WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right. The Rhine, one of the largest and most used waterways in central Europe, winds its way through five countries from the Swiss-Austrian Alps to the North Sea coast of the Netherlands. The river valley is densely populated, as seen in this image, which shows the French city of Strasbourg, the light blue and orange area in the upper left center; and the German cities of Kehl, across the river from Strasbourg and Offenburg, the bright area in right center. The fertile valley is famous for its wine production and most of the agricultural areas in the image, shown in purple patches, are vineyards. The light green areas are forest. Scientists can use radar images like this one to monitor the effects of urban and agricultural development on sensitive ecosystems such as the Rhine River valley. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is 34.2 kilometers by 33.2 kilometers (21.2 miles by 20.6 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 7.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

1994-01-01

2

The Rhine River Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nine countries are in part or entirely situated within the Rhine catchment, namely Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy (only 51 km²), Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, The Netherlands and Switzerland. With a total length of about 1250 km, a drainage area of 185 260 km² and an average discharge of about 2300 m³/s, the Rhine ranks 9th among Eurasian rivers. The Rhine is the primary artery of one of the most important economic regions of Europe (annual gross domestic product of 1750 billion US$)...

Uehlinger, Urs F.; Wantzen, Karl M.; Leuven, Rob S.; Arndt, Hartmut

2009-01-01

3

Rare earth elements in the Rhine River, Germany: first case of anthropogenic lanthanum as a dissolved microcontaminant in the hydrosphere.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of dissolved rare earth elements (REE) in the Rhine River, Germany, shows the anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd) microcontamination that is commonly observed in rivers in densely populated countries with a highly evolved health care system. However, the Rhine River also carries anomalously high concentrations of lanthanum (La), which produce very large positive La anomalies in normalized REE distribution patterns. These positive La anomalies first occur north of the City of Worms and then decrease in size downstream, but are still significant approximately 400 km downstream, close to the German-Dutch border. The strong La enrichment is of anthropogenic origin and can be traced back to effluent from a production plant for fluid catalytic cracking catalysts at Rhine river-km 447.4. This effluent is characterized by extremely high dissolved total REE and La concentrations of up to 52 mg/kg and 49 mg/kg, respectively. Such La concentrations are well-above those at which ecotoxicological effects have been observed. The Rhine River is the first case observed to date, where a river's dissolved REE inventory is affected and even dominated by anthropogenic La. Our results suggest that almost 1.5t of anthropogenic dissolved La is exported via the Rhine River into the North Sea per year. This reveals that the growing industrial use of REE (and other formerly "exotic" elements) results in their increasing release into the environment, and highlights the urgent need to determine their geogenic background concentrations in terrestrial surface waters. PMID:21458860

Kulaks?z, Serkan; Bau, Michael

2011-07-01

4

Richness and diversity of parasite communities in European eels Anguilla anguilla of the River Rhine, Germany, with special reference to helminth parasites.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 121 European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from 2 sampling sites on the River Rhine were investigated in respect of their parasite communities. Special attention was given to the swim bladders, intestines, gills and fins of the fish. Twelve different parasite species were found to live in and on the eels. Data from each sampling site were kept separate. Parasites found in descending order of prevalence were: Anguillicola crassus, Trypanosoma granulosum, Myxobolus sp., Paratenuisentis ambiguus, Pseudodactylogyrus sp., Bothriocephalus claviceps, Myxidium giardi, Pomphorhynchus laevis, Trichodina sp., Raphidascaris acus, Acanthocephalus lucii and Acanthocephalus anguillae. Significantly different prevalences were reported for L3 larvae of A. crassus, adult P. ambiguus, B. claviceps and Myxobolus sp. at the 2 sampling sites. The highest number of parasite species was recorded from the intestine, which contained up to 6 different helminths. The coexistence of the acanthocephalans P. laevis and P. ambiguus, which showed clear patterns of distribution within the intestine of the respective hosts, was reported for the first time. Up to 3 different helminth species were found in the intestine of individual fish. Among those, acanthocephalans were the most prevalent worms with the eel-specific parasite P. ambiguus as the dominant species not only of the intestinal but also of the total component communities. Both infra and component communities exhibited low diversity and were dominated by this single species. The evenness reached only approximately 50% or less and it remained unclear why the helminth communities of the eels from the River Rhine with its huge catchment area exhibit such a low parasite diversity and high dominance. PMID:10503258

Sures, B; Knopf, K; Würtz, J; Hirt, J

1999-09-01

5

The distribution of the lanthanum anomaly in the Dutch branches of the Rhine River  

Science.gov (United States)

The elements lanthanum to lutetium, usually referred as the REE, are increasingly used in numerous high technology products and processes. Such products are Gadolinium chelates, used as contrasting agents in medical imaging, and produce positive anthropogenic Gd-anomalies in rare earth shale normalized (Reenasc) patterns in rivers, surface and ground waters and shallow seas. Because of the increased use of the REE, the monitoring program of the Rhine-Meuse branches and surface water influenced by them in the Netherlands was extended from 2008 with the REE. In this monitoring program both the total and dissolved (fluid catalytic cracking catalysts at Rhine river-km 447.4. The amount of anthropogenic lanthanum in the total fraction in Lobith station is an order of magnitude larger than in the dissolved fraction indicating that the suspended matter in the Rhine River is the major carrier of the anthropogenic lanthanum. All REEnasc- patterns of the branches of the Rhine River show in addition to the Gd-anomaly a positive La-anomaly, while in the Meuse River only a Gd-anomaly is observed. In the influenced surface waters of the Rhine and Meuse Rivers always a Gd-anomaly occurs but in those influenced by the Rhine tributaries also the La-anomaly occurs. In the poster the load of lanthanum over the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 in the dissolved and total fraction at Lobith and the distribution of the La anomaly over the branches of the Rhine River in the Netherlands (4 monitoring stations) and influenced surface water (5 monitoring stations) will be shown. The Meuse monitoring stations will be given for comparison. Kulaksiz, S., Bau, M., 2011. Rare earth elements in the Rhine River, Germany: First case of anthropogenic lanthanum as a dissolved microcontaminant in the hydrosphere. Environment International, 37: 973-879.

Verheul, M.; Klaver, G.; Bakker, I.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

2011-12-01

6

Biotest method in Rhine river surveillance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Against the background of the 1986 Sandoz chemical accident the national and international commission for the protection of the Rhine river was prompted to construct, a continuous supra-regional surveillance of the river. Its aim is a biological warning system which encompasses the exising chemical-physical monitoring of the water. The Biotest method was newly developed in a joint plan of eight separate projects. The bio-monitors are continuous or semi-continuous systems which make up for the time delay of chemical analyses. (BWI)

1994-03-01

7

Invasive Ponto-Caspian Amphipods and Fish Increase the Distribution Range of the Acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the River Rhine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Th...

Emde, Sebastian; Ru?ckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W.; Klimpel, Sven

2012-01-01

8

Monitoring of the Rhine river and its tributaries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents a detailed analysis on the basis of the different mean values calculated from the measured data taken in the year 1970 through 1985, and on the basis of nation-wide special measuring campaigns and special measurements of I-131 in surface waters. The contamination of the river water due to radionuclide discharges is assessed, and is shown to have been decreasing over the last fifteen years in the Rhine river and its tributaries in North-Rhine Westphalia. The contamination of the Emscher river with natural ?-radioactivity remained uncharged, whereas the Lippe river is bearing less natural ?-radioactivity since the year 1979. (orig./PW)

1986-04-15

9

Extended reference precipitation and temperature dataset for the river Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

The need of a reliable and extended dataset for the river Rhine lies in the growing necessity of evaluating the effects of climate change. For the countries directly involved, which benefit and sometimes distract from the extreme discharges of the Rhine, these kinds of datasets are of great importance. They can act as reference for the correction of errors in precipitation predictions from General Circulation Models or from simulated datasets such as the ERA-40 and ERA-interim. These errors can lead to over/underestimations of hydrological simulation and latent use of hydrological forecasts. The purpose of this study is to present an extended reference dataset of daily values of precipitation and temperature, from 1961 until 2008, for the whole basin of the river Rhine. The proposed dataset is based on the historical data from 1961 until 1995 of the International Commission of the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (referred to as CHR). Our concern is to extend the CHR set until 2008, creating an updated reference for future studies. The Rhine basin is divided into three sub-catchments. These sub-catchments correspond to the German, French and Swiss basins of the river Rhine. For each sub-catchment, gridded datasets of daily values of precipitation and temperature are used. The datasets are obtained from REGNIE, University of Trier and MeteoSwiss-ETH, for the German, French and Swiss sub-catchment of the Rhine, respectively. Possible gaps that are found in the datasets, are filled with values from E_OBS Gridded Dataset, obtain from ECA&D. The subsets of these three sub-catchments are joined together and create a long term dataset that covers the entire Rhine basin. The extended dataset, referred to as CHR08, is rescaled to 25 km taking into account the topography of the catchment areas. In order to eliminate any artificial trend created in the CHR08 dataset, some homogeneity checks are performed, using the E_OBS dataset. Here, homogeneity tests of the variance, the mean and the maximum number of consecutive wet days are applied and presented. The CHR08 dataset is implemented, analyzed and presented with Delft-FEWS. To determine whether the CHR08 dataset contains useful and correct information about the discharges of the Rhine, the HBV-96 hydrological model is used. The HBV-96 model produces daily discharges of the Rhine in each sub-catchment. The observed maximum annual discharges are compared with the corresponding simulated discharges at each sub-catchment. The annual extreme discharges at Lobith (German-Dutch border) and the variation of extremes discharges for the years 1961 until 2008 are also presented.

Photiadou, Christiana; Weerts, Albrecht; van den Hurk, Bart

2010-05-01

10

New and remarkable microfungi in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

During our investigation on microfungi in North Rhine Westphalia in the years 2002 and 2003 we were able to collect and identify some new and rare species of microfungi as parasites and saprophytes on wild and ornamental plants. Some of these like Erysiphe elevata (BURILL.) U. BRAUN & S. TAKAMATSU COMB. NOV. [=Microsphaera elevata BURILL.] on Catalpa bignonioides WALT., Erysiphe syringae-japonicae (U. BRAUN) U. BRAUN & S. TAKAMATSU [= Microsphaera syringae-japonicae U. BRAUN, M. aceris BUNKINA. KOMAROVSKIE CHTENIYA, Erysiphe acerina U. BRAUN & S. TAKAMATSU] on Acer campestre L. and Acer barinerve L., Mycosphaerella iridis (DESM.) SCHROET., Ectostroma iridis FR. and Volutella melaloma BERK. & BR on Iris pseudacorus L., Puccinia doronicella P. SYD. & SYD. on Doronicum columnae TEN., Ascochyta lamiorum SACC. S.L. I=A. phlomidis BUB. & WROB.) on Phlomis tuberosa L., Colletotrichum gloeosporides (PENZ.) SACC. on Passiflora coerulea L., Oidium hortensiae JOERST on Hydrangea macrophylla (THUNB.) SER., Puccinia horiana P. HENN. on Chrysanthemum vulgare (L.) BERNH., Lophodermium pinastri (SCHRAD.) CHEV., Leptostroma pinorum SACC., Sclerophoma pythiophila (CDA) HOHN., Lichenoconium boreale (KARST.) PETRAK. & SYD., Anthostomella formosa KIRSCHST. and Sphaeropsis sapinae (FR.) DYKO & SUTTON on Pinus nigra L. are new for Germany. All samples are located in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha. PMID:15756829

Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Christiaans, B; Brassmann, M; Balakirew, S

2004-01-01

11

Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

2000-01-01

12

Contaminant variability in a sedimentation area of the river Rhine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended solids and erosion of deposited sediment in the shallow Dutch lakes (due to wave action) are likely to change contamination levels of sediments in these lakes, which is the subject of this thesis. The aim o...

Winkels, H. J.

1997-01-01

13

Anthropogenic dissolved and colloid/nanoparticle-bound samarium, lanthanum and gadolinium in the Rhine River and the impending destruction of the natural rare earth element distribution in rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

The strong increase in the consumption of rare earth elements (REE) in high-tech products and processes is accompanied by increasing amounts of REE released into the environment. Following the first report of Gd contamination of the hydrosphere in 1996, anthropogenic Gd originating from contrast agents has now been reported worldwide from river and estuarine waters, coastal seawater, groundwater and tap water. Recently, microcontamination with La, that is derived from a point source where catalysts for petroleum refining are produced, has been detected in the Rhine River in Germany and the Netherlands. Here we report the occurrence of yet another REE microcontamination of river water: in addition to anthropogenic Gd and La, the Rhine River now also shows significant amounts of anthropogenic Sm. The anthropogenic Sm, which enters the Rhine River north of Worms, Germany, with the same industrial wastewater that carries the anthropogenic La, can be traced through the Middle and Lower Rhine to the Netherlands. At Leverkusen, Germany, some 250 km downstream from the point source at Worms, anthropogenic Sm still contributes up to 87% of the total dissolved Sm concentration of the Rhine River. Results from ultrafiltration suggest that while the anthropogenic Gd is not particle-reactive and hence exclusively present in the truly dissolved REE pool (concentrations of up to 0.14 mg/kg in the plume downstream of and 52.2 mg/kg at the head of an effluent pipe at Rhine-km 447.3 at Worms get close to and well-above, respectively, the levels at which ecotoxicological effects have been documented. Because of the increasing use of REE and other formerly "exotic" trace elements in high-tech applications, these critical metals have now become emerging contaminants that should be monitored, and it appears that studies of their biogeochemical behavior in natural freshwaters might soon no longer be possible.

Kulaks?z, Serkan; Bau, Michael

2013-01-01

14

Decision support and river management strategies for the Rhine in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a methodology for assessing and comparing alternative river management strategies for the Dutch branches of the river Rhine. The three objectives considered in the analysis are: safety against flooding which is a necessary condition to maintain and enhance economic development of a major part of the Netherlands, improving inland navigation conditions along the river (the Rhine is a major transport route between the port of Rotterdam and Germany), and increasing the ecological values of the river system. This paper describes the methodology and models that are used to assess alternative ways of meeting these objectives. We used hydrodynamic modeling aided by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a new approach that has some important advantages compared to traditional approaches. The analysis shows the trade-offs for various strategies (for example safety versus nature, nature versus inland navigation, agriculture versus nature etc.) and looks for possibility to create win-win situations. It also produces scorecards for various strategies, which show their impacts on the functions of the river and their financial consequences. (author)

2007-01-01

15

Comparative Study of Flood Risk Management and Land Use in the Deltas of Rhine River, Yellow River and Mississippi River:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Rhine River in the Netherlands, the Yellow River in China and the Mississippi River in the U.S. are three great rivers in the world. Each of them is performing a significant role in the country. The delta area for each river, in particular, is served as the centre in importance and commonly the most developed region in the whole river basin.

2007-01-01

16

Diversity and distribution of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae in dry ecosystems of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study provides a robust data set for ecological planning and conservation of dry ecosystems in western Germany in general and North Rhine-Westphalia in particular. We summarised all available data from recent publications that dealt with spiders in dry ecosystems of North Rhine-Westphalia. Additionally, so far unpublished results of a detailed investigation regarding spiders in sand habitats of the Westphalian Bay that was conducted between 2006 and 2008 are presented. The analysis focussed on the habitat types according to Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive and related habitats. The investigation areas were scattered in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The data set comprised a total of 84436 individuals from 371 species and 28 families. Overall, an endangerment status is assigned to 68 species. Of these, 12 spiders are in imminent danger of becoming extinct. Two species, Erigonoplus globipes and Meioneta simplicitarsis, are believed to be extinct in North Rhine-Westphalia. Seven species (Dictyna major, Mastigusa arietina, Micaria formicaria, Styloctetor romanus, Thanatus striatus, Theridion uhligi and Xysticus ferrugineus are new to the arachnofauna of North Rhine-Westphalia.

Kreuels, Martin

2009-12-01

17

Rivers of North-Rhine Westphalia revisited: Tracing changes in river chemistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three rivers in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany, were investigated for their hydrochemical properties including their stable isotopic composition of water (?2H, ?18O) and dissolved river compounds (?13CDIC, ?34SSO4 and ?18OSO4, and ?15NNO3 and ?18ONO3). The study focused on two objectives: an assessment of potential sources for river solutes (anthropogenic vs. natural sources), and the quantification of changes in river chemistry over the past 15 a (for the rivers Lippe and Ruhr). Decreasing concentrations were found for most of those river constituents that are commonly linked to anthropogenic activities, such as [NO3-], [Cl-], [K+], and [Na+]. An observed increase in [SO42-] for the river Lippe reflects most likely varying discharges from mining activities. Variations in the isotopic composition of water display the influence of ocean water (river Ems) or of evaporation that occurred either in channels (river Ems), in reservoirs (river Ruhr) or due to the use of river water for cooling purposes (river Lippe). ?13CDIC values around -11 per mille point to carbonate dissolution by carbonic acid as the major source for dissolved inorganic C. Modifications of this average ?13CDIC resulted from enhanced agricultural use, sewage inputs, and gas exchange with the atmosphere in reservoirs and channels. The isotopic composition of dissolved SO42- reveals atmospheric deposition and sulphide oxidation as its major sources. Sulphate from sulphide oxidation in parts reflects the local geology (river Ruhr); in the Kreidebecken leaching of sulphide seems to be linked to agriculture and drainage (rivers Lippe and Ems). However, SO42- introduced from mining activities into the Lippe and the Ems does not alter the isotopic composition of riverine SO42-, despite rather high discharges. Nitrogen and O isotopes reveal that manure and sewage are major sources of NO3 in most parts of the river Ruhr. Only a single value from the headwaters displays the signature of soil NO3. Downstream increasing ?15NNO3 and ?18ONO3 values (both by 2 per mille on average) point to denitrification and to additional inputs from atmospheric deposition

2008-12-01

18

Today's sediment budget of the Rhine River channel, focusing on the Upper Rhine Graben and Rhenish Massif  

Science.gov (United States)

The river bed of the Rhine River is subject to severe erosion and sedimentation. Such high geomorphological process rates are unwanted for economical, ecological, and safety reasons. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the geomorphological development of the Rhine River between 1985 and 2006; (2) to investigate the bed erosion process; and (3) to distinguish between tectonic, hydrological, and human controls. We used a unique data set with thousands of bedload and suspended-load measurements and quantified the fluxes of gravel, sand, silt, and clay through the northern Upper Rhine Graben and the Rhenish Massif. Furthermore, we calculated bed level changes and evaluated the sediment budget of the channel. Sediment transport rates were found to change in the downstream direction: silt and clay loads increase because of tributary supply; sand loads increase because of erosion of sand from the bed; and gravel loads decrease because of reduced sediment mobility caused by the base-level control exerted by the uplifting Rhenish Massif. This base-level control shows tectonic setting, in addition to hydrology and human interventions, to represent a major control on morphodynamics in the Rhine. The Rhine bed appears to be in a state of disequilibrium, with an average net bed degradation of 3 mm/a. Sand being eroded from the bed is primarily washed away in suspension, indicating a rapid supply of sand to the Rhine delta. The degradation is the result of an increased sediment transport capacity caused by nineteenth and twentieth century's river training works. In order to reduce degradation, huge amounts of sediment are fed into the river by river managers. Bed degradation and artificial sediment feeding represent the major sources of sand and gravel to the study area; only small amounts of sediment are supplied naturally from upstream or by tributaries. Sediment sinks include dredging, abrasion, and the sediment output to the downstream area. Large uncertainties exist about the amounts of sediment deposited on floodplains and in groyne fields. Compared to the natural situation during the middle Holocene, the present-day gravel and sand loads seem to be lower, whereas the silt and clay loads seem to be higher. This is probably caused by the present-day absence of meander migration, the deforestation, and the reduced sediment trapping efficiency of the floodplains. Even under natural conditions no equilibrium bed level existed.

Frings, Roy M.; Gehres, Nicole; Promny, Markus; Middelkoop, Hans; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Vollmer, Stefan

2014-01-01

19

Water surface temperature profiles for the Rhine River derived from Landsat ETM+ data  

Science.gov (United States)

Water temperature influences physical and chemical parameters of rivers and streams and is an important parameter for water quality. It is a crucial factor for the existence and the growth of animal and plant species in the river ecosystem. The aim of the research project "Remote sensing of water surface temperature" at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany, is to supplement point measurements of water temperature with remote sensing methodology. The research area investigated here is the Upper and Middle Rhine River, where continuous measurements of water temperature are already available for several water quality monitoring stations. Satellite imagery is used to complement these point measurements and to generate longitudinal temperature profiles for a better systematic understanding of the changes in river temperature along its course. Several products for sea surface temperature derived from radiances in the thermal infrared are available, but for water temperature from rivers less research has been carried out. Problems arise from the characteristics of the river valley and morphology and the proximity to the riverbank. Depending on the river width, a certain spatial resolution of the satellite images is necessary to allow for an accurate identification of the river surface and the calculation of water temperature. The bands from the Landsat ETM+ sensor in the thermal infrared region offer a possibility to extract the river surface temperatures (RST) of a sufficiently wide river such as the Rhine. Additionally, problems such as cloud cover, shadowing effects, georeferencing errors, different emissivity of water and land, scattering of thermal radiation, adjacency and mixed pixel effects had to be accounted for and their effects on the radiance temperatures will be discussed. For this purpose, several temperature data sets derived from radiance and in situ measurements were com- pared. The observed radiance temperatures are strongly influenced by the atmosphere. Without atmospheric correction, the absolute mean difference between RST and in situ measurements was 1.1°C with a standard devi- ation of 1.3°C. Thus, a correction of atmospheric influences on radiances measured at the top of the atmosphere was necessary and two different methods for atmospheric correction (ATCOR2 and the Atmospheric Correction Parameter Calculator) were applied. The correction results showed that for both methods, the correct choice of atmospheric profiles is very important. With the calculator, an absolute mean difference of 0.8 +/- 1.0°C and with the selected overall best scenes, an absolute mean difference of 0.5 ± 0.7°C was achieved. The selected corrected RST can be used to interpolate between in situ measurements available only for a limited number of points along the river course and longitudinal example profiles of the surface water temperature in the Upper and Middle Rhine could be calculated for different seasons. On the basis of these profiles, the increasing temperature gradient along the Upper Rhine could be identified and the possibility to detect heat or cooling discharge from tributaries and other sources is evaluated.

Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn

2013-10-01

20

Flood-related variations in provenance of fine-grained palaeochannel sediments in the Rhine river basin  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we examine flood-related variations in provenance of fine-grained palaeochannel sediments from the Bienener Altrhein (Germany), an abandoned river channel close to the apex of the Rhine river delta. Geochemical and grain size analyses were conducted on channel-fill sediments from multiple core sections, ranging from 1.15 m to 8.48 m depth, which represents pre-industrial sediment deposited from approximately 1550 AD to 1850 AD. In addition, four sediment cores of ~ 1 m length were retrieved from channel-fills or overbank deposits along the Upper Rhine and the three main tributaries of the Rhine in Germany (Neckar River, Main River and Moselle River). Sediment geochemistry was analysed using an Itrax X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner. Four elements (Ti, Co, Rb, W) were selected for further analysis based on the following a priori criteria: (1) The elements must be associated with minerals in the fine particle size fractions; 2) they must not be susceptible to precipitation-dissolution reactions during early diagenenis of the sediment; 3) the elements must be detected in the vast majority of the measurements; 4) the difference between the minimum and maximum number of the XRF counts for the upstream cores must be greater than 50% of the average number of counts. The XRF counts for these elements were standardised to z-scores and were subsequently corrected for the variation clay content ( 150 ?m), which was primarily deposited during historical flood events. The results show the Mahalanobis distances are larger than 1 for most increments, which indicates that the four sampled upstream sites do not entirely cover all sources of sediment deposited in the Bienener Altrein channel. The logtransformed Mahalonibis distance correlates significantly (? = 0.05) with the >150 ?m particle size fraction for the Upper Rhine River (negative) and the Moselle River (positive). This implies that the proportion of fine sediment that originates from the upper parts of the river basin and, hence, the sediment transport distance increases with flood magnitude. These results provide an excellent starting point to reconstruct the origin of historic flood events as documented in the sedimentary records of channel fills and dike breach ponds.

van der Perk, Marcel; Toonen, Willem H. J.; Ypma, Jochem; Brewer, Paul A.; Prins, Maarten A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Middelkoop, Hans

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
21

Facies and rank of the Permian Kupferschiefer from the Lower Rhine Basin and NW Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kupferschiefer of the Lower Rhine Basin and of NW Germany is a typical black shale containing C{sub org} values between 0.5 and 9.1%. On average it contains 4% C{sub org}. In coal petrographic terms the organic matter of the Kupferschiefer is characterized by well preserved liptinite as sporinite (mainly derived from the pollen grains of conifers) in the area of the Lower Rhine Basin and as alginite towards the centre of the Kupferschiefer sea. The high content of bituminite in all of the samples shows that the main source of organic matter is derived from plankton and bacteria. Vitrinite and inertinite are rare. The rank of the organic matter in the sediment varies between the lignite stage (Lower Rhine Basin) and the bituminous coal stage (NW Germany). Geochemical investigations have shown that residual heat from the Krefeld High was active until the lower Zechstein. This has caused a change in the chemical composition of the organic matter but did not express itself in the optical parameters. Inhomogeneities of the organic matter in low-rank and bituminization in higher-rank materials influence the vitrinite reflectance. Fluorescence measurements are more sensitive in sapropelic sediments and oil shales than vitrinite reflectance. It is evident that the red/green ratio is more reliable in view of diagenesis studies than the lambda max of the fluorescence spectra. Geochemical parameters are partly much more sensitive towards thermal stress as compared to vitrinite reflectance, e.g. metalloporphyrin concentrations decrease with increasing temperatures. The parameter covers a temperature range from ca. 40{degree}C to 80{degree}C. The weighted average mass of the vanadyl-cycloalkano-porphyrins is suitable to characterize the influence of temperature on the Kupferschiefer between ca. 40{degree}C and 150 {degree}C. 30 refs., 9 figs.

Wolf, M.; David, P.P.; Eckardt, C.B.; Hagemann, H.W.; Puettmann, W. (Aachen University of Technology (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoel' s und der Kohle)

1989-12-01

22

Behaviour and radiological significance of tritium from nuclear power plants and other sources in the Rhine river basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1976, Swiss and German nuclear power stations and a fuel reprocessing plant have released 180 ± 45 ' TBq of tritium yearly in waste water to the Rhine and its tributaries. Although these annual releases were rather uniform throughout this period, tritium concentrations in the rivers decreased exponentially. The amount of tritium flowing out of the catchment area upstream of Bockum decreased from 1500 TBq in 1978 to about 460 TBq in 1989. The fraction contributed by known industrial releases increased from 0.1-0.2 to 0.2-0.4 over this time. Radioactive decay and removal of bomb tritium to the oceans also reduced the input of tritium to this catchment by precipitation from 2000 TBq in 1978 to 380 TBq in 1989. The tritium outflow of the Rhine was higher than could be accounted for by precipitation input and known industrial releases. The difference is most probably due to the slow release of more highly tritiated groundwater, recharged during earlier years of the post-bomb era, but may also include some untraced industrial releases. Radiation dose contributions due to drinking water extracted from the Rhine were less than 0.1 ?Sv y-1, quite negligible compared to the legally adopted dose limit of 300 ?Sv y-1 and to the mean natural radiation exposure of 2000 ?Sv y-1 in Germany. (author)

23

Development of Joint Climate and Discharge Projections for the International Rhine River Basin - the CHR RheinBlick2050 Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The anticipated climate change will lead to modified hydro-meteorological regimes that influence discharge behaviour and hydraulics of rivers. This has variable impacts on managed (anthropogenic) and unmanaged (natural) systems, depending on their sensitivity and vulnerability (ecology, economy, infrastructure, transport, energy production, water management, etc.). Decision makers in these contexts need adequate adaptation strategies to minimize adverse effects of climate change, i.e. an improved knowledge on the potential impacts including uncertainties means an extension of the informed options open to users. The goal of the highly applied study presented here is the development of joint, consistent climate and discharge projections for the international Rhine River catchments (Switzerland, France, Germany, Netherlands) in order to assess future changes of hydro-meteorological regimes in the meso- and macroscale Rhine River catchments and to derive and improve the understanding of such impacts on hydrologic and hydraulic processes. The RheinBlick2050 project is an international effort initiated by the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine Basin (CHR) in close cooperation with the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine. The core experiment design foresees a data-synthesis, multi-model approach where (transient) (bias- corrected) regional climate change projections are used as forcing data for existing calibrated hydrological (and hydraulic) models at a daily temporal resolution over mesoscale catchments of the Rhine River. Mainly for validation purposes, hydro-meteorological observations from national weather services are compiled into a new consistent 5 km x 5 km reference dataset from 1961 to 2005. RCM data are mainly used from the ENSEMBLES project and other existing dynamical downscaling model runs to derive probabilistic ensembles and thereby also access uncertainties on a regional scale. A benchmarking is helping to identify those atmospheric forcing data that ideally suit the needs for the subsequent hydrological model runs with the LARSIM and HBV models and evaluate those simulations too. As a result, usable information and quantifiable statements (e.g. extreme value statistics, uncertainty assessment, validation), that might form the basis for further planning or policy relevant decisions, are to be derived. Our analyses are highly influenced by the requirements of the potential users and stakeholders from government agencies who shall make use of the data and results. Here we present first results of the application of the complete data processing and modelling chain towards discharge projections on a subset of input data, albeit still without any bias correction applied to the meteorological forcing data.

Görgen, K.; Pfister, L.

2008-12-01

24

Validation of two precipitation data sets for the Rhine River  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper evaluates a number of recently constructed or extended precipitation data sets used for hydrological applications and climate change studies in the Rhine basin. Firstly, the existing precipitation data set issued by the Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR), originally covering the period 1961–1995, was extended until 2008 using a number of additional precipitation data sets. The length extension permits the assessment of extreme discharge and precipitation values...

2011-01-01

25

Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens), Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454), Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695) and Orchestia cavimana (1,448) were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby) and invertebrates (amphipods) under special consideration of parasite dispersal. PMID:23300895

Emde, Sebastian; Rueckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

2012-01-01

26

Evaluation of the Non-Formal Forest Education Sector in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: Organisations, Programmes and Framework Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Although a large number of different organisations offer various forest education programmes within Germany, specific information (i.e., sectoral and programme content and provision at a state level) is lacking. This study used a survey of all 61 forest education organisations (43 respondents) in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, to…

Grimm, Anne; Mrosek, Thorsten; Martinsohn, Anna; Schulte, Andreas

2011-01-01

27

Distribution and sources of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the River Rhine watershed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration profile of 40 polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface water along the River Rhine watershed from the Lake Constance to the North Sea was investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of point as well as diffuse sources, to estimate fluxes of PFAS into the North Sea and to identify replacement compounds of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the method performance was conducted. The PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) with concentrations up to 181 ng/L and 335 ng/L, respectively, which originated from industrial point sources. Fluxes of ?PFAS were estimated to be ?6 tonnes/year which is much higher than previous estimations. Both, the River Rhine and the River Scheldt, seem to act as important sources of PFAS into the North Sea. - The short-chained polyfluoroalkyl substances PFBA and PFBS replace PFOA and PFOA as dominating PFAS in surface waters in the River Rhine watershed.

