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1

Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right. The Rhine, one of the largest and most used waterways in central Europe, winds its way through five countries from the Swiss-Austrian Alps to the North Sea coast of the Netherlands. The river valley is densely populated, as seen in this image, which shows the French city of Strasbourg, the light blue and orange area in the upper left center; and the German cities of Kehl, across the river from Strasbourg and Offenburg, the bright area in right center. The fertile valley is famous for its wine production and most of the agricultural areas in the image, shown in purple patches, are vineyards. The light green areas are forest. Scientists can use radar images like this one to monitor the effects of urban and agricultural development on sensitive ecosystems such as the Rhine River valley. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is 34.2 kilometers by 33.2 kilometers (21.2 miles by 20.6 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 7.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

1994-01-01

2

The distribution of the lanthanum anomaly in the Dutch branches of the Rhine River  

Science.gov (United States)

The elements lanthanum to lutetium, usually referred as the REE, are increasingly used in numerous high technology products and processes. Such products are Gadolinium chelates, used as contrasting agents in medical imaging, and produce positive anthropogenic Gd-anomalies in rare earth shale normalized (Reenasc) patterns in rivers, surface and ground waters and shallow seas. Because of the increased use of the REE, the monitoring program of the Rhine-Meuse branches and surface water influenced by them in the Netherlands was extended from 2008 with the REE. In this monitoring program both the total and dissolved (cracking catalysts at Rhine river-km 447.4. The amount of anthropogenic lanthanum in the total fraction in Lobith station is an order of magnitude larger than in the dissolved fraction indicating that the suspended matter in the Rhine River is the major carrier of the anthropogenic lanthanum. All REEnasc- patterns of the branches of the Rhine River show in addition to the Gd-anomaly a positive La-anomaly, while in the Meuse River only a Gd-anomaly is observed. In the influenced surface waters of the Rhine and Meuse Rivers always a Gd-anomaly occurs but in those influenced by the Rhine tributaries also the La-anomaly occurs. In the poster the load of lanthanum over the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 in the dissolved and total fraction at Lobith and the distribution of the La anomaly over the branches of the Rhine River in the Netherlands (4 monitoring stations) and influenced surface water (5 monitoring stations) will be shown. The Meuse monitoring stations will be given for comparison. Kulaksiz, S., Bau, M., 2011. Rare earth elements in the Rhine River, Germany: First case of anthropogenic lanthanum as a dissolved microcontaminant in the hydrosphere. Environment International, 37: 973-879.

Verheul, M.; Klaver, G.; Bakker, I.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

2011-12-01

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Flood trends along the Rhine: the role of river training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several previous studies have detected positive trends in flood flows in German rivers, among others, at Rhine gauges over the past six decades. The presence and detectability of the climate change signal in flood records has been controversially discussed, particularly against the background of massive river training measures in the Rhine. In the past the Rhine catchment has been heavily trained, including the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. The present study investigates the role of river training on changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the effect of the Rhine weir cascade and of a series of detention basins was investigated. By homogenising the original flood flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be from a few percentage points to more than 10 percentage points smaller compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures, and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges during this period was partly caused by an unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. This superposition resulted from an acceleration of the Rhine waves due to the construction of the weir cascade and associated channelisation and dike heightening. However, at the same time, tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual maximum Rhine peaks, showed strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of another driver or drivers which acted alongside river training.

S. Vorogushyn

2013-10-01

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Storm-rhine -simulation Tool For River Management  

Science.gov (United States)

The Simulation Tool for River Management (STORM), based on the River Rhine case, aims to provide insight into river and floodplain management, by (1) raising aware- ness of river functions, (2) exploring alternative strategies, (3) showing the links be- tween natural processes, spatial planning, engineering interventions, river functions and stakeholder interests, (4) facilitating the debate between different policy makers and stakeholders from across the basin and (5) enhancing co-operation and mutual un- derstanding. The simulation game is built around the new concepts of SRoom for the & cedil;RiverT, Flood Retention Areas, Resurrection of former River Channels and SLiving & cedil;with the FloodsT. The Game focuses on the Lower and Middle Rhine from the Dutch Delta to Maxau in Germany. Influences from outside the area are included as scenarios for boundary conditions. The heart of the tool is the hydraulic module, which calcu- lates representative high- and low water-levels for different hydrological scenarios and influenced by river engineering measures and physical planning in the floodplains. The water levels are translated in flood risks, navigation potential, nature development and land use opportunities in the floodplain. Players of the Game represent the institutions: National, Regional, Municipal Government and Interest Organisations, with interests in flood protection, navigation, agriculture, urban expansion, mining and nature. Play- ers take typical river and floodplain engineering, physical planning and administrative measures to pursue their interests in specific river functions. The players are linked by institutional arrangements and budgetary constraints. The game particularly aims at middle and higher level staff of local and regional government, water boards and members of interest groups from across the basin, who deal with particular stretches or functions of the river but who need (1) to be better aware of the integrated whole, (2) to understand the interests and considerations of others and (3) to experience the mu- tual benefits of co-operation. There is potential for using the game as one of the tools in support of interactive formulation of policy and participatory decision-making in actual plans.

Heun, J. C.; Schotanus, T. D.; de Groen, M. M.; Werner, M.

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Nature and nurture: Environmental isotope story of the River Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

The total dissolved load of the Rhine river increases downstream due to the combined impact of natural and pollution loads. The natural background, controlled by geology, is soon swamped by pollution, particularly from salt and coal mining activities in Alsace and the Ruhr area. The Rhine is also a net source of CO2 from oxidation of excess organic productivity that is fuelled by nutrient pollution, a problem even more serious for some of its tributaries.

Buhl, D.; Neuser, R. D.; Richter, D. K.; Riedel, D.; Roberts, B.; Strauss, H.; Veizer, J.

1991-08-01

6

Signature of Rhine Valley sturzstrom dam failures in Holocene sediments of Lake Constance, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslide-dammed lakes that form upstream of large-scale rockslide-avalanches (=sturzstroms) present an enormous potential hazard to downstream areas. Such failures are recorded in the Early Holocene sediments of Upper Lake Constance (Germany) by the presence of two clastic layers that were emplaced around 9400 cal. YBP. The sedimentology of these layers contrasts sharply with the typical Late Glacial and Holocene lacustrine sediments present beneath the floor of the lake. Sedimentary structures and the magnetic fabric of these clastic deposits strongly suggest that they were emplaced by hyperpycnal underflows related to catastrophic floods that entered the lake from the Rhine River. From stratigraphic and geologic data, it is inferred that the hyperpycnite deposits are directly related to the failure of two sturzstrom dams and the draining of the dammed lakes that developed upstream from them. These lakes were dammed by the Flims and the Tamins sturzstrom deposits, respectively. Sedimentologic data from Lake Constance indicate that the two successive events occurred within a very short time interval, probably not exceeding several years. Consequently, these lacustrine deposits provide essential information about the morphogenic evolution of the Rhine River valley during the Early Holocene and about the sturzstrom events that occurred during the same time interval.

Schneider, Jean-Luc; Pollet, Nicolas; Chapron, Emmanuel; Wessels, Martin; Wassmer, Patrick

2004-07-01

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What drives flood trends along the Rhine River: climate or river training?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Rhine River catchment was heavily trained over the past decades and faced the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. For the same time period, several studies detected positive trends in flood flows and faced the challenge of flood trend attribution, i.e. identifying the drivers of observed change. The presented study addresses the question about the responsible drivers for changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the role of river training measures including the Rhine weir cascade and a series of detention basins in enhancing Rhine floods was investigated. By applying homogenisation relationships to the original flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, the relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be smaller up to about 20% points compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges was partly caused by the unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. It resulted from the acceleration of the Rhine waves due to construction of the weir cascade. However, at the same time, the tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual Rhine peaks, showed very strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of a large-scale driver such as climate variability/change which acted along with river training. In particular, the analysis suggests that the river training measures fell in a period with increasing flood trends driven by factors other than river training of the Rhine main channel.

S. Vorogushyn

2012-12-01

8

Extended reference precipitation and temperature dataset for the river Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

The need of a reliable and extended dataset for the river Rhine lies in the growing necessity of evaluating the effects of climate change. For the countries directly involved, which benefit and sometimes distract from the extreme discharges of the Rhine, these kinds of datasets are of great importance. They can act as reference for the correction of errors in precipitation predictions from General Circulation Models or from simulated datasets such as the ERA-40 and ERA-interim. These errors can lead to over/underestimations of hydrological simulation and latent use of hydrological forecasts. The purpose of this study is to present an extended reference dataset of daily values of precipitation and temperature, from 1961 until 2008, for the whole basin of the river Rhine. The proposed dataset is based on the historical data from 1961 until 1995 of the International Commission of the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (referred to as CHR). Our concern is to extend the CHR set until 2008, creating an updated reference for future studies. The Rhine basin is divided into three sub-catchments. These sub-catchments correspond to the German, French and Swiss basins of the river Rhine. For each sub-catchment, gridded datasets of daily values of precipitation and temperature are used. The datasets are obtained from REGNIE, University of Trier and MeteoSwiss-ETH, for the German, French and Swiss sub-catchment of the Rhine, respectively. Possible gaps that are found in the datasets, are filled with values from E_OBS Gridded Dataset, obtain from ECA&D. The subsets of these three sub-catchments are joined together and create a long term dataset that covers the entire Rhine basin. The extended dataset, referred to as CHR08, is rescaled to 25 km taking into account the topography of the catchment areas. In order to eliminate any artificial trend created in the CHR08 dataset, some homogeneity checks are performed, using the E_OBS dataset. Here, homogeneity tests of the variance, the mean and the maximum number of consecutive wet days are applied and presented. The CHR08 dataset is implemented, analyzed and presented with Delft-FEWS. To determine whether the CHR08 dataset contains useful and correct information about the discharges of the Rhine, the HBV-96 hydrological model is used. The HBV-96 model produces daily discharges of the Rhine in each sub-catchment. The observed maximum annual discharges are compared with the corresponding simulated discharges at each sub-catchment. The annual extreme discharges at Lobith (German-Dutch border) and the variation of extremes discharges for the years 1961 until 2008 are also presented.

Photiadou, Christiana; Weerts, Albrecht; van den Hurk, Bart

2010-05-01

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Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

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Contaminant variability in a sedimentation area of the river Rhine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended solids and erosion of deposited sediment in the shallow Dutch lakes (due to wave action) are likely to change contamination levels of sediments in these lakes, which is the subject of this thesis. The aim o...

Winkels, H. J.

1997-01-01

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Anthropogenic dissolved and colloid/nanoparticle-bound samarium, lanthanum and gadolinium in the Rhine River and the impending destruction of the natural rare earth element distribution in rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

The strong increase in the consumption of rare earth elements (REE) in high-tech products and processes is accompanied by increasing amounts of REE released into the environment. Following the first report of Gd contamination of the hydrosphere in 1996, anthropogenic Gd originating from contrast agents has now been reported worldwide from river and estuarine waters, coastal seawater, groundwater and tap water. Recently, microcontamination with La, that is derived from a point source where catalysts for petroleum refining are produced, has been detected in the Rhine River in Germany and the Netherlands. Here we report the occurrence of yet another REE microcontamination of river water: in addition to anthropogenic Gd and La, the Rhine River now also shows significant amounts of anthropogenic Sm. The anthropogenic Sm, which enters the Rhine River north of Worms, Germany, with the same industrial wastewater that carries the anthropogenic La, can be traced through the Middle and Lower Rhine to the Netherlands. At Leverkusen, Germany, some 250 km downstream from the point source at Worms, anthropogenic Sm still contributes up to 87% of the total dissolved Sm concentration of the Rhine River. Results from ultrafiltration suggest that while the anthropogenic Gd is not particle-reactive and hence exclusively present in the truly dissolved REE pool (effects have been documented. Because of the increasing use of REE and other formerly "exotic" trace elements in high-tech applications, these critical metals have now become emerging contaminants that should be monitored, and it appears that studies of their biogeochemical behavior in natural freshwaters might soon no longer be possible.

Kulaks?z, Serkan; Bau, Michael

2013-01-01

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Decision support and river management strategies for the Rhine in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a methodology for assessing and comparing alternative river management strategies for the Dutch branches of the river Rhine. The three objectives considered in the analysis are: safety against flooding which is a necessary condition to maintain and enhance economic development of a major part of the Netherlands, improving inland navigation conditions along the river (the Rhine is a major transport route between the port of Rotterdam and Germany), and increasing the ecological values of the river system. This paper describes the methodology and models that are used to assess alternative ways of meeting these objectives. We used hydrodynamic modeling aided by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a new approach that has some important advantages compared to traditional approaches. The analysis shows the trade-offs for various strategies (for example safety versus nature, nature versus inland navigation, agriculture versus nature etc.) and looks for possibility to create win-win situations. It also produces scorecards for various strategies, which show their impacts on the functions of the river and their financial consequences. (author)

13

Diversity and distribution of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae in dry ecosystems of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study provides a robust data set for ecological planning and conservation of dry ecosystems in western Germany in general and North Rhine-Westphalia in particular. We summarised all available data from recent publications that dealt with spiders in dry ecosystems of North Rhine-Westphalia. Additionally, so far unpublished results of a detailed investigation regarding spiders in sand habitats of the Westphalian Bay that was conducted between 2006 and 2008 are presented. The analysis focussed on the habitat types according to Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive and related habitats. The investigation areas were scattered in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The data set comprised a total of 84436 individuals from 371 species and 28 families. Overall, an endangerment status is assigned to 68 species. Of these, 12 spiders are in imminent danger of becoming extinct. Two species, Erigonoplus globipes and Meioneta simplicitarsis, are believed to be extinct in North Rhine-Westphalia. Seven species (Dictyna major, Mastigusa arietina, Micaria formicaria, Styloctetor romanus, Thanatus striatus, Theridion uhligi and Xysticus ferrugineus are new to the arachnofauna of North Rhine-Westphalia.

Kreuels, Martin

2009-12-01

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Water surface temperature profiles for the Rhine River derived from Landsat ETM+ data  

Science.gov (United States)

Water temperature influences physical and chemical parameters of rivers and streams and is an important parameter for water quality. It is a crucial factor for the existence and the growth of animal and plant species in the river ecosystem. The aim of the research project "Remote sensing of water surface temperature" at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany, is to supplement point measurements of water temperature with remote sensing methodology. The research area investigated here is the Upper and Middle Rhine River, where continuous measurements of water temperature are already available for several water quality monitoring stations. Satellite imagery is used to complement these point measurements and to generate longitudinal temperature profiles for a better systematic understanding of the changes in river temperature along its course. Several products for sea surface temperature derived from radiances in the thermal infrared are available, but for water temperature from rivers less research has been carried out. Problems arise from the characteristics of the river valley and morphology and the proximity to the riverbank. Depending on the river width, a certain spatial resolution of the satellite images is necessary to allow for an accurate identification of the river surface and the calculation of water temperature. The bands from the Landsat ETM+ sensor in the thermal infrared region offer a possibility to extract the river surface temperatures (RST) of a sufficiently wide river such as the Rhine. Additionally, problems such as cloud cover, shadowing effects, georeferencing errors, different emissivity of water and land, scattering of thermal radiation, adjacency and mixed pixel effects had to be accounted for and their effects on the radiance temperatures will be discussed. For this purpose, several temperature data sets derived from radiance and in situ measurements were com- pared. The observed radiance temperatures are strongly influenced by the atmosphere. Without atmospheric correction, the absolute mean difference between RST and in situ measurements was 1.1°C with a standard devi- ation of 1.3°C. Thus, a correction of atmospheric influences on radiances measured at the top of the atmosphere was necessary and two different methods for atmospheric correction (ATCOR2 and the Atmospheric Correction Parameter Calculator) were applied. The correction results showed that for both methods, the correct choice of atmospheric profiles is very important. With the calculator, an absolute mean difference of 0.8 +/- 1.0°C and with the selected overall best scenes, an absolute mean difference of 0.5 ± 0.7°C was achieved. The selected corrected RST can be used to interpolate between in situ measurements available only for a limited number of points along the river course and longitudinal example profiles of the surface water temperature in the Upper and Middle Rhine could be calculated for different seasons. On the basis of these profiles, the increasing temperature gradient along the Upper Rhine could be identified and the possibility to detect heat or cooling discharge from tributaries and other sources is evaluated.

Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn

2013-10-01

15

A Journey on Three Rivers: The Nile, The Rhine, The Mississippi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses on the Nile, the Rhine, and the Mississippi, the greatest rivers of Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. Highlights the rich diversity of subjects associated with rivers including geography, history, literature, and art. Includes 12 learning activities for each river. (MJP)

Allen, Anita

1996-01-01

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The impact of climate change on the water quality of the Rhine river:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this research the effect of hydrological extremes on water quality are studied for the Rhine River, in order to assess potential water quality effects of climate change. The water quality of the Rhine was studied for the periods 1975-1977 and 1987-2005. During these periods eight hydrological extremes occured, five of which being classified as floods and three as periods of drought. The water quality during these hydrological extremes has been compared with the water quality in reference p...

Bokhoven, A. J.

2006-01-01

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Hydropower stations on the upper reaches of the river Rhine; Die Wasserkraftwerke am Hochrhein. Zwischen Basel und Bodensee widerspiegeln sich wesentliche Epochen der Elektrizitaet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article takes a look at the various hydropower stations to be found along the upper reaches of the river Rhine between Basel, Switzerland, and Lake Constance. According to the author, these power stations reflect the various important eras in the history of electricity generation. The eleven power stations along this 120 km long section of the Rhine are looked at and their importance in the history of electricity generation and use is reviewed. An initial hydropower station in Schaffhausen, Switzerland, is described and the involvement of famous engineering and construction companies in Germany and Switzerland is discussed. The development of generation and the wide adoption of 50 Hz for the mains frequency first developed for the power station in Rheinfelden is discussed. The hydropower stations to be found along this section of the Rhine are described.

Bocks, W.

2010-07-01

18

Surveys of new and rare microfungi in the Düsseltal (North Rhine-Westphalia)--Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the years 2003 and 2004 we have observed an about 70 hectare large area in the Düsseltal, the eastern part of the Neandertal in North Rhine-Westphalia. There we collected on trees, bushes and herbs and found about 150 microfungi of which some are new for Germany or the entire world. E.g.: Pseudocercospora populigena N. ALE-AGHA, U. BRAUN & G.B. FEIGE on Populus berolinensis; Vialaea insculpta (FR.) SACC. on Ilex aquifolium L.; Passalora amelopsidis (PECK.) U. BRAUN on Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) PLANCH.: Pleiochaeta setosa (KIRCHN.) HUGHES on Genista angelica L.; Cercospora mercurialis PASS. on Mercurialis perennis L. (new for NRW); Pleurocytospora vestita PETRAK on Ribes aureum PURSH.; Gonatobotrys simplex CORDA on Lolium perenne L.; Phomatospora berckleyi SACC. on Dactylis glomerata L. and so on. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha. PMID:16637187

Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kricke, R

2005-01-01

19

Microseismicity at two geothermal power plants at Landau and Insheim in the Upper Rhine Graben, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Rhine Graben in south-western Germany and especially the southern part of Rhineland-Palatinate is one of the regions with the highest potential for deep geothermal power generation in Germany. One geothermal power plant is operated since 2007 in the city of Landau and a second power plant since Oct. 2012 near Insheim (~4 km south-east of Landau). Further geothermal power plants are currently projected in this region. In 2009 two earthquakes with magnitudes (ML) of 2.4 and 2.7 occurred in direct vicinity of the geothermal reservoir below Landau (depth ~3 km) and were felt within a radius of several kilometres (intensity up to V+). Furthermore, two felt earthquakes with magnitudes (ML) of 2.2 and 2.4 occurred during the stimulation of the reservoir near Insheim in April 2010. Therefore, a temporary seismic network was deployed and is continuously extended by the Geophysical Institute of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology with 12 stations (surface and shallow borehole) of the KArlsruhe Broad Band Array KABBA. In total more than 35 stations are operated by four operators for the microseismic monitoring of the region around Landau. The main challenge of the monitoring is the detection of the microseismic events with a magnitude ML below 1 due to the high seismic noise conditions in the densely populated Upper Rhine Graben. The application of established short-term to long-term average trigger algorithms is not feasible due to the large amount of transient signals caused by human activity (e.g. traffic). We apply an automated detection of microseismic events based on a combined cross-correlation and correlation coefficient analysis with known seismic events. The detected events are localized for absolute (HYPOSAT) and relative (hypoDD) hypocentres. Furthermore, we determine the peak ground velocities and vibration intensities after the German standard (DIN 4150-2 Structural vibration: human exposure to vibration in buildings) to evaluate the perceptibility of the shallow seismic events with MLNuclear Safety of the Federal Republic of Germany (FKZ 0325191A-F) and supervised by Projektträger Jülich (PT-J).

Groos, Jörn; Zeiß, Jens; Grund, Michael; Ritter, Joachim

2013-04-01

20

Invasive Ponto-Caspian Amphipods and Fish Increase the Distribution Range of the Acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the River Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens), Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454), Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695) and Orchestia cavimana (1,448) were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby) and invertebrates (amphipods) under special consideration of parasite dispersal. PMID:23300895

Emde, Sebastian; Rueckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W.; Klimpel, Sven

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens), Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454), Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695) and Orchestia cavimana (1,448) were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby) and invertebrates (amphipods) under special consideration of parasite dispersal. PMID:23300895

Emde, Sebastian; Rueckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

2012-01-01

22

Evaluation of the Non-Formal Forest Education Sector in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: Organisations, Programmes and Framework Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Although a large number of different organisations offer various forest education programmes within Germany, specific information (i.e., sectoral and programme content and provision at a state level) is lacking. This study used a survey of all 61 forest education organisations (43 respondents) in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, to…

Grimm, Anne; Mrosek, Thorsten; Martinsohn, Anna; Schulte, Andreas

2011-01-01

23

Distribution and sources of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the River Rhine watershed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentration profile of 40 polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface water along the River Rhine watershed from the Lake Constance to the North Sea was investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of point as well as diffuse sources, to estimate fluxes of PFAS into the North Sea and to identify replacement compounds of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the method performance was conducted. The PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) with concentrations up to 181 ng/L and 335 ng/L, respectively, which originated from industrial point sources. Fluxes of {Sigma}PFAS were estimated to be {approx}6 tonnes/year which is much higher than previous estimations. Both, the River Rhine and the River Scheldt, seem to act as important sources of PFAS into the North Sea. - The short-chained polyfluoroalkyl substances PFBA and PFBS replace PFOA and PFOA as dominating PFAS in surface waters in the River Rhine watershed.

Moeller, Axel, E-mail: axel.moeller@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Institute for Coastal Research, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Ahrens, Lutz; Surm, Renate [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Institute for Coastal Research, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Westerveld, Joke; Wielen, Frans van der [University of Amsterdam, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ebinghaus, Ralf [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Institute for Coastal Research, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Voogt, Pim de [University of Amsterdam, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

2010-10-15

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Distribution and sources of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the River Rhine watershed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration profile of 40 polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface water along the River Rhine watershed from the Lake Constance to the North Sea was investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of point as well as diffuse sources, to estimate fluxes of PFAS into the North Sea and to identify replacement compounds of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the method performance was conducted. The PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) with concentrations up to 181 ng/L and 335 ng/L, respectively, which originated from industrial point sources. Fluxes of ?PFAS were estimated to be ?6 tonnes/year which is much higher than previous estimations. Both, the River Rhine and the River Scheldt, seem to act as important sources of PFAS into the North Sea. - The short-chained polyfluoroalkyl substances PFBA and PFBS replace PFOA and PFOA as dominating PFAS in surface waters in the River Rhine watershed.

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Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing adaptive action. The paper shows that the moment at which salmon reintroduction may fail due to climate change can only be approximated because of inherent uncertainties in the interaction between salmon and its environment. The added value of the assessment presented in this paper is that it provides researchers with a set of questions that are useful from a policy perspective (by focusing on the feasibility of a concrete policy ambition under climate change. Thus, it offers opportunities to supply policy makers with practical insight in the relevance of climate change.

Tobias Bölscher

2013-05-01

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Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Findings Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was used (N=3,306. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale with three dimensions (one internal and two external and six aspects of health behaviour (smoking habits, alcohol use, drug consumption, being over-/ or underweight, physical activity, and importance of healthy nutrition were evaluated. Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals with a stronger belief in health professionals were less likely to use drugs and paid more attention to healthy nutrition. Furthermore, higher scores in the second external locus of control dimension (beliefs in luck or chance were associated with a higher likelihood of current smoking, lower physical activity and less attention to healthy nutrition. Conclusions Students engaged more strongly in unhealthy behaviour if they believed that luck determines health. In contrast, believing in having control over one’s own health was associated with more healthy behaviour. These findings support the need to consider health control beliefs while designing preventive strategies in this specific population.

Helmer Stefanie M

2012-12-01

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Uncertainties in simulating river/groundwater exchanges over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for an effective management of water resources. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on choices made to represent the river water stage in the model as well as on the hydrogeological parameters. Recently, a coupled surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin (Thierion et al., 2012). The present study aims at improving the estimation of the river/groundwater exchange, and thus, of the hydrodynamic of the alluvial aquifer, and at getting an idea of the associated uncertainty by performing a set of simulations that best take advantage of the different kinds of observed data. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources quantity and quality in small to regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the ISBA surface scheme that estimates the water balance, the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. In addition, the QtoZ module (Saleh et al., 2011) is used to calculate the river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river, according to three different approaches that are compared: a control experiment with constant river water stage, a rating curves approach derived from observed river discharges and river stages, and the Manning's formula, for which Manning's parameters are defined according to geomorphological parameterizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Supplementary sensitivity tests are also performed by using different hydrogeological parameter datasets (porosity and transmissivity). Two sources of DEM were used for this part. Additionally, sensitivity to the time step of the estimation (daily versus monthly) was studied. The evaluation is made against observed water levels and river discharges collected both from the french and german riversides of the alluvial plain. A heavy network of water table depth observations is also available to evaluate the simulated piezometric heads. Preliminary results show that the primary source of errors when simulating river stage - and hence groundwater-river interactions - is the uncertainties associated with the topographic data used to define the riverbed elevation. It confirms the need to access to more accurate DEM for estimating riverbed elevation and studying groundwater-river interactions, at least at regional scale. References Saleh, F., Flipo, N., Habets, F., Ducharne, A., Oudin, L., Viennot, P., Ledoux, E. Modeling the impact of in-stream water level fluctuations on stream-aquifer interactions at the regional scale (2011)Journal of Hydrology, 400 (3-4) pp 490-500 Thierion C., Longuevergne L., Habets F. Ledoux E., Ackerer P., Majdalani S., Leblois E., Lecluse S., Martin E, Queguiner S., Viennot P., Assessing the water balance of the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem, Journal of Hydrology 424-425 , pp. 68-83

Vergnes, Jean-Pierre; Habets, Florence

2014-05-01

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Temperature detection of tributaries and inflows along the Rhine River using thermal remote sensing from satellite and airplane  

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Surface temperatures can be determined contact-free in the thermal infrared wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Many satellites collect data in this region, but the spatial resolution is normally not as good as in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. When investigating smaller inland water bodies, the accuracy of discriminating temperatures of land and water or different water bodies is obviously limited. Nevertheless, remote sensing offers a good tool for investigating spatial temperature distributions. At the Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany, (BfG) the feasibility to monitor the temperature of waterways by means of remote sensing was assessed within the research project "Remote sensing of water surface temperature". For a case study of the Upper and Middle Rhine River, the temperature of the river surface was acquired from 19 Landsat ETM+ scenes (60m ground resolution) between 2000 and 2009. Different atmospheric correction methods and parameter sets were applied and the results compared to concurrent in situ measurements. However, no correction method proved to be superior to the others. Based on the comparison with the in situ measurements, the best correction was selected. The regionally varying differences showed that spatially fitted parameters should preferably be used in the future. Furthermore, the uncertainty of temperatures determined from satellite data was calculated. Considering the thermal resolution of the satellite data and the uncertainty of the calculated temperatures, temperature differences between the main river and the inflows of larger tributaries, e.g. the Moselle, or power plants and temperature distributions were evaluated. From satellite images, temperature values were extracted along the river centre line to create longitudinal river profiles. With these temperature profiles, the influence of smaller tributaries on the river temperature could be detected that was not visible directly at the outlet due to the uncertainty and the limitations of resolution. In addition, a more detailed investigation of smaller tributaries and spatial distribution of temperature differences was undertaken with high spatial resolution (4m) thermal data acquired by an airborne mission in October 2013.

Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn

2014-05-01

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Mission on the Rhine: American Educational Policy in Postwar Germany, 1945-1949.  

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After World War II, America assumed the responsibility for helping to reform Germany's educational system. American educational policy did not have a clear direction; three distinct phases are discernible. (AM)

Tent, James F.

1982-01-01

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Development and application of a 1D floodplain sedimentation model for the River Rhine in The Netherlands  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, concern about the morphological and ecological condition of the rivers Rhine and Meuse has increased. Simultaneously with the projects for rehabilitation, measures were proposed to improve the discharge capacity of the high-water floodway, in order to reduce the risk of river flooding. Although many studies focus on the impact of different landscaping measures on the river hydrodynamics (water level and discharge capacity), little attention is paid to the sustainability of the proposed measures with respect to sedimentation. In this study a one-dimensional (1D) floodplain sedimentation model was developed that estimates average sediment accumulation over floodplain sections and that can be used for estimation of changes in floodplain sedimentation caused by landscaping measures. The model was successfully calibrated and validated using sedimentation measurements carried out at different floodplain sections along the river Rhine in The Netherlands during floods. Application of the model to the main branches of the river Rhine in The Netherlands indicates that the average annual sediment accumulation equals 1.72 kg/m 2/yr, or 394 million kg/yr. This is about 13% of the total annual suspended sediment load transported into The Netherlands at Lobith.

Asselman, Nathalie E. M.; van Wijngaarden, Marjolein

2002-11-01

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Petrographic and geophysical assessment of coal quality as related to briquetting. The Miocene lignite of the Lower Rhine Basin, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Lower Rhine Basin, Germany, Tertiary lignites are mined primarily for electrical power generation and briquetting purposes. Until 2000, when the mine was closed, coals from the Bergheim open pit mine were used for briquetting. After 2000, briquettes were produced from the Hambach open pit mine but did not show the same quality and hardness as those from the Bergheim pit. In this context, the macropetrographic and microlithotype composition of the Hambach lignites was studied in detail. Samples were taken from the three profiles, S1, S2 and S3, and a well, R1. All of the samples were macropetrographically described, analyzed in their microlithotype composition, and coals from profile S3 were analyzed for their briquetting compression strength. Three horizons of high gelite content were detected in the Main Seam, two of them with negligible thickness and one with a thickness of up to 1 m. Briquettes produced from these horizons are characterized by significantly reduced hardness. By careful interpretation of subtle changes in geophysical log data, it was possible to map the occurrence of these gelite horizons. As a consequence of these studies, an excavation plan was set up by the RWE Rheinbraun to avoiding mining of critical strata for briquetting purposes.

Naeth, J.; Littke, R. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University (RWTH), Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Asmus, S.C. [RWE Rheinbraun AG, Bereich Tagebaue, Abteilung Markscheidewesen und Lagerstatte, Stuttgenweg 2, D-50935 Cologne (Germany)

2004-10-22

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Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization: the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany  

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Full Text Available Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA on the management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality.

Fehr Rainer

2003-01-01

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Impacts of heavy precipitation events to emergency preparedness and response in the Rhine-Main-Area (Germany)  

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Heavy precipitation events are assumed effects of the climate change with wide seasonal and regional differences concerning their magnitude. An increase of particular short and intense rainfall is predicted by climate modelling for mid-Germany within the next 30 years, especially in spring and summer. The Rhine-Main-Area is stated one of the largest metropolitan areas in Germany with a very high density in population as well as industrial and traffic infrastructure. The vulnerability to natural hazards rises according to this fact. It is shown, that even today's heavy precipitation events have already a large extend of loss and cause high operational expenses to the Fire Departments involved, mainly caused by the enormous number of same-time reported incidents. The Fire Brigade of a community represents the responsible authority for rapid intervention to all kinds of emergencies resulting from heavy precipitation events. All emergency interventions by the local fire-brigade are coordinated by a superior local emergency control center, also operated by the Fire Department, where all incidents are logged in an electronic control system. The German Meteorological Service (DWD) offers support in previous warning and provides data for the subsequent evaluation of heavy precipitation events. The analysis of the correlation between heavy precipitation and reported local incidents for the Fire Departments helps to point out the problem. Within the efforts to cope with the consequences of climate change effects, the authorities as well as the hazard control institutions have to prepare new strategies and emergency plans for the future as requested by the German "National adaption strategy to the climate change". This is not especially a task for the Fire Brigades, but also for the general public to enhance their resilience. Keywords: emergency planning, infrastructure, heavy-precipitation

Kutschker, Thomas

2014-05-01

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Source and origin of active and fossil thermal spring systems, northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal water samples and related young and fossil mineralization from a geothermal system at the northern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben have been investigated by combining hydrochemistry with stable and Sr isotope geochemistry. Actively discharging thermal springs and mineralization are present in a structural zone that extends over at least 60 km along strike, with two of the main centers of hydrothermal activity being Wiesbaden and Bad Nauheim. This setting provides the rare opportunity to link the chemistry and isotopic signatures of modern thermal waters directly with fossil mineralization dating back to at least 500–800 ka. The fossil thermal spring mineralization can be classified into two major types: barite-(pyrite) fracture filling associated with laterally-extensive silicification; and barite, goethite and silica impregnation mineralization in Tertiary sediments. Additionally, carbonatic sinters occur around active springs. Strontium isotope and trace element data suggest that mixing of a hot (>100 °C), deep-sourced thermal water with cooler groundwater from shallow aquifers is responsible for present-day thermal spring discharge and fossil mineralization. The correlation between both Sr and S isotope ratios and the elevation of the barite mineralization relative to the present-day water table in Wiesbaden is explained by mixing of deep-sourced thermal water having high 87Sr/86Sr and low ?34S with shallow groundwater up>34S with shallow groundwater of lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher ?34S. The Sr isotope data demonstrate that the hot thermal waters originate from an aquifer in the Variscan crystalline basement at depths of 3–5 km. The S isotope data show that impregnation-type mineralization is strongly influenced by mixing with SO4 that has high ?34S values. The fracture style mineralization formed by cooling of the thermal waters, whereas impregnation-type mineralization precipitated by mixing with SO4-rich groundwater percolating through the sediments.

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Assessing the potential skill of seasonal streamflow forecasting for the River Rhine and the Upper Danube Basin  

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Reliable seasonal streamflow forecasts could be a valuable tool for the medium-term to long-term planning of many users of the water sector. Especially for the optimization of hydropower generation and the water-related logistic transportation chain the knowledge about the possible future evolution of streamflows within the next 1 to 6 months would be an important additional information in the decision process. Although there is a strong need for seasonal forecast products there is no operational forecasting system available for the large rivers in Germany. One of the main reasons is that the long-term meteorological predictability, especially for precipitation, is quite limited over Central Europe. Potential gain of predictability in the hydrological system that makes us believe that skillful seasonal streamflow forecasts in Central Europe are not out of reach is the hydrological memory and the delayed and damped system response of river basins. Natural (like snow pack, groundwater, soil moisture) as well as man-made reservoirs and dams have a large influence on the future runoff. In hydrological forecasting this memory is represented by the initial conditions of the hydrological model. In addition the streamflow at a gauge is an integrated system response with the meteorological variables as system input. If there is at least some valuable information in the numeric seasonal weather forecasts about the future evolution of precipitation and temperature as the main drivers of the hydrological processes, it could be possibly assessed through spatial (considering larger catchments) and temporal aggregation (e.g. monthly mean runoff values instead of daily values). In this contribution the potential skill of seasonal streamflow forecasting is evaluated for River Rhine and the Upper Danube Basin (up to the gauge Vienna). Different spatial and temporal scales are considered as well as different meteorological forcings. Two different hydrological models are applied in the two basins. For the River Rhine with a catchment area of approx. 185.000 km2 the semi-distributed HBV model with a time-step of one day and for the Upper Danube Basin (102.000 km2) the water balance model COSERO with a time-step of 1 month are applied. As observed meteorological input the ERA Interim dataset is used, which is statistically downscaled from its relatively coarse grid resolution to the subbasins of the models. As meteorological forecast input two different approaches are used for the 30-year hindcast period in this study: (a) the Extended Streamflow Prediction ESP - a resampling approach of historical meteorology - which is applied to asses the potential predictability arising from the initial conditions and (b) the ensemble re-forecasts of the ECMWF seasonal forecast system 4 - a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model - used to quantify the potential benefit of numerical weather forecasts. Bayesian Model Averaging BMA and Ensemble-Model Output statistics EMOS are applied to the generated seasonal ensemble streamflow forecasts for calibration and the estimation of the predictive probability density function. Different skill measures are used to verify the potential skill of the seasonal forecasts of the different methods.

Klein, B.; Meissner, D.; Gerl, N.; Hemri, S.; Gneiting, T. J.

2013-12-01

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Cyclic sedimentation in Tertiary Lower-Rhine Basin (Germany) —the 'Liegendrücken' of the brown-coal open-cast Fortuna mine  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Lower-Rhine Basin, at the northwestern headlands of the Schiefergebirge in western Germany, the Oligocene-Miocene Köln Formation once was splendidly exposed in the former Fortuna mine, one of the open-cast mines of the regional brown-coal mining industry. There, a complex 60 m thick clastic marine shoreline succession was studied. Coastal marine sediments were formed along a high-energy coast in the basal sediment-fill of the basin. Due to repeated ingressions of the Tertiary North Sea, a number of subtidal to supratidal coastal onlap cycles developed. This study provides first knowledge about cyclic sedimentation in the Tertiary of the Lower-Rhine Basin.

Schäfer, A.; Hilger, D.; Gross, G.; von der Hocht, F.

1996-06-01

37

Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 1. Chronological bibliography and materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex I lists the references arranged in the order of authors and years of publication, presents a list of experts, an overview on research projects, current measuring and observation programmes on the river Rhine and makes proposals for future monitoring sites. (orig.)

38

Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U. Braun (new for Germany) on Pastinaca sativa L., Podosphaera tridactyla (WalIr.) de Bary on Prunus laurocerasus L., Septoria cornicola Desm. on Cornus sanguinea L., Stigmina tinea (Sacc.) M.B.Ellis on Viburnum opulus L., Torula herbarum (Pers.) Link on Potentilla argentea L., etc. All species are located in the herbarium Mycotheca parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:20222564

Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

2009-01-01

39

Microfungi on Rosaceae in eastern Westphalia (Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

Microfungi occuring on Rosaceae in the Sauerland were examined. 38 microfungi from 27 different genera were found, including Ascomycetes of the orders Erysiphales, Helotiales, Hypocreales and Taphrinales and Basidiomycetes of the order Uredinales as well as mitosporic fungi. The examined samples have been collected in the period of march to september 2000. New hosts could be found for the following species: Discosia potentillae Lib., Phragmidium acuminatum (Fr.) Cooke, Stigmina carpophila (Lev.) M.B. Ellis, Seimatosporium pestalozzioides (Sacc.) B. Sutton, Septocyta ruborum (Lib.) Petr. and Zythiostroma mougeotii (Fr.) Höhn. Discosia potentillae Lib. is recorded for the first time for Germany and Cercospora potentillae Chupp & Greene for the first time for Europe. PMID:12425027

Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Nagel, B

2001-01-01

40

Plant communities in relation to flooding and soil contamination in a lowland Rhine River floodplain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), relationships were investigated between plant species composition and flooding characteristics, heavy metal contamination and soil properties in a lowland floodplain of the Rhine River. Floodplain elevation and yearly average flooding duration turned out to be more important for explaining variation in plant species composition than soil heavy metal contamination. Nevertheless, plant species richness and diversity showed a significant decrease with the level of contamination. As single heavy metal concentrations seemed mostly too low for causing phytotoxic effects in plants, this trend is possibly explained by additive effects of multiple contaminants or by the concomitant influences of contamination and non-chemical stressors like flooding. These results suggest that impacts of soil contamination on plants in floodplains could be larger than expected from mere soil concentrations. In general, these findings emphasize the relevance of analyzing effects of toxic substances in concert with the effects of other relevant stressors. - Multiple contaminants and periodic flooding may pose cumulative stress to plants in lowland floodplains.

 
 
 
 
41

Assimilating GRACE terrestrial water storage data into a conceptual hydrology model for the River Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is a key component of the terrestrial and global hydrological cycles, and plays a major role in the Earth’s climate. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin satellite mission provided the first space-based dataset of TWS variations, albeit with coarse resolution and limited accuracy. Here, we examine the value of assimilating GRACE observations into a well-calibrated conceptual hydrology model of the Rhine river basin. In this study, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) were applied to assimilate the GRACE TWS variation data into the HBV-96 rainfall run-off model, from February 2003 to December 2006. Two GRACE datasets were used, the DMT-1 models produced at TU Delft, and the CSR-RL04 models produced by UT-Austin . Each center uses its own data processing and filtering methods, yielding two different estimates of TWS variations and therefore two sets of assimilated TWS estimates. To validate the results, the model estimated discharge after the data assimilation was compared with measured discharge at several stations. As expected, the updated TWS was generally somewhere between the modeled and observed TWS in both experiments and the variance was also lower than both the prior error covariance and the assumed GRACE observation error. However, the impact on the discharge was found to depend heavily on the assimilation strategy used, in particular on how the TWS increments were applied to the individual storage terms of the hydrology model.

Widiastuti, E.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Gunter, B.; Weerts, A.; van de Giesen, N.

2009-12-01

42

Determination of flow times and flow velocities in the upper Rhine river using 3HHO as tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behaviour of water bodies of the Upper Rhine river discretely traced with 3HHO-loaded waste waters from the nuclear power plants of Beznau, Fessenheim, Philippsburg and Biblis was investigated along a distance of nearly 385 km down to Nierstein. The passage of the distinct entrainment charged by different emissions was measured at the sampling points of Bad Saeckingen, Weil, Weisweil, Iffezheim and Nierstein. From these profiles the flow times and flow velocities were calculated for the discharge range from 0.6 to 1.7 MQ (mean discharge), taking the begin, end and duration of the individual releases into account. (orig./HP)

43

Application of the TELEMAC system to the simulation of dumping of excavated material in the River Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the framework of a comparative study of commercial hydrodynamic-numerical models different modules of the TELEMAC system have been applied to a real world test case. Experiences and results of this application are presented in this study. The area of investigation is a section of the River Rhine. Steady-state flow conditions are simulated and form the basis for studies related to sediment transport. The dumping of excavation material, the drifting of the suspended material, as well as the resuspension of the deposited sediment are simulated.

Weilbeer, H.; Zielke, W.

2000-09-01

44

Trend of herbicide loads in the river Rhine and its tributaries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many policies have been established and actions have been taken to reduce pesticide pollution of surface waters. However, the effectiveness of these initiatives was rarely tested on an empirical basis. This study suggests that evidence on the policy effects can be evaluated by analyzing the temporal changes in the loads rather than the concentrations of active ingredients in rivers. It is shown that the long-term change of pesticide emissions into surface waters can be tested statistically by the number of upward versus downward trends in river load. To evaluate the situation in Germany, 57 concentration time series of 14 herbicide substances at 7 river monitoring stations with a minimum of 24 analyses per year were assembled and annual substance river loads were calculated. The longest time course was 17 years (1990-2006). The significance of trends of data rows was analyzed by an univariate Mann-Kendall test that evaluates 27 (47.4%) of the 57 time series as statistically significant downward trended. It took a period of 10 years and longer before the high annual atrazine and simazine loads measured in the years 1990-1991 had been diminished to a drastically lowered level after ban of the herbicides. Data are available on the yearly consumption of 8 substances used in German agriculture. A total of 36 time series for this subset were tested with a partial Mann-Kendall test with the consumption as covariance factor, which reduces the number of significant trends in river load noticeably. Based on this test, only 7 (19.4% of 36) declining time series remain. As a result, the intended effect of measures to reduce surface water contamination by the use of pesticides seems to be only partially successful, however, the database to justify this statement is small. For the water monitoring strategies in Germany, it is recommend to enhance the sampling frequency at river stations. A minimum of a semimonthly sampling interval would facilitate the calculation of valuable annual river loads and would therefore allow a pronounced validation of the long-term change of pesticide emission into rivers. PMID:22275057

Bach, Martin; Frede, Hans-Georg

2012-07-01

45

Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river; Renouvellement de la concession de la chute hydro-electrique de Kembs sur le Rhin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

Baron, P.; Defoug, H.; Petit, D

2000-07-15

46

SAR Interferometry and Precise Leveling for the Determination of Vertical Displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The PS-InSAR (Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry) method and precise levelings provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of both measurement techniques are analyzed at Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in order to gain detailed insight into the velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). As central and most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, the seismically and tectonically active Rhine Graben is of steady geo-scientific interest. In the last decades, the URG is characterized by small tectonic movements (Persistent Scatterers). As the tectonic displacements cover a large area, the separation of atmospheric effects and orbit errors plays an important role in the PS-InSAR processing chain. Besides the tectonic signal, man-induced surface displacements caused by oil extraction are investigated. A comparison between the estimates from leveling and InSAR provides detailed insight into the temporal and spatial characteristics of the surface displacement as well as into the possibilities and limits of the measurement techniques.

