This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right. The Rhine, one of the largest and most used waterways in central Europe, winds its way through five countries from the Swiss-Austrian Alps to the North Sea coast of the Netherlands. The river valley is densely populated, as seen in this image, which shows the French city of Strasbourg, the light blue and orange area in the upper left center; and the German cities of Kehl, across the river from Strasbourg and Offenburg, the bright area in right center. The fertile valley is famous for its wine production and most of the agricultural areas in the image, shown in purple patches, are vineyards. The light green areas are forest. Scientists can use radar images like this one to monitor the effects of urban and agricultural development on sensitive ecosystems such as the Rhine River valley. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is 34.2 kilometers by 33.2 kilometers (21.2 miles by 20.6 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 7.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.
In the framework of the project REGFLUD commissioned by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research within the research program “ River basin Management” an integrated model system was applied to estimate groundwater-borne nitrogen inputs into the surface waters of the river Rhine and Ems basins. The nitrogen inputs into groundwater are calculated from the nitrogen surpluses reduced by the denitrification losses in the soil related to the ground-water recharge/total runoff ratio. These inputs are transported with the groundwater to the surface waters. On its way nitrate degradation may occur. Thus, a calculation of the groundwater-borne nitrate inputs into surface waters requires knowledge of the groundwater flow paths, the total residence time of the nitrate and the denitrification kinetics in the upper aquifer. These processes were considered by different models: The results of the nitrogen balance model RAUMIS (Henrichsmeyer et al., 1996), which considers the most important N-inputs to the soil (manure, inorganic fertiliser, atmospheric deposition) and N-removals from the soil through crop harvest, were combined with the water balance model GROWA (Kunkel &Wendland, 2002) and the groundwater residence time/denitrification model WEKU (Kunkel &Wendland, 1997). The modelled groundwater-borne nitrogen inputs into surface waters were validated for about 100 monitoring stations using results from the MONERIS model (Behrendt et al., 2002) concerning riverine nitrogen retention, nitrogen inputs from point sources as well as nitrogen inputs through direct runoff (drainage etc.). The values calculated with the integrated model approach used here only show relatively small differences to the observed values (about 10-20 %). This can be regarded as a good agreement. An overall look on the results show that especially rivers in the solid rock areas of the Rhine catchment area display considerably high groundwater borne nitrogen inputs into surface waters. The reasons for this are predominantly unfavourable denitrification conditions and short residence times of groundwater. There only 30% of the diffuse nitrogen input into the groundwater are degraded. The surface waters in the unconsoli-dated rock areas of the river Ems catchment area displayed considerably lower groundwater borne nitrate inputs into surface waters instead. There, the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer is high and the groundwater is predominantly oxygen free and contains pyrite and/or organic carbon compounds, allowing a halving of the nitrate loads in the groundwater within a period of 1 to 4 years. In river basins falling into this regions it could be shown that about 90% of the diffuse nitrogen input into the groundwater are degraded in this way. References Behrendt, H., Huber, P., Kornmilch, M., Opitz, D., Schmoll, O., Scholz, G. &Uebe, R. (2000): Nutrient balances of German river basins. UBA-Texte,23/2000, 261p . Henrichsmeyer, W. et al., Development of the German Agricultural Sector Model RAUMIS96. Final Report of the Cooperation-Project. Research Report for the BMELF (94 HS 021), unpublished, Bonn/Braunschweig, 1996 Kunkel, R. &Wendland, F. (1997). WEKU-a GIS supported stochastic model of groundwater residence times in upper aquifers for the supraregional groundwater management. Envir. Geol., 30(1/2), 1-9. Kunkel, R. &Wendland, F. (2002). The GROWA98 model for water balance analysis in large river basins the river Elbe case study. Journal of Hydrology 259, 152-162.
Wendland, F.; Bogena, H.; Gömann, H.; Kreins, P.; Kunkel, R.; Behrendt, H.
Throughout human history, water has played a dual role as a life-giving liquid and as a resource for waste disposal. Without careful management, these two roles can conflict, with potentially dangerous results. This video documents the polluted condition of the Rhine River and one of its tributaries, the Emscher, in 1990. It also shows how some pollutants enter the river, and discusses some studies which were conducted to examine the effects of the pollution on fish and seals in the river and in the North Sea, where it empties. The segment is three minutes forty-four seconds in length.
Full Text Available Several previous studies have detected positive trends in flood flows in German rivers, among others, at Rhine gauges over the past six decades. The presence and detectability of the climate change signal in flood records has been controversially discussed, particularly against the background of massive river training measures in the Rhine. In the past the Rhine catchment has been heavily trained, including the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. The present study investigates the role of river training on changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the effect of the Rhine weir cascade and of a series of detention basins was investigated. By homogenising the original flood flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be from a few percentage points to more than 10 percentage points smaller compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures, and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges during this period was partly caused by an unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. This superposition resulted from an acceleration of the Rhine waves due to the construction of the weir cascade and associated channelisation and dike heightening. However, at the same time, tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual maximum Rhine peaks, showed strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of another driver or drivers which acted alongside river training.
Several previous studies have detected positive trends in flood flows in German rivers, among others, at Rhine gauges over the past six decades. The presence and detectability of the climate change signal in flood records has been controversially discussed, particularly against the background of massive river training measures in the Rhine. In the past the Rhine catchment has been heavily trained, including the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. The present study investigates the role of river training on changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the effect of the Rhine weir cascade and of a series of detention basins was investigated. By homogenising the original flood flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be from a few percentage points to more than 10 percentage points smaller compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures, and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges during this period was partly caused by an unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. This superposition resulted from an acceleration of the Rhine waves due to the construction of the weir cascade and associated channelisation and dike heightening. However, at the same time, tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual maximum Rhine peaks, showed strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of another driver or drivers which acted alongside river training.
Vorogushyn, S.; Merz, B.
Abstract During the last centuries the river Rhine underwent a major regulation process which separated the riverbed from its flood plains and reduced the available areas for flooding. The river was straightened and the consequence is the discharge conditions were strongly changed and many recorded flood events were occurred. Serious floods at the river Rhine in 1993 and 1995 resulted in the policy "Room for the Rivers" and in 1998 in the "Action Plan Flood Defen...
Minh Thu, Pham Thi
The present-day Rhine alluvial hardwood forest (Querco-Ulmetum minoris, Issler 24) in the upper Rhine valley (France/Germany) is comprised of three vegetation units, one still flooded by calm waters (F) and the two others unflooded, one for 30 years (UF30) (after the river canalisation) and the other for about 130 years (UF130) (after river straightening and embankment work in the middle nineteenth century). In the three stands, species composition, structure and diversity of vege...
Tre?molie?res, Miche?le; Sanchez-pe?rez, Jose?-miguel; Schnitzler, Annik; Schmitt, Diane
The embryotoxic potential of three model sediment samples with a distinct and well-characterized pollutant burden from the main German river basins Rhine and Elbe was investigated. The Fish Embryo Contact Test (FECT) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) was applied and submitted to further development to allow for a comprehensive risk assessment of such complex environmental samples. As particulate pollutants are constructive constituents of sediments, they underlay episodic source-sink dynamics, becoming available to benthic organisms. As bioavailability of xenobiotics is a crucial factor for ecotoxicological hazard, we focused on the direct particle-exposure pathway, evaluating throughput-capable endpoints and considering toxicokinetics. Fish embryo and larvae were exposed toward reconstituted (freeze-dried) sediment samples on a microcosm-scale experimental approach. A range of different developmental embryonic stages were considered to gain knowledge of potential correlations with metabolic competence during the early embryogenesis. Morphological, physiological, and molecular endpoints were investigated to elucidate induced adverse effects, placing particular emphasis on genomic instability, assessed by the in vivo comet assay. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the extent of induced cell death, since cytotoxicity can lead to confounding effects. The implementation of relative toxicity indices further provides inter-comparability between samples and related studies. All of the investigated sediments represent a significant ecotoxicological hazard by disrupting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Beside the induction of acute toxicity, morphological and physiological embryotoxic effects could be identified in a concentration-response manner. Increased DNA strand break frequency was detected after sediment contact in characteristic non-monotonic dose-response behavior due to overlapping cytotoxic effects. The embryonic zebrafish toxicity model along with the in vivo comet assay and molecular biomarker analysis should prospectively be considered to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments allowing for a comprehensive hazard ranking. In order to elucidate mode of action, novel techniques such as flow cytometry have been adopted and proved to be valuable tools for advanced risk assessment and management. PMID:25471716
Garcia-Käufer, M; Gartiser, S; Hafner, C; Schiwy, S; Keiter, S; Gründemann, C; Hollert, H
Full Text Available The Rhine River catchment was heavily trained over the past decades and faced the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. For the same time period, several studies detected positive trends in flood flows and faced the challenge of flood trend attribution, i.e. identifying the drivers of observed change. The presented study addresses the question about the responsible drivers for changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the role of river training measures including the Rhine weir cascade and a series of detention basins in enhancing Rhine floods was investigated. By applying homogenisation relationships to the original flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, the relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be smaller up to about 20% points compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges was partly caused by the unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. It resulted from the acceleration of the Rhine waves due to construction of the weir cascade. However, at the same time, the tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual Rhine peaks, showed very strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of a large-scale driver such as climate variability/change which acted along with river training. In particular, the analysis suggests that the river training measures fell in a period with increasing flood trends driven by factors other than river training of the Rhine main channel.
Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended solids and erosion of deposited sediment in the shallow Dutch lakes (due to wave action) are likely to change contamination levels of sediments in these lakes, which is the subject of this thesis. The aim o...
Winkels, H. J.
In Europe, water management is moving from flood defence to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. It is expected that climate change and socio-economic development will lead to an increase in flood risk in the Rhine basin. To optimize spatial planning and flood management measures, studies are needed that quantify future flood risks and estimate their uncertainties. In this paper, we estimated the current and future fluvial flood risk in 2030 for the entire Rhine basin in a scenario study. The change in value at risk is based on two land-use projections derived from a land-use model representing two different socio-economic scenarios. Potential damage was calculated by a damage model, and changes in flood probabilities were derived from two climate scenarios and hydrological modeling. We aggregated the results into seven sections along the Rhine. It was found that the annual expected damage in the Rhine basin may increase by between 54% and 230%, of which the major part (~ three-quarters) can be accounted for by climate change. The highest current potential damage can be found in the Netherlands (110 billion €), compared with the second (80 billion €) and third (62 billion €) highest values in two areas in Germany. Results further show that the area with the highest fluvial flood risk is located in the Lower Rhine in Nordrhein-Westfalen in Germany, and not in the Netherlands, as is often perceived. This is mainly due to the higher flood protection standards in the Netherlands as compared to Germany.
Te Linde, A. H.; Bubeck, P.; Dekkers, J. E. C.; de Moel, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.
Full Text Available In Europe, water management is moving from flood defence to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. It is expected that climate change and socio-economic development will lead to an increase in flood risk in the Rhine basin. To optimize spatial planning and flood management measures, studies are needed that quantify future flood risks and estimate their uncertainties. In this paper, we estimated the current and future fluvial flood risk in 2030 for the entire Rhine basin in a scenario study. The change in value at risk is based on two land-use projections derived from a land-use model representing two different socio-economic scenarios. Potential damage was calculated by a damage model, and changes in flood probabilities were derived from two climate scenarios and hydrological modeling. We aggregated the results into seven sections along the Rhine. It was found that the annual expected damage in the Rhine basin may increase by between 54% and 230%, of which the major part (~ three-quarters can be accounted for by climate change. The highest current potential damage can be found in the Netherlands (110 billion €, compared with the second (80 billion € and third (62 billion € highest values in two areas in Germany. Results further show that the area with the highest fluvial flood risk is located in the Lower Rhine in Nordrhein-Westfalen in Germany, and not in the Netherlands, as is often perceived. This is mainly due to the higher flood protection standards in the Netherlands as compared to Germany.
A. H. te Linde
Climate change is likely to have an impact on the discharge of the European river Rhine. To base adaptation strategies, to deal with these changing river discharges, on the best scientific and technical knowledge, it is important to understand potential climate impacts, as well as the capacity of social and natural systems to adapt. Both are characterized by large uncertainties, at different scales, that range from individual to local to regional to international. This review paper addresses ...
Pelt, S. C.; Swart, R. J.
The strong increase in the consumption of rare earth elements (REE) in high-tech products and processes is accompanied by increasing amounts of REE released into the environment. Following the first report of Gd contamination of the hydrosphere in 1996, anthropogenic Gd originating from contrast agents has now been reported worldwide from river and estuarine waters, coastal seawater, groundwater and tap water. Recently, microcontamination with La, that is derived from a point source where catalysts for petroleum refining are produced, has been detected in the Rhine River in Germany and the Netherlands. Here we report the occurrence of yet another REE microcontamination of river water: in addition to anthropogenic Gd and La, the Rhine River now also shows significant amounts of anthropogenic Sm. The anthropogenic Sm, which enters the Rhine River north of Worms, Germany, with the same industrial wastewater that carries the anthropogenic La, can be traced through the Middle and Lower Rhine to the Netherlands. At Leverkusen, Germany, some 250 km downstream from the point source at Worms, anthropogenic Sm still contributes up to 87% of the total dissolved Sm concentration of the Rhine River. Results from ultrafiltration suggest that while the anthropogenic Gd is not particle-reactive and hence exclusively present in the truly dissolved REE pool (<10 kDa), the anthropogenic La and Sm are also present in the colloidal/nanoparticulate REE pool (between 10 kDa and 0.2 ?m). Though difficult to quantify, our data suggest that the Rhine River may carry up to 5700 kg of anthropogenic La, up to 584 kg of anthropogenic Sm, and up to 730 kg of anthropogenic Gd per year toward the North Sea. There exist no regulatory limits for dissolved REE in natural waters, but total REE and Y (?REY) concentrations of up to 0.14 mg/kg in the plume downstream of and 52.2 mg/kg at the head of an effluent pipe at Rhine-km 447.3 at Worms get close to and well-above, respectively, the levels at which ecotoxicological effects have been documented. Because of the increasing use of REE and other formerly "exotic" trace elements in high-tech applications, these critical metals have now become emerging contaminants that should be monitored, and it appears that studies of their biogeochemical behavior in natural freshwaters might soon no longer be possible.
Kulaks?z, Serkan; Bau, Michael
The vegetation of the northern Upper Rhine Graben (southwestern Germany) is reconstructed for the end of the Lateglacial and the Holocene by means of palynological analyses in combination with AMS 14C dating. Analogous to adjacent lowland areas, the Younger Dryas climatic deterioration did not result in a complete deforestation of the area and open pine woodlands with locally birch stands and shrubs persisted. A subdivision of the Younger Dryas period, into a humid first phase, followed by a ...
Bos, J. A. A.; Dambeck, R.; Kalis, A. J.; Schweizer, A.; Thiemeyer, H.
Water temperature influences physical and chemical parameters of rivers and streams and is an important parameter for water quality. It is a crucial factor for the existence and the growth of animal and plant species in the river ecosystem. The aim of the research project "Remote sensing of water surface temperature" at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany, is to supplement point measurements of water temperature with remote sensing methodology. The research area investigated here is the Upper and Middle Rhine River, where continuous measurements of water temperature are already available for several water quality monitoring stations. Satellite imagery is used to complement these point measurements and to generate longitudinal temperature profiles for a better systematic understanding of the changes in river temperature along its course. Several products for sea surface temperature derived from radiances in the thermal infrared are available, but for water temperature from rivers less research has been carried out. Problems arise from the characteristics of the river valley and morphology and the proximity to the riverbank. Depending on the river width, a certain spatial resolution of the satellite images is necessary to allow for an accurate identification of the river surface and the calculation of water temperature. The bands from the Landsat ETM+ sensor in the thermal infrared region offer a possibility to extract the river surface temperatures (RST) of a sufficiently wide river such as the Rhine. Additionally, problems such as cloud cover, shadowing effects, georeferencing errors, different emissivity of water and land, scattering of thermal radiation, adjacency and mixed pixel effects had to be accounted for and their effects on the radiance temperatures will be discussed. For this purpose, several temperature data sets derived from radiance and in situ measurements were com- pared. The observed radiance temperatures are strongly influenced by the atmosphere. Without atmospheric correction, the absolute mean difference between RST and in situ measurements was 1.1°C with a standard devi- ation of 1.3°C. Thus, a correction of atmospheric influences on radiances measured at the top of the atmosphere was necessary and two different methods for atmospheric correction (ATCOR2 and the Atmospheric Correction Parameter Calculator) were applied. The correction results showed that for both methods, the correct choice of atmospheric profiles is very important. With the calculator, an absolute mean difference of 0.8 +/- 1.0°C and with the selected overall best scenes, an absolute mean difference of 0.5 ± 0.7°C was achieved. The selected corrected RST can be used to interpolate between in situ measurements available only for a limited number of points along the river course and longitudinal example profiles of the surface water temperature in the Upper and Middle Rhine could be calculated for different seasons. On the basis of these profiles, the increasing temperature gradient along the Upper Rhine could be identified and the possibility to detect heat or cooling discharge from tributaries and other sources is evaluated.
Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn
In this study, we examine flood-related variations in provenance of fine-grained palaeochannel sediments from the Bienener Altrhein (Germany), an abandoned river channel close to the apex of the Rhine river delta. Geochemical and grain size analyses were conducted on channel-fill sediments from multiple core sections, ranging from 1.15 m to 8.48 m depth, which represents pre-industrial sediment deposited from approximately 1550 AD to 1850 AD. In addition, four sediment cores of ~ 1 m length were retrieved from channel-fills or overbank deposits along the Upper Rhine and the three main tributaries of the Rhine in Germany (Neckar River, Main River and Moselle River). Sediment geochemistry was analysed using an Itrax X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner. Four elements (Ti, Co, Rb, W) were selected for further analysis based on the following a priori criteria: (1) The elements must be associated with minerals in the fine particle size fractions; 2) they must not be susceptible to precipitation-dissolution reactions during early diagenenis of the sediment; 3) the elements must be detected in the vast majority of the measurements; 4) the difference between the minimum and maximum number of the XRF counts for the upstream cores must be greater than 50% of the average number of counts. The XRF counts for these elements were standardised to z-scores and were subsequently corrected for the variation clay content (Mahalanobis distance was adopted as a measure of dissimilarity between the Bienener Altrhein sediment increments and the sediment from the upstream tributaries. The logtransformed Mahalanobis distances to the mean sediment composition of the upstream sediments were correlated to the medium to coarse sand particle size fraction (> 150 ?m), which was primarily deposited during historical flood events. The results show the Mahalanobis distances are larger than 1 for most increments, which indicates that the four sampled upstream sites do not entirely cover all sources of sediment deposited in the Bienener Altrein channel. The logtransformed Mahalonibis distance correlates significantly (? = 0.05) with the >150 ?m particle size fraction for the Upper Rhine River (negative) and the Moselle River (positive). This implies that the proportion of fine sediment that originates from the upper parts of the river basin and, hence, the sediment transport distance increases with flood magnitude. These results provide an excellent starting point to reconstruct the origin of historic flood events as documented in the sedimentary records of channel fills and dike breach ponds.
van der Perk, Marcel; Toonen, Willem H. J.; Ypma, Jochem; Brewer, Paul A.; Prins, Maarten A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Middelkoop, Hans
The Rhine River in the Netherlands, the Yellow River in China and the Mississippi River in the U.S. are three great rivers in the world. Each of them is performing a significant role in the country. The delta area for each river, in particular, is served as the centre in importance and commonly the most developed region in the whole river basin. These three deltas are not excepted. All of them are the economic and cultural centre either in the district or in the whole country and all have ...
Huang B; Guangzhou, M.
The anticipated climate change will lead to modified hydro-meteorological regimes that influence discharge behaviour and hydraulics of rivers. This has variable impacts on managed (anthropogenic) and unmanaged (natural) systems, depending on their sensitivity and vulnerability (ecology, economy, infrastructure, transport, energy production, water management, etc.). Decision makers in these contexts need adequate adaptation strategies to minimize adverse effects of climate change, i.e. an improved knowledge on the potential impacts including uncertainties means an extension of the informed options open to users. The goal of the highly applied study presented here is the development of joint, consistent climate and discharge projections for the international Rhine River catchments (Switzerland, France, Germany, Netherlands) in order to assess future changes of hydro-meteorological regimes in the meso- and macroscale Rhine River catchments and to derive and improve the understanding of such impacts on hydrologic and hydraulic processes. The RheinBlick2050 project is an international effort initiated by the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine Basin (CHR) in close cooperation with the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine. The core experiment design foresees a data-synthesis, multi-model approach where (transient) (bias- corrected) regional climate change projections are used as forcing data for existing calibrated hydrological (and hydraulic) models at a daily temporal resolution over mesoscale catchments of the Rhine River. Mainly for validation purposes, hydro-meteorological observations from national weather services are compiled into a new consistent 5 km x 5 km reference dataset from 1961 to 2005. RCM data are mainly used from the ENSEMBLES project and other existing dynamical downscaling model runs to derive probabilistic ensembles and thereby also access uncertainties on a regional scale. A benchmarking is helping to identify those atmospheric forcing data that ideally suit the needs for the subsequent hydrological model runs with the LARSIM and HBV models and evaluate those simulations too. As a result, usable information and quantifiable statements (e.g. extreme value statistics, uncertainty assessment, validation), that might form the basis for further planning or policy relevant decisions, are to be derived. Our analyses are highly influenced by the requirements of the potential users and stakeholders from government agencies who shall make use of the data and results. Here we present first results of the application of the complete data processing and modelling chain towards discharge projections on a subset of input data, albeit still without any bias correction applied to the meteorological forcing data.
Görgen, K.; Pfister, L.
It is widely recognized that hydrological models are subject to parameter uncertainty. However, little attention has been paid so far to the uncertainty in parameters of the data-driven models like weights in neural networks. This study aims at applying a structured uncertainty analysis to a data-driven model for low flow forecasting with a lead time of 14 days in the Rhine River. In the modeling phase, the Rhine basin is divided into seven major sub-basins. Each sub-basin is modeled separate...
Demirel, Mehmet C.; Booij, Martijn J.
Abstract: Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing ad...
Tobias Bölscher; Erik van Slobbe; Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Werners, Saskia E.
Time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment requires a stochastic description of earthquake occurrences. While short-term seismicity models are well-constrained by observations, the recurrences of characteristic on-fault earthquakes are only derived from theoretical considerations, uncertain palaeo-events or proxy data. Despite the involved uncertainties and complexity, simple statistical models for a quasi-period recurrence of on-fault events are implemented in seismic hazard assessments. To test the applicability of statistical models, such as the Brownian relaxation oscillator or the stress release model, we perform a systematic comparison with deterministic simulations based on rate- and state-dependent friction, high-resolution representations of fault systems and quasi-dynamic rupture propagation. For the specific fault network of the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany, we run both stochastic and deterministic model simulations based on the same fault geometries and stress interactions. Our results indicate that the stochastic simulators are able to reproduce the first-order characteristics of the major earthquakes on isolated faults as well as for coupled faults with moderate stress interactions. However, we find that all tested statistical models fail to reproduce the characteristics of strongly coupled faults, because multisegment rupturing resulting from a spatiotemporally correlated stress field is underestimated in the stochastic simulators. Our results suggest that stochastic models have to be extended by multirupture probability distributions to provide more reliable results.
Hainzl, Sebastian; Zöller, Gert; Brietzke, Gilbert B.; Hinzen, Klaus-G.
The concentration profile of 40 polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface water along the River Rhine watershed from the Lake Constance to the North Sea was investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of point as well as diffuse sources, to estimate fluxes of PFAS into the North Sea and to identify replacement compounds of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the method performance was conducted. The PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) with concentrations up to 181 ng/L and 335 ng/L, respectively, which originated from industrial point sources. Fluxes of ?PFAS were estimated to be ?6 tonnes/year which is much higher than previous estimations. Both, the River Rhine and the River Scheldt, seem to act as important sources of PFAS into the North Sea. - The short-chained polyfluoroalkyl substances PFBA and PFBS replace PFOA and PFOA as dominating PFAS in surface waters in the River Rhine watershed.
Organic concentrates of the River Rhinewater were tested for toxicity with a 15 minute MICROTOX test on luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum. A concentration method with XAD-resins was altered in such a way that water samples with suspended material could be concentrated with XAD without filtration. In total, 11 stations in the German and Dutch lower Rhine were sampled three times, with the interval of two months. (May, July and September 1990), whereas two ...
The extreme floods of the past decade at the river Rhine (1993 and 1995), at the river Odra (1997) and at the River Elbe (2002) caused serious damages and confirmed again the urgency of exact and reliable flood forecasting systems as tools for decision support in order to reduce flood damages. The Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) is developing suitable operational water level forecast models for the River Rhine (WAVOS Rhein), for the River Odra (WAVOS Oder), and for the River Elbe (ELBA and WAVOS Elbe). These forecast systems are continuously used by the Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration on a daily basis for low water forecasting to support inland navigation. In case of floods the systems are used by four Federal State Flood Centres for flood forecasting several times per day. In this paper the operational WAVOS water level forecasting system is described and for the three river basins examples of the forecasting results of the last floods are given. With the growing demand for prolonging the forecasting period, increasing the accuracy and spatial density of forecasts, the tasks for future improvements of the models are shown.(Author)
Pollutant transport and management in the Rhine and Elbe basins is still of international concern, since certain target levels set by the international committees for protection of both rivers have not been reached. The analysis of the chain of emissions of point and diffuse sources to river loads will provide policy makers with a tool for effective management of river basins. The analysis of large river basins such as the Elbe and Rhine requires information on the spatial and temporal characteristics of both emissions and physical information of the entire river basin. In this paper, an analysis has been made of heavy metal emissions from various point and diffuse sources in the Rhine and Elbe drainage areas. Different point and diffuse pathways are considered in the model, such as inputs from industry, wastewater treatment plants, urban areas, erosion, groundwater, atmospheric deposition, tile drainage, and runoff. In most cases the measured heavy metal loads at monitoring stations are lower than the sum of the heavy metal emissions. This behaviour in large river systems can largely be explained by retention processes (e.g. sedimentation) and is dependent on the specific runoff of a catchment. Independent of the method used to estimate emissions, the source apportionment analysis of observed loads was used to determine the share of point and diffuse sources in the heavy metal load at a monitoring station by establishing a discharge dependency. The results from both the emission analysis and the source apportionment analysis of observed loads were compared and gave similar results. Between 51% (for Hg) and 74% (for Pb) of the total transport in the Elbe basin is supplied by inputs from diffuse sources. In the Rhine basin diffuse source inputs dominate the total transport and deliver more than 70% of the total transport. The diffuse hydrological pathways with the highest share are erosion and urban areas.
Vink, Rona; Behrendt, Horst
Zircons from 13 sediment samples from the Rhône and Rhine drainages were dated by the fission-track method to study downstream changes in detrital fissiontrack grain-age distributions in large river systems draining the European Alps. The orogen-parallel Rhône River shows a zircon fission-track grain-age distribution similar to that in its Alpine source areas. This signal is well preserved because there are Alpine sources along its full length and input from non-Alpine sources is small. In ...
Bernet, Matthias; Brandon, Mark T.; Garver, John I.; Molitor, Brandi
Downstream migration of Anguilla anguilla silver eels was studied in the Lower Rhine, Germany, and the Rhine Delta, The Netherlands, in 2004-2006. Fish (n = 457) released near Cologne with implanted transponders were tracked by remote telemetry at 12 fixed detection locations distributed along the different possible migration routes to the North Sea. Relatively more A. anguilla migrated via the Waal than the Nederrijn, as would be expected from the ratio of river discharges at the bifurcation point at Pannerden. Downstream migration from the release site to Rhine-Xanten, close to the German-Dutch border, generally occurred in the autumn of the year of release but migration speeds tended to be low and variable and unaffected by maturation status or river discharge rates. Detection frequencies were not significantly related to discharge peaks or lunar cycles, but there was a minor detection peak 1-6 h after sunset. Between 2004 and 2009, 43% of the 457 A. anguilla released were never detected and of the 260 detected entering the Netherlands, 83 (32%) were detected escaping to the sea, 78 (94%) via the Nieuwe Waterweg and three (4%) and two (2%) via the sluices in the Haringvlietdam and Afsluitdijk, respectively. Possible causes of non-detections are discussed and it is suggested that many A. anguilla temporarily ceased migration, but that fishing mortality could have been important during passage through the Dutch parts of the Rhine. Practical implications of the results for predicting emigration routes, timings and magnitudes and use in management initiatives to promote escapement of A. anguilla silver eels to the sea are critically discussed. PMID:20735693
Breukelaar, A W; Ingendahl, D; Vriese, F T; de Laak, G; Staas, S; Klein Breteler, J G P
The REGFLUD-project, commissioned by Germany's Federal Research Ministry (BMBF), addresses the problem of reducing diffuse pollution from agricultural production. The objective of the project is the development and application of multi-criteria scientific methods, which are able to predict diffuse pollution in river basins subject to economic feasibility and social acceptability. The selected river basins (Ems and Rhine basins) cover a variety of landscape units with different hydrological, hydrogeological and socio-economic characteristics. This paper focuses on the analysis of the effects of certain policy measures to reduce diffuse pollution by nitrogen. For this purpose a model system consisting of an agricultural sector model, a water balance model and a residence time/denitrification model was developed and applied. First results indicate a wide range of annual nitrogen surpluses for the rural areas between less than 10 kg N/ha up to 200 kg N/ha or more depending on the type and intensity of farming. Compared to the level of nitrogen surpluses the level of nitrogen inputs into the surface waters is relatively moderate because of degradation processes during transport in soil and groundwater. Policy impact analysis for a nitrogen tax and a limitation of the livestock density stress the importance of regionally tailored measures. PMID:15850202
Kunkel, R; Bogena, H; Goemann, H; Kreins, P; Wendland, F
A simple 2D model has been developed for the simulation of mass transport and degradation of substances in the river Rhine. The model describes mass transport in the flow direction with a convective and a dispersive term. Transversal transport is described by segmenting the river and formulating a transversal exchange coefficient between the segments. Degradation can be formulated with any kinetics from first order to complex enzyme kinetics. The model was verified with monitoring data from the river Rhine. The hydrodynamic parameters such as dispersion coefficients and exchange coefficients were fitted to the conductivity, which was assumed to be non-degradable. The degradation term was fitted to ammonia values. The model was used to simulate measured concentrations of a readily (Aniline) and a poorly biodegradable substance (1,4-Dioxan) 10 m from the left river bank. It was the objective of this research program to develop a model which allows a realistic estimation of the locally and regionally predicted environmental concentration of chemical substances in the EU risk assessment scheme. PMID:12380980
Teichmann, L; Reuschenbach, P; Müller, B; Horn, H
Exponential increase of anthropogenic stress in European rivers, like Rhine and Meuse, started several centuries ago when inhabitants of floodplains used them for an increasing number of purposes. Step by step, the river basins lost their naturalness and ecological integrity. Usually, river regulation was a first step. Floodplains in the lower parts were narrowed by the construction of levees and dikes for land reclamation and to protect inhabitants against floods. Rivers channels were shorte...
The production of drinking water from river water requires a certain minimal river water quality. The Association of River Rhine Water Works (RIWA), therefore, operates a monitoring network. In vitro mutagenicity studies have shown that the genotoxicity of the River Rhine water steadily decreased from 1981 until 2001. Compared to a study in 1978, a decrease in genotoxicity was also observed in an in vivo genotoxicity study in 2005, in which Eastern mudminnows (Umbra pygmaea) were exposed to R...
Penders, E. J. M.; Spenkelink, A.; Hoogenboezem, W.; Rotteveel, S. G. P.; Maas, J. L.; Alink, G. M.
The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the evolution of the early to middle Holocene Rhine-Meuse river mouths in the western Netherlands and to understand the observed spatial and temporal changes in facies. This is achieved by constructing three delta wide cross-sections using a newly accumulated database with thousands of core descriptions and cone penetration test results, together with a large set of pollen/diatom analyses and OSL/14C-dates. Most of the studied deposits accumula...
Hijma, M. P.; Cohen, K. M.; Hoffmann, G.; Spek, A. J. F.; Stouthamer, E.
The worldwide decline of the eel population is thought to be caused by several factors, among which eel diseases. To investigate diseases of European silver eels Anguilla anguilla in the Netherlands, in Nov–Dec 2004 12 silver eels, and in Aug–Dec 2005 80 eels were caught in downstream parts (rivers) of the River Rhine and in Lake IJsselmeer. The eels were measured and weighed, necrotized, and individually checked for presence of external and internal parasites, bacterial infections and vi...
Haenen, O. L. M.; Lehmann, J.; Engelsma, M. Y.; Stu?renberg, F. J.; Roozenburg, I.; Kerkhoff, S.; Klein Breteler, J. G. P.
Surface temperatures can be determined contact-free in the thermal infrared wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Many satellites collect data in this region, but the spatial resolution is normally not as good as in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. When investigating smaller inland water bodies, the accuracy of discriminating temperatures of land and water or different water bodies is obviously limited. Nevertheless, remote sensing offers a good tool for investigating spatial temperature distributions. At the Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany, (BfG) the feasibility to monitor the temperature of waterways by means of remote sensing was assessed within the research project "Remote sensing of water surface temperature". For a case study of the Upper and Middle Rhine River, the temperature of the river surface was acquired from 19 Landsat ETM+ scenes (60m ground resolution) between 2000 and 2009. Different atmospheric correction methods and parameter sets were applied and the results compared to concurrent in situ measurements. However, no correction method proved to be superior to the others. Based on the comparison with the in situ measurements, the best correction was selected. The regionally varying differences showed that spatially fitted parameters should preferably be used in the future. Furthermore, the uncertainty of temperatures determined from satellite data was calculated. Considering the thermal resolution of the satellite data and the uncertainty of the calculated temperatures, temperature differences between the main river and the inflows of larger tributaries, e.g. the Moselle, or power plants and temperature distributions were evaluated. From satellite images, temperature values were extracted along the river centre line to create longitudinal river profiles. With these temperature profiles, the influence of smaller tributaries on the river temperature could be detected that was not visible directly at the outlet due to the uncertainty and the limitations of resolution. In addition, a more detailed investigation of smaller tributaries and spatial distribution of temperature differences was undertaken with high spatial resolution (4m) thermal data acquired by an airborne mission in October 2013.
Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn
Issues of state restructuring and rescaling are on the political agenda across Western Europe, but these processes of restructuring require different inflexions in different countries. This paper will concentrate on the case of Germany, and in particular will explore the establishment of a regime of metropolitan regions. It deals with the intensifying uneven development as well as with the management of this rescaling process. Considering one of these new spaces, Germany's biggest conurbation...
Knapp, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Peter
Heavy precipitation events are assumed effects of the climate change with wide seasonal and regional differences concerning their magnitude. An increase of particular short and intense rainfall is predicted by climate modelling for mid-Germany within the next 30 years, especially in spring and summer. The Rhine-Main-Area is stated one of the largest metropolitan areas in Germany with a very high density in population as well as industrial and traffic infrastructure. The vulnerability to natural hazards rises according to this fact. It is shown, that even today's heavy precipitation events have already a large extend of loss and cause high operational expenses to the Fire Departments involved, mainly caused by the enormous number of same-time reported incidents. The Fire Brigade of a community represents the responsible authority for rapid intervention to all kinds of emergencies resulting from heavy precipitation events. All emergency interventions by the local fire-brigade are coordinated by a superior local emergency control center, also operated by the Fire Department, where all incidents are logged in an electronic control system. The German Meteorological Service (DWD) offers support in previous warning and provides data for the subsequent evaluation of heavy precipitation events. The analysis of the correlation between heavy precipitation and reported local incidents for the Fire Departments helps to point out the problem. Within the efforts to cope with the consequences of climate change effects, the authorities as well as the hazard control institutions have to prepare new strategies and emergency plans for the future as requested by the German "National adaption strategy to the climate change". This is not especially a task for the Fire Brigades, but also for the general public to enhance their resilience. Keywords: emergency planning, infrastructure, heavy-precipitation
The PS-InSAR (Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry) method and precise levelings provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of both measurement techniques are analyzed at Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in order to gain detailed insight into the velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). As central and most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, the seismically and tectonically active Rhine Graben is of steady geo-scientific interest. In the last decades, the URG is characterized by small tectonic movements (geothermal energy) inducing larger surface displacements. To assess the geohazards in the URG area, we aim to provide a map of the current 3D surface displacements with high precision and high spatial resolution. The InSAR and leveling data, and the location of permanent GNSS sites primarily analyzed for the horizontal velocity field, are displayed in Fig. 1. Precise levelings have been carried out by the surveying authorities of Germany, France and Switzerland over the last 100 years building a network of leveling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the leveling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates with accuracies of 0.2 to 0.4 mm/a. The biggest disadvantage of the leveling database is the sparse spatial distribution of the measurement points. Therefore, PS-InSAR is used to significantly increase the number of points within the leveling loops. To obtain a high accuracy for line of sight displacement rates, ERS-1/2 and Envisat data from ascending and descending orbits covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed using StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers). As the tectonic displacements cover a large area, the separation of atmospheric effects and orbit errors plays an important role in the PS-InSAR processing chain. Besides the tectonic signal, man-induced surface displacements caused by oil extraction are investigated. A comparison between the estimates from leveling and InSAR provides detailed insight into the temporal and spatial characteristics of the surface displacement as well as into the possibilities and limits of the measurement techniques.
Fuhrmann, T.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.
During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U. Braun (new for Germany) on Pastinaca sativa L., Podosphaera tridactyla (WalIr.) de Bary on Prunus laurocerasus L., Septoria cornicola Desm. on Cornus sanguinea L., Stigmina tinea (Sacc.) M.B.Ellis on Viburnum opulus L., Torula herbarum (Pers.) Link on Potentilla argentea L., etc. All species are located in the herbarium Mycotheca parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:20222564
Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred
Most present day estuaries formed within incised fluvial valleys, created during the last glacial, that drowned during post-glacial sea-level rise. The sedimentary archive of the associated river-mouth areas contains important information on estuarine evolution under different rates of sea-level rise. This thesis presents a study on the development of the mouth of the Rhine-Meuse system in the Rotterdam area, western Netherlands, between 12000-6000 BP. During the study tens of thousands of co...
Hijma, M. P.
Recent flood events and socio-economic developments have increased the awareness of the need for improved flood risk management along the Rhine and Meuse Rivers. In response to this, the IRMA-SPONGE program incorporated 13 research projects in which over 30 organisations from all 6 River Basin Countries co-operated. The pro- gram is financed partly by the European INTERREG Rhine-Meuse Activities (IRMA). The main aim of IRMA-SPONGE is defined as: "The development of methodologies and tools to assess the impact of flood risk reduction measures and of land-use and climate change scenarios. This to support the spatial planning process in establish- ing alternative strategies for an optimal realisation of the hydraulic, economical and ecological functions of the Rhine and Meuse River Basins." Further important objec- tives are to promote transboundary co-operation in flood risk management by both scientific and management organisations, and to promote public participation in flood management issues. The projects in the program are grouped in three clusters, looking at measures from different scientific angles. The results of the projects in each cluster have been evaluated to define recommendations for flood risk management; some of these outcomes call for a change to current practices, e.g.: 1. (Flood Risk and Hydrol- ogy cluster): hydrological changes due to climate change exceed those due to further land use change, and are significant enough to necessitate a change in flood risk man- agement strategies if the currently claimed protection levels are to be sustained. 2. (Flood Protection and Ecology cluster): to not only provide flood protection but also enhance the ecological quality of rivers and floodplains, new flood risk management concepts ought to integrate ecological knowledge from start to finish, with a clear perspective on the type of nature desired and the spatial and time scales considered. 3. (Flood Risk Management and Spatial Planning cluster): extreme floods can not be prevented by taking mainly upstream measures; significant and space-consuming lo- cal measures will therefore be needed in the lower Rhine and Meuse deltas. However, there is also a need for improved flood risk management upstream, which calls for better spatial planning procedures. More detailed information on the IRMA-SPONGE program can be found on our website: www.irma-sponge.org.