2010-10-01

28

Moment release in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany: seismological perspective of the deformation process  

Science.gov (United States)

An important task of seismic hazard assessment consists of estimating the rate of seismic moment release which is correlated to the rate of tectonic deformation and the seismic coupling. However, the estimations of deformation depend on the type of information utilized (e.g. geodetic, geological, seismic) and include large uncertainties. We therefore estimate the deformation rate in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, using an integrated approach where the uncertainties have been systematically incorporated. On the basis of a new homogeneous earthquake catalogue we initially determine the frequency-magnitude distribution by statistical methods. In particular, we focus on an adequate estimation of the upper bound of the Gutenberg-Richter relation and demonstrate the importance of additional palaeoseismological information. The integration of seismological and geological information yields a probability distribution of the upper bound magnitude. Using this distribution together with the distribution of Gutenberg-Richter a and b values, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to derive the seismic moment release as a function of the observation time. The seismic moment release estimated from synthetic earthquake catalogues with short catalogue length is found to systematically underestimate the long-term moment rate which can be analytically determined. The moment release recorded in the LRE over the last 250 yr is found to be in good agreement with the probability distribution resulting from the Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, the long-term distribution is within its uncertainties consistent with the moment rate derived by geological measurements, indicating an almost complete seismic coupling in this region. By means of Kostrov's formula, we additionally calculate the full deformation rate tensor using the distribution of known focal mechanisms in LRE. Finally, we use the same approach to calculate the seismic moment and the deformation rate for two subsets of the catalogue corresponding to the east- and west-dipping faults, respectively.

Schmedes, J.; Hainzl, S.; Reamer, S.-K.; Scherbaum, F.; Hinzen, K.-G.

2005-03-01

29

Numerical tables resulting from physicochemical water examinations of the Rhine river 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The numerical tables are the result of the 1988 measuring campaign performed on behalf of the International Commission for Protection of the Rhine River Against Pollution. The measured data cover general parameters, organic, inorganic and entrophicating substances, metals, organic micropollutants, and the entire ? and ? activity levels, the K-40-? activity, and the specific tritium activity. Two seperate tables show the daily chloride concentrations and the chloride transport data. (DG)

1990-01-01

30

Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing adaptive action. The paper shows that the moment at which salmon reintroduction may fail due to climate change can only be approximated because of inherent uncertainties in the interaction between salmon and its environment. The added value of the assessment presented in this paper is that it provides researchers with a set of questions that are useful from a policy perspective (by focusing on the feasibility of a concrete policy ambition under climate change. Thus, it offers opportunities to supply policy makers with practical insight in the relevance of climate change.

Tobias Bölscher

2013-05-01

31

Degradation and recovery of the freshwater fauna in the lower sections of the rivers Rhine and Meuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exponential increase of anthropogenic stress in European rivers, like Rhine and Meuse, started several centuries ago when inhabitants of floodplains used them for an increasing number of purposes. Step by step, the river basins lost their naturalness and ecological integrity. Usually, river regulation was a first step. Floodplains in the lower parts were narrowed by the construction of levees and dikes for land reclamation and to protect inhabitants against floods. Rivers channels were shorte...

Vaate, A.

2003-01-01

32

Measurements concerning contamination preload of the river Rhine in 1978. Report 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Besides eventual traces of cerium-139 and cerium-144, zinc-65, cobalt-58 and niobium-95, as well as natural potassium-40, only the radionuclides iodine-131 and cesium-137 could be measured regularly. Jodine activities present varying values. The iodine activity determined by measuring water residue is lower than that determined by selective measurement of iodine-131. This is probably due to the fact that iodine evaporates while it is boiled down. The measured values for cesium-137 correspond approximately with the values measured in the river Rhine in 1977. (orig./DG)

1980-03-01

33

Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Findings Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was used (N=3,306. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale with three dimensions (one internal and two external and six aspects of health behaviour (smoking habits, alcohol use, drug consumption, being over-/ or underweight, physical activity, and importance of healthy nutrition were evaluated. Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals with a stronger belief in health professionals were less likely to use drugs and paid more attention to healthy nutrition. Furthermore, higher scores in the second external locus of control dimension (beliefs in luck or chance were associated with a higher likelihood of current smoking, lower physical activity and less attention to healthy nutrition. Conclusions Students engaged more strongly in unhealthy behaviour if they believed that luck determines health. In contrast, believing in having control over one’s own health was associated with more healthy behaviour. These findings support the need to consider health control beliefs while designing preventive strategies in this specific population.

Helmer Stefanie M

2012-12-01

34

Synthetic epicentral maps generated by Monte Carlo technique: A case study for the Upper Rhine area, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic earthquake hazard assessment for sites could among other inputs strongly be influenced by the specification of the source zones. Depending on the investigated area usually several models for the geometry of the seismic source zones are proposed by different authors. In this case study for the low seismicity region of the Upper Rhine area in Germany the earthquake hazard for 5 sites has been investigated. The frequency-magnitude curves for the used source zone models are derived applying a generalized Gumbel distribution for magnitude extremes. The macroseismic intensity (EMS-scale) has been used as an appropriate characterization of the site ground motion in the Upper Rhine area. The frequency-intensity curves for the different sites are computed with a Monte-Carlo simulation technique. In order to concentrate on the influence of the geometry of the source zones other inputs like the focal depth or variations of the intensity attenuation are excluded. Comparing the results for the different locations the occurrence frequency of the site-intensity could differ significantly depending on the used source zone model. In general with increasing complexity of the model especially in the surrounding of the investigated site the difference to the site intensity derived by a more simple model rises. To get an criterion which model corresponds best with the observed seismicity the Monte Carlo simulation has been used to generate synthetic epicentral maps for the different source zones. By comparing the spatial distribution of the observed and the synthetic epicenters a method could be proposed to select the most appropriate source zone model.

Meidow, H.

2003-04-01

35

Dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes as tracers of groundwater dynamics in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

A multiple environmental tracer approach has been applied to achieve an improved understanding of groundwater dynamics in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. The main emphasis has been to utilise dissolved noble gas and noble gas determined excess air concentrations in addition to the stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and strontium. It is hypothesised that a relationship between noble gas excess air concentrations and the magnitude and frequency of water table fluctuations, both natural and as a result of large scale water abstraction can be quantified and used as an indicator of groundwater recharge, flow rate and residence times. The research has also provided further insight into the role of fault zones on local and regional groundwater dynamics. The hydrogeology of the Lower Rhine Embayment is complex and dynamic, and consists of unconsolidated sedimentary deposits with a number of laterally continuous lignite seams. Large scale open pit mining has a significant impact on the regional groundwater system primarily due to water abstraction and subsequent lowering of the water table. The layered aquifer system is intersected by numerous NW-SE striking fault zones that have been shown to have the potential to act as both barriers to groundwater flow and as preferential flow paths. Groundwater samples taken from observation boreholes in close proximity to fault zones have provided preliminary results that indicate hydrogen and oxygen isotope anomalies and extremely high helium-4 concentrations in the shallow aquifer layers. Groundwater exchange between the lower and upper aquifer systems is impeded by confining clay layers and a continuous lignite seam of very low permeability. This suggests that palaeowater from depth is mixing with modern water of meteoric origin in the upper aquifer as a result of conduit flow from depth towards the upper aquifer layer within the fault zone.

Gumm, L. P.; Dennis, P. F.; Bense, V. F.; Hiscock, K. M.; Cremer, N.

2009-04-01

36

The health status of European silver eels, Anguilla anguilla, in the Dutch River Rhine Watershed and lake IJsselmeer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The worldwide decline of the eel population is thought to be caused by several factors, among which eel diseases. To investigate diseases of European silver eels Anguilla anguilla in the Netherlands, in Nov–Dec 2004 12 silver eels, and in Aug–Dec 2005 80 eels were caught in downstream parts (rivers) of the River Rhine and in Lake IJsselmeer. The eels were measured and weighed, necrotized, and individually checked for presence of external and internal parasites, bacterial infections and vi...

Haenen, O. L. M.; Lehmann, J.; Engelsma, M. Y.; Stu?renberg, F. J.; Roozenburg, I.; Kerkhoff, S.; Klein Breteler, J. G. P.

2010-01-01

37

Uncertainties in simulating river/groundwater exchanges over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for an effective management of water resources. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on choices made to represent the river water stage in the model as well as on the hydrogeological parameters. Recently, a coupled surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin (Thierion et al., 2012). The present study aims at improving the estimation of the river/groundwater exchange, and thus, of the hydrodynamic of the alluvial aquifer, and at getting an idea of the associated uncertainty by performing a set of simulations that best take advantage of the different kinds of observed data. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources quantity and quality in small to regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the ISBA surface scheme that estimates the water balance, the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. In addition, the QtoZ module (Saleh et al., 2011) is used to calculate the river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river, according to three different approaches that are compared: a control experiment with constant river water stage, a rating curves approach derived from observed river discharges and river stages, and the Manning's formula, for which Manning's parameters are defined according to geomorphological parameterizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Supplementary sensitivity tests are also performed by using different hydrogeological parameter datasets (porosity and transmissivity). Two sources of DEM were used for this part. Additionally, sensitivity to the time step of the estimation (daily versus monthly) was studied. The evaluation is made against observed water levels and river discharges collected both from the french and german riversides of the alluvial plain. A heavy network of water table depth observations is also available to evaluate the simulated piezometric heads. Preliminary results show that the primary source of errors when simulating river stage - and hence groundwater-river interactions - is the uncertainties associated with the topographic data used to define the riverbed elevation. It confirms the need to access to more accurate DEM for estimating riverbed elevation and studying groundwater-river interactions, at least at regional scale. References Saleh, F., Flipo, N., Habets, F., Ducharne, A., Oudin, L., Viennot, P., Ledoux, E. Modeling the impact of in-stream water level fluctuations on stream-aquifer interactions at the regional scale (2011)Journal of Hydrology, 400 (3-4) pp 490-500 Thierion C., Longuevergne L., Habets F. Ledoux E., Ackerer P., Majdalani S., Leblois E., Lecluse S., Martin E, Queguiner S., Viennot P., Assessing the water balance of the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem, Journal of Hydrology 424-425 , pp. 68-83

Vergnes, Jean-Pierre; Habets, Florence

2014-05-01

38

Do eel parasites reflect the local crustacean community? A case study from the Rhine River system.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2003, the parasite fauna of 197 European eels Anguilla anguilla, captured at three different locations (Laufenburg, Karlsruhe and Beneeden Leeuwen) in the River Rhine, was analysed. The eels harboured a total of 18 species, among them the protozoa (Myxidium giardi, Myxobolus kotlani and Trypanosoma granulosum), acanthocephalans (Acanthocephalus anguillae, Acanthocephalus lucii, Echinorhynchus truttae, Pomphorhynchus laevis), nematodes (Paraquimperia tenerrima, Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, Camallanus lacustris, Raphidascaris acus, Spinitectus inermis and Anguillicola crassus), cestodes (Bothriocephalus claviceps and Proteocephalus macrocephalus) and monogeneans (Pseudodactylogyrus sp.). The parasite fauna at the different locations is discussed with respect to the crustacean fauna present at these locations. The investigation shows that changes in the composition of the crustacean fauna, due to the anthropogenic breakdown of a biogeographic barrier, are reflected in the composition of the intestinal eel parasite fauna. PMID:17578598

Thielen, Frankie; Münderle, Marcel; Taraschewski, Horst; Sures, Bernd

2007-06-01

39

Determination of flow times, flow velocities and longitudinal dispersion in the Middle and Lower Rhine River using "3HHO as a tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow times, flow velocities and parameters describing the longitudinal dispersion in the Middle and Lower Rhine river under natural conditions were determined by use of intermittent emissions of tritated wastewater from nuclear power plants during normal operation situated on the Upper Rhine. In cases of accidental releases of radioactive materials, these data would be the basis of prognoses by which the dispersion behaviour of contaminated sections along the course of river Rhine can be described and radiological consequences within the socalled critical impact areas estimated. (orig.)

1994-11-01

40

Impact of variable river water stage on the simulation of groundwater-river interactions over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for effective management of water resources, and hence is the main topic of the NAPROM project financed by the French Ministry of Ecology. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on the choice made to represent the river water stage in the model. Recently, a couple surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin. The river stage was first chosen to be constant over the major part of the basin for the computation of the groundwater-river interactions. The present study aims to introduce a variable river water stage to better simulate these interactions and to quantify the impact of this process over the simulated hydrological variables. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources and quality in regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. The input data consist in runoff and infiltration coming from a simulation of the ISBA land surface scheme covering the 1986-2003 period. The QtoZ module allows to calculate river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river. Two approaches are compared. The first one uses rating curves derived from observed river discharges and river stages. The second one is based on the Manning's formula. Manning's parameters are defined with geomorphological parametrizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). First results show a relatively good agreement between observed and simulated river water height. Taking into account a variable river stage seems to increase the amount of water exchanged between groundwater and river. Systematic biases are nevertheless found between simulated and observed mean river stage elevation. They show that the primary source of errors when simulating river stage - and hence groundwater-river interactions - is the uncertainties associated with the topographic data used to define the riverbed elevation. Thus, this study confirms the need to access to more accurate DEM for estimating riverbed elevation and studying groundwater-river interactions, at least at regional scale.

Habets, F.; Vergnes, J.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization: the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA on the management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality.

Fehr Rainer

2003-01-01

42

Petrographic and geophysical assessment of coal quality as related to briquetting. The Miocene lignite of the Lower Rhine Basin, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Lower Rhine Basin, Germany, Tertiary lignites are mined primarily for electrical power generation and briquetting purposes. Until 2000, when the mine was closed, coals from the Bergheim open pit mine were used for briquetting. After 2000, briquettes were produced from the Hambach open pit mine but did not show the same quality and hardness as those from the Bergheim pit. In this context, the macropetrographic and microlithotype composition of the Hambach lignites was studied in detail. Samples were taken from the three profiles, S1, S2 and S3, and a well, R1. All of the samples were macropetrographically described, analyzed in their microlithotype composition, and coals from profile S3 were analyzed for their briquetting compression strength. Three horizons of high gelite content were detected in the Main Seam, two of them with negligible thickness and one with a thickness of up to 1 m. Briquettes produced from these horizons are characterized by significantly reduced hardness. By careful interpretation of subtle changes in geophysical log data, it was possible to map the occurrence of these gelite horizons. As a consequence of these studies, an excavation plan was set up by the RWE Rheinbraun to avoiding mining of critical strata for briquetting purposes.

Naeth, J.; Littke, R. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University (RWTH), Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Asmus, S.C. [RWE Rheinbraun AG, Bereich Tagebaue, Abteilung Markscheidewesen und Lagerstatte, Stuttgenweg 2, D-50935 Cologne (Germany)

2004-10-22

43

Alluvial architecture of the human-influenced river Rhine, The Netherlands  

Science.gov (United States)

The alluvial architecture of the embanked Rhine distributaries in The Netherlands is largely controlled by human interference with fluvial processes. Embankment, straightening, and stabilization of the rivers have influenced both in-channel and overbank sedimentation. Embanked river floodplain deposits are lithologically and sedimentologically different from natural (not human-influenced) floodplain deposits. After the embankments between 1050 and 1350 AD, the dominant process remained lateral within-channel accretion. However, the morphology of the point bars changed: in the natural situation, the bars had a convex shape (as seen from the channel), whereas in the embanked situation, they are concave (as seen from the channel). The latter is due to the development of bars along the downstream end of a previous formed bar. Deposits associated with lateral within-channel accretion are typically very fine to medium or coarse sand. The infill of residual channels is characterized by the absence of peat. After the normalization of the river channel to a fixed width (1850 AD), concave bank erosion, and development of scroll bars were constricted, and overbank deposition became the dominant embanked floodplain-forming process. Thick layers of sandy and clayey deposits were deposited on the embanked floodplain. Splay-like sand lenses are present in the overbank deposits. In case of dyke failures, a deep scour-hole was formed. Typical deposits associated with dyke-breaches are sandy dyke-breach deposits and scour-hole fills consisting of silty to sandy clay within the embanked floodplain and gyttja within the polder.

Hesselink, Annika W.; Weerts, Henk J. T.; Berendsen, Henk J. A.

2003-10-01

44

Assessing the potential skill of seasonal streamflow forecasting for the River Rhine and the Upper Danube Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Reliable seasonal streamflow forecasts could be a valuable tool for the medium-term to long-term planning of many users of the water sector. Especially for the optimization of hydropower generation and the water-related logistic transportation chain the knowledge about the possible future evolution of streamflows within the next 1 to 6 months would be an important additional information in the decision process. Although there is a strong need for seasonal forecast products there is no operational forecasting system available for the large rivers in Germany. One of the main reasons is that the long-term meteorological predictability, especially for precipitation, is quite limited over Central Europe. Potential gain of predictability in the hydrological system that makes us believe that skillful seasonal streamflow forecasts in Central Europe are not out of reach is the hydrological memory and the delayed and damped system response of river basins. Natural (like snow pack, groundwater, soil moisture) as well as man-made reservoirs and dams have a large influence on the future runoff. In hydrological forecasting this memory is represented by the initial conditions of the hydrological model. In addition the streamflow at a gauge is an integrated system response with the meteorological variables as system input. If there is at least some valuable information in the numeric seasonal weather forecasts about the future evolution of precipitation and temperature as the main drivers of the hydrological processes, it could be possibly assessed through spatial (considering larger catchments) and temporal aggregation (e.g. monthly mean runoff values instead of daily values). In this contribution the potential skill of seasonal streamflow forecasting is evaluated for River Rhine and the Upper Danube Basin (up to the gauge Vienna). Different spatial and temporal scales are considered as well as different meteorological forcings. Two different hydrological models are applied in the two basins. For the River Rhine with a catchment area of approx. 185.000 km2 the semi-distributed HBV model with a time-step of one day and for the Upper Danube Basin (102.000 km2) the water balance model COSERO with a time-step of 1 month are applied. As observed meteorological input the ERA Interim dataset is used, which is statistically downscaled from its relatively coarse grid resolution to the subbasins of the models. As meteorological forecast input two different approaches are used for the 30-year hindcast period in this study: (a) the Extended Streamflow Prediction ESP - a resampling approach of historical meteorology - which is applied to asses the potential predictability arising from the initial conditions and (b) the ensemble re-forecasts of the ECMWF seasonal forecast system 4 - a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model - used to quantify the potential benefit of numerical weather forecasts. Bayesian Model Averaging BMA and Ensemble-Model Output statistics EMOS are applied to the generated seasonal ensemble streamflow forecasts for calibration and the estimation of the predictive probability density function. Different skill measures are used to verify the potential skill of the seasonal forecasts of the different methods.

Klein, B.; Meissner, D.; Gerl, N.; Hemri, S.; Gneiting, T. J.

2013-12-01

45

Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 1. Chronological bibliography and materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex I lists the references arranged in the order of authors and years of publication, presents a list of experts, an overview on research projects, current measuring and observation programmes on the river Rhine and makes proposals for future monitoring sites. (orig.)

1994-01-01

46

The significance of the river Rhine for the environment and for public health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quality of the Rhine water is described and figures presented for the total B radioactivity of the Rhine water on the German-Dutch border for the years 1959-1966. They indicate that the danger of radioactivity might become a more serious problem in the future. The signigicance of this and measures to be taken are discussed. (C.F.)

1978-01-01

47

Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 2. Summary of results and conclusions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

1994-01-01

48

Climate-driven fluvial development and valley abandonment at the last glacial-interglacial transition (Oude IJssel-Rhine, Germany):  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Weichselian, the Lower Rhine in the Dutch-German border region has used three courses, dissecting ice-marginal topography inherited from the Saalian. In the Late Weichselian, the three courses functioned simultaneously, with the central one gaining importance and the outer ones abandoning. This study aims to reconstruct the fluvial development and forcings that culminated in abandonment of the northern branch ‘Oude IJssel-Rhine’, at the time of the Lateglacial to Holocene transitio...

Janssens, M. M.; Kasse, C.; Bohncke, S. J. P.; Greaves, H.; Cohen, K. M.; Wallinga, J.; Hoek, W. Z.

2012-01-01

49

Remarkable, overlooked and new microfungi in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

During our investigations of the micro flora in NRW in the years of 1999 and 2000 we were able to collect and identify some new and rare species of micro fungi as parasites and saprophytes on wild and ornamental plants. Some of them are new for Germany: Podosphaera xanthii on Coreopsis verticillata; Cercospora traversiana on Trigonella foenum-graecum; Passalora dubia on Atriplex hortensis; Ophiobolus cirsii on Carduus spec.; Periconia britannica on Polemonium coeruleum; Ascochyta leptospora on Agropyron repens; Apomelasmia urticae on Urtica dioica; Cryptodiaporthe salicina on Salix caprea; Dasyscyphus nidulus on Anemone hupehensis; Rhopographus filicinus on Pteridium aquilinum; Sillia ferruginea on Corylus avellana; Sirococcus spiraeae on Spiraea spec. and Forsythia x intermedia. Examples of these findings are in the Herbarium ESS (Mycotheca Parva, Slg. Feige/Ale-Agha). PMID:12425026

Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Linke, K

2001-01-01

50

High-resolution seismic imaging of near-surface fault structures in the Upper Rhine Graben, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Faults systems are important targets in different fields of exploration geophysics. Recently, exploration is focussed on deep-seated faults systems for hydro-geothermal utilization, where fluid flow may be enhanced compared to the surrounding host rock (fracture dominated aquifers). In fault related exploration, special interest of geothermal research is given to size, shape and age of fault patterns as well as to the geological periods of fault activity, because fluid flow critically depends on those parameters. A well-established way to explore structural architecture of fault systems is the use of 3D reflection seismics. This technique, if applied to targets at several kilometers depth, inevitably leaves a gap in the near-surface domain due economic line spacing. To bridge the gap between target exploration at several kilometers depth (here 2-4 km) and the need to trace structures from the reservoir to the near surface, a study in the Upper Rhine Graben, Germany, was performed to supplement large-scale 3D seismic imaging of fault systems with high-resolution 2D reflection seismics. Here, we present results from three different high-resolution reflection seismic profiles, which were carried out across the projected outcrop of local fault structures. These structures appear in 3D seismic datasets recently acquired for hydro-geothermal exploration, but fade out towards surface. The new shallow seismic sections image Quaternary and Late Tertiary units between approximately 20 m and 1000 m depth. The sedimentary strata are resolved at high-resolution and different fault patterns can be identified therein. At one site, a 300 m wide normal fault zone was observed, while the other site shows a prominent horst structure with bounding faults branching into smaller ones at depth. From these fault images the last geological time of activity could be narrowed. Imaging limitations can be explained by an increasingly high-energy depositional system on one site, preventing unequivocal fault imaging into Quaternary times, or are methodology inherent to a depth of approximately 20 m at the other site, which reveals at least a sub-recent activity of this fault system. In summary, structures are visible and can be deduced from these 2D measurements, which are not apparent in the lower frequency, large-scale 3D datasets. Thus high-resolution 2D measurements are well suited for complementing the missing near-surface information of 3D datasets; the imaging of structural details allows a deeper insight into the architecture and kinematics of fault systems.

Musmann, Patrick; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte

2010-05-01

51

Determination of flow times and flow velocities in the upper Rhine river using 3HHO as tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behaviour of water bodies of the Upper Rhine river discretely traced with 3HHO-loaded waste waters from the nuclear power plants of Beznau, Fessenheim, Philippsburg and Biblis was investigated along a distance of nearly 385 km down to Nierstein. The passage of the distinct entrainment charged by different emissions was measured at the sampling points of Bad Saeckingen, Weil, Weisweil, Iffezheim and Nierstein. From these profiles the flow times and flow velocities were calculated for the discharge range from 0.6 to 1.7 MQ (mean discharge), taking the begin, end and duration of the individual releases into account. (orig./HP)

1990-01-01

52

From river valley to estuary : the early-mid Holocene transgression of the Rhine-Meuse valley, The Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most present day estuaries formed within incised fluvial valleys, created during the last glacial, that drowned during post-glacial sea-level rise. The sedimentary archive of the associated river-mouth areas contains important information on estuarine evolution under different rates of sea-level rise. This thesis presents a study on the development of the mouth of the Rhine-Meuse system in the Rotterdam area, western Netherlands, between 12000-6000 BP. During the study tens of thousands of co...

Hijma, M. P.

2009-01-01

53

Towards sustainable flood risk management in the Rhine and Meuse river basins: synopsis of the findings of IRMA-SPONGE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent flood events in western Europe have shown the need for improved flood risk management along the Rhine and Meuse rivers. In response, the IRMA-SPONGE research programme was established, consisting of 13 research projects, in which over 30 organizations from six countries co-operated. The aim of IRMA-SPONGE was the development of methods and tools to assess the impact of flood risk reduction measures and of land-use and climate change scenarios, in order to support the spatial planning p...

Hooijer, A.; Klijn, F.; Pedroli, G. B. M.; Os, A. G.

2004-01-01

54

Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Text volume  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex I lists the references arranged in the order of authors and years of publication, presents a list of experts, an overview on research projects, current measuring and observation programmes on the river Rhine and makes proposals for future monitoring sites. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

1994-01-01

55

Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river; Renouvellement de la concession de la chute hydro-electrique de Kembs sur le Rhin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

Baron, P.; Defoug, H.; Petit, D

2000-07-15

56

Investigations of effects of thermal discharges in Rhine river waters. Part of a coordinated programme on the physical and biological effects of cooling systems and thermal discharges at nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report envisages two aspects of cooling systems: heat exchange between water and atmosphere; cooling tower plume modelling. The author gives the estimated ''cooling capacity'' of German rivers and estuaries and describes a station at Rheinhausen, measuring directly the heat exchange between the river Rhine and the atmosphere. The influence of meteorological and topographical parameters is discussed and the total incertainty in extrapolating formular is assessed. A number of field studies have been carried out to measure plume behaviour of cooling towers and to provide the data basis for comparison of existing models. The average plume rise is well predicted. The experimental programme carried out in Germany since 1973 is described. The one dimensional models TOWER and SAUNA.S are in agreement with experimental results except for short plumes. The last plume model WALKURE shows considerable improvement. It is specially suited for the calculations of the cooling tower plume behaviour under influence of temperature and humidity stratifications in the ambient atmosphere

1978-01-01

57

Determination of the Dilution of Aqueous Effluents from the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in Old River Rhine Using exp 3 HHO Releases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the tritium releases in aqueous effluents from the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, water flow and dilution factors were determined at six positions at the Old River Rhine, which serves as a main canal. At the point of discharge, a water flow of 0...

M. Pimpl H. Schuettelkopf

1980-01-01

58

Evaluation of two precipitation data sets for the Rhine River using streamflow simulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an extended version of a widely used precipitation data set and evaluates it along with a recently released precipitation data set, using streamflow simulations. First, the existing precipitation data set issued by the Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR), originally covering the period 1961–1995, was extended until 2008 using a number of additional precipitation data sets. Next, the extended version of the CHR, together with E-OBS Version 4 (ECA & D gri...

2011-01-01

59

Modeling of the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals and arsenic in embanked flood plain soils of the rivers Rhine and Meuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to predict the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in river flood plain soils. We compared mechanistic geochemical modeling with a statistical approach. To characterize the heavy metal contamination of embanked river flood plain soils in The Netherlands, we collected 194 soil samples at 133 sites distributed in the Dutch part of the Rhine and Meuse river systems. We measured the total amounts of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the soil samples and the metal ...

Schro?der, T. J.; Hiemstra, T.; Vink, J. P. M.

2005-01-01

60

Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows are analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch–German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows are estimated, namely seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and weighted persistence (WP). These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices are estimated from: (1) observed low ...

Demirel, M. C.; Booij, M. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows were analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch-German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows were estimated, namely the seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and weighted persistence (WP). These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices were estimated from: (1) observed low...

Demirel, M. C.; Booij, M. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2013-01-01

62

Distribution and dynamics of larval populations of Anopheles messeae and A. atroparvus in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, The Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The distribution and ecology of mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis complex were studied in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse in the southwest of The Netherlands. The study area was previously malarious, with A. atroparvus being the only vector. 125 potential aquatic habitats of A. maculipennis were sampled, of which 47 (37.6%) contained larvae of this species complex. Larval densities varied from 7.4–325.93 larvae m?2. There was no correlation between chlorinity (‰) of the w...

Takken, W.; Geene, R.; Adam, W.; Jetten, T. H.; Velden, J. A.

2002-01-01

63

Evaluation of two precipitation data sets for the Rhine River using streamflow simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an extended version of a widely used precipitation data set and evaluates it along with a recently released precipitation data set, using streamflow simulations. First, the existing precipitation data set issued by the Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR, originally covering the period 1961–1995, was extended until 2008 using a number of additional precipitation data sets. Next, the extended version of the CHR, together with E-OBS Version 4 (ECA & D gridded data set were evaluated for their performance in the Rhine basin for extreme events. Finally, the two aforementioned precipitation data sets and a meteorological reanalysis data set were used to force a hydrological model, evaluating the influence of different precipitation forcings on the annual mean and extreme discharges compared to observational discharges for the period from 1990 until 2008. The extended version of CHR showed good agreement in terms of mean annual cycle, extreme discharge (both high and low flows, and spatial distribution of correlations with observed discharge. E-OBS performed well with respect to extreme discharge. However, its performance of the mean annual cycle in winter was rather poor and remarkably well in the summer. Also, CHR08 outperformed E-OBS in terms of temporal correlations in most of the analyzed sub-catchment means. The length extension for the CHR and the even longer length of E-OBS permit the assessment of extreme discharge and precipitation values with lower uncertainty for longer return periods. This assessment classifies both of the presented precipitation data sets as possible reference data sets for future studies in hydrological applications.