Fuhrmann, T.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

2013-12-01

47

Provenance of Pleistocene Rhine River Middle Terrace sands between the Swiss-German border and Cologne based on U-Pb detrital zircon ages  

Science.gov (United States)

Detrital zircon U-Pb age distributions derived from samples representing ancient or relatively young large-scale continental drainage networks are commonly taken to reflect the geochronological evolution of the tapped continental area. Here, we present detrital zircon U-Pb ages and associated heavy mineral data from Pleistocene Rhine River Middle Terrace sands and equivalents between the Swiss-German border and Cologne in order to test the commonly assumed Alpine provenance of the material. Samples from eight localities were analyzed for their heavy mineral assemblages. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages were determined by laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry on selected samples from five locations along the Rhine River. The zircon age populations of all samples show a similar distribution, their main peaks being between 300 and 500 Ma. Minor age populations are recognized at 570 and 1,070 Ma. The 300-400 Ma maximum reflects the Variscan basement drained by or recycled into the Rhine River and its tributaries. The 400-500 Ma peak with predominantly Early Silurian ages points to Baltica or to the mid-German crystalline rise as original sources. One distinct peak at c. 570 Ma probably represents input from Cadomian terranes. The Precambrian U-Pb ages are compatible with derivation from sources in Baltica and in northern Gondwana. The heavy mineral populations of Middle Terrace sands and equivalents are characterized to a variable extend by garnet, epidote, and green hornblende. This association is often referred to as the Alpine spectrum and is considered to be indicative of an Alpine provenance. However, hornblende, epidote, and garnet are dominant heavy minerals of collisional orogens in general and may also be derived from Variscan and Caledonian units or from intermittent storage units. A remarkable feature of the detrital zircon age distribution in the Rhine River sediments from the Swiss-German border to Cologne is the absence of ages younger than 200 Ma and in particular of any ages reflecting the Alpine orogeny between c. 100 and 35 Ma. Sediments from rivers draining the equally collisional Himalaya orogen contain detrital zircons as young as 20 Ma. Our results question the assumption that Pleistocene Rhine River sediments were directly derived from the Alps. The lag time between the formation and deposition age of the youngest zircon in the studied Pleistocene Rhine River deposits is 200 Ma. Together with the absence of Alpine zircon ages, this stresses that detrital zircon age data from ancient sedimentary units found in poorly understood tectonic or paleogeographic settings need to be interpreted with great care, one could miss an entire orogenic cycle.

Krippner, Anne; Bahlburg, Heinrich

2013-04-01

48

Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels.

Schipper, Aafke M. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.schipper@science.ru.nl; Wijnhoven, Sander [Centre for Sustainable Management of Resources, Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Monitor Taskforce, P.O. Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke (Netherlands); Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2008-01-15

49

Alteration Processes Determined by Sr- Pb-Isotopes and U/Th-Radionuclides Along a Faulted Rhyolite-Granite Contact, Eastern Rhine Graben Shoulder, SW-Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the project is to study the nature of fluid/rock interaction across a faulted rhyolite-granite contact by investigating the isotope and elemental distributions. The fault zone is situated along the eastern Rhine Graben shoulder, close to Heidelberg (SW-Germany). Rb/Sr-, Pb-isotopes and radionuclides were used to characterise isotopic changes, which reveal a signature reflecting the migration of ancient hydrothermal fluids along the fault, as well as the influence of recent weathering processes. Major and trace elements like Rare Earth Elements (REE) were used to quantify fluid/rock interaction (hydrothermal input, trace exchange and corrosion processes).\\The studied granite experienced a complex history of polyphase fluid/rock interaction following Permian volcanic extrusion, particularly during Jurassic thermal activities, and Tertiary/Quaternary formation of the Rhine Graben. Faults are particularly interesting systems because their frequently enhanced permeability, allowing infiltration of surface and subsurface fluids. Resultant alteration commonly occurs on both sides of the fault. So to get different alteration degree, the samples have been taken across the fault.\\The fault rocks have undergone a strong leaching of U (230Th/234U > 1), probably due to recent or sub-recent weathering. However, some U appears to be acquired from the aqueous phase (234U/238U > 1) in the rhyolite samples. Rhyolite samples had a more complex history of uranium loss and accumulation, whereas the granite samples show only leaching of uranium.\\The altered rocks that lie within m-distance on both sides of the cataclase are notably enriched in lead (250 to 1220 ppm). The lead isotope composition differs significantly from the background lead isotope composition of less altered granite at distant from the cataclase; providing evidence for a strong alteration event that increased the lead content and set up a new lead isotopic composition. The Rb-Sr data of the granite samples produces a whole rock isochron that is in good agreement with the well-known Jurassic hydrothermal event that induced widespread formation of illite (sericite) in the regional basement. >http://www.uni- heidelberg.de/institute/fak15/geol/dc8/Graduiertenkolleg/Thierry/ thierry.html

Marbach, T.; Mangini, A.; Mangini, A.; Kober, B.

2001-12-01

50

Data assimilation of GRACE terrestrial water storage estimates into a regional hydrological model of the Rhine River basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability to estimate Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS realistically is essential for understanding past hydrological events and predicting future changes in the hydrological cycle. Inadequacies in model physics, uncertainty in model land parameters, and uncertainties in meteorological data commonly limit the accuracy of hydrological models in simulating TWS. In an effort to improve model performance, this study investigated the benefits of assimilating TWS estimates derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE data into the OpenStreams-wflow model using an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF approach. The study area chosen was the Rhine River basin, which has both well-calibrated model parameters and high-quality forcing data that were used for experimentation and comparison. Four different case studies were examined which were designed to evaluate different levels of forcing data quality and resolution including those typical of other less well-monitored river basins. The results were validated using in situ groundwater and stream gauge data. The analysis showed a noticeable improvement in groundwater estimates when GRACE data were assimilated, with an overall improvement of up to 71% in correlation coefficient (from 0.31 to 0.53 and 35% in RMS error (from 8.4 to 5.4 cm compared to the reference (ensemble open-loop case. Only a slight overall improvement was observed in streamflow estimates when GRACE data were assimilated. Further analysis suggested that this is likely due to sporadic short terms, but sizeable, errors in the forcing data and the lack of sufficient constraints on the soil moisture component. Overall, the results highlight the benefit of assimilating GRACE data into hydrological models, particularly in data-sparse regions, while also providing insight on future refinements of the methodology.

N. Tangdamrongsub

2014-10-01

51

Data assimilation of GRACE terrestrial water storage estimates into a regional hydrological model of the Rhine River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to estimate Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) realistically is essential for understanding past hydrological events and predicting future changes in the hydrological cycle. Inadequacies in model physics, uncertainty in model land parameters, and uncertainties in meteorological data commonly limit the accuracy of hydrological models in simulating TWS. In an effort to improve model performance, this study investigated the benefits of assimilating TWS estimates derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) data into the OpenStreams-wflow model using an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) approach. The study area chosen was the Rhine River basin, which has both well-calibrated model parameters and high-quality forcing data that were used for experimentation and comparison. Four different case studies were examined which were designed to evaluate different levels of forcing data quality and resolution including those typical of other less well-monitored river basins. The results were validated using in situ groundwater and stream gauge data. The analysis showed a noticeable improvement in groundwater estimates when GRACE data were assimilated, with an overall improvement of up to 71% in correlation coefficient (from 0.31 to 0.53) and 35% in RMS error (from 8.4 to 5.4 cm) compared to the reference (ensemble open-loop) case. Only a slight overall improvement was observed in streamflow estimates when GRACE data were assimilated. Further analysis suggested that this is likely due to sporadic short terms, but sizeable, errors in the forcing data and the lack of sufficient constraints on the soil moisture component. Overall, the results highlight the benefit of assimilating GRACE data into hydrological models, particularly in data-sparse regions, while also providing insight on future refinements of the methodology.

Tangdamrongsub, N.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Gunter, B. C.; Ditmar, P. G.; Weerts, A. H.

2014-10-01

52

From gravel to sand. Downstream fining of bed sediments in the lower river Rhine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A common characteristic of many rivers is the tendency for bed sediments to become finer in downstream direction. This phenomenon, which is generally known as downstream fining, has a strong effect on the morphologic and hydrodynamic behaviour of a river. The fundamental causes of downstream fining are abrasion (the progressive breakdown of particles during their downstream transport) and selective transport (the preferential downstream transport of fine particles), but the effects of th...

Frings, R. M.

2007-01-01

53

Study of the long-range effects of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants in the Rhine river using 58Co and 60Co as tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

58Co and 60Co were used to trace the long-range effects of nuclear power plants in the aquatic environment of the Rhine river basin. 60Co, preferentially originating from Swiss installations, could be detected in suspended matter along the river over several hundreds of kilometres, even to the Lower Rhine. This nuclide was transferred to the bottom layer by sedimentation along the whole stretch, especially in high-sedimentation zones, which must be considered to be the so-called 'critical impact areas' for estimation of the radiological effects of the nuclear power plants in the aquatic environment. 58Co, mainly discharged by French and Swiss installations, could be measured in suspended matter. In sediment samples, however, this nuclide could not, or only occasionally, be detected because transfer to the sediment layer proceeded at a rather low rate relative to the decay rate of 58Co. From these findings, it follows that impact control of these nuclear power plants should not be restricted to their immediate aquatic environments but should be extended to the whole river. Estimation of the resulting radiation exposure, based on the measured concentrations of 60Co and 58Co in sediment assuming standard conditions, showed that the dose rates generated by the most sensitive pathway, and indeed by other nuclides and different pathways, were far below the dose limit defined in German legal regulations and therefore were negligible. (author)

54

Water balance versus land surface model in the simulation of Rhine river discharges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accurate streamflow simulations in large river basins are crucial to predict timing and magnitude of floods and droughts and to assess the hydrological impacts of climate change. Water balance models have been used frequently for these purposes. Compared to water balance models, however, land surface models carry the potential to more accurately estimate hydrological partitioning and thus streamflow, because they solve the coupled water and energy balance and are able to exploit a larger part...

Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Moel, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Troch, P. A.

2008-01-01

55

Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows were analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch-German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows were estimated, namely the seasonality ratio (SR, weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD and weighted persistence (WP. These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices were estimated from: (1 observed low flows; (2 simulated low flows by the semi-distributed HBV model using observed climate as input; (3 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven combinations of General Circulation Models (GCMs and Regional Climate Models (RCMs for the current climate (1964–2007; (4 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven combinations of GCMs and RCMs for the future climate (2063–2098 including three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. These four cases were compared to assess the effects of the hydrological model, forcing by different climate models and different emission scenarios on the three indices. Significant differences were found between cases 1 and 2. For instance, the HBV model is prone to overestimate SR and to underestimate WP and simulates very late WMODs compared to the estimated WMODs using observed discharges. Comparing the results of cases 2 and 3, the smallest difference was found for the SR index, whereas large differences were found for the WMOD and WP indices for the current climate. Finally, comparing the results of cases 3 and 4, we found that SR decreases substantially by 2063–2098 in all seven sub-basins of the River Rhine. The lower values of SR for the future climate indicate a shift from winter low flows (SR > 1 to summer low flows (SR < 1 in the two Alpine sub-basins. The WMODs of low flows tend to be earlier than for the current climate in all sub-basins except for the Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine sub-basins. The WP values are slightly larger, showing that the predictability of low flow events increases as the variability in timing decreases for the future climate. From comparison of the error sources evaluated in this study, it is obvious that different RCMs/GCMs have a larger influence on the timing of low flows than different emission scenarios. Finally, this study complements recent analyses of an international project (Rhineblick by analysing the seasonality aspects of low flows and extends the scope further to understand the effects of hydrological model errors and climate change on three important low flow seasonality properties: regime, timing and persistence.

M. C. Demirel

2013-10-01

56

Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows are analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch–German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows are estimated, namely seasonality ratio (SR, weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD and weighted persistence (WP. These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices are estimated from: (1 observed low flows; (2 simulated low flows by the semi distributed HBV model using observed climate; (3 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven climate scenarios for the current climate (1964–2007; (4 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven climate scenarios for the future climate (2063–2098 including different emission scenarios. These four cases are compared to assess the effects of the hydrological model, forcing by different climate models and different emission scenarios on the three indices. The seven climate scenarios are based on different combinations of four General Circulation Models (GCMs, four Regional Climate Models (RCMs and three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Significant differences are found between cases 1 and 2. For instance, the HBV model is prone to overestimate SR and to underestimate WP and simulates very late WMODs compared to the estimated WMODs using observed discharges. Comparing the results of cases 2 and 3, the smallest difference is found in the SR index, whereas large differences are found in the WMOD and WP indices for the current climate. Finally, comparing the results of cases 3 and 4, we found that SR has decreased substantially by 2063–2098 in all seven subbasins of the River Rhine. The lower values of SR for the future climate indicate a shift from winter low flows (SR > 1 to summer low flows (SR < 1 in the two Alpine subbasins. The WMODs of low flows tend to be earlier than for the current climate in all subbasins except for the Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine subbasins. The WP values are slightly larger, showing that the predictability of low flow events increases as the variability in timing decreases for the future climate. From comparison of the uncertainty sources evaluated in this study, it is obvious that the RCM/GCM uncertainty has the largest influence on the variability in timing of low flows for future climate.

M. C. Demirel

2013-05-01

57

Data assimilation of GRACE terrestrial water storage estimates into a regional hydrological model of the Rhine River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) can be defined as an integrated measure of surface water, soil moisture, snow water, and groundwater. TWS data is valuable for water resources management and hydrology. The ability to simulate realistic TWS is essential for understanding past hydrological events and predicting future changes of the hydrological cycle. Inadequacies in physics, deficiencies in land characteristics and uncertainties in meteorological data commonly limit the performance of hydrological models in estimating TWS. In this study, we investigated the benefits of assimilating TWS derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) into the Wflow HBV-96 model using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). Since hydrological model parameters are often uncertain over a large part of the Earth, we investigated the impact of GRACE assimilation in different model scenarios representing different degrees of data availability. Four case studies were considered comparing calibrated and non-calibrated model parameters and local and global forcing data. The chosen study area is the Rhine River basin. Our results were validated using in-situ stream gauge data. In all scenarios, the temporal signatures of the averaged TWS are similar after assimilating GRACE while the spatial distribution is heavily influenced by the model parameters and input data as well as their uncertainties. Assimilation using the EnKF reduced the standard deviation at every updating stage, resulting in lower standard deviations than the model or the observations alone. Discrepancies between the local and global precipitation products had a significant impact on discharge estimates. For instance, when the global forcing data were used, discharge was drastically overestimated when spurious heavy rainfall occurred during the winter. Based on the correlation coefficient, Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) computed between the estimated and measured discharges at 13 gauge stations, we concluded that GRACE assimilation slightly improves the model performance when the model is well calibrated (calibrated parameters with local forcing data). More importantly, the improvement observed for the non-calibrated model (non-calibrated parameters with global forcing data), suggests that the impact of GRACE assimilation may be more significant in data-sparse regions.

Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Gunter, Brian C.; Widiastuti, Endang; Weerts, Albrecht; Ditmar, Pavel; Tsompanopoulos, Efstratios

2014-05-01

58

Use of Aerial high resolution visible imagery to produce large river bathymetry: a multi temporal and spatial study over the by-passed Upper Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerial high resolution visible imagery allows producing large river bathymetry assuming that water depth is related to water colour (Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law). In this paper we aim at monitoring Rhine River geometry changes for a diachronic study as well as sediment transport after an artificial injection (25.000 m3 restoration operation). For that a consequent data base of ground measurements of river depth is used, built on 3 different sources: (i) differential GPS acquisitions, (ii) sounder data and (iii) lateral profiles realized by experts. Water depth is estimated using a multi linear regression over neo channels built on a principal component analysis over red, green and blue bands and previously cited depth data. The study site is a 12 km long reach of the by-passed section of the Rhine River that draws French and German border. This section has been heavily impacted by engineering works during the last two centuries: channelization since 1842 for navigation purposes and the construction of a 45 km long lateral canal and 4 consecutive hydroelectric power plants of since 1932. Several bathymetric models are produced based on 3 different spatial resolutions (6, 13 and 20 cm) and 5 acquisitions (January, March, April, August and October) since 2008. Objectives are to find the optimal spatial resolution and to characterize seasonal effects. Best performances according to the 13 cm resolution show a 18 cm accuracy when suspended matters impacted less water transparency. Discussions are oriented to the monitoring of the artificial reload after 2 flood events during winter 2010-2011. Bathymetric models produced are also useful to build 2D hydraulic model's mesh.

Béal, D.; Piégay, H.; Arnaud, F.; Rollet, A.; Schmitt, L.

2011-12-01

59

Numerical tables. Physical and chemical analyses of Rhine water 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tables present the methods of analysis and the data obtained on inorganic, organic, and radioactive impurities in Rhine water. The measuring stations were located in Switzerland, France, West Germany, and the Netherlands. (HP)

60

Nuclear power in North-Rhine Westphalia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this excerpt from a speech attention is drawn to the special difficulties an exposed state of the Federal Republic of Germany encounters in performing an objective in the field of energy policy. North-Rhine Westphalia takes a special place because it supplies 47% of the current of the Federal Republic of Germany and because it is planning prospective nuclear reactor lines. Besides, it is rich in coal. (UA)

 
 
 
 
61

Modelling the relative impact of rivers (Scheldt/Rhine/Seine) and Western Channel waters on the nutrient and diatoms/ Phaeocystis distributions in Belgian waters (Southern North Sea)  

Science.gov (United States)

The coastal areas of the Southern North Sea (SNS) experience eutrophication problems resulting from freshwater nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs from rivers. In particular, massive blooms of Phaeocystis colonies occur in Belgian waters. In this region, water masses result from the mixing of Western Channel (WCH) waters transported through the Straits of Dover with nutrient-rich freshwater from the Scheldt, the Rhine and Meuse, the Seine, the Thames and other smaller rivers. However, the relative contribution of the WCH and each river to the inorganic nutrient pool and the impact on the phytoplankton community structure (diatoms and Phaeocystis) are not known. In order to effectively manage the eutrophication problems, it is necessary to know: (i) the relative contribution of the WCH and of each river impacting the region and (ii) the relative effect of a N and/or P nutrient reduction on the Phaeocystis blooms. To answer these questions, sensitivity tests (1% nutrient reduction) and nutrient reduction scenarios (50% nutrient reduction) have been performed with a three-dimensional (3D) coupled physical-biogeochemical model (MIRO&CO-3D). MIRO&CO-3D results from the coupling of the COHERENS 3D hydrodynamic model with the ecological model MIRO. The model has been set up for the region between 48.5°N, 4°W and 52.5°N, 4.5°E and run to simulate the annual cycle of carbon, inorganic and organic nutrients, phytoplankton (diatoms and Phaeocystis), bacteria and zooplankton (microzooplankton and copepods) in the SNS under realistic forcing (meteorology and river inputs) for the period 1991-2003. The relative contribution of the WCH waters and of the different rivers on the inorganic nutrient pool available for phytoplankton (diatoms and Phaeocystis) growth is assessed by decreasing by 1% the nutrient (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, DIN and inorganic phosphate, PO 4) inputs from the WCH and from, respectively, the Scheldt (and smaller Belgian rivers), the Rhine/Meuse and the Seine (and smaller French rivers) [sensitivity tests]. The relative role of N and P reduction on the diatoms/ Phaeocystis distribution is further explored by simulations with 50% reduction of the total (inorganic and organic) N and total P river inputs [nutrient reduction scenarios]. These scenarios allow assessing the impact of the expected 50% reduction of river nutrient inputs resulting from the implementation of nutrient reduction policy. Results of the sensitivity tests suggest that the impact of a 1% reduction of river nutrient inputs on surface nutrients (DIN and PO 4) over the Belgian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) area is similar for the Seine and the Scheldt, which are in turn greater than for the Rhine. However, a hypothetical 1% reduction of nutrient input from the WCH boundary would have a higher impact than for the Scheldt. The impact of nutrient reduction is higher for DIN than for PO 4 whatever the river (contrary to the WCH). DIN is more sensitive to riverine nutrient reduction because the rivers are over enriched in DIN compared to PO 4. The sensitivity tests suggest also that a PO 4 river input reduction would result in a N:P increase and a DIN river input reduction would result in a N:P decrease but that a combined (PO 4 and DIN) input reduction would reduce the N:P ratio at sea. From 50% nutrient reduction scenarios, model results suggest that a total P reduction would induce a significant decrease of diatoms and a small (coast) to negligible (offshore) decrease of Phaeocystis biomass. On the contrary, a total N reduction would induce a significant decrease of Phaeocystis biomass and a moderate increase of diatoms. When N and P river input reductions are combined, the model predicts a significant decrease of Phaeocystis biomass in Belgian waters and a significant decrease of diatom biomass in the coastal waters and a small increase offshore. A future management plan aiming at Phaeocystis reduction should thus prioritise N reduction.

Lacroix, Geneviève; Ruddick, Kevin; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane

2007-06-01

62

The "WFD-effect" on upstream-downstream relations in international river basins - insights from the Rhine and the Elbe basins  

Science.gov (United States)

The upstream-downstream relationship in international river basins is a traditional challenge in water management. Water use in upstream countries often has a negative impact on water use in downstream countries. This is most evident in the classical example of industrial pollution in upstream countries hindering drinking water production downstream. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) gives new impetus to the river basin approach and to international co-operation in European catchments. It aims at transforming a mainly water quality oriented management into a more integrated approach of ecosystem management. After discussing the traditional upstream-downstream relationship, this article shows that the WFD has a balancing effect on upstream-downstream problems and that it enhances river basin solidarity in international basins. While it lifts the downstream countries to the same level as the upstream countries, it also leads to new duties for the downstream states. Following the ecosystem approach, measures taken by downstream countries become increasingly more important. For example, downstream countries need to take measures to allow for migrating fish species to reach upstream stretches of river systems. With the WFD, fish populations receive increased attention, as they are an important indicator for the ecological status. The European Commission acquires a new role of inspection and control in river basin management, which finally also leads to enhanced cooperation and solidarity among the states in a basin. In order to achieve better water quality and to mitigate upstream-downstream problems, also economic instruments can be applied and the WFD does not exclude the possibility of making use of financial compensations, if at the same time the polluter pays principle is taken into account. The results presented in this article originate from a broader study on integrated water resources management conducted at Bonn University and refer to the Rhine and Elbe basins (Moellenkamp, 2006).

Moellenkamp, S.

2007-06-01

63

Anthropogenic organic contaminants in sediments of the Lippe river, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sediment samples of the Lippe river (Germany) taken between August 1999 and March 2001 were investigated by GC-MS-analyses. These analyses were performed as non-target-screening approaches in order to identify a wide range of anthropogenic organic contaminants. Unknown contaminants like 3,6-dichlorocarbazole and bis(4-octylphenyl)amine as well as anthropogenic molecular marker compounds were selected for quantification. The obtained qualitative and quantitative analytical results were interpreted in order to visualize the anthropogenic contamination of the Lippe river including spatial distribution, input effects and time dependent occurrence. Anthropogenic molecular markers derived from municipal sources like polycyclic musks, 4-oxoisophorone and methyltriclosan as well as from agricultural sources (hexachlorobenzene) were gathered. In addition molecular markers derived from effluents of three different industrial branches, e.g. halogenated organics, tetrachlorobenzyltoluenes and tetrabutyltin, were identified. While municipal and agricultural contaminations were ubiquitous and diffusive, industrial emission sources were spatially isolated. Specific seasonal trends of distribution patterns were not observed. PMID:15325173

Kronimus, Alexander; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Heim, Sabine; Littke, Ralf

2004-09-01

64

Long-term development and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures: an analysis for the German part of the river Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

Flood mitigation measures implemented by private households have become an important component of contemporary integrated flood risk management in Germany and many other countries. Despite the growing responsibility of private households to contribute to flood damage reduction by means of private flood mitigation measures, knowledge on the long-term development of such measures, which indicates changes in vulnerability over time, and their effectiveness, is still scarce. To gain further insights into the long-term development, current implementation level and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures, empirical data from 752 flood-prone households along the German part of the Rhine are presented. It is found that four types of flood mitigation measures developed gradually over time among flood-prone households, with severe floods being important triggers for an accelerated implementation. At present, still a large share of respondents has not implemented a single flood mitigation measure, despite the high exposure of the surveyed households to floods. The records of household's flood damage to contents and structure during two consecutive flood events with similar hazard characteristics in 1993 and 1995 show that an improved preparedness of the population led to substantially reduced damage during the latter event. Regarding the efficiency of contemporary integrated flood risk management, it is concluded that additional policies are required in order to further increase the level of preparedness of the flood-prone population. This especially concerns households in areas that are less frequently affected by flood events.

Bubeck, P.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2012-11-01

65

Long-term development and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures: an analysis for the German part of the river Rhine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flood mitigation measures implemented by private households have become an important component of contemporary integrated flood risk management in Germany and many other countries. Despite the growing responsibility of private households to contribute to flood damage reduction by means of private flood mitigation measures, knowledge on the long-term development of such measures, which indicates changes in vulnerability over time, and their effectiveness, is still scarce. To gain further insights into the long-term development, current implementation level and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures, empirical data from 752 flood-prone households along the German part of the Rhine are presented. It is found that four types of flood mitigation measures developed gradually over time among flood-prone households, with severe floods being important triggers for an accelerated implementation. At present, still a large share of respondents has not implemented a single flood mitigation measure, despite the high exposure of the surveyed households to floods. The records of household's flood damage to contents and structure during two consecutive flood events with similar hazard characteristics in 1993 and 1995 show that an improved preparedness of the population led to substantially reduced damage during the latter event. Regarding the efficiency of contemporary integrated flood risk management, it is concluded that additional policies are required in order to further increase the level of preparedness of the flood-prone population. This especially concerns households in areas that are less frequently affected by flood events.

P. Bubeck

2012-11-01

66

Mesozoic hydrothermal impact on Rotliegende and Bunter immature sandstones of the High Rhine trough and its adjacent eastern area (southern Black Forest, Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mesozoic hydrothermal and geodynamic evolution of a complex region of the European crust is studied here on immature and highly reactive Rotliegende and Bunter sandstones of the intramontane High Rhine trough (southern Black Forest) and its adjacent eastern area bounded by the Upper Rhine Graben and the Alpine foreland. Microscopic observations outline varied degrees of illitization of detrital feldspar grains, muscovite flakes and illite particles. XRD analysis shows that the clay fractions are dominated by illite with minor illite/smectite mixed-layered minerals of R3 and R1 ordering. The chemical composition of these minerals is controlled by precursor minerals, since the illitic material inherited its chemical components from detrital muscovite and illite. Towards the centre of the trough, the sandstones were more strongly affected by the hydrothermal impact, showing extensive replacement of feldspar grains by Al-rich illite. K-Ar dating of the authigenic illite-type material points to multiple hydrothermal alteration episodes. A Late Jurassic event at 147 Ma seems to have affected extensively the study area, especially towards the centre of the trough. At the periphery of the trough, relics of an Early Jurassic activity are likely preserved. An additional Early Cretaceous hydrothermal event seems to have occurred locally near Schopfheim and next to the Rhine Graben boundary fault long before its main rifting phase. The 147 Ma event was obtained also nearby in the previously investigated Breisgau-Schramberg, Offenburg-Teinach and Baden-Baden troughs and is characteristic for the Black Forest and some other areas outside this region. It concludes obviously a period of regional hydrothermal activities between 160 and 145 Ma, whereas the Early Jurassic and Cretaceous signatures are also known throughout Central and Western Europe, suggesting repeated fluid pulses. The hydrothermal flows were controlled by reactivated basement faults due to periods of extensive reorientation of the tectonic stress during the break-up of Pangaea. Illitization was triggered by hot and low saline solutions of about 180 °C and 20 wt.% NaCl eq caused quartz overgrowth. Fluid flows delivered by the long lasting orogeny of the nearby Alps were probably limited towards the Black Forest. Becoming part of the European margin of the Tethys in the Mesozoic, the pre-Alp area evidently developed a separate fluid-flow system.

Brockamp, Olaf; Schlegel, Andreas; Clauer, Norbert

2011-03-01

67

Monitoring heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of the Moskva and Oka River system- Results of the Volga-Rhine-Project  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of the Volga-Rhine-Project sediment, water and pore water samples were collected on the Volga as well as the Moskva and Oka river systems. The sampling area discussed here is located south east of the city of Moscow. Sediment samples were taken along the Moskva River between Moscow and the city of Kolomna, which is approximately 100 km to the southeast of Moscow and in the Oka River close to the confluence with the Moskva River (Kolomna). The first sampling campaign in this region took place in 1993, followed by further sampling in 1997 and 2007. For evaluation of sediment quality classification systems are often used. The geo-accumulation index proposed by Mueller (1979) is a classification system which consists of seven classes given by the following expression: I = log2×Cn- geo 1.5×Bn Where Cn = measured concentration; Bn = background value (Turekian & Wedepol 1961) of element n and 1.5 = background matrix correction factor. The geo-accumulation index consists of seven grades (0-6) which indicate the enrichment of an element compared to the background value. These grades range from 'not polluted' to 'very strongly polluted'. Another possibility to express sediment contamination is to evaluate the effects on the ecosystem. The lowest effect level (LEL) gives the concentrations of the heavy metals in sediment below which no effect on the majority of the sediment dwelling organisms is expected. The probable effect level (PEL) represents the concentration of heavy metals above which the organisms frequently will show adverse effects. Both of these approaches were used to evaluate the results of the Volga-Rhine-Project. In the last two decades the concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments decreased by up to 60%. In 1993 sediments revealed high concentrations of several heavy metals such as chromium, cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, nickel and cobalt, whereas in 2007 only two sediment samples were classified as 'very strongly polluted' regarding lead and cadmium concentrations. Additionally six other sediment samples were found to be 'strongly polluted' with cadmium, zinc and lead, respectively. Using the ecotoxicological approach on the sediments, chromium, cadmium and zinc are above the PEL, whereas the content of lead exceeds the LEL. Thus, these metals may still cause toxic effects on the fresh water system. Although the input of heavy metals into the river systems has clearly decreased during the last 20 years, there are still some locations where high concentrations of heavy metals are found, suggesting point sources. Especially cadmium still shows significantly higher concentrations than the background value in the entire sampling area. There are even two sampling points where the cadmium concentrations reach approximately 100x the background value. To determine the temporal variation of the heavy metal input, sediment cores were taken. Heavy metal concentrations increase with depth in the cores and show a maximum at a depth of about 35-40 cm. Some part of this increase may be a result of early diagenesis as well as a result of reduced heavy metal input. The nature of the decline of the heavy metal concentrations is still in progress. Despite all the improvements achieved in environmental protection in Russia, still some problems have to be addressed. Especially in urban areas like the Moscow region the number and the size of illegal dump sites is increasing dramatically, leading to strong inputs of heavy metals and other pollutants into the river systems, with consequences for the sensitive eco systems.

Andresen, Höpke

2010-05-01

68

Distribution and dynamics of larval populations of Anopheles messeae and A. atroparvus in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, The Netherlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution and ecology of mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis complex were studied in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse in the southwest of The Netherlands. The study area was previously malarious, with A. atroparvus being the only vector. 125 potential aquatic habitats of A. maculipennis were sampled, of which 47 (37.6%) contained larvae of this species complex. Larval densities varied from 7.4-325.93 larvae m-2. There was no correlation between chlorinity (@1000) of the water and presence and/or density of larvae. The presence of A. maculipennis was not associated with one particular aquatic floristic habitat, although larvae were often found together with floating algae (Enteromorpha spp.). Larvae were not found in areas experiencing tidal flooding. A newly developed PCR method was used for identification of the mosquito sibling species. Of 150 larvae examined, only 4 were identified as A. atroparvus. All other larvae examined were A. messeae. Adult mosquitoes were identified as A. messeae and 30 wild-caught mosquitoes had fed on domestic animals. Because most anophelines found in 1999 were A. messeae, it is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous anopheline investigations in 1935, causing the near extinction of A. atroparvus. This species was the only malaria vector in The Netherlands and therefore it is not expected that malaria can return to its former endemic status in the coastal areas of The Netherlands. PMID:12164130

Takken, Willem; Geene, Rienk; Adam, Wim; Jetten, Theo H; van der Velden, Joan A

2002-05-01

69

Germany'  

...Germany's SPD backs coalition talks with Merkel, sets terms | EurActiv Discussions between Merkel and the centre-left SPD on forming a new ... The SPD's willingness to enter talks comes at a price. elections,Angela Merkel,German elections 2013,Germany,Social Democrats SPD EU news ... VIDEOS Home › Elections › News Germany's SPD backs coalition talks with Merkel, sets terms [fr] -A + A Published 22 ...October 2013 1 comment Tags Angela Merkel, German elections 2013, Germany, Social Democrats SPD Leaders of Germany's Social Democrats (SPD) won a green light from ...

70

Interaction surface water - groundwater: Investigation in the Rhine Valley using environmental isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation area is located in the Rhine Valley, a floodplain composed of Upper Quaternary sediments near Karlsruhe, Germany. The upper two gravel layers build highly permeable and productive aquifers which are used by many drinking water supplies. These two layers are partial hydraulically divided by an impermeable interlayer which does not exist everywhere. On the other hand many gravel extraction sites are dug out, which form small artificial lakes. To overcome the conflict between both, water supply and gravel industry, a precise knowledge of the interaction of surface water - groundwater is absolutely necessary. The hydraulic relationship between the groundwater storey, the gravel pit lakes, and the rivers could not be adequately explained using only water level measurements. Only with the aid of the results from the hydro-chemical and isotope-hydrological investigations (?18O, ?2H, 3H), the components of the regional groundwater recharge, Rhine bank infiltration, lake bank filtration, as well as local specifically marked water types could be identified, classified and quantified in surface - and groundwater. Utilizing these methods it was shown that the deep pumping wells of the water supply have over 90% Rhine riverbank filtration water and have no inflow from any of the investigated gravel pit lakes. The groundwater in the two investigated upper aquifers differ mainly isotope-hydrological and respectively in age, less pological and respectively in age, less pronounced in their hydro-chemical properties. In both aquifers there is a zone of ca. 1 to 3 km wide, in parts reaching to the gravel quarry lakes, which generally follows the Rhine with a flow of depleted isotopic Rhine filtration water with varying ages. From the east-southeast there is an inflow from the lower terrace of relatively young and identifiably anthropogenic influenced as well as almost totally reduced in nitrate, In the aquifer below, the water is usually tritium-free, i.e., older than 50 years, not anthropogenic influenced and reduced in sulphate. Modeling tritium data the local recharge rate could be estimated. In all investigated gravel pit lakes, a high percentage of Rhine bank filtration was proven. The inflow of groundwater to the lakes and the outflow of the lake water are identifiable because of isotope-fractionation due to evaporation. The environmental isotopes build together with the hydro-geological and hydro-chemical investigations the basis for a detailed understanding of this complex flow system. (author)

71

Germany'  

...Germany's Eurovision debacle 'obviously political', commentators say | EurActiv culture,euro-finance,Angela Merkel,euro zone crisis,Eurovision Song Contest EU news & policy debates- ... New skills and jobs: Mind the gap Languages & Culture Section homepage Digitisation of published works Language use in the EU European values and ... VIDEOS Home › Languages & Culture › News Germany's Eurovision debacle 'obviously political', commentators say [fr] -A + A Published 21 ...' Merkel is popular in Germany for her firm position during the eurozone crisis. But she is loathed in parts of Europe for ...

72

Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After summing up the competencies of the Federal Government and the States regarding the area of teacher education and the teaching profession in Germany, the author describes the two phases of teacher training and research as well as the "research and inservice education of teachers" (INSET). Furthermore, he analyses the institutional backgrounds of educational research in Germany and the influence of educational research on political parties and parliaments. Finally, "priorities and new tre...

Do?brich, Peter; Kodron, Christoph

1992-01-01

73

The impact of bioturbation by small mammals on heavy metal redistribution in an embanked floodplain of the River Rhine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Floodplains along large European rivers are diffusely polluted with heavy metals due to emissions in the past. Because of low mobility of heavy metals in floodplain soils and improvements of water quality, these pollutants will remain in place, and can gradually become covered with less contaminated sediments. Bioturbators, especially earthworms, can play an important role in the mixing and surfacing of contaminated substrate. Surfaced substrate can be redistributed by recurrent flooding even...

Wijnhoven, S.; Thonon, I.; Velde, G. D.; Leuven, R.; Zorn, M.; Eijsackers, H. J. P.; Smits, T.

2006-01-01

74

A review of Gobiid expansion along the Danube-Rhine corridor – geopolitical change as a driver for invasion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five Gobiid fish species have recently increased their ranges along the Danube/Rhine river corridor. Studies to date, however, have tended to be local, site specific and reactive, examining just one or few species. As such, overall range has tended to be assumed based on a summary of patchy, and sometimes contradictory, data. This study provides an up-to-date literature review of first records of occurrence for all five species along their expansion route. In addition, available shipping data are examined to identify possible proximal causes of introduction. Three main discontinuous population centres were identified; all at or near important container ports: Vienna, Duisburg and Rotterdam. Shipping is confirmed as an important factor in the rapid national and international expansion of Ponto-Caspian Gobiids, with downstream drift, rip-rap and heavy boat traffic contributing to rapid spread on the Rhine. Geopolitical factors, however, such as the fall of communism and the Balkan conflict, have been key in influencing where, when, and by which route gobies first appear. Rapid expansion of Gobiids in the Rhine raises the possibility of establishment throughout mainland Europe via two new potential invasion corridors across Germany/Poland and France.

Roche K.F.

2013-09-01

75

Historical floods in the Dutch Rhine Delta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historical records provide direct information about the climatic impact on society. Especially great natural disasters such as river floods have been for long attracting the attention of humankind. Time series for flood development on the Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn/Lek and IJssel in the Dutch Rhine Delta are presented in this paper. In the case of the Waal it is even possible to compare historical flood frequencies based on documentary data with the recent development reconstructed from standardized instrumental measurements. In brief, we will also discuss various parameters concerning the structure of the flood series and the "human dimension" of natural disaster, i.e. the vulnerability of society when facing natural disasters.

R. Glaser

2003-01-01

76

An integrated plan on flood defence for the river Weser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the wake of the disastrous flooding in 1997 on the river Oder and in 1994/95 on the river Rhine the 49{sup th} conference of the Environment Ministers appointed the river basin working groups in Germany to work out action plans on flood defence for all the large river basins. This was achieved in 1998. This year the five federal states Bremen, Hesse, Lower-Saxony, North-Rhine/Westfalia and Thuringia represented by the Working Group for the Protection of the River Weser ''ARGE Weser'', adopted this paper and published it in the recent weeks. This is the first time that the ARGE Weser has addressed flooding problems. A working group consisting of the flooding specialists of the five states and the Waterways administration was formed with the brief to analyse the existing system on flood defence. (orig.)

Henneberg, S.C. [Weser Water Quality Authority, Hildesheim (Germany)

2000-07-01

77

The projects ''preventive flood protection in the catchment of the Lahn river'' and ''LAHoR'', contributions to the action plan on flood defence of the ICPR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the impression of the severe floods in 1993 and 1995 along the Meuse and the Rhine, the Action Plan on Flood Defence was brought up by the 12th Rhine Minister Conference in January 1998. The goal of this action plan is the improvement of the preventive flood protection along the Rhine within the next 20 years. As far as spatial planning is concerned, the responsible Ministers in France, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg set up a transnational working group ''Spatial Planning and Preventive Flood Protection Rhine/Meuse''. The European Union supports these activities with the operational programme IRMA (INTERREG-Rhine-Meuse-Aktivities) in the frame of the initiative INTERREG IIc. Under the umbrella of the IRMA-programme specific flood preventive measures are funded as well as the development of tools for the proof of the efficiency of these measures. In the IRMA-Project ''Preventive Flood Protection in the catchment of the Lahn River'' the establishment of planning concepts of preventive flood protection for the Lahn catchment is co-financed as well as the realisation of selected retention methods. This includes the estimation of the national and transnational effects using a rainfall-runoff-model for the Lahn catchment and a flood-routing-model for the Rhine until Lobith, the Netherlands. The project ''Quantification of the influence of the land surface and river training conditions in the Rhine basin (LAHoR)'', also co-financed by IRMA deals with the development and use of mathematical models for investigating the impacts of flood reducing measures in the entire catchment of the River Rhine from Maxau to Lobith. Here rainfall-runoff-models are used for the subcatchments and flood routing models are used for the Rhine and it's main tributaries Neckar, Main and Saar-Moselle. (orig.)

Lammersen, R.; Engel, H. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Hydrologie, Koblenz (Germany)

2000-07-01

78

Tritium/Helium-3 Dating of River Infiltration:An Example from the Oderbruch Area, Berlin, Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concentrations of tritium, helium isotopes and neon have been measured in groundwater samples from a shallow and deep groundwater system recharged by bank infiltration from the Oder River in northeastern Berlin, Germany. The apparent 3H/3He a...

Hany El-Gamal

2013-01-01

79

Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation: Review of River Basin Management Planning in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By the end of 2009, programmes of measures and river basin management plans under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD had for the first time been set up for all 10 river basin districts inGermany. They provide the water management planning tools for achieving good status of surface and groundwater by 2015. Since a good ecological status for many water bodies cannot be attained by this deadline, the Directive provides for two supplementary planning cycles running to 2021 and 2027 respectively. Owing to its ecological approach, the WFD has much in common with nature conservation. The project “Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation” sought to discover how the aims of the WFD and nature conservation are linked in the practice of river basin management planning and what possibilities there are for optimisation from a nature conservation point of view. On this basis, proposals were made for updating and implementing plans.

SCHMIDT Catrin

2012-09-01

80

Validation of a social vulnerability index in context to river-floods in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social vulnerability indices are a means for generating information about people potentially affected by disasters that are e.g. triggered by river-floods. The purpose behind such an index is in this study the development and the validation of a social vulnerability map of population characteristics towards river-floods covering all counties in Germany. This map is based on a composite index of three main indicators for social vulnerability in Germany – fragility, socio-economic conditions and region. These indicators have been identified by a factor analysis of selected demographic variables obtained from federal statistical offices. Therefore, these indicators can be updated annually based on a reliable data source. The vulnerability patterns detected by the factor analysis are verified by using an independent second data set. The interpretation of the second data set shows that vulnerability is revealed by a real extreme flood event and demonstrates that the patterns of the presumed vulnerability match the observations of a real event. It comprises a survey of flood-affected households in three federal states. By using logistic regression, it is demonstrated that the theoretically presumed indications of vulnerability are correct and that the indicators are valid. It is shown that indeed certain social groups like the elderly, the financially weak or the urban residents are higher risk groups.

A. Fekete

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

International co-operation on Rhine water quality 1945-2008: An example to follow?  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of the Rhine is often seen as an exemplary case of international river basin management. In the Rhine basin, countries that went to war with each other twice in the last century have managed to reach agreements on many issues and water quality has improved considerably. The improvement in water quality is often attributed to the activities of the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine and in particular to its Rhine Action Plan. In order to test this assertion, this paper describes and analyzes the development of international co-operation on the water quality of the Rhine since 1945. It concludes that water quality improvement cannot be attributed to any single factor. Instead, a whole array of interrelated factors are at play, including the European Union, other international fora such as the North Sea Ministerial Conferences, domestic legislation, the activities of environmental NGOs and waterworks, growing environmental awareness, and the changing structure of the industry in the basin. Because of the importance of contextual factors, the Rhine experiences cannot simply be applied to basins with a different context. In many cases, international river basin management may be promoted most effectively by promoting co-operation at the river basin level. In many other cases, however, it may be more effective to identify and then work on the contextual factors that (1) have the biggest leverage effect in the specific case and (2) can be influenced most effectively.

