becken im suedlichen Oberrheingraben  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The District Authority (Regierungspraesidium) Freiburg interpreted reflective seismic data for the region of Hartheim south of the Kaiserstuhl (Upper Rhine Graben). The seismic data were used to determine the position of the inner fault zone of the Upper Rhine Graben in this area, combined with parameters of depth and thickness for the most important hydrogeothermal reservoirs of the Hauptrogenstein (Middle Jura), Oberer Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein. The inner fault zone shows an offset of up to 3 000 m, that separates the deep subsided inner zone of the Upper Rhine Graben (basin of Hartheim) in the west from the shallower parts in the east (Tuniberg, Freiburger Bucht). In the subsided inner zone of the Upper Rhine Graben temperatures of 130 C at a depth of 3 000 m or 150 C in a depth of 3 500 m can be expected. Estimated hydraulic conductivities for the aquifers of the Hauptrogenstein and Oberer Muschelkalk average at T/H=2.10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s with significant standard deviations. The Buntsandstein delivered only a few values. The deep seated waters in the inner zone of the Upper Rhine Graben are dominated by natrium and chloride, showing total dissolved solids (TDS) of several 10s g/l. Waters with the highest value for TDS can be found in the Hauptrogenstein aquifer. (orig.) [German] Das Regierungspraesidium Freiburg hat im Oberrheingraben fuer das Hartheimer Becken suedlich des Kaiserstuhls reflexionsseismische Sektionen zusammengetragen und ausgewertet. Diese Daten wurden verwendet, um den Verlauf der inneren Grabenrandverwerfung zu kartieren und um die Tiefenlage und Maechtigkeit der einzelnen geothermischen Nutzhorizonte der Region festzustellen. Die innere Grabenrandverwerfung verursacht im Untersuchungsgebiet einen Schichtversatz von bis zu 3.000 m. Innerhalb der inneren Grabenzone sind in 3.000 m Tiefe 130 C und in 3.500 m Tiefe 150 C zu erwarten. Fuer den Hauptrogenstein- und den tiefer liegenden Oberen Muschelkalk-Aquifer werden mittlere Durchlaessigkeiten von T/H=2.10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s mit nicht zu vernachlaessigenden Varianzen prognostiziert. Fuer den Buntsandstein liegen nur sehr wenige Werte zur Durchlaessigkeit vor. In der inneren Grabenzone sind die Tiefenwaesser dem Natrium-Chlorid-Typ zuzuordnen. Sie sind mit einem Gesamtloesungsinhalt von einigen 10er g/l hochmineralisiert. Dabei sind die Waesser mit den hoechsten Loesungsinhalten im Hauptrogenstein zu erwarten. (orig.)

Stober, Ingrid; Jodocy, Marco [Abteilung Umwelt, Regierungspraesidium Freiburg (Germany)

2011-06-15

346

Error propagation in hydrodynamics of lowland rivers due to uncertainty in vegetation roughness parameterization  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate water level prediction for the design discharge of large rivers is of main importance for the flood safety of large embanked areas in The Netherlands. Within a larger framework of uncertainty assessment, this report focusses on the effect of uncertainty in roughness parameterization in a 2D hydrodynamic model. Two key elements are considered in this roughness parameterization. Firstly the manually classified ecotope map that provides base data for roughness classes, and secondly the lookup table that translates roughness classes to vegetation structural characteristics. The aim is to quantify the effects of these two error sources on the following hydrodynamic aspects: 1. the discharge distribution at the bifurcation points within the river Rhine 2. peak water levels at a stationary discharge of 16000 m3/s. To assess the effect of the first error source, new realisations of ecotope maps were made based on the current ecotope map and an error matrix of the classification. Using these realisations of the ecotope maps, twelve succesfull model runs were carried out of the Rhine distributaries at design discharge. The classification error leads to a standard deviation of the water levels per river kilometer of 0.08, 0.05 and 0.10 m for Upper Rhine- Waal, Pannerdensch Kanaal-Nederrijn-Lek and the IJssel river respectively. The range is maximum range in water levels is 0.40, 0.40 and 0.57 m for these river sections respectively. Largest effects are found in the IJssel river and the Pannerdensch Kanaal. For the second error source, the accuracy of the values in the lookup table, a compilation was made of 445 field measurements of vegetation structure was carried out. For each of the vegetation types, the minimum, 25-percentile, median, 75-percentile and maximum for vegetation height and density were computed. These five values were subsequently put in the lookup table that was used for the hydrodynamic model. The interquartile range in vegetation height and density in the lookup table led to a difference in water levels of 0.20, 0.20, and 0.36 m for Upper Rhine- Waal, Pannerdensch Kanaal-Nederrijn-Lek and the IJssel river respectively. The discharge distribution at the Pannerdensche Kop bifurcation point is 165 m3/s for both error sources, classification and lookup table. The discharge distribution at the IJsselkop is more sensitive for classification error than for errors in the lookup table (160 vs. 70 m3/s for range in classification error and interquartile range in lookup table error). Priority should be given to increasing the classification accuracy as this generates the largest error for water levels as well as discharge distribution. The quantification of the uncertainty in water levels and discharge distribution will help to make decisions more realistically as the error bands are substantiated. It can also influence the assessment of the height of the embankments as insight is given in the variability of the outcome of the flow models at design discharge. Moreover, the error bands may serve as an incentive to quantify the desired accuracy in the vegetation structural characteristics. This means that an upper limit can be put on the variation in water levels that is accepted from errors in the roughness parameterization.