C. S. Photiadou

2011-11-01

64

Bioassay responses and effects on benthos after pilot remediations in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical and biological monitoring was carried out for 5 years following pilot remediations at two locations in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The remediations consisted of partial excavation of the contaminated sediments, followed by applying a clean layer of sandy material on top. After the remediation, a new silty sediment top layer was formed exhibiting a lower toxicity in five sediment/sediment pore water bioassays. Compared to the unremediated sites, lower metal and PAH concentrations were found at the remediated sites, but in one location at the same time elevated HCH, PCB and HCB levels were recorded. One year after the remediation, the differences became smaller, although effects-based classification showed that the remediated site showed a higher quality up to the last year. In both remediated sites a rapid recolonization of nematodes, oligochaetes and chironomids was observed, while the recolonization by bivalves was slower. A few years after the remediation the differences decrease. - Capping contaminated sediments can be an effective remediation measure in two large river deltas

2005-07-01

65

Bioassay responses and effects on benthos after pilot remediations in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemical and biological monitoring was carried out for 5 years following pilot remediations at two locations in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The remediations consisted of partial excavation of the contaminated sediments, followed by applying a clean layer of sandy material on top. After the remediation, a new silty sediment top layer was formed exhibiting a lower toxicity in five sediment/sediment pore water bioassays. Compared to the unremediated sites, lower metal and PAH concentrations were found at the remediated sites, but in one location at the same time elevated HCH, PCB and HCB levels were recorded. One year after the remediation, the differences became smaller, although effects-based classification showed that the remediated site showed a higher quality up to the last year. In both remediated sites a rapid recolonization of nematodes, oligochaetes and chironomids was observed, while the recolonization by bivalves was slower. A few years after the remediation the differences decrease. - Capping contaminated sediments can be an effective remediation measure in two large river deltas.

Besten, Pieter J. den [Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, PO Box 17, 8200 AA Lelystad (Netherlands)]. E-mail: p.dbesten@riza.rws.minvenw.nl; Brink, Paul J. van den [Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

2005-07-15

66

Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Findings Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among univers...

Helmer Stefanie M; Krämer Alexander; Mikolajczyk Rafael T

2012-01-01

67

From gravel to sand. Downstream fining of bed sediments in the lower river Rhine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A common characteristic of many rivers is the tendency for bed sediments to become finer in downstream direction. This phenomenon, which is generally known as downstream fining, has a strong effect on the morphologic and hydrodynamic behaviour of a river. The fundamental causes of downstream fining are abrasion (the progressive breakdown of particles during their downstream transport) and selective transport (the preferential downstream transport of fine particles), but the effects of th...

Frings, R. M.

2007-01-01

68

Propagation prognoses on rivers Rhine, Neckar, Main and Moselle based on 3HHO tracer dispersion investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intermittent discharges of 3HHO from nuclear installations have been used to determine flow times, flow velocities and values characterizing the longitudinal dispersion of soluble substances under natural conditions. The data and the knowledge thus gained are the basis for developing propagation prognoses. In case of an accidental input of radioactive or inactive water-soluble substances into the river, the flow and propagation behaviour in the contaminated river sections can be described, what permits also an estimation of the radiologic or toxic effects. The formal interrelation of the values required for a tabular presentation of prognoses on the longitudinal dispersion of these noxious substances is described and exemplified. (orig.)

1998-10-02

69

Study of the long-range effects of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants in the Rhine river using 58Co and 60Co as tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

58Co and 60Co were used to trace the long-range effects of nuclear power plants in the aquatic environment of the Rhine river basin. 60Co, preferentially originating from Swiss installations, could be detected in suspended matter along the river over several hundreds of kilometres, even to the Lower Rhine. This nuclide was transferred to the bottom layer by sedimentation along the whole stretch, especially in high-sedimentation zones, which must be considered to be the so-called 'critical impact areas' for estimation of the radiological effects of the nuclear power plants in the aquatic environment. 58Co, mainly discharged by French and Swiss installations, could be measured in suspended matter. In sediment samples, however, this nuclide could not, or only occasionally, be detected because transfer to the sediment layer proceeded at a rather low rate relative to the decay rate of 58Co. From these findings, it follows that impact control of these nuclear power plants should not be restricted to their immediate aquatic environments but should be extended to the whole river. Estimation of the resulting radiation exposure, based on the measured concentrations of 60Co and 58Co in sediment assuming standard conditions, showed that the dose rates generated by the most sensitive pathway, and indeed by other nuclides and different pathways, were far below the dose limit defined in German legal regulations and therefore were negligible. (author)

1992-01-01

70

Water balance versus land surface model in the simulation of Rhine river discharges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accurate streamflow simulations in large river basins are crucial to predict timing and magnitude of floods and droughts and to assess the hydrological impacts of climate change. Water balance models have been used frequently for these purposes. Compared to water balance models, however, land surface models carry the potential to more accurately estimate hydrological partitioning and thus streamflow, because they solve the coupled water and energy balance and are able to exploit a larger part...

2008-01-01

71

Isotope experiments for the determination of the abiotic mercury methylation potential of a river Rhine sediment; Isotopenexperimente zur Ermittlung des abiotischen Quecksilber-Methylierungspotentials eines Rheinsediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the aid of vacuum water vapour distillation experiments the abiotic methylation of inorganic mercury at a river Rhine sediment was investigated at environmental relevant temperatures. For the experiments stable enriched mercury isotopes were used in combination with a reliable HPLC-ICP-MS technology. The results have shown, that the responsible compounds for the abiotic methylation in the river Rhine sediment are extractable by acetone. They showed an abiotic methylation of Hg{sup 2+} within short time at environmental relevant temperatures and pH conditions. The maximum of the abiotic mercury methylation was observed at pH 5 and rises with increasing temperature. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Vakuum-Wasserdampfdestillations-Experimenten wurde die abiotische Methylierung von anorganischem Quecksilber bei umweltrelevanten Temperaturen an einem Rheinsediment untersucht. Hierzu wurden angereicherte Quecksilberisotope in Verbindung mit einer bewaehrten HPLC-ICP-MS Technologie eingesetzt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass die fuer die abiotische Methylierung verantwortlichen Verbindungen aus dem Rheinsediment mit Aceton extrahierbar sind und in kurzen Zeitraeumen bei umweltrelevanten Temperaturen und pH-Bedingungen Hg{sup 2+} abiotisch methylieren koennen. Das Maximum der Methlyierung liegt bei einem mittleren pH von 5 und nimmt mit steigender Temperatur zu. (orig.)

Falter, R.; Wilken, R.D. [ESWE Inst. fuer Wasserforschung und Wassertechnologie GmbH, Wiesbaden-Schierstein (Germany)

1998-03-01

72

Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows were analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch-German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows were estimated, namely the seasonality ratio (SR, weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD and weighted persistence (WP. These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices were estimated from: (1 observed low flows; (2 simulated low flows by the semi-distributed HBV model using observed climate as input; (3 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven combinations of General Circulation Models (GCMs and Regional Climate Models (RCMs for the current climate (1964–2007; (4 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven combinations of GCMs and RCMs for the future climate (2063–2098 including three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. These four cases were compared to assess the effects of the hydrological model, forcing by different climate models and different emission scenarios on the three indices. Significant differences were found between cases 1 and 2. For instance, the HBV model is prone to overestimate SR and to underestimate WP and simulates very late WMODs compared to the estimated WMODs using observed discharges. Comparing the results of cases 2 and 3, the smallest difference was found for the SR index, whereas large differences were found for the WMOD and WP indices for the current climate. Finally, comparing the results of cases 3 and 4, we found that SR decreases substantially by 2063–2098 in all seven sub-basins of the River Rhine. The lower values of SR for the future climate indicate a shift from winter low flows (SR > 1 to summer low flows (SR < 1 in the two Alpine sub-basins. The WMODs of low flows tend to be earlier than for the current climate in all sub-basins except for the Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine sub-basins. The WP values are slightly larger, showing that the predictability of low flow events increases as the variability in timing decreases for the future climate. From comparison of the error sources evaluated in this study, it is obvious that different RCMs/GCMs have a larger influence on the timing of low flows than different emission scenarios. Finally, this study complements recent analyses of an international project (Rhineblick by analysing the seasonality aspects of low flows and extends the scope further to understand the effects of hydrological model errors and climate change on three important low flow seasonality properties: regime, timing and persistence.

M. C. Demirel

2013-10-01

73

Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows are analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch–German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows are estimated, namely seasonality ratio (SR, weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD and weighted persistence (WP. These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices are estimated from: (1 observed low flows; (2 simulated low flows by the semi distributed HBV model using observed climate; (3 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven climate scenarios for the current climate (1964–2007; (4 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven climate scenarios for the future climate (2063–2098 including different emission scenarios. These four cases are compared to assess the effects of the hydrological model, forcing by different climate models and different emission scenarios on the three indices. The seven climate scenarios are based on different combinations of four General Circulation Models (GCMs, four Regional Climate Models (RCMs and three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Significant differences are found between cases 1 and 2. For instance, the HBV model is prone to overestimate SR and to underestimate WP and simulates very late WMODs compared to the estimated WMODs using observed discharges. Comparing the results of cases 2 and 3, the smallest difference is found in the SR index, whereas large differences are found in the WMOD and WP indices for the current climate. Finally, comparing the results of cases 3 and 4, we found that SR has decreased substantially by 2063–2098 in all seven subbasins of the River Rhine. The lower values of SR for the future climate indicate a shift from winter low flows (SR > 1 to summer low flows (SR < 1 in the two Alpine subbasins. The WMODs of low flows tend to be earlier than for the current climate in all subbasins except for the Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine subbasins. The WP values are slightly larger, showing that the predictability of low flow events increases as the variability in timing decreases for the future climate. From comparison of the uncertainty sources evaluated in this study, it is obvious that the RCM/GCM uncertainty has the largest influence on the variability in timing of low flows for future climate.

M. C. Demirel

2013-05-01

74

Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows were analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch-German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows were estimated, namely the seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and weighted persistence (WP). These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices were estimated from: (1) observed low flows; (2) simulated low flows by the semi-distributed HBV model using observed climate as input; (3) simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven combinations of General Circulation Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for the current climate (1964-2007); (4) simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven combinations of GCMs and RCMs for the future climate (2063-2098) including three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. These four cases were compared to assess the effects of the hydrological model, forcing by different climate models and different emission scenarios on the three indices. Significant differences were found between cases 1 and 2. For instance, the HBV model is prone to overestimate SR and to underestimate WP and simulates very late WMODs compared to the estimated WMODs using observed discharges. Comparing the results of cases 2 and 3, the smallest difference was found for the SR index, whereas large differences were found for the WMOD and WP indices for the current climate. Finally, comparing the results of cases 3 and 4, we found that SR decreases substantially by 2063-2098 in all seven sub-basins of the River Rhine. The lower values of SR for the future climate indicate a shift from winter low flows (SR > 1) to summer low flows (SR < 1) in the two Alpine sub-basins. The WMODs of low flows tend to be earlier than for the current climate in all sub-basins except for the Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine sub-basins. The WP values are slightly larger, showing that the predictability of low flow events increases as the variability in timing decreases for the future climate. From comparison of the error sources evaluated in this study, it is obvious that different RCMs/GCMs have a larger influence on the timing of low flows than different emission scenarios. Finally, this study complements recent analyses of an international project (Rhineblick) by analysing the seasonality aspects of low flows and extends the scope further to understand the effects of hydrological model errors and climate change on three important low flow seasonality properties: regime, timing and persistence.

Demirel, M. C.; Booij, M. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2013-10-01

75

Data assimilation of GRACE terrestrial water storage estimates into a regional hydrological model of the Rhine River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) can be defined as an integrated measure of surface water, soil moisture, snow water, and groundwater. TWS data is valuable for water resources management and hydrology. The ability to simulate realistic TWS is essential for understanding past hydrological events and predicting future changes of the hydrological cycle. Inadequacies in physics, deficiencies in land characteristics and uncertainties in meteorological data commonly limit the performance of hydrological models in estimating TWS. In this study, we investigated the benefits of assimilating TWS derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) into the Wflow HBV-96 model using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). Since hydrological model parameters are often uncertain over a large part of the Earth, we investigated the impact of GRACE assimilation in different model scenarios representing different degrees of data availability. Four case studies were considered comparing calibrated and non-calibrated model parameters and local and global forcing data. The chosen study area is the Rhine River basin. Our results were validated using in-situ stream gauge data. In all scenarios, the temporal signatures of the averaged TWS are similar after assimilating GRACE while the spatial distribution is heavily influenced by the model parameters and input data as well as their uncertainties. Assimilation using the EnKF reduced the standard deviation at every updating stage, resulting in lower standard deviations than the model or the observations alone. Discrepancies between the local and global precipitation products had a significant impact on discharge estimates. For instance, when the global forcing data were used, discharge was drastically overestimated when spurious heavy rainfall occurred during the winter. Based on the correlation coefficient, Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) computed between the estimated and measured discharges at 13 gauge stations, we concluded that GRACE assimilation slightly improves the model performance when the model is well calibrated (calibrated parameters with local forcing data). More importantly, the improvement observed for the non-calibrated model (non-calibrated parameters with global forcing data), suggests that the impact of GRACE assimilation may be more significant in data-sparse regions.

Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Gunter, Brian C.; Widiastuti, Endang; Weerts, Albrecht; Ditmar, Pavel; Tsompanopoulos, Efstratios

2014-05-01

76

Numerical tables. Physical and chemical analyses of Rhine water 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tables present the methods of analysis and the data obtained on inorganic, organic, and radioactive impurities in Rhine water. The measuring stations were located in Switzerland, France, West Germany, and the Netherlands. (HP)

1984-01-01

77

Impact of A Double Co2 Scenario On Floods and The Runoff Regime of The River Rhine  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall goal of this model study is to quantify the hydrological impact of a double CO2 scenario for the entire German part of the Rhine basin, based on the correspond- ing simulation results of the GCM ECHAM 4. Currently, GCM-models may simulate realistic fields of meteorological state variables, especially air pressure, but they may not simulate precipitation data suitable for distributed hydrological modelling pur- poses, due to their coarse spatial resolution and poor representation of precipitation relevant processes on that scale. To overstep this hurdle we statistically generated rain- fall and temperature fields conditioned to the simulated pressure data in two steps. First we optimised a set of fuzzy rules for classification of pressure fields into circulation patterns, to explain the basin scale space-time variability of observed rainfall and tem- perature. For the optimisation we used rainfall data from selected stations in the Rhine basin to define the objective function as well as observed NMC pressure data. Given the optimised fuzzy rules for CP classification the simulated pressure fields from the double CO2 scenario were classified into a daily sequence of CPs, that served as input for a stochastical generation of rainfall and temperature fields. Rainfall was linked to the individual CPs using conditional probabilities, that are a function of season and location. Temperature was modelled using an autoregressive approach, conditioned on atmospheric circulation and local point or areal precipitation. These generated rainfall and temperature fields served as input data for a simulation of the hydrological cycle in the Rhine basin for a period of 30 years using the HBV- model. The model was calibrated to the actual climate using observed rainfall and temperature data from 949 stations as well as discharge data from 100 gauges in the Rhine basin. By comparing the simulated hydrological cycle based on the CO2 sce- nario to the corresponding observations of the last 30 years, the possible impact of a climate change could be quantified. Due to a clear rise of the average daily tempera- ture in the winter season, the amount of snow coverage in the Rhine basin was clearly reduced. Furthermore, the occurrence of CPs with a high precipitation probability was reduced in the scenario, shifting the precipitation regime to more arid conditions. These changes in the temperature and precipitation regime did clearly affect the av- erage discharge regime as well as the amount and magnitude of flood events in the Rhine basin.

Zehe, E.; Bardossy, A.

78

Modelling seasonal N and P loads in three contrasting large river basins using global datasets - Mississippi, Mekong and Rhine River  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nutrients are important components of the global biochemical cycle, and are key controls of the quality of inland and coastal waters. Quantification of the nutrient fluxes from large river basins to the oceans still relies on long-term yearly-load estimates; existing models are essentially empirical budget models that relate total annual basin output to estimates of basin-wide nutrient emissions. In this type of models identification of the source areas, as well as quantificati...

Loos, S.; Middelkoop, H.; Perk, M.; Beek, L. P. H.

2011-01-01

79

Holocene transgression of the Rhine river-mouth area, The Netherlands/Southern North Sea: palaeogeography and sequence stratigraphy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a detailed reconstruction of the palaeogeography of the Rhine valley (western Netherlands) during the Holocene transgression with systems tracts placed in a precise sea-level context. A high level of detail could be reached because of 1) favourable antecedent topography and subsidence setting; 2) long history of coring, mapping, dating, establishing facies models; 3) New 3D-techniques of dealing with the wealth of data and 4) key papers produced in recent years. The reconstruction ...

Cohen, K. M.; Hijma, M. P.

2011-01-01

80

Analysis of the transport of a pollution cloud in the Upper-Rhine River between Lake of Constance:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the one-dimensional 'Rhine Alarm Model' differences between the actual travel time of a pollution cloud, originating from an instantaneous release of an accidental spill, and the travel time, based on the flow velocity is represented by a lag coefficient. In the model this lag coefficient is defined by the relative difference between these two travel times. This paper presents the results of a study on the influence of tributaries and suppressed flow by weirs on the lag coefficient in gene...

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Paleoseismic evidence for seismogenic faulting in the epicentrical area of the 1755/56 Düren earthquake series, Lower Rhine Embayment, NW Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), the NW branch of the western European Cenozoic rift system, is currently one of the most tectonically active regions in central Europe. This intraplate fault-system is generally characterized by long recurrence intervals of M ? 6 events. Historical records for the LRE document the occurrence of at least 21 M > 5 events, the largest of which appears to have been the 1755/56 earthquake series in the area of Düren city (ML 5.8 - 6.1). The space-time-distribution of earthquake and fault-rupture patterns in the LRE is still poorly understood but is important to understand the mechanical behaviour of faulting in this tectonically active region. Historic damage related to the 1755/56 events implies that any of four recently active faults in the epicentrical area may have ruptured. Possible seismogenic faults are the Feldbiss-, Rurrand-, Sandgewand-, and Schafberg faults. We carried out trench investigations along the Schafberg fault, a 6 km long E-dipping normal fault approximately 10 km SSW of Düren. Previous studies estimated a total offset in the range of 5-10 m on the fault since early Pleistocene times. At the trench location in the Rur River valley, SW of Untermaubach, the Schafberg fault is covered by late Pleistocene fluvial gravel, Holocene gravel and sand deposits, and late Holocene flood deposits. The suspected surface rupture is expressed in a NNW-trending topographic scarp of 0.5-1m. We excavated the fault along a 5 m deep and 85 m long trench approximately 200 m W of the recent Rur river course. Seasonal variations of the groundwater level in this part of the valley lead to intensive alteration of the unconsolidated sediments. Within the sedimentary layers, earthquake-related deformation is mostly focused in the late Pleistocene gravel units exhibiting many (>200) fractured and rotated clasts along vertical deformation zones. Furthermore, we mapped several types of soft-sediment deformation in the Holocene sandy and clayey deposits including sand and clay intrusions as well as asymmetric folding of cm- to dm-scale related to liquefaction processes. The overlaying fine-grained flood deposits do not show clear signs of seismogenic deformation. The overall surface-displacement across the fault appears to range between 0.8 and 1.2 m based on an observed offset of a suspected Holocene-Pleistocene marker horizon within the gravel deposits. This corresponds to estimates derived from borehole data, geophysical prospecting and morphometric analysis. The fractured and rotated clasts are the strongest indicator for seismogenic faulting along this portion of the fault as these features cannot be produced by aseismic creep. Deformation analyses also suggest at least one, possibly two, ground-rupturing events since late Pleistocene times because one well-defined and one less well-defined event horizon could be traced within the late Pleistocene gravels. Geochronological analyses of samples from around 20 horizons across the trench are in progress, and will help to better time and classify single ground-rupturing events.

Kuebler, Simon; Friedrich, Anke M.; Strecker, Manfred R.

2010-05-01

82

"2"3"8U and "2"3"2Th decay series disequilibrium systematics in ground and river water of the upper Rhine valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ground and river waters in the Upper Rhine Valley (between Mulhouse and Strassbourg, Alsace, France) were analyzed for the hydrogeochemically important radionuclides of the U and Th decay series which are detectable in aquifers, i.e. "2"3"8U, "2"3"4U, "2"2"8Th, "2"2"8Ra, "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"4Ra, "2"2"2Rn, "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po. Considerable desequilibrium activity ratios between these U-Th decay series nuclides were observed, allowing the radioisotopes to be used as geochemical tracers for investigations on exchange and mixing of waters discharging from mineralogically different host rock composites. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs

1997-01-01

83

Determination of flow times, flow velocities and longitudinal dispersion in the Middle and Lower Rhine River using [sup 3]HHO as a tracer. Zur Bestimmung von Fliesszeiten, Fliessgeschwindigkeiten und longitudinaler Dispersion im Mittel- und Niederrhein mit [sup 3]HHO als Leitstoff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flow times, flow velocities and parameters describing the longitudinal dispersion in the Middle and Lower Rhine river under natural conditions were determined by use of intermittent emissions of tritated wastewater from nuclear power plants during normal operation situated on the Upper Rhine. In cases of accidental releases of radioactive materials, these data would be the basis of prognoses by which the dispersion behaviour of contaminated sections along the course of river Rhine can be described and radiological consequences within the socalled critical impact areas estimated. (orig.)

Krause, J. (Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany)); Mundschenk, H. (Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany))

1994-11-01

84

On the exchange behaviour of radionuclides in contact with suspended matter/sediment of the river Rhine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the radiation burden on the sediment exposure pathway, the distribution of radionuclides in the system surface water/sediment must be known. For this purpose, the distribution coefficients of the stable and radioactive nuclides of Co (Co 59, Co 60) and Cs (Cs 133, Cs 137) for the Middle Rhine area were determined. In laboratory studies, the sorption/desorption behaviour of several radionuclides was investigated thoroughly and the consequences and limitations for the calculation of the radiation dose according to the models adopted were demonstrated. (orig.)

1985-01-01

85

The "WFD-effect" on upstream-downstream relations in international river basins - insights from the Rhine and the Elbe basins  

Science.gov (United States)

The upstream-downstream relationship in international river basins is a traditional challenge in water management. Water use in upstream countries often has a negative impact on water use in downstream countries. This is most evident in the classical example of industrial pollution in upstream countries hindering drinking water production downstream. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) gives new impetus to the river basin approach and to international co-operation in European catchments. It aims at transforming a mainly water quality oriented management into a more integrated approach of ecosystem management. After discussing the traditional upstream-downstream relationship, this article shows that the WFD has a balancing effect on upstream-downstream problems and that it enhances river basin solidarity in international basins. While it lifts the downstream countries to the same level as the upstream countries, it also leads to new duties for the downstream states. Following the ecosystem approach, measures taken by downstream countries become increasingly more important. For example, downstream countries need to take measures to allow for migrating fish species to reach upstream stretches of river systems. With the WFD, fish populations receive increased attention, as they are an important indicator for the ecological status. The European Commission acquires a new role of inspection and control in river basin management, which finally also leads to enhanced cooperation and solidarity among the states in a basin. In order to achieve better water quality and to mitigate upstream-downstream problems, also economic instruments can be applied and the WFD does not exclude the possibility of making use of financial compensations, if at the same time the polluter pays principle is taken into account. The results presented in this article originate from a broader study on integrated water resources management conducted at Bonn University and refer to the Rhine and Elbe basins (Moellenkamp, 2006).

Moellenkamp, S.

2007-06-01

86

Numerical tables resulting from physicochemical water examinations of the Rhine river 1988. Zahlentafeln der physikalisch-chemischen Untersuchungen des Rheinwassers 1988. Tableaux numeriques des analyses physico-chimiques des eaux du Rhin 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The numerical tables are the result of the 1988 measuring campaign performed on behalf of the International Commission for Protection of the Rhine River Against Pollution. The measured data cover general parameters, organic, inorganic and entrophicating substances, metals, organic micropollutants, and the entire {alpha} and {beta} activity levels, the K-40-{beta} activity, and the specific tritium activity. Two seperate tables show the daily chloride concentrations and the chloride transport data. (DG).

1990-01-01

87

The case of the Upper Rhine: unravelling the past, wrapping up the future  

Science.gov (United States)

The southern Upper Rhine was once the most prominent braided river system in Germany. However it lost its character during the last 200 years and is now a trained river used for electricity and carrying ships to Basel(CH). The river sector between Basel and Strasburg(F) was always different to the Hochrhein (Lake Constance Basel) and to the lower Upper Rhine (Strasburg Bingen(D)). This ancient braided river system changed downstream according to the transition of grain sizes from cobbles to gravel and sand. Between Strasburg and Lauterburg(F) the braids were replaced by meanders and this geomorphological change induced many other changes. At thesed times the ecology, including the use of water and land, riparian forests, the development of flood defence and navigation were different. In addition there was a further problem for people living in the time of enlightment: how should the boundary of a state be defined within a braided river? In the German language braided rivers were and are still called “verwildert” and this means the river is going wild. As such, somebody who was able to improve this situation would gain merits. This happened to Johann Gottfried Tulla. He became the responsible engineer for river construction in the Great Duchy Baden. In 1812 he created a memorandum with recommodations for the future development of the river Rhine. Only 5 years later he succeeded with the first cutoff of a meander next to Karlsruhe. After his death a treaty between France and Baden regulated the elimination of the braided system between Basel and Lauterburg. The construction took place between 1840 and 1875. This development was opposed locally and by the Prussian and Dutch authorities who claimed - after the huge flood of 1824 - that the abnormal flood peak was a result of the meander cutoffs created in Baden. Nevertheless the results of training the braided system were technically convincing: a deeper river channel, less floods, a well defined border and finally the first bigger steamboats entering the new harbor of Basel. The new situation was settled by the peace treaty of Versailles with its entrustment of the Rhine to France. This resulted in the construction of the Canal d’Alsace between the wars and after the last World War. Wrapping up the future of the Upper Rhine cannot be a turn back to the past, but should be an attempt to reduce the deficits and to amplify the ecological benefits. As already stated in 1824 the new river system causes more peaky floods and induces a deficit of bedload. The last problem was overcome by a bedload management scheme proposed by Felkel in 1970. For flood protection a German-French agreement defined the ’integrated Rhine programm’ in 1982 to create more flood storage capacity using the following approaches: - special operation of the power scheme, - construction of more weire and more flood polders. The largest retention measure so far is planned along the Restrhein between the weir at the entrance of the Canal d’Alsace and Breisach(D). A strip of approx. 95 m width the ancient floodplain on the German side will be excavated down to the groundwater level in order to develop a new artificial floodplain capable of storing approx. 25 million m3 of floodwater. This project will not only create a new river but will be encountered by 50 million m3 of sediments which have to be removed and sold. The development of the Upper Rhine is an extreme example for river genesis during the last 200 years. There is no way back to the future but only the possibility to create an improved and more sustainable riversystem for the next century.

Ergenzinger, P.; Bölscher, J.; de Jong, C.

2003-04-01

88

Validation of a social vulnerability index in context to river-floods in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social vulnerability indices are a means for generating information about people potentially affected by disasters that are e.g. triggered by river-floods. The purpose behind such an index is in this study the development and the validation of a social vulnerability map of population characteristics towards river-floods covering all counties in Germany. This map is based on a composite index of three main indicators for social vulnerability in Germany – fragility, socio-economic conditions ...

Fekete, A.

2009-01-01

89

The determination of the dilution of aqueous effluents from the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in Old River Rhine using "3HHO releases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the tritium releases in aqueous effluents from the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, water flow and dilution factors were determined at six positions at the Old River Rhine, which serves as a main canal. At the point of discharge, a water flow of 0.28 m"3/s was evaluated. Within the next 600 m a quick increase up to a value of 0.38 m"3/s was determined. Further on downstream, a water flow relatively constant of 0.45 m"3/s was measured up to km 5.3. Downstream the junction of the Oestliches Herrenwasser and the main canal, the water flow reached a value of 1 m"3/s, and further on until km 12.3 increases only insignificantly by taking up small tributaries. Downstream the junction with the Russheimer Altrhein the water flow increased rapidly and at km 13.5 in the canal in direction to Philippsburg, a value of 1.9 m"3/s was determined. The dilution factor changes exactly contrary. Immediately downstream the point of discharge, the liquid effluents were diluted by a factor of 20. With increasing water flow up to km 13.5, the dilution increased to a factor of 125, respectively to the concentration in the liquid effluents. (orig.)

1980-01-01

90

Determination of flow times and flow velocities in the upper Rhine river using sup 3 HHO as tracer. Bestimmung von Fliesszeit und Fliessgeschwindigkeit im Hoch- und Oberrhein mit sup 3 HHO als Leitstoff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The behaviour of water bodies of the Upper Rhine river discretely traced with {sup 3}HHO-loaded waste waters from the nuclear power plants of Beznau, Fessenheim, Philippsburg and Biblis was investigated along a distance of nearly 385 km down to Nierstein. The passage of the distinct entrainment charged by different emissions was measured at the sampling points of Bad Saeckingen, Weil, Weisweil, Iffezheim and Nierstein. From these profiles the flow times and flow velocities were calculated for the discharge range from 0.6 to 1.7 MQ (mean discharge), taking the begin, end and duration of the individual releases into account. (orig./HP).

Krause, W.J.; Mundschenk, H. (Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany, F.R.))

1990-12-01

91

Interaction surface water - groundwater: Investigation in the Rhine Valley using environmental isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation area is located in the Rhine Valley, a floodplain composed of Upper Quaternary sediments near Karlsruhe, Germany. The upper two gravel layers build highly permeable and productive aquifers which are used by many drinking water supplies. These two layers are partial hydraulically divided by an impermeable interlayer which does not exist everywhere. On the other hand many gravel extraction sites are dug out, which form small artificial lakes. To overcome the conflict between both, water supply and gravel industry, a precise knowledge of the interaction of surface water - groundwater is absolutely necessary. The hydraulic relationship between the groundwater storey, the gravel pit lakes, and the rivers could not be adequately explained using only water level measurements. Only with the aid of the results from the hydro-chemical and isotope-hydrological investigations (?18O, ?2H, 3H), the components of the regional groundwater recharge, Rhine bank infiltration, lake bank filtration, as well as local specifically marked water types could be identified, classified and quantified in surface - and groundwater. Utilizing these methods it was shown that the deep pumping wells of the water supply have over 90% Rhine riverbank filtration water and have no inflow from any of the investigated gravel pit lakes. The groundwater in the two investigated upper aquifers differ mainly isotope-hydrological and respectively in age, less pronounced in their hydro-chemical properties. In both aquifers there is a zone of ca. 1 to 3 km wide, in parts reaching to the gravel quarry lakes, which generally follows the Rhine with a flow of depleted isotopic Rhine filtration water with varying ages. From the east-southeast there is an inflow from the lower terrace of relatively young and identifiably anthropogenic influenced as well as almost totally reduced in nitrate, In the aquifer below, the water is usually tritium-free, i.e., older than 50 years, not anthropogenic influenced and reduced in sulphate. Modeling tritium data the local recharge rate could be estimated. In all investigated gravel pit lakes, a high percentage of Rhine bank filtration was proven. The inflow of groundwater to the lakes and the outflow of the lake water are identifiable because of isotope-fractionation due to evaporation. The environmental isotopes build together with the hydro-geological and hydro-chemical investigations the basis for a detailed understanding of this complex flow system. (author)

2007-05-21

92

Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After summing up the competencies of the Federal Government and the States regarding the area of teacher education and the teaching profession in Germany, the author describes the two phases of teacher training and research as well as the "research and inservice education of teachers" (INSET). Furthermore, he analyses the institutional backgrounds of educational research in Germany and the influence of educational research on political parties and parliaments. Finally, "priorities and new tre...