Hooijer, A.; van Os, A. G.
Biological early warning systems represent a set of tools that may be able to respond to certain chemical monitoring requirements of recent European legislation, the Water Framework Directive (WFD2000/60/EC), that aims to improve and protect water quality across Europe. In situ biomonitoring was performed along the rivers Meuse (NL), Aller (GER) and Rhine (F) within the frame of the European Union-funded Project SWIFT-WFD. Gammarus pulex was used as a test organism during the evaluation of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor(R) (MFB), an online biomonitor to quantitatively record different behaviour patterns of animals. At the river Meuse G. pulex reacted to pulse exposure of either a mixture of trace metals or of several organic xenobiotics, by showing up to 20% decreased locomotory activity (already at the 1st pulse) and increased mortality (at 2nd or 3rd pulse only). G. pulex deployed within the MFB system were observed to survive well at the monitoring station on the Aller (100%) and monitoring did not result in the measurement of chemical irregularities. In contrast, deployment at the monitoring station on the Rhine river demonstrated that the test organism was able to detect chemical irregularities by up to 20% decreased locomotory activity in the animals. The MFB proved to be an alert system for water quality monitoring at sensitive sites and sites with accidental pollution. PMID:17726559
Gerhardt, Almut; Kienle, Cornelia; Allan, Ian J; Greenwood, Richard; Guigues, Nathalie; Fouillac, Anne-Marie; Mills, Graham A; Gonzalez, Catherine
Legislative norms developed at the end of the 1970s, structural changes in the economy, and the implementation of filters in both vehicles and industries improved the air quality of North Rhine-Westphalia, the largest western state in Germany in terms of population and economic output. Because these changes occurred unevenly across the state, the main aim of the given study is to analyse the historical development of air pollutants in the various environments (e.g., industrial, traffic or rural background) within the state. NO, NO2 and O3 concentrations observed at six stations (one industrial, two traffic, one urban and two rural background) from 1981 to 2007 have been obtained from the Environmental State Agency for Nature, Environment and Consumer Protection (LANUV NRW). These data have been evaluated to investigate time trends of these pollutants and the impact of weekly cycles on ozone formation in NOx-limited areas (rural background) and VOC-limited areas (urban areas with traffic network). The relationships between ozone production mechanisms and ozone precursors (NO, NO2 and their ratio) have also been taken into account. In contrast to the sharp decrease in NO concentrations (65%), only a moderate, insignificant decrease in NO2 (10%) was observed because catalytic filters in vehicles support emissions of NO2 as a primary pollutant. Changes in NO/NO2 ratio and higher temperature favoured an increase in ozone concentrations (20%), which appears to be the indicator of summer smog. The results showed that, although ozone forming potential is higher at background stations due to higher biogenic VOC and lower NO emissions, time trends were steeper at the industrial stations because of radical changes in NOx concentrations. Examination of the weekly and diurnal cycles of NO and NO2 showed that not only the absolute average values of the pollution levels decreased (with a turning point in 1998) but also the shape of the diurnal cycle (differences between primary and secondary peaks) changed in response to developed legislative norms (Bayerisches Landesamt für Umweltschutz, 2011).
Melkonyan, Ani; Kuttler, Wilhelm
Investigations of effects of thermal discharges in Rhine river waters. Part of a coordinated programme on the physical and biological effects of cooling systems and thermal discharges at nuclear power plants
The report envisages two aspects of cooling systems: heat exchange between water and atmosphere; cooling tower plume modelling. The author gives the estimated ''cooling capacity'' of German rivers and estuaries and describes a station at Rheinhausen, measuring directly the heat exchange between the river Rhine and the atmosphere. The influence of meteorological and topographical parameters is discussed and the total incertainty in extrapolating formular is assessed. A number of field studies have been carried out to measure plume behaviour of cooling towers and to provide the data basis for comparison of existing models. The average plume rise is well predicted. The experimental programme carried out in Germany since 1973 is described. The one dimensional models TOWER and SAUNA.S are in agreement with experimental results except for short plumes. The last plume model WALKURE shows considerable improvement. It is specially suited for the calculations of the cooling tower plume behaviour under influence of temperature and humidity stratifications in the ambient atmosphere
Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.
Grazhdankin A. S.
The State Authority for Water and Waste Management has been testing the Rhine and the most important surface waters of North-Rhine Westphalia for radioactivity ever since it was founded in 1969. Radiation exposure of human beings who use Rhine water is far below the permitted maximum values of the 'radiation protection ordinance'. Pollution of the Rhine and its tributaries in North-Rhine Westphalia with artificial radioactive substances has even slightly decreased over the past ten years; pollution of the River Emscher with natural radioactive material remained high, the Lippe River now contains less radium than before. (orig./PW)
In North Rhine-Westphalia, large areas are affected by mining legacies endangering the ground surface and public safety. The problems arising and the current risk management are demonstrated at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district. Hazards especially result from outcrops of coal seams mined at shallow depths and shafts whilst galleries usually seem to be rather unperilous due to their depth and small dimension. In this paper, the design of hazard zones and the assignment of hazard classes are described. Recent scientific developments related to the size of hazard areas are described and an outlook on future procedures is given. (authors)
In North Rhine-Westphalia, large areas are affected by mining legacies endangering the ground surface and public safety. The problems arising and the current risk management are demonstrated at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district. Hazards especially result from outcrops of coal seams mined at shallow depths and shafts whilst galleries usually seem to be rather unperilous due to their depth and small dimension. In this paper, the design of hazard zones and the assignment of hazard classes are described. Recent scientific developments related to the size of hazard areas are described and an outlook on future procedures is given. (authors)
Heitfeld, M.; Mainz, M.; Schetelig, K. [IngenieurBuro Heitfeld-Schetelig, Aachen (Germany)
Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GP in rural areas of Germany are struggling to find successors for their private practices. Telemonitoring at home offers an option to support remaining GPs and specialists in ambulatory care. Methods We assessed the knowledge and attitude towards telemedicine in the population of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW, Germany, in a population-based telephone survey. Results Out of 2,006 participants, 734 (36.6% reported an awareness of telemedical devices. Only 37 participants (1.8% have experience in using them. The majority of participants were in favour of using them in case of illness (72.2%. However, this approval declined with age. These findings were similar in rural and urban areas. Participants who were in favour of telemedicine (n = 1,480 strongly agreed that they would have to see their doctor less often, and that the doctor would recognize earlier relevant changes in their vital status. Participants who disliked to be monitored by telemedical devices preferred to receive immediate feedback from their physician. Especially, the elderly fear the loss of personal contact with their physician. They need the direct patient-physician communication. Conclusions The fear of being left alone with the technique needs to be compensated for today's elderly patients to enhance acceptance of home telemonitoring as support for remaining doctors either in the rural areas or cities.
The aim of this study is to predict the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in river flood plain soils. We compared mechanistic geochemical modeling with a statistical approach. To characterize the heavy metal contamination of embanked river flood plain soils in The Netherlands, we collected 194 soil samples at 133 sites distributed in the Dutch part of the Rhine and Meuse river systems. We measured the total amounts of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the soil samples and the metal ...
Schro?der, T. J.; Hiemstra, T.; Vink, J. P. M.
The distribution and ecology of mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis complex were studied in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse in the southwest of The Netherlands. The study area was previously malarious, with A. atroparvus being the only vector. 125 potential aquatic habitats of A. maculipennis were sampled, of which 47 (37.6%) contained larvae of this species complex. Larval densities varied from 7.4–325.93 larvae m?2. There was no correlation between chlorinity (‰) of the w...
Takken, W.; Geene, R.; Adam, W.; Jetten, T. H.; Velden, J. A.
Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels.
Schipper, Aafke M. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: email@example.com; Wijnhoven, Sander [Centre for Sustainable Management of Resources, Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Monitor Taskforce, P.O. Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke (Netherlands); Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)
Chemical and biological monitoring was carried out for 5 years following pilot remediations at two locations in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The remediations consisted of partial excavation of the contaminated sediments, followed by applying a clean layer of sandy material on top. After the remediation, a new silty sediment top layer was formed exhibiting a lower toxicity in five sediment/sediment pore water bioassays. Compared to the unremediated sites, lower metal and PAH concentrations were found at the remediated sites, but in one location at the same time elevated HCH, PCB and HCB levels were recorded. One year after the remediation, the differences became smaller, although effects-based classification showed that the remediated site showed a higher quality up to the last year. In both remediated sites a rapid recolonization of nematodes, oligochaetes and chironomids was observed, while the recolonization by bivalves was slower. A few years after the remediation the differences decrease. - Capping contaminated sediments can be an effective remediation measure in two large river deltas
Full Text Available The ability to estimate Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS realistically is essential for understanding past hydrological events and predicting future changes in the hydrological cycle. Inadequacies in model physics, uncertainty in model land parameters, and uncertainties in meteorological data commonly limit the accuracy of hydrological models in simulating TWS. In an effort to improve model performance, this study investigated the benefits of assimilating TWS estimates derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE data into the OpenStreams-wflow model using an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF approach. The study area chosen was the Rhine River basin, which has both well-calibrated model parameters and high-quality forcing data that were used for experimentation and comparison. Four different case studies were examined which were designed to evaluate different levels of forcing data quality and resolution including those typical of other less well-monitored river basins. The results were validated using in situ groundwater and stream gauge data. The analysis showed a noticeable improvement in groundwater estimates when GRACE data were assimilated, with an overall improvement of up to 71% in correlation coefficient (from 0.31 to 0.53 and 35% in RMS error (from 8.4 to 5.4 cm compared to the reference (ensemble open-loop case. Only a slight overall improvement was observed in streamflow estimates when GRACE data were assimilated. Further analysis suggested that this is likely due to sporadic short terms, but sizeable, errors in the forcing data and the lack of sufficient constraints on the soil moisture component. Overall, the results highlight the benefit of assimilating GRACE data into hydrological models, particularly in data-sparse regions, while also providing insight on future refinements of the methodology.
The ability to estimate Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) realistically is essential for understanding past hydrological events and predicting future changes in the hydrological cycle. Inadequacies in model physics, uncertainty in model land parameters, and uncertainties in meteorological data commonly limit the accuracy of hydrological models in simulating TWS. In an effort to improve model performance, this study investigated the benefits of assimilating TWS estimates derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) data into the OpenStreams-wflow model using an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) approach. The study area chosen was the Rhine River basin, which has both well-calibrated model parameters and high-quality forcing data that were used for experimentation and comparison. Four different case studies were examined which were designed to evaluate different levels of forcing data quality and resolution including those typical of other less well-monitored river basins. The results were validated using in situ groundwater and stream gauge data. The analysis showed a noticeable improvement in groundwater estimates when GRACE data were assimilated, with an overall improvement of up to 71% in correlation coefficient (from 0.31 to 0.53) and 35% in RMS error (from 8.4 to 5.4 cm) compared to the reference (ensemble open-loop) case. Only a slight overall improvement was observed in streamflow estimates when GRACE data were assimilated. Further analysis suggested that this is likely due to sporadic short terms, but sizeable, errors in the forcing data and the lack of sufficient constraints on the soil moisture component. Overall, the results highlight the benefit of assimilating GRACE data into hydrological models, particularly in data-sparse regions, while also providing insight on future refinements of the methodology.
Tangdamrongsub, N.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Gunter, B. C.; Ditmar, P. G.; Weerts, A. H.
This paper presents the occurrence, cause and frequency changes of floods, their development and distribution along the southern part of the upper Rhine River and of 14 of its tributaries in France and Germany covering the period from 1480 BC. Special focus is given on the temporal and spatial variations and underlying meteorological causes which show a significant change over space and time. Examples are presented how long-term information can help to improve transnational risk and risk management analysis while connecting single historical and modern extreme events.
Himmelsbach, I.; Glaser, R.; Schoenbein, J.; Riemann, D.; Martin, B.
Local seismic shear wave anisotropy is studied with recordings of microearthquakes near Landau and Insheim in the central Upper Rhine Graben, SW Germany. Although the recordings have a low signal-to-noise level and there is a complex heterogeneous 3-D tectonic structure, a time separation ?t between horizontally polarised SH-waves and vertically polarised SV-waves can be observed in seismograms and particle motion diagrams. The observations can be explained by azimuthal anisotropy in the upper crust with a direction ? 0 = 155° east of north for the fast polarisation direction of SV-waves. A gradient of time separation with distance x of ?t/x ~ 10 ms/km can explain the data. This model can be interpreted with a classical scenario of fluid-filled (sub-)vertical cracks with a preferred NNW-SSE orientation. Known faults strike NNW-SSE around Landau and Insheim and the seismicity pattern is also oriented in this direction. This direction coincides with the regional orientation of the maximum horizontal stress ( ? H ), and fluids apparently exist at depth as known from geothermal water extraction. Furthermore, we find that 3-D seismic velocity heterogeneities have a much larger influence on the precision of the microearthquake location than the anisotropy effect in this complex tectonic region. This is obvious from the up to five times larger travel time residuals (maximum -0.5 s and +0.35 s), which are used as station corrections during the location procedure, compared to the anisotropic ?t observations (maximum 0.1 s).
Frietsch, Michael; Groos, Jörn C.; Ritter, Joachim R. R.
Water temperature is an important parameter of water quality and influences other physical and chemical parameters. It also directly influences the survival and growth of animal and plant species in river ecosystems. In situ measurements do not allow for a total spatial coverage of water bodies and rivers that is necessary for monitoring and research at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany. Hence, the ability of different remote sensing products to identify and investigate water inflows and water temperatures in Federal waterways is evaluated within the research project 'Remote sensing of water surface temperature'. The research area for a case study is the Upper and Middle Rhine River from the barrage in Iffezheim to Koblenz. Satellite products (e. g. Landsat and ASTER imagery) can only be used for rivers at least twice as wide as the spatial resolution of the satellite images. They can help to identify different water bodies only at tributaries with larger inflow volume (Main and Mosel) or larger temperature differences between the inflow (e. g. from power plants working with high capacity) and the river water. To identify and investigate also smaller water inflows and temperature differences, thermal data with better ground and thermal resolution is required. An aerial survey of the research area was conducted in late October 2013. Data of the surface was acquired with two camera systems, a digital camera with R, G, B, and Near-IR channels, and a thermal imaging camera measuring the brightness temperature in the 8-12 m wavelength region (TIR). The resolution of the TIR camera allowed for a ground resolution of 4 m, covering the whole width of the main stream and larger branches. The RGB and NIR data allowed to eliminate land surface temperatures from the analysis and to identify clouds and shadows present during the data acquisition. By degrading the spatial resolution and adding sensor noise, artificial Landsat ETM+ and TIRS datasets were created to evaluate whether the methods applied to the aerial survey data are also applicable for satellite datasets. In situ measurements were obtained from water quality measurement stations and specifically deployed temperature loggers. Two alternative methods to correct for atmospheric influences were evaluated: calibration based on in situ water temperature measurements and atmospheric correction based on atmospheric parameters modelled with MODTRAN R5. Both methods rely on input data, the former on in situ measurements of the water temperature, the latter on data from climate stations. The results are validated by the dataset of independent in situ measurements. The remaining difference of the corrected aerial survey to the in situ measurements could be reduced to 0.0±0.2 C for the calibration and 0.1±0.3 C for the atmospheric correction. The variance of the atmospheric correction proved to be larger than of the in situ calibration method, but still smaller than the variance of atmospherically corrected, real LANDSAT ETM+ data. Inflows with differing water temperatures could be identified successfully with the change point analysis method even for smaller dischargers and the mixing processes of water bodies with different temperatures could be traced into great detail. With decreasing spatial resolution and increasing sensor noise, the ability to detect inflows remained the same, but at the cost of a higher number of 'false positive' change points.
Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn
Accurate streamflow simulations in large river basins are crucial to predict timing and magnitude of floods and droughts and to assess the hydrological impacts of climate change. Water balance models have been used frequently for these purposes. Compared to water balance models, however, land surface models carry the potential to more accurately estimate hydrological partitioning and thus streamflow, because they solve the coupled water and energy balance and are able to exploit a larger part...
Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Moel, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Troch, P. A.
Terrestrial water storage (TWS) can be defined as an integrated measure of surface water, soil moisture, snow water, and groundwater. TWS data is valuable for water resources management and hydrology. The ability to simulate realistic TWS is essential for understanding past hydrological events and predicting future changes of the hydrological cycle. Inadequacies in physics, deficiencies in land characteristics and uncertainties in meteorological data commonly limit the performance of hydrological models in estimating TWS. In this study, we investigated the benefits of assimilating TWS derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) into the Wflow HBV-96 model using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). Since hydrological model parameters are often uncertain over a large part of the Earth, we investigated the impact of GRACE assimilation in different model scenarios representing different degrees of data availability. Four case studies were considered comparing calibrated and non-calibrated model parameters and local and global forcing data. The chosen study area is the Rhine River basin. Our results were validated using in-situ stream gauge data. In all scenarios, the temporal signatures of the averaged TWS are similar after assimilating GRACE while the spatial distribution is heavily influenced by the model parameters and input data as well as their uncertainties. Assimilation using the EnKF reduced the standard deviation at every updating stage, resulting in lower standard deviations than the model or the observations alone. Discrepancies between the local and global precipitation products had a significant impact on discharge estimates. For instance, when the global forcing data were used, discharge was drastically overestimated when spurious heavy rainfall occurred during the winter. Based on the correlation coefficient, Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) computed between the estimated and measured discharges at 13 gauge stations, we concluded that GRACE assimilation slightly improves the model performance when the model is well calibrated (calibrated parameters with local forcing data). More importantly, the improvement observed for the non-calibrated model (non-calibrated parameters with global forcing data), suggests that the impact of GRACE assimilation may be more significant in data-sparse regions.
Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Gunter, Brian C.; Widiastuti, Endang; Weerts, Albrecht; Ditmar, Pavel; Tsompanopoulos, Efstratios
The overall goal of this model study is to quantify the hydrological impact of a double CO2 scenario for the entire German part of the Rhine basin, based on the correspond- ing simulation results of the GCM ECHAM 4. Currently, GCM-models may simulate realistic fields of meteorological state variables, especially air pressure, but they may not simulate precipitation data suitable for distributed hydrological modelling pur- poses, due to their coarse spatial resolution and poor representation of precipitation relevant processes on that scale. To overstep this hurdle we statistically generated rain- fall and temperature fields conditioned to the simulated pressure data in two steps. First we optimised a set of fuzzy rules for classification of pressure fields into circulation patterns, to explain the basin scale space-time variability of observed rainfall and tem- perature. For the optimisation we used rainfall data from selected stations in the Rhine basin to define the objective function as well as observed NMC pressure data. Given the optimised fuzzy rules for CP classification the simulated pressure fields from the double CO2 scenario were classified into a daily sequence of CPs, that served as input for a stochastical generation of rainfall and temperature fields. Rainfall was linked to the individual CPs using conditional probabilities, that are a function of season and location. Temperature was modelled using an autoregressive approach, conditioned on atmospheric circulation and local point or areal precipitation. These generated rainfall and temperature fields served as input data for a simulation of the hydrological cycle in the Rhine basin for a period of 30 years using the HBV- model. The model was calibrated to the actual climate using observed rainfall and temperature data from 949 stations as well as discharge data from 100 gauges in the Rhine basin. By comparing the simulated hydrological cycle based on the CO2 sce- nario to the corresponding observations of the last 30 years, the possible impact of a climate change could be quantified. Due to a clear rise of the average daily tempera- ture in the winter season, the amount of snow coverage in the Rhine basin was clearly reduced. Furthermore, the occurrence of CPs with a high precipitation probability was reduced in the scenario, shifting the precipitation regime to more arid conditions. These changes in the temperature and precipitation regime did clearly affect the av- erage discharge regime as well as the amount and magnitude of flood events in the Rhine basin.
Zehe, E.; Bardossy, A.
Nutrients are important components of the global biochemical cycle, and are key controls of the quality of inland and coastal waters. Quantification of the nutrient fluxes from large river basins to the oceans still relies on long-term yearly-load estimates; existing models are essentially empirical budget models that relate total annual basin output to estimates of basin-wide nutrient emissions. In this type of models identification of the source areas, as well as quantificati...
Loos, S.; Middelkoop, H.; Perk, M.; Beek, L. P. H.
Tables present the methods of analysis and the data obtained on inorganic, organic, and radioactive impurities in Rhine water. The measuring stations were located in Switzerland, France, West Germany, and the Netherlands. (HP)
We investigate the ability of combining the Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) with the kriging method to extract regional information from a set of point measurements. This method was applied to a set of 195 piezometric head time series over a period of 17 years from observation wells distributed within the French and German area of the Rhine valley alluvial groundwater body. Piezometric head time series are analyzed with KLT in order to highlight characteristic temporal signals, classified fro...
Longuevergne, Laurent; Florsch, Nicolas; Elsass, Philippe
The coastal areas of the Southern North Sea (SNS) experience eutrophication problems resulting from freshwater nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs from rivers. In particular, massive blooms of Phaeocystis colonies occur in Belgian waters. In this region, water masses result from the mixing of Western Channel (WCH) waters transported through the Straits of Dover with nutrient-rich freshwater from the Scheldt, the Rhine and Meuse, the Seine, the Thames and other smaller rivers. However, the relative contribution of the WCH and each river to the inorganic nutrient pool and the impact on the phytoplankton community structure (diatoms and Phaeocystis) are not known. In order to effectively manage the eutrophication problems, it is necessary to know: (i) the relative contribution of the WCH and of each river impacting the region and (ii) the relative effect of a N and/or P nutrient reduction on the Phaeocystis blooms. To answer these questions, sensitivity tests (1% nutrient reduction) and nutrient reduction scenarios (50% nutrient reduction) have been performed with a three-dimensional (3D) coupled physical-biogeochemical model (MIRO&CO-3D). MIRO&CO-3D results from the coupling of the COHERENS 3D hydrodynamic model with the ecological model MIRO. The model has been set up for the region between 48.5°N, 4°W and 52.5°N, 4.5°E and run to simulate the annual cycle of carbon, inorganic and organic nutrients, phytoplankton (diatoms and Phaeocystis), bacteria and zooplankton (microzooplankton and copepods) in the SNS under realistic forcing (meteorology and river inputs) for the period 1991-2003. The relative contribution of the WCH waters and of the different rivers on the inorganic nutrient pool available for phytoplankton (diatoms and Phaeocystis) growth is assessed by decreasing by 1% the nutrient (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, DIN and inorganic phosphate, PO 4) inputs from the WCH and from, respectively, the Scheldt (and smaller Belgian rivers), the Rhine/Meuse and the Seine (and smaller French rivers) [sensitivity tests]. The relative role of N and P reduction on the diatoms/ Phaeocystis distribution is further explored by simulations with 50% reduction of the total (inorganic and organic) N and total P river inputs [nutrient reduction scenarios]. These scenarios allow assessing the impact of the expected 50% reduction of river nutrient inputs resulting from the implementation of nutrient reduction policy. Results of the sensitivity tests suggest that the impact of a 1% reduction of river nutrient inputs on surface nutrients (DIN and PO 4) over the Belgian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) area is similar for the Seine and the Scheldt, which are in turn greater than for the Rhine. However, a hypothetical 1% reduction of nutrient input from the WCH boundary would have a higher impact than for the Scheldt. The impact of nutrient reduction is higher for DIN than for PO 4 whatever the river (contrary to the WCH). DIN is more sensitive to riverine nutrient reduction because the rivers are over enriched in DIN compared to PO 4. The sensitivity tests suggest also that a PO 4 river input reduction would result in a N:P increase and a DIN river input reduction would result in a N:P decrease but that a combined (PO 4 and DIN) input reduction would reduce the N:P ratio at sea. From 50% nutrient reduction scenarios, model results suggest that a total P reduction would induce a significant decrease of diatoms and a small (coast) to negligible (offshore) decrease of Phaeocystis biomass. On the contrary, a total N reduction would induce a significant decrease of Phaeocystis biomass and a moderate increase of diatoms. When N and P river input reductions are combined, the model predicts a significant decrease of Phaeocystis biomass in Belgian waters and a significant decrease of diatom biomass in the coastal waters and a small increase offshore. A future management plan aiming at Phaeocystis reduction should thus prioritise N reduction.
Lacroix, Geneviève; Ruddick, Kevin; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane
The upstream-downstream relationship in international river basins is a traditional challenge in water management. Water use in upstream countries often has a negative impact on water use in downstream countries. This is most evident in the classical example of industrial pollution in upstream countries hindering drinking water production downstream. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) gives new impetus to the river basin approach and to international co-operation in European catchments. It aims at transforming a mainly water quality oriented management into a more integrated approach of ecosystem management. After discussing the traditional upstream-downstream relationship, this article shows that the WFD has a balancing effect on upstream-downstream problems and that it enhances river basin solidarity in international basins. While it lifts the downstream countries to the same level as the upstream countries, it also leads to new duties for the downstream states. Following the ecosystem approach, measures taken by downstream countries become increasingly more important. For example, downstream countries need to take measures to allow for migrating fish species to reach upstream stretches of river systems. With the WFD, fish populations receive increased attention, as they are an important indicator for the ecological status. The European Commission acquires a new role of inspection and control in river basin management, which finally also leads to enhanced cooperation and solidarity among the states in a basin. In order to achieve better water quality and to mitigate upstream-downstream problems, also economic instruments can be applied and the WFD does not exclude the possibility of making use of financial compensations, if at the same time the polluter pays principle is taken into account. The results presented in this article originate from a broader study on integrated water resources management conducted at Bonn University and refer to the Rhine and Elbe basins (Moellenkamp, 2006).
Full Text Available Flood mitigation measures implemented by private households have become an important component of contemporary integrated flood risk management in Germany and many other countries. Despite the growing responsibility of private households to contribute to flood damage reduction by means of private flood mitigation measures, knowledge on the long-term development of such measures, which indicates changes in vulnerability over time, and their effectiveness, is still scarce. To gain further insights into the long-term development, current implementation level and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures, empirical data from 752 flood-prone households along the German part of the Rhine are presented. It is found that four types of flood mitigation measures developed gradually over time among flood-prone households, with severe floods being important triggers for an accelerated implementation. At present, still a large share of respondents has not implemented a single flood mitigation measure, despite the high exposure of the surveyed households to floods. The records of household's flood damage to contents and structure during two consecutive flood events with similar hazard characteristics in 1993 and 1995 show that an improved preparedness of the population led to substantially reduced damage during the latter event. Regarding the efficiency of contemporary integrated flood risk management, it is concluded that additional policies are required in order to further increase the level of preparedness of the flood-prone population. This especially concerns households in areas that are less frequently affected by flood events.
Social vulnerability indices are a means for generating information about people potentially affected by disasters that are e.g. triggered by river-floods. The purpose behind such an index is in this study the development and the validation of a social vulnerability map of population characteristics towards river-floods covering all counties in Germany. This map is based on a composite index of three main indicators for social vulnerability in Germany – fragility, socio-economic conditions ...
The ability to quickly link a complete water quality model to any distributed hydrological model can be of great value. It provides the hydrological modeller with more information on the performance of the model by being able to add particle tracing and independent mass balance calculations to an existing distributed hydrological model. It also allows for full catchment water quality calculations forced by emissions to different hydrological compartments, taking into account the relevant processes in the different compartments of the hydrological model. A combined distributed hydrological model and hydrochemical model (Delwaq) have been combined within the modeling framework OpenStreams to model large scale hydrological processes in the Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch border at Lobith. Several models have been setup to evaluate (1) the origin of high and low flows in the Rhine basin based on subcatchment contribution and (2) the contribution of different land covers to the total flow with special reference to urban land cover. In addition (3) the relative share of fast and slow runoff components in the total river discharge has been quantified, as well as the age of these two fractions, both as a function of time. Finally (4) the transmission of a pollutant released in infiltrating water and undergoing sorption has been simulated, as a first test for implementing full water quality modelling. The results of a thirty-five year run using daily time steps for 1975 to 2010 were analysed for monthly average contribution to the total flow of each subcatchment and the different land cover types both for average flow conditions and for the top ten and bottom ten flow percentiles. Furthermore, a number of high and low flow events have been analysed in detail. They reveal the large contribution of the basin area upstream of Basel to the dry season flow, especially during the driest summers. Flood conditions in the basin have a more varied origin with the Moselle being the main contributor. The amount of urban land cover (6.7%) generated a fairly large amount of (quick) runoff. In times up to 21 % of the flow at Lobith is generated in urban areas. The location of urban areas (in general close to the river) in combination with the associated impermeable surfaces most probably cause the relatively large contribution of urban areas. The fast runoff fraction at Lobith has an average age between 5 and 25 days, depending on the hydrology within the year, while the slow runoff fraction shows an average age between 300 and 600 days, again depending on the hydrology within the year. The time needed to flush out 90% of the total volume of water from the basin is about 20 years.
Schellekens, Jaap; van Gils, Jos; Christophe, Christophe; Sperna-Weiland, Frederiek; Winsemius, Hessel
This article takes a look at the situation in the upper Rhine valley with respect to its geothermal potential. The Rhine Graben, being part of the European Mid-Continental Rift System is characterised by thinned crust and therefore higher heat flow rates. According to the author, the Rhine Graben presents generally favourable conditions for geothermal energy development and utilisation. This illustrated article presents information on the geological structures to be found and figures obtained from the geothermal exploration project at Soulz-sous-Forets, France, and a number of other geothermal investigation and production projects in Germany.
Rol' reki Rejn v formirovanii prostranstvennoj struktury jekonomiki stran Evropy (I vek do nashej jery — XIX vek [The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD
Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.
Clay mineral formation and fluid-rock interaction in fractured crystalline rocks of the Rhine rift system : case studies from the Soultz-sous-Forêts granite (France) and the Schauenburg Fault (Germany)
The following study deals with the fluid-alteration history of fractured and faulted crystalline granitic basement in the Rhine rift system, based on the analytical investigation of clay mineral assemblages. It evaluates the argillite mineralizations along faults and fracture zones at key tectonic positions in relation to the upper Rhine graben rift structure and assesses the timing and episodic nature of clay mineral formation that occurred within both the buried basement rocks and similar e...
The dynamics of the Rhine outflow plume in the proximity of the river mouth is investigated by using remote sensing data and numerical simulations. The remote sensing data consist of 41 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired by the First and Second European Remote Sensing satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 over the outflow region of the river Rhine. Most of them show sea surface signatures of oceanic phenomena, for example, surface current and wind variations, ship wakes, and oil slicks. In p...
Hessner, Katrin; Rubino, Angelo; Brandt, Peter; Alpers, Werner
Fish abundance surveys have shown that the Lower Rhine was invaded by sculpins (Cottus sp.) within two decades. These fish are found in habitats that are untypical for Cottus gobio. In order to find source populations and reasons for this invasion an evolutionary genetic analysis of populations from the Rhine and surrounding rivers was conducted. A combined analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial markers suggests that invasive sculpins are hybrids between lineages from the Rivers Scheldt and Rh...
Nolte, Arne W.
In 2000, all R and D activities in the nuclear sector were evaluated by a high-ranking commission under the direction of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). The responsible Ministries of Education and Research (BMBF) and of the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) as well as the research institutions active in nuclear R and D took part in this evaluation. In accordance with the recommendations made by this commission, the Alliance for Competence in Nuclear Technology was founded in April 2000 with the following members: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit. The neighboring universities that are active in the nuclear field and cooperate with the research centers are invited as permanent guests. In addition, representatives of the ministries are also present as guests. The Alliance for Competence meets every six months. The strategic goals of the Alliance for Competence are: - Presentation of the trends of job development and training capacities in the nuclear technology sector; - Enhanced cooperation with universities and support of international initiatives (e.g. ENEN, WNU); - Coordination and bundling of the activities in publicly funded nuclear safety and repository research; - Support of qualified young scientists - also by third-party funds; - Participation in the further development of international safety standards lopment of international safety standards (EU, IAEA, OECD-NEA) In the scope of intensifying the cooperation with universities, four 'sub-alliances' of the Alliance of Competence in Nuclear Engineering came into existence, mainly on a regional level: -The Competence Centre East (2004), consisting of the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD-R), the Verein fuer Kernverfahrungstechnik und Analytik (Association for Nuclear Process Technology and Analysis) Rossendorf (VKTA), the Technical University (TU) of Dresden, and the University of Applied Sciences (FH) Zittau/Goerlitz; -The Association for Research and Lecturing in Nuclear Engineering in Southwest Germany (2007), consisting of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), the Materials Testing Laboratory (MPA) Stuttgart, and the Universities of Karlsruhe, Stuttgart and Heidelberg as well as the Universities of Applied Sciences in Ulm and Furtwangen; -The Nuclear Engineering Forum West (2009), consisting of the Juelich Research Centre (FZJ), the RWTH Aachen University, and the Aachen/Juelich University of Applied Sciences; - The subject-oriented Final Disposal Research Group, consisting of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the Technical University of Berlin, and the University of Clausthal-Zellerfeld; - The interregional Alliance of Competence in Radiation Research (2007), consisting of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in Salzgitter (BfS), the Centre for Radiation Protection and Radioecology (ZSR) in Hanover, the German Research Centre for Environmental Health (GSF) in Munich, the Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) Leipzig-Halle, the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, the Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt, and the research centres in Juelich, Dresden/Rossendorf, and Karlsruhe. International activities were geared to two initiatives for the promotion of young nuclear scientists, in particular to the: - ENEN (European Nuclear Engineering Network); -WNU (World Nucl ear University). In both organizations, the Technical University of Munich is involved as the German representative of the Alliance of Competence. By the end of January 2010, the ENELA (European Nuclear Energy Leadership Academy) with its headquarters in Munich also joined
Full Text Available Social vulnerability indices are a means for generating information about people potentially affected by disasters that are e.g. triggered by river-floods. The purpose behind such an index is in this study the development and the validation of a social vulnerability map of population characteristics towards river-floods covering all counties in Germany. This map is based on a composite index of three main indicators for social vulnerability in Germany – fragility, socio-economic conditions and region. These indicators have been identified by a factor analysis of selected demographic variables obtained from federal statistical offices. Therefore, these indicators can be updated annually based on a reliable data source. The vulnerability patterns detected by the factor analysis are verified by using an independent second data set. The interpretation of the second data set shows that vulnerability is revealed by a real extreme flood event and demonstrates that the patterns of the presumed vulnerability match the observations of a real event. It comprises a survey of flood-affected households in three federal states. By using logistic regression, it is demonstrated that the theoretically presumed indications of vulnerability are correct and that the indicators are valid. It is shown that indeed certain social groups like the elderly, the financially weak or the urban residents are higher risk groups.
The Federal State of Saxony (Germany) transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams) for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD). Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton) and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements wer...
Uwe Müller; Katrin Ziegler; Karin Kuhn; Michaela Schönherr; Sylvia Rohde; Antje Mickel; Kerstin Jenemann; Frank Herbst; Steve Harnapp; Roland Dimmer; Holm Friese; Bernd Spänhoff
The groundwater flow regime in the jurassic karst and tertiary terrain near the Danube-river in the area of Ingolstadt/South Germany has been well discussed and investigated for years. However, a stringent explanation of the complex deep groundwater system at the meeting-point of young, karstic groundwater from the north (open karst) and old deep groundwater in the south (covered karst) is still lacking. Today, because of the increasing water use for drinking water supply in the high industrialized area of Ingolstadt, reliable hydrogeological answers and a future sustainable groundwater management system are needed. First symptoms of overexploitation are visible by hydrochemical and isotopic measurements. Coming from the actual state of hydrogeological knowledge, the use of isotope techniques provide distinct explanation for the complex genesis of the occurring groundwaters
Full Text Available A male of the jumping spider Icius hamatus (C. L. Koch, 1846 was found in a garden in Aachen (Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia. Establishment of this species in Germany cannot yet be proven.
The Lower Rhine Delta, a transitional area between the River Rhine and Meuse and the North Sea, is at risk of flooding induced by infrequent events of a storm surge or upstream flooding, or by more infrequent events of a combination of both. A joint probability analysis of the astronomical tide, the wind induced storm surge, the Rhine flow and the Meuse flow at the boundaries is established in order to produce the joint probability distribution of potential flood events. Three individual join...
Zhong, H.; -j Overloop, P.; Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.
Full Text Available The concentrations of tritium, helium isotopes and neon have been measured in groundwater samples from a shallow and deep groundwater system recharged by bank infiltration from the Oder River in northeastern Berlin, Germany. The apparent 3H/3He ages show a distinct variation. They increased from only a few months to >40 years along the flow path. The farthest wells from the river have high concentration of 4He terrigenic which is around 5 × 10?5 (ccSTP/kg. The highest values for stable 3H (3H + 3Hetrit were encountered at a 2.6 kmdistance from the river.
This study investigates the impact of climate change on three small to medium sized river catchments in Germany using a high-resolution RCM ensemble of seven kilometers spatial resolution. The three catchments represent the characteristic hydrology of the alpine Southern Germany (Ammer) and more sub-mountainous regions in the Eastern (Mulde) and Western (Ruhr) parts. Possible changes in discharge characteristics and flood risk for the near future are examined. The ensemble approach in this project additionally allows the evaluation of the uncertainties in the future projections. With two global climate models (ECHAM5, CCCma3), three realisations of ECHAM5, two regional climate models (CLM, WRF) and three hydrological models (PRMS, SWIM and WaSiM-ETH), discharge of the three catchments is simulated and analyzed. Thereby, each catchment is simulated by two different hydrological models. Both global climate models (GCMs) are driven by the emission scenario A1B and the simulation period includes the years 1971-2000 as control period and 2021-2050 for the scenario. The results project that only the Ruhr catchment in the West of Germany will be subjected to higher flood hazard. The simulated significant future increases of the mean monthly maximum discharges are up to 20% in winter and summer. In spring and autumn, increase of flood hazard is less pronounced. For the other two catchments in the East and South of Germany, the flood hazard is projected to stay at the current level. The Ammer catchment shows statistical non-significant increasing flooding risks in winter and decreasing tendencies in summer. There are also no statistically significant changes projected for the Mulde catchment, although small increases can be seen in summer and autumn. The ensemble approach with different GCMs, high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) and hydrological models allows the analysis of uncertainties and their attribution within the flood risk predictions. Major uncertainties of the model chain are revealed for the summer half-year, primarily due to the different results of the RCMs. During the winter season, the GCMs and the different realisations, representing natural variability, cause most uncertainty in the future projections. The impact of the hydrological models is comparable with the RCMs in winter and GCMs in summer.
Ott, I.; Düthmann, D.; Liebert, J.; Berg, P.; Feldmann, H.; Ihringer, J.; Kunstmann, H.; Merz, B.; Schädler, G.; Wagner, S.
The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource. However, as in many alluvial systems, the aquifer inflows and outflows are not precisely known because of the difficulty of estimating the river infiltration flux and the boundary subsurface flow. To provide a thorough representation of the aquifer system, a coupled surface-subsurface model was applied to the whole aquifer basin, and several parameter sets were tested to investigate the uncertainty due to poorly kn...
Thierion, Charlotte; Longuevergne, Laurent; Habets, Florence; Ledoux, Emmanuel; Ackerer, Philippe; Majdalani, Samer; Leblois, Etienne; Lecluse, Simon; Martin, Eric; Queguiner, Solen; Viennot, Pascal
The upstream-downstream relationship in international river basins is a traditional challenge in water management. Water use in upstream countries often has a negative impact on water use in downstream countries. This is most evident in the classical example of industrial pollution in upstream countries hindering drinking water production downstream. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) gives new impetus to the river basin approach and to international co-operation in Europea...
Looking at the present situation in Germany consortia show a considerable variety of organizational forms. Only in the case of the Friedrich-Althoff-Consortium in Berlin-Brandenburg a corporate body with deed of partnership does exist. In other German states consortia have been formed which are represented by an individual library (e.g. Baden-Württemberg) or by a central institution such as the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Bavaria or the Hochschulbibliothekszentrum NRW in North Rhine-Westp...