Mostert, Erik

82

Photolysis and biodegradation of selected resin acids in River Saale water, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The River Saale is the Elbe's major tributary flowing through the state of Thuringia, Germany and receives organics inputs from several industrial facilities including pulp and paper mills. Resin acids constitute a major class of polar organics and environmental toxins derived primarily from pulp and paper processing of softwoods. Since wastewater treatment methods at pulp and paper mills are not always capable of removing the persistent resin acids prior to effluent discharge, alternative or complementary degradation methods may be required. Here, the facile photodegradation of four resin acids--abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and pimaric--was observed with pseudo-first-order kinetics when exposed to broad band and UV254-radiation. Further experimentation in rotating annular biofilm reactors with UV-exposed and unexposed River Saale water spiked with abietic and dehydroabietic acids indicated that photolysis is an effective pretreatment method for resin acid biodegradation. The bacterial toxicity of the aqueous resin acids solutions as measured with Microtox luminescence assays decreased with exposure time. Consequently, photo- and biodegradation of the resin acids did not generate any notable amounts of toxic intermediates and/or the intermediates formed were further degraded into compounds of lower toxicity than the parents. With tandem photo- and biological treatment at pulp and paper mills, as well as in-situ degradation by solar radiation and natural biofilms within the River Saale, resin acid inputs can be reduced in both concentration and toxicity to near undetectable levels with little or no ecological significance. PMID:14672312

McMartin, Dena W; Headley, John V; Neu, Thomas R; Friesen, Duane A

2003-01-01

83

Isotopic study of a deep groundwater system near the Danube-river/South Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The groundwater flow regime in the jurassic karst and tertiary terrain near the Danube-river in the area of Ingolstadt/South Germany has been well discussed and investigated for years. However, a stringent explanation of the complex deep groundwater system at the meeting-point of young, karstic groundwater from the north (open karst) and old deep groundwater in the south (covered karst) is still lacking. Today, because of the increasing water use for drinking water supply in the high industrialized area of Ingolstadt, reliable hydrogeological answers and a future sustainable groundwater management system are needed. First symptoms of overexploitation are visible by hydrochemical and isotopic measurements. Coming from the actual state of hydrogeological knowledge, the use of isotope techniques provide distinct explanation for the complex genesis of the occurring groundwaters

84

Upper Bound Deformation In The Upper Rhine Graben From GPS Data - Results From GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network)  

Science.gov (United States)

In September 2008, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, EOST) and the Geodetic Institute (GIK) of Karlsruhe University (TH) established a transnational cooperation called GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative these institutions are cooperating in order to establish a highly precise and highly sensitive network of permanently operating GNSS sites for the detection of crustal movements in the Upper Rhine Graben region. The Rhine Graben is the central, most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system (ECRIS) of Oligocene age which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100km. It is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges mountains and to the east by the Black Forest. Culminating in ~1500m in elevation, these two massifs represent the Eocene- Oligocene rift shoulders, but a large part of the differential uplift is much younger. The graben is bounded to the north by the uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette and Vendlincourt folds represent the northernmost structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. The presentation will discuss the first results concerning the upper bound deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben région, which is smaller than 0.1 or 0.2 mm/yr while the seismicity is significant. A large focus will be given about the processing of the time series and the correction of the offsets.

Masson, F.; Lehujeur, M.; Doubre, C.; Ulrich, P.; Knoepfler, A.; Mayer, M.; Heck, B.

2012-12-01

85

Tritium/Helium-3 Dating of River Infiltration:An Example from the Oderbruch Area, Berlin, Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentrations of tritium, helium isotopes and neon have been measured in groundwater samples from a shallow and deep groundwater system recharged by bank infiltration from the Oder River in northeastern Berlin, Germany. The apparent 3H/3He ages show a distinct variation. They increased from only a few months to >40 years along the flow path. The farthest wells from the river have high concentration of 4He terrigenic which is around 5 × 10?5 (ccSTP/kg. The highest values for stable 3H (3H + 3Hetrit were encountered at a 2.6 kmdistance from the river.

Hany El-Gamal

2013-01-01

86

Opposite hysteresis of sand and gravel transport upstream and downstream of a bifurcation during a flood in the River Rhine, the Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At river bifurcations water and sediment is divided among the downstream branches. Prediction of the sediment transport rate and divisionthereof at bifurcations is of utmost importance for understanding the evolution of the bifurcates for short-term management purposes and forlong-term fluvial plain development. However, measured sediment transports in rivers rarely show a uniquely determined relation with hydrodynamicparameters. Commonly a hysteresis is observed of transport rate as a functi...

Kleinhans, M. G.; Wilbers, A. W. E.; Brinke, W. B. M. Ten

2007-01-01

87

Plasma biomarkers in fish provide evidence for endocrine modulation in the Elbe River, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood plasma samples were collected from wild bream (Abramis brama L.) in the Elbe River, Germany, and analyzed for the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (VTG), a biomarker for estrogen exposure, and the sex steroids 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), testosterone (T), and 17beta-estradiol (E2) to investigate for evidence of endocrine modulation. In addition, the gonadal status and the prominence of spawning tubercles were investigated. Nine riverine sites were investigated on the Elbe that were influenced by different sources of endocrine-active substances. Bream were collected from a lake that received no domestic or industrial discharges as a control. Plasma VTG concentrations were significantly higher in male bream from the Czech border to the middle Elbe, with the highest concentrations in fish sampled at the locations near Magdeburg and downstream of Dresden (between 20 and 100 times higher than in the controls), regions that are characterized by high levels of effluent discharges into the river. Following the Elbe from this site to the sea, the concentrations of plasma VTG in males were lower than at Meissen but were still elevated above the controls. 11KT and E2 titers showed suppressions in their normal concentrations at some locations (those receiving the greatest industrial discharges). There were reciprocal relationships between inhibitory effects on gonadal growth, maturation, and plasma sex steroids and exposure to pollutants, such as organotins, pesticides, or metals. However, there was no single chemical that alone could explain the observed inhibitory effects on sexual development. The results indicate that the endocrine system in wild bream is disrupted in stretches of the Elbe River. PMID:12075783

Hecker, Markus; Tyler, Charles R; Hoffmann, Mervée; Maddix, Sue; Karbe, Ludwig

2002-06-01

88

Deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben from Gurn (gnss Upper Rhine Graben Network)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rhine Graben is the central segment of the European Cenozoic rift system (ECRIS) of Oligocene age, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100 km. The ECRIS has been formed in a region of pre-existing Hercynian zones of weakness and is related to alpine tectonics and the Africa-Eurasia collision. Here we will concentrate on the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). The URG is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges Mountains and to the east by the Black Forest Mountains. Culminating in ~1500 m in elevation, these two massifs represent the Eocene-Oligocene rift shoulders, but a large part of the differential uplift is much younger. The uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif bounds the graben to the north. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette and Vendlincourt folds represent the northernmost structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. The present-day distribution of the seismicity in the URG area is moderate but not null. In this talk, we will present reprocessed position time series of ~100 GPS stations around the URG corrected of the artefacts due to instrumental changes, precise baseline time series across the URG, and a preliminary velocity field. The aim of this study is to define a first precise upper bound of the velocities and strain rates within the URG. Relative velocities are probably lower than 0.1mm/yr.

Masson, F.; Lehujeur, M.; Ulrich, P.; Doubre, C.; Knöpfler, A.; Mayer, M.; Heck, B.

2011-12-01

89

Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbers. Populations recover from cocoons that survive floods. If the period between two floods is too short such that cocoons cannot develop into reproductive adults, populations cannot sustain themsel...

Thonon, I.; Klok, C.

2007-01-01

90

Suppression of aromatase activity in populations of bream (Abramis brama) from the river Elbe, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aromatase activity was determined in brain and gonads of wild bream collected along the river Elbe, Germany, and correlated with other endocrine and reproductive endpoints such as plasma sex steroid concentrations, secondary sex characteristics (STI), plasma vitellogenin, gonad size (GSI), and maturation stages of germ cells (MS) that were reported for the same fish in a previous study. Furthermore, regional patterns of aromatase activity were correlated to a number of environmental factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants and parasitism. While aromatase activity was not detectable in the gonads of male and female fish with the assay used, fish of both genders revealed relatively great brain enzyme activities. As for most of the endocrine and reproductive parameters, with the exception of plasma testosterone (T), aromatase activities were significantly less in fish from a river stretch characterized by elevated exposures to organic contaminants and metals. Brain aromatase activity was positively and significantly correlated with plasma estradiol (E2) and MS in females, and showed a similar trend with plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and STI in males. No comparable trend occurred for T. This decrease of the reproductively relevant hormones 11KT and E2 may be indicative of a disruption of the last step in sex hormone synthesis, a hypothesis that was supported for E2 by the strong (R2=0.78, p<0.05) linear regression between aromatase activity and E2 in female bream. It is also hypothesized that the effects on brain aromatase activity were likely to be related to the disruption of other reproductive parameters including sexual maturity and expression of secondary sex characteristics. Although a number of factors such as exposure to pollutants and prevalence of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis correlated with the suppression of aromatase activity, the exact causes for the regional decrease in brain aromatase activity remain unclear due to inconsistencies of these correlations between sampling events or gender. PMID:16860843

Hecker, Markus; Sanderson, J Thomas; Karbe, Ludwig

2007-01-01

91

The Rhine outflow: A prototypical pulsed discharge plume in a high energy shallow sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past years, a wealth of data has been collected in the Rhine ROFI (Region Of Freshwater Influence) where freshwater from the Rhine is transported and dispersed along the Netherlands coast. The Rhine ROFI may be considered as a prototypical one, its spreading being relatively uncomplicated by coastal and bathymetric features. The discharge of the Rhine, and comparable rivers like the Connecticut, is heavily modulated by the tidal wave propagating into the estuary. As a result, this river water exits into the coastal zone as successive low salinity pulses. The processes and parameters involved in the development of such pulsed river plumes are qualitatively examined. The main criteria that lead to a pulsed discharge are that the net discharge is halted at some stage during the tidal cycle and that a pulse is sufficiently far removed from the river mouth after one tidal cycle so as not to interfere with the development of the successive pulses. From this we have derived necessary conditions for the formation of a pulsed discharge, namely (1) the maximal tidal current amplitude exceeds the river discharge velocity and (2) the inertial radius is larger than the river mouth width. Within this parameter regime rivers can thus be classified as falling within the pulsed plume regime or not. Mixing processes, particularly by winds and tides, are important at all times. Without wind and around neap tide (low mixing rates) the "life expectancy" of a typical Rhine pulse is of the order of a week, an upper bound. This order decreases quickly with increasing winds. However, then also velocities in the long shore "Dutch Coastal Current" go up. The observations show that under such extreme conditions a train of fresh water lenses can be transported along the Dutch coast.

de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.; Visser, Andre W.; Bos, W. G.

1997-08-01

92

Diffuse sources of heavy metals in the Rhine basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

An estimate of diffuse sources of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni) in the Rhine catchment stressed the urban storm water discharges in the German part and drainage flow in the Dutch part as the most important pathways. Additional sources are erosion and, to a far lesser extent, atmospheric deposition on open water areas. All other pathways were of minor importance. Meanwhile, after reduction of the point sources by between 72-95%, the diffuse sources dominate the total emissions. For several metals the anthropogenic diffuse sources amounted to 40-80%, the point sources to 15-40% and the geogeneous sources to 5-40%. The estimated inputs sufficiently agreed with the loads of the river Rhine. For the estimation, mean values were used for the water masses and the substance concentrations of the different hydrological pathways. It is recommended to undertake further studies on diffuse sources of heavy metals in urban areas and on the possibilities to improve urban storm water management. The calculation methods and the recommendations of the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR) are explained in detail. PMID:11724493

Mohaupt, V; Sieber, U; van den Roovaart, J; Verstappen, C G; Langenfeld, F; Braun, M

2001-01-01

93

Identification of stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the Rhine basin using Q methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article identifies different stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the downstream parts of the Rhine basin in Germany and The Netherlands. The perspectives were identified using Q methodology, which proved to be a good, but time-intensive, method for eliciting and analyzing stakeholder perspectives in a structured and unbiased way. Three shared perspectives were found: A "Anticipation and institutions", B "Space for flooding" and C "Knowledge and engineering". These three perspectives share a central concern for the provision of safety against flooding, but disagree on the expected autonomous developments and the preferred measures. In perspective A, the expected climate change and economic growth call for fast action. To deal with the increasing flood risk, mostly institutional measures are proposed, such as the development of a stronger basin commission. In perspective B, an increasing spatial pressure on the river area is expected, and the proposed measures are focused on mitigating damage, e.g., through controlled flooding and compartmentalization. In perspective C, the role of expert knowledge and technological improvements is emphasized. Preferred strategies include strengthening the dikes and differentiation of safety standards.

An overview of stakeholder perspectives can be useful in natural resources management for 1 setting the research agenda, 2 identifying differences in values and interests that need to be discussed, 3 creating awareness among a broad range of stakeholders, and 4 developing scenarios.

G. T. Raadgever

2008-08-01

94

EMuRgency - New approaches for resuscitation support and training in the Euregio Maas-Rhine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the "Euregio Meuse-Rhine" (EMR) - the shared border region of the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany - each year about 2.500 people suffer a cardiac arrest in pre-hospital setting. Less than 15% of the patients are discharged alive from the hospital. Regrettably, in this extremely time-critical emergency, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is only performed in about 25% of the cases. Main reasons are described as a lack of knowledge, uncertainness and fears of lay persons . In the...

Lenssen, N.; Biermann, H.; Sopka, S.; Beckers, S.; Felzen, M.; Rossaint, R.; Kalz, M.; Haberstroh, M.; Klerkx, J.; Skorning, M.

2012-01-01

95

Measurement and modeling of bentazone in the river Main (Germany) originating from point and non-point sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Water Framework Directive pilot project combines measured data and model approaches to calculate fluxes and mass balance of the pesticide bentazone in an 81 km section of the river Main (Germany). During the study period (six weeks in spring 2004) the observed bentazone inflow and outflow in the river section amounted to 52.8 and 53.1 kg, respectively; the maximum concentrations reached 220 and 290 ng l(-1). Based on sampling of seven sewage treatment plants a specific loss of 0.87 g bentazone per farm was calculated. Extrapolation to the entire sub-basin results in 2.6 kg bentazone in total as point source contribution from farms. Diffuse input into the surface water network occurred after an intensive rainfall event on May 7th. Total bentazone load was simulated with the pesticide emission model DRIPS to be 23.2 kg. One third of this load was estimated to be degraded by photolysis before reaching the main waterway, the river Main. The ATV water quality model was applied to predict the concentration profile of bentazone in river Main between Schweinfurt and Würzburg with reasonable results. The difference between total measured and modeled fluxes amounted to 1.5 kg corresponding to 2% of the overall input. The combined approach of monitoring and modeling appears to be a valuable strategy to quantify the relevance of point and non-point sources and to focus effective mitigation measures to the most relevant origins within a river basin. PMID:20546837

Bach, M; Letzel, M; Kaul, U; Forstner, S; Metzner, G; Klasmeier, J; Reichenberger, S; Frede, H G

2010-06-01

96

Modeling the fate of organic micropollutants during river bank filtration (Berlin, Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are frequently detected in urban surface water and the adjacent groundwater and are therefore an increasing problem for potable water quality. River bank filtration (RBF) is a beneficial pretreatment step to improve surface water quality for potable use. Removal is mainly caused by microbial degradation of micropollutants, while sorption retards the transport. The quantification of biodegradation and adsorption parameters for EOCs at field scale is still scarce. In this study, the fate and behavior of a range of organic compounds during RBF were investigated using a two dimensional numerical flow- and transport model. The data base used emanated from a project conducted in Berlin, Germany (NASRI: Natural and Artificial Systems for Recharge and Infiltration). Oxygen isotope signatures and hydraulic head data were used for model calibration. Afterwards, twelve organic micropollutants were simulated with a reactive transport model. Three compounds (primidone, EDTA, and AMDOPH) showed conservative behavior (no biodegradation or sorption). For the nine remaining compounds (1.5 NDSA, AOX, AOI, MTBE, carbamazepine, clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole), degradation and/or sorption was observed. 1.5 NDSA and AOX were not sorbed, but slightly degraded with model results for ?=2.25e(-3) 1/d and 2.4e(-3) 1/d. For AOI a ?=0.0106 1/d and R=1 were identified. MTBE could be characterized well assuming R=1 and a low 1st order degradation rate constant (?=0.0085 1/d). Carbamazepine degraded with a half life time of about 66 days after a threshold value of 0.2-0.3 ?g/L was exceeded and retarded slightly (R=1.7). Breakthrough curves of clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole could be fitted less well, probably due to the dependency of degradation on temperature and redox conditions, which are highly transient at the RBF site. Conditions range from oxic to anoxic (up to iron-reducing), with the oxic and denitrifying zones moving spatially back and forth over time. PMID:24270159

Henzler, Aline F; Greskowiak, Janek; Massmann, Gudrun

2014-01-01

97

A multi-tracer approach for the exploration of deep geothermal energy potential and fault zone characterisation, applied in the Upper Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

Current methods of geothermal exploration rely on various expensive geophysical methods (e.g. 3D reflection seismics) to identify permeable fault zones and the geometry of geothermal aquifers. However this analysis alone does not allow for an estimation of an active fault's hydraulic permeability nor provides a characterisation of the chemical properties of the deep aquifer fluid. Both factors play an important role in optimising siting of geothermal wells and operation of a geothermal power plant. This work presents a low cost strategy characterizing deep hydrogeochemical reservoirs using a combination of methods from hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrology in hot springs and near surface groundwater. The main goal is to confine the area of interest for further, indirect geophysical investigation. For this purpose natural geochemical and isotopical tracers as well as rare earth elements, 3He/4He ratios, and radiogenic isotopes (Sr and Pb) are investigated. Data from the first sampling campaign in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, close to Groß-Gerau, Germany, shows promising results, indicating an area of increased interest where elevated helium ratios coincide with characteristic geochemical data, fault location and a previously known saltwater anomaly. Geochemical analyses exhibit three different types of fluids and various mixtures. CaHCO3-dominated waters represent Quaternary aquifer conditions whereas MgSO4-dominated waters are characterised by a Tertiary aquifer rock. Higher saline NaCl-dominated waters show an impact of mantle fluids revealed by 3He/4He isotope analysis. The ratio is highest where the main fault of the northern Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Rhine river. This suggests that the fault is hydraulically active and connects ascending deep fluids with the shallow aquifer. Further investigations of rare earth element patterns as well as radiogenic isotopes will identify the origin, the ascent as well as the retention time of the deep fluids more precisely. Water-rock interactions and mixtures of different fluids in the reservoir and during the ascent are estimated and simulated using geochemical and hydraulic models. Thus, the geometry of the aquifer, the temperature, the quantity and the quality of the ascending deep fluid in the reservoir is estimated. The retention time is a good indicator for the deep fluid being part of a fossil reservoir or being recharged naturally. The Upper Rhine Graben was chosen to test the multi-tracer method due to its well-studied geology and some significant preexisting geophysical data to allow for comparison and validation of the study's findings. The aim is to identify the most useful tracers of deep geothermal fluid circulation, which consecutively can be applied to other regions with less prior information.

Freundt, Florian; Najem, Sami Al; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Isenbeck-Schröter, Margot; Schmidt, Gerhard; Grobe, René; Kraml, Michael

2014-05-01

98

Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the upper Rhine using 3HHO as a tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine river under natural conditions are determined by use of single emissions of tritiated waste water from nuclear power plants within normal operation. The influence of the discharge of the Rhine on the most relevant parameters is investigated thoroughly. In a case of accidental release of radioactive material, these data would be the basis of a prognosis by which the behaviour of the contaminated river section along the course can be described and the radiological consequences within the so-called critical impact area estimated. (orig.)

99

Determination of 3D surface displacement rates in the Upper Rhine Graben based on GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network)  

Science.gov (United States)

In September 2008, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre) and the Geodetic Institute of Karlsruhe University (now: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) established the transnational cooperation GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative, these institutions are cooperating in order to carry out geo-scientific research in the framework of the transnational project TOPO-WECEP (Western and Central European Platform; link: http://www.topo-wecep.eu/), which succeeded the former project URGENT (Upper Rhine Graben Evolution and NeoTectonics; link: http://comp1.geol.unibas.ch) of the EUCOR universities (European Confederation of Upper Rhine Universities). The Rhine Graben is the central segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100 km. GURN focusses on the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). The URG is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges Mountains and to the east by the Black Forest Mountains, culminating in elevations of approx. 1500 m. The uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif bounds the URG to the north. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette, and Vendlincourt folds represent the northernmost structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. Present-day distribution of the seismicity in the URG area is classified as moderate but not null. Expected velocities and strain rates are very low (relative velocities lower than 0.1mm/yr). The research is actually based on data of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems). A highly precise and highly sensitive geodetic network of permanently operating GNSS sites region has been established in the URG region in order to detect recent short-term (data base starting in year 2002) crustal movements based on displacements of GNSS sites. The regional network GURN actually consists of approx. 80 permanently operating GNSS sites of different data providers in Germany, France and Switzerland. The first work steps in the context of GURN were dominated by a detailed analysis of the GNSS data base (e.g., instrumental change artefacts). This analysis included a comparison of the working group related results (EOST, GIK), where different software packages and data handling strategies were used to derive 3D coordinate time series as basis for the determination of a 3D surface displacement field. Due to very small expected velocities in the URG region, the recent GURN focus is on the reliable derivation of site velocities, therefore effects of datum realisation have to be handled with care. The presentation gives an insight into the joint venture GURN focussing on recent results (e.g., 3D surface velocity field).

Mayer, M.; Knöpfler, A.; Masson, F.; Ulrich, P.; Heck, B.

2012-04-01

100

Tracing the Anthropocene in the Rhine-Meuse delta  

Science.gov (United States)

The Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta developed during the past ~8000 yr under a first rapid and later decreasing sea level rise in a back-barrier area along the North Sea. After about 3500 yr BP, natural delta evolution became increasingly influenced by humans, with different types of imprints: increased discharge and sediment load associated with deforestation in the hinterland affecting channel geometry and deposition; artificial avulsion; large-scale peat excavation; reclamation and drainage of flood basins resulting in compaction and oxidation of peat; river embankment preventing delta-wide overbank deposition and finalizing avulsion; channelization, changing channel belt geometry and causing shifts in sediment deposition within the delta. After the onset of the industrial revolution, contaminants have been deposited along with the river sediment on the embanked floodplains and in the estuary. The extremely well-documented human-affected evolution of the delta provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate how the Anthropocene can manifest itself in such an environment. We give an overview of human-affected processes in the Rhine-Meuse delta and discuss their effect on fluvial architecture, morphology and sediment composition, and how these may remain preserved within the delta sedimentary record.

Middelkoop, Hans; van der Perk, Marcel; Cohen, Kim M.; Stouthamer, Esther; Hoek, Wim Z.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Erkens, Gilles; Jansma, Esther

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Ecological Status of Rivers and Streams in Saxony (Germany According to the Water Framework Directive and Prospects of Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Federal State of Saxony (Germany transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD. Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements were used to identify significant anthropogenic pressures, which surface water bodies are susceptible to, and to assess the effect of these pressures on the status of surface water bodies. In 2009, the data for classification of the ecological status and the main pressures and impacts on water bodies were published in the river basin management plans (RBMP of the Elbe and Oder rivers. To that date, only 23 (4% streams achieved an ecological status of “good”, while the rest failed to achieve the environmental objective. The two main reasons for the failure were significant alterations to the stream morphology (81% of all streams and nutrient enrichment (62% caused by point (industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants and non-point (surface run-off from arable fields, discharges from urban drainages and decentralized waste water treatment plants sources. It was anticipated that a further 55 streams would achieve the environmental objective by 2015, but the remaining 539 need extended deadlines.

Uwe Müller

2012-11-01

102

Late Quaternary evolution of rivers, lakes and peatlands in northeast Germany reflecting past climatic and human impact – an overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of regional palaeohydrology is essential for understanding current environmental issues, such as the causes of recent hydrologic changes, impacts of land use strategies and effectiveness of wetland restoration measures. Even the interpretation of model results on future impacts of climatic and land-cover changes may be improved using (pre-historic analogies. An overview of palaeohydrologic findings of the last c. 20,000 years is given for northeast Germany with its glacial landscapes of different age. River development is examined with a focus on valley(-floor formation and depositional changes, river course and channel changes, and palaeodischarge/-floods. Major genetic differences exist among ‘old morainic’ (Elsterian, Saalian and ‘young morainic’ (Weichselian areas, and among topographically high- and low-lying valleys, the latter of which are strongly influenced by water-level changes in the North and Baltic Seas. Lake development was analysed with respect to lake formation, which was predominantly driven by late Pleistocene to early Holocene dead-ice dynamics, and with respect to depositional changes. Furthermore, lake-level changes have been in the focus, showing highly variable local records with some conformity. The overview on peatland development concentrated on phases of mire formation and on long-term groundwater dynamics. Close relationships between the development of rivers, lakes and peatlands existed particularly during the late Holocene by complex paludification processes in large river valleys. Until the late Holocene, regional hydrology was predominantly driven by climatic, geomorphic and nonanthropogenic biotic factors. Since the late Medieval times, human activities have strongly influenced the drainage pattern and the water cycle, for instance, by damming of rivers and lakes, construction of channels and dikes, and peatland cultivation. Indeed, the natural changes caused by long-term climatic and geomorphic processes have been exceeded by impacts resulting from short-term human actions in the last c. 50 years as discharge regulation, hydromelioration and formation of artificial lakes.

Knut Kaiser

2012-07-01

103

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in finished drinking water in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study 83 finished drinking water samples from 50 cities in Germany were analyzed for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) content with a detection limit of 10 ng/L. The detection frequency was 46% and the concentrations ranged between 17 and 712 ng/L. Highest concentrations were found in the community water systems (CWSs) of Leuna and Spergau in Saxony-Anhalt. These CWSs are supplied with water possibly affected by MTBE contaminated groundwater. MTBE was detected at concentrations lower than 100 ng/L in drinking water supplied by CWSs using bank filtered water from Rhine and Main Rivers. The results from Leuna and Spergau show that large groundwater contaminations in the vicinity of CWSs pose the highest risk for MTBE contamination in drinking water. CWSs using bank filtered water from Rhine and Main Rivers are susceptible to low MTBE contaminations in finished drinking water. All measured MTBE concentrations were below proposed limit values for drinking water. - MTBE in drinking water comes from different sources of MTBE in the aquatic environment

104

Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in the sediment of the Roter Main river, Bayreuth, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems. Their sources are known but few studies about their accumulation potential in river sediments exist. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in sediments in relation to their levels in river water receiving effluent from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). PFOS accumulates by a factor of about 40 relative to river water, PFOA only up to threefold. In contrast to previous suggestions, in this case the enrichment on sediment is not correlated to the total organic carbon contents. - River sediments constitute a sink of perfluorinated surfactants released from the waste water treatment plant.

Becker, Anna M.; Gerstmann, Silke [Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstr. 30, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Frank, Hartmut [Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstr. 30, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)], E-mail: encetox@uni-bayreuth.de

2008-12-15

105

Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in the sediment of the Roter Main river, Bayreuth, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems. Their sources are known but few studies about their accumulation potential in river sediments exist. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in sediments in relation to their levels in river water receiving effluent from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). PFOS accumulates by a factor of about 40 relative to river water, PFOA only up to threefold. In contrast to previous suggestions, in this case the enrichment on sediment is not correlated to the total organic carbon contents. - River sediments constitute a sink of perfluorinated surfactants released from the waste water treatment plant

106

Danube, Meuse and Rhine MEMORANDUM 2008; Donau -, Maas - und Rhein - MEMORANDUM 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The preventive water protection is the highest priority for water supply utilities as well as social and economical groups of interests using waters of most different kind. Under this aspect, the International Association of Waterworks in the Rhine catchment area (IAWR, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany) compiled the Danube, Meuse and Rhine memorandum 2008. It considers the conversion of the EU Water Framework Directive and concretely contains demands on a sustainable water protection and target values for substances in water. For politicians, authorities and decision makers in industry and water management, the memorandum under consideration should be an assistance and orientation for necessary improvements of surface waters used for the production of drinking water.

NONE

2008-07-01

107

Evaluating a 1D and 2D water quality modeling framework: A case study of the lower Bode River, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bode River catchment in the Harz Mountain area of central Germany is heavily influenced by anthropogenic factors. 70% of the catchment is dominated by agriculture, 23 % by forest and the rest 7% is urban in nature. The area of the catchment is approximately 3300 km2 and is characterized by sharp gradients in temperature, precipitation and land use. In order to acquire better understanding of the hydrological nature of the catchment and biogeochemical characteristics of the Bode River various monitoring stations have been deployed as a part of the larger earth observation network initiative named Terrestrial Environmental Observatories. One of the major issues with the catchment is the problem of eutrophication due to solute inputs from agriculture. The research presented here evaluated the application and development of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models in the downstream area of the Bode River. A stretch of 30 kms between Hadmersleeben and Stassfurt in the downstream area of the Bode River was modeled using 1D model HEC-RAS, the focus of the water quality modeling was transport and uptake of nitrate in the aforementioned modeled stretch. Flood events of varying peak magnitude at different times of the year were modeled. As regards to 2D modeling, TELEMAC-2D model was applied for the same reach. The hydrodynamic simulation results were validated with the help of free surface elevation at Athensleben, 8 kms upstream from the downstream end at Stassfurt. Water quality modeling, focusing on the Nitrate removal for the aforementioned stretch, is applied and developed for both 1D and 2D modeling framework. Results from hydrodynamic and water quality modeling were validated with RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) value of 0.074 and 0.36 for the modeled state variables across various events simulated. For the nutrient-rich reach modeled in this research it was found that the nutrient removal capacity of the stream is directly proportional to the incoming nitrate concentration.

Sinha, Sumit; Rode, Michael; Borchardt, Dietrich

2014-05-01

108

Is there a future for wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris) in the Rhine Valley?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, is considered to be an endangered taxon in Europe, mainly as a consequence of the introduction of pathogens from North America and of the destruction of its habitat. In the Rhine Valley, nearly all populations disappeared due to river management, the intensi.cation of forestry, and the introduction of phylloxera. After a growing awareness of the need to preserve endangered forest ecosystems, attempts to reintrod...

Arnold, Claire; Schnitzler, Annik; Douard, Anne; Peter, Richard; Gillet, Franc?ois

2011-01-01

109

Methylated arsenic and antimony species in suspended matter of the river Ruhr, Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methylated antimony and arsenic species content of sediments derived from a sedimentation bowl of the river Ruhr were monitored over a 12 month period. The most prevalent species detected were monomethylarsenic (MMAs and monomethylantimony (MMSb. The methylantimony and methylarsenic species concentration was found to be directly correlated to the winter spate. As the biological activity in the water body is generally low at this time of the year, it may be concluded that the concentration maxima in winter originated from the translocation of soil- and sediment particles to the river by heavy rains and the melting of snow. A second maximum in Spring/early Summer was observed for the methylarsenic species, and specifically the dimethylarsenic species (DMAs; this occurred in parallel to the algal bloom. A change in the methylarsenic speciation pattern was observed between April, May and June, with DMAs replacing MMAs as the dominant methylarsenic species. For methylated antimony species no seasonal variation in the species pattern was detected. Taken together these data strongly indicate a higher degree of transformation of arsenic compared to antimony in the Ruhr river system in spring and can be taken as a record for a biogeochemical different behaviour of these two elements which are often treated as equivalent in environmental studies.

L. Duester

2008-04-01

110

Greeting of the minister of state of North-Rhine Westfalia; Grusswort des Ministerpraesidenten des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The minister of state of North-rhine Westfalia gives an overview of energy policy and planning for the next years. Given the incresing demand of coke on global markets the supply of coal products and energy in Germany should be secured and made less dependend of imports. Energy policy should promote local brown and hard coal, renewable energies, efficient energy production and use in fossil fueled power plants. (uke)

Steinbrueck, P. [Landesregierung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany)

2004-12-16

111

Different Clonal Complexes of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Are Disseminated in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Euregio Meuse-Rhine (EMR) is formed by the border regions of Belgium, Germany, and The Netherlands. Cross-border health care requires infection control measures, in particular since the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) differs among the three countries. To investigate the dissemination of MRSA in the EMR, 152 MRSA isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), SCCmec typing, and multilocus sequence typing. PFGE revealed major clonal...

Deurenberg, Ruud H.; Vink, Cornelis; Mooij, Jascha E.; Driessen, Christel; Coppens, Guy; Lemmen, Sebastian; Wagenvoort, Hans; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Scheres, Jacques; Stobberingh, Ellen E.

2005-01-01

112

Ground-living spiders In a bottom land area of the Danube river In Bavaria (Germany)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ground-living spider fauna of a drained bottom land forest area was Investigated at 5 sites In the vicinity of the Danube river near Dillingen/Bavaria. Four series of pitfall traps were set up In the bottom land forest area, while a fifth series was installed in a dry, sunny clearing. Observation period was from early April through late November 1985. A total numberof 1447 adult spiders belonging to 94 species were oaught. The main result was that the small, dry clearing area harbors a ra...

Bauchhenß, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

113

Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH4NO3-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. - Soils in the Elbe river floodplains are highly polluted with metals and arsenic and a critical enrichment in the grassland herbage seems to be most likely in flood channels or within special plant species

114

The influence of macrophytes on sedimentation and nutrient retention in the lower River Spree (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrient retention due to sedimentation in running waters has been little studied. The knowledge about the processes of self-purification is important for the management of rivers. The principal aim of our investigations was to quantify nutrient retention by sedimentation within and adjacent to stands of submerged macrophytes. In addition, we examined the relationship between deposition and sedimentation patterns and the flow regime. In the summer of 2001, investigations were performed in the lower River Spree with sediment traps and sediment cores and measurement of flow velocities. The spatial distribution of macrophytes was described and related to sedimentation and flow patterns. Water and sediment samples were analysed for total phosphorus and total organic nitrogen concentrations. Macrophytes significantly enhanced water residence time by factors between 2 and 18. Trapping rates were high within and downstream of macrophyte stands due to the prevailing quiescent conditions. Trapping rates were low in regions not covered by macrophytes, where flow velocities were high. Calculated deposition of organic matter due to trapping rates accounted for 15-49% of observed deposition between May and September, the vegetation period. The difference between calculated and observed deposition can partly be attributed to an incomplete erosion of the organic sediments between October and April. Between May and September, nitrogen and phosphorus were retained by deposition by as much as 2.5% and 12.2%, respectively (% of total load). Therefore, macrophytes considerably contributed to total monthly phosphorus retention (up to 25%) by increasing deposition of particulate organic matter. PMID:12688691

Schulz, Marcus; Kozerski, Hans-Peter; Pluntke, Thomas; Rinke, Karina

2003-02-01

115

Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. - Soils in the Elbe river floodplains are highly polluted with metals and arsenic and a critical enrichment in the grassland herbage seems to be most likely in flood channels or within special plant species.

Overesch, M. [Department for Geo- and Agroecology, Institute of Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive Agriculture, University of Vechta, P.O. Box 1553, D-49364 Vechta (Germany)]. E-mail: moveresch@ispa.uni-vechta.de; Rinklebe, J. [Department of Soil Science, UFZ Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: joerg.rinklebe@ufz.de; Broll, G. [Department for Geo- and Agroecology, Institute of Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive Agriculture, University of Vechta, P.O. Box 1553, D-49364 Vechta (Germany)]. E-mail: gbroll@ispa.uni-vechta.de; Neue, H.-U. [Department of Soil Science, UFZ Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: heinz-ulrich.neue@ufz.de

2007-02-15

116

[sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios in river waters of East Germany. [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr-Verhaeltnisse in Fliessgewaessern Ostdeutschlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

[sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr Ratios for river- and ground-water samples from the eastern part of Germany are in the range from 0.707 (spring water from the Zechstein outcrops in the northern Thuringia) up to 0.727 (river water from Rb-rich granites in the Ore Mountains). The strontium isotope ratios, particularly in the vicinity of springs, reflect the geology of the catchment area. Downriver, as the catchment area increases, the averaging of geology combined with anthropogenic effects results in intermediate isotopic compositions. Within a brief discussion of likely anthropogenic sources experimental data of contribution of urban sewage are given for two locations. (orig.).

Trettin, R.; Haase, G.; Habedank, M. (Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung, Leipzig (Germany))

1991-01-01

117

Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH4NO3-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. PMID:16996182

Overesch, M; Rinklebe, J; Broll, G; Neue, H-U

2007-02-01

118

A joint probability approach using a 1-D hydrodynamic model for estimating high water level frequencies in the Lower Rhine Delta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Lower Rhine Delta, a transitional area between the River Rhine and Meuse and the North Sea, is at risk of flooding induced by infrequent events of a storm surge or upstream flooding, or by more infrequent events of a combination of both. A joint probability analysis of the astronomical tide, the wind induced storm surge, the Rhine flow and the Meuse flow at the boundaries is established in order to produce the joint probability distribution of potential flood events. Three individual joint probability distributions are established corresponding to three potential flooding causes: storm surges and normal Rhine discharges, normal sea levels and high Rhine discharges, and storm surges and high Rhine discharges. For each category, its corresponding joint probability distribution is applied, in order to stochastically simulate a large number of scenarios. These scenarios can be used as inputs to a deterministic 1-D hydrodynamic model in order to estimate the high water level frequency curves at the transitional locations. The results present the exceedance probability of the present design water level for the economically important cities of Rotterdam and Dordrecht. The calculated exceedance probability is evaluated and compared to the governmental norm. Moreover, the impact of climate change on the high water level frequency curves is quantified for the year 2050 in order to assist in decisions regarding the adaptation of the operational water management system and the flood defense system.

H. Zhong

2013-07-01

119

Non biodegradable and weakly adsorbing substances in the river Elbe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quality of the river Elbe in East Germany has been investigated in a research project subsidized by the German minstry of research and technology, iwth respect to drinking water quality and treatment using laboratory methods similar to the treatment processes in waterworks. The experiments included analysis of sum- and group-parameters before and after biological degradation and a study of adsorption on activated carbon. Comparing these results with data already published from the river Rhine in West Germany, the water of the river Elbe showed approximately double the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and ion-pair-extractable organic sulphur (IOS). Mathematical models have been used to obtain further information from these measurements about the origin of the organic substances in the river Elbe. As a consequence, an important part of the relatively high DOC-concentration in the Elbe-river is due to natural humic substances. Therefore the operation of better waste water treatment plants along the elbe-river might reduce the concentration of organic halogen and sulphur substances in particular, whereas the concentration of DOC will decrease only slightly in the future. (orig.)

120

Hydroclimatic signal and LBK cultural activity in the Upper and Lower Rhine, inferred from abandoned channel fill deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely populated Upper Rhine Graben with those from the more peripheral Lower Rhine valley to decipher anthropogenic impacts from natural environmental circumstances. Moreover, we try to discriminate the local to the regional signals recorded in the fluvial archives, by comparing the proxy data with the pedo-sedimentary context. The ultimate goal is to model socio-environmental interactions during the LBK culture progression to Western Europe with MMA.

Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Exploring the Prospects for Cross-Border Climate Change Adaptation between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change will have various effects on river basins: precipitation levels and water temperature may change, floods and also droughts may occur more frequently. These effects do not respect man-made borders, so climate adaptation in itself is a transnational challenge. Adaptation can reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change effects. Within the Rhine river basin, North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands are dealing with climate adaptation governance, both on the national and on the transboundary level. The aim of this paper is to get a better understanding of factors that stimulate or constrain transboundary governance of climate change adaptation. Our presumption is that the level of congruence between policy arrangements on both sides of the border has an impact on the prospects for cooperation. By applying the Policy Arrangement Approach we found similarities and differences between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands. The two arrangements are similar in their involvement of multiple actors on multiple levels, the degree of decentralization of policy making, a relatively strong feeling of urgency (though framed differently and the availability of knowledge resources. However, in the Netherlands adaptation is primarily water related and sector based, while in North Rhine-Westphalia the focus is more integrated, aiming at a balancing of different values and interests. Other differences are related to the amount and division of financial resources available and to actors’ responsibilities. The latter is geared towards a public responsibility in the Netherlands, while in North Rhine-Westphalia dealing with flood risks is also a responsibility of civilians and other private parties. We conclude that the degree of congruence between the two states is fairly high and will present argument as to why this offers good opportunities for further cooperation.

Marjolein C.J. Van Eerd

2014-05-01

122

The Rhine delta. A record of sediment trapping over time scales from millennia to decades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the land-ocean interface, large river deltas are major sinks of sediments and associated matter. Over the past decennia, many studies have been conducted on the palaeogeographic development of the Rhine delta and overbank deposition on the Rhine floodplains. This paper aims to synthesise these research results with special focus on the amounts and changes of overbank fines trapped in the Rhine delta and their controls at different time scales in the past, present and future. Sediment trapping in the Rhine delta throughout the Holocene was quantified using a detailed database of the Holocene delta architecture. Additional historic data allowed the reconstruction of the development of the river's floodplain during the period of direct human modification of the river. Using heavy metals as tracers, overbank deposition rates over the past century were determined. Measurements of overbank deposition and channel bed sediment transport in recent years, together with modelling studies of sediment transport and deposition have provided detailed insight in the present-day sediment deposition on the floodplains, as well as their controls. Estimated annual suspended sediment deposition rates were about 1.4 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1} between 6,000 and 3,000 years BP and increased to about 2.1 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1} between 3,000 and 1,000 years BP. After the rivers were embanked by artificial levees between 1100 and 1300 AD, the amount of sediment trapped in the floodplains reduced to about 1.16 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1}. However, when accounting for re-entrainment of previously deposited sediment, the actual sediment trapping of the embanked floodplains was about 1.86 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1}. Downstream of the lower Waal branch an inland delta developed that trapped another 0.4 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1} of overbank fines. Since the width of channel was artificially reduced and the banks were fixed by a regular array of groynes around 1850, the average rates of deposition on the embanked floodplains have been 1.15 x 10{sup 9} kg year{sup -1}. Scenario studies show that the future sediment trapping in the lower Rhine floodplains might double. The variations in amounts of sediment trapped in the Rhine delta during the past 6,000 years are largely attributed to changes in land use in the upstream basin. At present, the sediment trapping efficiency of the floodplains is low and heavily influenced by river regulation and engineering works. Upstream changes in climate and land use, and direct measures for flood reduction in the lower floodplains, may again change the amounts of sediments trapped by the lower floodplains in the forthcoming decades. (orig.)

Middelkoop, Hans; Perk, Marcel van der [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Physical Geography; Erkens, Gilles [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Physical Geography; Deltares, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2010-06-15

123

Potentials of combined heat and power generation in North Rhine Westfalia. Profitability analyses; Potenziale von Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Wirtschaftlichkeitsanalysen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the coalition agreement of the state government of North Rhine-Westphalia, the target is formulated to increase the share of combined heat and power in the power generation to more than 25 % by 2020. A recent investigation under the auspices of the Bremer Energie Institut (Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany) shows that there exist plenty of economic potential for this, as well as a doubling of heat generation additional new cogeneration plants.

Eikmeier, Bernd [Bremer Energie Institut, Bremen (Germany); Klobasa, Marian [Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2011-12-15

124

Quantification of large-scale urban mass fluxes of xenobiotics and of the river-groundwater interaction in the city of Halle, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to quantify the fluxes of micropollutants like pharmaceuticals including endocrine disruptors, and fragrances in the environment modelling approaches in the area of the city of Halle/Saale, Germany were performed. The investigated micropollutants are Bisphenol A, t-Nonylphenol, Carbamazepine, Galaxolide ® and Tonalide ®. These substances were found ubiquitously in the urban groundwater and surface waters. The assessment of the concentration values of these substances in the urban waters showed no significant changes during the city passage. Therefore, a balance model for the whole city area was set up and the main water-bounded mass fluxes of the substances were estimated. The assessment of the mass fluxes shows increasing values of about 20 up to 400% for nearly all investigated micropollutants during the city passage of the urban waters. An exception is Bisphenol A with a constant mass flux. In order to investigate the surface water-groundwater interaction, a transient hydrodynamic river reach model of the Saale River and a groundwater transport model of the area connected to the reach were created by coupling two well known conventional compartment models for river hydraulic and groundwater transport. The inter-compartmental transport of Carbamazepine initiated through infiltration from the Saale River into the groundwater during a flooding event was simulated . A substance mass flux of 3.29 × 10 5 ?g d -1 and a fluid flux of 9.95 × 10 3 m 3 d -1 was calculated.

Reinstorf, F.; Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Osenbrück, K.; Strauch, G.; Möder, M.; Schirmer, M.

125

Induced seismicity in the lignite mining areas of the Lower Rhine basin; Induzierte Seismizitaet im Braunkohlengebiet der Niederrheinischen Bucht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lower Rhine basin is one of the very few areas in Germany to be affected by tectonic tremors large enough to result in actual damage. These tremors are usually natural in origin and their occurrence can be attributed to recent fault-block tectonics which are still present today in the Lower Rhine basin. In addition to the natural earth-tremor activity, a low level of induced seismicity has been observed for a number of years in parts of the basin area - a phenomenon which is causally related to the extensive ground-water lowering and massive ground redistribution which has taken place in and around the Rhine-Valley opencast lignite. (orig.) [German] Die Niederrheinische Bucht zaehlt zu den wenigen Gebieten in Deutschland, in denen schadensverursachende tektonische Erdbeben vorkommen. Diese Erdbeben haben in der Regel natuerliche Ursachen. Ihr Auftreten ist auf die junge Bruchschollentektonik zurueckzufuehren, welche in der Niederrheinischen Bucht bis in die Gegenwart fortlebt. Neben der natuerlichen Erdbebentaetigkeit ist seit einigen Jahrzehnten in Teilen der Niederrheinischen Bucht eine schwache induzierte Seismizitaet festzustellen, die in ursaechlichem Zusammenhang mit der weitraeumigen Grundwasserabsenkung und den bergmaennischen Massenumlagerungen in den Tagebauen des Rheinischen Braunkohlenreviers steht. (orig.)