Do?brich, Peter; Kodron, Christoph

1992-01-01

93

International water negotiations under asymmetry, lessons from the Rhine chlorides dispute settlement (1931-2004)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Negotiations concerning the quality of international rivers are not easy, as incongruence in preferences between upstream and downstream countries generally exists. The Rhine Chlorides dispute is a clear example of this. The chloride issue has been on the international water agenda of the Netherlands and the upstream Rhine riparian states for more than 70 years. The aim of this paper is to give a historical overview of the settlement of the Rhine chlorides dispute in order to d...

Dieperink, C.

2011-01-01

94

Long-range effects of nuclear power plant, as measured in the Rhine River far away from the source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of the many different radionuclides emitted with waste water from nuclear facilities, at present only tritium can be measured with justifiable expenditure in the surface water. The concentrations of the remaining nuclides (58Co,60Co,131I,134Cs and others) are below the detection limit of the directive for emission monitoring and immission monitoring in the environs of nuclear facilities. A radiological evaluation carried out using the key nuclides tritium, 58Co and 60Co shows that the contributions of radioactivity from nuclear facilities in the catchment area of the Rhein river on the relevant exposure pathways account for negligible dose commitments. (orig./DG)

1990-10-24

95

Differential subsidence within a coastal prism : late-Glacial - Holocene tectonics In The Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Rhine-Meuse river system has been studied extensively over the past few decades. The Netherlands' coastal prism formed in response to Holocene sea level rise and buried the Weichselian (OIS-2) Rhine-Meuse valley. Although the geological-geomorphological evolution of the Rhine-Meuse system since the Last Glacial Maximum (ca. 22 kyr cal BP) is known in great detail, the effects of neotectonics in the Rhine-Meuse delta have only been recognised recently. In this thesis the Rhine-Meuse record...

Cohen, K. M.

2003-01-01

96

Cooling regulations on the Upper Rhine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article investigates three variants for regulations in respect of the application of recooling plants for a chain power stations, using the Upper Rhine as an example. It is suggested that the heat removal capacity of the river is distributed on the various power stations by a suitable choice of the branching relations between fresh water and recooling in such a way that the net output of the chain reaches a maximum. (orig.)

1976-10-01

97

87Sr/86Sr ratios in river waters of East Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

87Sr/86Sr Ratios for river- and ground-water samples from the eastern part of Germany are in the range from 0.707 (spring water from the Zechstein outcrops in the northern Thuringia) up to 0.727 (river water from Rb-rich granites in the Ore Mountains). The strontium isotope ratios, particularly in the vicinity of springs, reflect the geology of the catchment area. Downriver, as the catchment area increases, the averaging of geology combined with anthropogenic effects results in intermediate isotopic compositions. Within a brief discussion of likely anthropogenic sources experimental data of contribution of urban sewage are given for two locations. (orig.)

1991-01-01

98

Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation: Review of River Basin Management Planning in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By the end of 2009, programmes of measures and river basin management plans under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD had for the first time been set up for all 10 river basin districts inGermany. They provide the water management planning tools for achieving good status of surface and groundwater by 2015. Since a good ecological status for many water bodies cannot be attained by this deadline, the Directive provides for two supplementary planning cycles running to 2021 and 2027 respectively. Owing to its ecological approach, the WFD has much in common with nature conservation. The project “Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation” sought to discover how the aims of the WFD and nature conservation are linked in the practice of river basin management planning and what possibilities there are for optimisation from a nature conservation point of view. On this basis, proposals were made for updating and implementing plans.

SCHMIDT Catrin

2012-09-01

99

Impact of former mining activities on the uranium distribution in the River Saale (Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the lower part of the River Saale, Germany, U shows concentrations of up to 4 ?g/L. Former mining activities and their still existing dewatering systems in the drainage basin of the River Saale are responsible for the high salt and trace metal concentrations in the water of some tributaries. An old adit from the Mansfeld mining district flowing into the Schlenze Stream with mean U concentrations of about 60 ?g/L increases the U concentration of the River Saale by 0.5 ?g/L. The U concentrations in the running waters of the study area can be explained by mixing processes. Uranium from the adit and the Schlenze is mainly transported in the <0.45 ?m fraction as a carbonate complex

2006-06-01

100

Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2000, all R and D activities in the nuclear sector were evaluated by a high-ranking commission under the direction of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). The responsible Ministries of Education and Research (BMBF) and of the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) as well as the research institutions active in nuclear R and D took part in this evaluation. In accordance with the recommendations made by this commission, the Alliance for Competence in Nuclear Technology was founded in April 2000 with the following members: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit. The neighboring universities that are active in the nuclear field and cooperate with the research centers are invited as permanent guests. In addition, representatives of the ministries are also present as guests. The Alliance for Competence meets every six months. The strategic goals of the Alliance for Competence are: - Presentation of the trends of job development and training capacities in the nuclear technology sector; - Enhanced cooperation with universities and support of international initiatives (e.g. ENEN, WNU); - Coordination and bundling of the activities in publicly funded nuclear safety and repository research; - Support of qualified young scientists - also by third-party funds; - Participation in the further development of international safety standards (EU, IAEA, OECD-NEA) In the scope of intensifying the cooperation with universities, four 'sub-alliances' of the Alliance of Competence in Nuclear Engineering came into existence, mainly on a regional level: -The Competence Centre East (2004), consisting of the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD-R), the Verein fuer Kernverfahrungstechnik und Analytik (Association for Nuclear Process Technology and Analysis) Rossendorf (VKTA), the Technical University (TU) of Dresden, and the University of Applied Sciences (FH) Zittau/Goerlitz; -The Association for Research and Lecturing in Nuclear Engineering in Southwest Germany (2007), consisting of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), the Materials Testing Laboratory (MPA) Stuttgart, and the Universities of Karlsruhe, Stuttgart and Heidelberg as well as the Universities of Applied Sciences in Ulm and Furtwangen; -The Nuclear Engineering Forum West (2009), consisting of the Juelich Research Centre (FZJ), the RWTH Aachen University, and the Aachen/Juelich University of Applied Sciences; - The subject-oriented Final Disposal Research Group, consisting of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the Technical University of Berlin, and the University of Clausthal-Zellerfeld; - The interregional Alliance of Competence in Radiation Research (2007), consisting of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in Salzgitter (BfS), the Centre for Radiation Protection and Radioecology (ZSR) in Hanover, the German Research Centre for Environmental Health (GSF) in Munich, the Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) Leipzig-Halle, the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, the Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt, and the research centres in Juelich, Dresden/Rossendorf, and Karlsruhe. International activities were geared to two initiatives for the promotion of young nuclear scientists, in particular to the: - ENEN (European Nuclear Engineering Network); -WNU (World Nucl ear University). In both organizations, the Technical University of Munich is involved as the German representative of the Alliance of Competence. By the end of January 2010, the ENELA (European Nuclear Energy Leadership Academy) with its headquarters in Munich also joined

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

The harmonization of large-scale energy projects on the river Rhine with France and Switzerland in the interest of civil and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author gives a detailed survey of existing energy plants and plans, joint planning procedures or transfrontier harmonization of national planning, of fields and objectives of harmonization and of the state of harmonization. In doing so, he separately discusses the participation in site selection, preventive measures taken against the heating of waters, measures for keeping the air clean, radiation protection, the minimizing of nuclear risks, avoidance of large-scale climatic effects. A table shows the transfrontier bodies existing in the region of the upper Rhine, and their competencies as regards problems of energy and environment. The author comes to the following conclusion: This harmonization works, even if a few points still remain to be settled. The information provided has to be improved in order to convince the population that the problems involved have been realized and are about to be solved. (HSCH)

1981-01-01

102

First record of the jumping spider Icius hamatus (Salticidae, Araneae in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A male of the jumping spider Icius hamatus (C. L. Koch, 1846 was found in a garden in Aachen (Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia. Establishment of this species in Germany cannot yet be proven.

Schäfer, Michael

2014-05-01

103

A joint probability approach using a 1-D hydrodynamic model for estimating high water level frequencies in the Lower Rhine Delta  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Lower Rhine Delta, a transitional area between the River Rhine and Meuse and the North Sea, is at risk of flooding induced by infrequent events of a storm surge or upstream flooding, or by more infrequent events of a combination of both. A joint probability analysis of the astronomical tide, the wind induced storm surge, the Rhine flow and the Meuse flow at the boundaries is established in order to produce the joint probability distribution of potential flood events. Three individual join...

Zhong, H.; -j Overloop, P.; Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.

2013-01-01

104

A joint probability approach using a 1-D hydrodynamic model for estimating high water level frequencies in the Lower Rhine Delta :  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Lower Rhine Delta, a transitional area between the River Rhine and Meuse and the North Sea, is at risk of flooding induced by infrequent events of a storm surge or upstream flooding, or by more infrequent events of a combination of both. A joint probability analysis of the astronomical tide, the wind induced storm surge, the Rhine flow and the Meuse flow at the boundaries is established in order to produce the joint probability distribution of potential flood events. Three individual join...

Zhong, H.; Overloop, P. J.; Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.

2013-01-01

105

Tritium/Helium-3 Dating of River Infiltration:An Example from the Oderbruch Area, Berlin, Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentrations of tritium, helium isotopes and neon have been measured in groundwater samples from a shallow and deep groundwater system recharged by bank infiltration from the Oder River in northeastern Berlin, Germany. The apparent 3H/3He ages show a distinct variation. They increased from only a few months to >40 years along the flow path. The farthest wells from the river have high concentration of 4He terrigenic which is around 5 × 10?5 (ccSTP/kg. The highest values for stable 3H (3H + 3Hetrit were encountered at a 2.6 kmdistance from the river.

Hany El-Gamal

2013-01-01

106

The Rhine-Meuse-Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years of 1973 and 1974 a study was performed aimed at the assessment of the radiological exposure of the population in the Upper Rhine Region from normal operation of nuclear facilities. These investigations were extended to the Rhine-Meuse Region in the years of 1975 to 1977; the results were published in 1978. In the discussion of the results of this study the recommendation was made to adapt the investigation from time to time to the current state of knowledge, accounting for recent developments and research results. This recommendation was the basis of a succeeding study published in 1981. The present paper in a much shortened form presents the most essential assumptions and results of the novel Rhine-Meuse Study. The complete assumptions, models and results may be found in the detailed version. (orig./RW)

107

A preliminary telemetry study of the migration of silver European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) in the River Mosel, Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To study the behaviour of silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) during their downstream migration, particularly near a hydroelectric power dam, we tagged nine eels with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked their paths in the River Mosel, Germany. The onset of migration coincided with the first flood event that followed the full moon but was independent of daytime, because migration and turbine passage occurred during both day and night. During migration eels swam actively downstream with a veloci...

Behrmann-godel, Jasminca; Eckmann, Reiner

2003-01-01

108

Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine using 3HHO as a tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine river under natural conditions are determined by use of single emissions of tritiated waste water from nuclear power plants during normal operation. The influence of the discharge of the Rhine on the most relevant parameters is investigated thoroughly. In a case of accidental release of radioactive material, these data would be the basis of a prognosis by which the behaviour of the contaminated river section along the course can be described and the radiological consequences within the so-called critical impact area estimated. (orig.)

1993-09-28

109

Environmental analysis for the Rhine. The 'Rhine Basin Program'. Umweltanalytik fuer den Rhein. Das 'Rhine Basin Program'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 'Rhine Basin Program' is an international contribution to the improvement of the quality both of the Rhine water and of the adjoining surface waters. Several universities, institutes and companies in the Rhine countries, from Switzerland up to Holland, examine the water of the Rhine to detect pollutions. They furthermore maintain a quality monitoring system. (orig.).

Giger, W. (EAWAG/ETH, Duebendorf (Switzerland)); Poiger, T.; Altenbach, B.

1992-07-10

110

Heavy metal pollution in the Rhine Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rhine Basin provides an excellent case study of the complex relationships between economic activities and their environmental impacts. The region covers 200,000 km[sup 2] and comprises most of Switzerland and the southwestern provinces of Germany, the north-eastern corner of France, all of Luxembourg, and most of the Netherlands. In this article the authors summarize some results of research on cadmium, lead, and zinc pollution in the Basin from 1950 to 2010. They conducted historical analysis of the pollutants for two reasons. First, it has allowed them to determine long-term trends in the levels and sources of pollution, as well as to attribute these trends to changes in industrial structure or the implementation of pollution control technologies. A second advantage of the historical analysis is that it allows for the modeling of emissions and deposition to the environment in previous decades. As discussed later, such a model is necessary for estimating cumulative inputs of heavy metals in environmental compartments, such as soils and sediments, where the residence times of the metals are long. Two major issues highlighted in this paper are: the increasing importance of diffuse-source emissions and how to reduce them, and, second, the environmental implications of large-scale changes in land use, and management strategies for mitigating potential impacts on soil and groundwater quality. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Stigliani, W.M.; Anderberg, S. (IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria)); Jaffe, P.R. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States))

1993-05-01

111

Area differentiated analysis of impacts of climate change scenarios on groundwater resources in Northwestern Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Regional climate change scenarios were studied with the water balance model GROWA (Kunkel and Wendland, 2002) to predict the temporal development of mean long - term total runoff, direct runoff and groundwater runoff, including regionally dif-ferentiated analyses for river basins, regions and administrative units. Special emphasizes was given to the regionally differentiated prediction of the mean long-term impacts on groundwater recharge, which determines both, the river discharge and ecological status of rivers during dry periods, as well as the upper limit for the sus-tainable abstraction of groundwater (e.g. prognosis of groundwater hydrograph trends in regions, where water supply is fed from groundwater). As a reference, the GROWA model was calibrated and validated for the hydrological period 1971 - 2000 in an area of ca. 90.000 km² in the North - Western part of Germany, i.e. for the entire Federal States of North Rhine - Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Hamburg and Bremen.

Wendland, F.; Kunkel, R.; Kunstmann, H.; Lingemann, I.; Tetzlaff, B.

2009-04-01

112

Identification of stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the Rhine basin using Q methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article identifies different stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the downstream parts of the Rhine basin in Germany and The Netherlands. The perspectives were identified using Q methodology, which proved to be a good, but time-intensive, method for eliciting and analyzing stakeholder perspectives in a structured and unbiased way. Three shared perspectives were found: A "Anticipation and institutions", B "Space for flooding" and C "Knowledge and engineering". These three perspectives share a central concern for the provision of safety against flooding, but disagree on the expected autonomous developments and the preferred measures. In perspective A, the expected climate change and economic growth call for fast action. To deal with the increasing flood risk, mostly institutional measures are proposed, such as the development of a stronger basin commission. In perspective B, an increasing spatial pressure on the river area is expected, and the proposed measures are focused on mitigating damage, e.g., through controlled flooding and compartmentalization. In perspective C, the role of expert knowledge and technological improvements is emphasized. Preferred strategies include strengthening the dikes and differentiation of safety standards.

An overview of stakeholder perspectives can be useful in natural resources management for 1 setting the research agenda, 2 identifying differences in values and interests that need to be discussed, 3 creating awareness among a broad range of stakeholders, and 4 developing scenarios.

G. T. Raadgever

2008-08-01

113

SchussenAktivplus: reduction of micropollutants and of potentially pathogenic bacteria for further water quality improvement of the river Schussen, a tributary of Lake Constance, Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The project focuses on the efficiency of combined technologies to reduce the release of micropollutants and bacteria into surface waters via sewage treatment plants of different size and via stormwater overflow basins of different types. As a model river in a highly populated catchment area, the river Schussen and, as a control, the river Argen, two tributaries of Lake Constance, Southern Germany, are under investigation in this project. The efficiency of the different cleaning technologies i...

2013-01-01

114

Downscaling of climate parameters in Bode river basin in Germany using Active Learning Method (ALM)  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is a part of main program RIMAX "risk management of extreme flood events", which concerns itself of "extremes floodwater and damage potential in the Bode river basin in Germany „with the variable occurrence of flood events in this area for the past 1000 years. The objective of the project is to produce the local climate time series (climate downscaling) as the input for a runoff model in the Bode basin for the last 1000 years on a grid of 5x5 km as well as the estimation of the spatial distributions and temporal variability of the precipitation, the amount of precipitation and further meteorological parameter (temperature, radiation and relative humidity) for this area. A nonlinear downscaling based on Fuzzy rules has been used to produce 1000 year climate time series. The global model ECHO from Max Planck institute for Meteorology (MPI) with T30 resolution and 1000 years data has been used as the global model (GCM). The regional model REMO, with 10 km resolution and 20 years data has been used as the regional input. The observations, which include 30 years precipitation, radiation, temperature, wind and relative humidity, have been used as output (predictand). In this study, two set fuzzy rules have been trained to describe the relationship between ECHO/REMO and REMO/Observation. The Fuzzy method used in this work is Active Learning Method (ALM). The heart of calculation of ALM is a fuzzy interpolation and curve fitting which is entitled Ink Drop Spread (IDS). The IDS searches fuzzily for continuous possible paths of interpolated data points on data planes. The ability of ALM to simulate the high values as well as the fluctuation of time series is much better than Takagi-Sugeno models, which have been used for downscaling in the last decade. In the next steps, considering predictors from the ECHO time series and predictands from the REMO grid points, some ALM models are developed, which describe the fuzzy rules and the relationship between global and regional scales. These models are verified using checking data and then considering ECHO/REMO models and on the basis of last 1000 years of ECHO, the REMO time series as well as the local data are simulated. These simulated data are used as input-data for the runoff model ARCEGMO.

Sodoudi, S.; Reimer, E.

2009-04-01

115

A Model of Composite Seismic Sources for the Lower Rhine Graben, Northwest Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Lower Rhine Graben (LRG) straddling the border zone of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany, is an active tectonic structure in continental northwest Europe. It is characterized by northwest-southeast oriented normal faults, and moderate but rather continuous seismic activity. Many faults have been mapped in the LRG, but so far a model of fault hierarchy or fault segmentation has been lacking. In the frame of a European database of seismogenic sources, we have devised a seismic-source mo...

2013-01-01

116

Identification of stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the Rhine basin using Q methodology :  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article identifies different stakeholder perspectives on future flood management in the downstream parts of the Rhine basin in Germany and The Netherlands. The perspectives were identified using Q methodology, which proved to be a good, but time-intensive, method for eliciting and analyzing stakeholder perspectives in a structured and unbiased way. Three shared perspectives were found: A) "Anticipation and institutions", B) "Space for flooding" and C) "Knowledge ...

Raadgever, G. T.; Mostert, E.; Giesen, N. C.

2008-01-01

117

Germany as a seismic region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book discusses international earthquake research in general, the earthquake phenomenon, problems, aids, and methods of research into seismic areas, earthquake intensities, earthquake recording, and early detection. Germany is discussed as a unique seismic region. One reason for its uniqueness is the rare occurrence of fault trenches such as the Upper Rhine Plane. The other reason is the sudden occurrence of an active seismic area on November 16, 1911. (orig.)

1980-01-01

118

Ecological Status of Rivers and Streams in Saxony (Germany According to the Water Framework Directive and Prospects of Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Federal State of Saxony (Germany transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD. Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements were used to identify significant anthropogenic pressures, which surface water bodies are susceptible to, and to assess the effect of these pressures on the status of surface water bodies. In 2009, the data for classification of the ecological status and the main pressures and impacts on water bodies were published in the river basin management plans (RBMP of the Elbe and Oder rivers. To that date, only 23 (4% streams achieved an ecological status of “good”, while the rest failed to achieve the environmental objective. The two main reasons for the failure were significant alterations to the stream morphology (81% of all streams and nutrient enrichment (62% caused by point (industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants and non-point (surface run-off from arable fields, discharges from urban drainages and decentralized waste water treatment plants sources. It was anticipated that a further 55 streams would achieve the environmental objective by 2015, but the remaining 539 need extended deadlines.

Uwe Müller

2012-11-01

119

Fuel cell and hydrogen network North Rhine-Westphalia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Network North-Rhine-Westphalia (FCHN NRW) is a non-profit regional technology platform whose mandate is to commercialize fuel cell technologies and establish a sustainable hydrogen economy. The FCHN NRW aims to position the North Rhine-Westphalia region as international centre for fuel cell and hydrogen technology. The network consists of more 300 members from research institutes, government agencies, and private businesses who are encouraged to adapt their products to the special needs of fuel cell systems. The FCHN NRW also aids in the procurement of project partners and provides advice on funding. The region currently has a 240 km hydrogen pipeline connecting several chemical plants and producers and consumers of hydrogen. Approximately 1250 GWh of hydrogen are produced in the region, the majority of which is consumed. The network is also involved in a European-wide project to deploy fuel cell vehicles and create a hydrogen infrastructure. Other projects in the past have included the development of 10 kW fuel cell midi buses; fuel cell cargo-bikes; mobile filling stations; and outdoor terminals. The network is now involved in a national 10 year program in Germany which aims to prepare the country for a hydrogen economy. 7 figs.

Ziolek, A.; Koch, F. [Energy Agency NRW, Dusseldorf (Germany). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Network

2007-07-01

120

The cadastre of waste heat in the Upper Rhine Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cadastre of waste heat provides the distribution in space and time of anthropogeneous waste heat emissions on a 2 x 2 km"2 grid. In the case of the Upper Rhine Valley it serves as a basis for the numerical evaluations of climatic changes caused by man. Such a cadastre also allows to analyse the distribution of pollutant emissions and the heat or energy supply, respectively, of the region. In a close approximation the distribution of waste heat is equal to the distribution of energy consumption. As there are generally difficulties in obtaining data about the consumption of the types of energy on the grid level, methods were developed which allow to determine the local energy consumption by using the relevant structural data. The methods used for the Federal Republic of Germany and neighbouring countries and the results for the Upper Rhine Valley, obtained by these methods, are presented. The cadastre of waste heat is based on data of the year 1973 which was a time of great energy consumption. Only in 1978 this energy consumption was exceeded. To be able to estimate the change in the influence of the anthropogeneous waste heat during the next 20 years, the cadastre was extrapolated until the year 2000. (orig.)

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the upper Rhine using 3HHO as a tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine river under natural conditions are determined by use of single emissions of tritiated waste water from nuclear power plants within normal operation. The influence of the discharge of the Rhine on the most relevant parameters is investigated thoroughly. In a case of accidental release of radioactive material, these data would be the basis of a prognosis by which the behaviour of the contaminated river section along the course can be described and the radiological consequences within the so-called critical impact area estimated. (orig.)

1991-01-01

122

Tracing the Anthropocene in the Rhine-Meuse delta  

Science.gov (United States)

The Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta developed during the past ~8000 yr under a first rapid and later decreasing sea level rise in a back-barrier area along the North Sea. After about 3500 yr BP, natural delta evolution became increasingly influenced by humans, with different types of imprints: increased discharge and sediment load associated with deforestation in the hinterland affecting channel geometry and deposition; artificial avulsion; large-scale peat excavation; reclamation and drainage of flood basins resulting in compaction and oxidation of peat; river embankment preventing delta-wide overbank deposition and finalizing avulsion; channelization, changing channel belt geometry and causing shifts in sediment deposition within the delta. After the onset of the industrial revolution, contaminants have been deposited along with the river sediment on the embanked floodplains and in the estuary. The extremely well-documented human-affected evolution of the delta provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate how the Anthropocene can manifest itself in such an environment. We give an overview of human-affected processes in the Rhine-Meuse delta and discuss their effect on fluvial architecture, morphology and sediment composition, and how these may remain preserved within the delta sedimentary record.

Middelkoop, Hans; van der Perk, Marcel; Cohen, Kim M.; Stouthamer, Esther; Hoek, Wim Z.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Erkens, Gilles; Jansma, Esther

2014-05-01

123

Late Quaternary evolution of rivers, lakes and peatlands in northeast Germany reflecting past climatic and human impact – an overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of regional palaeohydrology is essential for understanding current environmental issues, such as the causes of recent hydrologic changes, impacts of land use strategies and effectiveness of wetland restoration measures. Even the interpretation of model results on future impacts of climatic and land-cover changes may be improved using (pre-historic analogies. An overview of palaeohydrologic findings of the last c. 20,000 years is given for northeast Germany with its glacial landscapes of different age. River development is examined with a focus on valley(-floor formation and depositional changes, river course and channel changes, and palaeodischarge/-floods. Major genetic differences exist among ‘old morainic’ (Elsterian, Saalian and ‘young morainic’ (Weichselian areas, and among topographically high- and low-lying valleys, the latter of which are strongly influenced by water-level changes in the North and Baltic Seas. Lake development was analysed with respect to lake formation, which was predominantly driven by late Pleistocene to early Holocene dead-ice dynamics, and with respect to depositional changes. Furthermore, lake-level changes have been in the focus, showing highly variable local records with some conformity. The overview on peatland development concentrated on phases of mire formation and on long-term groundwater dynamics. Close relationships between the development of rivers, lakes and peatlands existed particularly during the late Holocene by complex paludification processes in large river valleys. Until the late Holocene, regional hydrology was predominantly driven by climatic, geomorphic and nonanthropogenic biotic factors. Since the late Medieval times, human activities have strongly influenced the drainage pattern and the water cycle, for instance, by damming of rivers and lakes, construction of channels and dikes, and peatland cultivation. Indeed, the natural changes caused by long-term climatic and geomorphic processes have been exceeded by impacts resulting from short-term human actions in the last c. 50 years as discharge regulation, hydromelioration and formation of artificial lakes.

Knut Kaiser

2012-07-01

124

The Rhine-Maas-analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important preconditions and results of the new study are described as follows: 1. Local, regional, and global analyses. 2. Description of the Rhine-Maas region. 3. Installed electric power on a nuclear basis - a forecast until the year of 2000. 4. Radionuclide emission rates. 5. Environmental exposure pathways and calculation of the radiological exposure. 6. Radiological exposure caused by the emissions of nuclear power plants. 6.1 Exposure via the air pathway. 6.2 Exposure via the water pathway. 6.3 A comparison air pathway:water pathway. 7. Radiological exposure caused by the world-wide nuclear engineering. 8. Radiological exposure caused by non-nuclear technical sources. 9. A comparison of all radiological exposures. (orig./HP)

1981-05-22

125

Coupling of primary production and diel nitrate dynamics in a eutrophic lowland river system in central Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

River ecosystem nutrient cycling and export are closely tied to the metabolic activity of primary producers. Although general patterns of diel variation in nutrient concentrations are known, recently developed in situ nutrient sensors allow description of fine-scale patterns of variation for extended durations, and they can potentially be used to quantify autotrophic assimilation. We used high frequency in situ measurements of nitrate (NO3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Bode River system of the TERENO hydrological Observatory of the Helmholtz-Association in central Germany to i) evaluate seasonal variation and river scale dependency of GPP and to ii) generate independent estimates of assimilatory nitrogen demand. We analyzed two year continues data (15 min interval) from four measurement stations ranging from the Selke third order forested stream in the lower mountain range to the sixth order lowland Bode River. We are able to show that GPP follows a clear seasonal variation with highest values of up to 3 gO2m-2d-1 in spring and an additional second peak during litter fall in autumn in the small forested stream. The lowland river shows a similar but less pronounced pattern with distinct higher GPP values of up to 6 gO2m-2d-1. Surprisingly this two modal behavior was not found for the mid sized fourth order arable Selke stream with higher light availability. GPP strongly corresponded to the day length in the growing season showing the highest GPP of up to 8 gO2 m-2d-1 in summer. This may be caused by high periphyton growth due to low dense riparian vegetation. A clear relationship of GPP and diel amplitudes of nitrate concentration could be observed in all streams and rivers but these relationships could only be identified for periods with highest GPP of each individual streams. In addition corresponding correlations (r) ranged between 0.5 and 0.6. The results show that high frequency in situ measurements potentially allow quantifying GPP and assimilatory nutrient uptake and may help to better calculate nutrient retention in rivers.

Rode, Michael; Halbebel, Susanne; Rehan Anis, Muhammad; Weitere, Markus

2014-05-01

126

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in finished drinking water in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study 83 finished drinking water samples from 50 cities in Germany were analyzed for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) content with a detection limit of 10 ng/L. The detection frequency was 46% and the concentrations ranged between 17 and 712 ng/L. Highest concentrations were found in the community water systems (CWSs) of Leuna and Spergau in Saxony-Anhalt. These CWSs are supplied with water possibly affected by MTBE contaminated groundwater. MTBE was detected at concentrations lower than 100 ng/L in drinking water supplied by CWSs using bank filtered water from Rhine and Main Rivers. The results from Leuna and Spergau show that large groundwater contaminations in the vicinity of CWSs pose the highest risk for MTBE contamination in drinking water. CWSs using bank filtered water from Rhine and Main Rivers are susceptible to low MTBE contaminations in finished drinking water. All measured MTBE concentrations were below proposed limit values for drinking water. - MTBE in drinking water comes from different sources of MTBE in the aquatic environment

2006-03-01

127

Monitoring, assessment and modelling using water quality data in the Saale River Basin, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the overall driver for this environmental study and currently requires the identification of patterns and sources of pollution (monitoring) to support objective ecological sound decision making and specific measures to enhance river water quality (modelling). The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate in a case study the interrelationship between (1) hydrologic and water quality monitoring data for river basin characterization and (2) modelling applications to assess resources management alternatives. The study deals with monitoring assessment and modelling of river water quality data of the main stem Saale River and its principal tributaries. For a period of 6 years the data, which was sampled by Environmental Agencies of the German states of Thuringia, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, was investigated to assess sources and indicators of pollution. In addition to the assessment a modelling exercise of the routing of different pollutants was carried out in the lower part of the test basin. The modelling is a tool to facilitate the evaluation of alternative measures to reduce contaminant loadings and improve ecological status of a water body as required by WFD. The transport of suspended solids, salts and heavy metals was modelled along a selected Saale reach under strong anthropogenic influence in terms of contaminants and river morphology between the city of Halle and the confluence with the Elbe River. The simulations were carried out with the model WASP5 which is a dynamic flood-routing and water quality model package developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:17342431

Bongartz, Klaus; Steele, Timothy D; Baborowski, Martina; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

2007-12-01

128

Transparency of floodplain lakes; a study of plankton and suspended matter along the lower Rhine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis starts with an analysis of factors that determine turbidity of a large set of lakes (Chapter 2). In August 1999, 93 floodplain lakes situated in the floodplains of the Lower River Rhine have been sampled in search for morphometric and other factors that explain their contribution to clarity. The results showed that lakes with a drop in summer water level were less turbid at the time of sampling, mainly due to a lower inorganic suspended solids concentration. Older lakes were more ...