Straatsma, Menno

2010-05-01

347

Electricity prices differences between France and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High electricity prices in Germany especially as compared to France have played an important role in the electricity liberalization debate in Germany. The price differences can largely be explained by cost differences in electricity generation, the electricity grids, personnel cost and local taxes. Further analysis suggests that efficiency improvements upon market liberalization will only partly remove these price and cost differentials. Parts of the cost differentials are attributable to politically-motivated regulations and the (future) regulation of network functions. This implies that Germany can only expect to arrive at internationally comparable electricity prices if it advances with a reform of political and monopoly regulations alongside liberalizing electricity generation and trade. (author)

348

Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germanys European policy  

OpenAIRE

Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which i...

Michèle Knodt; Nicola Staeck

1999-01-01

349

Perspectives of nuclear power in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Only if Germany continues to use nuclear power, and develops it further, we will have a chance to make German safety standards accepted internationally. It would be irresponsible to keep German safety know-how from other countries. It is important for Germany to preserve and advance its nuclear competence, which was acquired at great industrial expense. After all, nuclear power means almost 40,000 highly qualified jobs. These people must have a perspective for their future. They will get it only if the political courage is mustered again to build an advanced nuclear reactor with improved safety features in Germany. (orig.)

350

Germany and the European economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany has traditionally been the powerhouse of the European economy and integration. In this article, an attempt is made to put its economic development in a European context by comparing it with the achievements of the total group of more developed members of the European Union, the EU-15, prior to the current global crisis. The author applies both the methods of statistical analysis and models of mathematical economics to show the combined influence of growth mechanism regularities, economic policy and international economic relations on the long-term development of the German and European economy. Viewing economic growth as the central problem, he investigates the factors of its deviations from the equilibrium state, as well as the regularities affecting productivity and technical progress. His main conclusion is that the current economic crisis can be surmounted with the help of a growthoriented economic policy based on the intensification of technical progress and, first of all, of its creative component, which would create favorable conditions for improving competitiveness.

Simon György Jr.