Ahorner, L. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Bensberg (Germany); Schaefer, W. [RWE Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany). Abteilung Bergschaeden-Markscheiderei

2002-03-01

126

The simultaneous occurrence of surge and discharge extremes for the Rhine delta  

Science.gov (United States)

The low-lying Netherlands is at risk from multiple threats of sea level rise, storm surges and extreme river discharges. Should these occur simultaneously, a catastrophe will be at hand. Knowledge about the likelihood of simultaneous occurrence or the so-called "compound effect" of such threats is essential to provide guidance on legislation for dike heights, flood barrier design and water management in general. In this study, we explore the simultaneous threats of North Sea storm surges and extreme Rhine river discharge for the current and future climate in a large 17-member global climate model ensemble. We use a simple approach, taking proxies of north-northwesterly winds over the North Sea and multiple~day precipitation averaged over the Rhine basin for storm surge and discharge respectively, so that a sensitivity analysis is straightforward to apply. By investigating soft extremes, we circumvent the need to extrapolate the data and thereby permit the model's synoptic development of the extreme events to be inspected. Our principle finding based on the climate model data is that, for the current climate, the probability of extreme surge conditions following extreme 20-day precipitation sums is around 3 times higher than that estimated from treating extreme surge and discharge probabilities as independent, as previously assumed. For the future climate (2070-2100), the assumption of independence cannot be rejected, at least not for precipitation sums exceeding 7 days.

Kew, S. F.; Selten, F. M.; Lenderink, G.; Hazeleger, W.

2013-08-01

127

Laboratory shake flask batch tests can predict field biodegradation of aniline in the Rhine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to compare degradation rates of aniline in laboratory shake flask simulation tests with field rates in the river Rhine. The combined events of a low flow situation in the Rhine and residual aniline concentrations in the effluent from the BASF treatment plant in Ludwigshafen temporarily higher than normal, made it possible to monitor aniline at trace concentrations in the river water downstream the wastewater outlet by means of a sensitive GC headspace analytical method. Aniline was analyzed along a downstream gradient and the dilution along the gradient was calculated from measurements of conductivity, sulfate and a non-readily biodegradable substance, 1,4-dioxane. Compensating dilution, field first-order degradation rate constants downstream the discharge of BASF were estimated at 1.8 day(-1) for two different dates with water temperatures of 21.9 and 14.7 degreesC, respectively. This field rate estimate was compared with results from 38 laboratory shake flask batch tests with Rhinewater which averaged 1.5 day(-1) at 15 degreesC and 2.0 day(-1) at 20 degreesC. These results indicate that laboratory shake flask batch tests with low concentrations of test substance can be good predictors of degradation rates in natural water bodies-at least as ascertained here for short duration tests with readily degradable compounds among which aniline is a commonly used reference. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Toräng, Lars; Nyholm, Niels

2001-01-01

128

Cohabiting unions in France and West Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares the non-marital birth pattern in France and West Germany. Since the beginning of the eighties, France witnessed a steady increase in non-marital birth rates, while in West Germany non-marital birth rates have remained at a relatively low level. We attribute these differences to the institutional and legal constraints from both sides of the Rhine which hamper or foster childbearing in cohabiting unions. Using data from the French and German Family and Fertility Survey, we apply event history modeling to the transition to marriage and first birth. Our results indicate a polarization of family forms in both countries. In West Germany, we find a polarization in a "family sector" and a "non-family sector" while in France there is a polarization in a "marriage sector" and a "cohabiting sector".

2002-12-01

129

Transboundary flood management in the Rhine basin: challenges for improved cooperation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An appropriate institutional set up is essential for efficient transboundary flood management in the Rhine basin, particularly in view of future uncertainties like climate change. Flood management factors are identified based on a historical comparison in the Netherlands and Germany. They include differences in the perception of the problem and how to solve it; in the understanding of key items and how to address them; in administrative responsibilities and the political will to act. Suggestions are made to improve cooperation, in particular to generate a common problem perception and problem analysis, to develop a common vision for future flood strategies and to create a network of discussion platforms to promote social learning and to prepare, decide and implement flood management issues. PMID:17851213

Becker, G; Aerts, J; Huitema, D

2007-01-01

130

Structure-based geoelectrical models derived from genetic algorithms: A case study for hydrogeological investigations along Elbe River coastal area, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Vertical electrical sounding (VES) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys are performed to assess the hydrogeological conditions along Elbe River coastal area, Germany. Because the interpretation of actual resistivity data still has a degree of non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning, linear and non-linear inversion methods have been applied in this paper for optimal interpretation of the measured data. The 1D model generation using hybrid genetic algorithms (GA) represents an accurate and quick solution to image the subsurface resistivity distributions; freshwater aquifer and two highly conductive zones of perched saltwater and seawater intrusion. The longitudinal conductance of the interpreted layers above the water table is calculated to explain why the vulnerable zone to the perched saltwater concentrates at the central and southern parts of the area investigated.

Attwa, Mohamed; Akca, Irfan; Basokur, Ahmet T.; Günther, Thomas

2014-04-01

131

Uncertainty in the future change of extreme precipitation over the Rhine basin: the role of internal climate variability  

Science.gov (United States)

Future changes in extreme multi-day precipitation will influence the probability of floods in the river Rhine basin. In this paper the spread of the changes projected by climate models at the end of this century (2081-2100) is studied for a 17-member ensemble of a single Global Climate Model (GCM) and results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble. All climate models were driven by the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario. An analysis of variance model is formulated to disentangle the contributions from systematic differences between GCMs and internal climate variability. Both the changes in the mean and characteristics of extremes are considered. To estimate variances due to internal climate variability a bootstrap method was used. The changes from the GCM simulations were linked to the local scale using an advanced non-linear delta change approach. This approach uses climate responses of the GCM to transform the daily precipitation of 134 sub-basins of the river Rhine. The transformed precipitation series was used as input for the hydrological Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning model to simulate future river discharges. Internal climate variability accounts for about 30 % of the total variance in the projected climate trends of average winter precipitation in the CMIP3 ensemble and explains a larger fraction of the total variance in the projected climate trends of extreme precipitation in the winter half-year. There is a good correspondence between the direction and spread of the changes in the return levels of extreme river discharges and extreme 10-day precipitation over the Rhine basin. This suggests that also for extreme discharges a large fraction of the total variance can be attributed to internal climate variability.

van Pelt, S. C.; Beersma, J. J.; Buishand, T. A.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Schellekens, J.

2014-08-01

132

Influence of a Storm Surge Barrier’s Operation on the Flood Frequency in the Rhine Delta Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Rhine River Delta is crucial to the Dutch economy. The Maeslant barrier was built in 1997 to protect the Rhine estuary, with the city and port of Rotterdam, from storm surges. This research takes a simple approach to quantify the influence of the Maeslant storm surge barrier on design water levels behind the barrier. The dikes in the area are supposed to be able to withstand these levels. Equal Level Curves approach is used to calculate the Rotterdam water levels by using Rhine discharges and sea water levels as input. Their joint probability function generates the occurrence frequency of a certain combination that will lead to a certain high water level in Rotterdam. The results show that the flood frequency in Rotterdam is reduced effectively with the controlled barrier in current and in future scenarios influenced by climate change. In addition, an investigation of the sensitivity of the operational parameters suggests that there is a negligible influence on the high water level frequency when the decision closing water level for the barrier is set higher due to the benefits of navigation (but not exceeding the design safety level 4 m MSL.

Hua Zhong

2012-05-01

133

Latest Pliocene to recent thick-skinned tectonics at the Upper Rhine Graben - Jura Mountains junction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The southernmost Upper Rhine Graben and adjacent Jura experienced basement-rooted shortening that occurred after the deposition of the Pliocene fluvial 'Sundgau gravels'. Folds affecting the base of these gravels systematically trend NE to ENE. Combined evidence from reflection seismic lines and contour maps of the base-Tertiary and base-Pliocene levels indicates that these folds probably formed by thick-skinned reactivation of both NNE-SSW and WSW-ENE-striking faults. This thick-skinned shortening is NW-SE oriented, i.e. parallel to the maximum horizontal stresses inferred from seismotectonics. NNE-SSW-striking faults (paralleling the Upper Rhine Graben) have been reactivated in sinistral strike-slip mode. However, dextrally transpressive reactivation of the WSW-ENE-trending faults that belong to the Rhine-Bresse Transfer Zone is interpreted to predominate. Deflections of recent river courses around the crests of en-echelon-aligned surface anticlines suggest that the deformation is ongoing at present. Retro-deformation of the folds affecting the base of the Sundgau gravels indicates horizontal displacement rates of about 0.05 mm/a. This corresponds to a minimum strain rate in the order of 2*10-16 s-1, given the maximum time span of 2.9 Ma for this deformation, i.e. the biostratigraphically determined minimum age of the gravels. A change from thin-skinned tectonics, that prevailed during the main phase of Jura folding, to very probably still ongo Jura folding, to very probably still ongoing thick-skinned tectonics is inferred to have occurred in the Late Pliocene. We speculate that this change might be linked to the incipient inversion of Permo-Carboniferous troughs within the Alpine foreland in general. This inversion in dextrally transpressive or purely compressive mode along a WNW-ESE-trending basement fault, that is part of the Rhine-Bresse Transfer Zone, which in turn was prestructured during the formation of the Permo-Carboniferous troughs, could have triggered the 1356 Basel earthquake. (author)

134

The effectiveness of polder systems on peak discharge capping of floods along the middle reaches of the Elbe River in Germany  

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Full Text Available In flood modelling, many one-dimensional (1-D hydrodynamic models are too restricted in capturing the spatial differentiation of processes within a polder or system of polders and two-dimensional (2-D models are very demanding in data requirements and computational resources. The latter is an important consideration when uncertainty analyses using the Monte Carlo techniques are to complement the modelling exercises. This paper describes the development of a quasi-2-D modeling approach, which still calculates the dynamic wave in 1-D but the discretisation of the computational units is in 2-D, allowing a better spatial representation of the flow in polders and avoiding large additional expenditure on data pre-processing and computational time. The model DYNHYD (1-D hydrodynamics from the WASP5 modeling package was used as a basis for the simulations and extended to incorporate the quasi-2-D approach. A local sensitive analysis shows the sensitivity of parameters and boundary conditions on the filling volume of polders and capping of the peak discharge in the main river system. Two flood events on the Elbe River, Germany were used to calibrate and test the model. The results show a good capping effect on the flood peak by the proposed systems. The effect of capping reduces as the flood wave propagates downstream from the polders (up to 0.5 cm of capping is lost for each additional kilometer from the polders.

S. Huang

2007-02-01

135

Maximum magnitude in the Lower Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating Mmax, the assumed magnitude of the largest future earthquakes expected on a fault or in an area, involves large uncertainties. No theoretical basis exists to infer Mmax because even where we know the long-term rate of motion across a plate boundary fault, or the deformation rate across an intraplate zone, neither predict how strain will be released. As a result, quite different estimates can be made based on the assumptions used. All one can say with certainty is that Mmax is at least as large as the largest earthquake in the available record. However, because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, larger earthquakes than anticipated often occur. Estimating Mmax is especially challenging within plates, where deformation rates are poorly constrained, large earthquakes are rarer and variable in space and time, and often occur on previously unrecognized faults. We explore this issue for the Lower Rhine Graben seismic zone where the largest known earthquake, the 1756 Düren earthquake, has magnitude 5.7 and should occur on average about every 400 years. However, paleoseismic studies suggest that earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. What to assume for Mmax is crucial for critical facilities like nuclear power plants that should be designed to withstand the maximum shaking in 10,000 years. Using the observed earthquake frequency-magnitude data, we generate synthetic earthquake histories, and sample them over shorter intervals corresponding to the real catalog's completeness. The maximum magnitudes appearing most often in the simulations tend to be those of earthquakes with mean recurrence time equal to the catalog length. Because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, we expect larger earthquakes than observed to date to occur. In a next step, we will compute hazard maps for different return periods based on the synthetic catalogs, in order to determine the influence of underestimating Mmax.

Vanneste, Kris; Merino, Miguel; Stein, Seth; Vleminckx, Bart; Brooks, Eddie; Camelbeeck, Thierry

2014-05-01

136

Towards a Risk Governance Culture in Flood Policy—Findings from the Implementation of the “Floods Directive” in Germany  

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Full Text Available The European Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks is likely to cause changes to flood policy in Germany and other member states. With its risk governance approach, it introduces a holistic and catchment-oriented flood risk management and tries to overcome shortcomings of the past, such as the event-driven construction of mainly structural measures. However, there is leeway for interpretation in implementing the directive. The present paper gives an overview on the implementation of the floods directive in Germany and is divided into two qualitative empirical case studies. Case Study I investigates the level of acceptance of the floods directive among decision-makers in the German part of the Rhine river basin. Findings show that the federal states respond differently to the impulse given by the floods directive. Whereas some decision-makers opt for a pro-forma implementation, others take it as a starting point to systematically improve their flood policy. Case Study II presents recommendations for a successful implementation of flood risk management plans that have been developed within a project for the water authority in Bavaria and might be interesting for other federal/member states. For a participation of the interested parties on the level of shared decision-making, the planning process has to work on sub-management-plan level (15–20 communities. The water resources authority has to adopt a multi-faceted role (expert, responsible or interested party depending on the discussed topics.

Klaus Wagner

2012-02-01

137

Geochronology of priority pollutants in sedimentation zones of the Volga and Danube delta in comparison with the Rhine delta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six sediment cores were taken in sedimentation zones of the Volga river (located in the southern part of the Russian Federation) and, additionally, 6 sediment cores were taken in several lakes (sedimentation zones) in the central and western part of the Danube delta in Romania. Priority pollutants (8 metals, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined in all samples of all cores. Present-day and historical levels of pollutants since the late 1930s were established through the use of radionuclide time tracers (137Cs, 134Cs). For the persistent metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trends in the concentration profiles during the last 5 decades are described. Low and hardly changing concentrations of As, Cu, Zn and all studied PAHs were observed during the last five decades in the sediments of the Volga river. Recently deposited sediments show slightly increasing levels for the heavy metals Zn and Cr and As in the Volga delta. For the studied metals and PAHs, maximum concentrations were found around 1987 in the sediments of the Danube delta. Sediments deposited around 1940 and recently deposited sediments in the Danube delta showed lower pollutant levels. If the contents of heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments in the deltas of the rivers Rhine, Danube and Volga are compared, it is clear that the Volga delta is and was the cleanest delta during the last 5 decades. Nowadays the contents ohe last 5 decades. Nowadays the contents of heavy metals (except Cu and Ni), PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments of the river Rhine are still highest compared to the other two rivers. The recent load of heavy metals (except Cd and Zn) in the sediments of the river Danube is the highest compared to the other two rivers. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

138

Analysis of possible impacts of climate change on the hydrological regimes of different regions in Germany  

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Full Text Available In this study, the impact of climate change scenarios on the hydrological regimes of five different regions in Germany is investigated. These regions (Northwest Germany, Northeast Germany and East German basins, upper and lower Rhine, pre-Alps differ with respect to present climate and projected climate change. The physically based SVAT-model SIMULAT is applied to theoretical soil columns based on combinations of land use, soil texture and groundwater depth to quantify climate change effects on the hydrological regime. Observed climate, measured at climate stations of the German Weather Service (1991–2007, is used for comparison with climate projections (2071–2100 generated by the regional scale climate model WETTREG.

While all climate scenarios implicate an increase in precipitation in winter, a decrease in precipitation in summer and an increase in temperature, the simulated impacts on the hydrological regime are regionally different. In the Rhine region and in Northwest Germany, an increase in the annual runoff and groundwater recharge is simulated despite the increase in temperature and potential evapotranspiration. In the Eastern part of Germany and the pre-Alps, annual runoff and groundwater recharge will decrease. Due to dry conditions in summer, the soil moisture deficit will increase (in Northeast Germany and the East German basins in particular or remain constant (Rhine region. In all regions the seasonal variability in runoff and soil moisture status will increase. Despite regional warming actual evapotranspiration will decrease in most regions except in areas with shallow groundwater tables and the lower Rhine. Although the study is limited by the fact that only one climate model was used to drive one hydrologic model, the study shows that the hydrological regime will be affected by climate change. The direction of the expected changes seems to be obvious as well as the necessity of the adaptation of future water management strategies.

H. Bormann

2009-08-01

139

Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile

140

Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile.

Kronimus, Alexander [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: kronimus@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, Jan [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de

2007-05-15

 
 
 
 
141

Biogas in EEG 2012. Regional structural effects and income effects in North Rhine-Westphalia. Financial Report ''Impact analysis of legislative modifications within renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia''; Biogas im EEG 2012. Regionale Struktur- und Einkommenswirkungen in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Abschlussbericht ''Wirkungsanalyse gesetzlicher Aenderungen im Bereich erneuerbarer Energien aus Sicht von Landwirtschaft und laendlichen Raeumen in Nordrhein-Westfalen''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The promotion of renewable energies is a main topic of the energy economic policy. The EEG (Renewable Energy Law) should be the main instrument at this point. The contribution of the renewable energy could be increased significantly in the last decade. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an impact analysis of legislative modifications in the area of renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia (Federal Republic of Germany).

Braun, Juergen; Lorleberg, Wolf; Stauss, Wolfgang

2012-07-01

142

From Sandoz to Salmon: Conceptualizing resource and institutional dynamics in the Rhine watershed through the SES framework  

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Full Text Available In this paper we use a case study of the Rhine River to examine the relevance of Common Pool Resource (CPR Theory for two conditions in which it has not been extensively tested: large scale international water management and pollution problems. For that purpose, we link variation in pollution abatement to a set of explanatory variables proposed by CPR theory. Causal inference is established through process tracing and a series of within-case comparison across actor groups (i.e. riparian nations, industry, and agriculture, resource types (i.e. point source, and non-point source pollutants, and time periods (1976–1986, when treaties provided a limited basis for collective action and pollution abatement, and 1987–2001, when the Rhine Action Plan proved more successful. According to our analysis, a number of CPR variables can help understanding cooperation for pollution abatement in the Rhine case. These include physical attributes such as clear hydrological boundaries; governance factors such as the articulation of monitoring and decision-making at different governance levels and the proportional allocation of costs and benefits of abating pollution; and actor factors like the small size, trust and homogeneity of some actor groups and leadership. Other variables proposed by CPR theory proved to be irrelevant or in need of qualification. These include the right to self-organize and to participate in decision-making, communication and resource-dependence. Finally, two variables, not emphasized by CPR theory, proved relevant: the occurrence of external disturbances and the role of interest groups. We conclude that CPR theory is valuable for explaining pollution management in large trans-boundary river basins, but requires qualification and extension.

Sergio Villamayor-Tomas

2014-08-01

143

Contribution of priority PAHs and POPs to Ah receptor-mediated activities in sediment samples from the River Elbe Estuary, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The estuary of the River Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (Germany) is a sink for contaminated sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM). One major concern is the effect of human activities on the hydrodynamics, particularly the intensive dredging activities in this area that may result in remobilization of sediment-bound pollutants. The aim of this study was to identify pollutants contributing to the toxicological risk associated with re-suspension of sediments in the Elbe Estuary by use of an effect-directed analysis that combines chemical and biological analyses in with specific fractionation techniques. Sediments were collected from sites along the Elbe Estuary and a site from a small harbor basin of the Elbe Estuary that is known to be polluted. The sixteen priority EPA-PAHs were quantified in organic extracts of sediments. In addition, dioxin equivalents of sediments were investigated by use of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase assay with RTL-W1 cells and the Ah receptor-mediated luciferase transactivation assay with H4IIE-luc cells. Quantification of the 16 priority PAHs revealed that sediments were moderately contaminated at all of the sites in the Elbe River Estuary (<0.02-0.906 µg/g dw). Sediments contained relatively small concentrations of dioxin equivalents (Bio-TEQ) with concentrations ranging from 15.5 to 322 pg/g dw, which were significantly correlated with dioxin equivalents calculated based on toxicity reference values and concentrations of PAH. The concentration of Bio-TEQ at the reference site exceeded 200,000 pg/g dw. In a potency balance the 16 PAHs explained between 47 and 118% of the Bio-TEQ in the luciferase assay, which can be explained by the constant input of PAHs bound to SPM from the upper course of the Elbe River into its estuary. Successful identification of a significant portion of dioxin-like activity to priority PAHs in complex environmental samples such as sediments has rarely been reported. PMID:24146763

Otte, Jens C; Keiter, Steffen; Faßbender, Christopher; Higley, Eric B; Rocha, Paula Suares; Brinkmann, Markus; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Manz, Werner; Wetzel, Markus A; Braunbeck, Thomas; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Hollert, Henner

2013-01-01

144

The N-isotope effect and fractionation of nitrification in the tidal influenced Elbe River estuary, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Estuaries act as a nutrient filter for coastal waters. The eutrophic Elbe River estuary is loaded with fertilizer-derived nitrogen, but management efforts have started to reduce this load effectively. However, an internal nitrate source in turn gained in importance and the estuary changed from a sink to a source of reactive nitrogen. Nitrification plays a key role in this estuarine nutrient regeneration but has to be quantified. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of nitrification on seasonal nitrogen loads and turnover using stable N- isotopes to identify the natural fractionation factor of nitrification. Therefor we measured the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (ammonium, nitrite and nitrate), their stable isotope signatures and the in-situ nitrification rates in the tidal influenced part of the river during 9 cruises from August 2011 to August 2013. The DIN load was higher in winter than in summer, the main compound was nitrate. In summer concentrations of nitrate entering the estuary were between 50 and 100 ?M and ?15N and ?18O were enriched to 15.5 to 21.5 o and 7.5 to 11.5 o respectively. Strong nitrification was found in the Hamburg port region. The nitrate concentrations increased significantly downstream after the port of Hamburg, along with a decrease of isotope values. Ammonium and nitrite peaked in the Hamburg port region with up to 25 ?M and 12 ?M, respectively. In July 2013, ?15N of ammonium has shown a mean value of 16.2±3.3 o and nitrite of -9.8±4.7 ‰The N-fractionation of nitrification in July 2013 was 15?nit -10o the sub-process ammonia oxidation 15?amox-24o and the nitrite oxidation of 15?niox 13o while fractionation was less pronounced during the other cruises Our data show that N-isotope fractionation generally confirmed culture experiments, but that it strongly depended on discharge, availability of substrate, temperature and the coupling of ammonia and nitrite oxidation.

Sanders, Tina; Dähnke, Kirstin

2014-05-01

145

Reconstruction of the Tectonic Evolution of the Helvetic Zone between Lake Chiemsee and Saalach River, East Upper Bavaria, Germany  

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Detailed geological mapping of the Helvetic zone between Lake Chiemsee and Saalach river, near the village of Teisendorf, provides data to unravel the tectonic history of the Meso-European continental margin from Lower Cretaceous until Oligocene time. Focus on tectonic structures, combined with age dating of marlstones using foraminifera, is the basis for reconstruction of overthrusting of both Ultrahelvetic and Rhenodanubian Flysch sediments onto the Helvetic shelf during Alpine orogenesis. Sedimentation history of Helvetic, Ultrahelvetic and Rhenodanubian Flysch zones is interpreted in combination with tectonic activity embedded into the plate tectonic model. Overthrusting of Ultrahelvetic and Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes onto subsiding Helvetic sediments, already overlain by the Molasse sediments of the Schöneck Formation (Schönecker Fischschiefer), during Oligocene and internal folding of the Helvetic sediments is shown in detail. New insight into the evolution history of the northern Alpine margin east of Lake Chiemsee is obtained by systematic analysis of a limited number of remnants of tectonic structures, sediment outcrops and drillings. The widely covered Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments, in an area strongly affected by Pleistocene glacial activity and Holocene erosion processes, still reveal a sufficient number of characteristic structures for detailed reconstruction of the tectonically less investigated, but structurally important Helvetic zone.

Blaha, U.; Rochow, H. v.; Freimoser, M.; Teipel, U.

2012-04-01

146

Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in different fish from the river Elbe and its tributaries, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a long-term program polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissue of eels (Anguilla anguilla), bream (Abramis brama), European chub (Leuciscus cephalus) and ide (Leuciscus idus) from the river Elbe and its tributaries Mulde and Saale. The variation of the PCDD/F and DL-PCB concentrations in all fish samples is very large, whereby the DL-PCBs predominate in comparison to the PCDD/Fs. In the eels, the concentrations (pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) for the PCDD/Fs lie in the range of 0.48-22 and for the DL-PCBs between 8.5 and 59. In the whitefish, the concentration range is 0.48-12 for the PCDD/Fs and 1.2-14 for the DL-PCBs. Statistical analysis using relative congener patterns for PCDD/Fs allow spatial correlations to be examined for sub-populations of eels and whitefish. The results are compared to the maximum levels laid down in the European Commission Regulation (EC) No. 466/2001 and the action levels of the European Commission Recommendation 2006/88/EC. Eels caught directly after the major flood in August 2002 as well as eels near Hamburg (years 1996 and 1998) show high concentration peaks. Compared to the eels whitefish is less contaminated with PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. PMID:17382467

Stachel, B; Christoph, E-H; Götz, R; Herrmann, T; Krüger, F; Kühn, T; Lay, J; Löffler, J; Päpke, O; Reincke, H; Schröter-Kermani, C; Schwartz, R; Steeg, E; Stehr, D; Uhlig, S; Umlauf, G

2007-09-01

147

Absolute Gravity Measurements And GPS Observations Along A Profile Crossing The Rhine Graben From The Vosges To The Black Forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Alsatian plain is located in the Rhine graben limited by the Vosges Mountains (France) and the Black Forest (Germany). The present-day tectonic evolution of this system is not totally clear: is the graben subsiding, are the mountains uplifting, what is the relative behaviour of the 3 different geological components? In attempting to answer these questions, we compare for the first time in this region time series of absolute gravity (AG) measurements at different sites to the available GPS observations. We consider 3 AG sites: our reference station is the gravimetric Observatory Strasbourg J9, located in the Rhine plain where AG measurements are regularly performed since 1997 and where superconducting gravimeter (SG) observations are available almost continuously for 17 years; the satellite sites are the Welschbruch station in the Vosges, where 5 AG measurements have been conducted since 1997 and the Black Forest Observatory (BFO) where 2 AG measurements are available. GPS permanent receivers are collocated at the Strasbourg-J9 site (since 1999) and at the Welschbruch station (since 2000); GPS permanent receivers are located in the surroundings of the BFO. We will compare the long term content of these two types of geodetic measurements with special emphasis on the trend; we will discuss in particular the admittance value for the ratio gravity change/vertical displacement change and its link to different physical processes.

Amalvict, M.; Hinderer, J.; Rózsa, S.

2004-05-01

148

Calculation of emissions into rivers in Germany using the MONERIS model. Nutrients, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Berechnung von Stoffeintraegen in die Fliessgewaesser Deutschlands mit dem Modell MONERIS. Naehrstoffe, Schwermetalle und Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of both projects was a methodological development of the MONERIS model to quantify emissions from point and diffuse sources into Germany's surface waters. Both projects are based on consistent sub-basins and the according basic data as well as homogenous calculation algorithms that are adapted to the specifications of each substance group. The research encompasses Germany's large river basins as well as their catchment areas outside Germany and in total covers an area of 650,000 km{sup 2}. This was divided into 3456 analytical units (2759 of those in Germany), the average catchment areas being 190 km{sup 2} (135 km{sup 2} in Germany). All input data was collected and preprocessed with the highest spatial and temporal resolution possible based on the detailed topology. The modelling was performed in individual annual steps for the period between 1983-2005. For the evaluation of the temporal trends the data was aggregated for the periods 1983-1987 (''1985''), 1993-1997 (''1995''), 1998-2002 (''2000'') and 2003-2005 (''2005'') to soften the impact of hydrological influences. The basic data and model results for all sub-basins, years and substance groups of both projects were merged into one database. Additionally, a web-based graphical user interface was developed to visualise the emissions for any area aggregation can be visualised. The completion of both projects delivered for the first time ever homogenous instruments that can identify the most important sources and contamination hotspots for different relevant substance groups in larger river basins which can then serve as a basis for further analyses to achieve efficient measures to reduce pollution. (orig.)

Fuchs, Stephan; Scherer, Ulrike; Wander, Ramona [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser und Gewaesserentwicklung; Behrendt, Horst; Venohr, Markus; Optiz, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V., Berlin (Germany); Hillenbrand, Thomas; Marscheider-Weidemann, Frank; Goetz, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2010-09-15

149

18O/16O ratio in groundwater of the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 900 groundwater samples of 480 municipal water factories were collected at the area of the Federal Republic of Germany. The 18O/16O-ratio decreases from the north (-7per mill) to south (below -11per mill) due to an increasing distance from the south ('continental effect') and an increasing altitude above sealevel ('altitude effect'). The decrease of the 18O/16O-ratio per 1000 m altitude above sea level is 2.8per mill, per 1000 km distance from the sea 2.4per mill. At the coast an initial value of -7.2per mill results from the multicorrelation analysis. Except of two cases, some samples near to the coast and alongside river Rhine, the groundwater samples represent the mean oxygen isotope ratio of the local precipitation. This oxygen isotope ratio will be found in the conductive tissues of the plants (trees), too. Therefore the knowledge of the natural variation of the oxygen isotope ratio can serve as a tool in studies of plant physiology, water ecology, palaeclimatology and food analysis. (orig.)

150

Colonisation of the Rhine basin by non-native gobiids: an update of the situation in France  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three of the four species of non-native gobiids currently reported in the Rhine basin were recently recorded in France: the Western tubenose goby in 2007, the bighead goby in 2010 and the round goby in 2011. The bighead goby and the round goby displayed a very high rate of range expansion, suggesting a human-assisted colonisation through inland navigation. An assessment of the invasiveness potential by the FISK (Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit reveals a medium risk for the Western tubenose goby, while the bighead goby and the round goby are at high risk of becoming invasive in France. This assessment is consistent with our observations since there has been a steady increase in the range of the Western tubenose goby, although in low numbers, while the relative abundance of bighead goby and round goby, recently arrived in the French part of the Rhine River and Moselle River, can be high. Given their fast expansion, it can be assumed that these species will soon reach other French basins, particularly in the south (Rhône basin and in the west (Seine basin, and the implementation of measures to limit their spread should be considered.

Manné S.

2013-09-01

151

An analysis of seismic hazard in the Upper Rhine Graben enlightened by the example of the New Madrid seismic zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismic hazard in the "stable" continental regions and low-level deformation zones is one of the most difficult issues to address in Earth sciences. In these zones, instrumental and historical seismicity are not well known (sparse seismic networks, seismic cycle too long to be covered by the human history, episodic seismic activity) and many active structures remain poorly characterized or unknown. This is the case of the Upper Rhine Graben, the central segment of the European Cenozoic rift system (ECRIS) of Oligocene age, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100 km. Even if this region has already experienced some destructive earthquakes, its present-day seismicity is moderate and the deformation observed by geodesy is very small (below the current measurement accuracy). The strain rate does not exceed 10-10 and paleoseismic studies indicate an average return period of 2.5 to 3 103 ka for large earthquakes. The largest earthquake known for this zone is the 1356 Basel earthquake, with a magnitude generally estimated about 6.5 (Meghraoui et al., 2001) but recently re-evaluated between 6.7 and 7.1 (Fäh et al et al., 2009). A comparison of the Upper Rhine Graben with equivalent regions around the world could help improve our evaluation of seismic hazard of this region. This is the case of the New Madrid seismic zone, one of the best studied intraplate system in central USA, which experienced an M 7.0 - 7.5 earthquake in 1811-1812 and shares several characteristics with the Upper Rhine Graben, i.e. the general framework of inherited geological structures (reactivation of a failed rift / graben), seismicity patterns (spatial variability of small and large earthquakes), the null or low rate of deformation, and the location in a "stable" continental interior. Looking at the Upper Rhine Graben as an analogue of the New Madrid seismic zone, we can re-evaluate its seismic hazard and consider the possibility of an earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater.

Doubre, Cécile; Masson, Frédéric; Mazzotti, Stéphane; Meghraoui, Mustapha

2014-05-01

152

Effects of flooding on the recruitment, damage and mortality of riparian tree species: A field and simulation study on the Rhine floodplain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The extensive flooding by the river Rhine on May 12 1999 provided an opportunity to investigate the impact of such an extreme event in terms of damage and mortality of adult trees in floodplains. Such data is highly valuable for determining the potential impact of climate change on the zonation of tree species along rivers. We analysed an extensive dataset of the damage and mortality suffered by groups of adult trees of the following species as a consequence of this flood: the hardwoods Acer ...

Kramer, K.; Vreugdenhil, S. J.; Werf, D. C.

2008-01-01

153

Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) Rhine-Meuse: A Cross-Border Network  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the case of the cross-border RCE Rhine-Meuse established as the first Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) on Education for Sustainable Development in Europe. RCE Rhine-Meuse is an initiative of two institutions of higher education in the South of The Netherlands, but reaching out to the German and…

Rikers, Jos H. A. N.; Hermans, Jos H. C. L. M.

2008-01-01

154

International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany is situated in Central Europe. It covers an area of 250,000 square kilometres and has a population of 60 millions. The Federal Republic consists of 10 individual states. The capital of the country is Bonn. The northern and northwestern parts of the country are formed of flat lowlands, the Norddeutsche Tiefebene. Towards the south follow hilly and mountainous regions with elevations not exceeding 1000 m. In the southwestern and southeastern regions the elevations may reach 1500m in the Black Forest and Bayerischer Wald. The foreland of the Alps and the northern part of the Alps itself with elevations close to 3000 m make up the southern part of the Federal Republic. The main rivers - Rhine, Weser and Elbe - are directed towards northwest and drain the country to the North Sea. Only the southern part is drained by the southeast running river Danube. The climate is moderate, generally with frequent snow during the winter season and warm periods during the summer. The precipitation is distributed uniformly throughout the year. Due to the high industrialization a dense network of railroads, highways and motorroads exists.According to what is geologically known about the country, the chances for the discovery of large quantities of low-coast uranium resources must be considered to be limited. The potential for new discoveries of those deposits can be estimated to be around 10 000 t U. The potential for very low-grade uranium ore, such as granites, low-grade sedimentary rocks (sandstones, shales) can be estimated to range between 10,000 - 50,000 t U or possibly more taking into account very low-grade concentrations in shales. This material is not mineable under present conditions. Environmental considerations may prevent mining in the future

155

A satellite-based climatology of fog and low-level stratus in Germany and adjacent areas  

Science.gov (United States)

A 10-year fog climatology of Germany and adjacent areas, based on NOAA-Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, is presented. Maximum fog frequency is obtained for the Lake Constance area; minimum fog occurrence, accounting for basins and river valleys, is located in the Lower Rhine area. This is a transition zone between coastal advection fog and the more continental radiation fog of the lower mountain range. Fog persistence is estimated by a comparison of night and day maps. Using the bispectral approach of Nakajima and Nakajima [J. Atmos. Sci. 52, (1995) 4043], the potential of weather satellite data for climatologies of fog's optical and microphysical properties is examined. Maps of fog optical depth, effective radius and liquid water path (LWP) are computed from well-illuminated noon images and the resulting data set is statistically evaluated. Typical features of advection fog are obtained for the coastal areas of the North and Baltic Seas, while the fog of the pre-Alpine basins reveals characteristics of continental radiation fog. The results are in general accordance with field observations of various sources.

Bendix, Jörg

156

Mechanism of fluid-induced micro-earthquakes near Landau, Upper Rhine Graben, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2006 micro-earthquakes (ML SSE to NNE-SSW which is similar to the regional maximum horizontal stress direction (NNW-SSE). The study of seismic shear wave anisotropy indicates a fast polarisation direction which is also in NNW-SSE direction. This azimuth-dependent anisotropy as well as the other seismological and tectonic models are consistent with fluid-filled faults oriented in NNW-SSE direction which are (re-)activated by fluid injection at depth.

Ritter, Joachim; Frietsch, Michael; Gassner, Laura; Groos, Joern; Grund, Michael; Zeiss, Jens

2014-05-01

157

Time Series Analysis of Monthly Precipitation and River Flow Extremes in Germany in the 20th Century: Evidence of Different Variability Scales as an Indicator of Recent Regional Climatic Changes  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on an extensive study of time series analysis of monthly precipitation extremes and river stream flows from numerous gauging stations across Germany in the 20th century. A multitude of spectral and time-scale analysis methods that include a.o. the continuous wavelet tool, principal component (EOF), SSA, and other classical techniqes (R/S,WTMM, DFA) for the estimation of the Hurst coefficient H, as an indicator of possible persistence. The wavelet analysis reveals, beyond the typical annual cycle, dominant oscillations in both precipitation and river flow at the interannual (7-8 yr.) and/or interdecadal (11-14 yr.) low frequency scales, in particular in the second part of the 20th century, providing evidence for some recent regional climatic changes over Germany. The scaling properties of the time series are determined through the computation of the Hurst parameter. It turns out that the presence of the named dominant periods in the signals may bias the estimated H significantly, depending on the method used, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio and/or the data length are small. Surprisingly, for the case under study the somewhat "outdated" R/S-method appears to fare best. In any case, the estimated H for the precipitation series at the various stations across Germany fluctuate around H=0.5, i.e. do not show a clear picture of systematic persistence. However, data with low frequency components show higher H values, i.e., some amount of persistence, than data without such components, where possible negative autocorrelations and H < 0.5, i.e. anti-persistence, are suspected. As for the river flow, good estimates for H can be obtained after application of an SSA-filter. In any case, as expected, the estimated H are much higher than 0.5, indicating strong persistence of the stream flow. As for the origins of the named interannual (7-8 yr.) and/or interdecadal (11-14 yr.) low frequency scales, using cross-wavelet spectral analysis, we find evidence for a teleconnective influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the precipitation and streamflow pattern, primarily, over the last 40 years, and with partly opposite effects in the northern and southern parts of Germany. As such the NAO phase of enhanced decadal variability could be made responsible for the low frequency precipitation components.

Markovic, D.; Koch, M.

2005-12-01

158

Cegelec Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

159

Automated detection of microseismic events in the Upper Rhine valley near the city of Landau/South Palatinate  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Rhine valley in south-western Germany and especially the southern part of Rheinland-Palatinate is one of the regions with the highest potential for deep geothermal power generation in Germany. One geothermal power plant is operated since 2007 in the city of Landau and a second power plant will get operational in 2012 near Insheim (~4 km south-east of Landau). Furthermore, several geothermal power plants are currently projected in this region. In 2009 two earthquakes with magnitudes (ML) of 2.4 and 2.7 occurred in direct vicinity of the geothermal reservoir in Landau and were felt in a radius of several kilometers (intensity up to V+). Furthermore, two earthquakes with magnitudes (ML) of 2.2 and 2.4 occurred during the stimulation of the reservoir near Insheim in April 2010 and were also felt by most of the local inhabitants. After the unexpected strong seismicity in 2009 a temporary seismic network was deployed and is continuously extended by the Geophysical Institute of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology to improve the microseismic monitoring of the region around Landau. The network consists currently of 12 surface stations of the KArlsruhe Broad Band Array (KABBA) and will be extended by two shallow borehole stations in 2012. Main challenge of the monitoring is the detection of microseismic events with a magnitude (ML) below 1 due to the high seismic noise conditions in the densely populated Upper Rhine valley. The application of established short term/long term average trigger algorithms is not feasible due to the large amount of transient signals caused by human activity (e.g. traffic). We present our procedure for the automated detection of microseismic events based on a combined cross-correlation and correlation coefficient analysis with known seismic events. Up to now several hundred microseismic events (ML>-0.5) could be detected which are related to the geothermal reservoirs below Landau and Insheim. For both reservoirs we observe clusters of earthquakes with highly similar waveforms (correlation coefficient larger than 0.9) which indicates a repeated occurrence of microseismic events with similar focal mechanisms and hypocenters. The next step in the analysis is the absolute and relative localisation of the detected microseismic events with a magnitude (ML) below one. This study is part of the research project MAGS (Microseismic Activity of Geothermal Systems) and funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of the Federal Republic of Germany due to an enactment of the German Federal Parliament (Bundestag).

Groos, J. C.; Grund, M.; Ritter, J. R. R.

2012-04-01

160

Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization: the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) / Vers une évaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la privatisation de l'eau de boisson: l'exemple des substances cancérogènes véhiculées par l'eau dans l'Etat de Nord-Rhin-Westphalie (Allemagne) / Hacia la evaluación del impacto sanitario de la privatización del agua potable: ejemplo de los carcinógenos presentes en el agua en Renania del Norte-Westfalia (Alemania)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se observa en todo el mundo una tendencia a la desregulación en muchos sectores de política, lo que incluye por ejemplo la liberalización y privatización de la administración del agua potable. Ahora bien, la preocupación por los efectos perjudiciales que ello pudiera acarrear para la salud humana ob [...] liga a hacer una evaluación prospectiva del impacto sanitario (EIS) de la gestión del agua potable. Basándose en un procedimiento genérico y comprobado de EIS en 10 pasos y en los métodos de evaluación de riesgos, este artículo tiene por objeto aportar estimaciones cuantitativas de los efectos sanitarios del aumento de la exposición a carcinógenos en el agua potable. Utilizando los datos correspondientes a Renania del Norte-Westfalia, Alemania, se presentan estimaciones probabilísticas del exceso de riesgo de cáncer a lo largo de la vida, así como estimaciones de los casos adicionales de cáncer debidos al aumento de la exposición a carcinógenos. Los resultados indican que la exposición a contaminantes que se encuentran de hecho dentro de los límites en vigor podría dar lugar a aumentos sustanciales del riesgo de cáncer y del número de casos. Sobre la base de los actuales análisis, sugerimos que, en un contexto de aumento uniforme de los niveles de contaminantes, un solo producto químico (el arsénico) es responsable de una gran proporción del riesgo adicional previsto. El estudio ilustra también la incertidumbre inherente a la predicción del impacto sanitario de las variaciones de la calidad del agua. Los futuros análisis deberían abarcar otros carcinógenos, riesgos distintos del cáncer, incluidos los asociados a la contaminación microbiana, y las repercusiones de los fallos de los sistemas y de las actividades ilegales, que tienden a ocurrir con mayor frecuencia cuando se instauran nuevos mecanismos de ordenación del agua. Si pese a esos motivos de preocupación el agua se privatiza, es muy importante asegurar una vigilancia adecuada de su calidad. Abstract in english Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA) on t [...] he management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic) is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality.

Rainer, Fehr; Odile, Mekel; Martin, Lacombe; Ulrike, Wolf.

 
 
 
 
161

Heavy-metal contamination of rivers by mining gallery waters during the flood in 2002 in Saxony/Germany and low-cost rapid analysis of contaminated river sediments by XRF  

Science.gov (United States)

Dieter Mucke, Rolf Kumann, Susanne Mucke GEOMONTAN Gesellschaft für Geologie und Bergbau mbH&Co.KG, Muldentalstrasse 56, 09603 Rothenfurth, Saxony/Germany The Ore Mountains between Bohemia and Saxony are effected by age-long mining for silver mining and winning of other ores. A lot of galleries were driven to keep water away from the mines. Today they still drain off water into the rivers which are used as receiving streams. Sulphide- and sulpharsenide-minerals are unstable. The decomposition of these minerals is caused by the influence of oxygenated drainage water. As a result of this process free cations of iron, copper, lead, zinc, cadmium and residuals of acid (sulphuric acid, acid sulphur, arsenous acid). Already during the transport in the gallery water transformations and precipitations proceed: iron precipitates as sol of iron-(III)-hydroxide-flocks and carries manganese and arsenic, as well as a part of zinc and copper along, on the other hand a bigger part of cadmium keeps in dissolution. From 1844 until 1877 in the silver mining area of Freiberg/Brand-Erbisdorf/Halsbrücke the gallery "Rothschönberger Stolln" was driven with a length of 50 km. In 1995/1996 we determined during four measuring cycles the loads of selected contaminants of five different measuring points in a gallery segment, which takes 29 km. As the annual input into the stream system Triebisch/Elbe with the mudflat of the North Sea as receiving stream we determined: • 19.000 t solid matter (hereof 10.400 t gypsum) • 820 kg cadmium • 420 kg arsenic • 1450 kg lead • 1140 kg copper • 111 t zinc During the flood in August 2002 occurred: • a total sinking of the Münzbach • a partial sinking of the Freiberger Mulde into the Rothschönberger Stolln. Thereby its flow increased from 600 l/sec in average to 10 m3/sec. Over three days during the flood in 2002 water samples were taken and analysed and the discharge was detected. So it was possible to calculate the loads. There was?t a dilution of the loads, in fact the contents and loads increased: mean value daily value increase factor 1995/1996 14.08.2002 mg/l mg/l n-fold content: 0,067 1,340 20 lead 5,080 7,590 1,5 zinc 0,038 0,068 1,8 cadmium 0,019 0,230 12 arsenic load: kg/d kg/d n-fold lead 4,0 626 167 zinc 303,3 3548 12 cadmium 2,3 318 14 arsenic 1,1 108 9,5 Parts of these contaminants do?t arrive the ocean, but deposit on the continuing flow path of the rivers. The maintenance of the water bodies and during construction works stream sediments need to be removed and depolluted. With the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) a very low-cost and - with a measurement period of 30 seconds - a very quick method for the rough calculation of contaminant loads is available. The results of investigations of the sediments of the Freiberger Mulde and the Triebisch in 2011/2012 are presented. High contents of arsenic, cadmium, thallium and lead are identified as waste, which needs to be controlled.