Roozen, F. C. J. M.

2005-01-01

129

Transboundary Environmental Problems and Cultural Theory: The protection of the Rhine and the Great Lakes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marco Verweij presents a new and challenging theoretical framework within which to understand international relations, based on the cultural theory developed by Mary Douglas, Michael Thompson, Aaron Wildavsky, and others. By applying this framework in a detailed study of the environmental protection of the river Rhine in Western Europe and the Great Lakes of North America, he also contributes to a better understanding of how transboundary environmental problems have been, and can be, solved.

Verweij, Marco

2000-01-01

130

Morphodynamic processes of the Elbe River estuary, Germany: the Coriolis effect, tidal asymmetry and human dredging  

Science.gov (United States)

The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the historical sea-charts and on-site hydrological records were used to examine the morphological change of the Elbe River estuary. The results show that siltation predominated in the tidal flat in the northern estuary, with a net siltation rate of 1.8 cm·a-1 during 1927-2006. In contrast, a continuous erosion prevailed in the main river channel, south of the estuary, with a net erosion rate of 2.5 cm·a-1 in the same time. In addition, a seaward shift of the estuarine island has happened with the old island coalescing to the northern tidal flat and new one emerging through siltation process. The tidal asymmetry via ebbing flow (maximum at 140 cm·s-1, and average at 76 cm·s-1) prevailed in the tidal flat, meaning continuous aggradation northwestward, while flooding flow (maximum at 100 cm ·s-1, and average at 67 cm·s-1) dominated in the main river channel with deepening thaweg at south, showing a landward sedimentation via the tidal pumping processes. This dextral extension of the estuarine morphology is due to the Coriolis force, leading to the inconsistent directions of in-out flows, which enables to facilitate the estuarine siltation. Human dredging prevailing in the estuary has dramatically altered the nature of the silted river channel to erosional since the last century. This is characterized by a net erosion rate of 3.2 cm·a-1 derived from the DEMs mapping, but only partially accounting for the dredging amount of 1994-2006, when the total dredging volume was 67 × 106 m3, equal to 5.9 cm·a-1.

Li, Maotian; Ge, Jianzhong; Kappenberg, Jens; Much, Dagmar; Nino, Ohle; Chen, Zhongyuan

2014-06-01

131

Methylated arsenic and antimony species in suspended matter of the river Ruhr, Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The methylated antimony and arsenic species content of sediments derived from a sedimentation bowl of the river Ruhr were monitored over a 12 month period. The most prevalent species detected were monomethylarsenic (MMAs) and monomethylantimony (MMSb). The methylantimony and methylarsenic species concentration was found to be directly correlated to the winter spate. As the biological activity in the water body is generally low at this time of the year, it may be concluded that the concentrati...

Duester, L.; Hartmann, L. M.; Hirner, A. V.

2008-01-01

132

Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH4NO3-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. - Soils in the Elbe river floodplains are highly polluted with metals and arsenic and a critical enrichment in the grassland herbage seems to be most likely in flood channels or within special plant species

2007-02-01

133

Soil texture effects on the transport of phosphorus from agricultural land in river deltas of Northern Belgium, The Netherlands and North-West Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The loss of phosphorus (P) from agricultural soils can lead to serious eutrophication of surface water. Within the large river delta areas in Northern Belgium, The Netherlands and North-West Germany, a number of representative soil textures are found (sandy, peaty and clayey soils), each with its own specific combination of pathways for P loss. Based on a literature review, this paper describes for these areas the main eutrophication issues and the factors affecting P loss from these agricult...

Chardon, W. J.; Schoumans, O. F.

2007-01-01

134

[sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios in river waters of East Germany. [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr-Verhaeltnisse in Fliessgewaessern Ostdeutschlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

[sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr Ratios for river- and ground-water samples from the eastern part of Germany are in the range from 0.707 (spring water from the Zechstein outcrops in the northern Thuringia) up to 0.727 (river water from Rb-rich granites in the Ore Mountains). The strontium isotope ratios, particularly in the vicinity of springs, reflect the geology of the catchment area. Downriver, as the catchment area increases, the averaging of geology combined with anthropogenic effects results in intermediate isotopic compositions. Within a brief discussion of likely anthropogenic sources experimental data of contribution of urban sewage are given for two locations. (orig.).

Trettin, R.; Haase, G.; Habedank, M. (Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung, Leipzig (Germany))

1991-01-01

135

Some results of the 1991 and 1999 otter (Lutra lutra surveys in the River Ise catchment, Lower-Saxony, Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As part of a river revitalisation project aiming at the re-connection of two otter occurrences in north-central Germany two surveys have been carried out to document the distribution of the otter in this region in 1991 and in 1999. This paper contains some of the results referring to 226 identical survey sites investigated in both surveys. Within eight years the percentage of positive sites increased by nearly five times from 2.2% to 10.2% and the number of 10x10km squares of the UTM (Universal Transversal Mercator System grid increased by more than three times from 4 to 14 out of 32. 99.1% of the survey sites were located at running waters and 89.7% were connected with bridges. Of the 23 signs of otters found in the second survey 65.2% were found under bridges. Nearly three fourths of the survey sites were located at running waters of a width of 5m and less. However, there seems to be a tendency for a higher portion for the waters of a width of 6-10m for all positive sites as well as for the positive sites under bridges.

Reuther C.

2001-04-01

136

Non biodegradable and weakly adsorbing substances in the river Elbe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quality of the river Elbe in East Germany has been investigated in a research project subsidized by the German minstry of research and technology, iwth respect to drinking water quality and treatment using laboratory methods similar to the treatment processes in waterworks. The experiments included analysis of sum- and group-parameters before and after biological degradation and a study of adsorption on activated carbon. Comparing these results with data already published from the river Rhine in West Germany, the water of the river Elbe showed approximately double the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and ion-pair-extractable organic sulphur (IOS). Mathematical models have been used to obtain further information from these measurements about the origin of the organic substances in the river Elbe. As a consequence, an important part of the relatively high DOC-concentration in the Elbe-river is due to natural humic substances. Therefore the operation of better waste water treatment plants along the elbe-river might reduce the concentration of organic halogen and sulphur substances in particular, whereas the concentration of DOC will decrease only slightly in the future. (orig.)

1993-01-01

137

Transport of Algal Cells in Hyporheic Sediments of the River Elbe (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

The advective transport of algal cells into the interstices of the hyporheic zone of the River Elbe was spatially and temporally heterogenous. Even deep sediment layers were reached by large phytoplankton species. Therefore, it is suggested that (i) the advective interstitial transport patterns vary between different algal sizes and morphotypes and (ii) sediment characteristics, expressed by the permeability coefficient kf of porous media, affect retention and retardation of surface water algae during subsurface transport. The transport behaviour of different green algae (Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus acuminatus, Desmodesmus communis, and Pediastrum duplex) and algal sized microspheres was tested in flow-through column experiments with hyporheic sediments. The algal cell transport was directly related to the permeability of the column sediments. (

Kloep, Frank; Röske, Isolde

2004-01-01

138

[Distribution of ABO allele frequencies in the Düsseldorf regional district (Northern Rhine-Westphalia)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The AB0 allele frequencies and their regional distribution have been studied in the administrative area of Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia. The o allele shows relatively low and the B allele relatively high frequencies in the eastern and south-eastern parts of the region. The high B frequencies are interpreted as a consequence of the immigration from north-eastern Germany and Poland at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century (labourers) and after 1945. PMID:8192430

Scheil, H G; Strunz, H

1994-03-01

139

A joint probability approach using a 1-D hydrodynamic model for estimating high water level frequencies in the Lower Rhine Delta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Lower Rhine Delta, a transitional area between the River Rhine and Meuse and the North Sea, is at risk of flooding induced by infrequent events of a storm surge or upstream flooding, or by more infrequent events of a combination of both. A joint probability analysis of the astronomical tide, the wind induced storm surge, the Rhine flow and the Meuse flow at the boundaries is established in order to produce the joint probability distribution of potential flood events. Three individual joint probability distributions are established corresponding to three potential flooding causes: storm surges and normal Rhine discharges, normal sea levels and high Rhine discharges, and storm surges and high Rhine discharges. For each category, its corresponding joint probability distribution is applied, in order to stochastically simulate a large number of scenarios. These scenarios can be used as inputs to a deterministic 1-D hydrodynamic model in order to estimate the high water level frequency curves at the transitional locations. The results present the exceedance probability of the present design water level for the economically important cities of Rotterdam and Dordrecht. The calculated exceedance probability is evaluated and compared to the governmental norm. Moreover, the impact of climate change on the high water level frequency curves is quantified for the year 2050 in order to assist in decisions regarding the adaptation of the operational water management system and the flood defense system.

H. Zhong

2013-07-01

140

Hydroclimatic signal and LBK cultural activity in the Upper and Lower Rhine, inferred from abandoned channel fill deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely populated Upper Rhine Graben with those from the more peripheral Lower Rhine valley to decipher anthropogenic impacts from natural environmental circumstances. Moreover, we try to discriminate the local to the regional signals recorded in the fluvial archives, by comparing the proxy data with the pedo-sedimentary context. The ultimate goal is to model socio-environmental interactions during the LBK culture progression to Western Europe with MMA.

Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Heart transplantation at the Heart Center North Rhine-Westfalia.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the Heart Center North Rhine-Westfalia, Germany, more than 1,500 adult cardiac transplantations and more than 100 pediatric cardiac transplantations have been performed since the transplant program was initiated in 1989. Each year, we take care of 800 cardiac transplant recipients and 1,700 patients with heart failure who are in a long-term program for cardiac transplantation or on the Eurotransplant waiting list for cardiac transplantation. We have experience with ventricular assist device implantation as bridge to transplant in more than 300 patients. In total, our clinical know-how with cardiac transplant recipients is based on 10,800 patient-years of observation. In 2006, we transplanted the first donor heart worldwide with the Organ Care System, a technology capable of maintaining human organs in a functioning state ex-vivo. Usually, our transplant recipients have more preoperative risk factors than cardiac transplant recipients at other German heart centers. Our postoperative patient care is individualized with respect to immunosuppression and the performance of myocardial biopsies and coronary angiography. Since 1989, we have performed 31 cardiac retransplantations. PMID:19708454

Tenderich, G; Zittermann, A; Schulz, U; Schulte-Eistrup, S; Schleithoff, S S; Wlost, S; Körfer, R

2008-01-01

142

Exploring the Prospects for Cross-Border Climate Change Adaptation between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change will have various effects on river basins: precipitation levels and water temperature may change, floods and also droughts may occur more frequently. These effects do not respect man-made borders, so climate adaptation in itself is a transnational challenge. Adaptation can reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change effects. Within the Rhine river basin, North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands are dealing with climate adaptation governance, both on the national and on the transboundary level. The aim of this paper is to get a better understanding of factors that stimulate or constrain transboundary governance of climate change adaptation. Our presumption is that the level of congruence between policy arrangements on both sides of the border has an impact on the prospects for cooperation. By applying the Policy Arrangement Approach we found similarities and differences between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands. The two arrangements are similar in their involvement of multiple actors on multiple levels, the degree of decentralization of policy making, a relatively strong feeling of urgency (though framed differently and the availability of knowledge resources. However, in the Netherlands adaptation is primarily water related and sector based, while in North Rhine-Westphalia the focus is more integrated, aiming at a balancing of different values and interests. Other differences are related to the amount and division of financial resources available and to actors’ responsibilities. The latter is geared towards a public responsibility in the Netherlands, while in North Rhine-Westphalia dealing with flood risks is also a responsibility of civilians and other private parties. We conclude that the degree of congruence between the two states is fairly high and will present argument as to why this offers good opportunities for further cooperation.

Marjolein C.J. Van Eerd

2014-05-01

143

Numeric simulation of the Permocarbon in the northern Upper Rhine Graben; Numerische Modellierung des Permokarbon im noerdlichen Oberrheingraben  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the large countersink depths and broader lateral extension, the sediments of the permocarbon in the Upper Rhine Graben are a potential geothermal reservoir. The Saar Nahe basin as an intramontainous basin of the Variscan Orogen between Alsace-Lorraine and Bad Kreuznach (Federal Republic of Germany) proceeds in the deep underground of the northern Upper Rhine Graben. Neighboured recent and former upper sections of the Central German Crystalline Threshold in S-SE and subordinated to the Taunus mountain in NW are the former supply areas for the Saar Nahe basin. Recently, large-dimensioned exposures in the Saar Nahe basin offer excellent opportunities for reservoir analogue studies of the Rotliegend rock in the underground of the northern Upper Rhine Graben. Based on reprocessed 2D seismology from the 1970ies and 1980ies and based on the data from exploration drillings, a lithofacial and petrophysical database is established for the Rotliegend rock. This database is supplemented by a newly acquired 2D seismology from actual geothermal energy projects. The integrated dataset was interpreted with high-resolution. The resulting static 3D model includes 10 stratigraphic horizons and a fault modelling. The tie-depth-conversion is based on the Geophon sinking measurement and stack velocities. Facial analyses of the digestion analogons as well as further drilling data were implemented in the facies model covering the northern sub basin of the northern Upper Rhine Graben. This implemented structural, stratigraphic and facial model forms the input data set for a pursuing dynamic modelling. The objective is the temporal and spatial simulation of heat distribution and fluid transport within the Permocarbon in the future use of geothermal energy. Coarse sandstone units as well as plugged micro conglomerate units from digestion analogous studies justify the expectation of the existence of suitable reservoir units with a large lateral continuity of the northern Upper Rhine Graben. The present data and 3D models present large-dimensioned fault systems with enhanced amounts of displacement within the Upper Rhine Graben as well as increasing countersink depths in the direction north-west. The temperature profiles of the boreholes and the first results of the thermo-hydraulic modelling present an intraformational fluid transport as well as a good connectivity along the fault systems. Based on the available results, the northern Upper Rhine Graben possesses an enhanced potential for the hydrothermal power generation in the range of fault zones.

Rohrer, L.; Zuehlke, R. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Wenke, A. [GeoThermal Engineering GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Spath, F. [Ueberlandwerke Gross-Gerau GmbH, Gross-Gerau (Germany)

2012-10-16

144

Sediment dynamics in the Rhine catchment : Quantification of fluvial response to climate change and human impact  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fluvial systems are strongly responsive to changes in climate and land use — but take their time to show it. Accurate prediction of the timing and degree of future fluvial response requires comprehensive understanding of fluvial response in the past. This PhD-thesis studied the response of the river Rhine over the last 20,000 years, as recorded in the morphology, composition and volumes of its sediment. Borehole data and various dating techniques were combined to time-slice cross-sections a...

Erkens, Gilles

2009-01-01

145

Understanding and managing the morphology of Rhine Delta branches incising into sand-clay deposits:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Rhine-Meuse delta in the south-western part of the Netherlands, the morphology of the river branches is highly dependent on the erodibility of the subsoil. Erosion processes that were initiated after closure of the Haringvliet estuary branch by a dam (in 1970), caused a strong incision of several connecting branches. Due to the geological evolution of this area the lithology of the subsoil shows large variations in highly erodible sand and poorly erodible peat and clay layers. In this ...

Sloff, C. J.; Spijk, A.; Stouthamer, E.; Sieben, A.

2011-01-01

146

Unraveling the Quaternary river incision in the Moselle valley (Rhenish Massif, Germany): new insights from cosmogenic nuclide dating (10Be/26Al) of the Main Terrace complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the whole river network of the Rhenish Massif, the terrace complex of the so-called Main Terrace forms the morphological transition between a wide upper palaeovalley (plateau valley) and a deeply incised lower valley. The youngest level of this Main Terrace complex (YMT), directly located at the edge of the incised valley, represents a dominant geomorphic feature in the terrace flight; it is often used as a reference level to identify the start of the main middle Pleistocene incision episode (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). The latter probably reflects the major tectonic pulse that affected the whole Massif and was related to an acceleration of the uplift rates (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). The Main terraces are particularly well preserved in the lower Moselle valley and are characterized by a constant absolute elevation of their base along a 150 km-long reach. Despite that various hypotheses have been proposed to explain this horizontality (updoming, faulting...), all studies assumed an age of ca. 800 ka for the YMT, mainly based on the questionable extrapolation of palaeomagnetic data obtained in the Rhine valley. Therefore, a reliable chronological framework is still required to unravel the spatio-temporal characteristics of the Pleistocene evolution of the Moselle valley. In this study, we apply cosmogenic nuclide dating (10Be/26Al) to fluvial sediments pertaining to the Main Terrace complex or to the upper Middle Terraces. Several sites along the lower Moselle were sampled following two distinct sampling strategies: (i) depth profiles where the original terrace (palaeo-)surface is well preserved and did not experience much postdepositional burial (e.g., loess cover); and (ii) the isochron technique where the sediment thickness exceeds 3 m. Cosmogenic nuclide ages recently obtained for three rivers in the Meuse catchment in the western Rhenish Massif demonstrated that the Main Terraces were younger than expected and their abandonment was diachronic along the hydrographic network (Rixhon et al., 2011). These results are consistent with the reconstruction proposed for the Middle and Lower Terraces of the Moselle (Cordier, 2006). Here, we present preliminary results of this ongoing study, aiming at discussing their significance to improve the knowledge of the river incision mechanisms in response to combined tectonic and climatic signals. References Cordier, S., Harmand, D., Frechen, M., Beiner, M., 2006. Fluvial system response to Middle and Upper Pleistocene climate change in the Meurthe and Moselle valleys (Eastern Paris Basin and Rhenish Massif). Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 1460-1474. Demoulin, A., Hallot, E., 2009. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe). Tectonophysics 474, 696-708. Rixhon, G., Braucher, R., Bourlès, D., Siame, L., Bovy, B., Demoulin, A., 2011. Quaternary river incision in NE Ardennes (Belgium) - Insights from 10Be/26Al dating of river terraces. Quaternary Geochronology 6, 273-284.

Rixhon, Gilles; Cordier, Stéphane; Harmand, Dominique; May, Simon Matthias; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Dunai, Tibor; Binnie, Steven; Brückner, Helmut

2014-05-01

147

Environmental mediation: The mediation procedure on the waste management plan in the district of Neuss, North Rhine-Westphalia - Initial results of the companion social science research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the first time ever in the Federal Republic of Germany a mediation procedure on a waste management concept has been carried out. It took place in Neuss in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The interdisciplinary project group, Environmental Mediation, from the Science Centre Berlin for Social Research (WZB) was one of the initiators of the mediation project. It conducted social science research that accompanied the procedure throughout. The procedure began in March 1992 a...

Fietkau, Hans-joachim; Weidner, Helmut

1995-01-01

148

The influence of climate change on the use of hydro power in Germany; Einfluss der Klimaveraenderung auf die Wasserkraftnutzung in Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change has a high influence on the energy production and the earning of hydro power plants. On basis of the existing evaluations there will be a minor production of hydro power in Germany. In the near future the production will decrease about 1 to 4 % and in the further future about 15 %. computer simulations for selected water-power plants at the rivers Rhine, Lech and Main demonstrate that their earning responses sensitively to variabilities of water supply. According to the circumstances the varability balances from +9 % to -9 %. To counterbalance possible minor productions of hydro power it is recommended to use the existent potential to optimize the plants and to improve operation and maintenance. (orig.)

Wolf-Schumann, Ulrich [Hydrotec Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Wasser und Umwelt mbH, Aachen (Germany); Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

2010-07-01

149

The anthropogenic contribution to the organic load of the Lippe River (Germany). Part II: Quantification of specific organic contaminants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major goal of this study was to investigate the organic pollution of a river on a quantitative basis. To this end, 14 anthropogenic contaminants which were identified in Lippe River water samples as reported in part I (Dsikowitzky et al., submitted parallel to this manuscript) were surveyed. Dissolved organic loads of the specific compounds were calculated on the basis of their concentrations in water and river runoff on the day of sampling. The organic loads of each compound were compiled along the longitudinal section of the river in order to generate individual spatial pollution profiles. It was observed that distribution of organic loads along the river showed distinctive patterns, depending upon the input situation and physico-chemical properties of the compound. The compounds were classified into three types of which Type 1, due to their stability in the aqueous phase, are of special interest for potential application as anthropogenic markers. PMID:15519373

Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Littke, Ralf

2004-12-01

150

Propagation prognoses on rivers Rhine, Neckar, Main and Moselle based on {sup 3}HHO tracer dispersion investigations; Erstellung von Ausbreitungsprognosen an Rhein, Neckar, Main und Mosel aufgrund von Dispersionsuntersuchungen mit {sup 3}HHO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intermittent discharges of {sup 3}HHO from nuclear installations have been used to determine flow times, flow velocities and values characterizing the longitudinal dispersion of soluble substances under natural conditions. The data and the knowledge thus gained are the basis for developing propagation prognoses. In case of an accidental input of radioactive or inactive water-soluble substances into the river, the flow and propagation behaviour in the contaminated river sections can be described, what permits also an estimation of the radiologic or toxic effects. The formal interrelation of the values required for a tabular presentation of prognoses on the longitudinal dispersion of these noxious substances is described and exemplified. (orig.) [German] Intermittierende Einleitungen von {sup 3}HHO aus kerntechnischen Anlagen wurden genutzt, um Fliesszeiten, Fliessgeschwindigkeiten und Kenndaten zur longitudinalen Dispersion von geloesten Stoffen unter natuerlichen Bedingungen zu ermitteln. Die hierbei gewonnenen Daten und Erkenntnisse bilden die Grundlage fuer Ausbreitungsprognosen, anhand der im Falle eines stoerfallbedingten Eintrags radioaktiver oder auch inaktiver wasserloeslicher Stoffe in die Vorfluter das Fliess- und Ausbreitungsverhalten des kontaminierten Flussabschnitts beschrieben und die radiologischen oder toxikologischen Auswirkungen fuer unterliegende Nutzungsbereiche abgeschaetzt werden koennen. Der zur tabellarischen Darstellung von Prognosen zur longitudinalen Ausbreitung dieser Schadstoffe erforderliche formale Zusammenhang der benoetigten Groessen wird beschrieben und beispielhaft verdeutlicht. (orig.)

Krause, W.J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany)

1998-07-01

151

Comparing model performance of two rainfall-runoff models in the Rhine basin using different atmospheric forcing data sets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the growing wish and necessity to simulate the possible effects of climate change on the discharge regime on large rivers such as the Rhine in Europe, there is a need for well performing hydrological models that can be applied in climate change scenario studies. There exists large variety in available models and there is an ongoing debate in research on rainfall-runoff modelling on whether or not physically based distributed models better represent observed discharges than conceptual lumped model approaches do. In this paper, the hydrological models HBV and VIC were compared for the Rhine basin by testing their performance in simulating discharge. Overall, the semi-distributed conceptual HBV model performed much better than the distributed physically based VIC model (E=0.62, r2=0.65 vs. E=0.31, r2=0.54 at Lobith. It is argued here that even for a well-documented river basin such as the Rhine, more complex modelling does not automatically lead to better results. Moreover, it is concluded that meteorological forcing data has a considerable influence on model performance, irrespectively to the type of model structure and the need for ground-based meteorological measurements is emphasized.

A. H. te Linde

2007-12-01

152

Comparing model performance of two rainfall-runoff models in the Rhine basin using different atmospheric forcing data sets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the growing wish and necessity to simulate the possible effects of climate change on the discharge regime on large rivers such as the Rhine in Europe, there is a need for well performing hydrological models that can be applied in climate change scenario studies. There exists large variety in available models and there is an ongoing debate in research on rainfall-runoff modelling on whether or not physically based distributed models better represent observed discharges than conceptual lumped model approaches do. In addition, it is argued that Land Surface Models (LSMs carry the potential to accurately estimate hydrological partitioning, because they solve the coupled water and energy balance. In this paper, the hydrological models HBV and VIC were compared for the Rhine basin by testing their performance in simulating discharge. Overall, the semi-distributed conceptual HBV model performed much better than the distributed land surface model VIC (E=0.62, r2=0.65 vs. E=0.31, r2=0.54 at Lobith. It is argued here that even for a well-documented river basin such as the Rhine, more complex modelling does not automatically lead to better results. Moreover, it is concluded that meteorological forcing data has a considerable influence on model performance, irrespectively to the type of model structure and the need for ground-based meteorological measurements is emphasized.

A. H. te Linde

2008-06-01

153

Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the upper Rhine using sup 3 HHO as a tracer. Zur Bestimmung von Fliesszeiten und longitudinaler Dispersion im Hoch- und Oberrhein mit sup 3 HHO als Tracer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine river under natural conditions are determined by use of single emissions of tritiated waste water from nuclear power plants within normal operation. The influence of the discharge of the Rhine on the most relevant parameters is investigated thoroughly. In a case of accidental release of radioactive material, these data would be the basis of a prognosis by which the behaviour of the contaminated river section along the course can be described and the radiological consequences within the so-called critical impact area estimated. (orig.).

Mundschenk, H.; Krause, W.J. (Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany))

1991-10-01

154

Activities of the North Rhine Westphalian mining authorities in 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Figures on petroleum production in North Rhine Westphalia in 1982 are followed by a review of mining authorities' activities, mining techniques and safety, protection of health, life-saving services and environmental protection measures are reported on.

1984-01-01

155

Assessment of the structural quality of streams in Germany-basic description and current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifteen years ago, the first mapping guidelines for the recording and evaluation of river physical habitat quality in Germany, closely following the Länder Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser (LAWA) field survey, have been published. In light of this experience, a revised version has now been developed for North Rhine-Westphalia (West Germany). For the assessment, the streams are divided into segments serving as survey units. The survey is performed primarily in the field from the mouth to the source by an on-site recording of data. Defined reference conditions of the relevant morphological stream types serve as basis of the evaluation. Two evaluation procedures are carried out independently to validate the quality of the data. The proven basic concept operates as follows: the local scale habitat variables are grouped into 31 single parameters, which are then aggregated into six main parameters. These can further be aggregated into three zones: streambed, banks and adjacent land. The main modifications of the presented version are the following: (1) a larger differentiation of morphological stream types and (2) a higher level of detail concerning the mapping of relevant habitat characteristics. The last point allows additional evaluation options related to the morphological needs of the instream biota and a differentiated survey of anthropogenic degradation. Despite all modifications, the comparability with previous surveys has been largely maintained. By qualitative comparison of this method with other European mapping guidelines, different concepts of hydromorphological mapping are finally discussed. PMID:24473681

Gellert, Georg; Pottgiesser, Tanja; Euler, Thomas

2014-06-01

156

Ectomycorrhizal diversity at five different tree species in forests of the Taunus Mountains in Central Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ectomycorrhizal fungi were investigated on five different forest tree species growing in pure stands on the south slope of the Taunus Mountains, which are situated at the northern end of the Rhine rift valley in Central Germany. Mycorrhizal fungi accompanying the genus Xe...

2013-01-01

157

The simultaneous occurrence of surge and discharge extremes for the Rhine delta  

Science.gov (United States)

The low-lying Netherlands is at risk from multiple threats of sea level rise, storm surges and extreme river discharges. Should these occur simultaneously, a catastrophe will be at hand. Knowledge about the likelihood of simultaneous occurrence or the so-called "compound effect" of such threats is essential to provide guidance on legislation for dike heights, flood barrier design and water management in general. In this study, we explore the simultaneous threats of North Sea storm surges and extreme Rhine river discharge for the current and future climate in a large 17-member global climate model ensemble. We use a simple approach, taking proxies of north-northwesterly winds over the North Sea and multiple~day precipitation averaged over the Rhine basin for storm surge and discharge respectively, so that a sensitivity analysis is straightforward to apply. By investigating soft extremes, we circumvent the need to extrapolate the data and thereby permit the model's synoptic development of the extreme events to be inspected. Our principle finding based on the climate model data is that, for the current climate, the probability of extreme surge conditions following extreme 20-day precipitation sums is around 3 times higher than that estimated from treating extreme surge and discharge probabilities as independent, as previously assumed. For the future climate (2070-2100), the assumption of independence cannot be rejected, at least not for precipitation sums exceeding 7 days.

Kew, S. F.; Selten, F. M.; Lenderink, G.; Hazeleger, W.

2013-08-01

158

Laboratory shake flask batch tests can predict field biodegradation of aniline in the Rhine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to compare degradation rates of aniline in laboratory shake flask simulation tests with field rates in the river Rhine. The combined events of a low flow situation in the Rhine and residual aniline concentrations in the effluent from the BASF treatment plant in Ludwigshafen temporarily higher than normal, made it possible to monitor aniline at trace concentrations in the river water downstream the wastewater outlet by means of a sensitive GC headspace analytical method. Aniline was analyzed along a downstream gradient and the dilution along the gradient was calculated from measurements of conductivity, sulfate and a non-readily biodegradable substance, 1,4-dioxane. Compensating dilution, field first-order degradation rate constants downstream the discharge of BASF were estimated at 1.8 day(-1) for two different dates with water temperatures of 21.9 and 14.7 degreesC, respectively. This field rate estimate was compared with results from 38 laboratory shake flask batch tests with Rhinewater which averaged 1.5 day(-1) at 15 degreesC and 2.0 day(-1) at 20 degreesC. These results indicate that laboratory shake flask batch tests with low concentrations of test substance can be good predictors of degradation rates in natural water bodies-at least as ascertained here for short duration tests with readily degradable compounds among which aniline is a commonly used reference. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Toräng, Lars; Reuschenbach, P.

2001-01-01

159

The simultaneous occurrence of surge and discharge extremes for the Rhine delta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The low-lying Netherlands is at risk from multiple threats of sea level rise, storm surges and extreme river discharges. Should these occur simultaneously, a catastrophe will be at hand. Knowledge about the likelihood of simultaneous occurrence or the so-called "compound effect" of such threats is essential to provide guidance on legislation for dike heights, flood barrier design and water management in general. In this study, we explore the simultaneous threats of North Sea storm surges and extreme Rhine river discharge for the current and future climate in a large 17-member global climate model ensemble. We use a simple approach, taking proxies of north-northwesterly winds over the North Sea and multiple~day precipitation averaged over the Rhine basin for storm surge and discharge respectively, so that a sensitivity analysis is straightforward to apply. By investigating soft extremes, we circumvent the need to extrapolate the data and thereby permit the model's synoptic development of the extreme events to be inspected. Our principle finding based on the climate model data is that, for the current climate, the probability of extreme surge conditions following extreme 20-day precipitation sums is around 3 times higher than that estimated from treating extreme surge and discharge probabilities as independent, as previously assumed. For the future climate (2070–2100, the assumption of independence cannot be rejected, at least not for precipitation sums exceeding 7 days.