2011-01-01

351

River morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

352

Multi-model climate impact assessment and intercomparison for three large-scale river basins on three continents  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change impacts on hydrological processes should be simulated for river basins using validated models and multiple climate scenarios in order to provide reliable results for stakeholders. In the last 10-15 years, climate impact assessment has been performed for many river basins worldwide using different climate scenarios and models. However, their results are hardly comparable, and do not allow one to create a full picture of impacts and uncertainties. Therefore, a systematic intercomparison of impacts is suggested, which should be done for representative regions using state-of-the-art models. Only a few such studies have been available until now with the global-scale hydrological models, and our study is intended as a step in this direction by applying the regional-scale models. The impact assessment presented here was performed for three river basins on three continents: the Rhine in Europe, the Upper Niger in Africa and the Upper Yellow in Asia. For that, climate scenarios from five general circulation models (GCMs) and three hydrological models, HBV, SWIM and VIC, were used. Four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) covering a range of emissions and land-use change projections were included. The objectives were to analyze and compare climate impacts on future river discharge and to evaluate uncertainties from different sources. The results allow one to draw some robust conclusions, but uncertainties are large and shared differently between sources in the studied basins. Robust results in terms of trend direction and slope and changes in seasonal dynamics could be found for the Rhine basin regardless of which hydrological model or forcing GCM is used. For the Niger River, scenarios from climate models are the largest uncertainty source, providing large discrepancies in precipitation, and therefore clear projections are difficult to do. For the Upper Yellow basin, both the hydrological models and climate models contribute to uncertainty in the impacts, though an increase in high flows in the future is a robust outcome ensured by all three hydrological models.

Vetter, T.; Huang, S.; Aich, V.; Yang, T.; Wang, X.; Krysanova, V.; Hattermann, F.

2015-01-01

353

Geothermal energy utilized in the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the geothermal resources and reserves that have been estimated for selected aquifers in the Northwest German Basin, the Upper Rhine Graben and the South German Molasse Basin. The highest reserves (31 · 1018 J) are located in the Malm aquifer in the Molasse Basin. Geothermal energy is utilized in 15 localities using low enthalpy water. The total installed capacity is about 8 MWt. Two small new installations (Waldsee, Weiden) have been realized in the last years. In another project (Bruchsal) the doublet, which is necessary because of the high saline water, is now in a working order. A prefeasibility study for a Hot Dry Rock system has been performed by a German-French group. The HDR test site is located in the Upper Rhine Graben

354

Opportunities for smart meters in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles.

355

Industrial development: France and Germany drifting apart  

OpenAIRE

The significance of the manufacturing sector for the economies of both the European Union and the euro area has declined dramatically over the past ten years. However, development varied between the individual member states, which is particularly evident in a comparison between France and Germany. The manufacturing industry in Germany was able to maintain its position within the national economy, halting the structural change towards the service sector. Conversely, there has been rapid deindu...

Brenke, Karl

2013-01-01

356

Book Review: Policy analysis in Germany  

OpenAIRE

"Policy Analysis in Germany." Sonja Blum and Klaus Schubert (eds.). Policy Press. July 2013. --- This book aims to outline the development of policy analysis activities in Germany, identify its role in academic education and research, and examine its styles and methods. The authors focus on the role of policy analysis for governments and parliaments, for parties, social partners, and interest groups. Julia Himmrich finds that the volume grapples with the question of the role academics play in...

Himmrich, Julia

2013-01-01

357

Has Atypical Work Become Typical in Germany?  

OpenAIRE

This paper gives an overview of the transformation of the German labor market since the mid-1990s with a special focus on the changing patterns of labor market segmentation or 'dualization' of employment in Germany. While labor market duality in Germany can partially be attributed to labor market reforms promoting in particular non-standard forms of employment and allowing for an expansion of low pay, structural changes in the economy as well as strategic choices by employers and social partn...

Eichhorst, Werner; Tobsch, Verena

2013-01-01

358

Germany's solar cell promotion: An unfolding disaster  

OpenAIRE

This article revisits an analysis by Frondel, Ritter and Schmidt (2008) of Germany's Renewable Energy Act, which legislates a system of feed-in tariff s to promote the use of renewable energies. As in the original article, we argue that Germany's support scheme subsidizes renewable energy technologies not based on their long-term market potential, but rather on their relative lack of competitiveness, with the photovoltaics (PV) technology enjoying high feed-in tariffs, currently over double t...

Frondel, Manuel; Schmidt, Christoph M.; Vance, Colin

2012-01-01

359

Contamination measurements in Austria and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on cumulative Cs-137 and Sr-90 depositions both from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident in Austria, Germany, UK and USA are given as well as the time dependence of Cs-137 concentrations from 1986 to 1992 in nutrients and drinking water in Austria and Germany. Finally the dose-to-population from the Chernobyl accident is compared to the natural radiation and even to that resulting from energy-saving sealing measures in living rooms. (Quittner)

360

Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

361

Macroeconomic policies, wage developments, and Germany's stagnation  

OpenAIRE

The paper fundamentally challenges the institutional sclerosis explanation of the present German economic stagnation. Instead we present a macroeconomic explanation focusing on the combined effects of too restrictive monetary policies, too restrictive and sometimes pro-cyclical fiscal policies and overly moderate wage policies in Germany since the mid 1990s. This view is broadly consistent with modern macroeconomics and with empirical data. From this perspective we finally argue that Germany ...