Mucke, D.; Kumann, R.; Mucke, S.

2012-04-01

162

Urban Groundwater In Dresden, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of groundwater studies in Dresden, Germany, during 1991-94 show that groundwater levels are more affected by natural fluctuations of the Elbe River and by precipitation than by urban impacts. But urbanization has caused significant groundwater pollution. The main quality problem is widespread groundwater contamination by tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene. The sum parameter Adsorbable Organic Halogens (AOX) was used to evaluate groundwater quality. Higher concentrations of nitrates, sulphates, and boron also indicate urban impacts on groundwater quality.

Grischek, T.; Nestler, W.; Piechniczek, D.; Fischer, T.

1996-01-01

163

Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on the Fate and Transport of Sediment Sorbed HCB and Cd in the Elbe River Basin (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sediment-sorbed concentrations of Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Cadmium (Cd) in sections of the Elbe River basin significantly exceed maximum allowable concentrations established by the European Commission. Even though concentrations of both contaminants have decreased significantly over the past 15 years, levels remain elevated. In addition, previous studies have documented that downstream transport of contaminated sediment occurs primarily during high water events. Given anticipated climate-change induced changes in mean discharge, potentially including an increase in the magnitude of high and low water discharge events, this study seeks to evaluate the role of climate change in mediating the long-term fate and transport of HCB and Cd in the Elbe River basin. To better understand the transport of cohesive sediments and associated contaminants, a hydrodynamic and cohesive sediment transport model for a 230 km segment of the Middle Elbe River was developed. Of particular interest is contaminant transport to floodplains and retention time in the numerous groyne fields that line the banks of the Elbe River. Multiple climate change scenarios involving changes in the amplitude and phase of yearly streamflow were used to simulate contaminant transport throughout the Elbe River basin at 10, 15, and 25 years in the future. Integration of modeling output with the results of recently collected (2010, 2011) sediment data enabled an enhanced understanding of the dynamics of HCB, Cd and cohesive sediment in the Elbe River basin. Modeling results, challenges simulating transport in groyne fields, techniques for resolving

Moshenberg, K.; Heise, S.

2012-04-01

164

Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den Emissionspfaden als auch nach den grossen Flussgebieten Donau, Rhein, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, Nordsee und Ostsee. Zusaetzlich wurden Listen der zehn groessten industriellen Direkteinleiter erstellt. (orig.)

Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

2000-11-01

165

Influence of regional and local winds on urban ventilation in Cologne, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the influence of regional and local winds on urban ventilation during clear and calm summer nights with low exchange weather conditions, taking the city of Cologne in the Cologne Bay (Germany) as an example. Results of this study on cold air penetration in the city show a sensitive interaction between the structure and direction of open rural areas and the temporal pattern of local cold air movement and regional wind. During the first half of calm summer nights, directly linked ventilation areas are unable to ensure the horizontal exchange of locally formed cold air between the surrounding countryside and the urban area as a result of the long distance from the city centre and large obstacles obstructing the ventilation areas. Time-scale analyses of the wind field carried out at nine meteorological stations show that the ventilation areas function independently from each other. In rural ventilation areas a flow of cold air from neighbouring slopes is observed during the whole night. During the second half of calm summer nights, the wind direction in the ventilation areas follows a path running downstream parallel to the river Rhine, caused by advected cold air formed and accumulated in the upstream section of the Cologne Bay. Advected cold air is superimposed on microscale circulation of cold air in the ventilation areas, allowing a horizontal transport of air from the surrounding countryside into the city. Depending on the direction and extent of the ventilation areas, regional wind can strengthen or replace the local air transport in the city of Cologne. (orig.) 22 refs.

Kuttler, W.; Duetemeyer, D.; Barlag, A.-B. [Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Landscape Ecology

1998-04-01

166

On the identity of the fossil hydrophilid beetles from the Tertiary localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focuses on the beetles from the Oligocene localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Brunstatt: France, Alsace; and Kleinkems: Germany, Baden-Württemberg assigned to the family Hydrophilidae by previous authors. The identity of Escheria convexa Förster, 1891 is fixed by the designation of its neotype, the species is redescribed, illustrated and transferred from the hydrophilid genus Hydrobius Leach, 1815 to the genus Copelatus Erichson, 1832 (Coleoptera: Adephaga: Dytiscidae and compared with other fossil representatives of Copelatus. The identity of the remaining three species is briefly evaluated on the basis of the original descriptions and illustrations only, because their types were lost or destroyed during World War II; all three species are removed from the fossil record of the Hydrophiloidea and placed into Polyphaga incertae sedis. The geology and stratigraphy of both fossil outcrops is discussed briefly.

Heiko Schmied

2011-01-01

167

HABITAT USE OF AGE - 0 TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX LACÉPÈDE, 1803 IN THE TIDAL FRESHWATER REGION OF THE ELBE RIVER, GERMANY.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Between April and August 1997 the distribution of twaite shad larvae in the lower Elbe River downstream the city of Hamburg was examined by ring net, lift net and pop net sampling. During each haul six environmental parameters - water depth, water temperature, conductivity, oxygen concentration, distance from shore line and distance from river channel - were estimated. Twaite shad larvae were found from 26 May to 10 July. Yolk sac larvae were present from 26 May to 25 June. High abundances of twaite shad larvae were found in the side channels and main channels. A canonical correspondence analysis was calculated to evaluate the importance of measured environmental parameters for the distribution of age - 0 fishes. Water depth, distance from shore line and distance from river channel were identified as main parameters for the distribution of species. Twaite shad larvae preferred maximum water depth and distance from shore line and short distances to the river channel. An upstream displacement of the spawning grounds of twaite shad was observed, following a trend first noticed in the early 90th. Nowadays, the location of spawning grounds corresponds to the situation at the beginning of the 19th century. Reduced water pollution is believed to be the main reason for this phenomenon.

GERKENS M.

2001-07-01

168

Behaviour of suspended particulate matter (SPM and selected trace metals during the 2002 summer flood in the River Elbe (Germany at Magdeburg monitoring station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In August 2002, in the worst flooding in more than 100 years, the River Elbe destroyed built-up areas and caused widespread erosion and the relocation of soils and river sediments. To assess the pollutants entering the water, surveys of dissolved constituents and suspended particulate matter (SPM were carried out daily during the flood at a monitoring station near Magdeburg. The sampling point is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The results were compared with those of previous flood studies which used the same sampling strategy. Unlike past floods, the 2002 flood was characterised by the transport of relatively fine suspended material with a low mass concentration. Owing to different input sources, the maxima of dry weight and of particle number concentration occurred at different times. Hg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr showed a maximum concentration concurrent with the dry weight of the SPM, whereas the maximum concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd coincided with the particle number concentration peak. The concentration of particulate matter decreased rapidly, unlike the concentrations of dissolved substances such as DOC and trace metals, as well as the values of UV extinction, all of which remained high for a longer period. Comparing the results of the 2002 flood with the winter floods in 1995, 1999 and 2000, revealed increased values of As and Pb as well as higher concentrations of dissolved compounds. Keywords: river, flood, transport, suspended particulate matter, trace metals, dissolved compounds, Elbe

M. Baborowski

2004-01-01

169

Ecological impact and risks of present and future coal mining activities at the outskirts of the densely populated areas on the Lippe and Lower Rhine. Oekologische Folgen und Risiken der derzeitigen und kuenftigen Steinkohlengewinnung in der Ballungsrandzone an der Lippe und am Niederrhein  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The still continuing intensive economic exploitation of coal mining at the outskirts of densely populated areas at the rivers Emscher and Lippe has caused tremendous ecological effects and damages of the landscape and quality of life of its inhabitants. The still unsolved problems of recultivating of the no longer exploited coal mining districts have increased the pressure on how to use the regions at the rivers Lippe and Lower Rhine which have not been exploited so far. In addition, the planned exploitation of coal in the southern areas of Muensterland and Lower Rhine, the so called 'migrating to the north of the mining industry', contains in itself enormous risks for these ecologically valuable, richly structured landscapes. (orig.).

Herforth, A. (Landesanstalt fuer Oekologie, Landschaftsentwicklung und Forstplanung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Recklinghausen (Germany, F.R.))

1989-01-01

170

Hydrology and water quality aspects of rhine bank groundwater in The Netherlands  

Science.gov (United States)

In deltaic areas with deep polders and in valleys or deltas with heavy groundwater exploitation, bank infiltration is a rapidly expanding mechanism of groundwater recharge. Rhine bank filtrate can be distinguished best from autochthonous groundwater in The Netherlands by way of its natural lower 18O content. Tritium is a good measure of the portion of water younger than 25 years, at least in well mixed Rhine bank filtrate. This portion carries the bulk of the contaminations originating from the Rhine, as evidenced by strong positive correlations between 3H and e.g. halogenated hydrocarbons, taste and mutagenic activity according to the Ames test. The composition of Rhine bank filtrate is further governed by the redox level of the hydrogeochemical system, varying in The Netherlands from suboxic to anoxic with fermentation, and by the underground distance to the influent Rhine branch. Anoxic bank filtrate with strong SO 4-reduction and CH 4 > 1 mg l -1 exhibited a significantly different composition from anoxic bank filtrate without fermentation and without SO 4-reduction. The following parameters are involved: HCO 3, total dissolved solids, SiO 2; KMnO 4-consumption, NH 4, siderite, baryte and vivianite saturation indices, I, total hardness, total PO 4, Fe, dissolved organic carbon, Ba, pH, dichloroethane, Mo, VOCl, Mn, V, dichlorobenzene and 1,2-dichloroethane, in order of decreasing significance. A longer underground detention time or travel distance, leads to a small decrease in the share of bank filtrate, and a rather strong decrease in K, Li, F, temperature, Mo (only in anoxic, SO 4-(meta)stable bank filtrate), UV-extinction, AOCl, X 7OCl and mutagenic activity. Coli bacteria and viruses could not be detected, not even in samples from wells at 50 m distance from the Rhine, with a minimum travel time of 30 days.

Stuyfzand, P. J.

1989-04-01

171

Behaviour of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and selected trace metals during the 2002 summer flood in the River Elbe (Germany) at Magdeburg monitoring station  

Science.gov (United States)

In August 2002, in the worst flooding in more than 100 years, the River Elbe destroyed built-up areas and caused widespread erosion and the relocation of soils and river sediments. To assess the pollutants entering the water, surveys of dissolved constituents and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were carried out daily during the flood at a monitoring station near Magdeburg. The sampling point is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE). The results were compared with those of previous flood studies which used the same sampling strategy. Unlike past floods, the 2002 flood was characterised by the transport of relatively fine suspended material with a low mass concentration. Owing to different input sources, the maxima of dry weight and of particle number concentration occurred at different times. Hg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr showed a maximum concentration concurrent with the dry weight of the SPM, whereas the maximum concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd coincided with the particle number concentration peak. The concentration of particulate matter decreased rapidly, unlike the concentrations of dissolved substances such as DOC and trace metals, as well as the values of UV extinction, all of which remained high for a longer period. Comparing the results of the 2002 flood with the winter floods in 1995, 1999 and 2000, revealed increased values of As and Pb as well as higher concentrations of dissolved compounds.

Baborowski, M.; von Tümpling, W., Jr.; Friese, K.

172

Ground Motion Relations for the Upper Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquake in Europe are primarily located within the Euro-Mediterranean domain. However, the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) region regularly suffers earthquakes which are felt physically by inhabitants and cause damage to private property and the industrial infrastructure. In 1356, a major earthquake (I0 = X) destroyed part of the city of Basel. Recently, several events having M > 5 have shaken this area. In the framework of an INTERREG III project funded by the European community, a microzonation study has been achieved across the "three borders" area including the cities of Basel and Mulhouse. In particular, the ground motion was studied. The URG, which belongs to the ECRIS (European Cenozoic Rift System), is characterized by rift-related sedimentary basins with several hundreds meters of tertiary sediments overlaying the basement. Such a subsurface geology leads to strong site effects. Predictive attenuation laws and their related uncertainties are evaluated considering strong motions records and velocimetric records from small to moderate local events (Magnitude ranging 3

Calbini, V.; Granet, M.; Camelbeeck, T.

2006-12-01

173

Crustal vertical motion along a profile crossing the Rhine graben from the Vosges to the Black Forest Mountains: Results from absolute gravity, GPS and levelling observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rhine plain is oriented north-south and limited by the Vosges Mountains (France) to the West and the Black Forest Mountains (Germany) to the East. The present-day tectonic evolution of this system is not well known and many questions are still pending: is the graben subsiding? Are the mountains uplifting? What is the relative behaviour of the three different geological components? In attempting to answer these questions, we compare for the first time in this region time series of absolute gravity (AG) measurements to the available GPS observations at three sites along a profile crossing the Rhine graben. Our reference station is the gravimetric observatory near Strasbourg (J9), located in the Rhine plain where AG measurements are performed regularly since 1997 and where superconducting gravimeter (SG) observations are available almost continuously for 17 years. The secondary sites are the Welschbruch station in the Vosges Mountains where six AG measurements have been conducted since 1997 and the Black Forest Observatory (BFO) where three AG measurements are available. GPS permanent receivers are collocated at the Strasbourg-J9 site since 1999, at the Welschbruch station since 2000, and at BFO since 2002. Levelling data are only available in the BFO region. We compare the long term content of two types of geodetic measurements with special emphasis on the trend despite the limited duration of our data sets. Assuming that the gravity changes are linear in time, we obtain g?=1.9±0.2 ?Gal/yr at Strasbourg-J9, g?=-0.96±0.2 ?Gal/yr at Welschbruch site and g?=2.5±0.5 ?Gal/yr at BFO. The trends according to GPS observations are, respectively: -1.51 ± 0.07 and -0.74 ± 0.10 mm/yr at Strasbourg-J9 and Welschbruch site, respectively; there is no GPS result available at BFO. The AG results for BFO are very questionable, as well as the GPS observations at the Welschbruch station. Nonetheless, Strasbourg-J9 and Welschbruch AG measurements lead to subsidence and uplift, respectively, which are expected results in agreement with GPS at Strasbourg-J9.

Amalvict, M.; Hinderer, J.; Rózsa, S.

2006-01-01

174

Distribution and activity of microorganisms in coastal waters off the Netherlands and Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal waters up to 90 km off the coast of the Netherlands and Germany were investigated with the RV 'Friedrich Heincke' at 21 stations in July 1987. Hydrographic, chemical and biological parameters were measured simultaneously, such as temperature, salinity, oxygen saturation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and electron transport system (ETS) activities. The mean surface temperature was 16°C, salinity distribution showed a tongue of high salinity in the Southern Bight and coastal areas of low values by river input from the Rhine and Elbe. The mean oxygen concentration was 102.4%, with the highest percentages northwest of Helgoland and the lowest near Scheveningen and Cuxhaven. The ecosystem parameters of ATP-biomass and respiratory ETS-activity showed a distribution pattern corresponding to the inflow of clear Channel water and nutrient-rich river water. Highest biomass values and respiratory activities were found near Texel and northwest of Helgoland. The distribution patterns of microplankton species were more patchy. Distribution patterns are shown of phytoplankton species such as Ceratium fusus, Phaeocystis spec., Rhizosolenia shrubsolei, and Mesodinium rubrum and various groups of microplankton. The highest numbers of Ceratium were found near Helgoland, of Phaeocystis near Terschelling and Cuxhaven, of Rhizosolenia near Texel and Langeoog and of Mesodinium near the Dutch coast and north of Borkum. Concentrations of bacteria were determined both by cultivation and epifluorescence microscopy methods. The numbers obtained by the pour-plate method varied much more than those determined by the direct-count method. At all stations, oil-degrading bacteria were found. The numbers of bacteria able to degrade mineral oil were higher than the numbers of bacteria able to degrade a tetradecane-pentadecane mixture. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) was measured with and without oil additions after incubation of 5, 10 and 15 days and a potency to degrade oil was shown. Beside the mapping of respiratory activity by the ETS-method, the real oxygen uptake at in situ temperatures was measured in a few samples with short incubation. An ETS/R ratio of 4.1 was estimated.

Vosjan, J. H.; Gunkel, W.; Tijssen, S. B.; Pauptit, E.; Klings, K. W.; Bruns, K.; Poremba, K.; Hagmeier, E.

175

Germany’s Schengen veto slated as '  

...Germany’s Schengen veto slated as 'populist' | EurActiv central-europe,justice,Bulgaria,CVM,populism,Romania,Schengen EU news & policy debates- across languages - en ...fr] -A + A Published 05 March 2013, updated 06 March 2013 3 comments Tags Bulgaria, CVM, populism, Romania, Schengen Hannes Swoboda, President of the Socialists and Democrats ...populist and deceitfulrdquo; Germany's threat to veto the accession of Bulgaria and Romania to the EUrsquo;s border-free Schengen area. Swoboda, an ...should now abide by their own rules and finally grant Bulgaria and Romania full Schengen membership. 'The threat of a German veto is ...

176

Numerical tables on physical and chemical analyses of Rhine water 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The numerical tables contain the measuring results of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water for the year 1983. The tables are arranged by general parameters, organic matter, eutrophicating substances, anorganic matter, metals, organic micropollution as well as by radioactivity (total alpha- or beta- and T-activity). (MM)

177

Book of tables on the physico-chemical investigation of the Rhine water 1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tables of figures on the physico-chemical investigation of the Rhine water comprise the sampling dates, the organic, entrophying and inorganic substances found, the metals and organic micro-pollutions found, and radioactivity. Other tables indicate the location of measuring places, method of sampling, and method of analysis. (DG)

178

Numerical tables of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The numerical tables contain the measuring results of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water for the year 1980. The tables are arranged by general parameters, organic matter, eutrophicating substances, anorganic matter, metals, organic micropollution as well as by radioactivity (total alpha-or beta- and T-activity). (HK)

179

Former Allis and Twaite Shad Fisheries of the Lower Rhine, the Netherlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The allis shad (Alosa alosa) and the twaite shad (A. fallax) were the subject of intensive fisheries during the months of April and May. Both fisheries came to an end. At present the restocking, leading to recolonization by the two species at the Rhine Ri...

S. J. de Groot

1989-01-01

180

Identification of Anopheles daciae in Germany through ITS2 sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Until the middle of the twentieth century, malaria was frequently endemic in parts of Germany; Anopheles maculipennis complex species were considered the primary vectors. Three species of this complex have been identified in Germany: A. maculipennis s.s., Anopheles messeae and Anopheles atroparvus; the last predominantly from the coastal regions of Northern Germany. Anopheles daciae is a recently described member of the A . maculipennis complex and resembles the well-characterised species A. messeae, although the two species can be distinguished through their egg morphology and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of their nuclear rDNA. In this study, we harvested larval and adult mosquito samples from five breeding sites and ten CO(2) trap collection sites in the Upper Rhine Valley of Southwestern Germany to analyse the complement of anopheline species present. Mosquito ITS2 DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified using established protocols. Genomic analysis was performed by a species-diagnostic restriction fragment length polymorphism assay as well as by sequencing of PCR products; the data obtained were aligned against nucleic acid sequences from English mosquitoes retrieved from GenBank. Additionally, the larval breeding sites of A. messeae were characterised through water quality measurement. Forty-seven samples were successfully processed, of which 6 were identified as A. daciae and 41 as A. messeae. All samples of A. daciae, which has not previously been found in Central Europe, originated from one CO(2) trap collection site in Dettenheim, close to Karlsruhe, Southwestern Germany. The identification of this malarial vector in a novel area may have implications for the re-emergence of disease subsequent to climatic changes. PMID:23001548

Weitzel, Thomas; Gauch, Catherine; Becker, Norbert

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Drowning men will clutch at straws: A short comparative history of Dutch and Californian river flood management:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In both the Netherlands and in California, USA, river flooding has been important in the last two centuries. In the Netherlands, the rivers Rijn, Waal and Maas repeatedly flooded large areas; in California, the Sacramento River and its tributaries regularly caused heavy flooding. A shared characteristic in both regions is that early interventions against floods were local. In both the Rhine delta and the Sacramento basin, local communities tried to protect themselves against floods, without m...

Ertsen, M.; Lund, J.

2011-01-01

182

Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly related to a cold period with permafrost formation. At other positions in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered directly by calcareous and silicate gyttias. These parts may (1) either not have been affected by assumed fluvial activity or (2) peat formation as such only started later here. Finally, an extended lake filled the basin from the later parts of the late-glacial on. Its sedimentation history is well recorded in calcareous and silicate gyttjas, whereas sedimentary units derived from organic and inorganic carbon content as well as grain size distribution allows a stratigraphical comparison of different profiles. Several delta cones in lake sediments give evidence of still considerable fluvial influx. High lake levels are indicated by lake terraces at 51 m and 43 m a.s.l., yet the timing of these high stands is still unclear. A third terrace at 41 m a.s.l. represents lower water level in historic times, during which two smaller lakes ('Dobbiner Plage' and 'Klädener Plage') existed in the basin. Both lakes vanished due to drainage after 1798. The uppermost sediment sequence in the basins is represented by a pattern of strongly decomposed peat and lacustrine sand.

Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; S?owi?ski, Micha?; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard

2014-05-01

183

Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large-scale groundwater models involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries are still rare due to a lack of hydrogeological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Although the method that we used to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater model is considered as an offline-coupling procedure (i.e. the simulations of both models were performed separately, results are promising. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reproduce the observed groundwater head time series reasonably well. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the current offline-coupling technique simplifies dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

E. H. Sutanudjaja

2011-03-01

184

Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Results are promising despite the fact that we still use an offline procedure to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater models (i.e. the simulations of both models are separately performed. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydro-geological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reasonably well reproduce the observed groundwater head time series. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the offline-coupling technique simplifies the dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

E. H. Sutanudjaja

2011-09-01

185

Petrophysical properties and 3D block model of Buntsandstein Sandstones reservoir (Upper Rhine Graben)  

Science.gov (United States)

Buntsandstein sandstones (upper Permian to middle Triassic), located in the Upper Rhine Graben, appear as an easy target for geothermal exploitation: this reservoir links more or less permeable argillaceous sandstones, intersected by many major faults, to the regional thermal anomaly. In this context, we propose a conceptual geological 3-D block model of the Buntsandstein reservoir which could be used as a guide for future regional geothermal exploration or exploitation. This block presents the Buntsandstein sandstones reservoir at depth with different sedimentary facies (braided rivers, playa lake and fluvio-aeolian), above the Palaeozoic Granit and below the Muschelkalk limestones, intersecting by faults oriented according regional major azimuths: (1) ?N020°E, corresponding to Rhenish faults and (2) ?N060°E (or ?N130°E) corresponding to Hercynian reactivated faults. Petrophysical properties of the reservoir are both controlled by matrix and faults/fractures characteristics. (1) Matrix properties (porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity, Pwaves velocity) have been determined from petrophysical measurements performed on cores of 15 borehole, mainly on borehole EPS1 (Soultz-sous-Forêts, France), continuously cored through Buntsandstein; (2) from thermal gradient analyses based on thermal conductivity measurements on core samples and also from borehole temperature logs run in the same borehole. This last approach allows locating fluid flow and thus permeability at reservoir scale. The flow paths appear as a composite network controlled by 'sedimentary' permeability on one hand and by 'fracture' permeability on the other. Fracturing associated with major fault zones provide pathways for the upward flowing fluids to connect with stratigraphic levels characterized by high matrix permeability and no impermeable macroscopic layers. This is why the Playa Lake and Fluvio-aeolian marginal erg facies provide a reservoir connected to a deep hot fluid source. Braided river facies, despite high matrix permeability, present a broad network of thick oblique argillaceous layers which decreases the macroscopic permeability. Fracture network is determined from outcrops and borehole data analysis. Near Rhenish major faults zones, fracturing appears organised as corridor with high density of fractures, separated by law density fractured zones. This fractures organization was not recognized near Hercynian reactived fault. Baryte and quartz precipitation have been observed near this last fault and near Rhenish oriented fault. However, no or just very few mineral precipitations are present in fractures localized in the central part of the bloc. These kinds of mineralization indicate paleo- fluid flow zones. Furthermore, mineral precipitations drive to an important decrease of fracture porosity and permeability and thus they can constituted important fluid flow barrier. Association of matrix and fracture data drives to the building of a 3D conceptual block model of the reservoir. It point zones where geothermal exploitation could be easier: near playa lake and fluvio-aeolian facies and near certain fault zones (with Hercynian orientation).

Sébastien, Haffen; Yves, Géraud; Marc, Diraison; Chrystel, Dezayes

2013-04-01

186

Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

Koch, E. [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

1995-12-31

187

Rehabilitating closed mining sites in North Rhine Westphalia's coal basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ruhr is a German region undergoing a reconversion. In recent years, several thousand jobs have been lost in the coal, iron and steel industries, especially in coal mines. This trend is going to continue. Rehabilitating former industrial sites so that they can welcome new industries and businesses, is decisive for this region. A rapid and financially advantageous reconversion requires coherence and continuity in the rehabilitation measures undertaken by the companies that serve as receivers, by local authorities and by investors who want to launch new projects. All these parties must manage the various phases of this process in a spirit of coordination. Germany can boast of a series of successful reconversions into industrial areas, exhibition facilities, nature reserves, tourist centers and leisure and rest places

188

Bias correction of temperature and precipitation data for regional climate model application to the Rhine basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many climate impact studies hydrological models are forced with meteorological forcing data without an attempt to assess the quality of these forcing data. The objective of this study is to compare downscaled ERA15 (ECMWF-reanalysis data precipitation and temperature with observed precipitation and temperature and apply a bias correction to these forcing variables. The bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data will be used in another study as input for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC model. Observations were available for 134 sub-basins throughout the Rhine basin at a temporal resolution of one day from the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR. Precipitation is corrected by fitting the mean and coefficient of variation (CV of the observations. Temperature is corrected by fitting the mean and standard deviation of the observations. It seems that the uncorrected ERA15 is too warm and too wet for most of the Rhine basin. The bias correction leads to satisfactory results, precipitation and temperature differences decreased significantly. Corrections were largest during summer for both precipitation and temperature, and for September and October for precipitation only. Besides the statistics the correction method was intended to correct for, it is also found to improve the correlations for the fraction of wet days and lag-1 autocorrelations between ERA15 and the observations.

W. Terink

2009-08-01

189

Variation of the aerosol stratification over the Rhine Valley during Foehn development: a backscatter lidar study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vertical aerosol stratification within and above the Rhine Valley was studied with a backscatter lidar during FORM (Foehn in the Rhine Valley during MAP) IOPs 4-5, October 1-3, 1999. The lidar site was in Truebbach, 9 28 E, 47 04 N, 490 m asl. Two scintillometers were used to monitor the horizontal and the vertical wind velocity at 600 m above the Rhine Valley floor. A number of surface stations were operational in the valley, as well as a set of radiosounding stations. This provides a possibility to correlate the measurements of the aerosol stratification with the variation of the meteorological parameters defining the Foehn development. The backscatter lidar measurements during the Foehn development show the variation of the aerosol backscatter at different altitudes of the valley PBL. The combination of lidar signal gradient and lidar signal variance presents the cold-pool as an aerosol-rich layer and suggests a likely mechanism for cold-pool erosion by the Foehn air. (orig.)

Frioud, M.; Mitev, V.; Matthey, R. [Observatory of Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Richner, H.; Gubser, S. [Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland); Furger, M. [Lab. of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

2004-06-01

190

Germany's Solar Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

This NOVA video podcast is about Germany's solar experiment. Munich's solar panel farm lines the Autobahn and countryside in a massive effort to prove solar's feasibility as a practical renewable energy source.

Nova

191

Germany at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

2001-01-01

192

Germany - an immigration country  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

Siebert, Horst

2003-01-01

193

Report on the 1992 study trip on the Weser aboard the laboratory ship 'Max-Pruess' of the Land North-Rhine-Westfalia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As agreed by the standing committee of the Weser task force ('Arge Weser'), regular trips on the river for taking measurements have been made since 1965. The ninth trip, from May 8th to 14th, 1992 aboard the ''Max Pruess'', a ship equipped with measuring instruments and a laboratory and owned by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia, was concerned with three areas of investigation: A) the Fulda and Werra estuaries, B) the upper and middle Weser (Hann.-Muenden (km 0.0) to Bremen (km 361.1)), C) the lower Weser (Bremen (km 0.0) to Kolumbuskai (km 67.8)). A uniform water quality longitudinal profile of the Weser was established during this trip by means of chemico-physical and biological tests. While investigations by measuring stations cover a longer period of time, the measurements taken during a voyage reflect a transient condition and complement long-term trend investigations. The voyage also permits to gain an overview of relative changes in the condition of the river at various points of its course. The evaluation of the results of this trip is facilitated by investigations of Arge Weser already carried through for the duration of several years and information obtained by previous trips. (orig./EF)

194

The fast breeder reactor programmes in Germany, Japan, USA and USSR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fast reactor programmes in Germany, Japan, USA and USSR are outlined and future developments indicated. A table is given of characteristics of five reactors - BN350, BN600, SNR300, Clinch River and Monju. (U.K.)

195

Investigation of the dispersion of airborne pollutants in the Upper Rhine and Lake Constance region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the project is to calculate the regional flow and propagation conditions using the expensive three-dimensional meteorological model, the ''Karlsruher Atmosphaerisches Mesoskaliges Modell'' (KAMM) in order to derive the immission and the deposition of the conducting substance of pollutant matter, i.e., sulphur dioxide. In this report, calculations of the flowing field are described for the region Upper Rhine - Lake of Constance''. In the last part, the concentration fields for SO2 are calculated for the region for typical large-area atmospheric conditions with disclosure of sources. An appraising discussion of the results concludes this work. (orig.)

196

QUALITY OF MUST AND RHINE RIESLING WINE OF KUTJEVO VINEYARD AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantities of sugar and acid in the must of Riesling Rhine of Kutjevo vineyard area were observed on the Jakobovic Family Estate in the period of five years, from 1999 to 2003. The analysis shows varying quality of must and wine due to climatic conditions of a particular year. In the year 2000 and 2003 the quantities of sugar were exceptionally high and the content of all acids considerably lower which reflected later on the quantity of alcohol and acid in wine, as well as on organoleptic traits of wine.

Snježana Jakobovi?

2005-06-01

197

New insights for the hydrology of the Rhine based on the new generation climate models  

Science.gov (United States)

Decision makers base their choices of adaptation strategies on climate change projections and their associated hydrological consequences. New insights of climate change gained under the new generation of climate models belonging to the IPCC 5th assessment report may influence (the planning of) adaption measures and/or future expectations. In this study, hydrological impacts of climate change as projected under the new generation of climate models for the Rhine were assessed. Hereto we downscaled 31 General Circulation Models (GCMs), which were developed as part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), using an advanced Delta Change Method for the Rhine basin. Changes in mean monthly, maximum and minimum flows at Lobith were derived with the semi-distributed hydrological model HBV of the Rhine. The projected changes were compared to changes that were previously obtained in the trans-boundary project Rheinblick using eight CMIP3 GCMs and Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for emission scenario A1B. All eight selected CMIP3 models (scenario A1B) predicted for 2071-2100 a decrease in mean monthly flows between June and October. Similar decreases were found for some of the 31 CMIP5 models for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5. However, under each RCP, there were also models that projected an increase in mean flows between June and October and on average the decrease was smaller than for the eight CMIP3 models. For 2071-2100, also the mean annual minimum 7-days discharge decreased less in the CMIP5 model simulations than was projected in CMIP3. When assessing the response of mean monthly flows of the CMIP5 simulation with the CSIRO-Mk3-6-0 and HadGEM2-ES models with respect to initial conditions and RCPs, it was found that natural variability plays a dominant role in the near future (2021-2050), while changes in mean monthly flows are dominated by the radiative forcing in the far future (2071-2100). According to RCP 8.5 model simulations, the change in mean monthly flow from May to November may be half the change in mean monthly flow projected by RCP 4.5. From January to March, RCP 8.5 simulations projected higher changes in mean monthly flows than RCP 4.5 simulations. These new insights based on the CMIP5 simulations imply that for the Rhine, the mean and low flow extremes might not decrease as much in summer as was expected under CMIP3. Stresses on water availability during summer are therefore also less than expected from CMIP3.

Bouaziz, Laurène; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Beersma, Jules; Buiteveld, Hendrik

2014-05-01

198

Germany after Federal elections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety

199

Non-target screening analyses of organic contaminants in river systems as a base for monitoring measures  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic contaminants discharged to the aquatic environment exhibit a high diversity with respect to their molecular structures and the resulting physico-chemical properties. The chemical analysis of anthropogenic contamination in river systems is still an important feature, especially with respect to (i) the identification and structure elucidation of novel contaminants, (ii) to the characterisation of their environmental behaviour and (iii) to their risk for natural systems. A huge proportion of riverine contamination is caused by low-molecular weight organic compounds, like pesticides plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, technical additives etc. Some of them, like PCB or PAH have already been investigated thoroughly and, consequently, their behaviour in aqueous systems is very well described. Although analyses on organic substances in river water traditionally focused on selected pollutants, in particular on common priority pollutants which are monitored routinely, the occurrence of further contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products or chelating agents has received increasing attention within the last decade. Accompanied, screening analyses revealing an enormous diversity of low-molecular weight organic contaminants in waste water effluents and river water become more and more noticed. Since many of these substances have been rarely noticed so far, it will be an important task for the future to study their occurrence and fate in natural environments. Further on, it should be a main issue of environmental studies to provide a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of river water, in particular with respect to lipophilic low molecular weight organic contaminants. However, such non-target-screening analyses has been performed only rarely in the past. Hence, we applied extended non-target screening analyses on longitudinal sections of the rivers Rhine, Rur and Lippe (Germany) on the base of GC/MS analyses. The investigations revealed complex pattern of anthropogenic contaminants comprising a lot of still unnoticed pollutants (e.g. specific sulfones, trifluoromethyl substituted substances, nitrogen heterocycles etc.) or still unidentified compounds (such as selected brominated aromatics) of obviously high environmental relevance. In this presentation, a selection of several different contaminants will be discussed in detail comprising their emission sources, their emission behaviour, their fate within the river water bodies and in particular their structural properties. Generally. this investigation demonstrated the need to expand our analytical focus on a broader spectrum of organic contaminants, in particular to build up an adapted base for advanced monitoring studies.

Schwarzbauer, J.

2009-04-01

200

Health care transition in Germany – standardization of procedures and improvement actions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Claudia Pieper, Izabela KolankowskaInstitute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, GermanyAbstract: Previous studies have assessed an increase in the number of people in need and emphasized the advantages of structured discharge management and health care transition. Therefore, our study evaluated the status quo of transition in a major German city after standardization of procedures and implementation of standard forms. Satisfaction with handling of standard forms and improvement of procedures was evaluated. Additionally, patients who had recently been hospitalized were asked about the hospital discharge process. The results show that the recent efforts of standardization helped to improve interface management for health care workers and patients and showed further improvement options.Keywords: hospital discharge process, standard forms, long-term care, aftercare

Pieper C

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Teacher Education in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applies the concepts of idealism, individualism, and pragmatism from the Association for Teacher Education in Europe's scenario model to Germany's teacher education. Discusses the current German teacher training system's scholarly approach to idealism; notes organizational problems; examines the special psychological demands on students made by…

Viebahn, Peter

2003-01-01

202

Elementary Education in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

In this overview of preschool education in Germany the history of the kindergarten is tracked from 1802 to the present. Different types of pre-primary institutions (creches, kindergartens) are described; statistical data from December 2002 are presented. The article also deals with curriculum development and staff training. It presents the numbers…

Textor, Martin R.

2005-01-01

203

Electricity supply in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brief details and statistics relating to electricity supply in Germany are presented. These include a map of the country showing the high voltage transmission on lines of the public utility network and tables of data. The data show: the gross maximum capacities of power stations according to the main energy source and configuration for the years 1980 to 1990; the gross production of power stations for the same period; new or additional capacities (gross) under construction in power stations of the electric utilities, as expected for 1991 to 1994; energy supply by the public power system in West Germany in 1980 and 1990; maximum capacity of utility and private power stations as of the end of 1989 and 1990; electricity production in 1989 and 1990 by utilities and private plants broken down by energy source; development of capital investment by the public utilities, 1980 to 1990; electric power utilities by ownership; international power exchanges in 1989 and 1990; overhead and underground lines in West Germany 1980 to 1990 in km; numbers and ratings of high voltage transformers in West Germany in 1980 and 1990. (UK)

204

Election in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This week's In The News focuses on the forthcoming general election in Germany. The seven sources discussed provide background, news, analysis, and commentary. On Sunday September 27, Germany's 60 million voters will elect a chancellor to lead them into the 21st century. Incumbent Helmut Kohl, a 68-year-old Christian Democrat who has been chancellor since 1982, is running for an unprecedented fifth term. During Kohl's sixteen years in power as a major world leader, he has presided over the reunification of Germany after the fall of the Berlin wall, advocated European unity while strengthening ties with the US, and ardently endorsed Germany's participation in Europe's single currency, the Euro. However, the problems of modernizing the economy in the formerly communist eastern Germany--where seventeen percent of the workers are unemployed--compounded by the difficulties of high taxes, expensive social programs, and fleeing investments, have convinced many voters that is time for a change of leadership. Kohl's opponent in the general election, Gerhard Schroder, is a 54-year-old Social Democrat currently serving as the Prime Minister of the northern state of Lower Saxony. The telegenic Schroder considers himself a New Middle leftist and models his political style after UK Prime Minister Tony Blair and US President Bill Clinton; he has, in fact, used consultants from Clinton's last campaign to bolster his image. According to political pundits, both Kohl and Schroder have similar moderate platforms, which has made this race a campaign of competing personalities rather than of substantive issues. Recent polls have indicated a dead heat between the candidates leading into the final week of the campaign.

Osmond, Andrew.

205

Tag: Germany | EurActiv  

... Germany's FDP launches pragmatic Europe campaign - 22 January 2014 - News After being ousted from the parliament at the general elections last year, Germany's liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP) has selected Alexander Graf Lambsdorff as its top candidate for the European elections, adopting a sober and Europe-friendly position, EurActiv Germany reports. EU to take legal action against Germany in Daimler coolant spat - ...

206

Seismic risk evaluation for the Upper Rhine Graben and its vicinity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A probabilistic large-scale seismicity model for the Upper Rhine graben and adjoining regions has been developed considering all available seismological and geological information. With this model the probability distribution of macroseismic intensities (MSK-scale) was calculated for 208 sites regularly covering the region under investigation with a grid width of 25 km. Four maps with intensity isolines are presented according to exceedance probabilities 63%, 10%, 1% and 0,1% for a period of 50 years (corresponding to annual occurence rates 2.10-2, 2.10-3, 2.10-4 and 2.10-5). The intensities given reflect the regional seismicity level with respect to quantitative risk values, which might be modified by local particularities (soil conditions, nearby seismoactive fault lines, etc.) for a special site. The risk for an average site in the Upper Rhine graben is characterized by an annual occurrence rate of about 10-4 for intensity VIII. On a statistical basis, the exceedance of intensity IX cannot be excluded, but could only occur at a very low probability level. (orig.) 891 HP

207

An advanced method for flood risk analysis in river deltas, applied to societal flood fatality risks in the Netherlands  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the new method developed to analyse flood risks in river deltas. Risk analysis of river deltas is complex, because both storm surges and river discharges may cause flooding and since the effect of upstream breaches on downstream water levels and flood risks must be taken into account. A Monte Carlo based flood risk analysis framework for policy making was developed, which considers both storm surges and river flood waves and includes hydrodynamic interaction effects on flood risks. It was applied to analyse societal flood fatality risks (the probability of events with more than N fatalities) in the Rhine-Meuse delta.

de Bruijn, K. M.; Diermanse, F. L. M.; Beckers, J. V. L.

2014-02-01

208

Petrophysical characteristics and fluid flow zones in the Buntsandstein sandstones reservoir according well cores and outcrop analysis (Upper Rhine Graben, France)  

Science.gov (United States)

Buntsandstein Sandstones (Lower Triassic), located in the Upper Rhine Graben, appears as an easy target for geothermal exploitation. This sedimentary reservoir links more or less permeable argillaceous sandstones intersected by many major faults to the regional thermal anomaly. Petrophysical analysis (permeability, porosity, thermal conductivity, P-wave velocity), performed on cores from several boreholes and samples from several outcrops in the Vosgian Mountain, drive us to characterise fluid and heat transfer capability of the different sedimentary facies present in the Buntsandstein sandstones. First data from well cores analysis indicate that the more permeable and porous (respectively >100mD & >15%) facies are the Playa Lake and fluvial and aeolian sand-sheet, and the fluvial-aeolian marginal erg, whereas the more common facies, the braided rivers within arid alluvial plain, presents permeability reservoir at depth with the different facies, above the Palaeozoic Granit and below the Muschelkalk limestones, intersecting by faults according the regional major azimuth. According each particular direction the particular fracturation is raised according outcrop data. This bloc points the major zones in which fluid circulation occurs.

Sébastien, H.; Géraud, Y.; Diraison, M.; Dezayes, C.

2012-04-01

209

Occurrence and regional distribution of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with the metastrongyloid nematode Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats have been reported sporadically from Germany. To assess the occurrence and regional geographical distribution of A. abstrusus in Germany, faecal samples from 391 cats with symptoms of respiratory disease were collected from December 2009 to November 2011. The zinc chloride/sodium chloride flotation and Baermann funnel technique were used to examine the samples for the presence of lungworm larvae. The collected data were analyzed using a geographic information system (GIS). Infections with lungworms were diagnosed in 26 (6.6 %) of the examined cats. The infection rates did not show significant differences in the age groups up to 7 years. Only cats older than 7 were significantly less infected with lungworms than young cats. Sixteen of the 192 female cats examined and 7 of the 186 males were positive for A. abstrusus, but there were no significant differences for the variable 'gender infection rate'. Most of the A. abstrusus-positive cats were located in Baden-Wuerttemberg, followed by Lower Saxony, Bremen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Bavaria, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saarland, Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein. The majority of infected cats showed severe clinical symptoms characterised by coughing and dyspnoea, increased breathing rate, weight loss, bronchopneumonia, generally poor condition, sneezing and nasal discharge. The high number of lungworm-positive cats and the severe clinical symptoms should encourage veterinarians in Germany to consider infections with A. abstrusus as a differential diagnosis in cats with symptoms of respiratory disease. PMID:23239090

Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

2013-02-01

210

De part et d’autre du Rhin. Descriptions géographiques et représentations nationales dans les Causeries du voyage franco-allemand de Victor Duruy (1860 On both sides of the Rhine. Geographical descriptions and national representations as regards the French-German journey in Victor Duruy’s “Causeries géographiques” (1860  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’historien Victor Duruy effectue en 1860 un voyage sur le Rhin et le Danube qui lui permet de parcourir le Sud de l’Allemagne. Il a laissé de ce périple un récit relativement original, par sa forme comme par son contenu. Il profite de ses observations géographiques et ethnographiques pour se livrer à une analyse comparée des deux territoires situés de part et d’autre du Rhin, qui lui permet de démontrer la supériorité de la France sur l’Allemagne. Ainsi ce voyage sert-il moins à la découverte d’un espace déjà connu par des lectures nombreuses, que de vérification et de justification. Il permet de confirmer un certain nombre de représentations et de promouvoir un discours patriotique qui, dans le contexte de montée des tensions, permet de défendre un statu quo frontalier menacé par l’expansionnisme prussien.French Historian Victor Duruy’s 1860 travel on Rhine and Danube gives him rise to go all over South of Germany. He let a diary of this journey, original in terms of both content and form. His geographical and ethnographical observations allow him to make a comparison between territories on both sides of Rhine, and to prove France’s superiority to Germany. So this is not so much a discovery travel as a confirmation and justification one. In places already known by many years of studies, the Historian can confirm several images and clichés. Furthermore it makes him able to take a patriotical line that allows him to defend border status quo between France in Germany in a time of rise of Prussian claims on Rhenish area.

Jean-Charles Geslot

2013-03-01

211

Modelling water fluxes for the analysis of diffuse pollution at the river basin scale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diffuse pollution is a significant and sometimes even major component of surface water pollution. Diffuse inputs of pollutants to the surface water are related to runoff of precipitation. This means that the analysis of diffuse pollutant fluxes from the land surface to the surface water requires an analysis of water fluxes. In this paper we have modelled the average long-term total runoff, groundwater recharge index and groundwater residence times for two large European river basins (Rhine an...

Wit, M.; Meinardi, C. R.; Wendland, F.; Kunkel, R.