S. F. Kew

2013-08-01

160

Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. PMID:17070637

Kronimus, Alexander; Schwarzbauer, Jan

2007-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Accurate dating of fluvial deposits in the Lateglacial Niers Valley system (Germany) using a multiple dating strategy  

Science.gov (United States)

The River Rhine occupied the Niers Valley (Germany) from the Saalian Glaciation (MIS 6) until the Early Holocene (Kasse et al., Journal of Quaternary Science 2005). The fluvial landscape of the time of abandonment has been exceptionally well preserved, leaving a series of cut-off meanders and residual channels. This unique preservation provides the possibility to investigate Late Weichselian fluvial dynamics of the River Rhine. We combined several dating techniques to accurately determine the age of the deposits. We developed a sampling strategy based on detailed field survey and cross sectioning. 1) The geomorphological relationships of the cut-off meanders gave a relative age for the successive stages of meandering. 2) The occurrence of Laacher See Pumice in the point bar deposits gave a maximum age for these deposits. 3) Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL)-dating on sandy point bar and channel-fill deposits yielded absolute ages for active meandering and channel abandonment. 4) AMS-14C dates on terrestrial macrofossils from the basal fills of the residual channels yielded minimum ages for abandonment. 5) Biostratigraphy of the organic channel fills using palynology gave a relative chronology, which could be linked to the well-dated regional biostratigraphy of the nearby Netherlands and is cross-checked by additional AMS-14C dates. By combining these dating techniques we obtained a firm chronological framework that allows linkage to climate records and above the cross-validation of the different dating techniques. All techniques gave consistent ages that confirm the Lateglacial age and Early Holocene abandonment of the Niers Valley by the River Rhine. Palynology and 14C-dating on the channels fills supported the relative chronology indicated by the cross-cut relationships. The presence of the Laacher See Pumice in the point bar deposits, which has an unambiguous age of 12.9 ka cal. BP concurs with the organic channel fill ages. Because OSL signals in some grains of the fluvial deposits were not completely reset at the time of deposition, advanced statistical methods were used to determine the burial dose from the equivalent dose distribution. We conclude that by combining several dating techniques we increase insight in the dynamics of the fluvial system during its last stages of activity and during abandonment.

Hoek, W. Z.; Kasse, C.; Peeters, J.; Wallinga, J.

2009-04-01

162

[Nematode infections of the respiratory tract in dogs in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have shown that the risk of lungworm infection may have increased in dogs in Germany in recent years. Analysis of the fecal examination of dogs has shown that Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus are endemic in Germany. Infections with A. vasorum were diagnosed in 223 of the examined dogs. A total of 102 A. vasorum-positive dogs were located in Baden-Wuerttemberg, 65 in North Rhine-Westphalia, 27 in Saarland, 15 in Bavaria, 7 in Rhineland-Palatinate, 5 in Hessen and 2 in Brandenburg. A total of 170 dogs were infected with C. vulpis, 54 of which came from North Rhine-Westphalia, 40 from Baden-Wuerttemberg, 30 from Bavaria, 17 from Rhineland-Palatinate, 17 from Saarland, 9 from Hessen and 1 each from Lower Saxony, Berlin and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Infections with E. aerophilus were detected in 83 dogs, of which 23 lived in Baden-Wuerttemberg, 20 in North Rhine-Westphalia, 17 in Bavaria, 11 in Rhineland-Palatinate, 7 in Hessen, 4 in Saarland and 1 in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Lungworm infections in dogs appear to be well established in Germany. The aim of the study presented was to assess the main facts, occurrence, geographical distribution, clinical signs, diagnosis and therapy of lungworm infections in dogs. PMID:24127030

Barutzki, D

2013-01-01

163

Spatial b-value variations in the Upper Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

The natural seismicity of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is of growing interest for science and society, since the management of deep geothermal power plants requires local hazard assessment. The availability of new bulletin data and the combination of catalogues from Germany, France and Switzerland allows us to analyse the spatial changes in the magnitude-frequency distribution along the Graben axis in detail. We derive magnitude conversions between the different bulletins to obtain a uniform earthquake catalogue and decluster the data to extract fore- and aftershocks resulting in a Poissonian event distribution. Since the density of monitoring seismometers has improved over time, we determine several intervals of magnitude completeness. Generally, our catalogue is complete for magnitudes ML ? 2.0 since 1982 for the entire URG. To incorporate high magnitude events it is essential to use historic earthquake data. Those magnitudes are estimated by their macroseismic intensity distribution, and thus, they have a high uncertainty compared to instrumental magnitudes. We show that historic earthquake magnitudes are overestimated by 0.4 magnitude units in the URG. We apply a spatial window on the final dataset and move it along the Graben axis. For each set of 50 events we determine local variations of the magnitude frequency distribution after Gutenberg-Richter by a maximum likelihood estimation. The seismicity rate for ML ? 2.0 varies between 2 per year per 1000 km2 in the southern URG and 0.2 per year per 1000 km2 in the northern URG. The b-values vary between 0.8 and 1.4 with the highest values around Freiburg, showing a high variability of the magnitude distribution in the URG. Additionally, we examine the hypocentral depth distribution along the Graben, which results in a seismically active upper and lower crust in the southern and northern parts, separated by the central part with missing seismicity in the lower crust. According to the spatial distribution of b-values and seismogenic depths we discriminate four zones of differing seismicity that cover the regions around Basel, Freiburg, the central and the northern URG.

Barth, A.

2012-04-01

164

Towards a Risk Governance Culture in Flood Policy—Findings from the Implementation of the “Floods Directive” in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks is likely to cause changes to flood policy in Germany and other member states. With its risk governance approach, it introduces a holistic and catchment-oriented flood risk management and tries to overcome shortcomings of the past, such as the event-driven construction of mainly structural measures. However, there is leeway for interpretation in implementing the directive. The present paper gives an overview on the implementation of the floods directive in Germany and is divided into two qualitative empirical case studies. Case Study I investigates the level of acceptance of the floods directive among decision-makers in the German part of the Rhine river basin. Findings show that the federal states respond differently to the impulse given by the floods directive. Whereas some decision-makers opt for a pro-forma implementation, others take it as a starting point to systematically improve their flood policy. Case Study II presents recommendations for a successful implementation of flood risk management plans that have been developed within a project for the water authority in Bavaria and might be interesting for other federal/member states. For a participation of the interested parties on the level of shared decision-making, the planning process has to work on sub-management-plan level (15–20 communities. The water resources authority has to adopt a multi-faceted role (expert, responsible or interested party depending on the discussed topics.

Klaus Wagner

2012-02-01

165

New paleoseismologic evidence for a historical surface-rupturing earthquake in the Belgian Maas valley, Lower Rhine graben area  

Science.gov (United States)

In the framework of the EC-project "SAFE" (Slow Active Faults in Europe), we are investigating the Geleen fault, part of the SW border fault system of the Roer Valley Graben, in the Belgian Maas valley. This is the extension of the Bree fault scarp, which we investigated in previous years. Compared to the Bree fault scarp, the topographic expression of the border faults in the Maas valley is much reduced. This is due to the low slip rates of these faults (aerial photographs, reconnaissance) and geophysical (geo-radar, 2-D electric resistivity and IP imaging, assisted with hand borings) analysis at several sites to identify and map the active fault. The mapped fault trace shows significant departures from the existing maps, and displays two fault strands, separated by a right step-over. We also showed for the first time that this fault has experienced post-late Weichselian activity, as it displaces the top of the youngest terrace of the Maas river by about 1 m. In a second phase, we excavated a trench across the fault at a site just outside the alluvial valley. The trench confirmed the presence of an active normal fault at the predicted position. The fault consists of two subvertical, upward-diverging strands, almost reaching to the ground surface. In between the two fault strands, layers are tilted. The late Weichselian fluvial gravels, as well as overlying eolian sands and loams, are displaced 80 cm directly on the fault, and 100 cm including warping. There is no evidence of growth faulting; the observed offset was produced in a single event. Numerous soft-sediment deformations attest the coseismic nature of the faulting. The most important evidence, however, comes from an archeological finding in the hanging wall: a buried stone pavement, probably dating to the Bronze Age, is clearly affected by an underlying soft-sediment deformation, while the sediment above has a colluvial origin. We hope to date this colluvium with pollen and radiocarbon datings, which should yield a better age constrain for the youngest faulting event than along the Bree fault scarp. These new findings provide indisputable evidence for the coseismic nature of faulting in the intraplate setting of the Lower Rhine graben area, and are in agreement with recent studies of damaged archeological remains in Germany. Contrary to the segmented aspect of the fault at surface, the Bouguer gravity map suggests that the fault is continuos with the Bree fault scarp, which would imply rather large magnitudes.

Vanneste, K.; Petermans, T.; Verbeeck, K.; Béatse, H.

2003-04-01

166

Waste heat project for the Upper Rhine region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This third semiannual report gives a picture of the progress made in the work of sub-projects. Interim results are given for the fields treated by sub-projects 1 to 4. Among others, this report for the first time presents the final official survey on thermal pollution in the upper Rhine region for the year of reference 1973. Analyses and evaluations of waste heat effects in the upper Rhine region have not been carried out yet at the present state of the project. (orig.)

1979-01-01

167

The Salzgitter-Salder Quarry (Lower Saxony, Germany) and Slupia Nadbrzezna river cliff section (central Poland): a proposed candidate composite Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point for the Coniacian Stage (Upper Cretaceous)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An integrated account of a candidate composite Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point for the base of the Coniacian Stage, comprising the Salzgitter-Salder Quarry section (Lower Saxony, Germany) and the Slupia Nadbrzezna river cliff section (central Poland), is provided. documented are all the main biostratigraphically significant macrofossil and microfossil groups: ammonites, bivalves (inoceramids and the genus Didymotis), planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton. also prov...

2010-01-01

168

Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile.

Kronimus, Alexander [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: kronimus@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, Jan [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de

2007-05-15

169

Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile

2007-05-01

170

Maximum magnitude in the Lower Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating Mmax, the assumed magnitude of the largest future earthquakes expected on a fault or in an area, involves large uncertainties. No theoretical basis exists to infer Mmax because even where we know the long-term rate of motion across a plate boundary fault, or the deformation rate across an intraplate zone, neither predict how strain will be released. As a result, quite different estimates can be made based on the assumptions used. All one can say with certainty is that Mmax is at least as large as the largest earthquake in the available record. However, because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, larger earthquakes than anticipated often occur. Estimating Mmax is especially challenging within plates, where deformation rates are poorly constrained, large earthquakes are rarer and variable in space and time, and often occur on previously unrecognized faults. We explore this issue for the Lower Rhine Graben seismic zone where the largest known earthquake, the 1756 Düren earthquake, has magnitude 5.7 and should occur on average about every 400 years. However, paleoseismic studies suggest that earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. What to assume for Mmax is crucial for critical facilities like nuclear power plants that should be designed to withstand the maximum shaking in 10,000 years. Using the observed earthquake frequency-magnitude data, we generate synthetic earthquake histories, and sample them over shorter intervals corresponding to the real catalog's completeness. The maximum magnitudes appearing most often in the simulations tend to be those of earthquakes with mean recurrence time equal to the catalog length. Because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, we expect larger earthquakes than observed to date to occur. In a next step, we will compute hazard maps for different return periods based on the synthetic catalogs, in order to determine the influence of underestimating Mmax.

Vanneste, Kris; Merino, Miguel; Stein, Seth; Vleminckx, Bart; Brooks, Eddie; Camelbeeck, Thierry

2014-05-01

171

Hospitalizations during the last months of life of nursing home residents: a retrospective cohort study from Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To describe hospitalisations of nursing home (NH) residents in Germany during their last months of life. Methods Retrospective cohort study on 792 NH residents in the Rhine-Neckar region in South-West Germany, newly institutionalized in the year 2000, who died until the study end (December 2001). Baseline variables were derived from a standardized medical examination routinely conducted by the medical service of the health care insurance plan...

Ramroth Heribert; Specht-Leible Norbert; König Hans-Helmut; Brenner Hermann

2006-01-01

172

Geochronology of priority pollutants in sedimentation zones of the Volga and Danube delta in comparison with the Rhine delta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six sediment cores were taken in sedimentation zones of the Volga river (located in the southern part of the Russian Federation) and, additionally, 6 sediment cores were taken in several lakes (sedimentation zones) in the central and western part of the Danube delta in Romania. Priority pollutants (8 metals, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined in all samples of all cores. Present-day and historical levels of pollutants since the late 1930s were established through the use of radionuclide time tracers (137Cs, 134Cs). For the persistent metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trends in the concentration profiles during the last 5 decades are described. Low and hardly changing concentrations of As, Cu, Zn and all studied PAHs were observed during the last five decades in the sediments of the Volga river. Recently deposited sediments show slightly increasing levels for the heavy metals Zn and Cr and As in the Volga delta. For the studied metals and PAHs, maximum concentrations were found around 1987 in the sediments of the Danube delta. Sediments deposited around 1940 and recently deposited sediments in the Danube delta showed lower pollutant levels. If the contents of heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments in the deltas of the rivers Rhine, Danube and Volga are compared, it is clear that the Volga delta is and was the cleanest delta during the last 5 decades. Nowadays the contents of heavy metals (except Cu and Ni), PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments of the river Rhine are still highest compared to the other two rivers. The recent load of heavy metals (except Cd and Zn) in the sediments of the river Danube is the highest compared to the other two rivers. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

1998-07-01

173

Biogas in EEG 2012. Regional structural effects and income effects in North Rhine-Westphalia. Financial Report ''Impact analysis of legislative modifications within renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia''; Biogas im EEG 2012. Regionale Struktur- und Einkommenswirkungen in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Abschlussbericht ''Wirkungsanalyse gesetzlicher Aenderungen im Bereich erneuerbarer Energien aus Sicht von Landwirtschaft und laendlichen Raeumen in Nordrhein-Westfalen''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The promotion of renewable energies is a main topic of the energy economic policy. The EEG (Renewable Energy Law) should be the main instrument at this point. The contribution of the renewable energy could be increased significantly in the last decade. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an impact analysis of legislative modifications in the area of renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia (Federal Republic of Germany).

Braun, Juergen; Lorleberg, Wolf; Stauss, Wolfgang

2012-07-01

174

Water Quantity and Quality Research for the Rhine Meuse Estuary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of boundary conditions and changes in the tidal area on Rhine Meuse estuary water quantity and quality were studied. Tests carried out under cyclic and under time series conditions of several weeks show the importance of the interactions of ha...

A. Roelfzema M. Karelese A. J. Struijk M. Adriaanse

1984-01-01

175

Waterquantity and -Quality Research for the Rhine-Meuse Estuary.  

Science.gov (United States)

In commission of the Dutch Government (Ministry of Public Works), the Delft Hydraulics Laboratory carries out a long term research program on the water quantity and water quality of the Rhine-Meuse estuary. The research program has to provide the necessar...

A. Roelfzema M. Karelse A. J. Struijk M. Adriaanse

1984-01-01

176

Calculation of emissions into rivers in Germany using the MONERIS model. Nutrients, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Berechnung von Stoffeintraegen in die Fliessgewaesser Deutschlands mit dem Modell MONERIS. Naehrstoffe, Schwermetalle und Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of both projects was a methodological development of the MONERIS model to quantify emissions from point and diffuse sources into Germany's surface waters. Both projects are based on consistent sub-basins and the according basic data as well as homogenous calculation algorithms that are adapted to the specifications of each substance group. The research encompasses Germany's large river basins as well as their catchment areas outside Germany and in total covers an area of 650,000 km{sup 2}. This was divided into 3456 analytical units (2759 of those in Germany), the average catchment areas being 190 km{sup 2} (135 km{sup 2} in Germany). All input data was collected and preprocessed with the highest spatial and temporal resolution possible based on the detailed topology. The modelling was performed in individual annual steps for the period between 1983-2005. For the evaluation of the temporal trends the data was aggregated for the periods 1983-1987 (''1985''), 1993-1997 (''1995''), 1998-2002 (''2000'') and 2003-2005 (''2005'') to soften the impact of hydrological influences. The basic data and model results for all sub-basins, years and substance groups of both projects were merged into one database. Additionally, a web-based graphical user interface was developed to visualise the emissions for any area aggregation can be visualised. The completion of both projects delivered for the first time ever homogenous instruments that can identify the most important sources and contamination hotspots for different relevant substance groups in larger river basins which can then serve as a basis for further analyses to achieve efficient measures to reduce pollution. (orig.)

Fuchs, Stephan; Scherer, Ulrike; Wander, Ramona [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser und Gewaesserentwicklung; Behrendt, Horst; Venohr, Markus; Optiz, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V., Berlin (Germany); Hillenbrand, Thomas; Marscheider-Weidemann, Frank; Goetz, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2010-09-15

177

A review of Gobiid expansion along the Danube-Rhine corridor – geopolitical change as a driver for invasion Une revue de l’expansion des Gobiidae le long du corridor Danube-Rhin – les changements géopolitiques comme moteur pour l’invasion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five Gobiid fish species have recently increased their ranges along the Danube/Rhine river corridor. Studies to date, however, have tended to be local, site specific and reactive, examining just one or few species. As such, overall range has tended to be assumed based on a summary of patchy, and sometimes contradictory, data. This study provides an up-to-date literature review of first records of occurrence for all five species along their expansion route. In addition, available shipping data are examined to identify possible proximal causes of introduction. Three main discontinuous population centres were identified; all at or near important container ports: Vienna, Duisburg and Rotterdam. Shipping is confirmed as an important factor in the rapid national and international expansion of Ponto-Caspian Gobiids, with downstream drift, rip-rap and heavy boat traffic contributing to rapid spread on the Rhine. Geopolitical factors, however, such as the fall of communism and the Balkan conflict, have been key in influencing where, when, and by which route gobies first appear. Rapid expansion of Gobiids in the Rhine raises the possibility of establishment throughout mainland Europe via two new potential invasion corridors across Germany/Poland and France. Cinq espèces de poissons Gobiidae ont récemment étendu leurs répartitions dans le corridor Danube/Rhin. Les études menées à ce jour ont cependant tendance à être locales, spécifiques au site, et n’examinent seulement qu’une ou quelques espèces. De ce fait, la répartition globale a tendance à être évaluée sur la base d’un résumé de données fragmentaires et parfois contradictoires. Cette étude est une synthèse de la littérature des premiers signalements de présence pour les cinq espèces le long de leur itinéraire d’expansion. En outre, les données de navigation disponibles sont examinées afin de déterminer les causes proximales possibles d’introduction. Trois principaux centres de population disjoints ont été identifiés, tous dans ou près des ports à conteneurs importants : Vienne, Duisbourg et Rotterdam. La navigation est confirmée comme un facteur important dans l’expansion nationale et internationale rapide des Gobiidae pontocaspiens, avec une dérive vers l’aval; les enrochements et la circulation de gros bateaux contribuant à la propagation rapide sur le Rhin. Des facteurs géopolitiques, cependant, comme la chute du communisme et le conflit des Balkans, ont joué un rôle clé en influençant où, quand et par quelle voie les gobies apparaissent en premier. L’expansion rapide des Gobiidae dans le Rhin soulève la possibilité d’implantation dans toute l’Europe continentale via deux nouveaux corridors d’invasion potentiels à travers l’Allemagne/Pologne et la France.

Roche K.F.

2013-09-01

178

The effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the surface waters in West Germany. Pt. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There was only a very short time delay between the release of radioactivity from the reactor and the washout or fallout in different parts of West Germany, which has led to surface water contamination at different levels, detected and monitored by the WSV water monitoring network. The radioactivity measurements at the various sampling stations are reported and shown in tables, giving levels and time-dependent changes of radioactivity uptake in the various regions. A very extensive measuring programme for water monitoring has been carried out in West Berlin. At a very large number of sampling stations at lakes, rivers and channels, water and sediment samples have been taken at regular intervals in the period between beginning of May and October 1986, and have been analysed for the relevant radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137). The measured data have been reported to the coordinating center in evaluated, tabular form. Comprehensive data of this kind have been sent to the coordinating center by the Lands Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Hesse, covering primarily the period May to July. Some other measuring data reported from Rhineland Palatinate, North-Rhine Westphalia and the Saarland, taken at irregular intervals and over a shorter period of time, are also given in this survey. (orig./DG)

1986-01-01

179

Halogenated organic contaminants in sediments of the Havel and Spree rivers (Germany). Part 5 of organic compounds as contaminants of the Elbe river and its tributaries.  

Science.gov (United States)

To give a detailed and comprehensive view on the state of pollution of the Havel and Spree rivers nontarget screening as well as quantitative (target) analyses were applied to anoxic sedimentsamples. Based on nontarget GC/MS analysis a significant contribution to the anthropogenic contamination could be attributed to halogenated compounds. Three groups of contaminants corresponding either to diffuse or local contamination could be distinguished. Several commonly observable compounds including pentachloroanisol, polychlorinated biphenyles, 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, and chlorinated benzenes were detected with a distribution reflecting the contribution of nonpoint source emissions. A second group of chlorinated as well as brominated compounds was attributed to a strong point source emission at the Teltow Canal. At the sampling locations influenced by this point source the amount of mono- and dibrominated naphthalenes, chlorinated naphthalenes, and hexachlorocyclohexanes as well as DDT- and methoxychlor-related compounds increased significantly as compared to the background concentrations. A third group of halogen compounds emitted at this site consisted of the pesticides bromopropylate, methoxychlor, and chlorfensone as well as specific brominated aromatics including 2,4,6-tribromoaniline, 4,4'-dibromobenzophenone, and brominated benzenes. In addition, tetrabromochlorotoluenes, tribromodichlorotoluenes, dibromotrichlorotoluenes, and 2,2-bis(4-bromophenyl)acetic acid isopropyl ester were identified and are reported for the first time as environmental contaminants. The amounts of brominated compounds detected in Teltow Canal sediments occurred at a similar concentration level as their chlorinated analogues. Therefore, investigations on the occurrence of such a broad spectrum of brominated compounds as established in this work are presumably required more frequently to assess the environmental impact of this type of emissions. PMID:11686361

Schwarzbauer, J; Ricking, M; Franke, S; Francke, W

2001-10-15

180

Population Development of the Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Area: A Stochastic Population Forecast on the Basis of Functional Data Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stochastic population forecasts are gaining popularity in these times of demographic change, as compared with the scenario technique frequently used for projections, they provide important additional information: the forecasted population lies within a prediction interval to which a probability of occurrence can be allocated. However, this approach requires long time-series and detailed information about the determinants of population development (fertility, mortality and net migration, which are frequently not available in sufficient depth at the regional level, but are generally subsumed into age groups. Stochastic population forecasts are therefore usually limited to the national level. Nonetheless, methods of functional data analysis enable us to disaggregate the required demographic variables into years of age and to use them as the data basis of a stochastic model, also at the regional level. This essay presents this approach and models based on it using the example of the population development of the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan area in Germany.

Philipp Deschermeier

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

Prostate cancer in Germany among migrants from the Former Soviet Union  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

: In Germany, prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer and the third leading cause of death from cancer in males. We investigate prostate cancer in Gernmany among migrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and compare them to indigenous German population with regard to prostate cancer incidence, mortality and longitudinal effects.: Data were obtained from two migrant cohorts residing in the federal states of North Rhine Westphalia (n=34,393) and Saarland (n=18,619). Vital status was as...

Volker Winkler; Bernd Holleczek; Christa Stegmaier; Heiko Becher

2012-01-01

182

Health care transition in Germany – standardization of procedures and improvement actions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Claudia Pieper, Izabela KolankowskaInstitute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, GermanyAbstract: Previous studies have assessed an increase in the number of people in need and emphasized the advantages of structured discharge management and health care transition. Therefore, our study evaluated the status quo of transition in a major German city after standardization of procedures and implementation of standard form...

Pieper C; Kolankowska I

2011-01-01

183

Fish, the protection of streams and rivers, and hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses how the river Rhine along the Swiss-German border has been affected by man-made changes over the last 200 years. The grave effects on fish stocks caused by the construction of several hydropower stations along this stretch of the river are discussed. The two programmes 'Salmon 2000' and 'Rhine 2020' are discussed that aim to provide power station dams with fish passes to enable migrant fish to reach their old spawning grounds. Proposals are described that are to improve the situation and new Europe-wide regulations on the matter are discussed. The changes that the influence of man have caused on the Rhine's fauna are described and an historical review of the changes which the river has undergone is presented

2004-01-01

184

Geothermal energy - hydrothermal utilisation of geothermal energy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this phase of developing and utilisation of geothermal potentials the hydrothermal sector plays a very important role due to its possibilities of supplying heat in the MW-range at any time of day or night or year. The heat is contained in thermal water extracted from depth between 2000 and 2500 m by means of deep drilling. In Germany there are hydrothermal potentials in the South (Rhine Valley) and North. The following article describes the geological, technological and economic aspects of thermal water utilisation for the generation of thermal energy. (orig.)

1995-12-01

185

Air quality assessment by tree bark biomonitoring in urban, industrial and rural environments of the Rhine Valley: PCDD/Fs, PCBs and trace metal evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tree barks were used as biomonitors to evaluate past atmospheric pollution within and around the industrial zones of Strasbourg (France) and Kehl (Germany) in the Rhine Valley. The here estimated residence time for trace metals, PCBs and PCDD/Fs in tree bark is >10 years. Thus, all pollution observed by tree bark biomonitoring can be older than 10 years. The PCB baseline concentration (sum of seven PCB indicators (?(7)PCB(ind))) determined on tree barks from a remote area in the Vosges mountains is 4 ng g(-1) and corresponds to 0.36 × 10(-3)ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) g(-1) for the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs). The northern Rhine harbor suffered especially from steel plant, waste incinerator and thermal power plant emissions. The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) concentrations analyzed in tree barks from this industrial area range between 392 and 1420 ng kg(-1) dry-weight (dw) corresponding to 3.9 ng TEQ(PCDD/Fs) kg(-1) to 17.8 ng TEQ(PCDD/Fs) kg(-1), respectively. Highest PCDD/F values of 7.2 ng TEQ kg(-1) to 17.8 ng TEQ kg(-1) have been observed close to and at a distance of steel plant the values are comparatively higher and range between 0.011 ng TEQ g(-1) and 0.026 ng TEQ g(-1). However, even stronger ?(7)PCB(ind) enrichments have been observed at a few places in the city center of Kehl, where ?DL-PCB values of up to 0.11 ng TEQ g(-1) have been detected. These enrichments, however, are the result of ancient pollutions since recent long-term measurements at the same sites indicate that the atmospheric PCB concentrations are close to baseline. Emissions from an old landfill of waste and/or great fires might have been the reasons of these PCB enrichments. Other urban environments of the cities of Kehl and Strasbourg show significantly lower ?(7)PCB(ind) concentrations. They suffer especially from road and river traffic and have typically ?(7)PCB(ind) concentrations ranging from 11 ng g(-1) to 29 ng g(-1). The PCB concentration of 29 ng g(-1) has been found in tree bark close to the railway station of Strasbourg. Nevertheless, the corresponding TEQ(DL-PCB) are low and range between 0.2 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1) and 7 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1). Samples collected near road traffic are enriched in Fe, Sb, Sn and Pb. Cd enrichments were found close to almost all types of industries. Rural environments not far from industrial sites suffered from organic and inorganic pollution. In this case, TEQ(DL-PCB) values may reach up to 58 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1) and the corresponding V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Cd concentrations are comparatively high. PMID:21726892

Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Millet, Maurice

2011-09-01

186

Time Series Analysis of Monthly Precipitation and River Flow Extremes in Germany in the 20th Century: Evidence of Different Variability Scales as an Indicator of Recent Regional Climatic Changes  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on an extensive study of time series analysis of monthly precipitation extremes and river stream flows from numerous gauging stations across Germany in the 20th century. A multitude of spectral and time-scale analysis methods that include a.o. the continuous wavelet tool, principal component (EOF), SSA, and other classical techniqes (R/S,WTMM, DFA) for the estimation of the Hurst coefficient H, as an indicator of possible persistence. The wavelet analysis reveals, beyond the typical annual cycle, dominant oscillations in both precipitation and river flow at the interannual (7-8 yr.) and/or interdecadal (11-14 yr.) low frequency scales, in particular in the second part of the 20th century, providing evidence for some recent regional climatic changes over Germany. The scaling properties of the time series are determined through the computation of the Hurst parameter. It turns out that the presence of the named dominant periods in the signals may bias the estimated H significantly, depending on the method used, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio and/or the data length are small. Surprisingly, for the case under study the somewhat "outdated" R/S-method appears to fare best. In any case, the estimated H for the precipitation series at the various stations across Germany fluctuate around H=0.5, i.e. do not show a clear picture of systematic persistence. However, data with low frequency components show higher H values, i.e., some amount of persistence, than data without such components, where possible negative autocorrelations and H < 0.5, i.e. anti-persistence, are suspected. As for the river flow, good estimates for H can be obtained after application of an SSA-filter. In any case, as expected, the estimated H are much higher than 0.5, indicating strong persistence of the stream flow. As for the origins of the named interannual (7-8 yr.) and/or interdecadal (11-14 yr.) low frequency scales, using cross-wavelet spectral analysis, we find evidence for a teleconnective influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the precipitation and streamflow pattern, primarily, over the last 40 years, and with partly opposite effects in the northern and southern parts of Germany. As such the NAO phase of enhanced decadal variability could be made responsible for the low frequency precipitation components.

Markovic, D.; Koch, M.