Werner Reinhardt; Peter Te Boekhorst
Aromatase activity was determined in brain and gonads of wild bream collected along the river Elbe, Germany, and correlated with other endocrine and reproductive endpoints such as plasma sex steroid concentrations, secondary sex characteristics (STI), plasma vitellogenin, gonad size (GSI), and maturation stages of germ cells (MS) that were reported for the same fish in a previous study. Furthermore, regional patterns of aromatase activity were correlated to a number of environmental factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants and parasitism. While aromatase activity was not detectable in the gonads of male and female fish with the assay used, fish of both genders revealed relatively great brain enzyme activities. As for most of the endocrine and reproductive parameters, with the exception of plasma testosterone (T), aromatase activities were significantly less in fish from a river stretch characterized by elevated exposures to organic contaminants and metals. Brain aromatase activity was positively and significantly correlated with plasma estradiol (E2) and MS in females, and showed a similar trend with plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and STI in males. No comparable trend occurred for T. This decrease of the reproductively relevant hormones 11KT and E2 may be indicative of a disruption of the last step in sex hormone synthesis, a hypothesis that was supported for E2 by the strong (R2=0.78, pLigula intestinalis correlated with the suppression of aromatase activity, the exact causes for the regional decrease in brain aromatase activity remain unclear due to inconsistencies of these correlations between sampling events or gender. PMID:16860843
Hecker, Markus; Sanderson, J Thomas; Karbe, Ludwig
A 400-year sediment record from a deep water scour hole near the Meuse River in the Netherlands (Haarsteegse Wiel) was investigated for past changes in water quality, flooding regime and landscape change using a combined geochemical and micropaleontological (diatom and pollen analyses) approach. The results are highly significant for determining natural water quality, the impact of (atmospheric) pollution on the (aquatic) flora and the study of the impact and signals related to river floods. The sediment was dated by combining 137Cs activity measurements, biostratigraphical ages and historically documented floodings indicated by the magnetic susceptibility of the sediment. The first flooding event is indicated in the sediment at AD 1610 when the lake was created by water masses bursting through a dike. The extent of large historical river floods are well described in historical chronicles and present an opportunity to study how a flood signal is represented in the lake catchment and provide an additional age calibration point. The resulting chronology is highly accurate and shows that sedimentation rates decrease sharply with the widespread change from wheat cultivation to pasture land from around AD 1875 as a direct result of falling wheat prices and intensified cattle farming. Water quality changes and absolute phosphorous concentrations are reconstructed using diatom-based transfer function. Results show that the currently nutrient rich lake water has mostly been in a mesotrophic state prior to AD 1920, with the exception of several sharp eutrophication events. These events generally occur in sediments deposited during river floods. The river flooding also impacts the vegetation composition by importing allochtonous components such as Nymphaea candida (non-native waterlillies), and indirectly by the deposition of nutrients which have a clear impact on vegetation composition and richness. Magnetic susceptibility changes and pollen data show that from AD 1610-1730, within the Little Ice Age period, a higher number of previously undocumented floods seem to have occurred which requires further study. Documentation of the flooding signals in a high-resolution archive present the possibility to detect flooding regimes further back in time. Measured records of river flooding in the Netherlands span maximally 150 yr and are extrapolated and used to calculate the frequency of (extreme) flooding events. By ground-truthing the extrapolated observational data with long-term records of river dynamics from natural archives we can reduce the uncertainties in the return times of floods and study the effect of long-term climate changes and human impact on the river catchment.
Bunnik, F. P. M.; Cremer, H.; Donders, T. H.; Kroon, I. C.
To study the behaviour of silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) during their downstream migration, particularly near a hydroelectric power dam, we tagged nine eels with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked their paths in the River Mosel, Germany. The onset of migration coincided with the first flood event that followed the full moon but was independent of daytime, because migration and turbine passage occurred during both day and night. During migration eels swam actively downstream with a veloci...
Behrmann-godel, Jasminca; Eckmann, Reiner
River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbers. Populations recover from cocoons that survive floods. If the period between two floods is too short such that cocoons cannot develop into reproductive adults, populations cannot sustain themsel...
Thonon, I.; Klok, C.
The Rhine Graben is the central segment of the European Cenozoic rift system (ECRIS) of Oligocene age, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100 km. The ECRIS has been formed in a region of pre-existing Hercynian zones of weakness and is related to alpine tectonics and the Africa-Eurasia collision. Here we will concentrate on the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). The URG is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges Mountains and to the east by the Black Forest Mountains. Culminating in ~1500 m in elevation, these two massifs represent the Eocene-Oligocene rift shoulders, but a large part of the differential uplift is much younger. The uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif bounds the graben to the north. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette and Vendlincourt folds represent the northernmost structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. The present-day distribution of the seismicity in the URG area is moderate but not null. In this talk, we will present reprocessed position time series of ~100 GPS stations around the URG corrected of the artefacts due to instrumental changes, precise baseline time series across the URG, and a preliminary velocity field. The aim of this study is to define a first precise upper bound of the velocities and strain rates within the URG. Relative velocities are probably lower than 0.1mm/yr.
Masson, F.; Lehujeur, M.; Ulrich, P.; Doubre, C.; Knöpfler, A.; Mayer, M.; Heck, B.
This study is a part of main program RIMAX "risk management of extreme flood events", which concerns itself of "extremes floodwater and damage potential in the Bode river basin in Germany „with the variable occurrence of flood events in this area for the past 1000 years. The objective of the project is to produce the local climate time series (climate downscaling) as the input for a runoff model in the Bode basin for the last 1000 years on a grid of 5x5 km as well as the estimation of the spatial distributions and temporal variability of the precipitation, the amount of precipitation and further meteorological parameter (temperature, radiation and relative humidity) for this area. A nonlinear downscaling based on Fuzzy rules has been used to produce 1000 year climate time series. The global model ECHO from Max Planck institute for Meteorology (MPI) with T30 resolution and 1000 years data has been used as the global model (GCM). The regional model REMO, with 10 km resolution and 20 years data has been used as the regional input. The observations, which include 30 years precipitation, radiation, temperature, wind and relative humidity, have been used as output (predictand). In this study, two set fuzzy rules have been trained to describe the relationship between ECHO/REMO and REMO/Observation. The Fuzzy method used in this work is Active Learning Method (ALM). The heart of calculation of ALM is a fuzzy interpolation and curve fitting which is entitled Ink Drop Spread (IDS). The IDS searches fuzzily for continuous possible paths of interpolated data points on data planes. The ability of ALM to simulate the high values as well as the fluctuation of time series is much better than Takagi-Sugeno models, which have been used for downscaling in the last decade. In the next steps, considering predictors from the ECHO time series and predictands from the REMO grid points, some ALM models are developed, which describe the fuzzy rules and the relationship between global and regional scales. These models are verified using checking data and then considering ECHO/REMO models and on the basis of last 1000 years of ECHO, the REMO time series as well as the local data are simulated. These simulated data are used as input-data for the runoff model ARCEGMO.
Sodoudi, S.; Reimer, E.
Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are frequently detected in urban surface water and the adjacent groundwater and are therefore an increasing problem for potable water quality. River bank filtration (RBF) is a beneficial pretreatment step to improve surface water quality for potable use. Removal is mainly caused by microbial degradation of micropollutants, while sorption retards the transport. The quantification of biodegradation and adsorption parameters for EOCs at field scale is still scarce. In this study, the fate and behavior of a range of organic compounds during RBF were investigated using a two dimensional numerical flow- and transport model. The data base used emanated from a project conducted in Berlin, Germany (NASRI: Natural and Artificial Systems for Recharge and Infiltration). Oxygen isotope signatures and hydraulic head data were used for model calibration. Afterwards, twelve organic micropollutants were simulated with a reactive transport model. Three compounds (primidone, EDTA, and AMDOPH) showed conservative behavior (no biodegradation or sorption). For the nine remaining compounds (1.5 NDSA, AOX, AOI, MTBE, carbamazepine, clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole), degradation and/or sorption was observed. 1.5 NDSA and AOX were not sorbed, but slightly degraded with model results for ?=2.25e(-3) 1/d and 2.4e(-3) 1/d. For AOI a ?=0.0106 1/d and R=1 were identified. MTBE could be characterized well assuming R=1 and a low 1st order degradation rate constant (?=0.0085 1/d). Carbamazepine degraded with a half life time of about 66 days after a threshold value of 0.2-0.3 ?g/L was exceeded and retarded slightly (R=1.7). Breakthrough curves of clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole could be fitted less well, probably due to the dependency of degradation on temperature and redox conditions, which are highly transient at the RBF site. Conditions range from oxic to anoxic (up to iron-reducing), with the oxic and denitrifying zones moving spatially back and forth over time. PMID:24270159
Henzler, Aline F; Greskowiak, Janek; Massmann, Gudrun
As part of a river revitalisation project aiming at the re-connection of two otter occurrences in north-central Germany two surveys have been carried out to document the distribution of the otter in this region in 1991 and in 1999. This paper contains some of the results referring to 226 identical survey sites investigated in both surveys. Within eight years the percentage of positive sites increased by nearly five times from 2.2% to 10.2% and the number of 10x10km squares of the UTM (Univers...
Reuther C.; Roy A.
Full Text Available This article identifies different stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the downstream parts of the Rhine basin in Germany and The Netherlands. The perspectives were identified using Q methodology, which proved to be a good, but time-intensive, method for eliciting and analyzing stakeholder perspectives in a structured and unbiased way. Three shared perspectives were found: A "Anticipation and institutions", B "Space for flooding" and C "Knowledge and engineering". These three perspectives share a central concern for the provision of safety against flooding, but disagree on the expected autonomous developments and the preferred measures. In perspective A, the expected climate change and economic growth call for fast action. To deal with the increasing flood risk, mostly institutional measures are proposed, such as the development of a stronger basin commission. In perspective B, an increasing spatial pressure on the river area is expected, and the proposed measures are focused on mitigating damage, e.g., through controlled flooding and compartmentalization. In perspective C, the role of expert knowledge and technological improvements is emphasized. Preferred strategies include strengthening the dikes and differentiation of safety standards.
An overview of stakeholder perspectives can be useful in natural resources management for 1 setting the research agenda, 2 identifying differences in values and interests that need to be discussed, 3 creating awareness among a broad range of stakeholders, and 4 developing scenarios.
G. T. Raadgever
Full Text Available The Federal State of Saxony (Germany transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD. Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements were used to identify significant anthropogenic pressures, which surface water bodies are susceptible to, and to assess the effect of these pressures on the status of surface water bodies. In 2009, the data for classification of the ecological status and the main pressures and impacts on water bodies were published in the river basin management plans (RBMP of the Elbe and Oder rivers. To that date, only 23 (4% streams achieved an ecological status of “good”, while the rest failed to achieve the environmental objective. The two main reasons for the failure were significant alterations to the stream morphology (81% of all streams and nutrient enrichment (62% caused by point (industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants and non-point (surface run-off from arable fields, discharges from urban drainages and decentralized waste water treatment plants sources. It was anticipated that a further 55 streams would achieve the environmental objective by 2015, but the remaining 539 need extended deadlines.
Current methods of geothermal exploration rely on various expensive geophysical methods (e.g. 3D reflection seismics) to identify permeable fault zones and the geometry of geothermal aquifers. However this analysis alone does not allow for an estimation of an active fault's hydraulic permeability nor provides a characterisation of the chemical properties of the deep aquifer fluid. Both factors play an important role in optimising siting of geothermal wells and operation of a geothermal power plant. This work presents a low cost strategy characterizing deep hydrogeochemical reservoirs using a combination of methods from hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrology in hot springs and near surface groundwater. The main goal is to confine the area of interest for further, indirect geophysical investigation. For this purpose natural geochemical and isotopical tracers as well as rare earth elements, 3He/4He ratios, and radiogenic isotopes (Sr and Pb) are investigated. Data from the first sampling campaign in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, close to Groß-Gerau, Germany, shows promising results, indicating an area of increased interest where elevated helium ratios coincide with characteristic geochemical data, fault location and a previously known saltwater anomaly. Geochemical analyses exhibit three different types of fluids and various mixtures. CaHCO3-dominated waters represent Quaternary aquifer conditions whereas MgSO4-dominated waters are characterised by a Tertiary aquifer rock. Higher saline NaCl-dominated waters show an impact of mantle fluids revealed by 3He/4He isotope analysis. The ratio is highest where the main fault of the northern Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Rhine river. This suggests that the fault is hydraulically active and connects ascending deep fluids with the shallow aquifer. Further investigations of rare earth element patterns as well as radiogenic isotopes will identify the origin, the ascent as well as the retention time of the deep fluids more precisely. Water-rock interactions and mixtures of different fluids in the reservoir and during the ascent are estimated and simulated using geochemical and hydraulic models. Thus, the geometry of the aquifer, the temperature, the quantity and the quality of the ascending deep fluid in the reservoir is estimated. The retention time is a good indicator for the deep fluid being part of a fossil reservoir or being recharged naturally. The Upper Rhine Graben was chosen to test the multi-tracer method due to its well-studied geology and some significant preexisting geophysical data to allow for comparison and validation of the study's findings. The aim is to identify the most useful tracers of deep geothermal fluid circulation, which consecutively can be applied to other regions with less prior information.
Freundt, Florian; Najem, Sami Al; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Isenbeck-Schröter, Margot; Schmidt, Gerhard; Grobe, René; Kraml, Michael
The Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta developed during the past ~8000 yr under a first rapid and later decreasing sea level rise in a back-barrier area along the North Sea. After about 3500 yr BP, natural delta evolution became increasingly influenced by humans, with different types of imprints: increased discharge and sediment load associated with deforestation in the hinterland affecting channel geometry and deposition; artificial avulsion; large-scale peat excavation; reclamation and drainage of flood basins resulting in compaction and oxidation of peat; river embankment preventing delta-wide overbank deposition and finalizing avulsion; channelization, changing channel belt geometry and causing shifts in sediment deposition within the delta. After the onset of the industrial revolution, contaminants have been deposited along with the river sediment on the embanked floodplains and in the estuary. The extremely well-documented human-affected evolution of the delta provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate how the Anthropocene can manifest itself in such an environment. We give an overview of human-affected processes in the Rhine-Meuse delta and discuss their effect on fluvial architecture, morphology and sediment composition, and how these may remain preserved within the delta sedimentary record.
Middelkoop, Hans; van der Perk, Marcel; Cohen, Kim M.; Stouthamer, Esther; Hoek, Wim Z.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Erkens, Gilles; Jansma, Esther
The Bode River catchment in the Harz Mountain area of central Germany is heavily influenced by anthropogenic factors. 70% of the catchment is dominated by agriculture, 23 % by forest and the rest 7% is urban in nature. The area of the catchment is approximately 3300 km2 and is characterized by sharp gradients in temperature, precipitation and land use. In order to acquire better understanding of the hydrological nature of the catchment and biogeochemical characteristics of the Bode River various monitoring stations have been deployed as a part of the larger earth observation network initiative named Terrestrial Environmental Observatories. One of the major issues with the catchment is the problem of eutrophication due to solute inputs from agriculture. The research presented here evaluated the application and development of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models in the downstream area of the Bode River. A stretch of 30 kms between Hadmersleeben and Stassfurt in the downstream area of the Bode River was modeled using 1D model HEC-RAS, the focus of the water quality modeling was transport and uptake of nitrate in the aforementioned modeled stretch. Flood events of varying peak magnitude at different times of the year were modeled. As regards to 2D modeling, TELEMAC-2D model was applied for the same reach. The hydrodynamic simulation results were validated with the help of free surface elevation at Athensleben, 8 kms upstream from the downstream end at Stassfurt. Water quality modeling, focusing on the Nitrate removal for the aforementioned stretch, is applied and developed for both 1D and 2D modeling framework. Results from hydrodynamic and water quality modeling were validated with RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) value of 0.074 and 0.36 for the modeled state variables across various events simulated. For the nutrient-rich reach modeled in this research it was found that the nutrient removal capacity of the stream is directly proportional to the incoming nitrate concentration.
Sinha, Sumit; Rode, Michael; Borchardt, Dietrich
In September 2008, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre) and the Geodetic Institute of Karlsruhe University (now: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) established the transnational cooperation GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative, these institutions are cooperating in order to carry out geo-scientific research in the framework of the transnational project TOPO-WECEP (Western and Central European Platform; link: http://www.topo-wecep.eu/), which succeeded the former project URGENT (Upper Rhine Graben Evolution and NeoTectonics; link: http://comp1.geol.unibas.ch) of the EUCOR universities (European Confederation of Upper Rhine Universities). The Rhine Graben is the central segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100 km. GURN focusses on the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). The URG is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges Mountains and to the east by the Black Forest Mountains, culminating in elevations of approx. 1500 m. The uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif bounds the URG to the north. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette, and Vendlincourt folds represent the northernmost structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. Present-day distribution of the seismicity in the URG area is classified as moderate but not null. Expected velocities and strain rates are very low (relative velocities lower than 0.1mm/yr). The research is actually based on data of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems). A highly precise and highly sensitive geodetic network of permanently operating GNSS sites region has been established in the URG region in order to detect recent short-term (data base starting in year 2002) crustal movements based on displacements of GNSS sites. The regional network GURN actually consists of approx. 80 permanently operating GNSS sites of different data providers in Germany, France and Switzerland. The first work steps in the context of GURN were dominated by a detailed analysis of the GNSS data base (e.g., instrumental change artefacts). This analysis included a comparison of the working group related results (EOST, GIK), where different software packages and data handling strategies were used to derive 3D coordinate time series as basis for the determination of a 3D surface displacement field. Due to very small expected velocities in the URG region, the recent GURN focus is on the reliable derivation of site velocities, therefore effects of datum realisation have to be handled with care. The presentation gives an insight into the joint venture GURN focussing on recent results (e.g., 3D surface velocity field).
Mayer, M.; Knöpfler, A.; Masson, F.; Ulrich, P.; Heck, B.
In the present study 83 finished drinking water samples from 50 cities in Germany were analyzed for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) content with a detection limit of 10 ng/L. The detection frequency was 46% and the concentrations ranged between 17 and 712 ng/L. Highest concentrations were found in the community water systems (CWSs) of Leuna and Spergau in Saxony-Anhalt. These CWSs are supplied with water possibly affected by MTBE contaminated groundwater. MTBE was detected at concentrations lower than 100 ng/L in drinking water supplied by CWSs using bank filtered water from Rhine and Main Rivers. The results from Leuna and Spergau show that large groundwater contaminations in the vicinity of CWSs pose the highest risk for MTBE contamination in drinking water. CWSs using bank filtered water from Rhine and Main Rivers are susceptible to low MTBE contaminations in finished drinking water. All measured MTBE concentrations were below proposed limit values for drinking water. - MTBE in drinking water comes from different sources of MTBE in the aquatic environment
Full Text Available Looking at the present situation in Germany consortia show a considerable variety of organizational forms. Only in the case of the Friedrich-Althoff-Consortium in Berlin-Brandenburg a corporate body with deed of partnership does exist. In other German states consortia have been formed which are represented by an individual library (e.g. Baden-Württemberg or by a central institution such as the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Bavaria or the Hochschulbibliothekszentrum NRW in North Rhine-Westphalia. Rarely contracts for nationwide consortia have been signed; resulting from an initiative of a professional society, the „Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker“, an agreement was reached allowing for the use of the Beilstein-Crossfire-database in participating universities all over Germany.
For a hundred years now, Ruhrverband has been responsible for both water quantity and water quality management in the entire Ruhr river catchment. To meet these complex tasks, the Association plans, builds, finances, and operates the required reservoirs, wastewater treatment plants, impounded lakes, stormwater retention basins, pumping stations, hydropower plants, and disposal facilities, thus coordinating a total of 900 water management-related units under one roof. Whereby corporate policy has always centred around the principles of economic efficiency, safety and sustainability, which serve a guidelines for developing and defining the strategic targets. This applies in particular to plant maintenance as an essential facet of asset management. Maintenance concepts have to be adapted to the existing conditions, under due consideration of corporate goals and potential risks. Therefore several maintenance strategies may be employed side by side at the operational level, as shows the example of infrastructure management practiced by the Ruhr River Association. (orig.)
Evers, Peter; Klein, Peter [Ruhrverband, Essen (Germany)
The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the historical sea-charts and on-site hydrological records were used to examine the morphological change of the Elbe River estuary. The results show that siltation predominated in the tidal flat in the northern estuary, with a net siltation rate of 1.8 cm·a-1 during 1927-2006. In contrast, a continuous erosion prevailed in the main river channel, south of the estuary, with a net erosion rate of 2.5 cm·a-1 in the same time. In addition, a seaward shift of the estuarine island has happened with the old island coalescing to the northern tidal flat and new one emerging through siltation process. The tidal asymmetry via ebbing flow (maximum at 140 cm·s-1, and average at 76 cm·s-1) prevailed in the tidal flat, meaning continuous aggradation northwestward, while flooding flow (maximum at 100 cm ·s-1, and average at 67 cm·s-1) dominated in the main river channel with deepening thaweg at south, showing a landward sedimentation via the tidal pumping processes. This dextral extension of the estuarine morphology is due to the Coriolis force, leading to the inconsistent directions of in-out flows, which enables to facilitate the estuarine siltation. Human dredging prevailing in the estuary has dramatically altered the nature of the silted river channel to erosional since the last century. This is characterized by a net erosion rate of 3.2 cm·a-1 derived from the DEMs mapping, but only partially accounting for the dredging amount of 1994-2006, when the total dredging volume was 67 × 106 m3, equal to 5.9 cm·a-1.
Li, Maotian; Ge, Jianzhong; Kappenberg, Jens; Much, Dagmar; Nino, Ohle; Chen, Zhongyuan
Abstract In comparison to lentic systems, the species composition and community structure of phytoplankton in lotic habitats are still poorly understood. We investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of phytoplankton community in a German lowland river- the Kielstau catchment, and the relationships with environmental variables. Among the 125 taxa observed, Desmodesmus communis, Pediastrum duplex and Discostella steligera were dominant species at lentic sites while Tabellaria fl...
Fluvial terraces are widespread geomorphic features of Quaternary landscapes. Besides tectonics, their formation is predominantly controlled by climatic conditions. Changes in either conditions cause changes in fluvial discharge and sediment load. Therefore, fluvial terraces can be used as important non-continuous sedimentary archives for paleotectonic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The information gained from fluvial archives and their significance for paleoenvironmental research, however, strongly depend on a precise dating of the terrace formation. In the past, numerical dating of fluvial sediments has often been proved to be difficult. Radiocarbon dating has been applied on fluvial sediments frequently, but it depends on the presence of organic remains and its dating range is limited to the last ca. 40-50 ka. In contrast, luminescence dating enables the dating of fluvial sediments far beyond the last glacial-interglacial cycle and due to the general abundances of quartz and feldspar, there is almost no limitation of dateable material. Thus, luminescence dating has become a commonly applied method for yielding sedimentation ages of fluvial deposits. Applying luminescence dating techniques to fluvial archives is, however, still far from being a standard method. Several problems, such as incomplete bleaching of the dated material, dosimetric inaccuracies due to the heterogeneity of terrace gravels and difficulties in estimating accurate water contents, have to be considered. Thus, the calculation of OSL ages for fluvial deposits often proves to be challenging and their implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions always demand a careful interpretation. This contribution illustrates the informative value of fluvial archives for paleoenvironmental research and reveals some of the difficulties that may occur when luminescence dating techniques are applied to river terraces. The presented results are based on a case study, located in an oversized valley north of the city of Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany. Here, within the headwaters of the River Main, five Pleistocene terraces are distinguished. The terraces are interpreted as the result of a complex landscape evolution, which is characterized by an at least twofold river deflection. To shed light on the question of Pleistocene environmental conditions for terrace formation, we investigate the timing of the river terrace accumulation by establishing a terrace chronostratigraphy based on optically stimulated luminescence dating. Despite the described methodological problems, the obtained OSL dating results clearly show the potential to provide a reliable time frame for the terrace formation. They improve the knowledge about the Quaternary landscape evolution within the research area. Indicating significantly older sedimentation ages, these results clearly are in conflict with established explanations of terrace formation based on traditional concepts. They show that the response of fluvial systems to environmental changes is complex and strongly depends on local conditions.
Kolb, Thomas; Fuchs, Markus; Zöller, Ludwig
The hydrological regime of the Rhine basin is expected to shift from a combined snowmelt-rainfall regime to a more rainfall-dominated regime because of climate change, leading to more extreme flood peaks and low flows. Land use changes may reinforce the effects of this shift through urbanization or may counteract them through, for example, afforestation. In this study, we investigate the effect of projected land use change scenarios on river discharge. Sensitivity of mean and extreme discharg...
Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Terink, W.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Moors, E. J.; Troch, P. A.; Verburg, P. H.
Marco Verweij presents a new and challenging theoretical framework within which to understand international relations, based on the cultural theory developed by Mary Douglas, Michael Thompson, Aaron Wildavsky, and others. By applying this framework in a detailed study of the environmental protection of the river Rhine in Western Europe and the Great Lakes of North America, he also contributes to a better understanding of how transboundary environmental problems have been, and can be, solved.
Marco Verweij presents a new and challenging theoretical framework within which to understand international relations, based on the cultural theory developed by Mary Douglas, Michael Thompson, Aaron Wildavsky, and others. By applying this framework in a detailed study of the environmental protection of the river Rhine in Western Europe and the Great Lakes of North America, he also contributes to a better understanding of how transboundary environmental problems have been, and can be, solved.
The wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, is considered to be an endangered taxon in Europe, mainly as a consequence of the introduction of pathogens from North America and of the destruction of its habitat. In the Rhine Valley, nearly all populations disappeared due to river management, the intensi.cation of forestry, and the introduction of phylloxera. After a growing awareness of the need to preserve endangered forest ecosystems, attempts to reintrod...
Arnold, Claire; Schnitzler, Annik; Douard, Anne; Peter, Richard; Gillet, Franc?ois
Full Text Available As part of a river revitalisation project aiming at the re-connection of two otter occurrences in north-central Germany two surveys have been carried out to document the distribution of the otter in this region in 1991 and in 1999. This paper contains some of the results referring to 226 identical survey sites investigated in both surveys. Within eight years the percentage of positive sites increased by nearly five times from 2.2% to 10.2% and the number of 10x10km squares of the UTM (Universal Transversal Mercator System grid increased by more than three times from 4 to 14 out of 32. 99.1% of the survey sites were located at running waters and 89.7% were connected with bridges. Of the 23 signs of otters found in the second survey 65.2% were found under bridges. Nearly three fourths of the survey sites were located at running waters of a width of 5m and less. However, there seems to be a tendency for a higher portion for the waters of a width of 6-10m for all positive sites as well as for the positive sites under bridges.
The quality of the river Elbe in East Germany has been investigated in a research project subsidized by the German minstry of research and technology, iwth respect to drinking water quality and treatment using laboratory methods similar to the treatment processes in waterworks. The experiments included analysis of sum- and group-parameters before and after biological degradation and a study of adsorption on activated carbon. Comparing these results with data already published from the river Rhine in West Germany, the water of the river Elbe showed approximately double the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and ion-pair-extractable organic sulphur (IOS). Mathematical models have been used to obtain further information from these measurements about the origin of the organic substances in the river Elbe. As a consequence, an important part of the relatively high DOC-concentration in the Elbe-river is due to natural humic substances. Therefore the operation of better waste water treatment plants along the elbe-river might reduce the concentration of organic halogen and sulphur substances in particular, whereas the concentration of DOC will decrease only slightly in the future. (orig.)
This thesis is devoted to understanding the localization of geothermal anomalies in extensional tectonic settings away from active volcanic areas. In this context, the European Cenozoic Rift System (ECRIS) hosts some of the major geothermal anomalies in Europe. Its central segment, the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), stretching over 300km between Basel Switzerland) and Frankfurt (Germany), reveals several surface heat flow anomalies in the order of up to > 150 mW m-2 (compared to an aver...
Baillieux, Paul; Schill, Eva
The Upper part of the Danube was straightened and embanked since the mid of the 19th century and flows between dikes without any contact to its floodplain. Additionally, since the 1970ies hydropower stations are influencing the river continuity and the ground water level of the floodplain negatively. The presented investigations are part of a floodplain restoration project that aims to bring back new dynamics to the floodplain, like water, groundwater and morphological features, as the key processes for floodplain habitats and species.They give a drive to enliven the natural processes in the riparian areas. This project ("Remediation of riparian areas on the Danube floodplain between Neuburg and Ingolstadt", Germany) takes place in a project area of 2.100 hectares of riparian forests. The project consists of two major parts - A permanent flow of water (up to 5 m3/s) bypassing the dam of the power station. The new river will develop on the floodplain partly following old oxbows, but partly eroding its way naturally in the new modelled channel. - Controlled flooding (up to 30 m3/s) of parts of the floodplain during peak discharge of the Danube (600-1.100 m3/s; statistically one to three times a year) The project, conducted by the Bavarian Water Authority, will start at the beginning of February 2010. The Floodplain Institute Neuburg and the Department of Physical Geography of the Catholic University of Eichstaett together with some other Institutes established a comprehensive monitoring program including vegetation, fauna, hydrological and morphological data. This monitoring program is founded by the BfN (Federal Agency for Nature Conservation). From the beginning of the flooding a new morphological activity will start which might be self sustaining or self cumulative. For example the new river banks are prone to lateral erosion and new undercut slopes will develop. The transport, erosion and deposit of sediment will depend on the outflow which is man-controlled and adjusted to the Danube water level. To understand the developement of this new river channel the status quo was recorded by several surveys. The goals of these preliminary investigations are to get as much knowledge of the starting conditions in the channel as possible (channel topography and sediment distribution). Therefore methods are ranging from standard grain size analyses over cross profile measurements and high resolution aerial photos (taken from a helicopter), up to highly sophisticated Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) measurements using a Riegl LMS Z 420i. Laser scanning is a very powerful tool for high-resolution data acquisition of geomorphic surfaces. This application investigation may also contribute to the understanding and monitoring of sedimentation processes and quantification of erosion and sedimentation in a semi-natural modelled channel.Further analyses in the next 5 years will show the development of the channel after its flooding. Due to the fact that the phase of construction will be finished at the End of January 2010, research is still at its beginning. So the suggested poster presentation will show the concept of the investigations, but also first results.
Fischer, Peter; Haas, Florian; Heckmann, Tobias; Stammel, Barbara; Cyffka, Bernd
Full Text Available The Lower Rhine Delta, a transitional area between the River Rhine and Meuse and the North Sea, is at risk of flooding induced by infrequent events of a storm surge or upstream flooding, or by more infrequent events of a combination of both. A joint probability analysis of the astronomical tide, the wind induced storm surge, the Rhine flow and the Meuse flow at the boundaries is established in order to produce the joint probability distribution of potential flood events. Three individual joint probability distributions are established corresponding to three potential flooding causes: storm surges and normal Rhine discharges, normal sea levels and high Rhine discharges, and storm surges and high Rhine discharges. For each category, its corresponding joint probability distribution is applied, in order to stochastically simulate a large number of scenarios. These scenarios can be used as inputs to a deterministic 1-D hydrodynamic model in order to estimate the high water level frequency curves at the transitional locations. The results present the exceedance probability of the present design water level for the economically important cities of Rotterdam and Dordrecht. The calculated exceedance probability is evaluated and compared to the governmental norm. Moreover, the impact of climate change on the high water level frequency curves is quantified for the year 2050 in order to assist in decisions regarding the adaptation of the operational water management system and the flood defense system.
The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely populated Upper Rhine Graben with those from the more peripheral Lower Rhine valley to decipher anthropogenic impacts from natural environmental circumstances. Moreover, we try to discriminate the local to the regional signals recorded in the fluvial archives, by comparing the proxy data with the pedo-sedimentary context. The ultimate goal is to model socio-environmental interactions during the LBK culture progression to Western Europe with MMA.
Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.
Fate and occurrence of 4 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, one serotonin-noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor and one noradrenergic-dopamineric reuptake inhibitor and their human metabolites were determined in a German municipal wastewater treatment plant as well as in the Rhine River and selected tributaries. The enantiomeric fractions of venlafaxine and its metabolites were not altered during wastewater treatment and were similar in all river samples underlining that no appreciable biodegradation occurs. In the Rhine catchment area highest concentrations were detected for venlafaxine, citalopram and their human metabolites. Projected future climate change would lead to an increased portion of treated wastewater in rivers due to reduced discharges during low flow situations by the end of the 21st century. However, the effect of climate change on the pattern and concentrations of antidepressants is predicted to be of minor importance in comparison to altered consumption quantities caused by demographic developments and changes in life styles. PMID:25463720
Schlüsener, Michael P; Hardenbicker, Paulin; Nilson, Enno; Schulz, Manoj; Viergutz, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A
In many years the winter distribution of nutrients in the eastern part of the Southern Bight is influenced by phytoplankton growth, always in February, sometimes in January but not in January 1961 and 1978, months with a relatively low insolation and high wind strength. The Scheldt river has higher nutrient concentrations than the rivers Rhine and Seine. The waters of the Scheldt river plume are distinguished from those of the Seine and the Rhine/Meuse with dissolved silica as a tracer. The extension of the Scheldt river plume is related to wind direction. The increase of inorganic nutrients from January 1961 to January 1978 in the northern part of the Southern Bight is related to the increase in the river Rhine. The increase in the Strait of Dover is related to discharges from the river Seine and the English coast. Only data outside the Scheldt river plume were selected for the comparison. An increase of nutrient concentrations is measurable over the entire salinity range and is largest for phosphate (up to 3 times at low salinities), less for nitrate (about 1.5 times for all salinities) and hardly noticeable for silicic acid. Nitrate extrapolation to low salinity agrees with upstream river values, but phosphate extrapolation gives higher concentrations, probably due to discharges of phosphogypsum in estuaries.
van Bennekom, A. J.; Wetsteijn, F. J.
Denitrification in floodplains is a major issue for river- and groundwater quality. In the Upper Rhine valley, floodplain forests are about to be restored to serve as flood retention areas (polders). Besides flood attenuation in downstream areas, improvement of water quality became recently a major goal for polder construction. Redox potential monitoring was suggested as a means to support assessment of nitrogen elimination in future floodplains by denitrification during controlle...
Brettar, Ingrid; Tre?molie?res, Miche?le; Sanchez-pe?rez, Jose?-miguel
The Holocene Rhine delta in the Netherlands has functioned for more than 8000-year as a sink for fine sediment from the Rhine basin. Over the past decennia, numerous studies have been conducted on the palaeogeographic development of the Rhine delta and overbank deposition on the Rhine floodplains. Integration of these results provides us insight in the amounts and changes of overbank fines trapped in the Rhine delta and their controls at different time scales in the past, prese...
Middelkoop, H.; Erkens, G.; Hobo, N.; Perk, M.
Knowledge of regional palaeohydrology is essential for understanding current environmental issues, such as the causes of recent hydrologic changes, impacts of land use strategies and effectiveness of wetland restoration measures. Even the interpretation of model results on future impacts of climatic and land-cover changes may be improved using (pre-)historic analogies. An overview of palaeohydrologic findings of the last c. 20,000 years is given for northeast Germany with its glacial landscap...
Knut Kaiser; Sebastian Lorenz; Sonja Germer; Olaf Juschus; Mathias Küster; Judy Libra; Oliver Bens; Hu?ttl, Reinhard F.
Vertical electrical sounding (VES) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys are performed to assess the hydrogeological conditions along Elbe River coastal area, Germany. Because the interpretation of actual resistivity data still has a degree of non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning, linear and non-linear inversion methods have been applied in this paper for optimal interpretation of the measured data. The 1D model generation using hybrid genetic algorithms (GA) represents an accurate and quick solution to image the subsurface resistivity distributions; freshwater aquifer and two highly conductive zones of perched saltwater and seawater intrusion. The longitudinal conductance of the interpreted layers above the water table is calculated to explain why the vulnerable zone to the perched saltwater concentrates at the central and southern parts of the area investigated.
Attwa, Mohamed; Akca, Irfan; Basokur, Ahmet T.; Günther, Thomas
Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. PMID:17070637
Kronimus, Alexander; Schwarzbauer, Jan
Fifteen years ago, the first mapping guidelines for the recording and evaluation of river physical habitat quality in Germany, closely following the Länder Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser (LAWA) field survey, have been published. In light of this experience, a revised version has now been developed for North Rhine-Westphalia (West Germany). For the assessment, the streams are divided into segments serving as survey units. The survey is performed primarily in the field from the mouth to the source by an on-site recording of data. Defined reference conditions of the relevant morphological stream types serve as basis of the evaluation. Two evaluation procedures are carried out independently to validate the quality of the data. The proven basic concept operates as follows: the local scale habitat variables are grouped into 31 single parameters, which are then aggregated into six main parameters. These can further be aggregated into three zones: streambed, banks and adjacent land. The main modifications of the presented version are the following: (1) a larger differentiation of morphological stream types and (2) a higher level of detail concerning the mapping of relevant habitat characteristics. The last point allows additional evaluation options related to the morphological needs of the instream biota and a differentiated survey of anthropogenic degradation. Despite all modifications, the comparability with previous surveys has been largely maintained. By qualitative comparison of this method with other European mapping guidelines, different concepts of hydromorphological mapping are finally discussed. PMID:24473681
Gellert, Georg; Pottgiesser, Tanja; Euler, Thomas
The aim of this study was to compare degradation rates of aniline in laboratory shake flask simulation tests with field rates in the river Rhine. The combined events of a low flow situation in the Rhine and residual aniline concentrations in the effluent from the BASF treatment plant in Ludwigshafen temporarily higher than normal, made it possible to monitor aniline at trace concentrations in the river water downstream the wastewater outlet by means of a sensitive GC headspace analytical method. Aniline was analyzed along a downstream gradient and the dilution along the gradient was calculated from measurements of conductivity, sulfate and a non-readily biodegradable substance, 1,4-dioxane. Compensating dilution, field first-order degradation rate constants downstream the discharge of BASF were estimated at 1.8 day(-1) for two different dates with water temperatures of 21.9 and 14.7 degreesC, respectively. This field rate estimate was compared with results from 38 laboratory shake flask batch tests with Rhinewater which averaged 1.5 day(-1) at 15 degreesC and 2.0 day(-1) at 20 degreesC. These results indicate that laboratory shake flask batch tests with low concentrations of test substance can be good predictors of degradation rates in natural water bodies-at least as ascertained here for short duration tests with readily degradable compounds among which aniline is a commonly used reference. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Toräng, Lars; Reuschenbach, P.
School assistance, where it is practiced in Germany, appears to be a permanent personnel resource in the daily routine of special schools, as the first initial surveys in the counties ofBavaria and Thuringia show. To clarify the situation in special schools in the counry of North Rhine-Westphalia, a study was designed to examine the topic from the perspective of the school management, class teachers, and school assistants using a questionnaire-based survey. In this article, in addition to the...
Rüdiger Kißgen; Sebastian Franke; Barbara Ladinig; Daniel Mays; Jessica Carlitscheck
Full Text Available This paper compares the non-marital birth pattern in France and West Germany. Since the beginning of the eighties, France witnessed a steady increase in non-marital birth rates, while in West Germany non-marital birth rates have remained at a relatively low level. We attribute these differences to the institutional and legal constraints from both sides of the Rhine which hamper or foster childbearing in cohabiting unions. Using data from the French and German Family and Fertility Survey, we apply event history modeling to the transition to marriage and first birth. Our results indicate a polarization of family forms in both countries. In West Germany, we find a polarization in a "family sector" and a "non-family sector" while in France there is a polarization in a "marriage sector" and a "cohabiting sector".
This research aims to, firstly, improve the understanding of the functioning of Upper Rhine aquifer between Basel and Lauterbourg during present time (January 1986-December 2002) and, secondly, assess the impact of climate change on the aquifer. To obtain these results, we used the hydrogeological model HPP- INV (Chardigny, 1997) for different parameters calibration by inverse method, to assess the functioning of the Upper Rhine aquifer in present time. Combining this model with a hydrologica...