2000-01-01

212

Economic Education in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is rather difficult to describe economic education in Germany: Due to German federalism the sixteen German Länder are independent in terms of educational policy. Thus the German educational system differs slightly from Land to Land, even more heterogenous is the situation of economic education. With regard to this it is impossible to give a detailed picture of the whole, but it is useless to present the situation in only one land. This report tries to do the impossible by giving a rough overview of the situation of economic education in Germany at school as well as at university. Above all it is concerned with outlining the gap between claim and reality of economic education. A summary about the main topics of the didactic discussion can reflect contents and methods, which influence the syllabus construction.

Birgit Weber

2002-01-01

213

[Tularemia in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany. PMID:24937079

Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

2014-07-01

214

Continuous Training in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using data from the German Socio Economic Panel, I analyze the incidence, financing, and returns to workplace training in Germany for the years 1986 to 1989. Much of this training seems general, and is provided to workers by their employer at no direct cost. While workers typically report larger productivity gains from the training during work hours, such training has lower returns than training undertaken during leisure time. Workers with higher earnings growth seem more likely to participat...

Pischke, Jo?rn-steffen

2000-01-01

215

Possibilities of soil spectroscopy for the classification of contaminated areas in river floodplains  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past decades, large amounts of diffuse contaminated soil material have been deposited in the floodplains of the river Rhine in the Netherlands. The dynamic character of this river causes a large spatial variability in the contamination level of its floodplain soils. Characterisation of the spatial variability exclusively based on soil sampling and analysis is often insufficient and expensive. Hyperspectral images can provide additional spatial information for a proper characterisation of the contamination situation of river floodplains. This paper describes the possible application of soil spectroscopy to estimate metal concentration levels in river floodplains. Soil reflectance spectra in the visible-near infrared region (VNIR) were measured in the laboratory for soil samples taken from two river floodplains along the river Waal, the main tributary of the river Rhine in the Netherlands. A multivariate calibration procedure using partial least squares (PLS) regression was applied to establish a relationship between reflectance spectra in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) region and spectrally active soil characteristics (organic matter and clay content) that are intercorrelated with concentration levels of Cd and Zn. Results of the analysis of two river floodplains are summarised and the influence of scale-level and sub soil material on the prediction capability is discussed.

Kooistra, Lammert; Wehrens, Ron; Buydens, Lutgarde MC; Leuven, Rob S. E. W.; Nienhuis, Piet H.

216

Coal Mining, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This simulated natural color ASTER image in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia covers an area of 30 by 36 km, and was acquired on August 26, 2000. On the right side of the image are 3 enormous opencast coalmines. The Hambach opencast coal mine has recently been brought to full output capacity through the addition of the No. 293 giant bucket wheel excavator. This is the largest machine in the world; it is twice as long as a soccer field and as tall as a building with 30 floors. To uncover the 2.4 billion tons of brown coal (lignite) found at Hambach, five years were required to remove a 200-m-thick layer of waste sand and to redeposit it off site. The mine currently yields 30 million tons of lignite annually, with annual capacity scheduled to increase to 40 million tons in coming years.The image is centered at 51 degrees north latitude, 6.4 degrees east longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

2001-01-01

217

Results of the Rhine-Ruhr international materials conference and award 2005. Materials for energy technology in the 21st century - Documentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper contains the origin wording of 16 lectures (speech) and discussions, which were held on the first Rhine-Ruhr International Materials Conference in Essen, Germany, on October 23 and 24, 2005. The focus of the gathering was on materials research, development and production in the field of energy engineering. The following topics are dealt with: Energy Concepts for Closing the Gap between Demand and Environmental Protection (Klaus Toepfer); Materials Science: The Competitive Factor in the Global Energy Technology Development (Roland Schenkel); The Necessity for Innovation in the EU as Seen by a New Member State (K.J. Kurzydlowski); New Pathways for Cooperation between Materials Science and Industry (Paul M. Siffert); Energy Demand and Environmental Protection - how to get both in line (Mark Radka); Chinese Energy Efficiency Policy leading to cleaner Production in China (Ming Yang); The Global Significance of Solar Energy Supply (Adolf Goetzberger); The Vision of Sustainable Development of Nuclear Energy (Patrick Ledermann); Improving the Efficiency of Energy Technology with Novel Materials (Johannes Teyssen); New Material Concepts for High Efficiency and Low Risk Exploitation of Energy (Koichi Yagi); Materials Systems for Tomorrow's Gas Turbines (Wilfried Kurz); Science and Technological Advances in Fusion Energy Research, ITER and beyond (Bernard Saoutic); Materials, Systems and Milestones for Economically and Environmentally Attractive Fusion Power Plants (Imentally Attractive Fusion Power Plants (Ian Cook); Fuel Cells - The State of the Art: Applications, Feasibility, Technology and Outlook for the Next Decade (Roland Diethelm); Wind Energy - Significance and Challenges for Tomorrow (Christian Nath); Solar Energy - Time Scale for the Full Application (Volker Wittwer)

218

Validation of a large scale hydrological model with data fields retrieved from reflective and thermal optical remote sensing data A case study for the Upper Rhine Valley  

Science.gov (United States)

For the entire Upper Rhine Valley between Karlsruhe and Basel, a long term simulation (1985-2002) with the GWN_BW model (partly physically based 1-D water balance model) resulted in the retrieval of the following hydrological process variables: daily potential and actual evaporation, surface runoff from sealed surfaces and groundwater recharge. Meteorological data has been interpolated from all available stations in France, Germany and Switzerland including the mountainous regions of the Vosges Mountains and the Black Forest. The primary grid size of the model was 500 m; for landuse, the sub-grid variability has been taken into account additionally. In an alternative approach, Landsat-5 TM scenes from two different acquisition dates were integrated to model the daily rates of actual evaporation ( Ea). To this end, data fields retrieved from both the thermal and reflective Landsat channels were combined with ancillary meteorological and digital elevation data. Assuming a single layer canopy-soil system, the daily Ea rates were estimated from the modelled net radiation and the differences between maximum surface and maximum air temperatures; the final partitioning of sensible and latent heat fluxes was strongly determined by the pixel-wise derived vegetation abundances. The results of the remote sensing approach were compared quantitatively to the Ea rates provided by the hydrological model by means of both correlation and geostatistical pattern analysis. Extreme differences between both approaches were detected. The low spatial variability of the simulated Ea was explained by the parameterisation scheme for surface resistances. In total, the hydrological model often underestimated Ea due to a non realistic representation of soil water availability under deciduous forests and a missing representation of irrigation. In addition, a static and very simple representation of capillary rise of groundwater was found to cause large overestimates of the modelled Ea during periods with low groundwater table.

Casper, Markus C.; Vohland, Michael

219

The Chernobyl accident and its direct and late effects an surface bodies of water in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects on the tritium content (monthly composite samples) of German surface waters could not be detected. After the nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl, however, the increased radioactive content in the Rhine and the Moselle could easily be detected in the samples of May 1986 by means of the residual ? determination. The Sr-90 contents of up to 0.010 Bq/l measured in the Rhine and the Moselle were only slightly higher than the values measured in 1985. For the nuclide ratio Sr-89/Sr-90, measured in rainwater samples, a value of 18.7 ±8.7 (n=10) was determined. An extraordinary high nuclide content was observed in the solids contained in water (suspended matters, sediments). Cs-137 contents of up to 6000 Bq/kg TM were measured in suspended matter samples from the Moselle (monthly composite samples). A careful analysis of the activity quotient, adjusted to decay, measured in different German river areas on samples of suspended matters, sediments, and - with restrictions - of rainwater, showed a distinct increase in South-North direction. This regional fractionation can obviously be set in correlation with the local conditions of the place of release. (orig./DG)

220

63. report of Arbeitsgemeinschaft Rhein-Wasserwerke e.V. (ARW). Annual report 2006; 63. Bericht der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Rhein-Wasserwerke e.V. (ARW). Jahresbericht 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the 63rd annual report of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Rhein-Wasserwerke e.V. (ARW, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany), in which it presents its technical and scientific activities in the field of freshwater supply on the Rhine river. This annual report consists of the following contributions: (a) Main results from the investigation program 2006 of the ARW; (b) Microscopic insights in the content of suspended matter in the river Rhine near Wesel; (c) Hydrochemical developments in an area of drinking water winning at Niederrhein; Part I: Observations of trends in the Rhine; (d) Optimization of a river bank filtration plant in the waterworks Guntersblum; (e) Appearance of hexa(methoxymethyl)melamine and related compounds in the rivers Rhine and Main; (f) Cooperation of ARW and water supply utilities in the Rhine-Main area / South Hessen; (g) Operation of a central drinking water softener in the waterworks Eich.

NONE

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fishbones, shells, human bones or food crusts on pottery from sites next to rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in rivers containing considerable amounts of dissolved 14C-free carbonates can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. For accurate radiocarbon dating of freshwater-based samples, the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect as well as the degree of variability has to be known. The initial problem in this case was the accurate dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude and variability that can also be expected for the past. Water DIC from different seasons, and from the same season in different years, has been dated because it is the carbon source in photosynthesis and thus at the basis of the rivers’ food webs. The radiocarbon ages of underwater plants and different parts (underwater or floating) of emerging water plants are compared, as it might be expected that the reservoir age is higher for plants that assimilate DIC as for plants or parts of plants that assimilate atmospheric CO2. Mollusc shells as well as flesh and bone collagen of fish are dated as well. Radiocarbon datings of archaeological samples from the two Mesolithic sites will be analysed, considering the insights provided by the study of modern material.

Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

222

Analysis of radium in sediment samples from the Rhine delta. Results over 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen sediment samples, collected in the harbours and waterways of the Rhine delta in 1997, were analysed for their 226Ra content and grain-size distribution. The effect of the emissions from the phosphate-processing industries on the 226Ra content could be inferred on the basis of these data. As observed in previous monitoring campaigns, the influence of this industry is greatest in and nearby the first and second petroleum harbours. Increases in the 226Ra content of up to 211 Bq/kg were measured in comparison to background levels of 22 to 46 Bq/kg. Approximately 13% of the released 226Ra is deposited in the harbours and waterways. Samples collected once every year were found to reflect the long-term trend in the emissions. 6 refs

223

Impact of waste heat emissions in the Upper-Rhine region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy supply of industrialized regions is ultimately transformed into waste heat and reaches the atmosphere. In the Upper-Rhine Region (inventory area 27,500 km2) the mean annual waste heat emission is about 1.6 W/m2 and thus exceeds the mean global anthropogenic heat release by a factor of 100. The heat emission consists of energy conversion (16 %), major industry (33 %), small industry and domestic consumption (38 %) as well as transportation (13 %); it is released in the form of radiative (17 %), sensible (69 %) and latent heat (14 %). The largest amount of waste heat is released in urban and industrial areas showing flux densities of about 30 W/m2 on 2 km x 2 km grid areas (some of this waste heat orginates from nuclear power plants). The influence on regional climate is studied using a non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulation model, which calculates the topographically influenced wind field. (Auth.)

224

Economic Education in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is rather difficult to describe economic education in Germany: Due to German federalism the sixteen German Länder are independent in terms of educational policy. Thus the German educational system differs slightly from Land to Land, even more heterogenous is the situation of economic education. With regard to this it is impossible to give a detailed picture of the whole, but it is useless to present the situation in only one land. This report tries to do the impossible by giving a rough o...

Birgit Weber

2002-01-01

225

Environmental policy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous forms, emergence, and development of German environ-politics from 1900 to the present day are looked into by means of so far disregarded sources. The main lines of ecological and technological environ-politics are described and the difficulties in formulating and getting through adequate state measures of environment protection are shown quoting cases. The influence of structural pre-conditions, of the constitutional state, political culture and global development of Germany is examined as to its influence on environ-politics. The work must be understood as a historical argument in favor of a more conscious, reasonable political formation of environment in the sense of an ecological concept. (orig.)

226

Country report for Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of the nuclear energy in Germany can be summarised as follows: 19 operating NPPs (22 GWe); electricity production in 200 amounted to 170 TWh (one third of the total production); average availability 91%; goal of the Federal Government is to phase out nuclear energy without paying to the utilities. Fast reactor activities involve participation of FZK in the European Project 'Burning of Pu and MAs in Critical Fast Reactors'; shifting to burning of actinides in subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS). This includes neutronics, safety analysis, Pb-Bi technology, development of spallation target, corrosion in Pb and Pb-Bi

227

Molecular confirmation of the occurrence in Germany of Anopheles daciae (Diptera, Culicidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles daciae, a newly described member of the Maculipennis group, was recently reported from western, southern and eastern Europe. Before its recognition, it had commonly been listed under the name of An. messeae, due to its extreme morphological and genetic similarities. As the sibling species of the Maculipennis group are known to differ in their vector competences for malaria parasites and other pathogens, the occurrence of An. daciae in a given region might have an impact on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquito collections from different localities in Germany were therefore screened for An. daciae. Methods Adult and immature Maculipennis group mosquitoes were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 at 23 different sites in eight federal states of Germany. A standard PCR assay was used to differentiate the previously known sibling species while the ITS2 rDNA of specimens preliminarily identified as An. messeae/daciae was sequenced and analysed for species-specific nucleotide differences. Results Four hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles specimens were successively identified to Maculipennis group level by morphology and to species level by DNA-based methods. Four species of the Maculipennis group were registered: An. messeae (n?=?384, An. maculipennis (n?=?82, An. daciae (n?=?10 and An. atroparvus (n?=?1. Anopheles daciae occurred at four sites in three federal states of Germany, three of the sites being located in north-eastern Germany (federal states of Brandenburg and Saxony while one collection site was situated in the northern Upper Rhine Valley in the federal state of Hesse, south-western Germany. Conclusions The detection of An. daciae represents the first recognition of this species in Germany where it was found to occur in sympatry with An. messeae and An. maculipennis. As the collection sites were in both north-eastern and south-western parts of Germany, the species is probably even more widely distributed in Germany than demonstrated, albeit apparently with low population densities. Research is needed that confirms the species status of An. daciae and elucidates its vector competence as compared to An. messeae and the other species of the Maculipennis group, in order to optimize management of possible future outbreaks of diseases caused by pathogen transmission through Maculipennis group mosquitoes.

Kronefeld Mandy

2012-11-01

228

[Prenatal care in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal care in Germany is based on a nationwide standardized program of care for pregnant women. Besides support and health counseling, it comprises prevention or early detection of diseases or unfavorable circumstances with risks for mother and child. Prenatal care is regulated by law and structured by directives and standard procedures in maternity guidelines (Mutterschafts-Richtlinien). This includes information and counseling of future mothers on offers of psychosocial and medical assistance in normal pregnancies as well as in unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. Further aspects are clinical examinations and risk determinations for genetic variations or direct genetic analysis. During pregnancy, medical history, clinical examination, and blood testing are part of the sophisticated program, which includes at least three standardized sonographic examinations at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of gestation. The maternity passport allows a pregnant woman to carry the most relevant information on her pregnancy and her personal risks with her. For 45 years now, women in Germany are used to carrying their Mutterpass. Societal changes have influenced the central goals of maternity care: In the beginning, the mortality of mother and child had to be reduced. Today, maternal morbidity and impaired development of the child are the center of interest, with expansion to familial satisfaction. The reduction in the mortality and morbidity of both the mother and the child during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum can be attributed to prenatal care. Thus, investment in a program of nationwide structured prenatal care seems to be worthwhile-despite the lack of evidence concerning its effectiveness. PMID:24337130

Vetter, K; Goeckenjan, M

2013-12-01

229

Occurrence and distribution of benzothiazole in the Schwarzbach watershed (Germany).  

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This study quantifies the regional distribution of the micropollutant benzothiazole (BT) in river water by sampling 15 river sites in the Schwarzbach watershed (about 400 km(2)) from November 2008 to February 2010. Additionally, wastewater samples from three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Germany were analyzed. BT was detected in all wastewater influent and effluent samples as well as in all river water samples collected downstream of wastewater discharge. This corroborates the ubiquitous occurrence of BT in the aqueous environment. Concentrations were between 58 and 856 ng L(-1) in the river water. The observed mean concentration at the outlet of the investigated catchment was 109 ng L(-1). With only a few exceptions, temporal and spatial variations of BT concentrations in river water were low. Rather similar BT concentrations over a wide range of river discharge indicate that dilution along the mainstream is negligible and, thus, supports the hypothesis that paved surface runoff during rain events is an important BT source not only for wastewater influent but also for river water. This was supported by detecting the highest BT concentrations at sampling locations close to the dense highway network around the city of Frankfurt. Since BT was also detected in river water collected from locations that were clearly unaffected by wastewater effluent discharge, surface runoff must be considered as a diffuse source of BT in river water. PMID:21860876

Fries, Elke; Gocht, Tilman; Klasmeier, Jörg

2011-10-01

230

Outcrop Analogue Studies in Geothermal Exploration - Characterization of fault zones in Triassic Muschelkalk limestones of the Upper Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of fault zones is of particular importance in geothermal reservoirs since there may be great effects on fluid flow. Fault zones generally consist of two major hydromechanical units: the fault core and the damage zone, surrounded by the host rock. To improve predictions of fracture system parameters for each unit and resulting estimations of reservoir permeabilities at depths we perform outcrop analogue studies. We analyze Middle Triassic Muschelkalk limestones that form one geothermal reservoir formation in the Upper Rhine Graben (southwest Germany) in quarries on its eastern graben shoulder. We measure the orientations and displacements of various fault zones and characterize the fracture systems within the fault zone units and in the host rock. Our studies show that damage zones are well developed even in smaller fault zones. Their fault cores, however, are narrow compared with that of fault zones with large displacements and comprise brecciated material, clay smear, host rock lenses or zones of mineralization. Based on the field data we use analytical models to estimate the permeabilities of the analyzed fracture systems. Results show increased fracture frequencies in the fault zone damage zones and larger fracture apertures parallel or subparallel to fault zone strike that lead to enhanced permeability compared with other orientations. Mineralized fractures accumulated in this direction in the 'Nussloch'-quarry indicate that these fractures were pathways for fault zone parallel fluid flow in the past. This shows that open fractures with orientations parallel to fault zones may be pathways for fault zone parallel fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs. By contrast, well-developed fault cores may be potential barriers for fluid flow in inactive fault zones. To build numerical models to analyze local stress fields and effects on fracture propagation for different fault zone types and geometries information on rock mechanical properties is necessary. Therefore we take representative rock samples in the quarries to determine uniaxial compressive and tensile strengths as well as Young's Moduli in the laboratory. Additionally we measure the rebound hardness distribution across fault zones with a 'Schmidt-Hammer' to analyze mechanical property variations. First results show that the rebound hardness increases with increasing distance from the fault core. The presented studies help to predict the permeability of fault-related geothermal reservoir rocks and minimize the exploration risk of geothermal projects. This project is part of the Research and Development Project AuGE (Outcrop Analogue Studies in Geothermal Exploration). Project partners are the companies Geothermal Engineering GmbH and GeoEnergy GmbH as well as the Universities of Heidelberg and Erlangen. The project is funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) within the framework of the 5th Energy Research Program (FKZ 0325302).

Meier, S.; Bauer, J. F.; Philipp, S. L.

2013-12-01

231

Increasing circulation of Alaria alata mesocercaria in wild boar populations of the Rhine valley, France, 2007-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of the mesocercarial stage of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in wild boar meat represents a potential risk for human, but little is known about the circulation of mesocercaria in wild boar populations. Routine Trichinella inspection, mandatorily performed in wild boar in France, also allowed detecting mesocercaria. We analyzed the results of this detection in the carcasses of 27,582 wild boars hunted in 2007-2011, in 502 hunting areas of the Rhine valley. Prevalence was globally low (0.6%), but 12% of the hunting areas were affected. These were clustered in lowlands of the Rhine valley, and prevalence strongly decreased with increasing elevation. In the lowlands, prevalence doubled between 2007 and 2011. This time trend and the geographic aggregation of positive wild boars suggest risk management measures based on targeted surveillance, control and prevention. PMID:24262388

Portier, Julien; Vallée, Isabelle; Lacour, Sandrine A; Martin-Schaller, Régine; Ferté, Hubert; Durand, Benoit

2014-01-31

232

The influence of tidal straining and wind on suspended matter and phytoplankton distribution in the Rhine outflow region  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To study the short-term effects of the physical environment on phytoplankton dynamics in the Rhine outflow area. changes in salinity, beam attenuation and phytoplankton distribution were observed in a series of high resolution measurements. During periods of weak wind and neap tide (low turbulent kinetic energy, TKE), the system was dominated by tidal straining that resulted in semi-diurnal oscillations in stratification. Phytoplankton was kept in resuspension at about 10-15 m depth. Subsequent strong wind and tidal mixing (high TKE) broke down stratification, enhanced horizontal gradients and suppressed estuarine transport. It is hypothesised that during low TKE, tidal straining and frontal circulation determined the phytoplankton distribution; and at high TKE, input by wind and tide enhanced conditions for growth, which resulted in a bloom in the surface layer of the Rhine Plume, where light and nutrients were available. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Visser, Andre

2001-01-01

233

Identification of the fractured basement/cover unconformity on former oil seismic profiles in the Upper Rhine Graben.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fluid circulation at fractured basement/cover unconformity is of first importance for geothermal energy exploitation especially in continental rifting as the Upper Rhine Graben. This unconformity presents lot of natural fractures which constitute a large permeable fracture network driving brine movement. That constitutes a reservoir of hot water, which is exploited by several geothermal power projects at great depth with flow rate between 50 and 80 l/s of water produced. On the French territo...

Dezayes, Chrystel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Capar, Laure; Chenin, Pauline

2011-01-01

234

Argillaceous rock as host rock for final storage of radioactive waste in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology (BMWi), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials (BGR) in a study described argillaceous rock formations as potential host rock for repositories in some areas of Germany, and evaluated them. The study was based on available and usable data derived from maps, archives, and approx. 25,000 drillings. No additional field tests or laboratory examinations were conducted. The study was published in April 2007 under the title of 'Untersuchung und Bewertung von Tongesteinsformationen' (www.bgr.bund.de). The exclusion criteria and minimum requirements recommended by the Working Group on Repository Sites (AkEnd) in 2002 served as a basis for defining the subareas eligible for further study. In addition, internationally acknowledged selection criteria as well as weighting criteria to be taken into account especially under German conditions were applied. The result of the study is not a representation of repository sites. However, the investigations show that argillaceous rock meeting host rock requirements occurs in the Lower Cretacious as well as in rock formations of the Lower and Middle Jurassic of Northern Germany. In Southern Germany, rock of the Middle Jurassic was found to be worthy of examination. The clay formations of the Tertiary are not considered in the study because of their relatively adverse mechanical properties in Germany. The areas highlighted are situated mainly in Lower Saxonlighted are situated mainly in Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt, Baden-Wuerttemberg and, to a lesser extent, also im Bavaria, Brandenburg, and North Rhine-Westphalia. Other regional restrictions are mentioned in the study. Any further assessment of the argillaceous rock in the study would require an extensive program of investigations with a view to selecting sites for the final storage of high-level radioactive waste. (orig.)

235

Germany: Europe’s China  

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Full Text Available The paper analyses Germany's ascent not only as Europe's most important economic power, but also as its leader. Figures show that Germany overcame the crisis; in fact the crisis legitimized its development model. Which would be Germany's main strategic choices, confirmed by the historic evolution of the recent years? First, its option for manufacturing, which allowed Germany to turn into Europe's factory. Second, the option for reform. "Agenda 2010", initiated by Gerhard Schroeder in 2003, is a crucial moment in the country's evolution. Special attention is paid to Germany's position on the single currency. Germany's performance is that it managed to turn the euro into a kind of European Dmark. The euro now formally "obeys" German rules, agreed upon from the very beginning, and is mainly coupled to the evolution of German economy. Germany is now sitting its most important exam: the European one. Today, Germany is Europe's most powerful state, but it must become its leader, whose development model would be accepted throughout the continent. Some German economic options are strikingly similar to China's.

Paul Dobrescu

2013-06-01

236

Germany Under Reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Offered as part of the University of Wisconsin Digital Collection's History collection, Germany Under Reconstruction provides the public with access to a variety of publications in English and German from the early days following World War II. The documents cover a wide range of topics, and they include works that look at the political, economic, and cultural milieu in the nation during the period. All told, there are 516 documents included here, and visitors can perform complex searches or just browse through them at their leisure. Some of the more notable English language items include the 1945 work "After Nazism-Democracy? A symposium by four Germans" and Elmer Beck's 1948 book "The trade union press in the U.S. occupied area". The site is rounded out by the complete run of the Weekly Information Bulletin, published by the United States European Theater's Military Army of Occupation from 1945 to 1948.

237

Commission denies Germany'  

... More Sections Central Europe Climate & Environment Competition Education Elections Enlargement Future EU Justice & Home Affairs Med & South Public Affairs Regional Policy Security Social Europe & Jobs Sports Trade & Industry NEWS Investment piles up on 5G development SPECIAL REPORT / Public and private investment ... VIDEOS Home › Social Europe & Jobs › News Commission denies Germany's 'dangerous' criticism of youth jobs fight [fr] -A + A Published 28 May 2013, updated 31 May 2013 8 comments Tags Employment, eurozone crisis, jobs and growth, Youth ... They are parts of this resposibility and thus have to contribute to compensate their mistakes ! By : an european - Posted on : 26/06/2013 Flag as abusive OR implement Eurobonds ! Some nationals of the 27 Heads of states ...

238

LOFAR in Germany  

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Full Text Available The LOw Frequency ARray – LOFAR – is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz centered in the Netherlands. In May 2006 ten German institutes formed the German LOng Wavelength consortium – GLOW – to coordinate its contributions and scientific interests to the LOFAR project. The first LOFAR station CS1 was installed in summer 2006 near Exloo/Netherlands. The second station IS-G1 is presently been placed in the immediate vicinity of the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope near Bad Münstereifel/Germany. This contribution briefly describes the basic properties and aims of LOFAR, the aims of the GLOW consortium and the actual activities to install a LOFAR station at the Effelsberg site.

W. Reich

2007-06-01

239

Mining in Germany 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papers were presented on the following subjects: Mining in the new German states; Development of knowledge-based consulting systems for waste disposal and mine savitation operations; Advantages and drawbacks of underground leaching of uranium ores - proposals for environmentally compatible termination of mining operations; Backfilling of open shafts; The final operation plan -legal fundamentals of mine abandonment; stability assessment of subsurface workings of the Ehrenfriedersdorf tin mine and conclusions for safety measures; Experience and problems of landscaping measures for abandoved mines in densely populated areas; Performance of pipeless shaft drilling machines in hard and extremely hard rock; subsurface tunnelling in subsidence areas; Selective cutters in potassium mining in Alsace-Rock salt mining at Bernburg; Problems of stabilisation of abandoned shafts in potassium mines in central Germany. Six of the papers have been recorded as separate entries in this database. (orig./HS)

240

CAS School in Germany  

CERN Multimedia

The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

CERN Accelerator School

 
 
 
 
241

Germany: Health system review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This analysis of the German health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. In the German health care system, decision-making powers are traditionally shared between national (federal) and state (Land) levels, with much power delegated to self-governing bodies. It provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits. Since 2009, health insurance has been mandatory for all citizens and permanent residents, through either statutory or private health insurance. A total of 70 million people or 85% of the population are covered by statutory health insurance in one of 132 sickness funds in early 2014. Another 11% are covered by substitutive private health insurance. Characteristics of the system are free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels. A key feature of the health care delivery system in Germany is the clear institutional separation between public health services, ambulatory care and hospital (inpatient) care. This has increasingly been perceived as a barrier to change and so provisions for integrated care are being introduced with the aim of improving cooperation between ambulatory physicians and hospitals. Germany invests a substantial amount of its resources on health care: 11.4% of gross domestic product in 2012, which is one of the highest levels in the European Union. In international terms, the German health care system has a generous benefit basket, one of the highest levels of capacity as well as relatively low cost-sharing. However, the German health care system still needs improvement in some areas, such as the quality of care. In addition, the division into statutory and private health insurance remains one of the largest challenges for the German health care system, as it leads to inequalities. PMID:25115137

Busse, Reinhard; Blümel, Miriam

2014-03-01

242

Geothermal, structural and petrophysical characteristics of Buntsandstein sandstone reservoir in the Upper Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

Petrophysical measurements, including porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and P-waves velocity, were performed on cores of EPS1 borehole (Soultz-sous-Forêts, Upper Rhine Graben, France) in order to characterise Buntsandstein sandstone (lower Triassic) reservoir properties. Temperature gradient analysis, made from (1) thermal conductivity measurements performed on cores and (2) a temperature profile, suggest that fluid flow occurs locally in the reservoir. Petrophysical measurements and structural analysis of flow zones suggest that they are controlled first by a macroscopic network: with two major fault zones, and second by a matrix network: formed by sedimentary or diagenetic processes within two distinguishable facies: the Playa-lake and Fluvio-aeolian marginal erg facies. In order to validate the previous proposed methodology and reservoir model, we propose to simulate fluid flow in the Buntsandstein reservoir, thanks to TOUGH2 software, especially by copying temperature profile from static reservoir model. This model integrates, with horizontal layers, the lithostratigraphic context described from cores observation, and with vertical layers, two faults corresponding to the Soultz-sous-Forêts horst boundary. Petrophysical characteristics are integrated thanks to previous measurements. Two cases are tested. In the first, the temperature profile is determined in a model in which there is no fluid circulation between faults; heat transfer is governed only by conduction. In the second, the temperature profile is determined in a model in which there is flow circulation between faults. In the first case, same overpressures (10 bars) are applied at the base of both faults, whereas in the second case, two different pressures are applied (5 and 10 bars). In one hand, temperature profile obtained in the first case show an opposite global trend to those measured in the borehole. In the other hand, temperature profile obtained in the second case indicates a global trend similar to those measured in the borehole. In the last case, fluid circulation occurs in faults zones and in three lithostratigraphic levels, previously identified as fluid circulation zones in the reservoir. The differential pressure between faults, driving to the fluid flow inside the rock formation, could be explained by a tilt of the horst, as what was noticed at Soultz-sous-Forêts. Data obtained from thermal gradients analysis are associated to those obtained from different outcrops analysis. Two 3D conceptual bloc models have been built for the Buntsandstein sandstones reservoir of the Upper Rhine Graben: the first integrated solely fracturation of the reservoir, whereas the second takes into account data of fracturation, sedimentology and fluid flow. These models appear as new kind of data important for future exploration and exploitation of the reservoir.

Haffen, Sébastien; Geraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Dezayes, Chrystel; Siffert, Déborah; Garcia, Michel

2014-05-01

243

Do high levels of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in sediments of Rhine and Meuse floodplains affect structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded.

Rozema, Jelte [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Notten, Martje J.M.; Aerts, Rien [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Hobbelen, Peter H.F. [Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hamers, Timo H.M. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2008-12-01

244

Hospital planning in France and the Federal Republic of Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article on hospital planning programs in France and North-Rhine Westfalia (a state in the Federal Republic of Germany), assembles information on the formal building blocks of inter-organizational relations in the formulation and implementation process. Because these planning programs are embedded in past social policy developments and institution-building, it is necessary to first compare the two countries' compulsory health insurance schemes. This is followed by a general profile of each health care system. A third section examines the formulation and implementation of the countries' hospital planning programs and participation patterns. Based on this comparison, inferences are drawn that are relevant to policy and research. The analysis yields three major conclusions. First, despite abundant legal and administrative controls at the disposal of central health bureaucracies, the capability of the national leadership to influence the hospital system through innovative planning is limited by jurisdictional, institutional, functional and territorial fragmentation, and differentiation of control and public responsibility in health. However, the diverse goal orientations of participants may provide the necessary tension to allow for some change in otherwise highly structured political and administrative systems. Second, despite differences in historical, political and administrative developments, the decision making systems for health care policies in France and the Federal Republic, with the exception of health insurance, are strikingly similar to the fragmented decision making system in the United States. Third, the effect of government-mandated participation is empirically uncertain. Opening up the circle of participants seems to have reinforced alliances between public bureaucracies and corporate vested interests. Hospital planning continues to be carried out for rather than with the consumer and citizen. Hospital planning which is a mixture of goal and process-oriented planning does not change the basic orientation of health care systems, which are disease-oriented, and hospital-centered. PMID:7419894

Altenstetter, C

1980-01-01

245

Reworked planktonic Foraminifera from the Late Rupelian of the southern Upper Rhine Graben and their palaeogeographic and biostratigraphic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

During the Late Rupelian the widespread second transgression (corresponding to international Ru2-3 transgressions; BERGER et al. 2005) affected the whole Upper Rhine Graben basin and led to the deposition of the several hundred meters thick marine "Série grise". An abrupt transition (erosion surface) between the uppermost "Série grise" and Niederroedern Formation indicates the change to fluviatile and lacustrine conditions throughout the basin close to the Late Rupelian / Early Chattian boundary. Abundant reworked Middle to Late Cretaceous (e.g., Marginotruncana pseudolinneiana) and Late Paleocene to Late Eocene (e.g., Acarinina bullbrooki, Morozovella subbotinae, Turborotalia cocoaensis) ranging planktonic Foraminifera occur in the "Série Grise" and equivalent lithological units of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Mainz Basin (e.g., FISCHER 1965, PIRKENSEER 2007, SCHÄFER & KUHN 2004). At least Late Cretaceous, Ypresian, Lutetian and Priabonian ages of source sediments are indicated by the overlapping biostratigraphic ranges of the reworked specimens. Abundant reworked material first appears in the lower "Couches à Mélettes" and reaches its acme in the increasingly "Marnes à Cyrènes" (terminal "Série grise"). Only sparse records are documented from the subsequent terrestrial Niederroedern Formation. These reworking events are linked to intervals of increased clastic input throughout the "Série grise". The planktonic Foraminifera are proposed to be reworked from related alpine deposits (later Helvetikum?) via a northwards trending fluviatile system, as no autochthonous Cretaceous and Early to Middle Eocene marine sediments were deposited within the graben basin. Furthermore other possible source areas (e.g., Paris Basin) were either not connected to the Upper Rhine Graben or were not subject to erosion in the Late Rupelian. This accords with the proposition (ROUSSÉ 2006) of a vast northwards prograding delta-system that was located close to the southern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben. Reworked Mesozoic and Paleogene calcareous nannoplankton from the Upper Rhine Graben and the Mainz Basin confirms the data derived from planktonic Foraminifera. The existence of reworked planktonic Foraminifera influences the biostratigraphic interpretation of the assemblage ranges attributed to "Série grise" samples. Facultatively reworked planktonic Foraminifera as Subbotina utilisindex and Pseudohastigerina micra ranging from the Lutetian to the Late Rupelian should not be included in the biostratigraphic analyses, as the occurrences of these facultatively reworked species are always linked to those of exclusively Cretaceous and Eocene age. Therefore the age of the "Série grise" deposits at Allschwil-2 is most likely to be placed within the "Chiloguembelina cubensis - Globigerinella obesa / Globorotaloides variabilis"-assemblage range of Mid P20 to Final P21a, lasting considerably longer than the very short Mid P20 range based on the presence of Pseudohastigerina micra as "last occurrence"-marker (PIRKENSEER 2007). This study was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation projects 109457 and 118025. References: BERGER, J.-P., REICHENBACHER, B., BECKER, D., et al. (2005): Eocene-Pliocene time scale and stratigraphy of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB). - International Journal of Earth Sciences, 94, 4: 711-731. FISCHER, H. (1965): Geologie des Gebietes zwischen Blauen und Pfirter Jura. - Beiträge zur geologischen Karte der Schweiz, NF 122: 106p. PIRKENSEER, C. (2007): Foraminifera, Ostracoda and other microfossils of the Southern Upper Rhine Graben - Palaeoecology, biostratigraphy, palaeogeography and geodynamic implications. - PhD thesis: 340p, Fribourg. ROUSSÉ, S. (2006): Architecture et dynamique des séries marines et continentales de ?Oligocène Moyen et Supérieur du Sud du Fossé Rhénan: Evolution des milieux de dépôt en contexte de rift en marge de ?avant-pays alpin.

Pirkenseer, C.; Spezzaferri, S.; Berger, J.-P.

2009-04-01

246

Country report Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany, there are 19 operating nuclear power plants, with a total installed capacity of 21.4 GWe. In 2002, the electricity production of these 19 nuclear power plants amounted to 165 TWh, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity production. The average availability of the German nuclear power plants was 85.6 % (this low value is due to the unexpected outage of some NPPs). The expressed goal of the German Federal Government is to phase out of nuclear energy without paying compensations to the utilities. On 11 June 2001, the final agreement between the German utilities and the German Federal Government was signed, and the amendment to the German Atomic Law (AtG-Novelle) was enforced on 27 April 2002. The overall objective of the new AtG is changed from 'support of nuclear energy' to 'fix phase-out of nuclear energy'. After the German parliament elections, the new Government coalition formulated a Coalition Contract which has the following statements on Nuclear Energy: - Work out an energy research programme which gives first priority to renewable energies and energy efficiency, - Assess termination of EURATOM membership, - Terminate nuclear electricity production on the base of a guaranteed total amount of electricity produced (in GWh),No reprocessing after 2005, - Erection of interim storages at nuclear power plant sites, - Support of research to improve safety of existing reactors, - Stop of national support for development of techniques for nuclear energy production (this iques for nuclear energy production (this includes fission and fusion). The German Committee on a Selection Procedure for Repository Sites (AkEnd) was established 1998 by the Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) reached agreement on the following main issues: - One final repository concept, - Storage in deep geological formation starting about 2030, - Isolation for 1 million years, - Under-ground exploration of at lease two sites, - One selection criteria for the final repository is the transparency of selection procedure. As regards the nuclear energy research in Germany, the 'Alliance for Competence in Nuclear Technology' with the main partners FZK, FZJ, FZR, GRS, and associated universities compiled a summary report on the status of nuclear safety research in the country. The mission of this Alliance is to increase the efficiency of existing R and D activities in the areas of nuclear safety and repository research, to preserve complementary competence at universities, and to support the Federal Government in fulfilling its legal duties. The Alliance established an industry funded project for PhD students in order to strengthen education in nuclear technology and to prevent a loss of competence. The two nuclear research centers Karlsruhe (FZK) and Juelich (FZJ) are members of the Helmholtz Association (HGF). The mission of the HGF is to perform and foster research in the field of natural sciences and medicine which is of national importance and public interest. The HGF is the largest science organisation in Germany, encompassing 15 centres with 24000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2.1 billion EUR. The HGF covers six research areas: health, energy, environment, structure of matter, transportation and space, and key technologies. Within the energy research area, there are four programmes: renewable energies, efficient conversion of energy, fusion technology, and nuclear safety research. The programme Nuclear Safety Research is divided into two programme topics (PT). The programme Nuclear Safety Research was evaluated in February 2003 by an international Evaluation Committee with the following main results: The proposed research programme is scientifically excellent and well embedded in international cooperations and programmes; The strategy and long-term perspectives in PT1 are limited according to the given research-political restrictions (no work using public funding on innovative reactor systems is permitted); The recruitment and education of young scientists and engineers has to be improved by participation in int

247

Evaluation of modeled changes in extreme precipitation in Europe and the Rhine basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, we investigate the change in multi-day precipitation extremes in late winter in Europe using observations and climate models. The objectives of the analysis are to determine whether climate models can accurately reproduce observed trends and, if not, to find the causes of the difference in trends. Similarly to an earlier finding for mean precipitation trends, and despite a lower signal to noise ratio, climate models fail to reproduce the increase in extremes in much of northern Europe: the model simulations do not cover the observed trend in large parts of this area. A dipole in the sea-level pressure trend over continental Europe causes positive trends in extremes in northern Europe and negative trends in the Iberian Peninsula. Climate models have a much weaker pressure trend dipole and as a result a much weaker (extreme) precipitation response. The inability of climate models to correctly simulate observed changes in atmospheric circulation is also primarily responsible for the underestimation of trends in the Rhine basin. When it has been adjusted for the circulation trend mismatch, the observed trend is well within the spread of the climate model simulations. Therefore, it is important that we improve our understanding of circulation changes, in particular related to the cause of the apparent mismatch between observed and modeled circulation trends over the past century. (letter)

248

A probabilistic view on the August 2005 floods in the upper Rhine catchment  

Science.gov (United States)

Appropriate precautions in the case of flood occurrence often require long lead times (several days) in hydrological forecasting. This in turn implies large uncertainties that are mainly inherited from the meteorological precipitation forecast. Here we present a case study of the extreme flood event of August 2005 in the Swiss part of the Rhine catchment (total area 34 550 km2). This event caused tremendous damage and was associated with precipitation amounts and flood peaks with return periods beyond 10 to 100 years. To deal with the underlying intrinsic predictability limitations, a probabilistic forecasting system is tested, which is based on a hydrological-meteorological ensemble prediction system. The meteorological component of the system is the operational limited-area COSMO-LEPS that downscales the ECMWF ensemble prediction system to a horizontal resolution of 10 km, while the hydrological component is based on the semi-distributed hydrological model PREVAH with a spatial resolution of 500 m. We document the setup of the coupled system and assess its performance for the flood event under consideration. We show that the probabilistic meteorological-hydrological ensemble prediction chain is quite effective and provides additional guidance for extreme event forecasting, in comparison to a purely deterministic forecasting system. For the case studied, it is also shown that most of the benefits of the probabilistic approach may be realized with a comparatively small ensemble size of 10 members.

Jaun, S.; Ahrens, B.; Walser, A.; Ewen, T.; Schär, C.

2008-04-01

249

A probabilistic view on the August 2005 floods in the upper Rhine catchment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Appropriate precautions in the case of flood occurrence often require long lead times (several days in hydrological forecasting. This in turn implies large uncertainties that are mainly inherited from the meteorological precipitation forecast. Here we present a case study of the extreme flood event of August 2005 in the Swiss part of the Rhine catchment (total area 34 550 km2. This event caused tremendous damage and was associated with precipitation amounts and flood peaks with return periods beyond 10 to 100 years. To deal with the underlying intrinsic predictability limitations, a probabilistic forecasting system is tested, which is based on a hydrological-meteorological ensemble prediction system. The meteorological component of the system is the operational limited-area COSMO-LEPS that downscales the ECMWF ensemble prediction system to a horizontal resolution of 10 km, while the hydrological component is based on the semi-distributed hydrological model PREVAH with a spatial resolution of 500 m. We document the setup of the coupled system and assess its performance for the flood event under consideration.

We show that the probabilistic meteorological-hydrological ensemble prediction chain is quite effective and provides additional guidance for extreme event forecasting, in comparison to a purely deterministic forecasting system. For the case studied, it is also shown that most of the benefits of the probabilistic approach may be realized with a comparatively small ensemble size of 10 members.

S. Jaun

2008-04-01

250

Measuring perspectives on future flood management on the Rhine: application and discussion of Q methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An overview of stakeholder perspectives promises to be useful in the agenda setting phase of water management policy processes. This paper compares different methods to measure perspectives, and identifies Q methodology as a structured method that allows for unbiased analysis. It is one of the first water management papers about Q methodology, and it presents a detailed discussion of the practical possibilities and limitations of the method, using future flood management in the Rhine basin as a case study. The application shows that there are three different stakeholder perspectives that are shared within groups of respondents: A "Anticipation and institutions", B "Space for flooding" and C "Knowledge and engineering". The paper concludes that Q methodology can be used in practice to comprehensively elicit individual perspectives, to aggregate them in an objective way, and to identify major knowledge gaps and divergent goals. Because the method requires quite some skills and time from the analyst, and the sorting task may be difficult for the respondents, it is most appropriate for in-depth analysis. Additional research is required on how to use stakeholder perspectives in the development of mutual understanding and consensus in water management policy processes.

G. T. Raadgever

2008-02-01

251

Evolution and structure of the Upper Rhine Graben: insights from three-dimensional thermomechanical modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution and geometry of the Tertiary Upper Rhine Graben were controlled by a continually changing stress field and the reactivation of pre-existing crustal discontinuities. A period of WNW-ESE extension in the late Eocene and Oligocene was followed by lateral translation from the early Miocene onwards. This study utilizes 3D finite element techniques to simulate extension and lateral translation on a lithospheric scale. Brittle and creep behaviour of lithospheric rocks are represented by elastoplasticity and thermally activated power-law viscoplasticity, respectively. Contact elements allocated with cohesion and frictional coefficients are used to describe pre-existing zones of weakness in the elastic-brittle field. Our results suggest that (1) extension is accommodated along listric border faults to midcrustal depth of 15 16 km. Beneath, pure shear stretching occurs without a need for localized shear zones in lower crust and upper mantle. (2) Ductile flow at midcrustal depth across the graben accounts for the pronounced halfgraben morphology. Thereby, the shape of the border faults, their frictional coefficients, and sedimentary loads have profound effects on the rate of ductile flow across the graben. (3) Horizontal extension of 8 8.5 km and sinistral displacement across the rift of 3 4 km are needed to accommodate the observed sediment thickness.