2005-12-01

187

International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany is situated in Central Europe. It covers an area of 250,000 square kilometres and has a population of 60 millions. The Federal Republic consists of 10 individual states. The capital of the country is Bonn. The northern and northwestern parts of the country are formed of flat lowlands, the Norddeutsche Tiefebene. Towards the south follow hilly and mountainous regions with elevations not exceeding 1000 m. In the southwestern and southeastern regions the elevations may reach 1500m in the Black Forest and Bayerischer Wald. The foreland of the Alps and the northern part of the Alps itself with elevations close to 3000 m make up the southern part of the Federal Republic. The main rivers - Rhine, Weser and Elbe - are directed towards northwest and drain the country to the North Sea. Only the southern part is drained by the southeast running river Danube. The climate is moderate, generally with frequent snow during the winter season and warm periods during the summer. The precipitation is distributed uniformly throughout the year. Due to the high industrialization a dense network of railroads, highways and motorroads exists.According to what is geologically known about the country, the chances for the discovery of large quantities of low-coast uranium resources must be considered to be limited. The potential for new discoveries of those deposits can be estimated to be around 10 000 t U. The potential for very low-grade uranium ore, such as granites, low-grade sedimentary rocks (sandstones, shales) can be estimated to range between 10,000 - 50,000 t U or possibly more taking into account very low-grade concentrations in shales. This material is not mineable under present conditions. Environmental considerations may prevent mining in the future

1977-01-01

188

"1"8O/"1"6O ratio in groundwater of the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 900 groundwater samples of 480 municipal water factories were collected at the area of the Federal Republic of Germany. The "1"8O/"1"6O-ratio decreases from the north (-7per mill) to south (below -11per mill) due to an increasing distance from the south ('continental effect') and an increasing altitude above sealevel ('altitude effect'). The decrease of the "1"8O/"1"6O-ratio per 1000 m altitude above sea level is 2.8per mill, per 1000 km distance from the sea 2.4per mill. At the coast an initial value of -7.2per mill results from the multicorrelation analysis. Except of two cases, some samples near to the coast and alongside river Rhine, the groundwater samples represent the mean oxygen isotope ratio of the local precipitation. This oxygen isotope ratio will be found in the conductive tissues of the plants (trees), too. Therefore the knowledge of the natural variation of the oxygen isotope ratio can serve as a tool in studies of plant physiology, water ecology, palaeclimatology and food analysis. (orig.)

1982-01-01

189

Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine using {sup 3}HHO as a tracer; Zur Bestimmung von Fliesszeiten und longitudinaler Dispersion im Rhein mit {sup 3}HHO als Tracer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine river under natural conditions are determined by use of single emissions of tritiated waste water from nuclear power plants during normal operation. The influence of the discharge of the Rhine on the most relevant parameters is investigated thoroughly. In a case of accidental release of radioactive material, these data would be the basis of a prognosis by which the behaviour of the contaminated river section along the course can be described and the radiological consequences within the so-called critical impact area estimated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Einleitungen von Tritium aus Kernkraftwerken bei Normalbetrieb werden zur Bestimming von Fliesszeiten und longitudinaler Dispersion im Rhein und deren Abflussabhaengigkeit genutzt. Die erhaltenen Kenndaten bilden die Basis von Ausbreitungsprognosen, anhand der im Falle eines stoerfallbedingten Eintrages das Fliess- und Dispersionsverhalten geloester radioaktiver Stoffe beschrieben und die radiologischen Auswirkungen fuer unterliegende Nutzungsbereiche abgeschaetzt werden koennen. (orig.)

Krause, W.J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany); Mundschenk, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany)

1993-12-31

190

Bright North Rhine-Westphalia. A joint LCP-project of 80 utilities, the Ministry of Economics and the Consumer Protection Agency of North Rhine-Westphalia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detailed description of a joint LCP-project being conducted in 1996/97 by 80 electric utilities and led by the Ministry of economics in North Rhine-Westphalia (Ministerium fuer Wirtschaft, Mittelstand, Technologie und Verkehr (MWMTV)) together with the Consumer Protection Agency North Rhine-Westphalia. The project aimed at electric energy savings, CO{sub 2} reduction and environment protection by distributing more than 1 million compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) to household customers of electric utilities. (au)

Hennicke, P. [Energy and Environment/Science Center North Rhine-Westfalia, Energy dept. of Wuppertal Inst. for Climate (Germany); Schulte-Janson, D. [Ministry of economics North Rhine-Westphalia, Electricity price regulation unit (Germany)

1997-11-01

191

Cegelec Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

2011-03-01

192

Rivers  

...been superceded by WFD classification.View the most recent WFD monitoring resultsView information about WFD River Basin PlansMonitoring under the Freshwater Fish Directive (FFD) will continue until 2013...

193

DVR toolbox for sediment management in the Rhine delta:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The DVR Toolbox is a modeling system developed to be used as an operational model for long-term morphological assessment of the Rhine branches in the Netherlands (10 to 50 years). The Toolbox consists of a 2D computational core (containing the Delft3D modeling system), a shell that controls input- and output, and a system for time/simulation management. The effects of different processes, e.g. helical flow and sediment sorting, on time-dependent bed topography and dredging-operations can be s...

Sloff, C. J.

2011-01-01

194

Measurements of temperature, oxygen concentration and oxygen demand in the Rhine downstream of the cooling water discharge of Biblis nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On behalf of the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke AG (RWE) profile measurements were carried out in 1978 and 1979 at the inflow of the cooling water from the Biblis nuclear power plants into the Rhine. By referring the measurements to the mean flow-velocity of the stream, findings on the mixing of the cooling water into the river have been obtained. The values obtained for oxygen concentration and oxygen demand, determined simultaneously with the temperature data, confirm the known predictions given in the literature. (orig.)

1981-01-01

195

Net employment effects of an extension of renewable-energy systems in the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable-energy potential exists in the Federal Republic of Germany to a great extent, but is barely used as yet. A change in the power-supply structure seems to be too risky with regard to finance and the sensitive labour market. Nevertheless, an extension of renewable energy systems in the German state North-Rhine Westphalia would lead to improved employment prospects. (Author)

2000-01-01

196

[Obesity in the population of North Rhine-Westphalia and its communities in the 2009 German Microcensus: prevalence, illness and prevention potential].  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and objective: There are only few data about regional and social disparities in obesity, the related diseases, and related morbidity in Germany.Methods: The 2009 Microcensus regional file North Rhine-Westphalia was used for this analysis. The Microcensus represents a decentralised household survey. The selection rate of the random sample survey was 1 % of the population. Results can be extrapolated at state and community levels in North Rhine-Westphalia. The body weight and the height were reported by 72 % of the interviewees above 18 years in the voluntary health supplementary programme (N = 10 705 000).Results: About 11 % of the adults above 18 years in North Rhine-Westphalia are obese class I, further 3 % of the adults are obese class II and 1 % are obese class III according to Body-Mass-Index classification. After adjustment for age, male and female adults with obesity have a highly significantly elevated odds ratio of 1.4 and 1.7 for illness or accident injury at the survey date. Obesity prevalence is associated with officially confirmed disability.There is a social gradient in the prevalence of obesity in the population of employable age (18-64 years). The probability of obesity decreases with the rise of the level of education. Male and female blue-collar workers and female jobseekers were more often obese. The Microcensus shows distinct disparities in obesity prevalence between the communities in the population of employable age.Conclusion: The Microcensus may have potential for a harmonized monitoring concerning obesity. But there is a need for further research in regard to the methods. The regional and social disparities in obesity prevalence reveal needs for interventions to combat obesity. PMID:23361347

Hollederer, A

2013-02-01

197

Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on the Fate and Transport of Sediment Sorbed HCB and Cd in the Elbe River Basin (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sediment-sorbed concentrations of Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Cadmium (Cd) in sections of the Elbe River basin significantly exceed maximum allowable concentrations established by the European Commission. Even though concentrations of both contaminants have decreased significantly over the past 15 years, levels remain elevated. In addition, previous studies have documented that downstream transport of contaminated sediment occurs primarily during high water events. Given anticipated climate-change induced changes in mean discharge, potentially including an increase in the magnitude of high and low water discharge events, this study seeks to evaluate the role of climate change in mediating the long-term fate and transport of HCB and Cd in the Elbe River basin. To better understand the transport of cohesive sediments and associated contaminants, a hydrodynamic and cohesive sediment transport model for a 230 km segment of the Middle Elbe River was developed. Of particular interest is contaminant transport to floodplains and retention time in the numerous groyne fields that line the banks of the Elbe River. Multiple climate change scenarios involving changes in the amplitude and phase of yearly streamflow were used to simulate contaminant transport throughout the Elbe River basin at 10, 15, and 25 years in the future. Integration of modeling output with the results of recently collected (2010, 2011) sediment data enabled an enhanced understanding of the dynamics of HCB, Cd and cohesive sediment in the Elbe River basin. Modeling results, challenges simulating transport in groyne fields, techniques for resolving

Moshenberg, K.; Heise, S.

2012-04-01

198

Vertical displacement rates in the Upper Rhine Graben area derived from precise leveling  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent vertical displacement field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) located in the tri-national region between Germany, France and Switzerland is investigated using repeatedly measured leveling data. We estimate vertical displacement rates at leveling benchmarks by applying a kinematic network adjustment on more than 40,000 height differences measured by German, French and Swiss surveying agencies. Focusing on an optimal solution for the adjusted rates in the URG area also historical data (measured before 1900) are used, significantly increasing the time span of available measurements and the number of transnational connections between the three countries. To account for inhomogeneities apparent in the database, we apply an iterative variance component estimation within the adjustment procedure, particularly revealing more realistic information on the accuracy of the estimated rates. A special focus within our analysis is put on the statistical testing of gross errors in the observations and model-related errors at benchmarks with non-linear movement. As some of the estimated vertical rates behave significantly different compared to the vertical rates of adjacent benchmarks, a filtering of outliers is applied after the adjustment procedure. The resulting map of linear height changes in an area of 280 km in N-S and 230 km in E-W direction provides detailed insight into the recent vertical displacements of the URG and neighboring regions. In the German part of the study area, it was possible for the first time to consistently constrain an average subsidence rate of 0.5 mm/a (± 0.2 mm/a) of the Graben interior w.r.t. the Black Forest. In addition to the tectonic displacements, some man-induced surface movements, e.g., caused by oil and groundwater extraction, are observed and discussed.

Fuhrmann, Thomas; Westerhaus, Malte; Zippelt, Karl; Heck, Bernhard

2014-05-01

199

Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den Emissionspfaden als auch nach den grossen Flussgebieten Donau, Rhein, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, Nordsee und Ostsee. Zusaetzlich wurden Listen der zehn groessten industriellen Direkteinleiter erstellt. (orig.)

Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

2000-11-01

200

Investigation of the behaviour of Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb in water without and with addition of suspended matter and complexing agents and in Rhine water by means of radionuclide techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sorption of the trace elements Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb on finely powdered quartz, feldspar, kaolinite and montmorillonite and on the suspended matter in Rhine water without and with addition of humic acid and of nitrilotriacetic acid as complexing agents is investigated as function of time. The results show that the sorption on the clay minerals is of greatest importance and that the sorption on the suspended matter in the Rhine river can be explained largely on the basis of the sorption equilibria on the inorganic components of the suspended matter and the complexation with humic acid and nitrilotriacetic acid, respectively. This complexation often leads to an appreciable mobilization of heavy elements. (orig.)

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Towards user requirements for an information system of the integrated Rhine programme  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Integrated Rhine Programme (IRP) is a strategic integrated measurement programme of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg that aims at an improvement of flood control as well as the preservation and/or the restoration of the Upper Rhine plains. The implementation of the IRP shall be supported by an integrated and sustainable Information System for the IRP (IS-IRP) as an extension of the Environmental Information System of Baden-Württemberg. This paper describes how the analysis ...

Usla?nder, T.; Junker, R.; Pfarr, U.

2011-01-01

202

River bed classification using multi-beam echo-sounder backscatter data:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Netherlands form the delta for some of the major river systems of Europe, comprising the Rhine, the Meuse, the Scheldt and the Eems. These rivers are valuable parts of national and international ecological networks and are of high economic importance. A minimum depth should be guaranteed to keep the rivers navigable. This depth depends not only on water discharge but also on river bed topography that changes dynamically in response to discharge fluctuations. Rijkswaterstaat is the Dutch g...

2012-01-01

203

Charles Darwin's Observations on the Behaviour of Earthworms and the Evolutionary History of a Giant Endemic Species from Germany, Lumbricus badensis (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809/1882) began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881). Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae) and the role of these annelids as global ecosystem re workers (concept of bioturbation). In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Bio geographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.

2010-01-01

204

Propagation conditions for difficult sites in the Upper Rhine Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive meteorological measurements have been made in the high and upper Rhine Valley in the context of site protection both for the licencing procedure and the meteorological evidence required for this purpose and also for research purposes into the effects of waste heat discharge into the atmosphere. At the Schwoerstadt, Wyhl, Freistett and Philippsburg sites meteorological measurements have been made on towers of between 120 and 160 metres height. At the Wyhl site 10 automatic ground level measurement stations for the meteorological monitoring of the surrounding vicinity in a narrow circumference of the site and close to the 160 metre high measurement tower are being operated. Information about the meteorological relationships in the propagation zone of chimney and cooling tower plumes has been complemented by a number of radiometeographic measurement programmes. (orig.)

1983-05-01

205

Propagation conditions for difficult sites in the Upper Rhine Valley  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Extensive meteorological measurements have been made in the high and upper Rhine Valley in the context of site protection both for the licencing procedure and the meteorological evidence required for this purpose and also for research purposes into the effects of waste heat discharge into the atmosphere. At the Schwoerstadt, Wyhl, Freistett and Philippsburg sites meteorological measurements have been made on towers of between 120 and 160 metres height. At the Wyhl site 10 automatic ground level measurement stations for the meteorological monitoring of the surrounding vicinity in a narrow circumference of the site and close to the 160 metre high measurement tower are being operated. Information about the meteorological relationships in the propagation zone of chimney and cooling tower plumes has been complemented by a number of radiometeographic measurement programmes.

Schweizer, G.; Schloevogt, T.; Haessler, G.

1983-05-01

206

Fluvial deposits as a record for Late Quaternary neotectonic activity in the Rhine-Meuse delta,The Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neotectonic movements have caused differential subsidence in the Lower Rhine Embayment during the Quaternary. The Late Weichselian and Holocene Rhine-Meuse fluvial archive in the central Netherlands was used to quantify neotectonic movements in a setting that was primarily controlled by sea-level rise and climate change. Evidence for neotectonic activity in the central Netherlands is reviewed. Sedimentary evidence shows that fluvial deposits of Late Weichselian and Holocene Rhine and Meuse (M...

Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Berendsen, H. J. A.

2002-01-01

207

Large scale groundwater modeling using globally available datasets: A test for the Rhine-Meuse basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater resources are vulnerable to global climate change and population growth. Therefore, monitoring and predicting groundwater change over large areas is imperative. However, large-scale groundwater models, especially those involve aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare due to a lack of hydro-geological data. Such data may be widely available in developed countries but are seldom available in other parts of the world. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we choose the combined Rhine-Meuse basin (total area: ± 220000 km2) that contains ample data (e.g. groundwater head data) that can be used to verify the model output. However, while constructing the model, we use only globally available datasets such as the global GLCC land cover map [http://edc2.usgs.gov/glcc/glcc.php], global FAO soil map [1995], global lithological map of Dürr et al [2005], HydroSHEDS digital elevation map [Lehner et al, 2008], and global climatological datasets (e.g. the global CRU datasets [Mitchell and Jones, 2005 and New et al, 2002], ERA40 re-analysis data [Uppala et al, 2005], and ECMWF operational archive data [http://www.ecmwf.int/products/data/operational_system]). We started by building a distributed land surface model (1×1 km) to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Then, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. We run the models for the period 1970-2008. The current results are promising. The simulated river discharges compare well to the discharge observation as indicated by the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients (68% for Rhine and 50% for Meuse). Moreover, the MODFLOW model can converge with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities and storage coefficients) and can produce reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution that reflects the positions of major groundwater bodies and rivers in the basin. Subsequently, we compare the spatio-temporal pattern of the calculated groundwater head to the soil moisture products from AMSR-E and ERS/METOP. However, the resolution of soil moisture fields (25 km) is too coarse compared to our model resolution (1 km). For this reason, we use several 1 km MODIS products (e.g. land surface temperature, leaf area, and vegetation indices) to downscale the soil moisture fields. From the downscaled soil moisture fields, particularly during the dry summer, we distinguish wet areas that are associated with shallow groundwater table occurrence. These are compared to the groundwater head calculated by the groundwater model. Based on this comparison, model fallacies are identified and turned to improve the model. We argue that the combination of groundwater modeling and remote sensing may enable groundwater assessment in data-poor environments.

Sutanudjaja, Edwin H.; de Jong, Steven; van Geer, Frans C.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

2010-05-01

208

Remarkable Urban Uplift in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany: Observations from TerraSAR-X InSAR and Leveling from 2008 to 2011  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As geothermal energy is of increasing importance as a renewable energy source, there is a high demand for comprehensive studies to prevent failure during implementation, as is the case in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany. The drilling of seven wells for the geothermal heating of the city hall in 2007 is thought to have disturbed the existing hydro-geological system in the complex structured transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif. This event has led to uplift, related...

Christin Lubitz; Mahdi Motagh; Hans-Ulrich Wetzel; Hermann Kaufmann

2013-01-01

209

Differences in sensitivity of native and exotic fish species to changes in river temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the effects that temperature changes in the Rhine river distributaries have on native and exotic fish diversity. Site-specific potentially affected fractions (PAFs of the regional fish species pool were derived using species sensitivity distributions (SSDs for water temperature. The number of fish species in the river distributaries has changed remarkably over the last century. The number of native rheophilous species declined up until 1980 due to anthropogenic disturbances such as commercial fishing, river regulation, migration barriers, habitat deterioration and water pollution. In spite of progress in river rehabilitation, the native rheophilous fish fauna has only partially recovered thus far. The total number of species has strongly increased due to the appearance of more exotic species. After the opening of the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway in 1992, many fish species originating from the Ponto-Caspian area colonized the Rhine basin. The yearly minimum and maximum river temperatures at Lobith have increased by circa 4 0C over the period 1908-2010. Exotic species show lower PAFs than native species at both ends of the temperature range. The interspecific variation in the temperature tolerance of exotic fish species was found to be large. Using temporal trends in river temperature allowed past predictions of PAFs to demonstrate that the increase in maximum river temperature negatively affected a higher percentage of native fish species than exotic species. Our results support the hypothesis that alterations of the river Rhine’s temperature regime caused by thermal pollution and global warming limit the full recovery of native fish fauna and facilitate the establishment of exotic species which thereby increases competition between native and exotic species. Thermal refuges are important for the survival of native fish species under extreme summer or winter temperature conditions [Current Zoology 57 (6: 852–862, 2011].

R.S.E.W. LEUVEN, A.J. HENDRIKS, M.A.J. HUIJBREGTS, H.J.R. LENDERS,J. MATTHEWS, G. VAN DER VELDE

2011-12-01

210

Digital mapping of loess in Northwest Germany based on satellite images  

Science.gov (United States)

Loess maps of various scales are important input data for advanced investigations of spatial loess properties such as variation in grain size, thickness and facies or study of loess provenance. Many representations of loess distribution in Northwest Germany are based on geological maps. Mostly these maps were created at the beginning of the last century. During this time especially thin loess covers were not incorporated in favour of underlying hard rocks or other Quaternary deposits. Due to the change in mapping policy at the end of the last century much more of the unconsolidated rocks, particularly with regard to loess, were displayed on the revised or updated maps. In this study the analysis of optical remote sensing data, ranging from visible light to the infrared, was tested to create a more realistic map of the loess distribution in Northwest Germany. The investigation area includes the loess along the northern loess boundary between Helmstedt and Minden and extends to Kassel and Goettingen in the South. Here, in southern Lower Saxony, northern Hesse and eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, loess and loess derivates are widely distributed apart from river beds, valley flanks, steep slopes and higher mountain ranges. The thickness of the loess cover, that is of Weichselian, sporadic of Saalian or Elsterian age, varies between few centimetres and about 20 m. The hard rocks of the study area were influenced by tectonic and halokinetic processes resulting in a complex and small-scale pattern of folds, depressions, horsts and grabens. Satellite images of the Landsat TM and ETM+ sensors, recorded between 1985 and 2008, were used for this study. After radiometric calibration and atmospheric and geometric correction of every dataset, coniferous forest, water and areas of high urbanization were masked. Then a synthetic file was made up of all remaining pixels, preferring the pixel, displaying the purest soil or bare rock. Various digital mapping techniques e.g. band rationing, PCA, supervised and unsupervised classification were compared to delineate loess and loess soils from other rocks or soils. Due to the different spectral signature of the underlying reddish sand-, clay- and siltstone or white to grey limestone and marls of Triassic, Cretaceous and Jurassic age loess can be separated clearly. To discriminate the loess from younger displaced loess or flood plain deposits the classification results were combined with elevation data of the ASTER DEM.

Wagner, Bianca

2010-05-01

211

Ranking of agricultural pesticides in the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt basin based on toxic pressure in marine ecosystems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although risk assessments on a per-chemical basis are required during the registration procedure of pesticides, cumulative risks from the use of all pesticides on the variety of crops in a catchment area of a river are not assessed. The present study aimed to rank pesticides used in outdoor agricultural practice within the catchment of the rivers Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt according to their potential toxic impact on the North Sea coastal ecosystem. Toxic pressure calculations (based on steady-state concentrations calculated with a multimedia fate model) and species-sensitivity distribution-based risk estimations were performed for pesticide emissions in the years 1998 (189 pesticides) and 2004 (133 pesticides). A ranking was established according to the relative contribution of single pesticides and crop types to the overall toxic pressure. Calculations were performed probabilistically to deal with parameter uncertainties. Only a few pesticides and crop types dominate overall toxic pressure because of emissions in both years, and the uncertainty appears to be caused largely by uncertainties in interspecies variances of aquatic toxicities. For 1998, these pesticides were fentin-acetate, with a median relative contribution (RCx) to the toxic pressure of multiple chemicals on an ecosystem of 0.43. For 2004, the pesticides that contributed most were pencycuron and paraquat-dichloride, with a median RCx, of 4.4 x 10(-2) and 3.9 x 10(-2), respectively. Pesticides applied to potato cropland and fruit trees contributed most to the overall toxic pressure. PMID:17973564

Henning-de Jong, Irmgard; van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J; de Zwart, Dick; van der Linden, Ton M A; Wintersen, Arjen; Posthuma, Leo; van de Meent, Dik

2008-03-01

212

Contribution from carbon and sulphur isotopes to the evaluation of biogeochemical processes in groundwater systems controlled by river bank filtration: An example from the Torgau aquifer (Saxony, Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sulphur and carbon isotopes were used to reveal flow processes and chemical reactions within an aquifer system partially controlled by river bed infiltration. The investigation site, located at the Elbe river, is the most important water supply area of Saxony. An arrangement of about 40 groundwater sampling points, screened in five or three depth levels within a section crossing the Elbe, was used to describe the situation in the Quaternary aquifer. Using 34S (SO4) and 13C (DIC) as tracers, an improved understanding of the flow pattern has been obtained, especially regarding the penetration of groundwater into the aquifer zone below the Elbe bed. Furthermore, groundwater and Elbe water show different isotope signatures. Depletion of 34S in the area between the Elbe and the production wells is attributed to the oxidation of pyritic sulphur. The measured radiocarbon concentrations of groundwater fulvic acids suggest that less than 50% of the DOC originates from old sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) sources in the aquifer. 14C decrease along the flow path from the Elbe to the captation facilities has been observed and is proposed as being due to a simultaneous degradation of Elbe DOC and dissolution of old SOC from the penetrated aquifer. The unusual chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater near the edge of the investigated profile is interpreted as a local influence of ascending waters coming from Zechstein formations and penetrating the overlaying Triassic and Tertiary layers via tectonic faults or geological windows. (author)

1997-04-14

213

The Upper Rhine area waste heat project as a contribution to the long-term waste heat concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The waste heat land register for the Upper Rhine area is ready. Using synthetic weather maps, the conditions in the Upper Rhine area can be described. The analysis of natural climatic variations is complete and the development of a mesoscale model called FITNAH has started. The question of atmospheric conditions relevant to waste heat is of importance here. (DG)

1979-11-07

214

Basal conditions of the Rhine Glacier at the Last Glacial Maximum: insights from high-resolution transient numerical models  

Science.gov (United States)

Questions about the safety of nuclear waste repositories during future ice ages in previously glaciated landscapes have lent impetus to new numerical model simulations concerning past ice conditions. In Switzerland, all potential sites investigated for these repositories have been affected during LGM or earlier ice ages by large piedmont glaciers and/or peri-/subglacial permafrost under cold-dry conditions. First quantitative reconstructions and analysis using steady-state approaches were carried out in the 1980s. Recent advances in ice flow numerical models and code parallelization make it now possible to run transient thermo-mechanical full-Stokes models at high resolution. These models couple ice flow to temperature-dependent sliding at the bed and climate parameterization (temperature, mass balance gradients) at the surface. Starting from the reconstruction of the Alpine ice field in Switzerland, we model the transient flow of the Rhine Glacier from its source in the Alps to its terminus that formed a large polythermal piedmont lobe in the northern Swiss plateau and in southern Germany. Results indicate that basal conditions are strongly dependent on initial temperature parameterization and climate conditions that lead to the LGM. The models indicate that much of the substrate below the ice lobe was at the melting temperature, opening possibilities for fast erosion and overdeepening formation. Other areas in alpine valleys were also at the melting temperature when the basal ice originating from high up in the Alps had sufficient time to reach the melting temperature at the bed of thick valley glaciers. Cold climate conditions kept marginal ice and ice up valley cold. High sliding speed and basal shear stress, two other parameters that promote erosion, indicate that erosion was potentially high in some portions of the main trunks of the Rhine Glacier but less so in more marginal parts of the flat piedmont lobe. Results from these transient full thermo-mechanical models differ significantly from earlier steady-state calculations. The new model irons out unphysical ice surface topographic undulations present in the Swisstopo LGM glacial coverage map thereby eliminating hot-spots of basal shear stress and abnormally high surface velocity computed by two-dimensional steady state models using this map.

Cohen, Denis; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Haeberli, Wilfried; Fischer, Urs H.

2014-05-01

215

Hydrology and water quality aspects of rhine bank groundwater in The Netherlands  

Science.gov (United States)

In deltaic areas with deep polders and in valleys or deltas with heavy groundwater exploitation, bank infiltration is a rapidly expanding mechanism of groundwater recharge. Rhine bank filtrate can be distinguished best from autochthonous groundwater in The Netherlands by way of its natural lower 18O content. Tritium is a good measure of the portion of water younger than 25 years, at least in well mixed Rhine bank filtrate. This portion carries the bulk of the contaminations originating from the Rhine, as evidenced by strong positive correlations between 3H and e.g. halogenated hydrocarbons, taste and mutagenic activity according to the Ames test. The composition of Rhine bank filtrate is further governed by the redox level of the hydrogeochemical system, varying in The Netherlands from suboxic to anoxic with fermentation, and by the underground distance to the influent Rhine branch. Anoxic bank filtrate with strong SO 4-reduction and CH 4 > 1 mg l -1 exhibited a significantly different composition from anoxic bank filtrate without fermentation and without SO 4-reduction. The following parameters are involved: HCO 3, total dissolved solids, SiO 2; KMnO 4-consumption, NH 4, siderite, baryte and vivianite saturation indices, I, total hardness, total PO 4, Fe, dissolved organic carbon, Ba, pH, dichloroethane, Mo, VOCl, Mn, V, dichlorobenzene and 1,2-dichloroethane, in order of decreasing significance. A longer underground detention time or travel distance, leads to a small decrease in the share of bank filtrate, and a rather strong decrease in K, Li, F, temperature, Mo (only in anoxic, SO 4-(meta)stable bank filtrate), UV-extinction, AOCl, X 7OCl and mutagenic activity. Coli bacteria and viruses could not be detected, not even in samples from wells at 50 m distance from the Rhine, with a minimum travel time of 30 days.

Stuyfzand, P. J.

1989-04-01

216

A review of Gobiid expansion along the Danube-Rhine corridor – geopolitical change as a driver for invasion Une revue de l’expansion des Gobiidae le long du corridor Danube-Rhin – les changements géopolitiques comme moteur pour l’invasion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five Gobiid fish species have recently increased their ranges along the Danube/Rhine river corridor. Studies to date, however, have tended to be local, site specific and reactive, examining just one or few species. As such, overall range has tended to be assumed based on a summary of patchy, and sometimes contradictory, data. This study provides an up-to-date literature review of first records of occurrence for all five species along their expansion route. In addition, available shipping...

Roche K.F.; Jana? M.; Jurajda P.

2013-01-01

217

Architecture of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta (the Netherlands) – A result of changing external controls  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta is formed under the influence of sea-level rise, tectonics, and variations in discharge and sediment supply. This paper aims to determine the relative importance of these external controls to improve our understanding of the evolution of the Rhine-Meuse fluvio-deltaic system. To do this, the geological and lithological composition of the fluvio-deltaic wedge has to be known in detail, both in space and time. This study presents five cross-valley sections in the ...

Gouw, M. J. P.; Erkens, Gilles

2007-01-01

218

Germany’s Schengen veto slated as '  

...Germany’s Schengen veto slated as 'populist' | EurActiv central-europe,justice,Bulgaria,CVM,populism,Romania,Schengen EU news & policy debates- across languages - en ...slated as 'populist' [fr] -A + A Published 05 March 2013, updated 06 March 2013 3 comments Tags Bulgaria, CVM, populism, Romania, Schengen Hannes Swoboda, ...as ldquo;populist and deceitfulrdquo; Germany's threat to veto the accession of Bulgaria and Romania to the EUrsquo;s border-free Schengen area. Swoboda,...EU ministers should now abide by their own rules and finally grant Bulgaria and Romania full Schengen membership. 'The threat of a German ...

219

PCR identification and distribution of Anopheles daciae (Diptera, Culicidae) in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based primarily on nucleotide polymorphisms in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA, Anopheles daciae was recently described as an additional member of the Maculipennis Group of species, separate from Anopheles messeae with which it had previously been confused due to morphological and genetic similarity. Species differentiation between A. messeae and A. daciae was possible only by ITS2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by DNA sequencing or RFLP analysis. In addition to its siblings, Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles atroparvus and A. messeae, A. daciae has been shown to occur in Germany, although with limited distribution. We here describe additional collection sites for this species in Germany, showing concentrations in East Germany and the northern Upper Rhine Valley in Southwest Germany. A species-specific multiplex PCR assay is presented that is able to differentiate the four Maculipennis Group sibling species occurring in Germany plus Anopheles sacharovi, Anopheles melanoon and Anopheles labranchiae. The correct identification and detailed knowledge of the biology of A. daciae are of relevance since it might be a vector of disease agents, as suggested by the vector potential of its siblings and the recent finding of an A. daciae female infected with Dirofilaria repens in southern Germany. PMID:24696275

Kronefeld, Mandy; Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

2014-06-01

220

Standardization of drift investigations of microorganisms in the cooling water inflow of large power plants on the Upper Rhine with a view to quantifying the impact of accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project developed a method for recognizing and evaluating damage to the populations of the macrozoobenthos of the Rhine river in the case of accidents. It is based on regular samplings by means of the sieve belts in the cooling water take-off of the Karlsruhe Rheinhafendampfkraftwerk (RDK) and Mannheim Grosskraftwerk (GKM). Investigated is the normal drift of the individual taxa in their daily and seasonal distribution. The emphasis is on the minimum and maximum numbers of individuals and the normal rate of damage of organisms as a function of the water table.- On the basis of the results so far obtained, the range of variation of the ordinary drift can be determined. Any value exceeding the established ones is a measure of the damage sustained by the biocoenosis or the individual taxa.- Further opportunities for exploiting the power plant method for the benefit of nature conservation, the protection of species, and fishery are pointed out. (orig.)