Hein, Eckhard; Truger, Achim

2005-01-01

362

What explains Germany's rebounding export market share?  

OpenAIRE

Germany?s export market share increased since 2000, while most industrial countries experienced declines. This study explores four explanations and evaluates their empirical contributions: (i) improved cost competitiveness, (ii) ties to fast growing trading partners, (iii) increased demand for capital goods, and (iv) regionalized production of goods (e.g. off-shoring). An export model is estimated covering the period 1993?2005. The dominant factor explaining the increase in market share are...

Danninger, Stephan; Joutz, Fred

2007-01-01

363

Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum Ticks, Germany  

OpenAIRE

To the Editor: Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group cause worldwide emerging human infections known as tick-borne rickettsioses (1). Data on the occurrence and prevalence of Rickettsia in Germany are still limited (2). Six Rickettsia species have been reported to date (2). R. helvetica, R. felis, R. massiliae, and R. monacensis were detected with a relatively low prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in southern Germany (2); R. raoultii was identified with high prevalence in the ...

Rumer, Leonid; Graser, Elmara; Hillebrand, Timo; Talaska, Thomas; Dautel, Hans; Mediannikov, Oleg; Roy-chowdhury, Panchali; Sheshukova, Olga; Donoso Mantke, Oliver; Niedrig, Matthias

2011-01-01

364

The environmental agency of North-Rhine-Westphalia. Annual report 1995; Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen. Jahresbericht `95  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual reports of the environmental agency of North-Rhine-Westphalia periodically inform on topics, developments and events. In its choice of technical topics, the agency was guided by the following aspects: topicality, significance for workers in this technical field and, especially, general technical interest. Consequently, this volume is not a report of activities but provides insight into the work of the agency, stimulates cooperation and helps to establish and intensify connections. The short papers fall into the subject categories water, soil, atmosphere, technical systems and information systems, permitting rapid survey. The subjects of the longer contributions were chosen right across the entire range of activities of the environmental agency. Aspects relating to several media of course had an influence on this choice. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Jahresberichte des Landesumweltamtes NRW geben periodisch eine Uebersicht ueber Themen, Entwicklungen und Ereignisse. Bei der Auswahl der Fachthemen laesst sich das Landesumweltamt von der Aktualitaet, der Bedeutung fuer die Fachwelt und auch von dem allgemeinen Fachinteresse leiten. Dieser Jahresbericht `95 ist somit kein Rechenschaftsbericht, sondern gibt Einblick in die Arbeit, soll zur Zusammenarbeit anregen, vielfaeltige fachliche Verbindungen knuepfen und festigen. Zur besseren Uebersichtlichkeit sind die Kurzbeitraege gegliedert in: Wasser, Boden, Luft, Technik und Informationssysteme. Die Hauptbeitraege setzen Schwerpunkte `quer durch das Landesumweltamt`, bei denen natuerlich medienuebergreifende Gesichtspunkte eine Rolle gespielt haben. (orig./SR)

NONE

1996-06-01

365

Future changes in extreme precipitation in the Rhine basin based on global and regional climate model simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probability estimates of the future change of extreme precipitation events are usually based on a limited number of available global climate model (GCM or regional climate model (RCM simulations. Since floods are related to heavy precipitation events, this restricts the assessment of flood risks. In this study a relatively simple method has been developed to get a better description of the range of changes in extreme precipitation events. Five bias-corrected RCM simulations of the 1961–2100 climate for a single greenhouse gas emission scenario (A1B SRES were available for the Rhine basin. To increase the size of this five-member RCM ensemble, 13 additional GCM simulations were analysed. The climate responses of the GCMs are used to modify an observed (1961–1995 precipitation time series with an advanced delta change approach. Changes in the temporal means and variability are taken into account. It is found that the range of future change of extreme precipitation across the five-member RCM ensemble is similar to results from the 13-member GCM ensemble. For the RCM ensemble, the time series modification procedure also results in a similar climate response compared to the signal deduced from the direct model simulations. The changes from the individual RCM simulations, however, systematically differ from those of the driving GCMs, especially for long return periods.