In order to study effects of different geometric types of pools or change of the flow direction on the passability of fish, sets of PIT antennas were installed inside a modern vertical slot fishway at the mouth of the River Moselle. Fish of 13 abundant species were caught and tagged with PIT tags in 2013 and released in the tailwater of Koblenz. 16% of the tagged fish were detected entering the fishway a short time after release. These individuals provided data on entry and passage rates for different sections of the fishway. Preliminary results show differences in passage time and passage rates between different sections of the fishway.
Pitsch, Matthias; Mockenhaupt, Bernd; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.
In European catchments, rainfall and overland flow trigger erosive processes that could result in soil detachment and transportation. However, estimation of both erosive rainfalls and sediment yields is very challenging, especially in historical times when only precipitations at seasonal or annual scales are available. This motivated us to develop a parsimonious hydroclimatological model (ASCLIM, Annual Sediment CLImatological Model) for predicting catchment scale sediment yield when temporal and spatial high-resolution precipitation data are not available. The model was developed by using the annual data of suspended-sediment yield from Glonn basin (1981-1995, gauge of Hohenkammer, Germany) and seasonal rainfall data from a NOAA data set. The correlation coefficient between predicted and observed sediment yields was 0.94 and the efficiency index was 0.89. Once parameterized, the model was able to capture annual sediment yield variability better than the Langbein-Schumm and the Fournier Index equations, also based on limited sets of inputs. The model holds potential for historical reconstruction of sediment yields in the Glonn catchment (assuming constant land cover) and for simulating sediment fluxes from catchments with similar characteristics. Our application highlights the control of rainfall seasonality on sediment export and demonstrates that our sediment yield proxy could be considered as a good tool for the expectation and planning of soil conservation. Moreover, considering that we used modeled data to reconstruct past sediment loss, we could expect that using projected future rainfall data our proxy could be able to assess future scenarios.
Diodato, Nazzareno; de Vente, Joris; Bellocchi, Gianni; Guerriero, Luigi; Soriano, Marcella; Fiorillo, Francesco; Revellino, Paola; Guadagno, Francesco M.
The southernmost Upper Rhine Graben and adjacent Jura experienced basement-rooted shortening that occurred after the deposition of the Pliocene fluvial 'Sundgau gravels'. Folds affecting the base of these gravels systematically trend NE to ENE. Combined evidence from reflection seismic lines and contour maps of the base-Tertiary and base-Pliocene levels indicates that these folds probably formed by thick-skinned reactivation of both NNE-SSW and WSW-ENE-striking faults. This thick-skinned shortening is NW-SE oriented, i.e. parallel to the maximum horizontal stresses inferred from seismotectonics. NNE-SSW-striking faults (paralleling the Upper Rhine Graben) have been reactivated in sinistral strike-slip mode. However, dextrally transpressive reactivation of the WSW-ENE-trending faults that belong to the Rhine-Bresse Transfer Zone is interpreted to predominate. Deflections of recent river courses around the crests of en-echelon-aligned surface anticlines suggest that the deformation is ongoing at present. Retro-deformation of the folds affecting the base of the Sundgau gravels indicates horizontal displacement rates of about 0.05 mm/a. This corresponds to a minimum strain rate in the order of 2*10-16 s-1, given the maximum time span of 2.9 Ma for this deformation, i.e. the biostratigraphically determined minimum age of the gravels. A change from thin-skinned tectonics, that prevailed during the main phase of Jura folding, to very probably still ongo Jura folding, to very probably still ongoing thick-skinned tectonics is inferred to have occurred in the Late Pliocene. We speculate that this change might be linked to the incipient inversion of Permo-Carboniferous troughs within the Alpine foreland in general. This inversion in dextrally transpressive or purely compressive mode along a WNW-ESE-trending basement fault, that is part of the Rhine-Bresse Transfer Zone, which in turn was prestructured during the formation of the Permo-Carboniferous troughs, could have triggered the 1356 Basel earthquake. (author)
Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile.
Kronimus, Alexander [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Schwarzbauer, Jan [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: email@example.com
The estuary of the River Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (Germany) is a sink for contaminated sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM). One major concern is the effect of human activities on the hydrodynamics, particularly the intensive dredging activities in this area that may result in remobilization of sediment-bound pollutants. The aim of this study was to identify pollutants contributing to the toxicological risk associated with re-suspension of sediments in the Elbe Estuary by use of an effect-directed analysis that combines chemical and biological analyses in with specific fractionation techniques. Sediments were collected from sites along the Elbe Estuary and a site from a small harbor basin of the Elbe Estuary that is known to be polluted. The sixteen priority EPA-PAHs were quantified in organic extracts of sediments. In addition, dioxin equivalents of sediments were investigated by use of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase assay with RTL-W1 cells and the Ah receptor-mediated luciferase transactivation assay with H4IIE-luc cells. Quantification of the 16 priority PAHs revealed that sediments were moderately contaminated at all of the sites in the Elbe River Estuary (<0.02-0.906 µg/g dw). Sediments contained relatively small concentrations of dioxin equivalents (Bio-TEQ) with concentrations ranging from 15.5 to 322 pg/g dw, which were significantly correlated with dioxin equivalents calculated based on toxicity reference values and concentrations of PAH. The concentration of Bio-TEQ at the reference site exceeded 200,000 pg/g dw. In a potency balance the 16 PAHs explained between 47 and 118% of the Bio-TEQ in the luciferase assay, which can be explained by the constant input of PAHs bound to SPM from the upper course of the Elbe River into its estuary. Successful identification of a significant portion of dioxin-like activity to priority PAHs in complex environmental samples such as sediments has rarely been reported. PMID:24146763
Otte, Jens C; Keiter, Steffen; Faßbender, Christopher; Higley, Eric B; Rocha, Paula Suares; Brinkmann, Markus; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Manz, Werner; Wetzel, Markus A; Braunbeck, Thomas; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Hollert, Henner
Estuaries act as a nutrient filter for coastal waters. The eutrophic Elbe River estuary is loaded with fertilizer-derived nitrogen, but management efforts have started to reduce this load effectively. However, an internal nitrate source in turn gained in importance and the estuary changed from a sink to a source of reactive nitrogen. Nitrification plays a key role in this estuarine nutrient regeneration but has to be quantified. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of nitrification on seasonal nitrogen loads and turnover using stable N- isotopes to identify the natural fractionation factor of nitrification. Therefor we measured the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (ammonium, nitrite and nitrate), their stable isotope signatures and the in-situ nitrification rates in the tidal influenced part of the river during 9 cruises from August 2011 to August 2013. The DIN load was higher in winter than in summer, the main compound was nitrate. In summer concentrations of nitrate entering the estuary were between 50 and 100 ?M and ?15N and ?18O were enriched to 15.5 to 21.5 o and 7.5 to 11.5 o respectively. Strong nitrification was found in the Hamburg port region. The nitrate concentrations increased significantly downstream after the port of Hamburg, along with a decrease of isotope values. Ammonium and nitrite peaked in the Hamburg port region with up to 25 ?M and 12 ?M, respectively. In July 2013, ?15N of ammonium has shown a mean value of 16.2±3.3 o and nitrite of -9.8±4.7 ‰The N-fractionation of nitrification in July 2013 was 15?nit -10o the sub-process ammonia oxidation 15?amox-24o and the nitrite oxidation of 15?niox 13o while fractionation was less pronounced during the other cruises Our data show that N-isotope fractionation generally confirmed culture experiments, but that it strongly depended on discharge, availability of substrate, temperature and the coupling of ammonia and nitrite oxidation.
Sanders, Tina; Dähnke, Kirstin
Six sediment cores were taken in sedimentation zones of the Volga river (located in the southern part of the Russian Federation) and, additionally, 6 sediment cores were taken in several lakes (sedimentation zones) in the central and western part of the Danube delta in Romania. Priority pollutants (8 metals, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined in all samples of all cores. Present-day and historical levels of pollutants since the late 1930s were established through the use of radionuclide time tracers (137Cs, 134Cs). For the persistent metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trends in the concentration profiles during the last 5 decades are described. Low and hardly changing concentrations of As, Cu, Zn and all studied PAHs were observed during the last five decades in the sediments of the Volga river. Recently deposited sediments show slightly increasing levels for the heavy metals Zn and Cr and As in the Volga delta. For the studied metals and PAHs, maximum concentrations were found around 1987 in the sediments of the Danube delta. Sediments deposited around 1940 and recently deposited sediments in the Danube delta showed lower pollutant levels. If the contents of heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments in the deltas of the rivers Rhine, Danube and Volga are compared, it is clear that the Volga delta is and was the cleanest delta during the last 5 decades. Nowadays the contents ohe last 5 decades. Nowadays the contents of heavy metals (except Cu and Ni), PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments of the river Rhine are still highest compared to the other two rivers. The recent load of heavy metals (except Cd and Zn) in the sediments of the river Danube is the highest compared to the other two rivers. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
This third semiannual report gives a picture of the progress made in the work of sub-projects. Interim results are given for the fields treated by sub-projects 1 to 4. Among others, this report for the first time presents the final official survey on thermal pollution in the upper Rhine region for the year of reference 1973. Analyses and evaluations of waste heat effects in the upper Rhine region have not been carried out yet at the present state of the project. (orig.)
Full Text Available In this study, the impact of climate change scenarios on the hydrological regimes of five different regions in Germany is investigated. These regions (Northwest Germany, Northeast Germany and East German basins, upper and lower Rhine, pre-Alps differ with respect to present climate and projected climate change. The physically based SVAT-model SIMULAT is applied to theoretical soil columns based on combinations of land use, soil texture and groundwater depth to quantify climate change effects on the hydrological regime. Observed climate, measured at climate stations of the German Weather Service (1991–2007, is used for comparison with climate projections (2071–2100 generated by the regional scale climate model WETTREG.
While all climate scenarios implicate an increase in precipitation in winter, a decrease in precipitation in summer and an increase in temperature, the simulated impacts on the hydrological regime are regionally different. In the Rhine region and in Northwest Germany, an increase in the annual runoff and groundwater recharge is simulated despite the increase in temperature and potential evapotranspiration. In the Eastern part of Germany and the pre-Alps, annual runoff and groundwater recharge will decrease. Due to dry conditions in summer, the soil moisture deficit will increase (in Northeast Germany and the East German basins in particular or remain constant (Rhine region. In all regions the seasonal variability in runoff and soil moisture status will increase. Despite regional warming actual evapotranspiration will decrease in most regions except in areas with shallow groundwater tables and the lower Rhine. Although the study is limited by the fact that only one climate model was used to drive one hydrologic model, the study shows that the hydrological regime will be affected by climate change. The direction of the expected changes seems to be obvious as well as the necessity of the adaptation of future water management strategies.
Full Text Available Estimates of future changes in extremes of multiday precipitation sums are critical for estimates of future discharge extremes of large river basins. Here we use a large ensemble of global climate model SRES A1b scenario simulations to estimate changes in extremes of 1–20 day precipitation sums over the Rhine basin, projected for the period 2071–2100 with reference to 1961–1990.
We find that in winter, an increase of order 10%, for the 99th percentile precipitation sum, is approximately fixed across the selected range of multiday sums, whereas in summer, the changes become increasingly negative as the summation time lengthens. Explanations for these results are presented that have implications for simple scaling methods for creating time series of a future climate. We show that this scaling behavior is sensitive to the ensemble size and indicate that currently available discharge estimates from previous studies are based on insufficiently long time series.
S. F. Kew
Adult females of two invasive species, Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus, were collected for the first time in July and August 2011 in Germany. Previously, only immature stages of these species had been found in the country. Repeated detection of these species reveals the Upper Rhine Valley in south-west Germany to be a particularly sensitive region for the introduction and establishment of exotic mosquito species that needs careful observation.
Werner, D.; Kronefeld, M.; Schaffner, F.; Kampen, H.
Full Text Available In this paper we use a case study of the Rhine River to examine the relevance of Common Pool Resource (CPR Theory for two conditions in which it has not been extensively tested: large scale international water management and pollution problems. For that purpose, we link variation in pollution abatement to a set of explanatory variables proposed by CPR theory. Causal inference is established through process tracing and a series of within-case comparison across actor groups (i.e. riparian nations, industry, and agriculture, resource types (i.e. point source, and non-point source pollutants, and time periods (1976–1986, when treaties provided a limited basis for collective action and pollution abatement, and 1987–2001, when the Rhine Action Plan proved more successful. According to our analysis, a number of CPR variables can help understanding cooperation for pollution abatement in the Rhine case. These include physical attributes such as clear hydrological boundaries; governance factors such as the articulation of monitoring and decision-making at different governance levels and the proportional allocation of costs and benefits of abating pollution; and actor factors like the small size, trust and homogeneity of some actor groups and leadership. Other variables proposed by CPR theory proved to be irrelevant or in need of qualification. These include the right to self-organize and to participate in decision-making, communication and resource-dependence. Finally, two variables, not emphasized by CPR theory, proved relevant: the occurrence of external disturbances and the role of interest groups. We conclude that CPR theory is valuable for explaining pollution management in large trans-boundary river basins, but requires qualification and extension.
Full Text Available Three of the four species of non-native gobiids currently reported in the Rhine basin were recently recorded in France: the Western tubenose goby in 2007, the bighead goby in 2010 and the round goby in 2011. The bighead goby and the round goby displayed a very high rate of range expansion, suggesting a human-assisted colonisation through inland navigation. An assessment of the invasiveness potential by the FISK (Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit reveals a medium risk for the Western tubenose goby, while the bighead goby and the round goby are at high risk of becoming invasive in France. This assessment is consistent with our observations since there has been a steady increase in the range of the Western tubenose goby, although in low numbers, while the relative abundance of bighead goby and round goby, recently arrived in the French part of the Rhine River and Moselle River, can be high. Given their fast expansion, it can be assumed that these species will soon reach other French basins, particularly in the south (Rhône basin and in the west (Seine basin, and the implementation of measures to limit their spread should be considered.
Full Text Available School assistance, where it is practiced in Germany, appears to be a permanent personnel resource in the daily routine of special schools, as the first initial surveys in the counties ofBavaria and Thuringia show. To clarify the situation in special schools in the counry of North Rhine-Westphalia, a study was designed to examine the topic from the perspective of the school management, class teachers, and school assistants using a questionnaire-based survey. In this article, in addition to the study design, the results of the survey from the school management questionnaire are presented. Among other things, it shows that the utilization of school assistants has increased more than thirtyfold between the school years 2000/2001 and 2010/2011. The consequences of this development are discussed in terms of inclusive education in general schools.
In November 2012, a group of 7 persons who participated in a hare hunt in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, acquired tularemia. Two F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates were cultivated from human and hare biopsy material. Both isolates belonged to the FTN002-00 genetic subclade (derived for single nucleotide polymorphisms B.10 and B.18), thus indicating likely hare-to-human transmission. PMID:25531286
Otto, Peter; Kohlmann, Rebekka; Müller, Wolfgang; Julich, Sandra; Geis, Gabriele; Gatermann, Sören G; Peters, Martin; Wolf, Peter Johannes; Karlsson, Edvin; Forsman, Mats; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Tomaso, Herbert
The Federal Republic of Germany is situated in Central Europe. It covers an area of 250,000 square kilometres and has a population of 60 millions. The Federal Republic consists of 10 individual states. The capital of the country is Bonn. The northern and northwestern parts of the country are formed of flat lowlands, the Norddeutsche Tiefebene. Towards the south follow hilly and mountainous regions with elevations not exceeding 1000 m. In the southwestern and southeastern regions the elevations may reach 1500m in the Black Forest and Bayerischer Wald. The foreland of the Alps and the northern part of the Alps itself with elevations close to 3000 m make up the southern part of the Federal Republic. The main rivers - Rhine, Weser and Elbe - are directed towards northwest and drain the country to the North Sea. Only the southern part is drained by the southeast running river Danube. The climate is moderate, generally with frequent snow during the winter season and warm periods during the summer. The precipitation is distributed uniformly throughout the year. Due to the high industrialization a dense network of railroads, highways and motorroads exists.According to what is geologically known about the country, the chances for the discovery of large quantities of low-coast uranium resources must be considered to be limited. The potential for new discoveries of those deposits can be estimated to be around 10 000 t U. The potential for very low-grade uranium ore, such as granites, low-grade sedimentary rocks (sandstones, shales) can be estimated to range between 10,000 - 50,000 t U or possibly more taking into account very low-grade concentrations in shales. This material is not mineable under present conditions. Environmental considerations may prevent mining in the future
In Germany inguinal hernia surgery has changed over the last decade from conventional repairs without alloplastic material to video-assisted minimal invasive techniques or Lichtenstein repair. Since 1991 every patient undergoing inguinal hernia repair has been documented in the North-Rhine area in a routine quality-surveillance study. A total of 173,923 patients with 192,718 groin hernias (85.26% male and 14.74% female) were operated on. In 1993 the Shouldice repair was performed in 54.2%, the Bassini operation in 26%, the transabdominal laparoscopic TAPP repair in only 3.2% of cases. In 1999 the TAPP repair was performed in 13%, the extraperitoneal video-assisted TEP repair in 14%, Lichtenstein repair in 18.5%, Shouldice repair in 35% and the Bassini operation in only 4.8%. The percentage of operations was 13.4% over the last 10 years. However, there was an increase from 12.8% in 1993 to 14.1% in 1997, and a rate of 13.5% in 1999. The following complications were observed: hematoma/seroma formation in 3.78%, wound infection in 1.15%, testicular edema in 0.37% and scrotal edema in 0.64%. The data document the introduction of three new methods for inguinal hernia repair (TAPP, TEP and Lichtenstein repair). A decrease in operations on recurrences is not observed. PMID:11357540
Lammers, B J; Meyer, H J; Huber, H G; Gross-Weege, W; Röher, H D
Within the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre (CRC, SFB 350) at Bonn University, dealing with interacting geological processes in continental regimes, a joint 3D/4D GIS project is developed by geologists and computer scientists. When analysing and modelling the structural and sedimentary evolution of the Cenozoic intracratonic Lower Rhine Basin in NW Germany, the need emerged to combine methods and tools of space-time modelling of geologically defined geometries with advanced database management techniques. Computer aided geological design typically requires operations for storage and retrieval of large 3D data sets together with their attributes and topological relations and for the generation of model surfaces of stratigraphic boundaries and faults, which in turn define the boundaries of geological bodies developing in time. The requirements of interactive visualisation, analysis and modification of complex and time dependent geometries entail the demand for spatial, topological and time-related database queries as well as for various consistency and integrity tests. Considering these specific geological requirements, an object-oriented geo-database kernel system has been designed and implemented as a “GeoToolKit” for 3D/4D geoscience applications.
Alms, R.; Balovnev, O.; Breunig, M.; Cremers, A. B.; Jentzsch, T.; Siehl, A.
Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)
Floodplain topography and related hydraulic patterns of overbank flow constitute a major control on the amounts and patterns of sediment deposition on floodplains. We studied the differences in sediment deposition at two scales along two river branches of the lower River Rhine in the Netherlands: the Waal and IJssel River. Human alterations like levelling and embankment construction have severely impacted the floodplains along the Waal River branch (average discharge: 1500 m3·s–1), whereas...
Thonon, I.; Middelkoop, H.; Perk, M.
This site features pages to more than twenty NASA radar images of the world's major river systems. The image pages contain a brief description of the respective processes and setting, and are available for download. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing.
After two previous demonstrations of introductions of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, into southern Germany in 2007 and 2011, another three specimens were trapped in the city of Freiburg in the Upper Rhine Valley. The females were caught in early September 2011 (n = 2) and mid-July 2012 (n = 1). The trap was located at a railway container station where cargo is transferred to trains from trucks predominantly coming from southern Europe where A. albopictus is widely distributed. The reported findings confirm vehicle transport of A. albopictus to be an important and probably frequent mode of importation, and suggest that more regular and intense monitoring for invasive mosquito species in the Upper Rhine Valley should be undertaken in order to detect an establishment and implement adequate control measures in good time. PMID:23052761
Kampen, Helge; Kronefeld, Mandy; Zielke, Dorothee; Werner, Doreen
This study examines the influence of regional and local winds on urban ventilation during clear and calm summer nights with low exchange weather conditions, taking the city of Cologne in the Cologne Bay (Germany) as an example. Results of this study on cold air penetration in the city show a sensitive interaction between the structure and direction of open rural areas and the temporal pattern of local cold air movement and regional wind. During the first half of calm summer nights, directly linked ventilation areas are unable to ensure the horizontal exchange of locally formed cold air between the surrounding countryside and the urban area as a result of the long distance from the city centre and large obstacles obstructing the ventilation areas. Time-scale analyses of the wind field carried out at nine meteorological stations show that the ventilation areas function independently from each other. In rural ventilation areas a flow of cold air from neighbouring slopes is observed during the whole night. During the second half of calm summer nights, the wind direction in the ventilation areas follows a path running downstream parallel to the river Rhine, caused by advected cold air formed and accumulated in the upstream section of the Cologne Bay. Advected cold air is superimposed on microscale circulation of cold air in the ventilation areas, allowing a horizontal transport of air from the surrounding countryside into the city. Depending on the direction and extent of the ventilation areas, regional wind can strengthen or replace the local air transport in the city of Cologne. (orig.) 22 refs.
Kuttler, W.; Duetemeyer, D.; Barlag, A.-B. [Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Landscape Ecology
The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809/1882) began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881). Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae) and the role of these annelids as global ecosystem re workers (concept of bioturbation). In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Bio geographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.
The recent vertical displacement field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) located in the tri-national region between Germany, France and Switzerland is investigated using repeatedly measured leveling data. We estimate vertical displacement rates at leveling benchmarks by applying a kinematic network adjustment on more than 40,000 height differences measured by German, French and Swiss surveying agencies. Focusing on an optimal solution for the adjusted rates in the URG area also historical data (measured before 1900) are used, significantly increasing the time span of available measurements and the number of transnational connections between the three countries. To account for inhomogeneities apparent in the database, we apply an iterative variance component estimation within the adjustment procedure, particularly revealing more realistic information on the accuracy of the estimated rates. A special focus within our analysis is put on the statistical testing of gross errors in the observations and model-related errors at benchmarks with non-linear movement. As some of the estimated vertical rates behave significantly different compared to the vertical rates of adjacent benchmarks, a filtering of outliers is applied after the adjustment procedure. The resulting map of linear height changes in an area of 280 km in N-S and 230 km in E-W direction provides detailed insight into the recent vertical displacements of the URG and neighboring regions. In the German part of the study area, it was possible for the first time to consistently constrain an average subsidence rate of 0.5 mm/a (0.2 mm/a) of the Graben interior w.r.t. the Black Forest. In addition to the tectonic displacements, some man-induced surface movements, e.g., caused by oil and groundwater extraction, are observed and discussed.
Fuhrmann, Thomas; Westerhaus, Malte; Zippelt, Karl; Heck, Bernhard
Purpose: In the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part II of this study aims to determine the quality of the process and outcome. The reference standard is the assessment of both radiologists and physicians without board certification in radiology working at a university hospital and in outpatient facilities. Materials and Methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. A file was created for each of the 394 patients with image documentation of at least one examination. Each file, which included medical history, physical findings, imaging documentation and written report, was sequentially forwarded to a board-certified radiologist and to a physician without board certification in radiology working in a university hospital and in an outpatient facility. All physicians were requested to complete a structured questionnaire for each file. Results: The referral diagnoses were rated as medically plausible in 81%, the indications for imaging found correct in 76%, the examination techniques considered appropriate in 69%, the clinical question answered in 63%, the interpretation judged medicallin 63%, the interpretation judged medically correct in 50% and all incidental findings documented in 49%. In retrospect, 32% of the examinations were judged superfluous. The sequence of multiple examinations performed on a particular patient was rated as appropriate in 51%. The interpretation revealed specialty-related differences. The plausibility of the referral diagnoses had a significant impact on the appropriateness of subsequent diagnostic investigations. Marked deficits showed sonography, performance by non-radiologists, self-referrals by GPs, gastroenterologic radiology and the ICD-10 coding (suspicion of cardiovascular disease). (orig.)
Extensive meteorological measurements have been made in the high and upper Rhine Valley in the context of site protection both for the licencing procedure and the meteorological evidence required for this purpose and also for research purposes into the effects of waste heat discharge into the atmosphere. At the Schwoerstadt, Wyhl, Freistett and Philippsburg sites meteorological measurements have been made on towers of between 120 and 160 metres height. At the Wyhl site 10 automatic ground level measurement stations for the meteorological monitoring of the surrounding vicinity in a narrow circumference of the site and close to the 160 metre high measurement tower are being operated. Information about the meteorological relationships in the propagation zone of chimney and cooling tower plumes has been complemented by a number of radiometeographic measurement programmes.
Schweizer, G.; Schloevogt, T.; Haessler, G.
Extensive meteorological measurements have been made in the high and upper Rhine Valley in the context of site protection both for the licencing procedure and the meteorological evidence required for this purpose and also for research purposes into the effects of waste heat discharge into the atmosphere. At the Schwoerstadt, Wyhl, Freistett and Philippsburg sites meteorological measurements have been made on towers of between 120 and 160 metres height. At the Wyhl site 10 automatic ground level measurement stations for the meteorological monitoring of the surrounding vicinity in a narrow circumference of the site and close to the 160 metre high measurement tower are being operated. Information about the meteorological relationships in the propagation zone of chimney and cooling tower plumes has been complemented by a number of radiometeographic measurement programmes. (orig.)
Full Text Available This paper describes the effects that temperature changes in the Rhine river distributaries have on native and exotic fish diversity. Site-specific potentially affected fractions (PAFs of the regional fish species pool were derived using species sensitivity distributions (SSDs for water temperature. The number of fish species in the river distributaries has changed remarkably over the last century. The number of native rheophilous species declined up until 1980 due to anthropogenic disturbances such as commercial fishing, river regulation, migration barriers, habitat deterioration and water pollution. In spite of progress in river rehabilitation, the native rheophilous fish fauna has only partially recovered thus far. The total number of species has strongly increased due to the appearance of more exotic species. After the opening of the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway in 1992, many fish species originating from the Ponto-Caspian area colonized the Rhine basin. The yearly minimum and maximum river temperatures at Lobith have increased by circa 4 0C over the period 1908-2010. Exotic species show lower PAFs than native species at both ends of the temperature range. The interspecific variation in the temperature tolerance of exotic fish species was found to be large. Using temporal trends in river temperature allowed past predictions of PAFs to demonstrate that the increase in maximum river temperature negatively affected a higher percentage of native fish species than exotic species. Our results support the hypothesis that alterations of the river Rhine’s temperature regime caused by thermal pollution and global warming limit the full recovery of native fish fauna and facilitate the establishment of exotic species which thereby increases competition between native and exotic species. Thermal refuges are important for the survival of native fish species under extreme summer or winter temperature conditions [Current Zoology 57 (6: 852–862, 2011].
R.S.E.W. LEUVEN, A.J. HENDRIKS, M.A.J. HUIJBREGTS, H.J.R. LENDERS,J. MATTHEWS, G. VAN DER VELDE
In nature rare earth elements (REE) occur in fixed ratios; contamination with a single rare earth element causes a clear deviation from the natural NASC normalized REE-patterns: an anomaly. REE are progressively used in many high technology products and processes. For example, gadolinium-containing chelates have been used since the '80s as contrasting agent in MRI-imaging. The pertaining anomaly is currently used as a tracer for distinguishing waste water from water unaffected by anthropogenic contamination. In the Dutch monitoring program in the Rhine-Meuse distributaries, total (10% HNO3 digested) and dissolved (samarium (Sm) is used in the same process, resulting in matching La- and Sm-anomalies. The anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are predominantly present in the total fraction, which suggests that the anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are associated with suspended matter. The anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are lower in the suspended matter samples collected with the centrifuge, suggesting a bias of these La and Sm concentrations in the finer fraction of the suspended matter. The anthropogenic La en Sm concentrations remain relatively constant throughout the rivers, but close to Lake IJsselmeer and the North Sea, sedimentation causes a sharp decrease in the anthropogenic concentrations. Detailed sampling of sediments, suspended matter and water could give a clear insight in the sedimentation rates in the area. The off-set between the introductions of the two anthropogenic contaminants can be used throughout the Rhine catchment downstream of Worms to distinguish new suspended matter and resuspended older sediments and the sedimentation of these two fractions. Although the La- and Sm-anomalies largely disappear towards the North Sea, the La-anomaly in the sediments is still larger in the coastal areas than at the more distant sampling points. In order to gain more insight in the processes that take place at the freshwater-saltwater interface (e.g. desorption and sedimentation), more research is planned.
Roskam, Gerlinde; Verheul, Marc; Klaver, Gerard; Bakker, Ingrid
Bioassay-directed identification of toxicants in an acetonic extract of a sediment of the riverine Spittelwasser in the industrial region of Bitterfeld (Germany) was conducted. For this purpose, a combination of chromatographical fractionation, chemical analysis, and a biotest battery including Vibrio fischeri (inhibition of bioluminescence), Daphnia magna (immobilization), and Scenedesmus vacuolatus (inhibition of cell multiplication) was applied. Major toxicants identified and confirmed were methyl parathion (D. magna), prometryn, N-phenyl-beta-naphthalene amine, PAHs (S. vacuolatus), and tributyltin (all biotests). Toxicity to V. fischeri was dominated by elemental sulfur. Results indicate high toxicant loads in the sediment about 7 years after closedown of a majority of chemical production sites at Bitterfeld. Comparison of potential exposure and toxicity data indicate a severe hazard potential to aquatic organisms due to organic toxicants. The results illustrate the potency of a biotest battery for identification of toxicants in contaminated sediment within the frame of toxicity identification procedures.http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n2p164.html PMID:10398766
Brack; Altenburger; Ensenbach; Moder; Segner; Schuurmann
As geothermal energy is of increasing importance as a renewable energy source, there is a high demand for comprehensive studies to prevent failure during implementation, as is the case in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany. The drilling of seven wells for the geothermal heating of the city hall in 2007 is thought to have disturbed the existing hydro-geological system in the complex structured transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif. This event has led to uplift, related...
Hermann Kaufmann; Hans-Ulrich Wetzel; Christin Lubitz; Mahdi Motagh
Ecological impact and risks of present and future coal mining activities at the outskirts of the densely populated areas on the Lippe and Lower Rhine. Oekologische Folgen und Risiken der derzeitigen und kuenftigen Steinkohlengewinnung in der Ballungsrandzone an der Lippe und am Niederrhein
The still continuing intensive economic exploitation of coal mining at the outskirts of densely populated areas at the rivers Emscher and Lippe has caused tremendous ecological effects and damages of the landscape and quality of life of its inhabitants. The still unsolved problems of recultivating of the no longer exploited coal mining districts have increased the pressure on how to use the regions at the rivers Lippe and Lower Rhine which have not been exploited so far. In addition, the planned exploitation of coal in the southern areas of Muensterland and Lower Rhine, the so called 'migrating to the north of the mining industry', contains in itself enormous risks for these ecologically valuable, richly structured landscapes. (orig.).
Herforth, A. (Landesanstalt fuer Oekologie, Landschaftsentwicklung und Forstplanung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Recklinghausen (Germany, F.R.))
Programme, participants and all powerpoint presentations of the Delta Alliance Training Workshop: Challenges and approaches in river delta planning, sharing experiences from SE Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta. 22-26 October 2012, WACC, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Wosten, J. H. M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.
Tríbec virus (Kemerovo serogroup, genus Orbivirus), Eyach virus (genus Coltivirus), and Tahyna virus (California encephalitis serogroup, genus Bunyavirus) are arthropod-borne viruses known to occur in Germany. These viruses are also suspected to cause human disease. So far, no information is available on their geographical distribution in Germany and their natural transmission cycles. A total of 166 sera from European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) collected in seven districts of the Federal State of Schleswig-Holstein and in four districts of the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia was tested by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for antibodies against Tríbec virus, Eyach virus, Tahyna virus, and Central European encephalitis virus. One out of 22 sera (4.5%) collected in the district Nord-Friesland in Schleswig-Holstein was found positive (PRNT(90) 1:10) against Tríbec virus. Neither did sera from other regions of Schleswig-Holstein nor from hares from North Rhine-Westphalia react against any of the arboviruses tested. For the first time, antibodies against Tríbec virus could be found in a European brown hare in Germany. The negative serological results for Central European encephalitis virus are in line with the current knowledge of its natural distribution within Germany. The negative serological results for Tahyna virus or Eyach virus argue against an autochthonous circulation of these viruses in the regions tested. PMID:16530475
Dobler, Gerhard; Wölfel, Roman; Schmüser, Heiko; Essbauer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Martin
The analysis of precise levelling data enables an accurate determination of vertical displacement rates at levelling benchmarks, if repeated measurements at identical benchmarks are available. In order to gain detailed insight into vertical crustal deformations in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) area, a consistent analysis of levelling measurements carried out in Germany, France and Switzerland is in progress at the Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The data used for this study was primarily measured by the ordnance survey of the participating countries to contribute to a terrestrial height system. As the levelling lines were remeasured up to five times within the last 100 years, a calculation of reliable vertical displacement rates with accuracies of about 0.2 mm/a is possible. In a first step, the geodetic dataset was analysed using a kinematic network adjustment. Within this approach the exact dates of the measurements are used in a time-dependent model for the estimation of displacement rates. The adjustment model delivers a detailed picture of the recent vertical displacement field in the URG and the surrounding regions. On average, the magnitudes of estimated displacement rates are of the order of 0.15 mm/a, which is in an overall agreement with tectonic concepts. Since the formal error of the adjustment is of the same order of magnitude, only rates above this value can be treated as significant. Two features of the displacement field are studied in more detail: (i) An apparent regional tilt from +0.2 mm/a in the URG to about -0.3 mm/a in the eastern part of the investigation area is detected, which is not supported by tectonic models. We are currently investigating whether regional geochemical processes in the subsurface could be responsible for this large scale deformation observation. (ii) Subsidence rates of -0.5 mm/a are observed along the main border fault in the south-eastern part of the URG. A comparison of benchmark heights of consecutive measurement epochs is used to provide a detailed assessment of this area. It turned out that the surface displacements are influenced by mining activities. However, it seems unlikely that mining is responsible for the observed 40 km wide subsidence bowl. Therefore, other possible reasons like groundwater usage and slip on existing faults are discussed. The separation between anthropogenic deformation (e.g., induced by mining or groundwater usage), environmental deformation (e.g., geochemical processes, hydrological changes) and tectonic deformation is challenging, as the subsurface processes are not known in detail. Thus, additional information and expertise from various geosciences is needed in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the internal processes detected at the surface.
Fuhrmann, T.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.
Purpose: In the state of North-Rhine Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part I of this study aims to collect characteristic epidemiological data and to assess structural quality. Materials and methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. Two university radiologists documented the pertinent test data from the submitted images and written records. Independently of each other, five university radiologists anonymously reviewed the image quality of each examination using structured questionnaires. Results: A total of 920 patients gave their informed consent and participated. Questionnaires from 787 patients, 852 GPs and 611 radiologists or other interpreting physicians as well as the complete survey data from 530 examinations were available. Of 1503 examinations, conventional radiography made up 52%, sonography 17%, computed tomography (CT) 13% and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 5%. Most indications involved the musculoskeletal (37%) and respiratory systems (24%). Physicians without board certification in radiology interpreted 1% of the CT examinations, 26% of the radiographic examinations and 71% of the soadiographic examinations and 71% of the sonographic examinations. Of the 174 self-referrals, 1% involved CT, 33% conventional radiography and 66% sonography. Written reports were available for 95% of all 469 examinations performed by radiologists and 74% of all 127 examinations conducted by non-radiologists. Only 44% of the 23 sonographic studies were self-referrals by the patient's GP. On average, the radiographic techniques were acceptable in terms of diagnostic information and radiation hygiene. Conventional radiographs were better exposed when obtained by radiologists than by non-radiologists (p=0.038). The delineation of anatomical structures was rated as good to acceptable for MRI, CT and conventional radiography while the image quality was rated as diagnostically insufficient for sonography (p<0.0001). The image quality of radiographic and sonographic examinations performed by radiologists was superior in comparison to examinations performed by physicians without board certification in radiology (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Examination technique and imaging quality of MRI, CT and conventional radiography performed on outpatients were in an acceptable diagnostic range, whereas the quality of sonography was inadequate. (orig.)
Based primarily on nucleotide polymorphisms in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA, Anopheles daciae was recently described as an additional member of the Maculipennis Group of species, separate from Anopheles messeae with which it had previously been confused due to morphological and genetic similarity. Species differentiation between A. messeae and A. daciae was possible only by ITS2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by DNA sequencing or RFLP analysis. In addition to its siblings, Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles atroparvus and A. messeae, A. daciae has been shown to occur in Germany, although with limited distribution. We here describe additional collection sites for this species in Germany, showing concentrations in East Germany and the northern Upper Rhine Valley in Southwest Germany. A species-specific multiplex PCR assay is presented that is able to differentiate the four Maculipennis Group sibling species occurring in Germany plus Anopheles sacharovi, Anopheles melanoon and Anopheles labranchiae. The correct identification and detailed knowledge of the biology of A. daciae are of relevance since it might be a vector of disease agents, as suggested by the vector potential of its siblings and the recent finding of an A. daciae female infected with Dirofilaria repens in southern Germany. PMID:24696275
Kronefeld, Mandy; Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge
This paper describes the effects that temperature changes in the Rhine river distributaries have on native and exotic fish diversity. Site-specific potentially affected fractions (PAFs) of the regional fish species pool were derived using species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for water temperature. The number of fish species in the river distributaries has changed remarkably over the last century. The number of native rheophilous species declined up until 1980 due to anthropogenic disturba...
R S E W Leuven, A. J. Hendriks
The tables of figures on the physico-chemical investigation of the Rhine water comprise the sampling dates, the organic, entrophying and inorganic substances found, the metals and organic micro-pollutions found, and radioactivity. Other tables indicate the location of measuring places, method of sampling, and method of analysis. (DG)
The numerical tables contain the measuring results of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water for the year 1980. The tables are arranged by general parameters, organic matter, eutrophicating substances, anorganic matter, metals, organic micropollution as well as by radioactivity (total alpha-or beta- and T-activity). (HK)
The land register of waste heat for the Upper Rhine area waste heat project is the basis for the investigation of the effect of anthropogeneous waste heat. It is based on a land register of energy consumption and can also be used for answering questions on the heat or energy supply of a region or for an emission register of noxious substances. (DG)
The numerical tables of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water contain measurements on separate samples, continuous measurements during 2 weeks, on 14-days mixed samples as well as on 8-weeks mixed samples, and chloride measurements as well as measurements of the total-?-activity and the specific tritium activity. (HK)
Full Text Available The Ruhr Area is a metropolitan area located in the federal state of North Rhine-Westfalia in Germany. The region, which has a long history of migration and multilingualism, has recently attracted growing numbers of individuals who bring second language varieties of English to the area, which originate from postcolonial countries in Asia, on the African continent, or on the Indian subcontinent. African communities in particular form close-knit networks in the diaspora and engage in numerous associations, whilst at the same time maintaining ties with their original home countries. Their Englishes, both standardised and pidginised, which developed as a result of language contact in the respective home countries, are subject to a secondary language contact with German, resulting in further language change. This paper describes the sociolinguistics of the various communities, before it documents the African communities’ language preferences and discusses how the Englishes spoken in one individual community, Cameroon English and Cameroon Pidgin English, adapt in the new linguistic ecology. It argues that such diasporic Englishes pose important new territory for the study of English and offer opportunities to extend traditional frameworks towards integrating present-day societies’ realities.
Full Text Available The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Results are promising despite the fact that we still use an offline procedure to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater models (i.e. the simulations of both models are separately performed. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydro-geological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reasonably well reproduce the observed groundwater head time series. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the offline-coupling technique simplifies the dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.