Schwarz, Michael; Henk, Andreas

2005-09-01

252

Ambient vibration measurements in the Southern Rhine Graben close to Basle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents results of ambient noise measurements from temporary single station and small-scale array deployments in the northeast of Basle. H/V spectral ratios were determined along various profiles crossing the eastern masterfault of the Rhine Rift Valley and the adjacent sedimentary rift fills. The fundamental H/V peak frequencies are decreasing along the profile towards the eastern direction being consistent with the dip of the tertiary sediments within the rift. Using existing empirical relationships between H/V frequency peaks and the depth of the dominant seismic contrast, derived on basis of the ?/4-resonance hypothesis and a power law depth dependence of the S-wave velocity, we obtain thicknesses of the rift fill from about 155 m in the west to 280 m in the east. This is in agreement with previous studies. The array analysis of the ambient noise wavefield yielded a stable dispersion relation consistent with Rayleigh wave propagation velocities. We conclude that a significant amount of surface waves is contained in the observed wavefield. The computed ellipticity for fundamental mode Rayleigh waves for the velocity depth models used for the estimation of the sediment thicknesses is in agreement with the observed H/V spectra over a large frequency band.

F. Kind

2004-06-01

253

Incidence and prevalence of chronic bronchitis : impact of smoking and welding. The RHINE study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and incidence rate of chronic bronchitis (CB) in relation to smoking habits and exposure to welding fumes in a general population sample.METHODS: Subjects from Northern Europe born between 1945 and 1971 who participated in Stage 1 (1989-1994) of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey were mailed a respiratory questionnaire in 1999-2001 (the RHINE study); 15?909 answered the questionnaire and gave complete data on smoking. CB was defined as chronic productive cough of at least 3 months a year for 2 consecutive years. The questionnaire comprised an item about age when CB started and items about exposure to welding fumes. The incidence of CB was retrospectively assessed for the observation period 1980-2001.RESULTS: CB had a prevalence of 5.4%, and was associated with current smoking and welding exposure. The incidence rate of CB was 1.9 per 1000 person-years, and was increased in relation to welding exposure (low exposure HR 1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.8; high exposure HR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.7) and in relation to smoking (HR 2.1, 95%CI 1.8-2.5).CONCLUSION: Smoking and occupational exposure to welding fumes are both associated with an increased risk of CB.

Holm, M; Kim, J-L

2012-01-01

254

Germany Phases Out Nuclear Power  

Science.gov (United States)

This video excerpt from FRONTLINE: Nuclear Aftershocks explores the debate behind Germany's decision to phase out its nuclear energy program and revert back to coal as “the bridge” that will eventually allow greater reliance on renewable energy.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-08-31

255

[Hospital quality management in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hospital quality management (QM) is a legal obligation in Germany. This article reviews the regulations of quality control, the basic principles of QM, specific quality techniques, the process of QM implementation in the hospital and the possibilities of external QM certifications. Due to the increasing and effective privatisation of hospitals in Germany, careful attention to specially designed QM systems for private hospitals seems to be reasonable. PMID:18759212

Framme, C; Kahla-Witzsch, H A

2008-09-01

256

Wind energy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

257

Mammography screening in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available data suggest that early detection of breast cancer by mammography screening can reduce mortality by about 25%. Intensified monitoring of women with a family history of breast cancer and regular general screening have recently been introduced in Germany. The screening program is expected to be fully established by 2008. Following its successful introduction (participation rates between 65 and 80%), the German screening program will be conducted and evaluated in accordance with the European guidelines. At least in the screening trials that were conducted prior to the now established screening program the quality criteria were more than fulfilled (e.g. cancer detection rate in Bremen 8.7, Wiesbaden 9.4, Weser-Ems region 8.3/1000). Additional parameters that can be taken into account for quality assurance are the overdiagnosis bias, lead time bias, length bias and selection bias. Moreover, there are some factors that are specific to the German program compared with the breast cancer screening programs already established in other countries. One of these is the intensified screening program for high-risk women (ca. 5% of all carcinomas) and as a result fewer women with an increased genetic risk of breast cancer will be represented in the general screening program. The German screening program involves only a few university centers and hospital-based physicians, which may have adverse effects on research and development as well as mammography training in the futur well as mammography training in the future. Therefore, the screening program should also provide for the investigation of new techniques or emerging techniques (e.g. CAD systems in screening mammography) in the future. (orig.)

258

Migrations from Yugoslavia to Germany: Migrants, emigrants, refugees and asylum-seekers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Migrations from Yugoslavia to Germany have a long tradition. There have been various economic and social causes, and in some periods even political ones for that phenomenon. Taking into consideration the historical aspect and also the contemporary migration flows, the dynamics of migrations of the Yugoslav population to Germany has the following stages in its development. The first stage had begun in late XIX century and ended with the World War I. Although the overseas migration flows prevailed, yet the German agriculture and its mine industry attracted a part of the Yugoslav population. Between the two world wars mostly "Westfahl Slovenes" and Croats and Serbs from Bosnia-Herzegovina got "temporary employed" in the Rhine-Westfahl industrial area, along with several thousand Serb-Croat-Slovene agricultural seasonal workers per year. The second stage began immediately after the Second World War when most of about 200,000 citizens from the former Yugoslavia, being mostly refugees, moved from the West European to overseas countries, but some of them stayed in Germany. Involuntary migrants and refugees, however, returned in great number from Germany to Yugoslavia. At that stage non-extradition of war criminals on the part of the West occupying powers on German territory, then disregard of West German Governments of the anti-Yugoslav activities of the part of extreme Yugoslav emigration, and different interpretation of the bilateral agreement on extradition, became the essential problem in relations between SFR Yugoslavia and FR Germany. The third stage in development of migrations commenced in early 1960s. At that time, Germany and other Western countries became prominently immigrational, while since mid-1960s till 1973 economic emigrants from Yugoslavia became more and more important in the German economic space. From 1954 to 1967 migration of Yugoslav citizens had not yet been intensive and their intention was mostly to work abroad. Illegal employment was, however, prominent at that time. Due to the normalisation of political relations, re-establishment of diplomatic relations and conclusion of bilateral agreements that legally defined employment of foreign workers, since 1968 till 1973 a great number of Yugoslavs got employed in FR Germany. The contemporary migrations from FR Yugoslavia to Germany resulted from the economic and political crisis in the former SFRY as well as from the civil wars that were waged in the Yugoslav territory. FR Germany became the most important destination country of Yugoslav migrants - workers, refugees, false asylum-seekers and political emigrants. Different categories of migrants from Yugoslavia to Germany enjoy the treatment that is in accordance with the immigration policies of the German governments as well as with the degree of development of the German-Yugoslav political and economic relations, and the degree of the established co-operation in the field of legal assistance and social welfare. Migrant workers, who have legally regulated their employment and residence status, could in the future expect to gain assistance from their mother country in getting efficient protection of their rights and interests in all stages of the migration process. Numerous migrants asylum-seekers, in spite of the proclaimed international protection, share, however, the fate resulting from the politically motivated measures and actions taken by the German authorities within the arbitrary decision-making of the right and/or abuse of the right to asylum. This is the reason why as early as in late 1994 the Government of FRG announced that it would expel foreigners from the country. The remaining refugees, or actually the so-called false asylum-seekers in FR Germany, share the fate of forced repatriation. Within this category special emphasis should be placed on the attitude of the German government to the Albanians and Roma from Kosovo. At first, the Germans treated the Albanians from Kosovo as politically persecuted persons, offering them refuge. Then they declared them (and Roma also to

Pavlica Branko

2005-01-01

259

Yield and quality of white wine cultivars Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian and Zupljanka in the vine district of Rasina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparative study of different pruning ways and bud load, as well as their influence on growth, yield and quality of Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian, and Zupljanka vine cultivars in the conditions of the Rasina vine district, during the period 2000 - 2001, is given in this paper. This research results have shown that grape yield and quality varied, and the greatest grape yield was observed in the variant with the greatest bud load. The Rhine Riesling B-21 demonstrated the best results. It should be pointed out that bud load per vine had a much greater influence on the studied traits than the applied way of pruning. .

?irkovi? Bratislav

2006-01-01

260

Seismicity of the northern Upper Rhine Graben - Constraints on the present-day stress field from focal mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

We present new results for the microseismic activity in the northern Upper Rhine Graben by analyzing seismogram recordings from two temporary networks of up to 13 broad-band stations in combination with data from permanent stations. Previous studies have mainly focused on the southern and intermediate sections of the Upper Rhine Graben, where the station coverage by regional networks is more dense. Between October 2010 and September 2013 we recorded 56 earthquakes that occurred within the immediate vicinity of the northern Upper Rhine Graben with local magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 3.2. The majority of the hypocenters are located beneath the eastern graben shoulder and in the graben itself, while activity observed along the western graben shoulder is lower. A further active region is located along the southern rim of the Taunus Mountains to the northwest of the study area. The seismicity extends to a depth of 25 km; the hypocentral depth distribution exhibits a pronounced peak of seismic energy release in the depth range between 12 and 18 km. Fault plane solutions for a total of 58 earthquakes (including data from previous recordings) were derived from P-polarities and SV/P amplitude ratios. This new data set more than quadruples the number of available data for regional stress field analysis. The majority of the focal mechanisms show predominantly strike-slip movements; only a few events are of reverse or normal-faulting type. T-axis trends are oriented NE-SW. The calculated focal mechanisms presented in this study confirm that the area is in transtension, however, in contrast to previous studies, a stronger strike-slip component is identified. We also derived the azimuths of the principal stress axes by inverting the fault plane solutions and calculated the direction of the maximum horizontal stress, which is mainly oriented N135°E.

Homuth, B.; Rümpker, G.; Deckert, H.; Kracht, M.

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Green energy. Germany 2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy development is the effort to provide sufficient primary energy sources and secondary energy forms for supply, cost, impact on air pollution and water pollution, mitigation of climate change with renewable energy. Technologically advanced societies have become increasingly dependent on external energy sources for transportation, the production of many manufactured goods, and the delivery of energy services. This energy allows people who can afford the cost to live under otherwise unfavorable climatic conditions through the use of heating, ventilation, and/or air conditioning. Level of use of external energy sources differs across societies, as do the climate, convenience, levels of traffic congestion, pollution and availability of domestic energy sources.All terrestrial energy sources except nuclear, geothermal and tidal are from current solar insolation or from fossil remains of plant and animal life that relied directly and indirectly upon sunlight, respectively. Ultimately, solar energy itself is the result of the Sun's nuclear fusion. Geothermal power from hot, hardened rock above the magma of the Earth's core is the result of the decay of radioactive materials present beneath the Earth's crust, and nuclear fission relies on man-made fission of heavy radioactive elements in the Earth's crust; in both cases these elements were produced in supernova explosions before the formation of the solar system.Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables. Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.

Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Petrescu, Florian Ion

2012-07-01

262

River flood defence. Vol. 2. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proceedings consist of two volumes with the following sections: Vol. 1: A-Introduction, B-History of Flood Defence, C-Hydrological Data and Precipitation, D-Precipitation-Runoff Modeling, E-Pollutants and Disease Pathogens, F-Flood Risk, Vol. 2: G-New Developments in Flood Prevention, H-IRMA Session, I-EXPO 2000 Session, K-Posters. In the session H-IRMA contributions to the European Community program ''INTERREG Rhine-Meuse-Activities'' are collected. In Section I - EXPO the worldwide project ''Environmentally oriented Flood Defence in Northern Hesse: the Bauna River Example'' is presented. (orig.)

Toensmann, F. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydraulik and Water-Resources Engineering; Koch, M. (eds.) [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geohydraulics and Engineering Hydrology

2000-07-01

263

River flood defence. Vol. 1. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proceedings consist of two volumes with the following sections: Vol. 1: A-Introduction, B-History of Flood Defence, C-Hydrological Data and Precipitation, D-Precipitation-Runoff Modeling, E-Pollutants and Disease Pathogens, F-Flood Risk, Vol. 2: G-New Developments in Flood Prevention, H-IRMA Session, I-EXPO 2000 Session, K-Posters. In the session H-IRMA contributions to the European Community program ''INTERREG Rhine-Meuse-Activities'' are collected. In Section I - EXPO the worldwide project ''Environmentally oriented Flood Defence in Northern Hesse: the Bauna River Example'' is presented. (orig.)

Toensmann, F. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydraulik and Water-Resources Engineering; Koch, M. [eds.] [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geohydraulics and Engineering Hydrology

2000-07-01

264

Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse ...

2011-01-01

265

Prevalence and distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wastewater and the surface, drinking and ground waters in the Lower Rhine, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples from different water sources (n = 396) were collected during 2009 and 2011. Wastewater (2-5 l) was purified by aluminium sulphate flocculation. Surface, ground and drinking waters (400-6400 l) were collected by filtration. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were further concentrated by sucrose centrifugation. (Oo)cysts were identified by IFT (immunofluorescence test), DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining and DICM (difference interference contrast microscopy). Out of 206 wastewater samples, 134 (65·0%) were found to be positive for Giardia cysts and 64 (31·1%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Parasite numbers ranged from 0 to 2436 cysts/l and 0 to 1745 oocysts/l. Eight (4·2%) surface and drinking water samples (n = 190) were found to be positive for Giardia cysts (0-56000/100 l), and 18 (9·5%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts (2400/100 l). The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence and concentrations of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. by detecting (oo)cysts from water samples. This study provides substantial evidence that G. lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts are able to enter and circulate in the aquatic environment with negative implications for public health. PMID:23010178

Gallas-Lindemann, C; Sotiriadou, I; Plutzer, J; Karanis, P

2013-01-01

266

River Blindness  

Science.gov (United States)

... About Low Vision & Blindness > Vision Disorders > River Blindness River Blindness What Is River Blindness? River blindness is an eye and skin disease caused by a tiny worm called onchocerca volvulus, ...

267

New Adenovirus in Bats, Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We tested 55 deceased vespertilionid bats of 12 species from southern Germany for virus infections. A new adenovirus was isolated from tissue samples of 2 Pipistrellus pipistrellus bats, which represents the only chiropteran virus isolate found in Europe besides lyssavirus (rabies virus). Evidence was found for adenovirus transmission between bats.

Sonntag, Michael; Mu?hldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas

2009-01-01

268

The changing consumer in Germany  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German reunification. Implications for marketing management are drawn by proposing nine bipolar constructs.

Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.

1995-01-01

269

Distance education at conventional universities in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established. Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University) in Wes...

Kappel, Hans-henning; Lehmann, Burkhard; Loeper, Joachim

2010-01-01

270

Distance Education at Conventional Universities in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established.Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University) in West...

Hans-Henning Kappel; Burkhard Lehmann; Joachim Loeper

2002-01-01

271

Program status of the high temperature reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of the HTR development program in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1984 is characterized by the beginning of a transition phase from a national program to a commercial program. In the last 20 years the HTR technology program was strongly, nearly completely supported by the Federal Government and the State Government of North-Rhine-Westfalia. Funding of the program up to now exceeded 5 billion DM. Within this framework it was possible to establish competent-reactor-system companies, to enable industries to supply HTR- specific components including fuel elements and nuclear graphites, to maintain the strong engagement of the national centre KFA Juelich in general R and D activities, to build and operate the AVR-plant for more than 16 years, to erect the demonstration plant THTR-300 now approaching completion and to build and operate many efficient test facilities. Thereby the HTR technology development achieved a stage of maturity which is not only considered to be most advanced, but is also ready now for commerical deployment. The assessment report which comprised both the fast breeder and the HTR development included all major impacts, such as history, status, prospects, benefits, industrial aspects and international developments of the technology. The program description is facilitated by distinguishing the five major program elements: AVR, THTR-300, THTR follow-up plant, nuclear process heat program, fuel cycle activities

272

Valley evolution of the Lower Rhine in LGM, Lateglacial and Early Holocene.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of transient climate change, for example at glacial-interglacial transitions, on the alluvial valley of the lower reaches of larger river systems has become a classic topic of fluvial geomorphology and quaternary geological study. The process of contraction of Holocene river activity into a narrower channel belt than in LGM counterparts of the last cycle, links to terrace flight formation over multiple glacial cycles in inland reaches. Not only were valley reaches affected by the p...

Cohen, K. M.; Hoek, W. Z.; Stouthamer, E.; Geurts, A. H.; Janssens, M.; Kasse, C.; Busschers, F. S.; Hijma, M. P.; Erkens, G.

2013-01-01

273

Situation of nuclear power in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper author deals with situation of nuclear power in Germany. Consequences of the liberalization of the electricity markets, electricity production of nuclear power plants in Germany, status of periodic safety review, waste disposal, new reactor developments, coalition contract of the new Federal Government, jobs and skills (problems in Germany) as well as status of consent discussion are discussed

274

Implementation of The Water Framework Directive In Germany - Chances and Challenges In A Federal Republic  

Science.gov (United States)

Focus of this contribution is the implementation of the EU Water Framework Direc- tive (WFD) and river basin management in Germany including the challenges and chances involved, against the background of Germany's federal structure. Federalism and the application of the subsidiarity principle are the most prominent features of water management institutions, water policy and culture in the Federal Republic of Germany as these have been revealed in comparisons with other Member States of the European Union. Competence for water resource protection and management in Germany is located at the State (Länder) level. The federal government only has leg- islative framework competence. The 16 States (Länder) have established co-operation procedures among them. This can be seen most prominently in the Länder Working Group on Water or Länderarbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser (LAWA) in which the State Ministries of Environment as the highest water management authorities organise co- operation among themselves and their common participation in the affairs of the Eu- ropean Union. The challenges faced in Germany with regard to the requirements of the WFD can be distinguished into organisational and technical. Regarding organisa- tional aspects, Germany's existing structures are not coherent with the requirements for public participation while the administrative borders of the States and the Federal Republic are not coherent with the river basin approach of the Directive. The need has been recognised for co-ordination between the federal government and the States in legally transposing the Directive as well as for co-ordination among the States in des- ignating competent authorities, setting environmental objectives for river basins and designing river basin management plans. The technical challenges involve the require- ment for an integrated approach on pollution control and water management which at the moment is in contrast with the division of knowledge and interests in Germany. Furthermore, it is a priority to develop a type-specific approach for classification of surface water categories and extend the biological criteria for quality assessment being used in Germany. It is made obvious that the implementation of the WFD in Germany will involve to a certain degree re-organisation and co-operation between legal and technical departments in administration, States (Länder) and the federal government. Progress towards this direction will be indicated through several pilot projects carried 1 out in this respect, research as well as experience with the guide on the implementation of the WFD prepared by the Länder Working Group on Water (LAWA). 2

Hansen, W.; Kampa, E.; Interwies, E.; Baer, S.

275

Ectomycorrhizal diversity at five different tree species in forests of the Taunus Mountains in Central Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi were investigated on five different forest tree species growing in pure stands on the south slope of the Taunus Mountains, which are situated at the northern end of the Rhine rift valley in Central Germany. Mycorrhizal fungi accompanying the genus Xerocomus were identified and their frequencies counted. Using ITS markers, 22 different fungal species were identified down to species level and 6 down to genus level. On European beech (Fagus sylvatica 16 fungal species and 4 genera were identified and on Sessile oak (Quercus petraea 16 ectomycorrhizal species and 2 genera were determined. On both deciduous trees we observed exclusively: Cortinarius subsertipes, Genea hispidula, Lactarius quietus, Tylopilus felleus and a Melanogaster genus. On Norway spruce (Picea abies we identified 13 different mycorrhizal species and 3 different genera, on Silver fir (Abies alba 12 species and 3 genera, and in association with European larch (Larix decidua 11 species and 3 genera. On these conifers Cortinarius anomalus, Lactarius necator and a Piloderma genus occurred exclusively. Comparisons with published data of ectomycorrhizal diversity on the same five tree species, growing in different areas of Germany and Europe, led to the conclusion that there is relative site specificity for ectomycorrhizal communities. Upper soil compartments of the stands investigated in the Taunus Mountainssuffer from soil acidification (pH-H20 ~3.7 to ~4.8. However, a clear correlation between upper soil pH-values and fungal diversity was not observed. On the other hand, nitrate concentrations in upper soil compartments (~26 to ~91 kgNO3-/ha were higher in older stands as compared to younger ones. Higher nitrate concentrations in upper soils correlated with lower numbers of mycorrhizal individuals.

Gunter M. Rothe

2013-02-01

276

Seismicity of the northern Upper Rhine Graben - Constraints on the present-day stress field from focal mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

The seismicity of the northern Upper-Rhine Graben and its seismic hazard have recently attracted new attention due to the potential of this region for geothermal power generation. The natural seismicity can be used to determine active fault zones and stress conditions within the crust. It also provides important background information for the estimation of seismic hazard and possible induced seismicity. The natural seismicity of this area is also interesting because of swarm earthquakes which occurred in the 19th century. The characterization of the natural seismicity in this region is one of the main goals of the project SiMoN (Seismic Monitoring of the Northern Upper-Rhine Graben), which is funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). We present new results for the microseismic activity in an area of approximately 50 x 50 km by analyzing seismogram recordings from a temporary network of up to 13 broad-band stations in combination with data from permanent stations. The network will soon be expanded by several borehole stations to accommodate for the relatively high noise levels in the densely populated Rhine-Main region. Since November 2010 a number of 64 local earthquakes have been recorded within the immediate vicinity of the network with magnitudes in the range between ML = 0.5 and ML = 3.2. The detection threshold is a local magnitude of approximately 1.0, the magnitude of completeness is Mc = 1.3. The observed seismicity extends to a depth of 24 km with a pronounced maximum in the depth distribution between 9 to 18 km. In addition to the data recorded by the SiMoN stations we used recordings provided by the regional seismological services to determine focal mechanisms and to derive the current stress field. The associated fault-plane solutions show predominantly strike-slip mechanisms, whereas normal and reverse faulting mechanisms rarely occur. An inversion of the focal mechanisms leads to an orientation of the maximum horizontal stress in N135°E. In the center of the study area a shift in the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress by almost 90° can be observed. We apply 3-dimensional geomechanical modeling to explain this observation.

Homuth, Benjamin; Rümpker, Georg; Deckert, Hagen; Kracht, Matthias

2014-05-01

277

Impacts of using reformulated and oxygenated fuel blends on the regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE, the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High temporal and spatial emission inventories are available allowing relevant and realistic modifications of the emission inventories. The calculation period, i.e., 11 May 1998, corresponds to a regional photochemical ozone pollution episode during which ozone concentrations exceeded several times the information threshold of the ozone directive of the European Union (180 µg m?3 as 1 hourly average. New emission inventories are set up using specific emission factors related to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gasoline passenger cars (from 50% to 100% using the three fuel blends. Then air quality modeling simulations are performed using these emission inventories over the upper Rhine valley. The impact of alternative fuels on regional air quality is evaluated by comparing these simulations with the one using a reference emission inventory, e.g., where no modifications of the fuel composition are included. The results are analyzed by focusing on peak levels and daily averaged concentrations. The use of the alternative fuels leads to general reductions of ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC and increases of NOx levels. We found different behaviors related to the type of the area of concern i.e. rural or urban. The impacts on ozone are enhanced in urban areas where 15% reduction of the ozone peak and daily averaged concentrations can be reached. This behavior is similar for the NOx for which, in addition, an increase of the levels can be noted in urban plumes over rural areas. The most important decreases of the total VOC levels are mainly located over rural areas (more than 5% reduction of the levels except in urban plumes. By comparing these results with those from a local study related to the air quality of Strasbourg, we estimate that the regional contribution to the urban air quality of Strasbourg allows an enhancement of the results by using alternative fuel blends at the regional scale.

J.-F. Vinuesa

2005-11-01

278

Impacts of using reformulated and oxygenated fuel blends on the regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE, the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High temporal and spatial emission inventories are available allowing relevant and realistic modifications of the emission inventories. The calculation period, i.e., 11 May 1998, corresponds to a regional photochemical ozone pollution episode during which ozone concentrations exceeded several times the information threshold of the ozone directive of the European Union (180 ?g m-3 as 1 hourly average. New emission inventories are set up using specific emission factors related to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gasoline passenger cars (from 50% to 100% using the three fuel blends. Then air quality modeling simulations are performed using these emission inventories over the upper Rhine valley. The impact of alternative fuels on regional air quality is evaluated by comparing these simulations with the one using a reference emission inventory, e.g., where no modifications of the fuel composition are included. The results are analyzed by focusing on peak levels and daily averaged concentrations. The use of the alternative fuels leads to general reductions of ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC and increases of NOx levels. We found different behaviors related to the type of the area of concern i.e. rural or urban. The impacts on ozone are enhanced in urban areas where 15% reduction of the ozone peak and daily averaged concentrations can be reached. This behavior is similar for the NOx for which, in addition, an increase of the levels can be noted in urban plumes over rural areas. The most important decreases of the total VOC levels are mainly located over rural areas (more than 5% reduction of the levels except in urban plumes. By comparing these results with those from a local study related to the air quality of Strasbourg, we estimate that the regional contribution to the urban air quality of Strasbourg allows an enhancement of the results by using alternative fuel blends at the regional scale.

J.-F. Vinuesa

2006-01-01

279

Geodetic monitoring strategy at the geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen (Upper Rhine Graben, France)  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Cenozoic rift system, and in particular the Upper Rhine Graben offers a high potential of deep geothermal energy due to the well known geothermal anomaly and to the number of subsurface temperature data from oil exploration in the Upper Rhine Graben. One example is the Soultz-sous-Forêts Enhance Geothermal System (EGS) located in the French part of the Upper Rhine Graben. The Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS started in 1987 as a deep geothermal research site. The wells are drilled in naturally fractured and altered granites from 3200 to 5260 m depth located in the vicinity of quasi North-South faults. It is the first EGS site connected to the electric network, its electric production capacity is of 1.5MWe. A second EGS site, ECOGI, is in development near the village of Rittershoffen located at 7 km from Soultz-sous-Forêts. The objective of ECOGI is to produce 24MWth energy for an industrial use with a doublet configuration of wells at depths around 2500 and 3000 meters. Both EGS sites benefit of the natural circulation of geothermal water. Some challenges in geothermal power plant are to understand the long-term behavior of the geothermal system and the induced seismicity. In the Soultz-sous-Forêts plant, borehole measures give evidences of aseismic slip (Bailleux et al., 2013). And previous geodetic monitoring studies of other deep geothermal plants show subsidence and horizontal displacements due to geothermal exploitation (e.g. Massonnet et al., 1997; Nishijima et al., 2005; Fialko and Simons, 2000). The ability of geodesy tools to provide information about dynamic behaviour and the change in the local stress field around the geothermal site make them a suitable method to meet these challenges. Therefore, we establish a long-term geodetic monitoring system of the two geothermal sites. This work presents the monitoring strategy and the preliminary results. We install a network of continuous GNSS and INSAR data are in acquisition. Our aim is to monitor local surface displacement in natural, in stimulation and production states of the geothermal plants. GNSS and INSAR are two spatial geodetic methods with millimeter accuracy. The GNSS provides information about the absolute 3D displacement at some point location. And the INSAR method gives high spatial (meters) information of relative displacement.

Heimlich, Christine; Masson, Frédéric; Gourmelen, Noël

2014-05-01

280

Space Radar Image of Munich, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This spaceborne radar image of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency radar system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the image, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and radar calibration during the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The image was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Fire Risk Assessment in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

282

Umweltgeochemische Charakterisierung der niedermolekularen organischen Fracht des Flußsystems Lippe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rivers are a sensitive and complex ecosystem hosting a diverse spectrum of organisms. Human activities have resulted in increasing river pollution due to input of organic contaminants into the river systems (anthropogenic input). The main emphasis of the present study is a comprehensive examination of anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic low-molecular weight organic compounds in a selected river system. The Lippe River (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) was chosen for this approach because it i...

Dsikowitzky, Larissa

2002-01-01

283

D - Federal Republic of Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After describing the first and second training phase of teacher education as well as the application of teachers for a post and tenure in Germany, the author points out that the "professionalization of teachers" as a concept is characterized by a) a "high (scientific) subject knowledge", b) "didactic knowledge and skills based on subjects", c) "foundations in social sciences" and d) "the socialisation into the teaching profession". Finally, he concludes that "even though the degree of unified...

Kodron, Christoph

1994-01-01

284

Law And Economics In Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Law and economics in Germany was dominated by regulation, competition, and ?German Ordnungspolitik? until the early 1970s. Since then, German scholars have published a broad body of work in German and in the English language, covering fields like contract law, environmental law, labor law, public law, bankruptcy law, constitutional economics and legal procedure. Also in the 1970s, teaching activities were started at German universities. In addition to this, several (bi)annual conferences on l...

Kirstein, Roland

1997-01-01

285

The impact of pre-historic land use on suspended sediment delivery to the floodplains in he Rhine valley and delta: catchment-scale quantifications and the nature of response  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The non-alpine Rhine catchment has a long history of human occupation and — especially from the Neolithic onwards — the landscape has been increasingly altered by human cultivation. This most likely influenced erosion and subsequently sediment delivery to the fluvial system. Increased sediment input as a result of human land use has been documented in smaller tributaries of the Rhine, but has so-far not been quantified on a catchment scale. This study quantifies the amounts of...

Erkens, G.; Cohen, K. M.; Middelkoop, H.; Hoek, W. Z.

2009-01-01

286

Cegelec Germany; Cegelec Deutschland. Unternehmensportraet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

NONE

2011-03-15

287

Optimization of the pool and weir fishway at the Wyhlen Rhine-Power Plant; Optimierung des Beckenfischpasses am Rheinkraftwerk Wyhlen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past, fish counts in the old fishway at the Wyhlen power-plant showed good results. However, the fishway had some deficits in particular at the entrance and in the structure of the pools. In view of the fact that there were limited possibilities to change the technical aspects of the fishway, the measures to optimize it showed very good results, the best achieved at the Rhine section between Basel and the Lake of Constance. The occurrence of small fish species proves best how efficienct the measures have been. By evaluating the counting results, it has been possible to prove that several fishways at the same dam do complement one another. For the first time a fish count has been carried out in a catchment basin. (orig.)

Ulrich, Jochen [Energiedienst Holding AG, Laufenburg (Switzerland)

2010-07-01

288

Report: treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste in North Rhine-Westphalia: policy-making and operation options.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper summarizes a long-term-investigation of the mechanical treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste materials in North Rhine-Westphalia in the light of applied operation standards and a disposal ban on untreated waste. It is shown how both the allocation of output materials from mechanical treatment plants and the subsequent treatment channels have changed since enforcement of the ban in 2005. Based on the findings of the investigation, two waste management scenarios offering alternative policies have been defined and are discussed. It is suggested that consistent enforcement of the ban affects both the diversion of waste to incineration and the recovery of materials on a regional scale. On the other hand, potential energy recovery may be fully exploited only insofar as operators of mechanical treatment plants concentrate their business on the production of refuse-derived fuel. PMID:17439054

Karavezyris, Vassilios

2007-04-01

289

Natural fracture permeability in Triassic sediments of the Upper Rhine Graben from deep geothermal boreholes  

Science.gov (United States)

Geothermal anomalies (Soultz-sous-Forêts, Rittershoffen, Landau, ...) in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), are mainly interpreted as the effect of natural brine advection inside a nearly vertical fracture network extending from the deep-seated Triassic sediments to the crystalline basement. At Soultz, within the first kilometer of sediments, where the temperature reaches up to 110° C, the dominating thermal regime remains conductive. Accordingly the fracture system in this region, made of normal faults, does not have a significant impact on temperature profiles. Deeper, in the clastic sediments and in the crystalline basement, a convective regime is evidenced by a reduction of the effective geothermal gradient (~10° /km) and localized negative thermal anomalies that match with the occurrence of natural fractures. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the top of the convective cell structure based on a combined analysis of borehole geothermal logs recorded around the sediment/basement interface. The first part consists in analyzing geological and geophysical data available from the Soultz wells which characterize the natural permeability: partial or total drilling mud losses, natural outflow, occurrences of Helium gas and drilling mud temperature variations. A series of eleven permeable fracture zones has been outlined in GPK-2, GPK-3 and GPK-4 wells. Within the Muschelkalk limestones, 3 fracture zones are located in GPK-2, 2 in GPK-3 and 3 in GPK-4 respectively. In the Buntsandstein sandstones, a total of 8 zones were detected in GPK-2, GPK-3 and GPK-4. In GPK-2, less than 50% of the detected zones are permeable, in GPK-3, more than 80% and in GPK-4, 100% but the thermal impact of those fracture zones is not clearly visible on temperature profiles. To support those results, geophysical logs and mud logging data of the sedimentary part of GPK-1 were spatially correlated. Two fracture zones have been located in the Keuper and Lettenkohle, two in the Muschelkalk and nine in the Buntsandstein. All the thirteen zones present permeability indicators. In the EPS-1 well, partial mud losses recorded at a depth of 1205m, match with the occurrence of a fracture zone within the Buntsandstein. BHTV images show that the fracture is N-S oriented and dipping westward. Core samples of this zone show that it is partly filled with barite and galena. In the 4550 well, total losses were recorded at a depth of 1280m in Buntsandstein which fits in depth with a fracture zone. BHTV images clearly exhibit the westward dipping of the conjugate small-scale fracture system. Interestingly it corresponds to a sharp negative thermal anomaly on the temperature profile. In the Soultz and Rittershoffen areas, the uppermost sedimentary domain extending from late Trias to Tertiary is rather impermeable and governed by a conductive thermal regime. The uppermost structure of the convective cell corresponds to hydrothermal circulations percolating within the vertical fracture network from the top of the Paleozoic granite basement, to the Muschelkalk through the fractured Buntsandstein. The Keuper is assumed to be a horizontal barrier to the vertical per ascensum convective flow and behaves as a geothermal cap rock.

Vidal, Jeanne; Genter, Albert; Duringer, Philippe; Schmittbuhl, Jean

2014-05-01

290

Hospitalizations during the last months of life of nursing home residents: a retrospective cohort study from Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Background To describe hospitalisations of nursing home (NH) residents in Germany during their last months of life. Methods Retrospective cohort study on 792 NH residents in the Rhine-Neckar region in South-West Germany, newly institutionalized in the year 2000, who died until the study end (December 2001). Baseline variables were derived from a standardized medical examination routinely conducted by the medical service of the health care insurance plans in Germany. Information on hospitalisations and deaths was extracted form records of the pertinent health insurance plans. Results NH residents who died after NH stay of more than 1 year spent 5.8% of their last year of life in hospitals. Relative time spent in hospitals increased from 5.2% twelve months before death (N = 139 persons) to 24.1% in their last week of life (N = 769 persons). No major differences could be observed concerning age, gender or duration of stay in NH. Overall, 229 persons (28.9%) died in hospital. Among these, the last hospital stay lasted less than 3 days for 76 persons (31.9%). Another 25 persons (3.2%) died within three days after hospital discharge. Conclusion Our study indicates that proximity of death is the most important driver of health care utilization among NH residents. The relation of age or gender to health care expenditures seem to be weak once time to death is controlled for. Duration of NH stay does not markedly change rates of hospitalisation during the last months of life. PMID:16762052

Ramroth, Heribert; Specht-Leible, Norbert; Konig, Hans-Helmut; Brenner, Hermann

2006-01-01

291

Hospitalizations during the last months of life of nursing home residents: a retrospective cohort study from Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe hospitalisations of nursing home (NH residents in Germany during their last months of life. Methods Retrospective cohort study on 792 NH residents in the Rhine-Neckar region in South-West Germany, newly institutionalized in the year 2000, who died until the study end (December 2001. Baseline variables were derived from a standardized medical examination routinely conducted by the medical service of the health care insurance plans in Germany. Information on hospitalisations and deaths was extracted form records of the pertinent health insurance plans. Results NH residents who died after NH stay of more than 1 year spent 5.8% of their last year of life in hospitals. Relative time spent in hospitals increased from 5.2% twelve months before death (N = 139 persons to 24.1% in their last week of life (N = 769 persons. No major differences could be observed concerning age, gender or duration of stay in NH. Overall, 229 persons (28.9% died in hospital. Among these, the last hospital stay lasted less than 3 days for 76 persons (31.9%. Another 25 persons (3.2% died within three days after hospital discharge. Conclusion Our study indicates that proximity of death is the most important driver of health care utilization among NH residents. The relation of age or gender to health care expenditures seem to be weak once time to death is controlled for. Duration of NH stay does not markedly change rates of hospitalisation during the last months of life.

Specht-Leible Norbert

2006-06-01

292

A consistent magnetic polarity stratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene fluvial sediments from the Heidelberg Basin (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep drillings in the Heidelberg Basins provide access to one of the thickest and most complete successions of Quaternary and Upper Pliocene continental sediments in Central-Europe [1]. In absence of any comprehensive chronostratigraphic model, these sediments are so far classified by lithological and hydrogeological criteria. Therefore the age of this sequence is still controversially discussed ([1], [2]). In spite of the fact that fluvial sediments are a fundamental challenge for the application of magnetic polarity stratigraphy we performed a thorough study on four drilling cores (from Heidelberg, Ludwigshafen and nearby Viernheim). Here, we present the results from the analyses of these cores, which yield to a consistent chronostratigraphic framework. The components of natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) were separated by alternating field and thermal demagnetisation techniques and the characteristic remanent magnetisations (ChRM) were isolated by principle component analysis [3]. Due to the coring technique solely inclination data of the ChRM is used for the determination of the magnetic polarity stratigraphy. Rock magnetic proxies were applied to identify the carriers of the remanent magnetisation. The investigations prove the NRM as a stable, largely primary magnetisation acquired shortly after deposition (PDRM). The Matuyama-Gauss boundary is clearly defined by a polarity change in each core, as suggested in previous work [4]. These findings are in good agreement with the biostratigraphic definition of the base of the Quaternary ([5], [6], [7]). The Brunhes-Matuyama boundary could be identified in core Heidelberg UniNord 1 and 2 only. Consequently, the position of the Jaramillo and Olduvai subchron can be inferred from the lithostratigraphy and the development of fluvial facies architecture in the Rhine system. The continuation of the magnetic polarity stratigraphy into the Gilbert chron (Upper Pliocene) allows alternative correlation schemes for the cores Viernheim and Heidelberg. All things considered, the application of magnetic polarity stratigraphy on Pliocene and Pleistocene fluvial sediments from the Heidelberg Basin provides a consistent and independent chronology and opens the perspective for global correlations where other approaches hardly come to results. [1] GABRIEL, G., ELLWANGER, D., HOSELMANN, C. & WEIDENFELLER, M. 2008. Preface: The HeidelbergBasin Drilling Project. E & G (Quaternary Science Journal), 57, 253-260. [2] ELLWANGER, D. & WIELAND-SCHUSTER, U. 2012. Fotodokumentation und Schichtenverzeichnis der Forschungsbohrungen Heidelberg UniNord I und II. LGRB-Informationen, 26, 25-86. [3] KIRSCHVINK, J. L. 1980. The least-squares line and plane and the analysis of palaeomagnetic data. Geophysical Journal, Royal Astronomical Society, 62, 699-718. [4] ROLF, C., HAMBACH, U. & WEIDENFELLER, M. 2008. Rock and palaeomagnetic evidence for the Plio-/Pleistocene palaeoclimatic change recorded in Upper Rhine Graben sediments (Core Ludwigshafen-Parkinsel), Neth. J. Geosci., 87 (1), 41-50. [5] KNIPPING, M. 2008. Early and Middle Pleistocene pollen assemblages of deep core drillings in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany, Neth. J. Geosci., 87(1), 51-65. [6] HEUMANN, G., pers. Comm. [7] HAHNE, J., pers. Comm.

Scheidt, Stephanie; Hambach, Ulrich; Rolf, Christian

2014-05-01

293

Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The German system of higher education is a binary system that consists of a university and a non-university sector. The institutions of higher education in these two sectors include all institutions (public and private) as defined in the higher education laws of the Länder. Each Land has its own ministry responsible for higher education. At the federal level the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung is responsible for the implementation of the federal law on higher education (Hochschu...

Koelman, Jos

2001-01-01

294

Germany'  

...BROWSE ALL SECTIONS Agriculture & Food Section homepage CAP 2014-2020: A long road to reform Intensive farming: Ecologically sustainable? Pesticides: Striking the right ...Free movement of labour in the EU 27 Global food prices and CAP reform [Archived] Energy Section homepage Who runs EU energy policies?...campaign convention Hot topics euro zone crisis banking union EU budget 2014-2020 CAP reform electric cars nuclear energy more SPECIAL REPORTS Special Reports ...Sustainable and healthy food European Corporate Reporting Ukraine on the way to reform Food and nutrition security Efficient EU budget 2014-2020 Digital Summit for ...

295

Radiation protection training in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Verifying the possibilities for harmonization of the radiation protection education one has to define the aims and the present status. The aims are an education system, effective in contents and economy, complying with the national and European legal regulations, which is well accepted by the persons concerned. The German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association (FS) has already pointed at the special meaning of this topic repeatedly. In the following the FS-working group 'education; describes the present training situation and challenge in Germany. (orig.)

296

Wartsila delivers biopower in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wartsila has received an order for six turnkey biomass-fuelled power plants from the German-based company, Bayernfonds Best Energy 1 GmbH and Co. KG. The combined value of these six projects is approximately EUR 100 million. In addition, Wartsila has been awarded contracts from Belgium and Sweden since the beginning of 2007. All six plants for Germany will have an identical configuration and set up, and will each have an electrical power output of 5.6 MWe, which will be fed to the main grid. The plants will bum wood residue from the local forests

2007-07-01

297

Germany | Convention on Biological Diversity  

... Germany | Convention on Biological Diversity Skip navigation This site uses cookies in order to function as expected. By continuing, you are agreeing to our cookie policy. Agree and close Home News Events About Glossary Photos Advanced search English French Dutch German Login Convention on Biological Diversity Belgian Clearing House Mechanism The Convention Text of the Convention About the Convention Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, including Aichi Biodiversity Targets The Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Biodiversity in Belgium About biodiversity Current status and trends Major ...

298

Financial literacy and retirement planning in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine financial literacy in Germany using data from the SAVE survey. We find that knowledge of basic financial concepts is lacking among women, the less educated, and those living in East Germany. In particular, those with low education and low income in East Germany have little financial literacy compared to their West German counterparts. Interestingly, there is no gender disparity in financial knowledge in the East. In order to investigate the nexus of causality between financial lite...

Bucher-koenen, Tabea; Lusardi, Annamaria

2011-01-01

299

Waste management programs of the reunified Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany has been divided into an Eastern and Western part de facto since the end of World War II. The development of the Federal Republic followed the lines of the major Western democracies with respect to its internal organizations, but of course also with respect to the technologies pursued. This report describes radioactive waste management issues in the Federal republic of Germany and discusses the issues with respect to the differences from Eastern and Western Germany

300

Distal delta-plain successions : architecture and lithofacies of organics and lake fills in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this thesis is to analyze and explain the architecture, facies distribution, age and origin of coarse-grained overbank deposits, with special attention for organic-clastic lake fills, and organics in the distal Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain. In order to depict the influence of lakes and their fills on the development and architecture of fluvial systems, I reconstructed the development in the Angstel-Vecht area. To obtain insight in the facies composition, architecture and ...

Bos, I. J.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a Future Conservation Programme  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically “pure” populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple. PMID:24827575

Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

2014-01-01

302

RiverCare: towards self-sustaining multifunctional rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Rivers are inherently dynamic water systems involving complex interactions among hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. In many deltas around the world lowland rivers are intensively managed to meet objectives like safety, navigation, hydropower and water supply. With the increasing pressure of growing population and climate change it will become even more challenging to reach or maintain these objectives and probably also more demanding from a management point of view. In the meantime there is a growing awareness that rivers are natural systems and that, rather than further regulation works, the dynamic natural processes should be better utilized (or restored) to reach the multifunctional objectives. Currently many integrated river management projects are initiated all over the world, in large rivers as well as streams. Examples of large scale projects in the Netherlands are 'Room for the River' (Rhine), the 'Maaswerken' (Meuse), the Deltaprogramme and projects originating from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). These projects include innovative measures executed never before on this scale and include for example longitudinal training dams, side channels, removal of bank protection, remeandering of streams, dredging/nourishment and floodplain rehabilitation. Although estimates have been made on the effects of these measures for many of the individual projects, the overall effects on the various management objectives remains uncertain, especially if all projects are considered in connection. For all stakeholders with vested interests in the river system it is important to know how that system evolves at intermediate and longer time scales (10 to 100 years) and what the consequences will be for the various river functions. If the total, integrated response of the system can be predicted, the system may be managed in a more effective way, making optimum use of natural processes. In this way, maintenance costs may be reduced, the system remains more natural and more self-sustaining and ecosystem services such as safety, navigability, biodiversity and climate buffering can be safeguarded or even enhanced. The unprecedented extent of these interventions, together with comprehensive in-situ monitoring now offer an excellent opportunity to gain extensive knowledge about their intermediate and long-term impacts. RiverCare is a large research programme that will start in 2014 in which 5 universities, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment, Deltares, consultancy firms and other public and private parties collaborate to get a better understanding of the fundamental processes that drive ecomorphological changes, predict the intermediate and long-term developments, make uncertainties explicit and reduce them where possible and develop best practices to reduce the maintenance costs and increase the benefits of interventions. The projects currently or soon to be carried out in the Netherlands provide a unique opportunity to achieve these objectives and use the results to develop or improve models, guidelines and tools that can be used for river management in the Netherlands and abroad.