S. C. van Pelt

2012-12-01

366

Chronic Traffic-Induced PM Exposure and Self-Reported Respiratory and Cardiovascular Health in the RHINE Tartu Cohort  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between exposure to traffic induced particles, respiratory health and cardiac diseases was studied in the RHINE Tartu cohort. A postal questionnaire with commonly used questions regarding respiratory symptoms, cardiac disease, lifestyle issues such as smoking habits, indoor environment, occupation, early life exposure and sleep disorders was sent to 2,460 adults. The annual concentrations of local traffic induced particles were modelled with an atmospheric dispersion model with traffic flow data, and obtained PMexhaust concentrations in 40 × 40 m grids were linked with home addresses with GIS. The relationship between the level of exhaust particles outside home and self-reported health problems were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression model. We found a significant relation between fine exhaust particles and cardiac disease, OR = 1.64 (95% CI 1.12–2.43 for increase in PMexhaust corresponding to the fifth to the 95th percentile range. The associations also were positive but non-significant for hypertension OR = 1.42 (95% CI 0.94–2.13, shortness of breath OR = 1.27 (95% CI 0.84–1.94 and other respiratory symptoms.

Hans Orru

2009-10-01

367

Germany, high-tech country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national ar in the Netherlands, combining national and European aspects and emphasizing, in particular, the important function of ENS. Uranium enrichment as an European project was subject of the report by Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. The General Manager of Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman of Belgatom, Guy Frederic, examined the economic viability of nuclear power, appealing to the audience to reduce capital costs by innovation without detracting from safety. (orig./DG)

368

Atomic energy laws in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The regulations of German atomic energy laws are based in large on the fundamental law of the Federal Republic of Germany-the constitution. Atomgesetz of 1959, as amended on October 31, 1976, constitutes the core of atomic energy laws (Atomrecht), and is supplemented by orders (Verordnungen). The Federal Republic has the right to legislate Atomrecht, and the enforcement of such laws and orders is entrusted to each province. The peaceful uses of radioactive materials are stipulated by Atomgesetz and orders. Atomgesetz seeks two objects, first it is to enable the handling of radioactive substances for the acquisition of energy, medical treatment, food treatment and the harmless examination of things by radioactive materials, and secondly to ensure the protection from danger in the handling of such materials. The control of radioactive materials by the state including imports and exports, storage and possession, disposal and processing, etc., is established by the law to secure the protection from danger of atomic energy. The particular indemnification responsibility for the harm due to radiation is defined in Atomgesetz, and only the owners (Inhaber) of atomic energy facilities are liable for damage. The violation of the regulations on the transaction of radioactive materials is punished by fines up to 100,000 German marks of imprisonment of less than five years. Orders are established on roentgen ray, the protection from radiation, the treatment of foods by electron beion, the treatment of foods by electron beam, gamma ray, roentgen ray or ultraviolet ray and the permission of medicines. The regulations of the EURATOM treaty have legality as Atomrecht. (Okada, K.)

369

TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

2014-05-01

370

Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germanys European policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

Michèle Knodt

1999-03-01

371

Governing Through Resilience? Exploring Flood Protection in Dresden, Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper argues for a governmentality perspective on risk-management politics and resilience-related governance. This perspective pays ample attention to conflicts and discursive ‘battles’ in which different truths and normative assessments, including specific rationalities, subjectivities and technologies of governing compete against. Up to now, the literature on governmentality and resilience has mainly been based on empirical research in the UK. This research highlights the growing importance of neoliberal forms of governing, including a shift in governing strategies towards activating and responsibilizing the public. This is to some extent in contrast to observations about dealing with flood risk on the river Weisseritz in Dresden. The paper reflects on possible avenues for further conceptual and empirical research on ‘governing through resilience’ in the context of flood protection in Germany. It is based on a brief conceptualization of ‘governmentality’ as introduced by Michel Foucault, a literature review, and selected observations from a case study on flood protection for the river Weisseritz in Dresden.