E. H. Sutanudjaja
Full Text Available Large-scale groundwater models involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries are still rare due to a lack of hydrogeological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Although the method that we used to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater model is considered as an offline-coupling procedure (i.e. the simulations of both models were performed separately, results are promising. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reproduce the observed groundwater head time series reasonably well. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the current offline-coupling technique simplifies dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.
E. H. Sutanudjaja
The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE), the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High t...
-f Vinuesa, J.; Ph. Mirabel; -l Ponche, J.
A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and the Amudarya basin is in Central Asia. The evaluation was based mainly on the opinions of policy makers and water management experts in the river basins. The adaptation strategies were evaluated co...
Krysanova, Valentina; Dickens, Chris; Timmerman, Jos; Varela Ortega, Consuelo; Schlu?ter, Maja; Roest, Koen; Huntjens, Patrick; Jaspers, Fons; Buiteveld, Hendrik; Moreno, Edinson; Pedraza Carrera, Javier; Sla?mova, Romana; Marti?nkova?, Marta; Blanco Gutie?rrez, Irene; Esteve Bengoechea, Paloma
Buntsandstein sandstones (upper Permian to middle Triassic), located in the Upper Rhine Graben, appear as an easy target for geothermal exploitation: this reservoir links more or less permeable argillaceous sandstones, intersected by many major faults, to the regional thermal anomaly. In this context, we propose a conceptual geological 3-D block model of the Buntsandstein reservoir which could be used as a guide for future regional geothermal exploration or exploitation. This block presents the Buntsandstein sandstones reservoir at depth with different sedimentary facies (braided rivers, playa lake and fluvio-aeolian), above the Palaeozoic Granit and below the Muschelkalk limestones, intersecting by faults oriented according regional major azimuths: (1) ?N020°E, corresponding to Rhenish faults and (2) ?N060°E (or ?N130°E) corresponding to Hercynian reactivated faults. Petrophysical properties of the reservoir are both controlled by matrix and faults/fractures characteristics. (1) Matrix properties (porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity, Pwaves velocity) have been determined from petrophysical measurements performed on cores of 15 borehole, mainly on borehole EPS1 (Soultz-sous-Forêts, France), continuously cored through Buntsandstein; (2) from thermal gradient analyses based on thermal conductivity measurements on core samples and also from borehole temperature logs run in the same borehole. This last approach allows locating fluid flow and thus permeability at reservoir scale. The flow paths appear as a composite network controlled by 'sedimentary' permeability on one hand and by 'fracture' permeability on the other. Fracturing associated with major fault zones provide pathways for the upward flowing fluids to connect with stratigraphic levels characterized by high matrix permeability and no impermeable macroscopic layers. This is why the Playa Lake and Fluvio-aeolian marginal erg facies provide a reservoir connected to a deep hot fluid source. Braided river facies, despite high matrix permeability, present a broad network of thick oblique argillaceous layers which decreases the macroscopic permeability. Fracture network is determined from outcrops and borehole data analysis. Near Rhenish major faults zones, fracturing appears organised as corridor with high density of fractures, separated by law density fractured zones. This fractures organization was not recognized near Hercynian reactived fault. Baryte and quartz precipitation have been observed near this last fault and near Rhenish oriented fault. However, no or just very few mineral precipitations are present in fractures localized in the central part of the bloc. These kinds of mineralization indicate paleo- fluid flow zones. Furthermore, mineral precipitations drive to an important decrease of fracture porosity and permeability and thus they can constituted important fluid flow barrier. Association of matrix and fracture data drives to the building of a 3D conceptual block model of the reservoir. It point zones where geothermal exploitation could be easier: near playa lake and fluvio-aeolian facies and near certain fault zones (with Hercynian orientation).
Sébastien, Haffen; Yves, Géraud; Marc, Diraison; Chrystel, Dezayes
In the event of a nuclear accident, the local authorities are required to take actions for the protection of the population. However, as concerns the regions near the border, the passage of a radioactive cloud will not stop at the state border and several states and their rules are concerned. Furthermore intergovernmental conventions have led to the exchange of information between these states. (orig.)
In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans
Koch, E. [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture
Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.
The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.
The ageing process of populations due to demographic change affects the economy in various ways. The study at hand focuses on the reallocation of income and changes in consumption expenses caused by demographic change. Local disparities on NUTS 3 level are of special interest as the demographic effects can vary considerably between regions depending on their initial position such as population density, age structure, and economic condition. By means of data for the regions of North-Rhine-West...
Full Text Available In many climate impact studies hydrological models are forced with meteorological forcing data without an attempt to assess the quality of these forcing data. The objective of this study is to compare downscaled ERA15 (ECMWF-reanalysis data precipitation and temperature with observed precipitation and temperature and apply a bias correction to these forcing variables. The bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data will be used in another study as input for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC model. Observations were available for 134 sub-basins throughout the Rhine basin at a temporal resolution of one day from the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR. Precipitation is corrected by fitting the mean and coefficient of variation (CV of the observations. Temperature is corrected by fitting the mean and standard deviation of the observations. It seems that the uncorrected ERA15 is too warm and too wet for most of the Rhine basin. The bias correction leads to satisfactory results, precipitation and temperature differences decreased significantly. Corrections were largest during summer for both precipitation and temperature, and for September and October for precipitation only. Besides the statistics the correction method was intended to correct for, it is also found to improve the correlations for the fraction of wet days and lag-1 autocorrelations between ERA15 and the observations.
The Ruhr is a German region undergoing a reconversion. In recent years, several thousand jobs have been lost in the coal, iron and steel industries, especially in coal mines. This trend is going to continue. Rehabilitating former industrial sites so that they can welcome new industries and businesses, is decisive for this region. A rapid and financially advantageous reconversion requires coherence and continuity in the rehabilitation measures undertaken by the companies that serve as receivers, by local authorities and by investors who want to launch new projects. All these parties must manage the various phases of this process in a spirit of coordination. Germany can boast of a series of successful reconversions into industrial areas, exhibition facilities, nature reserves, tourist centers and leisure and rest places
As agreed by the standing committee of the Weser task force ('Arge Weser'), regular trips on the river for taking measurements have been made since 1965. The ninth trip, from May 8th to 14th, 1992 aboard the ''Max Pruess'', a ship equipped with measuring instruments and a laboratory and owned by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia, was concerned with three areas of investigation: A) the Fulda and Werra estuaries, B) the upper and middle Weser (Hann.-Muenden (km 0.0) to Bremen (km 361.1)), C) the lower Weser (Bremen (km 0.0) to Kolumbuskai (km 67.8)). A uniform water quality longitudinal profile of the Weser was established during this trip by means of chemico-physical and biological tests. While investigations by measuring stations cover a longer period of time, the measurements taken during a voyage reflect a transient condition and complement long-term trend investigations. The voyage also permits to gain an overview of relative changes in the condition of the river at various points of its course. The evaluation of the results of this trip is facilitated by investigations of Arge Weser already carried through for the duration of several years and information obtained by previous trips. (orig./EF)
Organic contaminants discharged to the aquatic environment exhibit a high diversity with respect to their molecular structures and the resulting physico-chemical properties. The chemical analysis of anthropogenic contamination in river systems is still an important feature, especially with respect to (i) the identification and structure elucidation of novel contaminants, (ii) to the characterisation of their environmental behaviour and (iii) to their risk for natural systems. A huge proportion of riverine contamination is caused by low-molecular weight organic compounds, like pesticides plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, technical additives etc. Some of them, like PCB or PAH have already been investigated thoroughly and, consequently, their behaviour in aqueous systems is very well described. Although analyses on organic substances in river water traditionally focused on selected pollutants, in particular on common priority pollutants which are monitored routinely, the occurrence of further contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products or chelating agents has received increasing attention within the last decade. Accompanied, screening analyses revealing an enormous diversity of low-molecular weight organic contaminants in waste water effluents and river water become more and more noticed. Since many of these substances have been rarely noticed so far, it will be an important task for the future to study their occurrence and fate in natural environments. Further on, it should be a main issue of environmental studies to provide a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of river water, in particular with respect to lipophilic low molecular weight organic contaminants. However, such non-target-screening analyses has been performed only rarely in the past. Hence, we applied extended non-target screening analyses on longitudinal sections of the rivers Rhine, Rur and Lippe (Germany) on the base of GC/MS analyses. The investigations revealed complex pattern of anthropogenic contaminants comprising a lot of still unnoticed pollutants (e.g. specific sulfones, trifluoromethyl substituted substances, nitrogen heterocycles etc.) or still unidentified compounds (such as selected brominated aromatics) of obviously high environmental relevance. In this presentation, a selection of several different contaminants will be discussed in detail comprising their emission sources, their emission behaviour, their fate within the river water bodies and in particular their structural properties. Generally. this investigation demonstrated the need to expand our analytical focus on a broader spectrum of organic contaminants, in particular to build up an adapted base for advanced monitoring studies.
Severe floods caused extensive damage and life-loss throughout Europe over the last decades. The magnitude and the short recurrence interval of large events raised questions about the actual safety standards for flood protection. This was reason to raise the 1,250-yr design flood for river dikes in the Netherlands (Waterwet, 2009) from 15,000 to ~16,000 m3s-1. A major problem in calculating the magnitude of the design flood is uncertainty, which mainly originates from limited data availabilit...
Toonen, W. H. J.
This paper discusses the new method developed to analyse flood risks in river deltas. Risk analysis of river deltas is complex, because both storm surges and river discharges may cause flooding and since the effect of upstream breaches on downstream water levels and flood risks must be taken into account. A Monte Carlo based flood risk analysis framework for policy making was developed, which considers both storm surges and river flood waves and includes hydrodynamic interaction effects on flood risks. It was applied to analyse societal flood fatality risks (the probability of events with more than N fatalities) in the Rhine-Meuse delta.
de Bruijn, K. M.; Diermanse, F. L. M.; Beckers, J. V. L.
This paper discusses a new method for flood risk assessment in river deltas. Flood risk analysis of river deltas is complex, because both storm surges and river discharges may cause flooding and the effect of upstream breaches on downstream water levels and flood risk must be taken into account. This paper presents a Monte Carlo-based flood risk analysis framework for policy making, which considers both storm surges and river flood waves and includes effects from hydrodynamic interaction on flood risk. It was applied to analyse societal flood fatality risk in the Rhine-Meuse delta.
de Bruijn, K. M.; Diermanse, F. L. M.; Beckers, J. V. L.
The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety
In the first part of this report, experts outline the latest trends in clinical and experimental cardiovascular research and inform on current problems of public health research in this field. The second part presents the funding, coordinating and research institutions that are relevant to cardiovascular research in Germany and outlines their goals and activities. (orig./MG)
"Caring communities" is a great sounding line, but what does it really mean? There are many ways that communities which present themselves as caring make life easier or worse for those who live there. For centuries in Germany, there have been religious groups who claim to care for each member. By definition, this is circumscribed caring as it…
In Germany since 1980, more than 300 clinical studies have been carried out with standardized phytopharmaceuticals, including Crataegus, Silybum, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Sabal, Urtica, Kava-Kava, Allium sativum, Valeriana, Aesculus, Echinacea, and Viscum drugs. These studies assessed the efficacy of phytopharmaceuticals for the treatment of moderate or moderately severe diseases and prevention. Several comparative clinical trials showed that these phytopharmaceuticals had full therapeutic equivale...
Brief details and statistics relating to electricity supply in Germany are presented. These include a map of the country showing the high voltage transmission on lines of the public utility network and tables of data. The data show: the gross maximum capacities of power stations according to the main energy source and configuration for the years 1980 to 1990; the gross production of power stations for the same period; new or additional capacities (gross) under construction in power stations of the electric utilities, as expected for 1991 to 1994; energy supply by the public power system in West Germany in 1980 and 1990; maximum capacity of utility and private power stations as of the end of 1989 and 1990; electricity production in 1989 and 1990 by utilities and private plants broken down by energy source; development of capital investment by the public utilities, 1980 to 1990; electric power utilities by ownership; international power exchanges in 1989 and 1990; overhead and underground lines in West Germany 1980 to 1990 in km; numbers and ratings of high voltage transformers in West Germany in 1980 and 1990. (UK)
This week's In The News focuses on the forthcoming general election in Germany. The seven sources discussed provide background, news, analysis, and commentary. On Sunday September 27, Germany's 60 million voters will elect a chancellor to lead them into the 21st century. Incumbent Helmut Kohl, a 68-year-old Christian Democrat who has been chancellor since 1982, is running for an unprecedented fifth term. During Kohl's sixteen years in power as a major world leader, he has presided over the reunification of Germany after the fall of the Berlin wall, advocated European unity while strengthening ties with the US, and ardently endorsed Germany's participation in Europe's single currency, the Euro. However, the problems of modernizing the economy in the formerly communist eastern Germany--where seventeen percent of the workers are unemployed--compounded by the difficulties of high taxes, expensive social programs, and fleeing investments, have convinced many voters that is time for a change of leadership. Kohl's opponent in the general election, Gerhard Schroder, is a 54-year-old Social Democrat currently serving as the Prime Minister of the northern state of Lower Saxony. The telegenic Schroder considers himself a New Middle leftist and models his political style after UK Prime Minister Tony Blair and US President Bill Clinton; he has, in fact, used consultants from Clinton's last campaign to bolster his image. According to political pundits, both Kohl and Schroder have similar moderate platforms, which has made this race a campaign of competing personalities rather than of substantive issues. Recent polls have indicated a dead heat between the candidates leading into the final week of the campaign.
The paper analyses Germany's ascent not only as Europe's most important economic power, but also as its leader. Figures show that Germany overcame the crisis; in fact the crisis legitimized its development model. Which would be Germany's main strategic choices, confirmed by the historic evolution of the recent years? First, its option for manufacturing, which allowed Germany to turn into Europe's factory. Second, the option for reform. "Agenda 2010", initiated by Gerhard Schroeder in 2003, is...
Paul Dobrescu; M?lina Ciocea
Clostridium difficile was isolated from 147 of 201 (73%) rectal swabs of piglets from 15 farms of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia. In 14 farms, 14 to 100% (mean, 78%) of the animals tested were culture positive. The rate of isolation was 68% postpartum, increased to 94% in animals 2 to 14 days of age, and declined to 0% for animals 49 days of age and older. There was no link between isolation and antibiotic treatment or diarrhea of piglets. Strains were assigned to 10 PCR ribotypes, and up to 4 PCR ribotypes were found to be present at the same time on a farm. The closely related PCR ribotypes 078 (55%) and 126 (20%) were most frequently recovered and were present in 13 of the 14 positive farms. The comparison of multilocus VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) analysis (MLVA) data from this study and previously published data on human, porcine, and bovine PCR ribotype 078 isolates from 5 European countries revealed genetic differences between strains of different geographic origin and confirmed the relatedness of human and porcine C. difficile isolates. This study demonstrated that the human-pathogenic PCR ribotypes 078 and 126 are predominant in piglets in Germany. The results suggest that presence of C. difficile is correlated with animal age but not with antibiotic treatment or clinical disease. MLVA indicated that strains of the same geographical origin are often genetically related and corroborated the hypothesis of a close epidemiological connection between human and porcine C. difficile isolates. PMID:24025903
Schneeberg, Alexander; Neubauer, Heinrich; Schmoock, Gernot; Baier, Sylvia; Harlizius, Jürgen; Nienhoff, Hendrik; Brase, Katja; Zimmermann, Stefan; Seyboldt, Christian
Where there are several power plants with variable cooling systems on one river or river section, the question is raised as to the optimum use of cooling systems depending on discharge and weather (cooling control). The Upper Rhine is taken as example where in future cooling control is necessary due to high thermal loading and will be possible due to the presence of six power plant blocks with variable cooling systems. By means of dynamic optimization, the cooling variant giving rise to the largest electrical net total power maintaining the same temperature limiting values is determined for given discharge and weather conditions. The decision is based on a one-dimensional temperature model of the river, as well as calculation methods to determine net power and heat supply to the waters depending on cooling variants and weather conditions. The flow model make many approximations to compare with nature. One may neglect the lengthwise dispersion. Starting from the maximum switching frequency of the cooling plants of 1/d, cooling control in daily sequence over a period of one year is simulated with historical data. The optimum electricity generated is about 2.2% below the net generation achievable by 100% throughflow cooling and by 0.3% above that achievable at maximum exhaustion. Each practical means must match this result. A true-time control of the cooling plants according to the above principle seems possible, necessitates however, the discharge and weather forcast ovever, the discharge and weather forcast over 2-4 days. Finally, it is shown that the complicated optimization can be approximated by using simple decisive rules which require no discharge and weather forcast. (orig./GL)
Health conferences are established structural elements in the field of health prevention and health-care in North Rhine-Westphalia. This applies to the state level (state health conferences) as well as to the municipal and city levels of government (local health conferences). After being tested in a pilot project in the period 1995-1998, the foundation of local conferences became obligatory in all municipalities when the public health service act of 1998 came into effect. The present article describes the relevant structures, developments and results. PMID:20191438
Out of the total of advanced calculation models developed in recent years, which are based on meteorological measurement data (like altitude profile of wind vector) and are aimed at an improvement of the description of dispersion processes achievable by the Gauss plume model, the Lagrange dispersion models are best suited for the purposes of the supervisory authority and procedure. The North-Rhine Westphalia RM system and the Lagrange dispersion model of IABG are used to exemplify the technical prerequisites for the calculation of current activity concentrations and soil contaminations for radiation exposure assessment while using available measurement instrumentation and data processing installations (e.g. computer networks, data remote transmission). (orig.)
From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.
The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany. PMID:24937079
Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G
Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.
Buntsandstein Sandstones (Lower Triassic), located in the Upper Rhine Graben, appears as an easy target for geothermal exploitation. This sedimentary reservoir links more or less permeable argillaceous sandstones intersected by many major faults to the regional thermal anomaly. Petrophysical analysis (permeability, porosity, thermal conductivity, P-wave velocity), performed on cores from several boreholes and samples from several outcrops in the Vosgian Mountain, drive us to characterise fluid and heat transfer capability of the different sedimentary facies present in the Buntsandstein sandstones. First data from well cores analysis indicate that the more permeable and porous (respectively >100mD & >15%) facies are the Playa Lake and fluvial and aeolian sand-sheet, and the fluvial-aeolian marginal erg, whereas the more common facies, the braided rivers within arid alluvial plain, presents permeability Granit and below the Muschelkalk limestones, intersecting by faults according the regional major azimuth. According each particular direction the particular fracturation is raised according outcrop data. This bloc points the major zones in which fluid circulation occurs.
Sébastien, H.; Géraud, Y.; Diraison, M.; Dezayes, C.
I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy
This lesson was designed to provide students the opportunity to conduct research using a variety of print and electronic resources in order to gather information about the countries of Poland and Germany. In small groups, the students will scavenger through online and print resources including: a dictionary, thesaurus, encyclopedia, and atlas. They will create a poster with the accompanying information to present to the whole class. This lesson is usually taught at the start of the Holocaust novel study unit Daniel's Story by Carol Matas, however, it can easily be adapted for any country or novel.
As in probably mostly all other European countries, the incidence of occupational cancer in Germany increased steadily after World War II. In 1994 about 1,600 cases of occupational cancer were compensated--more than ever before. More than half of these cases were lung cancer, most caused either by asbestos (n=545) or by ionizing radiation ((italic)n(/italic)=306). Other frequent target organs of asbestos were the pleura and the peritoneum with 495 cases of mesotheliomas. Asbestos was the sing...
In 1864, Ludwig II, King of Bavaria wrote to the composer Richard Wagner stating his intention to rebuild the old castle of his ancestors. Speaking of the location he wrote that it was, "one of the most beautiful to be found." The castle, opened to the public seven weeks after the death of King Ludwig II in 1886, is one of the most popular of all the palaces and castles in Europe. Every year 1.3 million people visit "the castle of the fairy-tale king." On the castle's official website (provided in both English and German) visitors follow links to discover the history of King Ludwig II, the building process, the surrounding area, and the challenges the castle faces today. Anyone with an interest in castles, Bavaria, or Germany will find this site useful and informative. The site also provides a plentitude of photos of the castle and the surrounding area, complete with detailed descriptions. In addition, the site provides quick links to other national historic sites within Germany including other castles of King Ludwig II.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles daciae, a newly described member of the Maculipennis group, was recently reported from western, southern and eastern Europe. Before its recognition, it had commonly been listed under the name of An. messeae, due to its extreme morphological and genetic similarities. As the sibling species of the Maculipennis group are known to differ in their vector competences for malaria parasites and other pathogens, the occurrence of An. daciae in a given region might have an impact on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquito collections from different localities in Germany were therefore screened for An. daciae. Methods Adult and immature Maculipennis group mosquitoes were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 at 23 different sites in eight federal states of Germany. A standard PCR assay was used to differentiate the previously known sibling species while the ITS2 rDNA of specimens preliminarily identified as An. messeae/daciae was sequenced and analysed for species-specific nucleotide differences. Results Four hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles specimens were successively identified to Maculipennis group level by morphology and to species level by DNA-based methods. Four species of the Maculipennis group were registered: An. messeae (n?=?384, An. maculipennis (n?=?82, An. daciae (n?=?10 and An. atroparvus (n?=?1. Anopheles daciae occurred at four sites in three federal states of Germany, three of the sites being located in north-eastern Germany (federal states of Brandenburg and Saxony while one collection site was situated in the northern Upper Rhine Valley in the federal state of Hesse, south-western Germany. Conclusions The detection of An. daciae represents the first recognition of this species in Germany where it was found to occur in sympatry with An. messeae and An. maculipennis. As the collection sites were in both north-eastern and south-western parts of Germany, the species is probably even more widely distributed in Germany than demonstrated, albeit apparently with low population densities. Research is needed that confirms the species status of An. daciae and elucidates its vector competence as compared to An. messeae and the other species of the Maculipennis group, in order to optimize management of possible future outbreaks of diseases caused by pathogen transmission through Maculipennis group mosquitoes.
Eighteen sediment samples, collected in the harbours and waterways of the Rhine delta in 1997, were analysed for their 226Ra content and grain-size distribution. The effect of the emissions from the phosphate-processing industries on the 226Ra content could be inferred on the basis of these data. As observed in previous monitoring campaigns, the influence of this industry is greatest in and nearby the first and second petroleum harbours. Increases in the 226Ra content of up to 211 Bq/kg were measured in comparison to background levels of 22 to 46 Bq/kg. Approximately 13% of the released 226Ra is deposited in the harbours and waterways. Samples collected once every year were found to reflect the long-term trend in the emissions. 6 refs
Even the best of all efforts towards maximizing energy conservation, rational use of energy, and development of renewable sources will not make coal a redundant source of energy. The government of North-Rhine Westphalia therefore continues to support the exploitation of the coal and brown coal reserves in its territory. Operation of the two brown coal surface mines at Hambach and Inden is safeguarded for the next 25 years to come, but the extension of the site Garzweiler I by a Garzweiler II pit is an item of political contestation. The nuclear power phase-out policy in this Land continues, and the AVR and the Hamm-Uentrop THTR will be decommisioned. (HP)
Training reactors contribute to the maintenance and enhance nuclear know-how and competence. Even today with the current political circumstances in Germany, characterized by phasing out nuclear power, there is considerable demand for young engineers and scientists in the nuclear sector. The demand is driven by retirement of staff members at existing NPP and nuclear industrial suppliers, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, continued work in the field of basic nuclear physics research, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, waste disposal, nuclear medicine, and the regulatory bodies, technical inspection organizations or international organizations. For students, the training reactors in Stuttgart, Furtwangen, Ulm and Dresden provide a unique opportunity to get a hands-on experience of neutronics in addition to their theoretical education. (orig.)
Hansen, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Power Engineering
Training reactors contribute to the maintenance and enhance nuclear know-how and competence. Even today with the current political circumstances in Germany, characterized by phasing out nuclear power, there is considerable demand for young engineers and scientists in the nuclear sector. The demand is driven by retirement of staff members at existing NPP and nuclear industrial suppliers, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, continued work in the field of basic nuclear physics research, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, waste disposal, nuclear medicine, and the regulatory bodies, technical inspection organizations or international organizations. For students, the training reactors in Stuttgart, Furtwangen, Ulm and Dresden provide a unique opportunity to get a hands-on experience of neutronics in addition to their theoretical education. (orig.)
Offered as part of the University of Wisconsin Digital Collection's History collection, Germany Under Reconstruction provides the public with access to a variety of publications in English and German from the early days following World War II. The documents cover a wide range of topics, and they include works that look at the political, economic, and cultural milieu in the nation during the period. All told, there are 516 documents included here, and visitors can perform complex searches or just browse through them at their leisure. Some of the more notable English language items include the 1945 work "After Nazism-Democracy? A symposium by four Germans" and Elmer Beck's 1948 book "The trade union press in the U.S. occupied area". The site is rounded out by the complete run of the Weekly Information Bulletin, published by the United States European Theater's Military Army of Occupation from 1945 to 1948.
From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...
C. Laignel / FI-DI
From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...
C. Laignel / FI-DI
The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009. Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...
CERN Accelerator School
From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...
After having outlined the importance fossil energies had in the past in Germany, particularly coal (bituminous coal for which the cost now reaches very high level, and lignite which is still competitive), and that fossil energy resources are getting short (except lignite), this article recalls the development of renewable energies in this country: from 1,5 pc in 1990 to 11,7 pc in 2013. It also comments the recent transition objectives defined by the German government which comprise reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, an increase of the share of renewable energies in final energy consumption (18 pc in 2030, 50 pc in 2050). As far as renewable electricity is concerned, objectives for 2030 could be reached in 2022 due to the rapid growth of wind, biogas and notably photovoltaic energy. The article outlines that the issue of energy efficiency has not yet been fully addressed
This document is a series of transparencies summarizing the different aspects of nuclear safety in Germany applied to the existing PWR power plants and to future power plants (French-German EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project). The following successive topics are presented: the safety technology (automatic safety and auxiliary systems, protection against external impacts, materials technology and testing, optimization of components, plant designs and automated procedures); the operating experience (personnel radiation exposure, radioactive releases and effluents in the vicinity of power plants, incidents data collection, feedback of operating and abnormal events experience); the safety analyses (incidents frequency, accidents analyses, probabilistic safety assessments); the accident management (preventive and mitigating measures on PWR plants); and the basic philosophy of future reactor development for the improvement of accident prevention and significant reduction of radioactive releases following accidents. (J.S.). 10 figs., 3 tabs
Papers were presented on the following subjects: Mining in the new German states; Development of knowledge-based consulting systems for waste disposal and mine savitation operations; Advantages and drawbacks of underground leaching of uranium ores - proposals for environmentally compatible termination of mining operations; Backfilling of open shafts; The final operation plan -legal fundamentals of mine abandonment; stability assessment of subsurface workings of the Ehrenfriedersdorf tin mine and conclusions for safety measures; Experience and problems of landscaping measures for abandoved mines in densely populated areas; Performance of pipeless shaft drilling machines in hard and extremely hard rock; subsurface tunnelling in subsidence areas; Selective cutters in potassium mining in Alsace-Rock salt mining at Bernburg; Problems of stabilisation of abandoned shafts in potassium mines in central Germany. Six of the papers have been recorded as separate entries in this database. (orig./HS)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, a potential vector of several viruses, was first detected in Germany in 2008 on the Swiss-German border. In the following years, this invasive species apparently succeeded in establishing populations in southern Germany and in spreading northwards. In 2011, its distribution area already covered large areas of the federal state of Baden-Wurttemberg, and its northernmost German collection point was reported to be close to Stuttgart. Several independent submissions to our laboratories of Ae. j. japonicus specimens in July 2012, originating from the same area in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, western Germany, prompted us to carry out an immediate surveillance in this region in the expectation of finding a further distribution focus of Ae. j. japonicus in Germany. Methods After inspecting the places of residence of the collectors of the submitted mosquito specimens, all kinds of water containers in 123 cemeteries in surrounding towns and villages were checked for mosquito developmental stages. These were collected and kept to produce adults for morphological species identification. One specimen per collection site was identified genetically by COI sequence analysis. Results Aedes j. japonicus adults and immature stages were found in 36 towns/villages that were checked (29% over an area of approximately 2,000 km2 in southern North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland Palatinate. The species could not be demonstrated further south when monitoring towards the northernmost previous collection sites in southern Germany. It therefore remains to be elucidated whether the species has entered western Germany from the south, from Belgium in the west where it has been demonstrated to occur locally since 2002, or through a new introduction. Conclusions Aedes j. japonicus is obviously much more widely distributed in Germany than previously thought. It appears to be well adapted, to have a strong expansion tendency and to replace indigenous mosquito species. Thus, a further spread is anticipated and elimination seems hardly possible anymore. The vector potency of the species should be reason enough to thoroughly monitor its future development in Germany.
The Federal Republic of Germany is widely respected for its highly developed economy, rich cultural life, and significant contributions to science, mathematics, and the arts. Designed for families or individuals planning to move to or live in Germany for extended periods of time, this book provides guidance in such practical matters as entry…
Loewenthal, Nessa P.
This theme issue of "Bildung und Wissenschaft" explains the importance of multilingualism in today's world, focusing on foreign language instruction in Germany. It examines the following issues: "Multilingualism in a Changing World"; "The Significance of Foreign Languages for Germany"; "Foreign Languages in Schools: The System--A Few Basic Facts";…
Bliesener, Ulrich; Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg M., Ed.
The characterization of fault zones is of particular importance in geothermal reservoirs since there may be great effects on fluid flow. Fault zones generally consist of two major hydromechanical units: the fault core and the damage zone, surrounded by the host rock. To improve predictions of fracture system parameters for each unit and resulting estimations of reservoir permeabilities at depths we perform outcrop analogue studies. We analyze Middle Triassic Muschelkalk limestones that form one geothermal reservoir formation in the Upper Rhine Graben (southwest Germany) in quarries on its eastern graben shoulder. We measure the orientations and displacements of various fault zones and characterize the fracture systems within the fault zone units and in the host rock. Our studies show that damage zones are well developed even in smaller fault zones. Their fault cores, however, are narrow compared with that of fault zones with large displacements and comprise brecciated material, clay smear, host rock lenses or zones of mineralization. Based on the field data we use analytical models to estimate the permeabilities of the analyzed fracture systems. Results show increased fracture frequencies in the fault zone damage zones and larger fracture apertures parallel or subparallel to fault zone strike that lead to enhanced permeability compared with other orientations. Mineralized fractures accumulated in this direction in the 'Nussloch'-quarry indicate that these fractures were pathways for fault zone parallel fluid flow in the past. This shows that open fractures with orientations parallel to fault zones may be pathways for fault zone parallel fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs. By contrast, well-developed fault cores may be potential barriers for fluid flow in inactive fault zones. To build numerical models to analyze local stress fields and effects on fracture propagation for different fault zone types and geometries information on rock mechanical properties is necessary. Therefore we take representative rock samples in the quarries to determine uniaxial compressive and tensile strengths as well as Young's Moduli in the laboratory. Additionally we measure the rebound hardness distribution across fault zones with a 'Schmidt-Hammer' to analyze mechanical property variations. First results show that the rebound hardness increases with increasing distance from the fault core. The presented studies help to predict the permeability of fault-related geothermal reservoir rocks and minimize the exploration risk of geothermal projects. This project is part of the Research and Development Project AuGE (Outcrop Analogue Studies in Geothermal Exploration). Project partners are the companies Geothermal Engineering GmbH and GeoEnergy GmbH as well as the Universities of Heidelberg and Erlangen. The project is funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) within the framework of the 5th Energy Research Program (FKZ 0325302).
Meier, S.; Bauer, J. F.; Philipp, S. L.
Organic chlorine compounds represent a grave danger to the drinking water supply from surface waters. The investigations described here deal with the determination of lipophile chlorine compounds in Rhine water and in fish where micro-coulometric determination methods and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in connection with a solvent extraction of the organic compounds are used. In order to be able to make statements on the toxicological effects of the harmful substances in the Rhine water, special-purpose feeding tests on rats were carried out. They showed, e.g., that hexachlorobenzene has all the properties for a particularly good storage in the organism: 1) very volatile, 2) very lipophile and 3) hard to metabolize. Further investigations deal with adsorption properties of activated carbon of different structure and surface parameters for certain organic chlorine compounds, for which the above-mentioned method was also used. (RB/LH)
To study the short-term effects of the physical environment on phytoplankton dynamics in the Rhine outflow area. changes in salinity, beam attenuation and phytoplankton distribution were observed in a series of high resolution measurements. During periods of weak wind and neap tide (low turbulent kinetic energy, TKE), the system was dominated by tidal straining that resulted in semi-diurnal oscillations in stratification. Phytoplankton was kept in resuspension at about 10-15 m depth. Subsequent strong wind and tidal mixing (high TKE) broke down stratification, enhanced horizontal gradients and suppressed estuarine transport. It is hypothesised that during low TKE, tidal straining and frontal circulation determined the phytoplankton distribution; and at high TKE, input by wind and tide enhanced conditions for growth, which resulted in a bloom in the surface layer of the Rhine Plume, where light and nutrients were available. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joordens, J.C.A.; Souza, A.J.
Die trinationale Tourismusdestination Upper Rhine Valley (URV), welche die Pfalz, den Schwarzwald, das Elsass und die Nordwestschweiz miteinander verbindet, steckt einen Grossteil ihrer Mittel in Marketingaktivitäten in Fernmärkten. Das URV möchte dadurch die Aufmerksamkeit der Reiseveranstalter und der Touristen aus aller Welt auf sich ziehen. Die Attraktivität der Region basiert nicht nur auf dem vorhandenen touristischen Angebot, welches im URV sehr breitgefächert ist. Auch die Qualit...
Mueller, Nina; Imboden, Serge
To study the short-term effects of the physical environment on phytoplankton dynamics in the Rhine out¯ow area, changes in salinity, beam attenuation and phytoplankton distribution were observed in a series of high resolution measurements. During periods of weak wind and neap tide (low turbulent kinetic energy, TKE), the system was dominated by tidal straining that resulted in semi-diurnal oscillations in stratification. Phytoplankton was kept in resuspension at about 10±15m depth. Subseque...
Joordens, J. C. A.; Souza, A. J.; Visser, A.
It is often assumed that bioassays are better descriptors of sediment toxicity than toxicant concentrations and that ecological factors are more important than toxicants in structuring macroinvertebrate communities. In the period 1992 to 1995, data were collected in the enclosed Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands, on macroinvertebrates, sediment toxicity, sediment contaminant concentrations, and ecological factors. The effect of various groups of pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ...
Peeters, E. T. H. M.; Dewitte, A.; Koelmans, A. A.; Velden, J. A.; Besten, P. J.
13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...
This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded.
Rozema, Jelte [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Notten, Martje J.M.; Aerts, Rien [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Hobbelen, Peter H.F. [Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hamers, Timo H.M. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded. PMID:18707753
Rozema, Jelte; Notten, Martje J M; Aerts, Rien; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Hobbelen, Peter H F; Hamers, Timo H M
Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.
This video excerpt from FRONTLINE: Nuclear Aftershocks explores the debate behind Germany's decision to phase out its nuclear energy program and revert back to coal as “the bridge” that will eventually allow greater reliance on renewable energy.
Foundation, Wgbh E.
"Germany, which used to be one of the most tolerant countries in matters concerning asylum, has, since the eighties, been confronted by very large migratory flows. Immigration to [West Germany] consisted every year of hundreds of thousands of asylum-seekers, a similar number of...Germans from Russia, Kazakhstan, Romania and Poland, as well as a large number of East Germans. On May 26th 1993, the Bundestag adopted a new law making asylum and immigration to Germany increasingly difficult. The problem of immigration has not been resolved, however, as is shown by the situation in the East European countries, Germany's neighbours, who are suffering the consequences of the new asylum policy...." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12346372
The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between ...
Available data suggest that early detection of breast cancer by mammography screening can reduce mortality by about 25%. Intensified monitoring of women with a family history of breast cancer and regular general screening have recently been introduced in Germany. The screening program is expected to be fully established by 2008. Following its successful introduction (participation rates between 65 and 80%), the German screening program will be conducted and evaluated in accordance with the European guidelines. At least in the screening trials that were conducted prior to the now established screening program the quality criteria were more than fulfilled (e.g. cancer detection rate in Bremen 8.7, Wiesbaden 9.4, Weser-Ems region 8.3/1000). Additional parameters that can be taken into account for quality assurance are the overdiagnosis bias, lead time bias, length bias and selection bias. Moreover, there are some factors that are specific to the German program compared with the breast cancer screening programs already established in other countries. One of these is the intensified screening program for high-risk women (ca. 5% of all carcinomas) and as a result fewer women with an increased genetic risk of breast cancer will be represented in the general screening program. The German screening program involves only a few university centers and hospital-based physicians, which may have adverse effects on research and development as well as mammography training in the futur well as mammography training in the future. Therefore, the screening program should also provide for the investigation of new techniques or emerging techniques (e.g. CAD systems in screening mammography) in the future. (orig.)
Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and/or hospitals, provide annual reports and publish scientific articles and/or presentations. The effects of the arthroplasty registers on clinical practice and on health political decisions in the time after the introduction of these registers are documented in some countries. The influence on cost savings for health services is also reported. Discussion: The most important legal and ethical aspect is the patient’s data protection and, therefore, the requirement of patient’s consent. The involvement of the physicians in the data collection process is a further organisational and legal challenge. The 100% data collection, which is the aim of the registers due to their definition, should not cause disadvantages for certain groups of patients.ConclusionThe arthroplasty registers have a large medical and health-economic potential. Aspects of the patient’s data protection and the guaranteed financial support of the registers should be clarified before the introduction of a register.
Full Text Available Migrations from Yugoslavia to Germany have a long tradition. There have been various economic and social causes, and in some periods even political ones for that phenomenon. Taking into consideration the historical aspect and also the contemporary migration flows, the dynamics of migrations of the Yugoslav population to Germany has the following stages in its development. The first stage had begun in late XIX century and ended with the World War I. Although the overseas migration flows prevailed, yet the German agriculture and its mine industry attracted a part of the Yugoslav population. Between the two world wars mostly "Westfahl Slovenes" and Croats and Serbs from Bosnia-Herzegovina got "temporary employed" in the Rhine-Westfahl industrial area, along with several thousand Serb-Croat-Slovene agricultural seasonal workers per year. The second stage began immediately after the Second World War when most of about 200,000 citizens from the former Yugoslavia, being mostly refugees, moved from the West European to overseas countries, but some of them stayed in Germany. Involuntary migrants and refugees, however, returned in great number from Germany to Yugoslavia. At that stage non-extradition of war criminals on the part of the West occupying powers on German territory, then disregard of West German Governments of the anti-Yugoslav activities of the part of extreme Yugoslav emigration, and different interpretation of the bilateral agreement on extradition, became the essential problem in relations between SFR Yugoslavia and FR Germany. The third stage in development of migrations commenced in early 1960s. At that time, Germany and other Western countries became prominently immigrational, while since mid-1960s till 1973 economic emigrants from Yugoslavia became more and more important in the German economic space. From 1954 to 1967 migration of Yugoslav citizens had not yet been intensive and their intention was mostly to work abroad. Illegal employment was, however, prominent at that time. Due to the normalisation of political relations, re-establishment of diplomatic relations and conclusion of bilateral agreements that legally defined employment of foreign workers, since 1968 till 1973 a great number of Yugoslavs got employed in FR Germany. The contemporary migrations from FR Yugoslavia to Germany resulted from the economic and political crisis in the former SFRY as well as from the civil wars that were waged in the Yugoslav territory. FR Germany became the most important destination country of Yugoslav migrants - workers, refugees, false asylum-seekers and political emigrants. Different categories of migrants from Yugoslavia to Germany enjoy the treatment that is in accordance with the immigration policies of the German governments as well as with the degree of development of the German-Yugoslav political and economic relations, and the degree of the established co-operation in the field of legal assistance and social welfare. Migrant workers, who have legally regulated their employment and residence status, could in the future expect to gain assistance from their mother country in getting efficient protection of their rights and interests in all stages of the migration process. Numerous migrants asylum-seekers, in spite of the proclaimed international protection, share, however, the fate resulting from the politically motivated measures and actions taken by the German authorities within the arbitrary decision-making of the right and/or abuse of the right to asylum. This is the reason why as early as in late 1994 the Government of FRG announced that it would expel foreigners from the country. The remaining refugees, or actually the so-called false asylum-seekers in FR Germany, share the fate of forced repatriation. Within this category special emphasis should be placed on the attitude of the German government to the Albanians and Roma from Kosovo. At first, the Germans treated the Albanians from Kosovo as politically persecuted persons, offering them refuge. Then they declared them (and Roma also to
The rare money spider Walckenaeria simplex Chyzer, 1894 was found in 2007 near the city of Meißen (Germany) on a rock overlooking the river Elbe. This is the northernmost occurrence of the species. W. simplex is distributed from Central to South Eastern Europe. The species is thermophilous and prefers wooded slopes with a southern exposition.