Augustijn, Denie; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne

2014-05-01

303

The role of coal in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the current issues facing Germany's energy market and the important role coal is expected to take on in the future. For the first time in history in 2001 more hard coal was imported than was mined within Germany. The current situation regarding output from the hard coal mining sector is stated and the plans for power generation are discussed. The impact of European Commission regulations in Germany's coal industry, and Germany's involvement in international bodies for the coal industry are mentioned. 5 figs., 2 tabs., 5 photos.

Schiffer, H.-W. [RWE Rheinbraun AG (Germany)

2002-10-01

304

Air crew monitoring in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

305

Argillaceous rock as host rock for final storage of radioactive waste in Germany; Tongesteine als Wirtsgesteine fuer die Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology (BMWi), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials (BGR) in a study described argillaceous rock formations as potential host rock for repositories in some areas of Germany, and evaluated them. The study was based on available and usable data derived from maps, archives, and approx. 25,000 drillings. No additional field tests or laboratory examinations were conducted. The study was published in April 2007 under the title of 'Untersuchung und Bewertung von Tongesteinsformationen' (www.bgr.bund.de). The exclusion criteria and minimum requirements recommended by the Working Group on Repository Sites (AkEnd) in 2002 served as a basis for defining the subareas eligible for further study. In addition, internationally acknowledged selection criteria as well as weighting criteria to be taken into account especially under German conditions were applied. The result of the study is not a representation of repository sites. However, the investigations show that argillaceous rock meeting host rock requirements occurs in the Lower Cretacious as well as in rock formations of the Lower and Middle Jurassic of Northern Germany. In Southern Germany, rock of the Middle Jurassic was found to be worthy of examination. The clay formations of the Tertiary are not considered in the study because of their relatively adverse mechanical properties in Germany. The areas highlighted are situated mainly in Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt, Baden-Wuerttemberg and, to a lesser extent, also im Bavaria, Brandenburg, and North Rhine-Westphalia. Other regional restrictions are mentioned in the study. Any further assessment of the argillaceous rock in the study would require an extensive program of investigations with a view to selecting sites for the final storage of high-level radioactive waste. (orig.)

Braeuer, V.; Hoth, P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

2007-05-15

306

The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

2014-05-01

307

The Corporate University Landscape in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

2007-01-01

308

Waste management strategy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany intends to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The Federal Government made a pronounced change in energy policy since 1998, the most important feature of which is phasing out of nuclear energy, finally set in force by the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. According to the new approach to waste management and disposal, further sites in various host rocks shall be investigated for their suitability based on repository site selection criteria and respective procedures developed by a special expert group. The objective of the site selection procedure is to identify with public participation potential disposal sites in a comprehensible and reliable way. (author)

309

48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252...252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70...following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported...

2010-10-01

310

48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Warranty of construction (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252...246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4...clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In...

2010-10-01

311

Development of an internet based geothermal information system for Germany - region Baden-Wuerttemberg; Aufbau eines geothermischen Informationssystems fuer Deutschland - Landesteil Baden-Wuerttemberg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energies as a part of the total energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany are to be extended in the next years. In terms of geothermal resources the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) supports the project ''Development of an Internet Based Geothermal System for Germany'' (GeotIS). The total duration of the project is three years. Lead-managed by the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (GGA-Institute) it is realized in a country wide joint venture project with different partners. Initially the geothermal information system will contain data only about hydrogeothermal resources. The object of the project is to improve quality in the planning stage of geothermal plants and to minimize explorations risks. Key parameters are production rate and temperature. The District Authority (Regierungspraesidium) Freiburg has been assigned to attend to the areas of the Upper Rhine Graben and the North Alpine Foreland Basin (Molasse Basin) both situated in Baden-Wuerttemberg. First intermediate results are presented. (orig.)

Jodocy, M.; Stober, I. [Regierungspraesidium Freiburg (RPF), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

2008-10-15

312

Field efficacy of granular formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis Israelensis--strain AM65-52 against floodwater mosquitoes in Poland and Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents results of studies evaluating the efficacy of various granular formulations of VectoBac (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis de Barjac [Bti] H-14 strain AM65-52) against immature mosquitoes in 2 distinct habitats in Poland and Germany. Meadows intermittently flooded with sewage water in the city of Wroclaw, Poland, provide ideal habitats for immature stages of Aedes caspius, Ae. vexans, and Culex pipiens pipiens. Helicopter applications of VectoBac G and VectoBac TP sand granules (VectoBac TP-SG) at rates of 5 and 10 kg/ha to the meadows resulted in between 70.9% and 97.4% larval mortality. In Germany, some swampy woodlands in the upper Rhine Valley provide ideal habitats for snowmelt mosquitoes, Aedes cantans, Ae. punctor, Ae. rusticus, and Ae. communis. Ground applications of VectoBac G, VectoBac TP-SG, and VectoBac WG IcyPearls (VectoBac WG-IP) were made to these habitats when the water temperature was approximately 7 degrees C. Larval mortality at 7-day post-application ranged from 90.9% (VectoBac TP-SG: 10 kg/ha) to 98.0% (VectoBac WG-IP: 15 kg/ha). In a separate microcosm trial within the same habitat, all 3 granule formulations controlled larvae of Ae. cantans for 3 wk. PMID:21033056

Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; DeChant, Peter; Becker, Norbert

2010-09-01

313

Model-based analysis of nutrient retention and management for a lowland river  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the context of the European Water Framework Directive options for improving the water quality of the lowland river Havel (Germany) were assessed. The lower section of this river is actually a polytrophic river-lake system suffering from high external nutrient loading and exhibiting significant in-river turnover. In order to gain a better understanding of present conditions and to allow integrated scenarios of nutrient management to be evaluated the catchment models SWIM and ArcEGMO-Urban w...

Kneis, D.; Knoesche, R.; Bronstert, A.

2005-01-01

314

Analysis and simulation of nutrient retention and management for a lowland river-lake system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the context of the European Water Framework Directive, we studied the possible impact of reduced emissions on phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in a lowland river-lake system (Havel River, Germany). As a prerequisite, we quantified the retention of nutrients in the river from mass balances and deduced its seasonal variation. We detected that about 30% of the total nitrogen input is retained within the surveyed river section. In contrast, phosphorus release from sediments was shown to ...

Kneis, D.; Knoesche, R.; Bronstert, A.

2006-01-01

315

Abandoning nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany - results and problems of an analysis about its economic effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Commissioned by the Federal German Ministry for Economy, the Rhine-Westphalian Institute for Economy Research (RWI) conducted and submitted 'a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the short-term and long-term effects of abandoning nuclear energy' in mid-August. The results met with a lively interest and - as could be expected - with greatly varying quotation, interpretation and assessment. Although an analysis of the economic effects is of a secondary significance, it appears to be rather meaningful to present its results in a summary. While doing so, a number of methodology problems involving the approach to this issue will be discussed since they need to be fully understood for an appropriate assessment of the results. However, before doing that, it is necessary to throw a clarifying light on the tasks which the expert's opinion had to fulfill, since a number of misinterpretations of the statements in the expert's opinion sprang from the fact that people failed to understand what the tasks or issues to be studied actually involved: based on a reference scenario in terms of a status-quo forecast, the study was to assess the effects of a nuclear energy abandonment on the economy of the Federal Republic of Germany in two alternative scenarios. The first alternative scenario was to study the effects of an immediate abandonment, i.e. taking place within a few months, and the second scenario was to examine the effects of a long-term step-by-step abandonment of nuclear energy. (orig./UA)

316

An exploration and modeling of the crustal conductivity aberration through Hesse and Thuringia in Central Germany with Geomagnetic Depth Sounding  

Science.gov (United States)

With geomagnetic depth sounding we analyze geomagnetic field variations within the earth and detect electrical conductivity contrasts. Using this method Peter (1994) and Hippmann (2010) found an strongly increased By-component around Göttingen in Central Germany, and this electrical conductivity anomaly was expanded to the middle of Hesse through an additional survey by Reich in 2010. Now we can set the boundaries in a new way. In spring and summer 2011 we installed 13 new magnetometer stations in Hesse, Thuringia and Lower Saxony to specify the anomaly boundaries. Our result shows that the "Göttingen By anomaly" is spreading further into the North than expected and far into the South-West. In addition the boundaries to the West and East could be confirmed. The result suggests that the anomaly spreads over the conurbation around Frankfurt and connects to the Rhine rift valley which is part of the European Cenozoic rift system. Therefor the "Göttingen By anomaly" goes over in a central German conductivity anomaly which exact North and South border is yet to be specified. Besides the data for geomagnetic depth sounding we also collected magnetotelluric data which help constraining the conductivity contrasts. Preliminary models of the conduction mechanism suggest that fluids alone are insufficient to explain the conductance of this structure.

Vollmer, N. A.; Bahr, D.

2011-12-01

317

Chronic Traffic-Induced PM Exposure and Self-Reported Respiratory and Cardiovascular Health in the RHINE Tartu Cohort  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between exposure to traffic induced particles, respiratory health and cardiac diseases was studied in the RHINE Tartu cohort. A postal questionnaire with commonly used questions regarding respiratory symptoms, cardiac disease, lifestyle issues such as smoking habits, indoor environment, occupation, early life exposure and sleep disorders was sent to 2,460 adults. The annual concentrations of local traffic induced particles were modelled with an atmospheric dispersion model with traffic flow data, and obtained PMexhaust concentrations in 40 × 40 m grids were linked with home addresses with GIS. The relationship between the level of exhaust particles outside home and self-reported health problems were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression model. We found a significant relation between fine exhaust particles and cardiac disease, OR = 1.64 (95% CI 1.12–2.43 for increase in PMexhaust corresponding to the fifth to the 95th percentile range. The associations also were positive but non-significant for hypertension OR = 1.42 (95% CI 0.94–2.13, shortness of breath OR = 1.27 (95% CI 0.84–1.94 and other respiratory symptoms.

Hans Orru

2009-10-01

318

The environmental agency of North-Rhine-Westphalia. Annual report 1995; Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen. Jahresbericht `95  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual reports of the environmental agency of North-Rhine-Westphalia periodically inform on topics, developments and events. In its choice of technical topics, the agency was guided by the following aspects: topicality, significance for workers in this technical field and, especially, general technical interest. Consequently, this volume is not a report of activities but provides insight into the work of the agency, stimulates cooperation and helps to establish and intensify connections. The short papers fall into the subject categories water, soil, atmosphere, technical systems and information systems, permitting rapid survey. The subjects of the longer contributions were chosen right across the entire range of activities of the environmental agency. Aspects relating to several media of course had an influence on this choice. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Jahresberichte des Landesumweltamtes NRW geben periodisch eine Uebersicht ueber Themen, Entwicklungen und Ereignisse. Bei der Auswahl der Fachthemen laesst sich das Landesumweltamt von der Aktualitaet, der Bedeutung fuer die Fachwelt und auch von dem allgemeinen Fachinteresse leiten. Dieser Jahresbericht `95 ist somit kein Rechenschaftsbericht, sondern gibt Einblick in die Arbeit, soll zur Zusammenarbeit anregen, vielfaeltige fachliche Verbindungen knuepfen und festigen. Zur besseren Uebersichtlichkeit sind die Kurzbeitraege gegliedert in: Wasser, Boden, Luft, Technik und Informationssysteme. Die Hauptbeitraege setzen Schwerpunkte `quer durch das Landesumweltamt`, bei denen natuerlich medienuebergreifende Gesichtspunkte eine Rolle gespielt haben. (orig./SR)

NONE

1996-06-01

319

Financing long term liabilities (Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km2. Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km2, tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km2). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The implementation of the measures will cover a period of 15 to 20 years depending on the site. The necess

320

Solvent exposure and malignant lymphoma: a population-based case-control study in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Aims To analyze the relationship between exposure to chlorinated and aromatic organic solvents and malignant lymphoma in a multi-centre, population-based case-control study. Methods Male and female patients with malignant lymphoma (n = 710 between 18 and 80 years of age were prospectively recruited in six study regions in Germany (Ludwigshafen/Upper Palatinate, Heidelberg/Rhine-Neckar-County, Würzburg/Lower Frankonia, Hamburg, Bielefeld/Gütersloh, and Munich. For each newly recruited lymphoma case, a gender, region and age-matched (± 1 year of birth population control was drawn from the population registers. In a structured personal interview, we elicited a complete occupational history, including every occupational period that lasted at least one year. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary questionnaires, a trained occupational physician assessed the exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride and aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking (in pack years and alcohol consumption. To increase the statistical power, patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results We observed a statistically significant association between high exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and malignant lymphoma (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.3. In the analysis of lymphoma subentities, a pronounced risk elevation was found for follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. When specific substances were considered, the association between trichloroethylene and malignant lymphoma was of borderline statistical significance. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not significantly associated with the lymphoma diagnosis. Conclusion In accordance with the literature, this data point to a potential etiologic role of chlorinated hydrocarbons (particularly trichloroethylene and malignant lymphoma. Chlorinated hydrocarbons might affect specific lymphoma subentities differentially. Our study does not support a strong association between aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, or styrene and the diagnosis of a malignant lymphoma.

Deeg Evelin

2007-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Outbreak of bluetongue disease (BTD) in Germany and the danger for Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

In August 2006, the blue tongue virus (BTV-type South Africa serotype 8) was detected for the first time in cattle blood probes in the Netherlands, immediately followed by cases in Belgium and in cattle on German farms, which were situated close to Aachen at the border to those countries. Within less than 2 months the disease spread eastwards crossing the Rhine, southwards to Luxemburg and to Northern France. At the end of the year 2006, nearly 1,000 farms were affected in Germany. Catches on two German cattle farms proved that the ceratopogonid species Culicoides obsoletus was obviously the vector, since many females-fed and unfed ones-were found to be infected with this virus. This sudden outbreak of bluetongue disease (BTD) is surely not a primary result of global warming, but rather an effect of globalization-i.e. the intensive worldwide import and export of animals; but a hot summer, as in 2006, and a warm winter like that of the years 2006/2007 supported the new spread starting again in masses in August 2007 leading to 596 PCR-confirmed cases until then with more than 200,000 animals infected. Thus, new agents coming from elsewhere have only a chance to spread if appropriate vectors are available and the conditions remain favourable during a reasonably long period. Effects of global warming-of course-will support persistence of such outbreaks of diseases due to offering of spreading of imported viruses, bacteria and/or parasites. PMID:19030889

Mehlhorn, Heinz; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven; Schmahl, Günter

2008-12-01

322

Prostate cancer in Germany among migrants from the Former Soviet Union  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available : In Germany, prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer and the third leading cause of death from cancer in males. We investigate prostate cancer in Gernmany among migrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU and compare them to indigenous German population with regard to prostate cancer incidence, mortality and longitudinal effects.: Data were obtained from two migrant cohorts residing in the federal states of North Rhine Westphalia (n=34,393 and Saarland (n=18,619. Vital status was ascertained through local population registries. Causes of death were obtained from the federal statistical office or from local health authorities. Cancer incidence of the Saarland cohort was derived from the Saarland Cancer Registry using record linkage.: From 1990 to 2005 we observed 3360 deaths of which 28 were due to prostate cancer. In the Saarland cohort 35 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer during the respective period. Migrants had lower prostate cancer incidence (SIR 0.74 (95% CI: 0.52–1.03 and mortality (SMR 0.57 (95% CI: 0.38–0.83 compared to the German population. Multivariate analysis showed a strong age effect on incidence meaning young migrants (below age 60 were diagnosed significantly more often with prostate cancer compared to Germans of the same age. However, mortality did not show any effects.: Lower prostate cancer mortality and incidence among migrants may reflect an ongoing situation in the FSU. Additionally, longitudinal analysis did not reveal convergence of migrant prostate cancer to German rates as expected from lifestyle driven cancer sites. Therefore, our results support the hypothesis of a genetic effect on prostate cancer risk.

Volker Winkler

2012-01-01

323

1D unsteady-state flow simulation of a section of the upper Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

A 1D steady-state flow simulation model was developed. A module evaluating the roughness parameters due to the surface roughness of the main channel and floodplains, riparian forests on the floodplains, and the momentum exchange between the main channel and floodplains was introduced into the model. In the module, the roughness parameters were evaluated by the formulas proposed by the DVWK [Hydraulische Methoden zur Erfassung von Rauheiten (1990); Hydraulische Berechnung von Fließgewässern (1991)] for steady and uniform flow conditions. The model was calibrated with data obtained from three flood events. Roughness parameters of the main channel and floodplains of both sides were identified in the situation before May 1999. The morphological situation changed slightly. Several sensitivity analyses were carried out for the following cases: (a) the morphological situation before May 1999 with the original parameters, (b) the situation of (a) with various parameters to the realistic extent, (c) the situation being so that the floodplain on the German side were imaginarily enlarged up to utmost 90 m with the original vegetation, and (d) the situation of (c) with various parameters to the realistic extent. Many combinations of the roughness parameters due to the bed roughness and density of the vegetation were examined. The results showed that the most significant parameter is the bed roughness of the floodplains, and the next is that of the main channel. A modification of parameters of the riparian vegetation is of minor importance. The model was extended to a 1D unsteady state flow simulation model and applied to two flood data obtained in the reach between Rheinweiler (186.156 km from Lake Constance) and Hartheim (214.244 km) in Germany in 1998 and 1999. Both measured and calculated hydrographs at Hartheim had their peak discharge at the same time, and the discrepancy of the discharge between the measured and calculated hydrographs was less than 10%.

Yoshida, Hiromu; Dittrich, Andreas

2002-12-01

324

Trig River  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about and use a right triangle to determine the width of a pretend river. Working in teams, they estimate of the width of the river, measure it and compare their results with classmates.

White, Jeff; Axelrad, Penny; Yowell, Janet; Zarske, Malinda S.

2010-01-01

325

Consequences of escalated external events protection requirements on the design of SNR-300  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The joint German-Belgian-Dutch loop-type 300 MWe LMFBR prototype SNR-300 has been under construction at Kalkar on the lower Rhine river in Germany since 1972. This paper describes the increasing severity of the requirements since the beginning of construction and the consequences for the project. It is concentrated on earthquake, aircraft crash and gas cloud explosion. 5 refs

326

Perspectives of nuclear power in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Only if Germany continues to use nuclear power, and develops it further, we will have a chance to make German safety standards accepted internationally. It would be irresponsible to keep German safety know-how from other countries. It is important for Germany to preserve and advance its nuclear competence, which was acquired at great industrial expense. After all, nuclear power means almost 40,000 highly qualified jobs. These people must have a perspective for their future. They will get it only if the political courage is mustered again to build an advanced nuclear reactor with improved safety features in Germany. (orig.)

327

Germany and the European economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany has traditionally been the powerhouse of the European economy and integration. In this article, an attempt is made to put its economic development in a European context by comparing it with the achievements of the total group of more developed members of the European Union, the EU-15, prior to the current global crisis. The author applies both the methods of statistical analysis and models of mathematical economics to show the combined influence of growth mechanism regularities, economic policy and international economic relations on the long-term development of the German and European economy. Viewing economic growth as the central problem, he investigates the factors of its deviations from the equilibrium state, as well as the regularities affecting productivity and technical progress. His main conclusion is that the current economic crisis can be surmounted with the help of a growthoriented economic policy based on the intensification of technical progress and, first of all, of its creative component, which would create favorable conditions for improving competitiveness.

Simon György Jr.

2011-01-01

328

Imported furuncular myiasis in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Furuncular myiasis is a parasitic infestation of human and other vertebrate tissues by fly larvae of primarily two species: Dermatobia hominis (human botfly, t6rsalo, or berne) in Mexico and South and Central America and Cordylobia anthropophaga (tumbu fly or mango fly) in Africa. Cuterebra species (rabbit and rodent botflies) are also rarely reported to cause furuncular myiasis only within the United States. Although these species inhabit different geographic regions and have different life cycles, their clinical presentations can be similar. We describe a case of "imported" human botfly (D. hominis) furuncular myiasis in a U.S. Army soldier stationed in Germany. We review the life cycles of human botflies and key aspects of their clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and various therapeutic modalities. Most physicians may never encounter myiasis and attribute a patient's complaints to an insect bite or skin infection that will heal without treatment. However, the diagnosis of furuncular myiasis should be considered by remembering the basic elements of this condition: recent travel history to the tropics and a sterile, persistent furuncle with sensations of movement and pain. PMID:12502173

Robert, Leon; Yelton, John

2002-12-01

329

Climate index for Germany - Methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Germany. (J.S.)

330

Air pollution in the Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr area: Numerical simulations with a multi-scale regional chemistry-transport model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rhine-Ruhr area is a strongly industrialized region with about 10 Million inhabitants. It is one of the regions in Europe, which has the characteristics of a megacity with respect to population density, traffic, industry and environmental issues. The main centre of European steel production and the biggest inland port of the world is located in Duisburg, one of the major cities in the Rhine-Ruhr area. Together with the nearby urban agglomerations in the Benelux area including Brussels, Amsterdam and in particular Rotterdam as one of the most important sea-harbours of the world together with Singapore and Shanghai, it forms one of the regions in Europe heavily loaded with air pollutants as ozone, NO2 and particulate matter. Ammonia emissions outside the urban agglomerations but within the domain are also on a quite high level due to intense agricultural usage in Benelux, North-Rhine-Westphalia and lower Saxony. Therefore this area acts also as an important source region for gaseous precursors contributing to the formation of secondary particles in the atmosphere. The Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr area therefore has been selected within the framework of the recently established FP7 research project CityZen as one hot spot for detailed investigations of the past and current status of air pollution and its future development on different spatial and temporal scales. Some examples from numerical simulations with the regional multi-scale chemistry transport model EURAD for Central Europe and the Rhine-Ruhr area will be presented. The model calculates the transport, chemical transformations and deposition of trace constituents in the troposphere from the surface up to about 16 km using MM5 as meteorological driver, the RACM-MIM gas-phase chemistry and MADE-SORGAM for the treatment of particulate matter. Horizontal grid sizes are in the range of 100 km down to 1 km for heavily polluted urbanized areas within Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr. The planetary boundary layer is resolved by 15 layers below 3000 m, 8 layers cover the range from 3 km to 16 km. Emission projections have been used to calculate the future development of air pollution as well as the contribution of different sources to air pollution concentrations. The results are discussed with respect to different characteristic meteorological conditions which control the occurrence of air pollution episodes. Specific examples are heat waves as in summer 2003 leading to high values of photo-oxidants and episodes dominated by high pressure systems over Europe in fall and winter leading to high concentrations of particulate matter or NO2. Interannual variations due to changes of the meteorological conditions from year to year also will be discussed. It turned out that the impact of emission reduction on air pollution could be masked by the interannual variation of weather conditions which influence concentrations of air pollutants. Possible extensions and plans for the further development of the modelling system to include future changes of climate and consequently the coupling to the global scale are discussed with respect to CityZen.

Memmesheimer, M.; Jakobs, H. J.; Wurzler, S.; Friese, E.; Piekorz, G.; Ebel, A.

2009-04-01

331

Blueprint for northern Germany?; Blaupause fuer Norddeutschland?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The geothermal project ''GeneSys'' at Hanover is unique in the world. A new process is involved that is to prove that geothermal power generation is a feasible technology also in northern Germany. (orig.)

Wille, Hans

2010-08-15

332

Opportunities for smart meters in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles.

333

Germany facing the odds in international competition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear electricity production is not on its way to a global exodus because fossil fuels are running low. The phase-out scenarios developed by politicians put Germany at a disadvantage in terms of international competition. (HP)

334

Hmong of Germany: Preliminary Report on the Resettlement of Lao Hmong Refugees in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper briefly describes the resettlement of Lao Hmong refugees in Germany since the fall of Laos in 1975. Data for this paper were collected during my two visits to the Hmong community of Gammertingen in southern Germany. Although, it has been known that there are Lao Hmong refugees living in Germany, literature about their resettlement in academic journals and the western media has been nonexistent. Therefore, information about their population, social, educational and economic status h...

Yang, Tou T.

2003-01-01

335

General cost analysis for scholarly communication in Germany : results of the "Houghton Report" for Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Management Summary: Conducted within the project “Economic Implications of New Models for Information Supply for Science and Research in Germany”, the Houghton Report for Germany provides a general cost and benefit analysis for scientific communication in Germany comparing different scenarios according to their specific costs and explicitly including the German National License Program (NLP). Basing on the scholarly lifecycle process model outlined by Björk (2007), the study compared ...

Houghton, John W.; Dugall, Berndt; Bernius, Steffen; Kro?nung, Julia; Ko?nig, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

336

The Immigrant Wage Gap in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Immigrants consist of foreigners and citizens with migration background. We analyze the wage gap between natives and these two groups in Germany. The estimates show a substantial gap for both groups with respect to natives. Discarding immigrants who completed education abroad reduces much of the immigrants’ wage gap. This implies educational attainment in Germany is an important component of economic integration and degrees obtained abroad are valued less.

Thomsen, Stephan L.; Gernandt, Johannes; Aldashev, Alisher

2008-01-01

337

Second births in western Germany and France  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We compare second birth risks in France and western Germany using data from the Family and Fertility Survey. Second birth risks are higher for highly educated women than for women with lower education in both countries. In western Germany, the positive effect weakens after controlling for the education level of the partner. The positive effect of French women's education remains unchanged, even after controlling for the partners' characteristics. We interpret this finding in the sense that ...

Katja Köppen

2006-01-01

338

Educational Transformations in a "United" Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors present "reflections" about the process and the consequences of the educational reforms after German unification; they make clear that education in West Germany has "not been unaffected" by these changes: "Although structural and curricular issues had been handled quite smoothly in the late 1970s and 1980s, there are already signs that this 'stability' is eroding in West Germany, with calls for an all- German system operating as a stimulus for change." The authors regard changes i...

Mitter, Wolfgang; Weiß, Manfred

1993-01-01

339

Strengthening organic food value chains in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our paper starts with a short overview of the diversity of organic food chains in Germany. Building on this, a study area with the typical diversity of organic food value chains in Germany will be selected. We show that – within the same region and for the same product group – several different supply chains coexist. Smaller businesses tend to focus on market niches and particular consumer groups and values. The in-depth analysis identifies the strengths and weaknesses of different types ...

Muenchhausen, Susanne; Schulz, Kristin; Haering, Anna Maria

2013-01-01

340

Microsoft Word - Competitiveness Germany euro.docx  

8Hungary Slovak Republic Portugal Czech Republic Greece Korea New Zealand Spain Italy Japan France OECD Total United Kingdom Euro area Germany Canada ...Korea Czech Republic Portugal Slovak Republic Greece New Zealand Japan OECD Total Italy Canada United Kingdom Spain Australia Finland Euro area Austria Sweden ...Korea Japan Greece United Kingdom Germany OECD Total Canada Euro area Italy Denmark Spain Australia Austria Switzerland Netherlands Sweden

 
 
 
 
341

Extreme drought events in Germany during the last 60 yrs  

Science.gov (United States)

Droughts are among the most costly natural disasters because they heavily impact on the economy of a region as well as on its social and cultural activities. Droughts do not only occur in arid or semiarid regions but also in humid ones. The year 2007, for example, was the sunniest, hottest and driest in Germany in the last two centuries. In this case, it was too dry too early. As a result, the harvest was cut by half leading to enormous losses in the primary sector. Consumer prices of some agricultural products went up 26 percent. The purpose of this study is to identify the major agricultural and hydrological droughts in Germany since 1950 based on their severity, duration and areal extend. To achieve this goal, a 60-yr retrospective hydrological simulation of the land surface water budget over Germany was carried out with the process-based distributed hydrological model mHM. The model was forced with grided daily precipitation and temperature data at 4x4 km, and the model simulations were carried out at same spatial resolutions. Point measurement data from more than 5600 raingauges and about 1120 meteorological stations (DWD) were interpolated with EDK. Land cover change was also considered during this period. Drought indices were derived as monthly quantiles of the simulated fluxes which include root zone soil moisture and total runoff. A Gaussian kernel smoother was used to estimate these quantiles at each grid cell. A spatio-temporal cluster algorithm was used to consolidate all significant drought events. Main statistics such as magnitude, areal extend, duration, and severity were estimated only on those selected clusters. The mHM model was calibrated in major river basins giving Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies for daily discharge simulations greater than 0.8 in the evaluation period. Plausibility tests between the simulated mHM soil moisture and land surface temperature from MODIS and regional climate model reanalysis data compared well. Results indicated that the drought event from 1971-1974 was the largest drought event since 1950 based on the monthly soil moisture drought index. The event from 1962-1965 was the largest drought event since 1950 based on the monthly runoff drought index. The event from 2003-2004 was quite severe within the time scale of 3-6 months but its areal extension covered less than 50% Germany's land area.

Samaniego, L. E.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.

2011-12-01

342

3D structural modelling of a wrench rift basin: the Upper Rhine Graben of NW Europe as a case study - Contribution of the EU GeORG project.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) of NW Europe is a Cenozoic wrench rift basin about 300 km long and 30 to 40 km wide, with an Eocene to Quaternary sedimentary fill up to 3 km thick. The EU GeORG project aims to give a detailed knowledge of its deep geological structure, in order to assist the safe and successful use of its great geological potential (e.g. geothermal energy, CO2 sequestration...). Products are based on a Gocad 3D geological model of the URG, mostly based on the interpretation of a...

Beccaletto, Laurent; Nitsch, Edgar; Anders, Birte; Dressman, Horst; Rupf, Isabel; Tesch, Jo?rg; Zumsprekel, Heiko; Capar, Laure

2012-01-01

343

Application of single borehole techniques. A study of groundwater flow in the vicinity of a water works drawing bank filtrate on the Lower Rhine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the last decade, single borehole techniques have been extensively and reliably used for various groundwater investigations. The present study demonstrates their applicability and usefulness. By a combined approach using single borehole and environmental isotope techniques, the flow pattern at the site of a group of wells tapping bank filtrate from the Rhine has been investigated. It was possible to gather data on the residence time of the pumped water in the underground as well as in its pathways under different boundary conditions. (author)

344

Analysis of GIS data to investigate natural resource impacts of high-voltage overhead lines in the examples in Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we describe shortly Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia as study areas and the legal framework, both in the context of natural resource impacts of high-voltage overhead lines. We then conduct the buffer analysis of a GIS dataset in order to investigate natural resource impacts of existing high-voltage overhead lines in the two mentioned study areas. The paper is based upon the first results of the interdisciplinary research and development project ''Power Network Planning'' funded as part of the 6th Energy research program ''Research for an environmentally friendly, reliable and affordable energy supply'' by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). (orig.)

345

TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

2014-05-01

346

Germany, high-tech country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national ar in the Netherlands, combining national and European aspects and emphasizing, in particular, the important function of ENS. Uranium enrichment as an European project was subject of the report by Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. The General Manager of Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman of Belgatom, Guy Frederic, examined the economic viability of nuclear power, appealing to the audience to reduce capital costs by innovation without detracting from safety. (orig./DG)

347

Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Germany, 2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed. Methods Participants of the triathlon were contacted by e-mail and were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. In addition, they were asked to supply a serum sample for laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis. A confirmed case patient was defined as a clinical case (i.e. fever and at least one additional symptom suggestive for leptospirosis with at least two of the following tests positive: ELISA IgM, latex agglutination testing, or microscopic agglutination testing. Rainfall and temperature records were obtained. Results A total of 142 of 507 triathletes were contacted; among these, five confirmed leptospirosis cases were found. Open wounds were identified as the only significant risk factor for illness (p = 0.02. Heavy rains that preceded the swimming event likely increased leptospiral contamination of the Neckar River. Discussion This is the first outbreak of leptospirosis related to a competitive sports event in Germany. Among people with contact to freshwater, the risk of contracting leptospirosis should be considered by health care providers also in temperate countries, particularly in the summer after heavy rains.

Hartelt Katrin

2010-04-01

348

Economic Factors of Development of Tourism in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany has a negative balance for tourism. The article deals with attempts for creating the Germany’s positive image for tourists. Germans themselves travel a lot domestically, and for the first time since 2011 Germany has enjoyed a positive balance in tourism industry – tourists spent 20,4 bl. Euros inside against 15,5 bl. Euros spent outside of the country. According to YUNVTO Germany entered the list of top 10 tourist destinations.

Nina K. Zhigalina

2012-05-01

349

Individual verifiers in Germany - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

...tuv.comTel.: +49 (0)221 806 3423Fax: +49 (0)221 806 1609 Website: www.tuv.com/safetyAm Grauen Stein 29, D-51105 Köln, Germany Bahar Cat-Krause GS1 Germany GmbHE-mail: cat-krause@gs1-germany.deTel.: +49 221 94714 455 Fax: + 49 221 94714-7455Website: www.gs1-germany.deMaarweg 133, 50825 Köln, Germany Daniela Kölsch Bayer Technology Services ...

350

Geothermal reservoir properties of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) sediments in the Saar Nahe Basin (South-West Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

The geothermal potential of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) in the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the Saar-Nahe-Basin (Germany) has been shown in large scale regional studies. To further assess the geothermal potential of the different lithostratigraphical units and facies types within this Variscan intramontane basin, knowledge of their thermophysical and hydraulic properties is indispensable. Where the Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous molasse basin, the top of the up to two kilometers thick Permocarboniferous deposits is located at a depth of one to three kilometers and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. Therefore, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150°C, making it suitable for geothermal power production. Lithologically the Permocarboniferous deposits consist of different formations and facies types including fine, middle and coarse grained sandstones, arcosic sandstones, siltstones, volcanics and carbonates. Within the framework of the study presented here, outcrop analogue studies west of the Graben in the Saar-Nahe-Basin, and east of the Graben in the Wetterau and the Wetterau-Fulda-Basin are conducted. Each lithostratigraphic formation and lithofacies type is sampled in various outcrops to generate a statistically sufficient amount of samples of the different sedimentary rocks in order to determine their petrophysical, sedimentological and geochemical characteristics. The petrophysical parameters measured include the porosity, permeability, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and uniaxial compressive strength. So far, the petrophysical properties of samples of more than 70 locations have been measured in our lab facilities, showing a clear correlation with the facies type. Excluding the coarse grained sandstones of the Donnersberg formation at the beginning of the Nahe-subgroup of the Upper Rotliegend, the geothermal reservoir properties are more suitable in the Glan-subgroup of the Lower Rotliegend due to the increasing fraction of fluviatil facies with low sinuosity meander belts, that transported coarse grained and feldspar-rich sediments from along the basin axis. The next steps will include geochemical as well as petrographic-sedimentological analysis of each sample to study the mineral composition, the intergranular volume and diagenesis. Furthermore, the rock mass permeability is evaluated using hydraulic test data of wells intersecting the Permocarboniferous in the Saar Nahe Basin and other analogue areas, already showing a link between hydraulic conductivity and fault structures within the basin. Based on drilling and seismic data as well as geological maps together with the compiled petrophysical and hydraulic data, it is planned to establish a 3D reservoir model of the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the western Saar-Nahe-Basin. Due to the importance of fault zones, lithostratigraphical units and facies types, detailed modelling will allow a more reliable assessment of the geothermal potential. This model could be used for a better prediction of reservoir temperatures and production rates and will decrease the exploration risk.

Aretz, A.; Bär, K.; Sass, I.

2012-04-01

351

River morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

352

Features of global hydrological processes using the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model simulation: focusing on five major river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

This study adopts a semi-distributed hydrological model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), to simulate the global terrestrial hydrological processes and analyze the variation of main processes, including precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture. To run the VIC model, we use the daily gridded precipitation product at a higher resolution (1°×1°) from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Besides, other daily meteorological data (including maximum and minimum daily temperatures) are derived from the NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis data. VIC model is run at a daily temporal step and 1° latitude-longitude spatial resolution for the period 1997-2008. The streamflow observations from five major continental river basins in the world (the Amazon River basin, the Mississippi River basin, the Yangtze River basin, the Rhine River basin and the Nile River basin) are used to verify the VIC simulation results. Then, this study quantifies the contributions of precipitation to soil moisture change, evapotranspiration and runoff over these five major river basins. This study also detects the response of those hydrological processes to the increase of temperature, which will benefit the regional environment and water management.

Wang, K.; Niu, J.; Chen, J.

2013-12-01

353

Class and culture in Germany  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta um mapa tipológico das culturas de classe na Alemanha (e inclui uma breve comparação com tipologias da França, Itália e Grã-Bretanha). Baseia-se numa ampla pesquisa qualitativa e em inquéritos representativos organizados por uma nova e dinâmica interpretação da teoria do habitu [...] s de classe e do espaço social desenvolvida por Bourdieu. A metodologia centra-se no conceito de meio social de Durkheim que une as dimensões culturais e ocupacionais de classe. As classes sociais são definidas principalmente não como agregados de estatísticas oficiais de emprego mas como agregados de acção social, i.e. como grupos constituídos e diferenciados por habitus, práticas e gostos comuns. Porém, as culturas de classe da vida quotidiana não se traduzem directamente em clivagens políticas ou ideológicas. Os seis principais agrupamentos ideológicos do campo político captam os seus aderentes em diversos meios situados em diferentes zonas do espaço social, ainda que próximas. No conjunto, a pesquisa corrobora a hipótese da diferenciação das classes e não da sua erosão. Abstract in spanish Este artículo destaca los debates recientes que contribuyen al retorno constructivo de las discusiones sobre género y clase. Se defiende que "clase" es en primer lugar un concepto económico, mientras las desigualdades de "género" reflejan principalmente construcciones normativo-culturales. Sin embar [...] go, las degradaciones culturales tienen consecuencias económicas. Se afirma también que una de las componentes principales del debate relativo a "género" y "clase"- es decir, la crítica feminista a los análisis cuantitativos de clase (tal como son ejemplificadas por Goldthorpe, Erikson y Wright) - está equivocada desde el principio. Sin embargo, el "cambio cultural" en el feminismo sobrepone género y sexualidad, al mismo tiempo que aparta la clase social. Por esto, los debates sobre género, clase y división del trabajo, no llegaron a una conclusión satisfactoria. La perspectiva de clase permanece, no obstante, esencial si queremos comprender y analizar las consecuencias de los cambios efectuados en la división sexual del trabajo. Abstract in english The article develops a typological map of the class cultures in Germany (including a short comparison with the typologies of France, Italy and Britain). It is based on ample qualitative research and representative surveys organised by a new, dynamic interpretation of the theory of class habitus and [...] social space developed by Bourdieu. It’s methodology centers on Durkheim’s concept of "milieu" which unites the occupational and the cultural dimensions of class. Social classes are defined primarily not as aggregates of the official employment statistics but as aggregates of social action, i. e. as groups united and distinguished by common habitus, practices and tastes. However, the class cultures of everyday life do not translate directly into political or ideological cleavages. The main six ideological camps of the political field draw their adherents from different, though neighbouring milieus in distinct zones of social space. As a whole, the research supports the hypothesis of class differentiation and not of class erosion.

Michael, Vester.

354

Germany: facing the Nazi past today  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the changing debate on National Socialism and the question of guilt in German society. Memory had a different meaning in different generations, shaping distinct phases of dealing with the past, from silence and avoidance to sceptical debate, from painful “Vergangenheitsbewältigung” to a general memory of suffering. In present-day Germany, memory as collective personal memory has faded away. At the same time, literature has lost its role as a main medium to mass media like cinema and television. Furthermore, memory has become fragmented. Large groups of members of the German society, like immigrants, see the past from a different perspective altogether. Although the remembrance of the time of National Socialism is still a distinctive part of Germany’s political culture, it has become more generalised, with “Holocaust memory” as a globalised symbol for a fundamental “break” in Western culture.

I. Laurien

2009-07-01

355

Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south. PMID:25283656

Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

2014-01-01

356

Provisions for containment venting in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Wilhelm, J.G.

1997-08-01

357

International Rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

International Rivers is an organization that opposes the construction of destructive dams on rivers, and they also support communities affected by dams. Their aim is to "protect rivers and promote just and sustainable water and energy development." Visitors will find most of their questions about dams and hydroelectricity can be answered under the "Learn More" tab's FAQ section. Along with each answer, there is most often an article, slideshow, video or other resource to explore further. Some of the pieces examine why there is opposition to large dams, the expense of hydroelectricity, the lack of local jobs produced when a dam is being built in a developing country, and the number of people displaced by dams. Under the "Get Involved" tab, there is a section called "Tools for Educators" that include lessons for introductory learners, intermediate learners, advanced learners, and a "River Educator's Toolkit", which contains lessons on the four major rivers in Asia, Africa, and South America.

358

Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.

359

Geochemical tracing and hydrogeochemical modelling of water-rock interactions during salinization of alluvial groundwater (Upper Rhine Valley, France)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} Major and trace elements along with strontium and uranium isotopic ratios show that groundwater geochemical characteristics along the saline plumes cannot reflect a conservative mixing. {yields} A coupled hydrogeochemical model demonstrates that cationic exchange between alkalis from polluted waters and alkaline-earth elements from montmorillonite present in the host rock of the aquifer is the primary process. {yields} The model requires only a small amount of montmorillonite. {yields} It is necessary to consider the pollution history to explain the important chloride, sodium and calcium concentration modifications. {yields} The model shows that the rapidity of the cationic exchange reactions insures a reversibility of the cation fixation on clays in the aquifer. - Abstract: In the southern Upper Rhine Valley, groundwater has undergone intensive saline pollution caused by the infiltration of mining brines, a consequence of potash extraction carried out during the 20th century. Major and trace elements along with Sr and U isotopic ratios show that groundwater geochemical characteristics along the saline plumes cannot reflect conservative mixing between saline waters resulting from the dissolution of waste heaps and one or more unpolluted end-members. The results imply the occurrence of interactions between host rocks and polluted waters, and they suggest that cationic exchange mechanisms are the primary controlling process. A coupled hydrogeochemical model has been developed with the numerical code KIRMAT, which demonstrates that cationic exchange between alkalis from polluted waters and alkaline-earth elements from montmorillonite present in the host rock of the aquifer is the primary process controlling the geochemical evolution of the groundwater. The model requires only a small amount of montmorillonite (between 0.75% and 2.25%), which is in agreement with the observed mineralogical composition of the aquifer. The model also proves that a small contribution of calcite precipitation/dissolution takes places whereas other secondary mineral precipitation or host rock mineral dissolution do not play a significant role in the geochemical signature of the studied groundwater samples. Application of the model demonstrates that it is necessary to consider the pollution history to explain the important Cl, Na and Ca concentration modifications in groundwater samples taken over 2 km downstream of waste heaps. Additionally, the model shows that the rapidity of the cationic exchange reactions insures a reversibility of the cation fixation on clays in the aquifer.

Lucas, Y., E-mail: yann.lucas@eost.u-strasbg.fr [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Schmitt, A.D., E-mail: anne-desiree.schmitt@univ-fcomte.fr [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France)] [Universite de Franche-Comte et CNRS-UMR 6249, Chrono-Environnement, 16, Route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Chabaux, F., E-mail: francois.chabaux@eost.u-strasbg.fr [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Clement, A.; Fritz, B. [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Elsass, Ph. [BRGM, GEODERIS, 1, rue Claude Chappe, 57070 Metz (France); Durand, S. [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

2010-11-15

360

Geochemical tracing and hydrogeochemical modelling of water-rock interactions during salinization of alluvial groundwater (Upper Rhine Valley, France)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Major and trace elements along with strontium and uranium isotopic ratios show that groundwater geochemical characteristics along the saline plumes cannot reflect a conservative mixing. ? A coupled hydrogeochemical model demonstrates that cationic exchange between alkalis from polluted waters and alkaline-earth elements from montmorillonite present in the host rock of the aquifer is the primary process. ? The model requires only a small amount of montmorillonite. ? It is necessary to consider the pollution history to explain the important chloride, sodium and calcium concentration modifications. ? The model shows that the rapidity of the cationic exchange reactions insures a reversibility of the cation fixation on clays in the aquifer. - Abstract: In the southern Upper Rhine Valley, groundwater has undergone intensive saline pollution caused by the infiltration of mining brines, a consequence of potash extraction carried out during the 20th century. Major and trace elements along with Sr and U isotopic ratios show that groundwater geochemical characteristics along the saline plumes cannot reflect conservative mixing between saline waters resulting from the dissolution of waste heaps and one or more unpolluted end-members. The results imply the occurrence of interactions between host rocks and polluted waters, and they suggest that cationic exchange mechanisms are the primary controlling process. A coupled hydrogeochemical model has beed hydrogeochemical model has been developed with the numerical code KIRMAT, which demonstrates that cationic exchange between alkalis from polluted waters and alkaline-earth elements from montmorillonite present in the host rock of the aquifer is the primary process controlling the geochemical evolution of the groundwater. The model requires only a small amount of montmorillonite (between 0.75% and 2.25%), which is in agreement with the observed mineralogical composition of the aquifer. The model also proves that a small contribution of calcite precipitation/dissolution takes places whereas other secondary mineral precipitation or host rock mineral dissolution do not play a significant role in the geochemical signature of the studied groundwater samples. Application of the model demonstrates that it is necessary to consider the pollution history to explain the important Cl, Na and Ca concentration modifications in groundwater samples taken over 2 km downstream of waste heaps. Additionally, the model shows that the rapidity of the cationic exchange reactions insures a reversibility of the cation fixation on clays in the aquifer.