Gérard Hutter

2014-06-01

372

Features of global hydrological processes using the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model simulation: focusing on five major river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

This study adopts a semi-distributed hydrological model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), to simulate the global terrestrial hydrological processes and analyze the variation of main processes, including precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture. To run the VIC model, we use the daily gridded precipitation product at a higher resolution (1°×1°) from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Besides, other daily meteorological data (including maximum and minimum daily temperatures) are derived from the NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis data. VIC model is run at a daily temporal step and 1° latitude-longitude spatial resolution for the period 1997-2008. The streamflow observations from five major continental river basins in the world (the Amazon River basin, the Mississippi River basin, the Yangtze River basin, the Rhine River basin and the Nile River basin) are used to verify the VIC simulation results. Then, this study quantifies the contributions of precipitation to soil moisture change, evapotranspiration and runoff over these five major river basins. This study also detects the response of those hydrological processes to the increase of temperature, which will benefit the regional environment and water management.

Wang, K.; Niu, J.; Chen, J.

2013-12-01

373

International Rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

International Rivers is an organization that opposes the construction of destructive dams on rivers, and they also support communities affected by dams. Their aim is to "protect rivers and promote just and sustainable water and energy development." Visitors will find most of their questions about dams and hydroelectricity can be answered under the "Learn More" tab's FAQ section. Along with each answer, there is most often an article, slideshow, video or other resource to explore further. Some of the pieces examine why there is opposition to large dams, the expense of hydroelectricity, the lack of local jobs produced when a dam is being built in a developing country, and the number of people displaced by dams. Under the "Get Involved" tab, there is a section called "Tools for Educators" that include lessons for introductory learners, intermediate learners, advanced learners, and a "River Educator's Toolkit", which contains lessons on the four major rivers in Asia, Africa, and South America.

374

Was Germany ever united? Borders and domestic trade, 1885 - 1933  

OpenAIRE

Was Germany ever united? Given the historical circumstances of Germany?s unification in the 19th century there is no obvious answer to this question. But such an answer can affect the prospects of the post-1989 unification process, and beyond this of European integration. We provide an econometric analysis of Germany?s economic integration across various internal borders from the foundation of the Kaiserreich until the end of the Weimar Republic. This analysis is based on a new comprehensiv...

Wolf, Nikolaus

2006-01-01

375

Geothermal reservoir properties of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) sediments in the Saar Nahe Basin (South-West Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

The geothermal potential of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) in the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the Saar-Nahe-Basin (Germany) has been shown in large scale regional studies. To further assess the geothermal potential of the different lithostratigraphical units and facies types within this Variscan intramontane basin, knowledge of their thermophysical and hydraulic properties is indispensable. Where the Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous molasse basin, the top of the up to two kilometers thick Permocarboniferous deposits is located at a depth of one to three kilometers and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. Therefore, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150°C, making it suitable for geothermal power production. Lithologically the Permocarboniferous deposits consist of different formations and facies types including fine, middle and coarse grained sandstones, arcosic sandstones, siltstones, volcanics and carbonates. Within the framework of the study presented here, outcrop analogue studies west of the Graben in the Saar-Nahe-Basin, and east of the Graben in the Wetterau and the Wetterau-Fulda-Basin are conducted. Each lithostratigraphic formation and lithofacies type is sampled in various outcrops to generate a statistically sufficient amount of samples of the different sedimentary rocks in order to determine their petrophysical, sedimentological and geochemical characteristics. The petrophysical parameters measured include the porosity, permeability, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and uniaxial compressive strength. So far, the petrophysical properties of samples of more than 70 locations have been measured in our lab facilities, showing a clear correlation with the facies type. Excluding the coarse grained sandstones of the Donnersberg formation at the beginning of the Nahe-subgroup of the Upper Rotliegend, the geothermal reservoir properties are more suitable in the Glan-subgroup of the Lower Rotliegend due to the increasing fraction of fluviatil facies with low sinuosity meander belts, that transported coarse grained and feldspar-rich sediments from along the basin axis. The next steps will include geochemical as well as petrographic-sedimentological analysis of each sample to study the mineral composition, the intergranular volume and diagenesis. Furthermore, the rock mass permeability is evaluated using hydraulic test data of wells intersecting the Permocarboniferous in the Saar Nahe Basin and other analogue areas, already showing a link between hydraulic conductivity and fault structures within the basin. Based on drilling and seismic data as well as geological maps together with the compiled petrophysical and hydraulic data, it is planned to establish a 3D reservoir model of the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the western Saar-Nahe-Basin. Due to the importance of fault zones, lithostratigraphical units and facies types, detailed modelling will allow a more reliable assessment of the geothermal potential. This model could be used for a better prediction of reservoir temperatures and production rates and will decrease the exploration risk.