Stylized facts suggest that output volatility in OECD countries has declined in recent years. However, the causes and the nature of this decline have so far been analyzed mainly for the United States. In this paper, we analyze whether structural breaks in the dynamics and the volatility of the real output process in Germany can be detected. We report evidence that output volatility has declined in Germany. Yet, this decline in output volatility is not as clear-cut as it is in the case of the ...
Buch, Claudia M.; Doepke, Joerg; Pierdzioch, Christian
The ability to estimate Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) realistically is essential for understanding past hydrological events and predicting future changes in the hydrological cycle. Inadequacies in model physics, uncertainty in model land parameters, and uncertainties in meteorological data commonly limit the accuracy of hydrological models in simulating TWS. In an effort to improve model performance, this study investigated the benefits of assimilating TWS...
Tangdamrongsub, N.; Steele-dunne, S. C.; Gunter, B. C.; Ditmar, P. G.; Weerts, A. H.
Thermochronological, structural and kinematic analyses demonstrate the influence of Late Paleozoic basement structures on the localization and evolution of the Rhine-Bresse Transfer Zone (RBTZ), a central segment of the European Cenozoic Rift System. Zircon and apatite fission track data indicate that the Paleozoic crystalline basement and its Permo-Triassic cover, exposed in the La Serre Horst, experienced a Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous heating event which was followed by two distinct periods of cooling. A first cooling event occurred in the Early Cretaceous and is probably related to thermal relaxation. A second one, started at around 38 Ma, is interpreted to reflect exhumation that was induced by fault reactivation along the Late Paleozoic Burgundy Trough System during Eocene-Oligocene rifting and the formation of the RBTZ. This fault reactivation resulted in a complex fault pattern and local stress field perturbations in the surroundings of the pre-existing horst structure. Substantial extension was achieved by ENE-WSW striking normal faults that trend highly oblique to the dominant strike of the Rhine and Bresse Graben rifts. Seismic reflection data show that these major normal faults are typically associated with extensional flexures and oriented parallel to pre-existing Late Paleozoic basement faults of the Burgundy Trough. Paleostress analyses yield overall NW-SE extension during the Eo-Oligocene, slightly oblique to the structural trend of the RBTZ, and additionally, local stress field perturbations induced by the reactivation of pre-existing faults. Reactivation of Paleozoic structures in the RBTZ is of extensional rather than of strike-slip character indicating that the RBTZ is forming a separate oblique graben segment within the European Cenozoic Rift System rather than a sinistral strike slip transform zone supposedly connecting Rhine and Bresse graben structures.
Madritsch, Herfried; Kounov, Alexandre; Schmid, Stefan M.; Fabbri, Olivier
We present new results for the microseismic activity in the northern Upper Rhine Graben by analyzing seismogram recordings from two temporary networks of up to 13 broad-band stations in combination with data from permanent stations. Previous studies have mainly focused on the southern and intermediate sections of the Upper Rhine Graben, where the station coverage by regional networks is more dense. Between October 2010 and September 2013 we recorded 56 earthquakes that occurred within the immediate vicinity of the northern Upper Rhine Graben with local magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 3.2. The majority of the hypocenters are located beneath the eastern graben shoulder and in the graben itself, while activity observed along the western graben shoulder is lower. A further active region is located along the southern rim of the Taunus Mountains to the northwest of the study area. The seismicity extends to a depth of 25 km; the hypocentral depth distribution exhibits a pronounced peak of seismic energy release in the depth range between 12 and 18 km. Fault plane solutions for a total of 58 earthquakes (including data from previous recordings) were derived from P-polarities and SV/P amplitude ratios. This new data set more than quadruples the number of available data for regional stress field analysis. The majority of the focal mechanisms show predominantly strike-slip movements; only a few events are of reverse or normal-faulting type. T-axis trends are oriented NE-SW. The calculated focal mechanisms presented in this study confirm that the area is in transtension, however, in contrast to previous studies, a stronger strike-slip component is identified. We also derived the azimuths of the principal stress axes by inverting the fault plane solutions and calculated the direction of the maximum horizontal stress, which is mainly oriented N135°E.
Homuth, B.; Rümpker, G.; Deckert, H.; Kracht, M.
Highlights: • Sustainable straw potentials can be determined with the help of humus balance tools. • A sustainable straw potential of 8–13 Tg is estimated to be available in Germany. • Energetic use of this straw could lead to GHG emission reduction of 73.3–92.3% compared to fossil references. • Lowest GHG emissions occur for straw-based heat production. • Highest reduction potential can be achieved with combined heat and power production. - Abstract: The energetic use of residues from agriculture can foster the transition towards a more renewable energy supply. However, sustainability issues have to be considered along the entire provision chain as they affect the resource and energy potential as well as the achievable contribution to climate mitigation. Straw is one of the most important agricultural residues in Germany. It is not yet used for energy purposes extensively and compared to other agricultural feedstock it shows low competition with food, feed or fiber. This paper analyses on the one hand the sustainable potential of cereal straw for energy application in Germany considering the actual agricultural conditions, and on the other hand the global warming potential from different energy provision chains based on straw. Different humus-balance tools that are able to assess the organic matter (OM) demand to presume soil fertility. The analysis of straw potentials was applied at NUTS 3 level for Germany, based on statistical data. The results of this analysis were used as input data for the modeling of concepts for straw provision and use. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were calculated for each concept in order to compare the global warming potential of various energy applications, to investigate the relative contribution of different production steps and to compare them with fossil energy applications. In total, 29.8 Tg of straw (fresh matter) are produced annually in Germany (1999–2007). Approximately 4.8 Tg of the total straw occurrence are annually required by animal husbandry. Between 7.97 and 13.25 Tg straw can be classified as sustainable straw. Highest straw potential (3.99 Mg ha?1) can be found in parts of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg–West Pomerania, North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. But there are also regions that show a net deficit. The cumulated GHG emissions for the resulting concepts are between 8 and 35 g CO2-eq. MJ?1. In comparison to fossil energy applications, the highest reduction potential occurs for concepts for combined heat and power (CHP) provision, i.e. 223gCO2-eq.MJel-1. This study highlights the possible contribution of straw as renewable energy carrier, but also demonstrates that there are regional restrictions for straw use
The influence of the Jurassic hydrothermal activity on the interpretation of fission track (FT) data from the southern Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is elaborated by means of new zircon FT analyses on samples with known U/Pb crystallisation ages. Zircon FT central ages display a wide spectrum from 162 ± 14 Ma to 247 ± 22 Ma. The combination of the U/Pb ages, independent geologic evidence (such as Mesozoic subsidence history, timing of hydrothermal activity, and apatite FT ages) and the zircon FT...
Timar-geng, Z.; Fu?genschuh, B.; Schaltegger, Urs; Wetzel, A.
The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse ...
Sutanudjaja, E. H.; Beek, L. P. H.; Jong, S. M.; Geer, F. C.; Bierkens, M. F. P.
Highlights: • Water footprint of Germany meeting EU biofuel targets was investigated. • Trade analysis ascertained the source and magnitude of the external water footprint. • Policy implementation increased the water footprint of the transport fuel sector 64%. • This study improves upon a previous one undertaken at the EU level. - Abstract: Germany is required by European Union legislation to achieve a 10% mixture of renewable energy in all road transport fuels by the year 2020. This paper intends to quantify the water use impacts of Germany’s compliance with the transport fuel goal of the EU Renewables Directive. Although the stated purpose of this Directive is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector and address energy security concerns, a more encompassing analysis considering sustainable development paths must include other environmental impacts, including water resource use. The water footprint indicator can contribute to a more intelligent environmental analysis of biofuel targets, although it alone cannot attest to the sustainability of human water use. This research builds upon the results of a similar study that aimed to quantify the freshwater impacts of meeting this EU transport fuel goal across Member States. By looking more closely at the case of Germany, country-specific data can be used in the analysis that lead to different results than those reached in the previous study. Results indicate that achieving a 10% mixture of biofuels in the road transport sector could lead to a 64% increase in the water footprint of the transport fuel sector when compared to a baseline scenario of no policy implementation
We tested 55 deceased vespertilionid bats of 12 species from southern Germany for virus infections. A new adenovirus was isolated from tissue samples of 2 Pipistrellus pipistrellus bats, which represents the only chiropteran virus isolate found in Europe besides lyssavirus (rabies virus). Evidence was found for adenovirus transmission between bats.
Sonntag, Michael; Mu?hldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas
According to recent calculations of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Office), all German nuclear power plants can be decommissioned from 2017. This will result neither in supply shortages nor in higher electricity rates, and Germany's climate protection goals will not be in danger either. There will be no need to import nuclear power from other countries. (orig.)
Among 310 fleas collected from dogs and cats in Germany, Rickettsia felis was detected in all specimens (34) of Archaeopsylla erinacei (hedgehog flea) and in 9% (24/226) of Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea). R. helvetica was detected in 1 Ceratophyllus gallinae (hen flea).
Gilles, Je?re?mie; Just, Frank Thomas; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pradel, Ingrid; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Lengauer, Heidi; Hellmann, Klaus; Pfister, Kurt
Anhand zweier Profile aus dem Niederrheingebiet wird die Komplexität der Genese und Chronologie letztinterglazialer bis früh-weichselzeitlicher Löss-Paläoboden-Sequenzen diskutiert. Die untersuchten Profile wurden in den Braunkohletagebauen Inden und Garzweiler aufgenommen und sind mit mittelpaläolithischen Fundkomplexen verknüpft. Erstmalig werden dabei Multi-Element-Analysen neben Lumineszenz-Datierungen an Quarzen (ITL, OSL) aus niederrheinischen Lössprofilen vorgestellt und diskuti...
Alexandra Hilgers; Peter Fischer; Jens Protze; Holger Kels; Frank Lehmkuhl; Renate Gerlach
Full Text Available Anhand zweier Profile aus dem Niederrheingebiet wird die Komplexität der Genese und Chronologie letztinterglazialer bis früh-weichselzeitlicher Löss-Paläoboden-Sequenzen diskutiert. Die untersuchten Profile wurden in den Braunkohletagebauen Inden und Garzweiler aufgenommen und sind mit mittelpaläolithischen Fundkomplexen verknüpft. Erstmalig werden dabei Multi-Element-Analysen neben Lumineszenz-Datierungen an Quarzen (ITL, OSL aus niederrheinischen Lössprofilen vorgestellt und diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse offenbaren große Unsicherheiten hinsichtlich einer stratigraphischen und paläoklimatischen Interpretation von polygenetisch uüberprägten Sediment- und Paläobodensequenzen. Eine bedeutende Rolle nimmt dabei auch die Reliefposition in Verbindung mit der Morphogenese des Paläoreliefs ein, die in höherem Maße als bisher berücksichtigt werden sollte.
The aim of the study is to analyze and discuss possible climate change impacts on flood damages in Germany. The study was initiated and supported by the German insurance sector whereby the main goal was to identify general climate-related trends in flood hazard and damages and to explore sensitivity of results to climate scenario uncertainty. The study makes use of climate scenarios regionalized for the main river basins in Germany. A hydrological model (SWIM) that had been calibrated and validated for the main river gauges, was applied to transform these scenarios into discharge for more than 5000 river reaches. Extreme value distribution has been fitted to the time series of river discharge to derive the flood frequency statistics. The hydrological results for each river reach have been linked using the flood statistics to related damage functions provided by the German Insurance Association, considering damages on buildings and small enterprises. The result is that, under the specific scenario conditions, a considerable increase in flood related losses can be expected in Germany in future, warmer, climate.
Hattermann, F. F.; Huang, S.; Burghoff, O.; Willems, W.; Österle, H.; Büchner, M.; Kundzewicz, Z.
The status of the HTR development program in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1984 is characterized by the beginning of a transition phase from a national program to a commercial program. In the last 20 years the HTR technology program was strongly, nearly completely supported by the Federal Government and the State Government of North-Rhine-Westfalia. Funding of the program up to now exceeded 5 billion DM. Within this framework it was possible to establish competent-reactor-system companies, to enable industries to supply HTR- specific components including fuel elements and nuclear graphites, to maintain the strong engagement of the national centre KFA Juelich in general R and D activities, to build and operate the AVR-plant for more than 16 years, to erect the demonstration plant THTR-300 now approaching completion and to build and operate many efficient test facilities. Thereby the HTR technology development achieved a stage of maturity which is not only considered to be most advanced, but is also ready now for commerical deployment. The assessment report which comprised both the fast breeder and the HTR development included all major impacts, such as history, status, prospects, benefits, industrial aspects and international developments of the technology. The program description is facilitated by distinguishing the five major program elements: AVR, THTR-300, THTR follow-up plant, nuclear process heat program, fuel cycle activities
In this paper author deals with situation of nuclear power in Germany. Consequences of the liberalization of the electricity markets, electricity production of nuclear power plants in Germany, status of periodic safety review, waste disposal, new reactor developments, coalition contract of the new Federal Government, jobs and skills (problems in Germany) as well as status of consent discussion are discussed
This spaceborne radar image of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency radar system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the image, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and radar calibration during the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The image was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.
Rivers are inherently dynamic water systems involving complex interactions among hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. In many deltas around the world lowland rivers are intensively managed to meet objectives like safety, navigation, hydropower and water supply. With the increasing pressure of growing population and climate change it will become even more challenging to reach or maintain these objectives and probably also more demanding from a management point of view. In the meantime there is a growing awareness that rivers are natural systems and that, rather than further regulation works, the dynamic natural processes should be better utilized (or restored) to reach the multifunctional objectives. Currently many integrated river management projects are initiated all over the world, in large rivers as well as streams. Examples of large scale projects in the Netherlands are 'Room for the River' (Rhine), the 'Maaswerken' (Meuse), the Deltaprogramme and projects originating from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). These projects include innovative measures executed never before on this scale and include for example longitudinal training dams, side channels, removal of bank protection, remeandering of streams, dredging/nourishment and floodplain rehabilitation. Although estimates have been made on the effects of these measures for many of the individual projects, the overall effects on the various management objectives remains uncertain, especially if all projects are considered in connection. For all stakeholders with vested interests in the river system it is important to know how that system evolves at intermediate and longer time scales (10 to 100 years) and what the consequences will be for the various river functions. If the total, integrated response of the system can be predicted, the system may be managed in a more effective way, making optimum use of natural processes. In this way, maintenance costs may be reduced, the system remains more natural and more self-sustaining and ecosystem services such as safety, navigability, biodiversity and climate buffering can be safeguarded or even enhanced. The unprecedented extent of these interventions, together with comprehensive in-situ monitoring now offer an excellent opportunity to gain extensive knowledge about their intermediate and long-term impacts. RiverCare is a large research programme that will start in 2014 in which 5 universities, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment, Deltares, consultancy firms and other public and private parties collaborate to get a better understanding of the fundamental processes that drive ecomorphological changes, predict the intermediate and long-term developments, make uncertainties explicit and reduce them where possible and develop best practices to reduce the maintenance costs and increase the benefits of interventions. The projects currently or soon to be carried out in the Netherlands provide a unique opportunity to achieve these objectives and use the results to develop or improve models, guidelines and tools that can be used for river management in the Netherlands and abroad.
Augustijn, Denie; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne
Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi were investigated on five different forest tree species growing in pure stands on the south slope of the Taunus Mountains, which are situated at the northern end of the Rhine rift valley in Central Germany. Mycorrhizal fungi accompanying the genus Xerocomus were identified and their frequencies counted. Using ITS markers, 22 different fungal species were identified down to species level and 6 down to genus level. On European beech (Fagus sylvatica 16 fungal species and 4 genera were identified and on Sessile oak (Quercus petraea 16 ectomycorrhizal species and 2 genera were determined. On both deciduous trees we observed exclusively: Cortinarius subsertipes, Genea hispidula, Lactarius quietus, Tylopilus felleus and a Melanogaster genus. On Norway spruce (Picea abies we identified 13 different mycorrhizal species and 3 different genera, on Silver fir (Abies alba 12 species and 3 genera, and in association with European larch (Larix decidua 11 species and 3 genera. On these conifers Cortinarius anomalus, Lactarius necator and a Piloderma genus occurred exclusively. Comparisons with published data of ectomycorrhizal diversity on the same five tree species, growing in different areas of Germany and Europe, led to the conclusion that there is relative site specificity for ectomycorrhizal communities. Upper soil compartments of the stands investigated in the Taunus Mountainssuffer from soil acidification (pH-H20 ~3.7 to ~4.8. However, a clear correlation between upper soil pH-values and fungal diversity was not observed. On the other hand, nitrate concentrations in upper soil compartments (~26 to ~91 kgNO3-/ha were higher in older stands as compared to younger ones. Higher nitrate concentrations in upper soils correlated with lower numbers of mycorrhizal individuals.
Gunter M. Rothe
Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)
Law and economics in Germany was dominated by regulation, competition, and ?German Ordnungspolitik? until the early 1970s. Since then, German scholars have published a broad body of work in German and in the English language, covering fields like contract law, environmental law, labor law, public law, bankruptcy law, constitutional economics and legal procedure. Also in the 1970s, teaching activities were started at German universities. In addition to this, several (bi)annual conferences on l...
The aim of this study is to assess and map the seismic risk for Germany, restricted to the expected losses of damage to residential buildings. There are several earthquake prone regions in the country which have produced Mw magnitudes above 6 and up to 6.7 corresponding to observed ground shaking intensity up to VIII–IX (EMS-98). Combined with the fact that some of the earthquake prone areas are densely populated and highly industrialized and where therefore the hazard...
Tyagunov, S.; Gru?nthal, G.; Wahlstro?m, R.; Stempniewski, L.; Zschau, J.
With over 2,800 employees, the Federal Statistical Office of Germany collects and processes statistical information for the country out of their three main offices in Weisbaden, Bonn, and Berlin. From their home page, individuals can access dozens of summary statistical tables dealing with almost every aspect of the country, including employment rates, education, environment, transport, foreign trade, wages, tourism, and population. Within each section, individuals can read a brief introduction to the Office's most recent findings in each thematic area and, in many instances, access detailed tables of data, where statistics are broken down by month. The Federal Statistical Office also conducts a microcensus every year, which involves one percent of all households in Germany. Information about this microcensus is available on the site. Most of the site is available in English, but the publications of the Office are only available in German. This site will be quite helpful to those persons working in demography, or for those looking for general data about Germany.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.
The Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management group of Wageningen University is involved in the EU research project NeWater. The objective of this project is to develop tools which provide medium range hydrological predictions by coupling catchment-scale water balance models and ensembles from mesoscale climate models. The catchment-scale distributed hydrological model used in this study is the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. This hydrological model in combination with an ensemble from the climate model ECHAM5 (developed by Max Plank Institute für Meteorologie (MPI-M), Hamburg) is being used to evaluate the effects of climate change on the hydrological regime of the Rhine basin and to assess the uncertainties involved in the ensembles from the climate model used in this study. Three future scenarios (2001-2100) are used in this study, which are downscaled ECHAM5 runs which were forced by the IPCC carbon emission scenarios B1, A1B and A2. A downscaled ECHAM5 "Climate of the 20th Century" run (1951-2000) is used as the reference climate. Downscaled ERA15 data is used to calibrate the VIC model. Downscaling of both the ECHAM5 and ERA15 model was carried out with the regional climate model REMO at MPI-M to a resolution of 0.088 degrees. The assessment of uncertainties involved in the climate model ensembles is performed by comparing the model (ECHAM5-REMO and ERA15-REMO) ensemble precipitation and temperature data with observations. This resulted in the detection of a bias in both the downscaled reference climate data and downscaled ERA15 data. A bias-correction has been applied to both the downscaled ERA15 data and the reference climate data. This bias-correction corrects for the mean and coefficient of variation for precipitation and the mean and standard deviation for temperature. The results of the applied bias-correction are analyzed spatially and temporally. Despite the fact that the bias-correction only uses two parameters, the coefficient of variation, standard deviation and mean of the bias-corrected data sets showed significant improvements for both precipitation and temperature. Even statistics that were not taken into account in the bias-correction, such as the fraction of wet days, the lag-one autocorrelation and the exceedance probabilities have improved as well.
Terink, W.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Warmerdam, P. M. M.
Bank filtration has been of main importance for the drinking water supply in Germany for many decades. The water quality of pumped raw water from bank filtration sites depends to a high degree on the water quality of the infiltrating surface water and the landside groundwater, the mixing portion of both as well as the flow and transport conditions in the aquifer. Since the improvement of river water quality and a drastic decrease in water demand during the last 15 years in Germany, the influe...
Grischek, T.; Schoenheinz, D.; Syhre, C.; Saupe, K.
The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE), the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High temporal and spatial emission inventories are available allowing relevant and realistic modifications of the emission inventories. The calculation period, i.e., 11 May 1998, corresponds to a regional photochemical ozone pollution episode during which ozone concentrations exceeded several times the information threshold of the ozone directive of the European Union (180 ?g m-3 as 1 hourly average). New emission inventories are set up using specific emission factors related to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gasoline passenger cars (from 50% to 100%) using the three fuel blends. Then air quality modeling simulations are performed using these emission inventories over the upper Rhine valley. The impact of alternative fuels on regional air quality is evaluated by comparing these simulations with the one using a reference emission inventory, e.g., where no modifications of the fuel composition are included. The results are analyzed by focusing on peak levels and daily averaged concentrations. The use of the alternative fuels leads to general reductions of ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC) and increases of NOx levels. We found different behaviors related to the type of the area of concern i.e. rural or urban. The impacts on ozone are enhanced in urban areas where 15% reduction of the ozone peak and daily averaged concentrations can be reached. This behavior is similar for the NOx for which, in addition, an increase of the levels can be noted in urban plumes over rural areas. The most important decreases of the total VOC levels are mainly located over rural areas (more than 5% reduction of the levels except in urban plumes). By comparing these results with those from a local study related to the air quality of Strasbourg, we estimate that the regional contribution to the urban air quality of Strasbourg allows an enhancement of the results by using alternative fuel blends at the regional scale.
Vinuesa, J.-F.; Mirabel, Ph.; Ponche, J.-L.
Full Text Available The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE, the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High temporal and spatial emission inventories are available allowing relevant and realistic modifications of the emission inventories. The calculation period, i.e., 11 May 1998, corresponds to a regional photochemical ozone pollution episode during which ozone concentrations exceeded several times the information threshold of the ozone directive of the European Union (180 µg m?3 as 1 hourly average. New emission inventories are set up using specific emission factors related to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gasoline passenger cars (from 50% to 100% using the three fuel blends. Then air quality modeling simulations are performed using these emission inventories over the upper Rhine valley. The impact of alternative fuels on regional air quality is evaluated by comparing these simulations with the one using a reference emission inventory, e.g., where no modifications of the fuel composition are included. The results are analyzed by focusing on peak levels and daily averaged concentrations. The use of the alternative fuels leads to general reductions of ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC and increases of NOx levels. We found different behaviors related to the type of the area of concern i.e. rural or urban. The impacts on ozone are enhanced in urban areas where 15% reduction of the ozone peak and daily averaged concentrations can be reached. This behavior is similar for the NOx for which, in addition, an increase of the levels can be noted in urban plumes over rural areas. The most important decreases of the total VOC levels are mainly located over rural areas (more than 5% reduction of the levels except in urban plumes. By comparing these results with those from a local study related to the air quality of Strasbourg, we estimate that the regional contribution to the urban air quality of Strasbourg allows an enhancement of the results by using alternative fuel blends at the regional scale.
Full Text Available The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE, the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High temporal and spatial emission inventories are available allowing relevant and realistic modifications of the emission inventories. The calculation period, i.e., 11 May 1998, corresponds to a regional photochemical ozone pollution episode during which ozone concentrations exceeded several times the information threshold of the ozone directive of the European Union (180 ?g m-3 as 1 hourly average. New emission inventories are set up using specific emission factors related to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gasoline passenger cars (from 50% to 100% using the three fuel blends. Then air quality modeling simulations are performed using these emission inventories over the upper Rhine valley. The impact of alternative fuels on regional air quality is evaluated by comparing these simulations with the one using a reference emission inventory, e.g., where no modifications of the fuel composition are included. The results are analyzed by focusing on peak levels and daily averaged concentrations. The use of the alternative fuels leads to general reductions of ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC and increases of NOx levels. We found different behaviors related to the type of the area of concern i.e. rural or urban. The impacts on ozone are enhanced in urban areas where 15% reduction of the ozone peak and daily averaged concentrations can be reached. This behavior is similar for the NOx for which, in addition, an increase of the levels can be noted in urban plumes over rural areas. The most important decreases of the total VOC levels are mainly located over rural areas (more than 5% reduction of the levels except in urban plumes. By comparing these results with those from a local study related to the air quality of Strasbourg, we estimate that the regional contribution to the urban air quality of Strasbourg allows an enhancement of the results by using alternative fuel blends at the regional scale.
This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.
Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.
The German system of higher education is a binary system that consists of a university and a non-university sector. The institutions of higher education in these two sectors include all institutions (public and private) as defined in the higher education laws of the Länder. Each Land has its own ministry responsible for higher education. At the federal level the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung is responsible for the implementation of the federal law on higher education (Hochschu...
The National Weather Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has launched the River Watch site, providing up-to-date river forecast information for the nation's largest river basins: the Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, and Ohio River Basins). Daily river level summaries are provided for each basin, in addition to five-day forecasts for river stage heights (in feet). This site also offers hyperlinks to river forecast sites for the other major regions of the US (Southern, Central, and Eastern Regions), and other related sites. For current information on river level conditions in the US, this is a top-notch resource, made more valuable by the geographical extent of its coverage.
Environmental pollution by mercury is a world-wide problem. Particularly floodplain ecosystems are frequently affected. One example is the Elbe River in Germany and its catchment areas; large amounts of Hg from a range of anthropogenic and geogenic sources have been accumulated in the soils of these floodplains. They serve as sink for Hg originating from the surface water of adjacent river. Today, the vastly elevated Hg contents of the floodplain soils at the Elbe River often exceed even the ...
Rinklebe J.; Wennrich R.; Du, Laing G.; -j, Sta?rk H.; Mothes S.
This paper tries to apply common methods to estimate unbiased coefficients for the return to schooling in Germany for the year 2004. Based on the simple Mincer-type wage equation, the return to schooling is around 9.5% per year. There is no sheepskin effect. As expected the return in the private sector is higher than in the public sector. Females have a higher return than males, but there are no differences between East and West Germans. An Instrumental Variables and a 3-Stage-Least-Square...
In the past, fish counts in the old fishway at the Wyhlen power-plant showed good results. However, the fishway had some deficits in particular at the entrance and in the structure of the pools. In view of the fact that there were limited possibilities to change the technical aspects of the fishway, the measures to optimize it showed very good results, the best achieved at the Rhine section between Basel and the Lake of Constance. The occurrence of small fish species proves best how efficienct the measures have been. By evaluating the counting results, it has been possible to prove that several fishways at the same dam do complement one another. For the first time a fish count has been carried out in a catchment basin. (orig.)
Ulrich, Jochen [Energiedienst Holding AG, Laufenburg (Switzerland)
All probes and interfaces with exception of those for oxygen solution in water, water surface flow, roughness of surface, water level and fog density have been installed and are under operation. Automatic data processing is accomplished either by computer or by a 12 channel analog printer. Presently the final calibration of the signal transmission lines is being completed. The data processing software is in a preliminary configuration yet. Another 8 k memory extension box has been installed in order to allow the addition of modules such as powerfail-restart routines, I/O subroutines for magnetic cassettes and tapes and storage capacity for windspeed direction values. The present output is restricted to 10 mins. teletype messages, comprehending the most essential data. Data collection difficulties have generally been overcome. A survey on the water surface temperature distribution in the surrounding of the station has been performed and revealed no inhomogenities in the vicinity of the mast within a accuracy of about 0.20C. (orig.)
Heavy rains in Central and Eastern Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in over a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Danube River and its tributaries was taken on August 19, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Budapest, the capital of Hungary, sits just south of the large bend in the river at the top of the image. Here the water reached levels not seen since 1965. Fortunately, the riverbanks are lined with 33-foot retainer walls throughout the city, so it did not face the same fate as Dresden or Prague along the Elbe River. But as one can see, the floodwaters hit many rural areas farther south. As last reported, the water was receding along the Danube. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.
In the Rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. To investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (Crocidura russula, Sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. Chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil organic matter, whereas ratios for other organochlorines varied between 0.87 and 8.8. These ratios are one order of magnitude lower than expected from laboratory experiments with earthworms, and laboratory and field studies on aquatic invertebrates. Bioconcentration ratios for heavy metals are in accordance with literature values for other locations, confirming the high potential for cadmium accumulation in Lumbricidae. Concentrations of organochlorines in shrew liver lipids were 1.0 to 13 times the residues in earthworm fat. These values are higher than lipid-corrected biomagnification ratios for laboratory rodents, but equal to those measured for benthivorous birds in the Rhine-delta. On a dry weight basis, kidney-earthworm ratios for cadmium were about one order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for insectivores. Soil concentrations of many compounds in both floodplains did not meet Dutch quality standards. Yet, hexachlorobenzene, chlorobiphenyl 153 (PCB153), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, sigma DDT, and dieldrin residues in earthworms and shrews did not exceed diet levels expected to be safe for endothermic species. An exception was noted for cadmium in worms and shrew kidneys. Heavy metal pollution in soil was close to levels that are critical to earthworms in laboratory studies. Cadmium concentrations in shrew kidneys were below levels suggested to be safe for Sorex araneus, but above those that were critical to the rat. PMID:7794009
Hendriks, A J; Ma, W C; Brouns, J J; de Ruiter-Dijkman, E M; Gast, R
Geothermal anomalies (Soultz-sous-Forêts, Rittershoffen, Landau, ...) in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), are mainly interpreted as the effect of natural brine advection inside a nearly vertical fracture network extending from the deep-seated Triassic sediments to the crystalline basement. At Soultz, within the first kilometer of sediments, where the temperature reaches up to 110° C, the dominating thermal regime remains conductive. Accordingly the fracture system in this region, made of normal faults, does not have a significant impact on temperature profiles. Deeper, in the clastic sediments and in the crystalline basement, a convective regime is evidenced by a reduction of the effective geothermal gradient (~10° /km) and localized negative thermal anomalies that match with the occurrence of natural fractures. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the top of the convective cell structure based on a combined analysis of borehole geothermal logs recorded around the sediment/basement interface. The first part consists in analyzing geological and geophysical data available from the Soultz wells which characterize the natural permeability: partial or total drilling mud losses, natural outflow, occurrences of Helium gas and drilling mud temperature variations. A series of eleven permeable fracture zones has been outlined in GPK-2, GPK-3 and GPK-4 wells. Within the Muschelkalk limestones, 3 fracture zones are located in GPK-2, 2 in GPK-3 and 3 in GPK-4 respectively. In the Buntsandstein sandstones, a total of 8 zones were detected in GPK-2, GPK-3 and GPK-4. In GPK-2, less than 50% of the detected zones are permeable, in GPK-3, more than 80% and in GPK-4, 100% but the thermal impact of those fracture zones is not clearly visible on temperature profiles. To support those results, geophysical logs and mud logging data of the sedimentary part of GPK-1 were spatially correlated. Two fracture zones have been located in the Keuper and Lettenkohle, two in the Muschelkalk and nine in the Buntsandstein. All the thirteen zones present permeability indicators. In the EPS-1 well, partial mud losses recorded at a depth of 1205m, match with the occurrence of a fracture zone within the Buntsandstein. BHTV images show that the fracture is N-S oriented and dipping westward. Core samples of this zone show that it is partly filled with barite and galena. In the 4550 well, total losses were recorded at a depth of 1280m in Buntsandstein which fits in depth with a fracture zone. BHTV images clearly exhibit the westward dipping of the conjugate small-scale fracture system. Interestingly it corresponds to a sharp negative thermal anomaly on the temperature profile. In the Soultz and Rittershoffen areas, the uppermost sedimentary domain extending from late Trias to Tertiary is rather impermeable and governed by a conductive thermal regime. The uppermost structure of the convective cell corresponds to hydrothermal circulations percolating within the vertical fracture network from the top of the Paleozoic granite basement, to the Muschelkalk through the fractured Buntsandstein. The Keuper is assumed to be a horizontal barrier to the vertical per ascensum convective flow and behaves as a geothermal cap rock.
Vidal, Jeanne; Genter, Albert; Duringer, Philippe; Schmittbuhl, Jean
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess and map the seismic risk for Germany, restricted to the expected losses of damage to residential buildings. There are several earthquake prone regions in the country which have produced Mw magnitudes above 6 and up to 6.7 corresponding to observed ground shaking intensity up to VIII–IX (EMS-98. Combined with the fact that some of the earthquake prone areas are densely populated and highly industrialized and where therefore the hazard coincides with high concentration of exposed assets, the damaging implications from earthquakes must be taken seriously. In this study a methodology is presented and pursued to calculate the seismic risk from (1 intensity based probabilistic seismic hazard, (2 vulnerability composition models, which are based on the distribution of residential buildings of various structural types in representative communities and (3 the distribution of assets in terms of replacement costs for residential buildings. The estimates of the risk are treated as primary economic losses due to structural damage to residential buildings. The obtained results are presented as maps of the damage and risk distributions. For a probability level of 90% non-exceedence in 50 years (corresponding to a mean return period of 475 years the mean damage ratio is up to 20% and the risk up to hundreds of millions of euro in the most endangered communities. The developed models have been calibrated with observed data from several damaging earthquakes in Germany and the nearby area in the past 30 years.
In this paper the epidemiology of club drug use in Germany, including the use of 3,4-methylendioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) known as 'ecstasy' and related substances such as speed, amphetamines, hallucinogens, and cannabis is described on the basis of five different surveys. Two of them are representative household surveys to monitor the licit and illicit drug use behavior of the German population. The third one is a longitudinal study aimed at exploring comorbidity and posited risk and protective factors in adolescents and young adults with specific emphasis on substance use-related disorders. Since ecstasy seemed to be associated with a new music culture of the '90s called "techno," two studies investigating the relationship of using ecstasy and related substances in the techno party scene are additionally presented. The question of the clinical impact of using ecstasy and related substances is raised in terms of substance use-related and mental disorders associated with the use of ecstasy. Finally, the motivation for using and stopping the use of ecstasy is addressed. It is shown that ecstasy has reached the second place (after cannabis) in illegal drug preferences of adolescents and young adults in Germany. Evidence is found that ecstasy use as well as ecstasy use-related disorders such as "abuse" and "dependence" are of a transient, "youth-limited" nature. PMID:16048817
This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO2, representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technologicaacilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling
Upper mantle anisotropy beneath Germany is investigated through the measurements and analysis of shear-wave splitting using SKS phases. We analysed teleseismic events recorded by 24 broadband stations of the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) and three broadband stations of the Gräfenberg-Array (GRF). These permanent German networks cover an area extending from the Alps in the south up to the Northern German basin towards north. In comparison to several former studies that are based either on short observation periods or that are restricted to limited areas of Germany, we resort to 22 yr of the GRSN (1991-2012) and 34 yr of GRF data archive (1979-2012). Due to the huge amount of data, we applied a fully automatic procedure to determine SKS splitting parameters from archived recordings and also applied strong quality constraints to obtain reliable solutions. From our analysis, two main features are obvious: For the stations in the middle and southern part of Germany we found homogeneous E-W to ENE-WSW fast-axis directions. In contrast, stations in NE-Germany exhibit a NW-SE oriented fast axis. Both findings can be correlated to major tectonic features in Central Europe. The E-W to ENE-WSW orientations in the middle and southern part of Germany are nearly parallel to the strike of the Variscan mountain belts, whereas the NW-SE direction in NE-Germany corresponds to the orientation of the nearby Tornquist-Teisseyre suture zone. For the southern part of Germany, there are indications for an alignment of the fast axis parallel to the curvature of the nearby Alps. Apart from the more large-scale features there are two stations (BFO and CLZ) which seem to have an imprint related to the regional geodynamic setting, namely the rifting in the Southern Rhine Graben and the formation of the Harz Mountains, respectively. We conclude that the observed regional variations of splitting parameter over Germany advocate for a mostly lithospheric route of the anisotropy. Furthermore, variations of the splitting parameters with respect to the azimuths of the incoming waves, as observed at some stations, point to vertical varying anisotropy. For some stations (BFO, RUE) the inversions for two anisotropic layers revealed directions of the fast axes that are similar to the strike directions of the surrounding tectonic units. For other stations, the confidence regions are too large for a tectonic interpretation.
Walther, M.; Plenefisch, T.; Rümpker, G.
Relying on the structural-hydrogeological model proposed by J. Meixner (2009) for a particular hydrothermal system in South-West Germany (on the East side of the Upper Rhine Rift, this reservoir being used to demonstrate electricity production by means of a well doublet), we set up a distributed-parameter model (using Feflow) enabling to numerically simulate fluid ages, temperature evolutions and tracer test signals for a number of contrasting assumptions w. r. to (a) the nature of boundary conditions and hydrogeological characteristics of remotely situated, large-scale natural faults, (b) the degree of permeability contrast between different system compartments, (c) the hydrogeological characteristics of a naturally-occurring fault, located between injection and production wells. It appears that a spike dimensioning allowing for tracer signals to become detectable during the first three years after tracer injection in all of the contrasting a/b/c scenarios is not feasible in practice. In some of the a/b/c cases considered, the system will act like a very large reservoir, with fluid residence times in the order of decades, and extreme dilution of injected tracers. Even using preparative-scale cleaning of samples, brine separation, sample enrichment by solid phase extraction, evaporative concentrating etc. followed by state-of-the-art chromatography techniques to separate between tracer and natural background, it will not be possible to lower tracer detection limits below a certain threshold, which is mainly dictated by the amount of certain naturally-occurring aromatics in the reservoir fluids. On practical reasons, the spike dimensioning will be limited to some hundred kilogram of one or two organic tracers. This implies that part of the above-mentioned, contrasting a/b/c scenarios will remain indistinguishable during the first three years after tracer injection. However, for this reservoir structure, there is not a bijective correspondence between early-vs.-late appearance of tracer and small-vs.-large reservoir. Therefore, we further examine the questions: How much information will be lost, and what degree of uncertainty will affect temperature predictions, as a consequence of the chosen practical ceiling on injected tracer quantities? Can single-well, dual-tracer push-pull tests (to be conducted at the geothermal re-injection and/or at the geothermal production well) contribute to reducing the ambiguity of inter-well early-signal inversion? Acknowledgement: This work pertains to a research project jointly funded by Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW) and by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU, project key: 0325111B), with operational support from local Energy and Water Supply Plants (EWB), from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Hydrogeology Group), and from the European Institute for Energy Research (EIfER, Dr. Zorn).
Ghergut, I.; Meixner, J.; Rettenmaier, D.; Maier, F.; Nottebohm, M.; Ptak, T.; Sauter, M.