Aretz, A.; Bär, K.; Sass, I.

2012-04-01

376

Assessing Management Regimes in Transboundary River Basins: Do They Support Adaptive Management?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper presents such an overview, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management.

Eduard Interwies

2008-06-01

377

Exploitation of hydropower potentials. EnBW operates run-of-river power plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; Wasserkraft-Potenziale ausschoepfen. EnBW betreibt in Baden-Wuerttemberg Laufwasserkraftanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For about 100 years power is generated from hydroelectric power on the river Neckar (Federal Republic of Germany). A total hydropower capacity of about 100 megawatts already is installed at the Neckar river. In the Federal State Baden-Wuerttemberg there is certainly the potential for the construction and modernization of hydroelectric power plants. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the reconstruction of the run-of-river power plant Schwabenheim nearby Heidelberg (Federal Republic of Germany).

Frey, Martin

2013-06-01

378

Forum 'North Rhine-Westphalia fit for the future'.- Energy sources seminar - the local governments' contribution to establishing a future-oriented energy policy 'from below'. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On October 9, 1997, a seminar on energy sources was held in Duesseldorf within the framework of the programme of the academy for nature conservation and environmental protection (NUA) of North Rhine-Westphalia. The topic of the meeting, 'local governments' contributions to establishing a future-oriented energy policy from below' gathered representatives and lecturers from local authorities, electric utilities, planning and consultancy firms, political bodies and environmental associations. Papers presented to the seminar have been indexed and analysed for separate retrieval from the database. (orig./CB)

379

Germany. A pioneer on earthen feet?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany is one of the two OECD countries having achieved substantial greenhouse gas reductions in the last decade. While a part was large reductions in industry after the economic crash in East Germany, a relevant share is due to the huge public infrastructure investments in East Germany. The real success of German climate policy in the past decade is the strong reduction of methane and nitrous oxide which has been almost unnoticed. German climate policy is a good example of how lobbying of interest groups leads to a complex maze of hundreds of measures whose effects are difficult to evaluate. Paradoxically, policies have focused on expensive measures and Germany clearly is a pioneer in the most expensive forms of renewable energy. Concerning cost-effective measures and market instruments, Germany is a laggard. Only slowly, policymakers start to notice this distortion and first, shaky steps towards a more cost-efficient policy are made. Several challenges such as nuclear phase-out and trends in household energy consumption will put pressure on government to embrace the Kyoto Mechanisms and to refocus domestic instruments well before the first commitment period

380

Multi-model climate impact assessment and intercomparison for three large-scale river basins on three continents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change impacts on hydrological processes should be simulated for river basins using validated models and multiple climate scenarios in order to provide reliable results for stakeholders. In the last 10–15 years climate impact assessment was performed for many river basins worldwide using different climate scenarios and models. Nevertheless, the results are hardly comparable and do not allow to create a full picture of impacts and uncertainties. Therefore, a systematic intercomparison of impacts is suggested, which should be done for representative regions using state-of-the-art models. Our study is intended as a step in this direction. The impact assessment presented here was performed for three river basins on three continents: Rhine in Europe, Upper Niger in Africa and Upper Yellow in Asia. For that, climate scenarios from five GCMs and three hydrological models: HBV, SWIM and VIC, were used. Four "Representative Concentration Pathways" (RCPs covering a range of emissions and land-use change projections were included. The objectives were to analyze and compare climate impacts on future trends considering three runoff quantiles: Q90, Q50 and Q10 and on seasonal water discharge, and to evaluate uncertainties from different sources.