In this study, we analyse the observed long-term discharge time-series of the Rhine, the Danube, the Rhone and the Po rivers. These rivers are characterised by different seasonal cycles reflecting the diverse climates and morphologies of the Alpine basins. However, despite the intensive and varied water management adopted in the four basins, we found common features in the trend and low-frequency variability of the spring discharge timings. All the discharge time-series display a tendency towards earlier spring peaks of more than two weeks per century. These results can be explained in terms of snowmelt, total precipitation (i.e. the sum of snowfall and rainfall) and rainfall variability. The relative importance of these factors might be different in each basin. However, we show that the change of seasonality of total precipitation plays a major role in the earlier spring runoff over most of the Alps. PMID:25005239
Zampieri, Matteo; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Gualdi, Silvio; Navarra, Antonio
There is a need for quick and reliable methods for rapid screening of drug-influenced drivers on the roadside by police. Because the window of detection in oral fluid is more similar to blood than to urine, this matrix should therefore be appropriate for screening procedures. The performance of the Rapid STAT(®) (Mavand Solution GmbH, Mössingen, Germany), DrugWipe5/5+(®) (Securetec Detektions-Systeme AG, Brunnthal, Germany) and Dräger DrugTest(®) 5000 (Draeger Safety AG & Co. KGaA, Luebeck, Germany) on-site oral fluid devices was evaluated with random oral fluid specimens from car drivers in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). Additionally, some drivers were checked using an on-site urine device (DrugScreen(®), NAL von Minden, Regensburg, Germany). During a 11-month period, 1.212 drivers were tested. Both OF and urine on-site tests were compared to serum results. The following sensitivities were obtained by the oral fluid devices: THC 71% (DrugWipe(®)), 87% (Dräger), 91% (RapidSTAT); opiates 95% (Dräger), 100% (DrugWipe(®), RapidSTAT(®)); amphetamine 84% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 90% (RapidSTAT(®)), 100% (DrugTest(®) 5000); methamphetamine 50% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 100% (RapidSTAT(®)); cocaine 76% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 100% (DrugWipe(®), RapidSTAT(®)); methadone 33-63%, and benzodiazepines 0-33% (both with a low number of positives). THC specificity was especially low (29% [DrugWipe(®)] and 47% [DrugTest(®) 5000]) due to low cut-off concentrations. These data were similar to those obtained from the literature (e.g., DRUID project). The urine screening device showed a good sensitivity (THC 93%, opiate 94%, amphetamine 94%, methamphetamine 75% (low number of positives), cocaine 100%) and also an acceptable specificity (39%, 86%, 63%, 77%, 47%, respectively). Although oral fluid may be a useful matrix for on-site testing of drugged drivers, it is evident that oral fluid devices still show a lack of sensitivity (methamphetamine, benzodiazepines) and specificity (THC). Poor results for benzodiazepines may be explained by the small positive test number. Although the sensitivity for THC came out higher than compared to the literature, specificity is not yet satisfactory (only tests. PMID:24699311
Musshoff, Frank; Hokamp, Eva Große; Bott, Ulrich; Madea, Burkhard
The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically “pure” populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple. PMID:24827575
Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe
We determined the prevalence and spread of antibiotic resistance and the characteristics of ESBL producing and/or multi drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli isolates collected from urine samples from urology services in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, the border region of the Netherlands (n?=?176), Belgium (n?=?126) and Germay (n?=?119). Significant differences in resistance between the three regions were observed. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid resistance ranged from 24% in the Netherland...
Donk, Christina F. M.; Bovenkamp, Jeroen H. B.; Brauwer, Els I. G. B.; Mol, Patrick; Feldhoff, Karl-heinz; Kalka-moll, Wiltrud M.; Nys, Sita; Thoelen, Inge; Trienekens, Thera A. M.; Stobberingh, Ellen E.
Energy policy first and foremost is economic policy designed to support industry in Germany. In addition, it must contribute to solutions to the global energy problem and ensure the ecological compatibility of energy supply. In Bavaria, the decision in favor of nuclear power has marked a turning point both ecologically and economically. In the absence of an alternative to the use of nuclear power, a consensus across party lines is overdue. Further enhancement of the safety of nuclear power plants will improve acceptance also among concerned members of the public. Any attempt to opt out of nuclear power would boil down to an increasing use of hard coal for electricity generation, with serious ecological consequences. A common European energy market makes sense only if there is less regulation. Consequently, there must be no new energy taxes or pollutant levies. (orig.)
The Federal Republic of Germany intends to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The Federal Government made a pronounced change in energy policy since 1998, the most important feature of which is phasing out of nuclear energy, finally set in force by the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. According to the new approach to waste management and disposal, further sites in various host rocks shall be investigated for their suitability based on repository site selection criteria and respective procedures developed by a special expert group. The objective of the site selection procedure is to identify with public participation potential disposal sites in a comprehensible and reliable way. (author)
Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)
Germany?s social security system is surveyed, its benefits and contributions are discussed. The expansion of this system in the last decades is described, its impact on employment and growth is studied and proposals for the reform of the system are discussed.
Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs
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Development of an internet based geothermal information system for Germany - region Baden-Wuerttemberg; Aufbau eines geothermischen Informationssystems fuer Deutschland - Landesteil Baden-Wuerttemberg
Renewable energies as a part of the total energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany are to be extended in the next years. In terms of geothermal resources the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) supports the project ''Development of an Internet Based Geothermal System for Germany'' (GeotIS). The total duration of the project is three years. Lead-managed by the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (GGA-Institute) it is realized in a country wide joint venture project with different partners. Initially the geothermal information system will contain data only about hydrogeothermal resources. The object of the project is to improve quality in the planning stage of geothermal plants and to minimize explorations risks. Key parameters are production rate and temperature. The District Authority (Regierungspraesidium) Freiburg has been assigned to attend to the areas of the Upper Rhine Graben and the North Alpine Foreland Basin (Molasse Basin) both situated in Baden-Wuerttemberg. First intermediate results are presented. (orig.)
Jodocy, M.; Stober, I. [Regierungspraesidium Freiburg (RPF), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)
A GIS-based model estimates the losses from diffuse sources in surface waters in Germany for 42 active ingredients applied to 11 field crops, vineyards and orchards. For the following pathways of entry: tile drainage, runoff and spray drift, the calculated mean pesticide input amounts to 1490 kg/year, 9060 kg/year and 3350 kg/year, respectively, in 1994. The model results are highly sensitive to the model parameters, primarily the chemical properties of the active ingredients. The modeled water inputs were compared with measured pesticide loads in smaller catchments and large river basins to validate model results. Both datasets agree as to the order of magnitude, nevertheless due to the scale of the study the results should be addressed mainly to comparative interpretations with the focus on the proportions between different active ingredients, soil regions, climates and application periods. PMID:11724487
Bach, M; Huber, A; Frede, H G
In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km2. Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km2, tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km2). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The implementation of the measures will cover a period of 15 to 20 years depending on the site. The necess
In August 2006, the blue tongue virus (BTV-type South Africa serotype 8) was detected for the first time in cattle blood probes in the Netherlands, immediately followed by cases in Belgium and in cattle on German farms, which were situated close to Aachen at the border to those countries. Within less than 2 months the disease spread eastwards crossing the Rhine, southwards to Luxemburg and to Northern France. At the end of the year 2006, nearly 1,000 farms were affected in Germany. Catches on two German cattle farms proved that the ceratopogonid species Culicoides obsoletus was obviously the vector, since many females-fed and unfed ones-were found to be infected with this virus. This sudden outbreak of bluetongue disease (BTD) is surely not a primary result of global warming, but rather an effect of globalization-i.e. the intensive worldwide import and export of animals; but a hot summer, as in 2006, and a warm winter like that of the years 2006/2007 supported the new spread starting again in masses in August 2007 leading to 596 PCR-confirmed cases until then with more than 200,000 animals infected. Thus, new agents coming from elsewhere have only a chance to spread if appropriate vectors are available and the conditions remain favourable during a reasonably long period. Effects of global warming-of course-will support persistence of such outbreaks of diseases due to offering of spreading of imported viruses, bacteria and/or parasites. PMID:19030889
Mehlhorn, Heinz; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven; Schmahl, Günter
Full Text Available : In Germany, prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer and the third leading cause of death from cancer in males. We investigate prostate cancer in Gernmany among migrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU and compare them to indigenous German population with regard to prostate cancer incidence, mortality and longitudinal effects.: Data were obtained from two migrant cohorts residing in the federal states of North Rhine Westphalia (n=34,393 and Saarland (n=18,619. Vital status was ascertained through local population registries. Causes of death were obtained from the federal statistical office or from local health authorities. Cancer incidence of the Saarland cohort was derived from the Saarland Cancer Registry using record linkage.: From 1990 to 2005 we observed 3360 deaths of which 28 were due to prostate cancer. In the Saarland cohort 35 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer during the respective period. Migrants had lower prostate cancer incidence (SIR 0.74 (95% CI: 0.52–1.03 and mortality (SMR 0.57 (95% CI: 0.38–0.83 compared to the German population. Multivariate analysis showed a strong age effect on incidence meaning young migrants (below age 60 were diagnosed significantly more often with prostate cancer compared to Germans of the same age. However, mortality did not show any effects.: Lower prostate cancer mortality and incidence among migrants may reflect an ongoing situation in the FSU. Additionally, longitudinal analysis did not reveal convergence of migrant prostate cancer to German rates as expected from lifestyle driven cancer sites. Therefore, our results support the hypothesis of a genetic effect on prostate cancer risk.
Climate change impacts on hydrological processes should be simulated for river basins using validated models and multiple climate scenarios in order to provide reliable results for stakeholders. In the last 10-15 years, climate impact assessment has been performed for many river basins worldwide using different climate scenarios and models. However, their results are hardly comparable, and do not allow one to create a full picture of impacts and uncertainties. Therefore, a systematic intercomparison of impacts is suggested, which should be done for representative regions using state-of-the-art models. Only a few such studies have been available until now with the global-scale hydrological models, and our study is intended as a step in this direction by applying the regional-scale models. The impact assessment presented here was performed for three river basins on three continents: the Rhine in Europe, the Upper Niger in Africa and the Upper Yellow in Asia. For that, climate scenarios from five general circulation models (GCMs) and three hydrological models, HBV, SWIM and VIC, were used. Four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) covering a range of emissions and land-use change projections were included. The objectives were to analyze and compare climate impacts on future river discharge and to evaluate uncertainties from different sources. The results allow one to draw some robust conclusions, but uncertainties are large and shared differently between sources in the studied basins. Robust results in terms of trend direction and slope and changes in seasonal dynamics could be found for the Rhine basin regardless of which hydrological model or forcing GCM is used. For the Niger River, scenarios from climate models are the largest uncertainty source, providing large discrepancies in precipitation, and therefore clear projections are difficult to do. For the Upper Yellow basin, both the hydrological models and climate models contribute to uncertainty in the impacts, though an increase in high flows in the future is a robust outcome ensured by all three hydrological models.
Vetter, T.; Huang, S.; Aich, V.; Yang, T.; Wang, X.; Krysanova, V.; Hattermann, F.
Full Text Available Germany has traditionally been the powerhouse of the European economy and integration. In this article, an attempt is made to put its economic development in a European context by comparing it with the achievements of the total group of more developed members of the European Union, the EU-15, prior to the current global crisis. The author applies both the methods of statistical analysis and models of mathematical economics to show the combined influence of growth mechanism regularities, economic policy and international economic relations on the long-term development of the German and European economy. Viewing economic growth as the central problem, he investigates the factors of its deviations from the equilibrium state, as well as the regularities affecting productivity and technical progress. His main conclusion is that the current economic crisis can be surmounted with the help of a growthoriented economic policy based on the intensification of technical progress and, first of all, of its creative component, which would create favorable conditions for improving competitiveness.
Simon György Jr.
Verifying the possibilities for harmonization of the radiation protection education one has to define the aims and the present status. The aims are an education system, effective in contents and economy, complying with the national and European legal regulations, which is well accepted by the persons concerned. The German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association (FS) has already pointed at the special meaning of this topic repeatedly. In the following the FS-working group 'education; describes the present training situation and challenge in Germany. (orig.) [German] Das deutsche Konzept der Strahlenschutzausbildung, entwickelt auf der Grundlage von Vorschlaegen des deutsch-schweizerischen Fachverbandes fuer Strahlenschutz (FS), geht von dem Gedanken aus, dass die Anwendung ionisierender Strahlung unter der Kontrolle einer Person mit der notwendigen Fachkunde fuer die jeweilige Taetigkeit stehen sollte. Dieses Konzept ist vor allem auf die Vielzahl der Anwendungen und auf die Akzeptanz durch die Auszubildenden ausgerichtet. Es spezifiziert ein Kurssystem, das sowohl aus Kompaktkursen als auch aus einer Kombination von Grundkursen und Aufbaukursen besteht. Das Konzept hat sich im Grossen und Ganzen als erfolgreich erwiesen. Die Anzahl der Fachkundegruppen sollte jedoch aus Gruenden der besseren Anpassung verringert werden. (orig.)
Vogt, H.G. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Germany. (J.S.)
The annual reports of the environmental agency of North-Rhine-Westphalia periodically inform on topics, developments and events. In its choice of technical topics, the agency was guided by the following aspects: topicality, significance for workers in this technical field and, especially, general technical interest. Consequently, this volume is not a report of activities but provides insight into the work of the agency, stimulates cooperation and helps to establish and intensify connections. The short papers fall into the subject categories water, soil, atmosphere, technical systems and information systems, permitting rapid survey. The subjects of the longer contributions were chosen right across the entire range of activities of the environmental agency. Aspects relating to several media of course had an influence on this choice. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Jahresberichte des Landesumweltamtes NRW geben periodisch eine Uebersicht ueber Themen, Entwicklungen und Ereignisse. Bei der Auswahl der Fachthemen laesst sich das Landesumweltamt von der Aktualitaet, der Bedeutung fuer die Fachwelt und auch von dem allgemeinen Fachinteresse leiten. Dieser Jahresbericht `95 ist somit kein Rechenschaftsbericht, sondern gibt Einblick in die Arbeit, soll zur Zusammenarbeit anregen, vielfaeltige fachliche Verbindungen knuepfen und festigen. Zur besseren Uebersichtlichkeit sind die Kurzbeitraege gegliedert in: Wasser, Boden, Luft, Technik und Informationssysteme. Die Hauptbeitraege setzen Schwerpunkte `quer durch das Landesumweltamt`, bei denen natuerlich medienuebergreifende Gesichtspunkte eine Rolle gespielt haben. (orig./SR)
The reservoir temperatures of 22 hot-spring waters from 9 localities in the Upper Rhine Valley and the northern Black Forest have been determined. The 18O (SO42-) thermometer and the SiO2 thermometer yield concordant temperatures in those thermal waters which have not been diluted by near-surface ground water components. Deviations of the SiO2 thermometer - on the other hand - can be applied for an estimate of near-surface water components in hot spring waters. The alkali content of the waters can not by used for geothermometry. The highest reservoir temperatures have been calculated for the hot springs of Baden-Baden (1560C). All other hot springs have substantially lower reservoir temperatures (115 to 650). The 18O and D-values of the thermal water component are comparable with the mean of the 18O and D values of modern meteoric waters from higher elevations of the Black Forest; the cold components have stable isotope ratios of local precipitation. (Auth.)
By building up an integrated framework of political initiatives, distribution of specific knowledge, consulting, networking and tools for gender mainstreaming, the state of North Rhine Westphalia was successful in integrating a gender perspective into the health system from 2001 to 2006. The process developed in concentric circles--starting with women's rights initiatives, then reaching health politics--and has meanwhile reached health services. Important determinants for success were (1) statewide campaigns and offers of gender-specific consulting that distributed the topic to the city level and health services, (2) the linking of gender mainstreaming and the debate about quality in health services, (3) referring to specific health requirements or health problems of women or men and (4) a precise definition of 'sex' and 'gender'. A difficulty in implementing gender-sensitive approaches in the health system is seen in connecting specific medical or public health knowledge with the more general gender competence. To further promote gender sensibility, gender knowledge and gender-specific approaches to health and illness, an integration of gender mainstreaming tools into strategies and tools of project or quality management is proposed. PMID:18185971
Following a description of the structure and function of the expert commission for medical malpractice of the North Rhine medical council, important legal technical terms and the consequences, such as the definition of accusable medical malpractice and severe (in legal terms gross) negligence will be presented. The article reports on the legal consequences of the lack of informed consent, on the significance of insufficient informed consent and under which conditions a transfer of liability becomes valid. From the statistical information in the archives of the expert commission it can be seen that in processes against urologists approximately 31% of urologists in private practice were affected compared to 69% of hospital urologists. Approximately 20% involved accusations of false diagnosis and 80% involved accusations of false treatment. Of the processes involving urological diagnostic errors prostate cancer was at the forefront, followed by processes involving delayed or falsely diagnosed bladder cancer. For processes due to operative treatment errors prostate cancer also occupied first place, followed by accusations of treatment errors involving penile and urethral operations. A differentiated presentation of processes involving non-operative treatment errors revealed an accumulation of accusations for mistakes in the treatment of urolithiasis, in medicinal treatment and also in tumor therapy. Following a description of typical individual cases, indications for avoidance of legal proceedings will be given. PMID:23150128
Hannappel, J; Weber, B; Smentkowski, U
The energy state of North-Rhine Westphalia (NRW) is one of the most modern and important energy regions in the world and the use of hydroelectric power has a long tradition. It contributes both to the supply of electrical energy and to climate protection. The technically usable potential of hydroelectric power is currently estimated in NRW at 800 GWh/a electricity, of which approx. 200 GWh/a has not been exploited to date. The Office for Hydroelectric Power was created within the framework of the EnergyAgency.NRW in 2001. Its functions include the networking of information and available facilities, as well as the establishment of short lines of communication between specialists from water authorities, environmental and nature conservation associations, fisheries and angling clubs and the operators of hydroelectric power plants. It is often faced with the task of moderation to transparency and acceptance of a sustainable use of hydropower to contribute. Against the backdrop of the EC Water Resources Framework Directive, NRW is engaged in expanding hydropower in a way that is harmless to the ecology of waterways, and to do this by reactivating and optimizing active hydropower plants and by using hydropower technology at existing dams and infrastructural facilities. (orig.)
Prott, Stefan [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Bad Sassendorf (Germany). Buero fuer Wasserkraft
Full Text Available The relationship between exposure to traffic induced particles, respiratory health and cardiac diseases was studied in the RHINE Tartu cohort. A postal questionnaire with commonly used questions regarding respiratory symptoms, cardiac disease, lifestyle issues such as smoking habits, indoor environment, occupation, early life exposure and sleep disorders was sent to 2,460 adults. The annual concentrations of local traffic induced particles were modelled with an atmospheric dispersion model with traffic flow data, and obtained PMexhaust concentrations in 40 × 40 m grids were linked with home addresses with GIS. The relationship between the level of exhaust particles outside home and self-reported health problems were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression model. We found a significant relation between fine exhaust particles and cardiac disease, OR = 1.64 (95% CI 1.12–2.43 for increase in PMexhaust corresponding to the fifth to the 95th percentile range. The associations also were positive but non-significant for hypertension OR = 1.42 (95% CI 0.94–2.13, shortness of breath OR = 1.27 (95% CI 0.84–1.94 and other respiratory symptoms.
Full Text Available In many climate impact studies hydrological models are forced with meteorological data without an attempt to assess the quality of these data. The objective of this study is to compare downscaled ERA15 (ECMWF-reanalysis data precipitation and temperature with observed precipitation and temperature and apply a bias correction to these forcing variables. Precipitation is corrected by fitting the mean and coefficient of variation (CV of the observations. Temperature is corrected by fitting the mean and standard deviation of the observations. It appears that the uncorrected ERA15 is too warm and too wet for most of the Rhine basin. The bias correction leads to satisfactory results, precipitation and temperature differences decreased significantly, although there are a few years for which the correction of precipitation is less satisfying. Corrections were largest during summer for both precipitation and temperature, and for September and October for precipitation only. Besides the statistics the correction method was intended to correct for, it is also found to improve the correlations for the fraction of wet days and lag-1 autocorrelations between ERA15 and the observations. For the validation period temperature is corrected very well, but for precipitation the RMSE of the daily difference between modeled and observed precipitation has increased for the corrected situation. When taking random years for calibration, and the remaining years for validation, the spread in the mean bias error (MBE becomes larger for the corrected precipitation during validation, but the overal average MBE has decreased.
If Germany would like to play a more active role in international affairs, improving the country's international humanitarian aid efforts should be top on the list. Working toward deeper European integration in this field would boost its own profile.
Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) was recorded from Germany. The species was most likely introduced with cargo from Chicago, USA. Characters of the single female are illustrated for future identification.
Using longitudinal data from the Fertility and Family Surveys and individual-level diffusion models, the paper studies the spreading of cohabitation among young women in three countries with different institutional contexts: the conservative welfare capitalist West Germany, the former socialist East Germany and the familialist Italy. The description of the diffusion process across generations shows that in East and West Germany successive birth cohorts experienced not only an impressive rise ...
The brochure "Cancer in Germany" is published jointly by the Association of Population-Based Cancer Registries (GEKID) and the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) every two years. This current 8th edition contains data on the total number of new cancer cases in Germany between 1980 and 2008 and on 24 selected cancer sites, including - number of new cases and deaths, - standardized rates, - age distribution, - morbidity and mortality risks, - risk factors, - prev...
Kaatsch, Peter; Spix, Claudia; Katalinic, Alexander; Hentschel, Stefan
Immigrants consist of foreigners and citizens with migration background. We analyze the wage gap between natives and these two groups in Germany. The estimates show a substantial gap for both groups with respect to natives. Discarding immigrants who completed education abroad reduces much of the immigrants’ wage gap. This implies educational attainment in Germany is an important component of economic integration and degrees obtained abroad are valued less.
Thomsen, Stephan L.; Gernandt, Johannes; Aldashev, Alisher
Germany?s export market share increased since 2000, while most industrial countries experienced declines. This study explores four explanations and evaluates their empirical contributions: (i) improved cost competitiveness, (ii) ties to fast growing trading partners, (iii) increased demand for capital goods, and (iv) regionalized production of goods (e.g. off-shoring). An export model is estimated covering the period 1993?2005. The dominant factor explaining the increase in market share are...
Danninger, Stephan; Joutz, Fred
After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.
The paper studies the internationalization process of Sunlover to Germany. The market opportunity in Germany is driven by several factors including the increasing importance of health and wellness, the still growing German economy despite the Eurozone crisis, the positive growth prospects for low-calorie and healthy drinks, and the early stage of the nutricosmetic drink segment. However, threats are composed by the continued risk of a Eurozone breakup scenario and its possibly negative ...
Milbradt, Linda Antonia
This paper gives an overview of the transformation of the German labor market since the mid-1990s with a special focus on the changing patterns of labor market segmentation or 'dualization' of employment in Germany. While labor market duality in Germany can partially be attributed to labor market reforms promoting in particular non-standard forms of employment and allowing for an expansion of low pay, structural changes in the economy as well as strategic choices by employers and social partn...
Eichhorst, Werner; Tobsch, Verena
Data on cumulative Cs-137 and Sr-90 depositions both from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident in Austria, Germany, UK and USA are given as well as the time dependence of Cs-137 concentrations from 1986 to 1992 in nutrients and drinking water in Austria and Germany. Finally the dose-to-population from the Chernobyl accident is compared to the natural radiation and even to that resulting from energy-saving sealing measures in living rooms. (Quittner)
The regulations of German atomic energy laws are based in large on the fundamental law of the Federal Republic of Germany-the constitution. Atomgesetz of 1959, as amended on October 31, 1976, constitutes the core of atomic energy laws (Atomrecht), and is supplemented by orders (Verordnungen). The Federal Republic has the right to legislate Atomrecht, and the enforcement of such laws and orders is entrusted to each province. The peaceful uses of radioactive materials are stipulated by Atomgesetz and orders. Atomgesetz seeks two objects, first it is to enable the handling of radioactive substances for the acquisition of energy, medical treatment, food treatment and the harmless examination of things by radioactive materials, and secondly to ensure the protection from danger in the handling of such materials. The control of radioactive materials by the state including imports and exports, storage and possession, disposal and processing, etc., is established by the law to secure the protection from danger of atomic energy. The particular indemnification responsibility for the harm due to radiation is defined in Atomgesetz, and only the owners (Inhaber) of atomic energy facilities are liable for damage. The violation of the regulations on the transaction of radioactive materials is punished by fines up to 100,000 German marks of imprisonment of less than five years. Orders are established on roentgen ray, the protection from radiation, the treatment of foods by electron beion, the treatment of foods by electron beam, gamma ray, roentgen ray or ultraviolet ray and the permission of medicines. The regulations of the EURATOM treaty have legality as Atomrecht. (Okada, K.)
Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.
Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie
Full Text Available The paper argues for a governmentality perspective on risk-management politics and resilience-related governance. This perspective pays ample attention to conflicts and discursive ‘battles’ in which different truths and normative assessments, including specific rationalities, subjectivities and technologies of governing compete against. Up to now, the literature on governmentality and resilience has mainly been based on empirical research in the UK. This research highlights the growing importance of neoliberal forms of governing, including a shift in governing strategies towards activating and responsibilizing the public. This is to some extent in contrast to observations about dealing with flood risk on the river Weisseritz in Dresden. The paper reflects on possible avenues for further conceptual and empirical research on ‘governing through resilience’ in the context of flood protection in Germany. It is based on a brief conceptualization of ‘governmentality’ as introduced by Michel Foucault, a literature review, and selected observations from a case study on flood protection for the river Weisseritz in Dresden.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed. Methods Participants of the triathlon were contacted by e-mail and were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. In addition, they were asked to supply a serum sample for laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis. A confirmed case patient was defined as a clinical case (i.e. fever and at least one additional symptom suggestive for leptospirosis with at least two of the following tests positive: ELISA IgM, latex agglutination testing, or microscopic agglutination testing. Rainfall and temperature records were obtained. Results A total of 142 of 507 triathletes were contacted; among these, five confirmed leptospirosis cases were found. Open wounds were identified as the only significant risk factor for illness (p = 0.02. Heavy rains that preceded the swimming event likely increased leptospiral contamination of the Neckar River. Discussion This is the first outbreak of leptospirosis related to a competitive sports event in Germany. Among people with contact to freshwater, the risk of contracting leptospirosis should be considered by health care providers also in temperate countries, particularly in the summer after heavy rains.
This article presents an overview of oil and gas exploration and production in Germany in 2012. The report is based on data gathered on a regular basis by the State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) from the oil and gas companies and the other state mining offices. Due to the granting of new licences in the last years, a significant increase of geophysical prospecting of the subsurface for oil and gas deposits was observed. Six 3D seismic surveys were conducted. Five surveys were located in the Upper Rhine Valley and one in the lowlands of Northwest Germany. 2D seismic data were acquired in Lusatia (Brandenburg) and at the coast of the Baltic Sea. The number of exploration wells decreased once again. In 2012 nine exploration wells were drilled, compared to ten in the previous year. In addition to that number, another seven exploration wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. None of the ten new field wildcats were completed by result. Three exploration wells (appraisal wells) were completed successfully. Two of these wells confirmed the presence of gas and one the presence of oil. The number of development wells decreased significantly. In 2012 31 wells were drilled, compared to 46 in the prominent year 2011. Another 13 wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. 31 wells were completed successfully. 30 of these wells encountered oil or gas pay zones. In 2011 drilling meterage has reached its highest value since 1998. In contrast the total drilling meterage decreased slightly by less than 2000 m to 71,424 min 2012. The natural gas production continued its downward trend. Due to the depletion of gas fields, the annual natural gas production dropped by 9.1% compared to the previous year and amounted to 11.7 billion m3 (field quality). After the increase in 2011, the annual crude oil production decreased by 2.1% to 2.6 million t, primarily due to the decrease in production from some of the most productive oil fields. As in the last years, the total remaining proven and probable natural gas reserves dropped. Compared to the previous year the reserves decreased by almost 9 billion m3 to 123 billion m3 (field quality). A minor portion of the total annual gas production could thus be replaced by new reserves. The total remaining proven and probable oil reserves fell by 2.8 million tons to 32.5 million tons. This decline was more than the annual production. (orig.)
Full Text Available River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper presents such an overview, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management.
This site provides two interactive exercises designed to help the user learn about river processes like discharge, flooding and flood frequency. Both exercises require the user to make observations and measurements, do simple calculations, and answer questions.
River systems play a major role in the global chemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. DOM in rivers exhibits a wide compositional diversity reflecting different organic matter sources related to the bioproduction in the drainage area, seasonal variations and anthropogenic influence. The chemical structure of riverine DOM is still largely unknown. The major part of DOM in natural waters consists of humic matter which is formed during degradation of plant- and animal-derived organic matter as a result of various abiotic and microbial transformation processes. As a cosequence, humic matter has a complex polymer-like structure. Humic-matter-rich water was collected from the Neuharlingersieltief, which is a brown-water river in a marshy region in Northwest Germany. After filtration (liquid-liquid extraction (low-molecular-weight lipids) and by cholumn chromatography with XAD-resins (high-molecular-weight material). The isolation by column chromatography provides two OM fractions, i.e. hydrophobic acids and hydrophilic acids. Both fractions were isolated by extraction using two different XAD-resins in series (XAD-8 for hydrophobics and XAD-4 for hydrophilics). Important limitations for the characterization of high-molecular-weight material are the analytical tools and the associated techniques of preparation. This study shows the results of the use of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) in the presence of tetramethylammoniumhydoxide (TMAH). This technique provides detailed structural information. TMAH treatment avoids thermal decarboxylation and improves chromatographic separation by converting carboxylic and phenolic hydroxyl groups into their methyl derivatives. In this study a large number of different compounds are presented. The identified compounds of isolated fractions show different abundances and cover a wide variety of different chemical structures which are mainly substituted aromatics such as benzenes, phenols and furans. Furthermore, the product distributions at different pyrolysis temperatures (300 - 700°C) were studied.
Gebhardt, S.; Rullkötter, J.
The geothermal potential of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) in the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the Saar-Nahe-Basin (Germany) has been shown in large scale regional studies. To further assess the geothermal potential of the different lithostratigraphical units and facies types within this Variscan intramontane basin, knowledge of their thermophysical and hydraulic properties is indispensable. Where the Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous molasse basin, the top of the up to two kilometers thick Permocarboniferous deposits is located at a depth of one to three kilometers and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. Therefore, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150°C, making it suitable for geothermal power production. Lithologically the Permocarboniferous deposits consist of different formations and facies types including fine, middle and coarse grained sandstones, arcosic sandstones, siltstones, volcanics and carbonates. Within the framework of the study presented here, outcrop analogue studies west of the Graben in the Saar-Nahe-Basin, and east of the Graben in the Wetterau and the Wetterau-Fulda-Basin are conducted. Each lithostratigraphic formation and lithofacies type is sampled in various outcrops to generate a statistically sufficient amount of samples of the different sedimentary rocks in order to determine their petrophysical, sedimentological and geochemical characteristics. The petrophysical parameters measured include the porosity, permeability, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and uniaxial compressive strength. So far, the petrophysical properties of samples of more than 70 locations have been measured in our lab facilities, showing a clear correlation with the facies type. Excluding the coarse grained sandstones of the Donnersberg formation at the beginning of the Nahe-subgroup of the Upper Rotliegend, the geothermal reservoir properties are more suitable in the Glan-subgroup of the Lower Rotliegend due to the increasing fraction of fluviatil facies with low sinuosity meander belts, that transported coarse grained and feldspar-rich sediments from along the basin axis. The next steps will include geochemical as well as petrographic-sedimentological analysis of each sample to study the mineral composition, the intergranular volume and diagenesis. Furthermore, the rock mass permeability is evaluated using hydraulic test data of wells intersecting the Permocarboniferous in the Saar Nahe Basin and other analogue areas, already showing a link between hydraulic conductivity and fault structures within the basin. Based on drilling and seismic data as well as geological maps together with the compiled petrophysical and hydraulic data, it is planned to establish a 3D reservoir model of the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the western Saar-Nahe-Basin. Due to the importance of fault zones, lithostratigraphical units and facies types, detailed modelling will allow a more reliable assessment of the geothermal potential. This model could be used for a better prediction of reservoir temperatures and production rates and will decrease the exploration risk.
Aretz, A.; Bär, K.; Sass, I.
For about 100 years power is generated from hydroelectric power on the river Neckar (Federal Republic of Germany). A total hydropower capacity of about 100 megawatts already is installed at the Neckar river. In the Federal State Baden-Wuerttemberg there is certainly the potential for the construction and modernization of hydroelectric power plants. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the reconstruction of the run-of-river power plant Schwabenheim nearby Heidelberg (Federal Republic of Germany).
Full Text Available Germany has a negative balance for tourism. The article deals with attempts for creating the Germany’s positive image for tourists. Germans themselves travel a lot domestically, and for the first time since 2011 Germany has enjoyed a positive balance in tourism industry – tourists spent 20,4 bl. Euros inside against 15,5 bl. Euros spent outside of the country. According to YUNVTO Germany entered the list of top 10 tourist destinations.
Nina K. Zhigalina
Was Germany ever united? Given the historical circumstances of Germany?s unification in the 19th century there is no obvious answer to this question. But such an answer can affect the prospects of the post-1989 unification process, and beyond this of European integration. We provide an econometric analysis of Germany?s economic integration across various internal borders from the foundation of the Kaiserreich until the end of the Weimar Republic. This analysis is based on a new comprehensiv...
Full Text Available Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established.Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University in West Germany in 1975, there were significant developments in distance education occurring at the major universities in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany. After German reunification in 1990, the new unitary state launched programs to advance the development of distance education programs at conventional universities.Germany’s campus-based universities (Präsenzuniversitäten created various entities, including central units and consortia of universities to design and market distance education programs. Hybridisation provides the necessary prerequisites for dual mode delivery, such as basic and continuing education programs, as well as for the combination of distance and campus-based education (Präsenzstudium. Hybridisation also has also opened the door for the creation of new programs.Following an initial phase in which distance education research is expected to centralize a trend towards decentralisation is likely to follow. The German Association for Distance Education (AG-F offers a viable research network in distance education. Two dual mode case studies are also be surveyed: The Master of Arts degree, offered by the University of Koblenz-Landau, with Library Science as the second major, and the University of Kaiserslautern, where basic education will continue to be captured within the domain of the Präsenzstudium or campus-based education.The area in which distance education is flourishing most is within the field of academic continuing education, where external experts and authors are broadening the horizon of the campus. Multimedia networks will comprise the third generation of distance education.
Climate change impacts on hydrological processes should be simulated for river basins using validated models and multiple climate scenarios in order to provide reliable results for stakeholders. In the last 10-15 years climate impact assessment was performed for many river basins worldwide using different climate scenarios and models. Nevertheless, the results are hardly comparable and do not allow to create a full picture of impacts and uncertainties. Therefore, a systematic intercomparison of impacts is suggested, which should be done for representative regions using state-of-the-art models. Our study is intended as a step in this direction. The impact assessment presented here was performed for three river basins on three continents: Rhine in Europe, Upper Niger in Africa and Upper Yellow in Asia. For that, climate scenarios from five GCMs and three hydrological models: HBV, SWIM and VIC, were used. Four "Representative Concentration Pathways" (RCPs) covering a range of emissions and land-use change projections were included. The objectives were to analyze and compare climate impacts on future trends considering three runoff quantiles: Q90, Q50 and Q10 and on seasonal water discharge, and to evaluate uncertainties from different sources. The results allow drawing some robust conclusions, but uncertainties are large and shared differently between sources in the studied basins. The robust results in terms of trend direction and slope and changes in seasonal dynamics could be found for the Rhine basin regardless which hydrological model or forcing GCM is used. For the Niger River scenarios from climate models are the largest uncertainty source, providing large discrepancies in precipitation, and therefore clear projections are difficult to do. For the Upper Yellow basin, both the hydrological models and climate models contribute to uncertainty in the impacts, though an increase in high flows in future is a robust outcome assured by all three hydrological models.
Vetter, T.; Huang, S.; Aich, V.; Yang, T.; Wang, X.; Krysanova, V.; Hattermann, F.
Full Text Available Climate change impacts on hydrological processes should be simulated for river basins using validated models and multiple climate scenarios in order to provide reliable results for stakeholders. In the last 10–15 years climate impact assessment was performed for many river basins worldwide using different climate scenarios and models. Nevertheless, the results are hardly comparable and do not allow to create a full picture of impacts and uncertainties. Therefore, a systematic intercomparison of impacts is suggested, which should be done for representative regions using state-of-the-art models. Our study is intended as a step in this direction. The impact assessment presented here was performed for three river basins on three continents: Rhine in Europe, Upper Niger in Africa and Upper Yellow in Asia. For that, climate scenarios from five GCMs and three hydrological models: HBV, SWIM and VIC, were used. Four "Representative Concentration Pathways" (RCPs covering a range of emissions and land-use change projections were included. The objectives were to analyze and compare climate impacts on future trends considering three runoff quantiles: Q90, Q50 and Q10 and on seasonal water discharge, and to evaluate uncertainties from different sources. The results allow drawing some robust conclusions, but uncertainties are large and shared differently between sources in the studied basins. The robust results in terms of trend direction and slope and changes in seasonal dynamics could be found for the Rhine basin regardless which hydrological model or forcing GCM is used. For the Niger River scenarios from climate models are the largest uncertainty source, providing large discrepancies in precipitation, and therefore clear projections are difficult to do. For the Upper Yellow basin, both the hydrological models and climate models contribute to uncertainty in the impacts, though an increase in high flows in future is a robust outcome assured by all three hydrological models.
On October 9, 1997, a seminar on energy sources was held in Duesseldorf within the framework of the programme of the academy for nature conservation and environmental protection (NUA) of North Rhine-Westphalia. The topic of the meeting, 'local governments' contributions to establishing a future-oriented energy policy from below' gathered representatives and lecturers from local authorities, electric utilities, planning and consultancy firms, political bodies and environmental associations. Papers presented to the seminar have been indexed and analysed for separate retrieval from the database. (orig./CB)
For the last decade, single borehole techniques have been extensively and reliably used for various groundwater investigations. The present study demonstrates their applicability and usefulness. By a combined approach using single borehole and environmental isotope techniques, the flow pattern at the site of a group of wells tapping bank filtrate from the Rhine has been investigated. It was possible to gather data on the residence time of the pumped water in the underground as well as in its pathways under different boundary conditions. (author)
Full Text Available In many climate impact studies hydrological models are forced with meteorological data without an attempt to assess the quality of these data. The objective of this study was to compare downscaled ERA15 (ECMWF-reanalysis data precipitation and temperature with observed precipitation and temperature and apply a bias correction to these forcing variables. Precipitation is corrected by fitting it to the mean and coefficient of variation (CV of the observations. Temperature is corrected by fitting it to the mean and standard deviation of the observations. It appears that the uncorrected ERA15 is too warm and too wet for most of the Rhine basin. The bias correction leads to satisfactory results, precipitation and temperature differences decreased significantly, although there are a few years for which the correction of precipitation is less satisfying. Corrections were largest during summer for both precipitation and temperature. For precipitation alone large corrections were applied during September and October as well. Besides the statistics the correction method was intended to correct for, it is also found to improve the correlations for the fraction of wet days and lag-1 autocorrelations between ERA15 and the observations. For the validation period temperature is corrected very well, but for precipitation the RMSE of the daily difference between modeled and observed precipitation has increased for the corrected situation. When taking random years for calibration, and the remaining years for validation, the spread in the mean bias error (MBE becomes larger for the corrected precipitation during validation, but the overal average MBE has decreased.
AREVA NP was created in 2001 by the merger of the French nuclear technology specialist Framatome with the nuclear sector of Siemens. The company is headquartered in Paris and has regional subsidiaries in Germany and the United States. The joint venture's strength lies in its all-round competence in nuclear power plants, from reactor development to power plant services and modernization of operating plants, design and production of fuel assemblies and turn-key construction of nuclear power reactors. Major core competences are located in Germany including the test facilities which are unique in the entire group as well as electrical engineering and instrumentation and control systems. AREVA NP is part of the globally acting AREVA group which pursues a unique integrated business model. The concept covers the entire nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to reprocessing used fuel assemblies. At present, AREVA has 48,000 employees worldwide, of which 5,700 are Germany-based. (orig.)
Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the changing debate on National Socialism and the question of guilt in German society. Memory had a different meaning in different generations, shaping distinct phases of dealing with the past, from silence and avoidance to sceptical debate, from painful “Vergangenheitsbewältigung” to a general memory of suffering. In present-day Germany, memory as collective personal memory has faded away. At the same time, literature has lost its role as a main medium to mass media like cinema and television. Furthermore, memory has become fragmented. Large groups of members of the German society, like immigrants, see the past from a different perspective altogether. Although the remembrance of the time of National Socialism is still a distinctive part of Germany’s political culture, it has become more generalised, with “Holocaust memory” as a globalised symbol for a fundamental “break” in Western culture.
Full Text Available Bank filtration has been of main importance for the drinking water supply in Germany for many decades. The water quality of pumped raw water from bank filtration sites depends to a high degree on the water quality of the infiltrating surface water and the landside groundwater, the mixing portion of both as well as the flow and transport conditions in the aquifer. Since the improvement of river water quality and a drastic decrease in water demand during the last 15 years in Germany, the influence of landside groundwater quality has become more important for the raw water quality of waterworks relying on bank filtration. The hydrogeologic analysis of three bank filtration sites in Saxony and the management of abstraction rates and well operation in response to fluctuating water demand are discussed. In conclusion, a general overview on management options for bank filtration sites is provided.
Full Text Available Bank filtration has been of great importance to the drinking water supply in Germany for many decades. The water quality of pumped raw water from bank filtration sites depends to a high degree on the water quality of the infiltrating surface water and the landside groundwater, the mixed portion of both, as well as the flow and transport conditions in the aquifer. Following the improvement of river water quality and a drastic decrease in water demand during the last 20 years in Germany, the influence of landside groundwater quality has become more important for the raw water quality of waterworks relying on bank filtration. The hydrogeologic analysis of three bank filtration sites in Saxony and the management of abstraction rates and well operation in response to fluctuating water demand are discussed.
Background Within the OECD Health Care Quality Indicators (HCQI) Project up to 21 countries participated in calculations of 6 indicators on care for chronic conditions. Those so-called Health Promotion, Prevention and Primary Care Indicators originally had been introduced by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and rely on the principal diagnoses of an adult hospitalization stored in a hospital administrative database. 2007 age-sex standardized asthma admission rates varied considerably across the countries and ranged from 17 (Italy) to 120 (United States) admissions per 100,000 population (OECD mean: 51). It was concluded that asthma outpatient treatment was not optimal in countries reporting higher rates. Germany provided the third lowest asthma admission rate of 21 (Health at a Glance 2009 OECD Indicators. http://www.oecd.org/health/healthataglance). As data collections from various countries can differ in, e.g. coding responsibility, incentives for coding, and implementation of coding guidelines, international variations cannot exclusively be explained by differences in health system performance. This study aimed to calculate asthma admission rates separately for all 16 Federal States of Germany, assuming national comparisons are not biased by these factors. Methods Using the 2009 nationwide Diagnosis Related Groups statistic we calculated age-sex standardized asthma admission rates according to the OECD HCQI Data Collection Guidelines. Results Among all adult hospitalizations (15 years or older) we found 14,399 admissions with a principal diagnosis code of asthma. Related to the corresponding population of 70,779,623, the crude rate is 20.34 admissions per 100,000. Age and sex standardized rate is 20.20 (95% Confidence-Interval, 19.86-20.54). Among the 16 Federal States of Germany age-standardized rates ranges from 7.62 in Berlin (95% CI, 6.17-9.08) to 20.26 in North Rhine-Westphalia (95% CI, 19.13-21.39) among men and from 16.15 in Berlin (95% CI, 14.07-18.23) to 36.70 in Bremen (95% CI, 29.89-43.98) among women, respectively. Conclusions Prevention Quality Indicators calculated on national hospital administrative databases might be a useful tool to identify national variations of asthma admission rates reflecting areas with differences in outpatient care. Reasons for the differences found, e.g., a varying regional density of primary care providers or regional differences on asthma prevalence are in focus of further investigations.
Weyermann, Maria; Knorr, Silke; Drösler, Saskia E.
In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.
Regional Climate Models (RCMs) offer significant improvements over Global Climate Models in terms of their representation of rainfall at the spatial and temporal scales required for hydrological modelling. Here we test a new implementation of a grid-based hydrological model embedded in a model of land-surface climatology (the Joint UK Land Exchange Scheme; JULES) against observed river flows in several major NW European rivers, including the Rhine, Maas, Elbe, Danube, Loire, and Seine. Our hydrological model comprises a probability-distributed model of soil moisture and runoff production (PDM) coupled with a discrete approximation to the one-dimensional kinematic wave equation to route surface and subsurface water downslope (G2G). The model was driven with hourly output from the Hadley Centre regional climate model, which itself was driven using results from the ERA-40 reanalysis experiment (1961-2000). The results of simulations for river catchments in northwest Europe are presented and compared with measured river flows over the same time period, for the same locations. The success with which the runoff production and flow routing components of the land-surface model match observed flow data is evaluated.
Dadson, S.; Bell, V.; Jones, R.
Fluvial deposits of Miocene to Early Pleistocene age in Germany and the Netherlands were laid down in the delta of the Eridanos River System, but the exact provenance of this material continues to be a subject of discussion. The aim of the present study is twofold. Firstly, a comparison of Ordovician sponges in these deposits with those from northern Estonia and the St Petersburg region (Russia) demonstrates that these erratics originated from the drainage area of the Pra Neva, a tributary of...
Full Text Available e estimate mortality rates by a measure of socio-economic status in a very large sample of male German pensioners aged~65 or older. Our analysis is entirely nonparametric. Furthermore, the data enable us to compare mortality experiences in eastern and western Germany conditional on socio-economic status. As a simple summary measure, we compute period life expectancies at age~65. Our findings show a lower bound of almost 50 percent (six years on the difference in life expectancy between the lowest and the highest socio-economic group considered. Within groups, we find similar values for the former GDR and western Germany. Our analysis contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, we provide the first population-based differential mortality study for Germany. Second, we use a novel measure of lifetime earnings as a proxy for socio-economic status that remains applicable to retired people. Third, the comparison between eastern and western Germany may provide some interesting insights for transformation countries.
Rembrandt D. Scholz
Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.
This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…
Kaplan, Judith R. H.
This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are addressed in the…
To explore increased risk for human Rickettsia spp. infection in Germany, we investigated recreational areas and renatured brown coal surface-mining sites (also used for recreation) for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks. R. raoultii (56.7%), R. slovaca (13.3%), and R. helvetica (>13.4%) were detected in the respective tick species. PMID:21529404
Silaghi, Cornelia; Hamel, Dietmar; Thiel, Claudia; Pfister, Kurt; Pfeffer, Martin
To explore increased risk for human Rickettsia spp. infection in Germany, we investigated recreational areas and renatured brown coal surface-mining sites (also used for recreation) for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks. R. raoultii (56.7%), R. slovaca (13.3%), and R. helvetica (>13.4%) were detected in the respective tick species.
Silaghi, Cornelia; Hamel, Dietmar; Thiel, Claudia; Pfister, Kurt; Pfeffer, Martin
We present the molecular identification of Apodemus agrarius (striped field mouse) as reservoir host of the Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) lineage DOBV-Aa in 3 federal states of Germany. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for multiple spillover of DOBV-Aa to A. flavicollis, a crucial prerequisite for host switch and genetic reassortment.
Schlegel, Mathias; Klempa, Boris; Auste, Brita; Bemmann, Margrit; Schmidt-chanasit, Jonas; Bu?chner, Thomas; Groschup, Martin H.; Meier, Markus; Balkema-buschmann, Anne; Zoller, Hinrich; Kru?ger, Detlev H.; Ulrich, Rainer G.
Germany's forthcoming energy system is de-cocooning. It compares well with a caterpillar still in its cocoon: so far it is not known yet whether a beautiful peacock butterfly or simply an ugly moth will emerge. Not much is for certain, but one thing certainly is cocksure: the next Fukushima is impending. Only when and where is open. (orig.)
Winter, Carl-Jochen [The International Association for Hydrogen Energy, Ueberlingen (Germany)
The list of countries willing to host a multi-billion dollar fusion facility got much shorter when France and Germany effectively took themselves out of the competition, making Japan the odd-on favorite as the site for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) if it is built. This article describes the history and the possible future for the ITER
Further efforts needed to achieve measles elimination in Germany: results of an outbreak investigation / Des efforts supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour parvenir à éliminer la rougeole en Allemagne: résultats de l'investigation d'une flambée épidémique / Se requerirá un mayor esfuerzo para eliminar el sarampión en Alemania: resultados de la investigación de un brote
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la morbilidad y los costos asociados a un extenso brote de sarampión declarado en Alemania e identificar la manera de mejorar la estrategia nacional aplicada en ese país para eliminar dicha enfermedad. MÉTODOS: Investigamos un extenso brote de sarampión que se produjo en el esta [...] do federal de Renania del Norte-Westfalia (RNW) en 2006 tras dos años de baja incidencia de sarampión ( Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity and costs related to a large measles outbreak in Germany and to identify ways to improve the country's national measles elimination strategy. METHODS: We investigated a large outbreak of measles in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) that occurred in 2 [...] 006 after 2 years of low measles incidence (
Ole, Wichmann; Anette, Siedler; Daniel, Sagebiel; Wiebke, Hellenbrand; Sabine, Santibanez; Annette, Mankertz; Georg, Vogt; Ulrich van, Treeck; Gérard, Krause.
n mesotidal settings the transition of a coastal plain estuary to the river is marked by the change of a multiple ebb and flood channel configurationto a single channel system. At high river discharge fluvial processes operate, whereas in periods of low discharge the flow is complicated by a tidalcomponent and a landward intrusion of the salt wedge. These hydraulic and morphological characteristics make the transitional zone differentfrom the ‘pure’ fluvial and estuarine environment. Insp...
Berg, J. H. Den; Boersma, J. R.; Gelder, A.
During sediment transport downstream, river systems mix sediments from different parts of their catchments. During deposition, sediments are often unmixed again in different depositional environments (facies). During fluvial transport, between erosion and deposition of sediment, the sediment is sorted too. A commonly observed phenomenon is downstream fining (Frings, 2007), which is the tendency for bed sediments of many rivers to become finer downstream. All processes ...
Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Cohen, K. M.; Prins, M. A.
In a generally stagnant energy market, gas will be the energy with the highest growth rate in Germany, especially because of its steadily rising shares in the residential and commercial sector. In western Germany there is to be accepted that the demand forecasts, which were raised from one conference to the next, have passed their zenith. Great uncertainty exists as regards the future use of gas for power generation. In the absence of any significant expansion of this market sector, which is considered rather improbable in western Germany, it can be stated that anticipated gas demand up to the year 2005 is already covered by existing import contracts and scheduled domestic production. The picture is completely different in eastern Germany, where a doubling of consumption is quite feasible. To achieve the requisite diversification of supplies, substantial additional imports from western sources will have to be contracted. Russia can and should remain eastern Germany's main supplier in the long run, but Russian deliveries must be placed on a reliable, long-term contractual basis. As far as new gas projects are concerned, deliveries from Norway, to a limited extent from the United Kingdom and above all as part of the new Russian export initiative are under discussion. Generally speaking, transit will be an increasingly significant issue, especially for additional supplies from Russia. The efficiency and reliability of gas marketing companies will become far more important in an environment characterised by growing uncertainties. The reliable customer offering a dependable market outlet will be increasingly sought. With energy prices likely to increase only slightly, the management of uncertainties and the safeguarding of economic driving forces will be the main challenge facing our supply projects. 15 figs
Water is one of the most important landscape elements. In settled areas, planners rediscovered urban blue in the form of rivers as a soft location factor in post-industrial times. Although the recognition of the need for recreational or 'healthy' places like urban green or urban blue in cities is increasing, current urban planning is mostly conducted without taking beneficial health issues into account. In this paper an extended concept of therapeutic landscapes is used to analyse two promenades on the river Rhine in the centres of two German cities (Cologne and Düsseldorf). A complex of qualitative and quantitative methods from diverse disciplines is applied to obtain a multi-dimensional image of salutogenic health processes. The results show that the promenades are favourite places to spend leisure time and to engage in recreational activities, in addition to providing restoration from everyday stresses. Water is a strong predictor of preference and positive perceptive experiences in urban environments. Users of the promenades also report strong emotional attachments to the place. Urban blue space may be interpreted as a therapeutic landscape in various ways. The study forms a contribution to planning issues, particularly considering benefits for human health, and enhances current research concerning therapeutic landscapes. PMID:23273410
Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas
Water is one of the most important landscape elements. In settled areas, planners rediscovered urban blue in the form of rivers as a soft location factor in post-industrial times. Although the recognition of the need for recreational or 'healthy' places like urban green or urban blue in cities is increasing, current urban planning is mostly conducted without taking beneficial health issues into account. In this paper an extended concept of therapeutic landscapes is used to analyse two promenades on the river Rhine in the centres of two German cities (Cologne and Düsseldorf). A complex of qualitative and quantitative methods from diverse disciplines is applied to obtain a multi-dimensional image of salutogenic health processes. The results show that the promenades are favourite places to spend leisure time and to engage in recreational activities, in addition to providing restoration from everyday stresses. Water is a strong predictor of preference and positive perceptive experiences in urban environments. Users of the promenades also report strong emotional attachments to the place. Urban blue space may be interpreted as a therapeutic landscape in various ways. The study forms a contribution to planning issues, particularly considering benefits for human health, and enhances current research concerning therapeutic landscapes. PMID:23672961
Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas
Increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations have often been reported in rivers and lakes of the Northern Hemisphere over the last few decades. High-quality organic carbon (OC) concentration data have been used to study the change in DOC and total (TOC) organic carbon concentrations in the main rivers of Switzerland (Rhône, Rhine, Thur and Aar) between 1974 and 2010. These rivers are characterized by high discharge regimes (due to their Alpine origin) and by running in populated areas. Small long term trends (a general statistically significant decrease in TOC and a less clear increase in DOC concentrations), on the order of 1% of mean OC concentration per year, have been observed. An upward trend before 1999 reversed direction to a more marked downward trend from 1999 to 2010. Of the potential causes of OC temporal variation analysed (water temperature, dissolved reactive phosphorus and river discharge), only discharge explains a significant, albeit still small, part of TOC variability (8-31%), while accounting for barely 2.5% of DOC variability. Estimated anthropogenic TOC and DOC loads (treated sewage) to the rivers could account for a maximum of 4-20% of the temporal trends. Such low predictability is a good example of the limitations faced when studying causality and drivers behind small variations in complex systems. River export of OC from Switzerland has decreased significantly over the period. Since about 5.5% of estimated NEP of Switzerland is exported by the rivers, riverine OC fluxes should be taken into account in a detailed carbon budget of the country. PMID:25260166
Rodríguez-Murillo, J C; Zobrist, J; Filella, M
Water works during the 1960s and 1970s changed the northern part of the Rhine-Meuse estuary in the south-west of the Netherlands into a freshwater lake, from west to east divided into three basins called the Haringvliet, the Hollands Diep and the Biesbosch. Concurrently water quality parameters (e.g. nutrients and pollutants) changed drastically during the last 50 years. This study combines macrozoobenthic monitoring data from the region from 1960 to 2001 with trends in abiotic parameters to evaluate historic developments of the communities, including densities, species numbers and diversity, and assess future developments as a first step to a rehabilitation of the estuary as planned for January 01, 2008. During the 1960s, the macrozoobenthic densities of Oligochaeta and/or Polychaeta dominated communities increased with a gradual decrease of saltwater intrusion and salinity variability. The first years after the basins became stagnant, the species numbers per sample and the Shannon diversity were high due to the coexistence of salt and freshwater species. An increase in nutrient and pollutant loads led to a decrease in the macrozoobenthos densities. As water and sediment quality gradually improved, nowadays the former estuary contains high diversity and high density macrozoobenthic communities, whereas Oligochaeta and/or Polychaeta were dominant in the 1960s, and Bivalvia and Gastropoda were more abundant during the 1970s. Macrozoobenthic communities moved from the east to west with a time-lag, which may primarily be attributed to changing salinities, salinity variances and oxygen levels. Therefore, the current communities of the Haringvliet show similarities with the communities that occurred already during the 1960s in the Biesbosch. This study shows the value of macrozoobenthos monitoring data over longer periods. The possible impact of a new saltwater inlet in the west of the Haringvliet, allowing in the near future saltwater to enter 11.5 km eastward, yet alternated by frequent flushing with freshwater to ascertain that the salt intrusion does not reach further, on the development of the macrozoobentic communities is discussed.
Wijnhoven, S.; Sistermans, W.; Hummel, H.
Clostridium difficile was isolated from 147 of 201 (73%) rectal swabs of piglets from 15 farms of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia. In 14 farms, 14 to 100% (mean, 78%) of the animals tested were culture positive. The rate of isolation was 68% postpartum, increased to 94% in animals 2 to 14 days of age, and declined to 0% for animals 49 days of age and older. There was no link between isolation and antibiotic treatment or diarrhea of piglets. Strains were assigned to 10 PCR ribotypes, a...
Schneeberg, Alexander; Neubauer, Heinrich; Schmoock, Gernot; Baier, Sylvia; Harlizius, Ju?rgen; Nienhoff, Hendrik; Brase, Katja; Zimmermann, Stefan; Seyboldt, Christian
Using a newly constructed macroeconometric model for Germany and the rest of the Euro area, we investigate the macroeconomic effects of structural labor market reforms in Germany. We find that neither the fact that Germany can no longer pursue an independent monetary policy nor the possibility that other countries in the Euro area might react to reforms in Germany by implementing labor market reforms themselves constitute impediments to successful reforms. Reforms would relative quickly bring...
Dovern, Jonas; Meier, Carsten-patrick
Since the German re?unification in 1990, Eastern Germany is a transition economy. After a phase of catching up of productivity with respect to Western Germany from 1991 to 1996, the growth rates in the producing sector have dropped below the Western German ones since 1997. This study investigates whether this macroeconomic picture holds at the microeconomic level. For the special case of Eastern Germany, I suggest to identify productivity gaps by a comparison with Western Germany as a ?produc...
We use a Bayesian dynamic factor model to measure Germany’s pre World War I economic activity. The procedure makes better use of existing time series data than historical national accounting. To investigate industrialization we propose to look at comovement between sectors. We find that Germany’s industrial sector developed earlier than stated in the literature, since after the 1860s agricultural time series do not comove with the business cycle anymore. Also, the bulk of comovement betwe...
Sarferaz, Samad; Uebele, Martin
Germany, in recent years, has advanced to a major focal point for Indian multinational enterprises (MNEs). Between 2000 and 2007, 84 greenfield Indian investments in Germany were monitored. Additionally, Indian MNEs were involved in at least 55 mergers & acquisitions (M&A) deals in Germany between 2001 and 2008. Judging by the number of acquisitions in the period 2003-2007, Germany averaged just behind USA and UK as target market for Indian investors, according to one KPMG report. A Deloitte ...
Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010) were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an in...
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo aborda los primeros tramos de la trayectoria de Germani en Argentina, con el fin de identificar el marco de experiencias y debates dentro de los cuales se configura su perspectiva intelectual sobre la sociología y el cambio social. Se sostiene la existencia en Germani de una matriz ideol [...] ógica vinculada al socialismo liberal europeo de la época, que coloca la oposición autoritarismo vs. libertad como eje articulador de su discurso sobre las sociedades modernas. A lo largo de toda su trayectoria Germani mantiene, con adecuaciones, esta perspectiva para comprender los procesos sociales más relevantes de las sociedades latinoamericanas. Un primer ejemplo paradigmático lo constituye su análisis del fenómeno peronista en Argentina. Abstract in english This article deals with the beginning of Gino Germani's career in Argentina and tries to identify the framework of experiences and debates among which his intellectual perspective on sociology and social change take place. This article posits that there is an ideological matrix in Germani linked to [...] the European liberal socialism of his time, which puts the opposition between authoritarism and liberty as the central theme of its speech on modern societies. Along his career Germani maintains -with some modifications- this perspective to understand the most relevant social processes in Latin-American societies. A first paradigmatic example is his analysis of Peronism in Argentina.
Full Text Available As geothermal energy is of increasing importance as a renewable energy source, there is a high demand for comprehensive studies to prevent failure during implementation, as is the case in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany. The drilling of seven wells for the geothermal heating of the city hall in 2007 is thought to have disturbed the existing hydro-geological system in the complex structured transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif. This event has led to uplift, related to the transformation of anhydrite to gypsum, which affects the infrastructure of the city centre via the generation of large cracks. This study focuses on the application of the InSAR Small Baseline Subset (SBAS approach using 50 X-band radar images from the German TerraSAR-X satellite (TSX to map the spatial and temporal patterns of the deformation field in detail. X-band InSAR time series analysis for the three-year time period from July 2008 through May 2011 indicates maximum velocities of ~12 cm/yr in the line of sight (LOS direction, from the ground to the satellite, approximately 50 m northeast of the drilling field. In comparison with leveling data for the same time period, TSX data analysis better delineates the border of the deformation area, and it is able to map the amount of deformation associated with different parts of the city. Moreover, this comparison indicates contributions of horizontal motion, as is expected for uplift patterns.
Presently, most loess/palaeosol magnetic susceptibility records are interpreted as following either the wind-vigour model or the pedogenic enhancement model. However redoxomorphic processes induced by waterlogging, often referred to gleying in the loess literature, are also known to alter loess deposits but their impact on loess/palaeosol magnetic susceptibility records has received little attention. The reported rock magnetic study aims to characterize the mineral magnetic response of loess to waterlogging-induced redoxomorphic processes, thus improving our understanding of mineral magnetic changes within loess deposits with respect to environmental and climate conditions. The Nussloch loess-palaeosol deposit (Rhine Valley, Germany) was targeted because it is one of the best-studied Pleniglacial deposits for Western Europe in which numerous tundra gley intervals have been identified. Moreover, a comprehensive high-resolution environmental magnetism study has never been undertaken for this site. Various rock magnetism experiments were conducted at both room and low temperatures to characterise the composition, concentration and relative magnetic grain size of the mineral magnetic assemblage. The relative changes in magnetic parameters within the investigated loess interval are primarily controlled by (1) varying concentrations of coarse-grained ferrimagnetic particles of detrital (aeolian) origin and (2) dissolution of fine-grained ferrimagnetic particles related to in situ post-depositional alteration promoted by waterlogging-induced redoxomorphic processes. Goethite is found to be ubiquitous throughout the studied interval and is argued to have both a primary (aeolian) and secondary (in situ) origin. We conclude, that redoxomorphic processes induced by waterlogging, if present, will hinder the interpretation of magnetic susceptibility variations within loess and palaeosol deposits following the expected relationships dictated by the wind-vigour and the pedogenic enhancement magnetism models.
Taylor, Samuel N.; Lagroix, France; Rousseau, Denis-Didier; Antoine, Pierre
Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R and D stood at$42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R and D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R and D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R and D expenditures, public R and D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately$15 billion. The reduction in R and D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R and D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R and D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R and D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R and D fell from approximately$1.6 billion to$400 million--a 75% real decline. The$850 million reduction in Germany's fission R and D budget (which n Germany's fission R and D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R and D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R and D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison with other energy technology areas, government support for all areas of energy R and D has declined in absolute terms since 1990. Remaining public and private sector energy R and D investments focus increasingly technology demonstration and commercialization efforts with relatively short time horizons
In the late autumn of 2009, the Life and Style hotel 'Kameha Grand Bonn' (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) was opened. It lies regionally beautiful at the 'Bonn Bogen' on the right side of the River Rhine. Owner and investor of the 100 million Euro expensive project is the private inventory owner BonnVisio Real Estate GmbH and Co. KG (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany). The extravagant and unmistakable hotel architecture with a building silhouette dropping to the River Rhine was developed by the architect Karl-Heinz Schommer (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany). By means of a symbiosis from passive solar power, cooling system and resources conservating climate concept based on geothermal energy, the hotel fulfils the requirements of a Green Building.
...Animal issues • Poaching • Invasive species – Light Management • Vegetation clearance – Structure Improvement...sides for protection Practical River Enhancement Practical River Enhancement Practical River Enhancement • Educate and bring ownership to...a larger audience Practical River Enhancement Practical River Enhancement • Press releases sell your project...
In Germany, substantial experience was gained in the field of research reactors during the last five decades. In this paper, an overview about the legislative and regulatory framework in Germany is given particularly with respect to research reactors, as well as a survey of the plant and licensing status of the facilities in Germany. comprehensive legislative and regulatory framework is established to govern the safety of nuclear installations in Germany. The various nuclear safety regulations are structured hierarchically. At the top level, the Atomic Energy Act comprises the general national regulations for the safety of nuclear installations in Germany and constitutes the basis for the associated ordinances, e.g. the Radiation Protection Ordinance or the Nuclear Licensing Procedure Ordinance. The Atomic Energy Act and the ordinances are applicable to all kind of nuclear installations, and therefore are applied to nuclear power reactors as well as to research reactors in a common approach. After the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 2002, one of its purposes is to phase out the use of nuclear energy in a controlled manner. In fact, this is in force for nuclear power reactors for commercial generation of electricity, but not for research reactors. Below the legal level, the safety provisions and regulations of the Atomic Energy Act and its ordinances are put into concrete terms by general administrative provisions, by regulatory guidelines, by safety standards ofulatory guidelines, by safety standards of the Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA), by recommendations from the Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) and the Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK), and by conventional technical standards (e.g. DIN, ISO, IEC). The nuclear safety regulations concerning nuclear installations are in compliance with the international accepted safety standards, e.g. the 'Safety Fundamentals' of the IAEA. The regulatory guidelines and the KTA Safety Standards are mainly developed for nuclear power plants. In practice, they are applied in analogy or with some interpretation for research reactors, in accordance with the potential hazards of the specific research reactor by means of a graded approach. There are only very few regulations implemented specifically for research reactors, e.g. two regulatory guidelines relating to the technical qualification of research reactor personnel or one KTA Safety Standard relating the monitoring of the discharge of radioactive substances from research reactors. Moreover, some recommendations from the RSK regarding specific licensing procedures of individual research reactor facilities have been made. In 2004, the IAEA Board of Governors approved the 'Code on Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors'. To comply with its recommendations, the German Federal Government included research reactors in the report for the third review meeting in April 2005 for the 'Convention on Nuclear Safety'. According to the Atomic Energy Act, a licence is required for the construction, operation or commissioning of research reactors. The licensing procedure and the continuous regulatory supervision of the facilities lies within the responsibility of the individual Federal States ('Laender'). To preserve the legal uniformity for the entire territory of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Federal Government supervises the licensing and supervisory activities of the 'Laender'-authorities regarding lawfulness and expediency. n Germany, a total of 46 research reactors were built and operated. In the meanwhile, most of them are in decommissioning or have already been dismantled completely. Concerning the design, there is, or has been, a very broad range of different types of research reactors. The variety of facilities includes large pool or tank reactors with a thermal power of several tens of megawatt as well as small educational reactors with a thermal power in the order of only hundred milliwatts. t present, 13 research reactors are still in operation in Germany. The newest facility, the high flux neutron source
The future of nuclear power in Germany is not only a matter of technology, economy and ecology but, above all, a matter of political leadership, the quality of interaction of all groups of society, the need to take ideology out of politico-economico-technical matters, and of firmly standing up for a style of democracy in which majorities, not minorities, decide. The power economy is agreed that nuclear power is indispensable in a powerful electricity supply scheme. These should be the criteria to be met by an energy consensus: No nuclear plants should be sacrificed by being shut down before the end of their technical and economic service life; spent fuel and waste management in Germany should be secured with sufficient interim storage and repository storage capacities. (orig.)
This article examines the topography and "cultural machinery" of forensic jurisdictions in Imperial Germany. It locates the sites at which boundary disputes between psychiatric and legal professionals arose and explores the strategies and practices that governed the division of expert labor between them. It argues that the over-determined paradigms of 'medicalization' and 'biologization' have lost much of their explanatory force and that historians need to refocus their attention on the institutional and administrative configuration of forensic practices in Germany. After first sketching the statutory context of those practices, the article explores how contentious jurisdictional negotiations pitted various administrative, financial, public security, and scientific interests against one another. The article also assesses the contested status of psychiatric expertise in the courtroom, as well as post-graduate forensic psychiatric training courses and joint professional organizations, which drew the two professional communities closer together and mediated their jurisdictional disputes. PMID:24125958
Engstrom, Eric J
This paper describes the state of essential demonstration projects of heat and cold storage in aquifers in Germany. Into the energy supply system of the buildings of the German Parliament in Berlin, there are integrated both a deep brine-bearing aquifer for the seasonal storage of waste heat from power and heat cogeneration and a shallow-freshwater bearing aquifer for cold storage. In Neubrandenburg, a geothermal heating plant which uses a 1.200 m deep aquifer is being retrofitted into an aquifer heat storage system which can be charged with the waste heat from a gas and steam cogeneration plant. The first centralised solar heating plant including an aquifer thermal energy store in Germany was constructed in Rostock. Solar collectors with a total area of 1000m2 serve for the heating of a complex of buildings with 108 flats. A shallow freshwater-bearing aquifer is used for thermal energy storage. (Authors)
Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.
As Germany decided to phase out nuclear and to bet on new electricity sources, it must adapt and renew its high voltage grid in order to accommodate the possible fluctuations of wind energy and solar energy productions: some wind turbines had to be stopped because the grid was unable to transport the produced electricity. Four companies are involved in the grid management. Investments for new lines are important. Technological options are studied: underground cables, high temperature cables
To provide background information about previous findings about the prevalence of use, abuse and dependence of various substances (nicotine, alcohol, prescription and illicit drugs) findings of available epidemiological studies in Germany from the 1980s and 1990s are summarized and critically evaluated. Focusing on findings of substance use surveys in adolescents and young adults the review indicates: (a) a considerable number of large scale questionnaire surveys in general population samples...
Perkonigg, Axel; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-ulrich
The report on the performance nuclear power plants in Germany in 2011 includes the operational results, safety analyses, revisions, quality management, environmental management, status of radioactive waste management, and eventual programs (TACIS, WANO) for the nuclear power plants Biblis A, Biblis B, Brokdorf KBR, Brunsbuettel KKB, Emsland KKE, Grafenrheinfeld KKG, Grohnde KWG, Gundremmingen KRB B, Gundremmingen KRB C, Isa KK1, Isar KK2, Kruemmel KKK, Neckarwestheim GKN I, Neckarwestheim GKN II, Philippsburg KKP 1, Philippsburg KKP 2, and Unterweser KKU.
Germany is one of the world’s leading exporters and benefits from a healthy economy despite the economic and financial crisis. It is also the origin of the so-called “social market economy”. In light of this tradition and its strong economy, which boasts many leading companies, the country has been criticised for not doing enough regarding explicit corporate responsibility (CR). This has changed with the government’s recent publication of an “action plan” and sub-s...
Thomas Hajduk; Thomas Beschorner
Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI), whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom...
Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in souther...
Thorsten Agemar; Josef Weber; Rüdiger Schulz
While the focus in Germany was initially on disabled children only, the promotion of gifted and talented children has become increasingly important. Different organisations and institutions, ranging from parents' associations to foundations, offer a large variety of measures catering for the special demands of gifted and talented children, enabling the exchange of information on giftedness and the cooperation of different institutions. Talented children are also provided with access to schola...
Christian Fischer; Kerstin Müller
Demographic change is perceived as a threat for wealth rather than a challenge in Germany. The debate on skilled labor shortage is a proof for this view. The paper surveys the most important German studies on skilled labor shortage. Meanwhile, a consensus on solutions has emerged in academia. Increasing the participation rates of elderly, women and facilitating qualified immigration as well as improving productivity are the mainstream recommendations. The paper provides descriptive statistica...
Kahlenberg, Christoph; Spermann, Alexander
We analyse tax revenue elasticities by applying dynamic models to a new disaggregated dataset for Germany, which is adjusted for the effects of tax reforms. We estimate long-run elasticities that are substantially lower than in comparable studies for profit-related taxes and are slightly lower for value-added taxes, whereas the long-run elasticity for wage taxes is close to the consensus estimate in the literature. Additionally, we find that differences between short- and long-run elasticitie...
Koester, Gerrit B.; Priesmeier, Christoph
In this paper we econometrically analyze the impact of several economic, environmental and social determinants for the average per capita demand for water and sewage in about 600 water supply areas in Germany. Besides prices, income and household size, we also consider the effects of population age, the share of wells, and rainfall and temperature during the summer months on water demand. We also attempt to explain the regional differences in per capita residential water consumption, which is...
Schleich, Joachim; Hillenbrand, Thomas
This article gives an overview of the changing debate on National Socialism and the question of guilt in German society. Memory had a different meaning in different generations, shaping distinct phases of dealing with the past, from silence and avoidance to sceptical debate, from painful “Vergangenheitsbewältigung” to a general memory of suffering. In present-day Germany, memory as collective personal memory has faded away. At the same time, literature has lost its role as a main m...
The European Commission has proposed an extensive overhaul of Europe's energy market with the aim to improve competition, spark infrastructure investments and create a cross-border European power market. However, ownership unbundling (OU), has been met with resistance, particularly in Germany, where four powerful energy companies rule over an oligopoly that many say is causing high energy prices. Several experts in this field have serious doubts if OU will drive down prices
The European Commission has proposed an extensive overhaul of Europe's energy market with the aim to improve competition, spark infrastructure investments and create a cross-border European power market. However, ownership unbundling (OU), has been met with resistance, particularly in Germany, where four powerful energy companies rule over an oligopoly that many say is causing high energy prices. Several experts in this field have serious doubts if OU will drive down prices.
The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to the understanding of households' saving behavior. Savings and savings behavior was subject to large and comprehensive research, and still, the complexity of households' savings behavior is not completely understood. To understand saving, it therefore helps to be open for economic as well as psychological and sociological explanations. Germany, in particular, is an interesting country to study saving, especially among older households. Even ...
On Wednesday May 30, 2001, German lawmakers voted nearly unanimously to remove the final legal obstacle to free a $4.5 billion fund to begin to compensate over 1.5 million survivors of Nazi slave labor camps. Germany has already paid over $60 billion in restitution to victims of the Nazis, but this is the first time that slave labor has been specifically included. German companies have long admitted they used slave labor during the Nazi regime but insist they did so only because they'd been pressured by the Nazis. However, 6,300 German companies have already pledged contributions to the industry fund drive, which was started three years ago to stave off lawsuits from American firms against some of Germany's biggest manufacturers including Volkswagen, BMW, and Dailmer-Benz for their participation in slave labor in the earlier half of the 20th century. The plan for compensation calls for two categories of slave labor: $6,600 will be given to those forced to work under life-threatening conditions including concentration camps, and $2,200 will be given to the victims who were forced to work under "less onerous conditions." While these payment are seen as a merely symbolic gesture, German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder explained that the compensation "sends a signal that Germany is fully conscious of the terrible crimes of its past, and will remain so."
Missner, Emily D.
Full Text Available While the focus in Germany was initially on disabled children only, the promotion of gifted and talented children has become increasingly important. Different organisations and institutions, ranging from parents’ associations to foundations, offer a large variety of measures catering for the special demands of gifted and talented children, enabling the exchange of information on giftedness and the cooperation of different institutions. Talented children are also provided with access to scholarships as well as to special academies and competitions on different topics. Furthermore, educators and researches involved in the promotion of giftedness can attend conferences as well as gaining qualifications as specialists in gifted education and talent support. In addition to these nationwide, extracurricular measures, the individual federal states offer various acceleration and enrichment activities for children with high abilities at school. Overall, this leads to a diverse system of gifted education and talent support in Germany. It does, however, mean that Germany lacks a common national strategy of gifted education and talent support due to the lack of networking of the individual federal states. By exchanging ideas and information on their applied concepts of ability promotion, the federal states could benefit from each other’s expertise and experiences. Further improvement could be achieved if concepts of gifted education and talent support were to become an integral part of various discussions, such as those on inclusive education or on the results of international comparative studies (e.g., PISA, PIRLS or TIMSS.
Health conferences are a special management instrument of health policy. Less is known about the distribution. There is a lack of systematic evaluation methods.This overview is based on comprehensive literature, data base and internet searches about health conferences in Germany.The establishment of structured conferences is derived from funding projects of the federal states or local initiatives which began in different phases and with various emphases. The strategies varied from individual actions to an implementation in the whole state. Currently there are altogether 130 health conferences in Germany for approximately one third of the county and city districts in 13 federal states. The federal states assist health conferences by providing financial support, health policy, support by health authorities and regulations in the law. In the majority of the cases the office is located within the public health service. There is a great diversity in the composition of the stakeholders and in the contents. A systematic monitoring and outcome evaluation was conducted only in a few cases. Those studies predominantly report positive results but also promoting and inhibiting factors. They referred to restrictions.Health conferences are broadly disseminated, especially in west Germany. They offer opportunities for a community health management. There is a need for more intensive exchange and evaluation to improve their development. PMID:24420647
Full Text Available Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two watersheds in North Thailand and Southwest Germany, this paper analyses how the participatory imperative in water governance is translated at the local level. Evidence suggests that in both countries public participation in water management is still in its infancy, with legislative and executive responsibilities being divided between a variety of state agencies and local authorities. Bureaucratic restructuring and technocratic attitudes, passive resistance on the part of administrative staff towards inclusive processes, and a trend towards the (recentralization of responsibilities for water governance in both study regions undermines community-based and stakeholder-driven water governance institutions, thus calling into question the subsidiarity principle. State-driven participatory processes tend to remain episodic and ceremonial and have not (yet gone beyond the informative and consultative stage. Meaningful public participation, promised on paper and in speeches, gets lost in translation too often.
Full Text Available Britain was the main conflict in the west. And the United States’ policy toward Germany was subject to this conflict. In order to create in Europe a balance of power which was in the United States’ favor, and to prevent Britain and France from controlling Europe completely, the United States adopted a neutral policy toward Germany, and did help the recovery of Germany. And Germany wanted to absorb a lot of fund to recover her economy and rebuild her army, with the hope of regaining the position as one of the western powers. So it was necessary for both two countries to maintain good relationship between them. But with the rise of Nazi Germany, Hitler did adopt a very aggressive diplomatic policy, which seriously harmed the United States’ interests. So the United States’ policy toward Germany began to change. This thesis tries to analyze the United States’ policy toward Germany before the breakout of Second World War.
Using example of Europe's most important river, investigations are carried out on the conditions and problems occurring where water- and energy economy are interacting, as well as on the different characteristics they assume in the various sections of the river. The influence of the hydroelectric power plants, the conventional thermal power plants and the nuclear power plants upon the water economy is reviewed. Moreover, the importance of these power plants within the total energy economy of the individual adjacent countries as well as the economic effects they cause to their site areas are considered. (HSCH)
Production capacity at the BASF works at Ludwigshafen are to be extended by 400 mT/h in order to meet the increasing demand for demineralized water. The main task in the engineering design of the process was to institute treatment procedures, which were appropriate for eliminating as completely as possible organic chemicals from the water from the Rhine which are detrimental to boilers. The paper describes the layout and engineering design of the individual stages of the process and also their functions in eliminating organic chemicals. The individual stages of the process, for example the flocculator, had to be optimized. The results of analyses and the operating experience accumulated to date are illustrated and described. (orig.).
Hochmueller, K.; Wandelt, E.
Students perform a macroinvertebrate survey to gauge the health of a local river. They collect water samples and count macroinvertebrates to learn how the health of a river's ecosystem can be determined by its river insect population.
Integrated Teaching and Learning Program and Laboratory,
Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison with other energy technology areas, government support for all areas of energy R&D has declined in absolute terms since 1990. Remaining public and private sector energy R&D investments focus increasingly technology demonstration and commercialization efforts with relatively short time horizons.