1994-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Book of tables on the physico-chemical investigation of the Rhine water 1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tables of figures on the physico-chemical investigation of the Rhine water comprise the sampling dates, the organic, entrophying and inorganic substances found, the metals and organic micro-pollutions found, and radioactivity. Other tables indicate the location of measuring places, method of sampling, and method of analysis. (DG)

1986-01-01

222

Numerical tables of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The numerical tables contain the measuring results of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water for the year 1980. The tables are arranged by general parameters, organic matter, eutrophicating substances, anorganic matter, metals, organic micropollution as well as by radioactivity (total alpha-or beta- and T-activity). (HK)

1982-01-01

223

Numerical tables of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water 1979  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The numerical tables of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water contain measurements on separate samples, continuous measurements during 2 weeks, on 14-days mixed samples as well as on 8-weeks mixed samples, and chloride measurements as well as measurements of the total-?-activity and the specific tritium activity. (HK)

1981-01-01

224

State Authority for Water and Waste Management of North-Rhine Westphalia. Annual report '84  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual report gives information on PR, literature and results from: 1. Measuring radioactivity in the Rhine, 2. problems of dioxin analysis, 3. Danger from waste dump gas and how to use it, 4. problems of residues from flue gas cleaning. Three articles of this report have been documented separately. (PW)

1985-01-01

225

Numerical tables on physical and chemical analyses of Rhine water 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The numerical tables contain the measuring results of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water for the year 1983. The tables are arranged by general parameters, organic matter, eutrophicating substances, anorganic matter, metals, organic micropollution as well as by radioactivity (total alpha- or beta- and T-activity). (MM)

1984-01-01

226

[Distribution of the Rhesus haplotype frequencies in the Düsseldorf administrative center (North Rhine-Westphalia)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rhesus haplotype frequencies and their regional distribution have been studied in the administrative area of Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia. The area studied is characterised by a heterogeneous distribution of the haplotypes without clinical trends and by missing Hardy-Weinberg conditions. PMID:8660001

Scheil, H G; Strunz, H

1996-03-01

227

Heat emission from area sources (hand register of waste heat from the Upper Rhine area)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The land register of waste heat for the Upper Rhine area waste heat project is the basis for the investigation of the effect of anthropogeneous waste heat. It is based on a land register of energy consumption and can also be used for answering questions on the heat or energy supply of a region or for an emission register of noxious substances. (DG)

1979-11-07

228

River levels: Broadland Rivers  

River levels: Broadland Rivers River Town River level station Norfolk Coast Great Yarmouth Great Yarmouth River Ant Neatishead Barton Broad River Bure Acle Acle Bridge River Bure Corpusty Corpusty River Bure Ingworth Ingworth River Bure Ranworth Ranworth Broad River Bure West End Three Mile House River… Related Searches: broadland beccles brundall

229

Construction advances on gas pipeline in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that construction is well under way on a pipeline to transport gas form the North Sea and Russia into the heart of Germany. Mitte Deutchland Anbindungs Leitung (Midal) gas pipeline, under construction for Winershall AG and partner Gazprom, the Russian state gas company, will extend more than 640 km from the North Sea coast to Ludwigshafen in Southwest Germany. en route, the line will make more than 100 river crossings. Midal will connect with the joint ventures' Sachesen-Thurigen-Erdgas Leitung (Stegal) pipeline, which moves Russian gas into eastern Germany and Wintershall's gas storage site at Rehden. Wintershall Erdgas Handelshaus GmbH, set up to manage the joint venture project, divided the pipeline route into six parts, hiring different contractors to lay each section.

1992-09-28

230

Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Results are promising despite the fact that we still use an offline procedure to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater models (i.e. the simulations of both models are separately performed. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydro-geological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reasonably well reproduce the observed groundwater head time series. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the offline-coupling technique simplifies the dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

E. H. Sutanudjaja

2011-09-01

231

Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large-scale groundwater models involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries are still rare due to a lack of hydrogeological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Although the method that we used to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater model is considered as an offline-coupling procedure (i.e. the simulations of both models were performed separately, results are promising. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reproduce the observed groundwater head time series reasonably well. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the current offline-coupling technique simplifies dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

E. H. Sutanudjaja

2011-03-01

232

Germany: Wind Energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

19,460 wind turbines with a total capacity of 22,247 MW were installed in Germany by the end of 2007. The installed power represented 24% of the worldwide installed wind energy capacity. The turbines installed in Germany generated 39.5 TWh of wind electri...

A. Stahl

2008-01-01

233

Impacts of using reformulated and oxygenated fuel blends on the regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE), the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High t...

-f Vinuesa, J.; Ph. Mirabel; -l Ponche, J.

2005-01-01

234

Impacts of using reformulated and oxygenated fuel blends on the regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE), the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High t...

Vinuesa, J. -f; Mirabel, Ph; Ponche, J. -l

2006-01-01

235

Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

Koch, E. [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

1995-12-31

236

Petrophysical properties and 3D block model of Buntsandstein Sandstones reservoir (Upper Rhine Graben)  

Science.gov (United States)

Buntsandstein sandstones (upper Permian to middle Triassic), located in the Upper Rhine Graben, appear as an easy target for geothermal exploitation: this reservoir links more or less permeable argillaceous sandstones, intersected by many major faults, to the regional thermal anomaly. In this context, we propose a conceptual geological 3-D block model of the Buntsandstein reservoir which could be used as a guide for future regional geothermal exploration or exploitation. This block presents the Buntsandstein sandstones reservoir at depth with different sedimentary facies (braided rivers, playa lake and fluvio-aeolian), above the Palaeozoic Granit and below the Muschelkalk limestones, intersecting by faults oriented according regional major azimuths: (1) ?N020°E, corresponding to Rhenish faults and (2) ?N060°E (or ?N130°E) corresponding to Hercynian reactivated faults. Petrophysical properties of the reservoir are both controlled by matrix and faults/fractures characteristics. (1) Matrix properties (porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity, Pwaves velocity) have been determined from petrophysical measurements performed on cores of 15 borehole, mainly on borehole EPS1 (Soultz-sous-Forêts, France), continuously cored through Buntsandstein; (2) from thermal gradient analyses based on thermal conductivity measurements on core samples and also from borehole temperature logs run in the same borehole. This last approach allows locating fluid flow and thus permeability at reservoir scale. The flow paths appear as a composite network controlled by 'sedimentary' permeability on one hand and by 'fracture' permeability on the other. Fracturing associated with major fault zones provide pathways for the upward flowing fluids to connect with stratigraphic levels characterized by high matrix permeability and no impermeable macroscopic layers. This is why the Playa Lake and Fluvio-aeolian marginal erg facies provide a reservoir connected to a deep hot fluid source. Braided river facies, despite high matrix permeability, present a broad network of thick oblique argillaceous layers which decreases the macroscopic permeability. Fracture network is determined from outcrops and borehole data analysis. Near Rhenish major faults zones, fracturing appears organised as corridor with high density of fractures, separated by law density fractured zones. This fractures organization was not recognized near Hercynian reactived fault. Baryte and quartz precipitation have been observed near this last fault and near Rhenish oriented fault. However, no or just very few mineral precipitations are present in fractures localized in the central part of the bloc. These kinds of mineralization indicate paleo- fluid flow zones. Furthermore, mineral precipitations drive to an important decrease of fracture porosity and permeability and thus they can constituted important fluid flow barrier. Association of matrix and fracture data drives to the building of a 3D conceptual block model of the reservoir. It point zones where geothermal exploitation could be easier: near playa lake and fluvio-aeolian facies and near certain fault zones (with Hercynian orientation).

Sébastien, Haffen; Yves, Géraud; Marc, Diraison; Chrystel, Dezayes

2013-04-01

237

River levels: Northumberland Rivers  

…Blyth Blyth River Coquet Alwinton Alwinton Bridge River Coquet Morwick Morwick River Coquet Rothbury Rothbury River Coquet Warkworth Warkworth River Font Nunnykirk Nunnykirk River Hartburn Hartburn Hartburn River Pont Ponteland Callerton Lane River Pont Stamfordham Heugh Mill River Pont Stamfordham Stamfordham…

238

Towards a better knowledge of the clastic Lower Triassic reservoirs in the Upper Rhine Graben (France)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methodology for estimation of the geothermal potential in a limited area. This method is applied to the Upper Rhine Graben, for the resource located in clastic formation of the lower Triassic unit, namely the Buntsandstein. The methodology is based on Muffler & Cataldi works (1978) and the computation of the heat in place and exploitable heat. A 30km x 35km area located between Strasbourg and Obernai in France has been investigated. Based on a detailed geological study combining data derived ...

Dezayes, Chrystel; Thinon, Isabelle; Courrioux, Gabriel; Haffen, Se?bastien; Bouchot, Vincent

2010-01-01

239

[Distribution of Rhesus haplotype frequencies in the Cologne (North Rhine-Westphalia) administrative district].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rhesus haplotype frequencies and their regional distribution have been studied in the administrative area of Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia. The area studied is characterised by a heterogeneous distribution of the haplotypes and by missing Hardy-Weinberg conditions. There are higher CDe- and lower cde-haplotype frequencies in the south-western part. The distribution of the very rare cDue haplotype could be correlated with higher B frequencies in the administrative areas of Cologne and Düsseldorf. PMID:8992948

Scheil, H G; Strunz, H

1996-09-01

240

Simulation of extreme precipitation in the Rhine basin by nearest-neighbour resampling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of the nonparametric nearest-neighbour resampling technique is studied for generating time series of daily rainfall and temperature for seven stations in the German part of the Rhine basin. The emphasis is on the reproduction of extreme N-day precipitation amounts. The daily temperatures are used to determine snow accumulation and melt in winter. Two versions of the resampling method, conditional on the atmospheric circulation and unconditional, show comparable results. For pre...

Brandsma, T.; Buishand, T. A.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Complementary Currencies in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In several places in Germany colourful slips of paper replace the Euro as a medium of exchange. These unofficial tenders German Regiogeld, a phenomenon which occurred around 2001 and spread rapidly all over Germany. It appears not only with different names but also in various forms. The article introduces this special complementary currency. It describes briefly – and from a sociological point of view – what it is, how it has originated, the actual status quo and possible future developme...

Thiel, Christian

2011-01-01

242

Germany at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

2001-01-01

243

Conformity Assessment in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was mandated by the Federal Ministry of Economics in 2004 with the objective of drawing up options for a future conformity assessment structure in Germany. It was motivated by the need to gain an overview of the use of conformity assessment in Germany and of its institutional structures, which appeared to be rather fragmented on the level of accreditation and designation. The wish to improve the transparency and the effectiveness of the national conformity assessment system ...

Ro?hl, Hans Christian; Schreiber, Yvonne

2008-01-01

244

Cytogenetic changes in fish exposed to water of the river Rhine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The induction of chromosome aberrations in fishes, exposed to Rhinewater, was investigated. The mudminnow, Umbra pygmaea, was chosen for this study, because of its ideal karyotype of 22 large chromosomes. Gill cells were used for chromosome studies. Fish, kept in Rhinewater for 11 days had chromosome breaks in approximately 30% of the metaphases studied. Control fish, exposed to a very good quality of untreated groundwater had breaks in about 8% of the metaphases. Several Rhinewater extracts were tested for their mutagenic potential in the Salmonella-microsome test. The fraction of aromatic compounds was found to be positive. This may indicate that one or more of the compounds present in this fraction were also responsible for the cytogenetic changes found in the fish. For comparison several Rhinewater extracts were tested for their mutagenic potential by means of a bacterial mutagenicity test. In addition the radioactivity of the water samples was measured in order to evaluate any likely cytogenetic effects arising from ionising radiation. (Auth.)

1978-01-01

245

Results of the Rhine-Ruhr international materials conference and award 2005. Materials for energy technology in the 21st century - Documentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper contains the origin wording of 16 lectures (speech) and discussions, which were held on the first Rhine-Ruhr International Materials Conference in Essen, Germany, on October 23 and 24, 2005. The focus of the gathering was on materials research, development and production in the field of energy engineering. The following topics are dealt with: Energy Concepts for Closing the Gap between Demand and Environmental Protection (Klaus Toepfer); Materials Science: The Competitive Factor in the Global Energy Technology Development (Roland Schenkel); The Necessity for Innovation in the EU as Seen by a New Member State (K.J. Kurzydlowski); New Pathways for Cooperation between Materials Science and Industry (Paul M. Siffert); Energy Demand and Environmental Protection - how to get both in line (Mark Radka); Chinese Energy Efficiency Policy leading to cleaner Production in China (Ming Yang); The Global Significance of Solar Energy Supply (Adolf Goetzberger); The Vision of Sustainable Development of Nuclear Energy (Patrick Ledermann); Improving the Efficiency of Energy Technology with Novel Materials (Johannes Teyssen); New Material Concepts for High Efficiency and Low Risk Exploitation of Energy (Koichi Yagi); Materials Systems for Tomorrow's Gas Turbines (Wilfried Kurz); Science and Technological Advances in Fusion Energy Research, ITER and beyond (Bernard Saoutic); Materials, Systems and Milestones for Economically and Environmentally Attractive Fusion Power Plants (Ian Cook); Fuel Cells - The State of the Art: Applications, Feasibility, Technology and Outlook for the Next Decade (Roland Diethelm); Wind Energy - Significance and Challenges for Tomorrow (Christian Nath); Solar Energy - Time Scale for the Full Application (Volker Wittwer)

2005-10-23

246

The implementation of the new EU water directives on different scales - two examples from the region of Trier (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

The EU water directives in Germany are being implemented and are at the moment in the process of being transformed into concrete measures. These measures mainly concern land use management and, if necessary, actions on site. For the implementation of on-site measures as well as for land use management, the field of observation and its scale lead to various challenges. The number of stakeholders and the im-pact of the EU water directives depend on the size of the catchment. The scale of the impact range from single inhabitants to local or federal planning communities and can even impact cultural heritage management. The conflict potential increases as more interests are included in the decision making process, therefore different adaptation strategies are necessary. Issues, especially those involving the divergence between individual and public interests, nature con-servation, flood prevention and economic concerns demand creative solutions. The two examples located in the region of Trier (Germany) show conflicts during the imple-mentation of the EU water directives on different scales. The Mosel, a first order river, passes through three countries on the way to the Rhine. The river gives a natural boundary to the settlement areas and forms the shape of the city of Trier. Regarding the EU Flood Water Di-rective, flood hazard and risk maps should be developed for all catchments. This can lead to conflicts between settlement developments and flood protection, as well as to loss of the eco-nomic value of private estates. A case study in Trier will be presented, where a building site as shown on the land development plan is an area prone to flooding. Up till now this area is still zoned for building and not as a flood area. Accordingly, local and spatial planning need to go hand in hand with water management. The Olewiger Bach is a small creek (3rd order), which is strongly affected by urban rain water discharge. Primarily, the removal of fixed elements within the brook such as weirs and paved sectors are necessary to achieve the objectives of the directives. This is only possible when the spillway overflows existing in the brook are at the same time improved. This will be cru-cial to the sustainable management of the receiving water during flood events and to prevent the erosion caused by the removal of fixed elements. These two examples and especially the comparison between the different scales drive home the message that, concerning the EU water directives, varying requirements for the implemen-tation are necessary and depend on the catchment size as well as on the planning scale and the stakeholders involved. Different adaptation and participation strategies need to be developed to offer adapted solutions. As these two examples are diverse with regard to different scales, they can be used as examples outside of Germany, and are especially helpful when developing approaches for flood hazard and risk maps and flood risk management plans.

Gellweiler, I.; Meyer, B.

2009-04-01

247

Cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across large river basins in Europe, Africa and Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and the Amudarya basin is in Central Asia. The evaluation was based mainly on the opinions of policy makers and water management experts in the river basins. The adaptation strategies were evaluated co...

Krysanova, Valentina; Dickens, Chris; Timmerman, Jos; Varela Ortega, Consuelo; Schlu?ter, Maja; Roest, Koen; Huntjens, Patrick; Jaspers, Fons; Buiteveld, Hendrik; Moreno, Edinson; Pedraza Carrera, Javier; Sla?mova, Romana; Marti?nkova?, Marta; Blanco Gutie?rrez, Irene; Esteve Bengoechea, Paloma

2010-01-01

248

Cross-Comparison of Climate Change adaptation Strategies Across Large River Basins in Europe, Africa and Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and the Amudarya basin is in Central Asia. The evaluation was based mainly on the opinions of policy makers and water management experts in the river basins. The adaptation strategies were evaluated co...

Krysanova, V.; Dickens, Ch; Timmerman, J.; Varela Ortega, C.; Schlu?ter, M.; Roest, C. W. J.; Huntjens, P.; Jaspers, A. M. J.; Buiteveld, H.; Moreno, E.; Pedraza Carrera, J.; Sla?mova?, R.; Marti?nkova?, M.; Blanco, I.; Esteve, P.

2010-01-01

249

Natural radionuclides in the environment. Ocurrence, anthropogenic effects and radiological relevance in selected mining areas in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main goal of the investigations described in this work was to assemble and evaluate data to the occurence and distribution of natural radionuclides in selected areas of the hard coal mining, as well as in the former uranium mining areas in Germany, to improve the knowledge about the behaviour of these nuclides in terrestrial ecosystems. Afterwards the evaluated data should be used for the realistic estimation of the radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in the investigation areas by using probabilistic methods and the models of the German calculation basis for determination of the radiation exposure in mining areas (Berechnungsgrundlagen Bergbau). For reaching this goal, the results of the research-project ''displacement of pollutants during the river Elbe flood in August 2002'' as well as the results of the expertise ''radiological assessment of mine waters - discharges of the hard coal mining in the lower Rhine area to the Fossa Eugeniana'' was evaluated and the data concerning the occurence and distribution of natural radionuclides, as relevant for the determination of the radiation exposure due to this nuclides, was extracted. To account for the areas affected by the former uranium mining and milling activities in Saxony, the final reports of the project ''radiological acquisition, investigation and assessment of mining legacies - legacy register'' (Altlastenkataster) were evaluated. In particular 13 potentially affected areas (Verdachtsflaechen) defined in this project were evaluated together with the results of the side-project ''radionuclides in sediments and alluvial soils'' to extract data for the determination of the radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in this areas. As a result of the evaluations performed in this work representative values for the concentrations of natural radionuclide in the environmental compartments sediment, soil, surface water, ground water, drinking water and biomaterials as well as their distribution were derived for the different investigation areas. The expectation values and variabilities of the radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides for each relevant exposure path and the total exposure were investigated using Monte-Carlo-techniques. This was done by assuming for each parameter of the model a distribution of values described by an expectation value and a variance instead of using only a point estimator. With this approach, the variability of the radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides was calculated for selected areas of the former uranium mining in Saxony, as well as for the areas affected by the discharges of hard coal mining at the lower Rhine and afterwards compared with national and international mean values. Consequently, this work makes a contribution to the realistic determination of the radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides as recommended by the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) and as demanded by the Euratom-directive 96/29 to be implemented in national laws. (orig.)

2008-01-01

250

Fiscal consolidation in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The German federal government's fiscal consolidation package, announced in June, is designed to permanently reduce the federal deficit to a new target level. This article uses a three-region version of the European Commission's QUEST model to gauge the impact of the package on Germany and the spillover to the rest of the euro area and the rest of the world.

2010-01-01

251

Bovine besnoitiosis in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports a case of natural occurring bovine besnoitiosis in Germany. The skin lesions consisted of multifocal hypotrichosis and alopecia, lichenification, erythema and seborrhoea. Histopathologic findings revealed characteristic cysts of Besnoitia spp. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology and the species Besnoitia besnoiti was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:20230585

Rostaher, Ana; Mueller, Ralf S; Majzoub, Monir; Schares, Gereon; Gollnick, Nicole S

2010-08-01

252

Gradual retirement in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"This paper deals with gradual retirement in Germany, the research field of the project C5 within the Special Collaborative Centre 186. The project analyses transitions from employment into retirement, especially reactions to a new social policy regulation: the partial pension which was introduced by the Pension Reform of 1992."

Schma?hl, Winfried; George, Rainer; Oswald, Christiane; Universita?t Bremen, Sfb Statuspassagen Und Risikolagen Im Lebensverlauf

1996-01-01

253

Caring Communities in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

"Caring communities" is a great sounding line, but what does it really mean? There are many ways that communities which present themselves as caring make life easier or worse for those who live there. For centuries in Germany, there have been religious groups who claim to care for each member. By definition, this is circumscribed caring as it…

Kreisle, Beate

2012-01-01

254

Nuclear energy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following subjects are dealt with in very concise and generally understandable form: the nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany, their part played in energy supply and comparison with the world situation, the economic importance of nuclear power, planning and construction of nuclear power plants, the fuel cycle, research and development, energy policy as well as legal framework conditions. (UA)

1984-03-01

255

Election in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This week's In The News focuses on the forthcoming general election in Germany. The seven sources discussed provide background, news, analysis, and commentary. On Sunday September 27, Germany's 60 million voters will elect a chancellor to lead them into the 21st century. Incumbent Helmut Kohl, a 68-year-old Christian Democrat who has been chancellor since 1982, is running for an unprecedented fifth term. During Kohl's sixteen years in power as a major world leader, he has presided over the reunification of Germany after the fall of the Berlin wall, advocated European unity while strengthening ties with the US, and ardently endorsed Germany's participation in Europe's single currency, the Euro. However, the problems of modernizing the economy in the formerly communist eastern Germany--where seventeen percent of the workers are unemployed--compounded by the difficulties of high taxes, expensive social programs, and fleeing investments, have convinced many voters that is time for a change of leadership. Kohl's opponent in the general election, Gerhard Schroder, is a 54-year-old Social Democrat currently serving as the Prime Minister of the northern state of Lower Saxony. The telegenic Schroder considers himself a New Middle leftist and models his political style after UK Prime Minister Tony Blair and US President Bill Clinton; he has, in fact, used consultants from Clinton's last campaign to bolster his image. According to political pundits, both Kohl and Schroder have similar moderate platforms, which has made this race a campaign of competing personalities rather than of substantive issues. Recent polls have indicated a dead heat between the candidates leading into the final week of the campaign.

Osmond, Andrew.

256

QUALITY OF MUST AND RHINE RIESLING WINE OF KUTJEVO VINEYARD AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantities of sugar and acid in the must of Riesling Rhine of Kutjevo vineyard area were observed on the Jakobovic Family Estate in the period of five years, from 1999 to 2003. The analysis shows varying quality of must and wine due to climatic conditions of a particular year. In the year 2000 and 2003 the quantities of sugar were exceptionally high and the content of all acids considerably lower which reflected later on the quantity of alcohol and acid in wine, as well as on organoleptic traits of wine.

Snježana Jakobovi?

2005-06-01

257

Quantifying erosion over timescales of one million years: A photogrammetric approach on the amount of Rhenish erosion in southwestern Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lein valley in southwestern Germany possesses well-preserved Pliocene to mid Pleistocene land surfaces featuring a gentle relief and sediments accumulated by former tributaries of the Danube. This ancient Danubian land surface was captured and incised by mid Pleistocene to Holocene tributaries of the River Rhine. In a photogrammetric approach we calculated the volume of material extracted by Rhenish erosion providing a first quantification of the effects of stream piracy on timescales of about 1 Ma. Using stereoscopic surface modelling software a DEM was generated with a resolution of 5 m. From borehole data, literature, geological maps, and own field observations we determined the morphometric parameters of the ancient Danubian Ur-Lein valley. The gradient was imported as a 3D-breakline into the model where it controls the reinterpolation of surrounding data points. The result is a high-resolution DEM of the valley of the Ur-Lein. Subtraction of the DEM of the actual landscape from the DEM of the ancient Ur-Lein valley yields a model representing the rock volume eroded by the Rhenish Lein which totals 1.39 km 3 and converts into a rate of erosion between 63 and 74 mm/ka over a period of 700 to 600 ka, respectively, in accordance with figures obtained elsewhere in Central Europe through cosmogenic nuclides. It reflects the dominance of frequent fluctuations in climate and is considered to be mainly a product of strong changes in temperature and related processes during the transitional times between mid to late Pleistocene warm and cold states. A filtering procedure applied to cold and transitional state erosion rates of the Middle and Late Pleistocene yielded peak values between 66 and 77 mm/ka, up to three times higher than the modern rate or the rate of warm-state episodes. An assessment of the contribution of Rhenish stream piracy on long-term mid Pleistocene denudation under changing climate conditions resulted in a maximum 4.9-fold acceleration.

Strasser, Annette; Strasser, Marcel; Seyfried, Hartmut

2010-10-01

258

Estimation des caractéristiques biologiques des truites de mer adultes (Salmo trutta du Rhin supérieur Estimation of biological characteristics of adult sea trout (Salmo trutta in the Upper Rhine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'analyse des longueurs totales et des écailles d'un échantillon de 120 truites de mer adultes capturées essentiellement par pêche à l'électricité dans le Rhin supérieur (700 km de la mer du Nord de 1989 à 1996 a permis de caractériser la population de cette ressource piscicole en voie de restauration. L'utilisation des Captures Par Unité d'Effort (CPUE, calculées pour les pêches de 1994 à 1996, permet d'appréhender le rythme de migration et d'améliorer l'estimation des caractéristiques générales de la population. Dans cette partie du Rhin, la migration anadrome de la truite de mer se déroule en deux pics successifs de juin à décembre, les individus les plus âgés arrivant les premiers. La population est caractérisée par une très forte prédominance des groupes d'âge de mer 1 + (49,2 % et 2+ (45,8 %, soit un Age Moyen de Mer (AMM de 1,54 an. L'Age Moyen de Smoltification (AMS et de première Reproduction (AMR sont estimés respectivement à 1,30 an et 1,39 an. Par ailleurs, il est constaté que l'âge marin de première maturité des adultes du Rhin augmente quand leur âge de smoltification diminue. Les résultats sont discutés en fonction de la méthodologie employée et comparés à ceux obtenus sur d'autres populations françaises et plus nordiques. Il ressort que les caractéristiques de la population de truite de mer du Rhin traduisent bien la position latitudinale mais aussi l'importance de ce réseau hydrographique. An analysis of the total length and scales of a sample of 120 adult sea trout caught for the most part by electrofishing in the upper Rhine (700 km from the North Sea from 1989 to 1996 lent information to characterize this population under restoration. The calculation of the Catch Per Unit of Effort (CPUE with data from 1994 to 1996 allowed to study the migration pattern and to improve the estimation of the general population characteristics. In this part of the Rhine, anadromous migration of sea trout occurs with two successive peaks from June to December, the older fish arriving first. The population is characterized by a predominance of fish aged 1+ (49,2 % and 2+ (45,8 % years at sea, that is to say an average sea age (AMM of 1.54 year. The average smolting age (AMS and sea age at maturity (AMR are respectively estimated at 1.30 and 1.39 year. Moreover, in this population, sea age at maturity increases when smolt age decreases. The results are discussed according to the methods and are compared with results obtained from other French or more northern rivers populations. Thus, the characteristics of the Rhine sea trout population correspond to what could be expected from its latitudinal situation and its great river status.

OMBREDANE D.

2008-08-01

259

Clostridium difficile genotypes in piglet populations in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium difficile was isolated from 147 of 201 (73%) rectal swabs of piglets from 15 farms of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia. In 14 farms, 14 to 100% (mean, 78%) of the animals tested were culture positive. The rate of isolation was 68% postpartum, increased to 94% in animals 2 to 14 days of age, and declined to 0% for animals 49 days of age and older. There was no link between isolation and antibiotic treatment or diarrhea of piglets. Strains were assigned to 10 PCR ribotypes, and up to 4 PCR ribotypes were found to be present at the same time on a farm. The closely related PCR ribotypes 078 (55%) and 126 (20%) were most frequently recovered and were present in 13 of the 14 positive farms. The comparison of multilocus VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) analysis (MLVA) data from this study and previously published data on human, porcine, and bovine PCR ribotype 078 isolates from 5 European countries revealed genetic differences between strains of different geographic origin and confirmed the relatedness of human and porcine C. difficile isolates. This study demonstrated that the human-pathogenic PCR ribotypes 078 and 126 are predominant in piglets in Germany. The results suggest that presence of C. difficile is correlated with animal age but not with antibiotic treatment or clinical disease. MLVA indicated that strains of the same geographical origin are often genetically related and corroborated the hypothesis of a close epidemiological connection between human and porcine C. difficile isolates. PMID:24025903

Schneeberg, Alexander; Neubauer, Heinrich; Schmoock, Gernot; Baier, Sylvia; Harlizius, Jürgen; Nienhoff, Hendrik; Brase, Katja; Zimmermann, Stefan; Seyboldt, Christian

2013-11-01

260

Numerical investigations on the optimum use of variable cooling systems of a power plant chain taking the example of the upper Rhine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Where there are several power plants with variable cooling systems on one river or river section, the question is raised as to the optimum use of cooling systems depending on discharge and weather (cooling control). The Upper Rhine is taken as example where in future cooling control is necessary due to high thermal loading and will be possible due to the presence of six power plant blocks with variable cooling systems. By means of dynamic optimization, the cooling variant giving rise to the largest electrical net total power maintaining the same temperature limiting values is determined for given discharge and weather conditions. The decision is based on a one-dimensional temperature model of the river, as well as calculation methods to determine net power and heat supply to the waters depending on cooling variants and weather conditions. The flow model make many approximations to compare with nature. One may neglect the lengthwise dispersion. Starting from the maximum switching frequency of the cooling plants of 1/d, cooling control in daily sequence over a period of one year is simulated with historical data. The optimum electricity generated is about 2.2% below the net generation achievable by 100% throughflow cooling and by 0.3% above that achievable at maximum exhaustion. Each practical means must match this result. A true-time control of the cooling plants according to the above principle seems possible, necessitates however, the discharge and weather forcast over 2-4 days. Finally, it is shown that the complicated optimization can be approximated by using simple decisive rules which require no discharge and weather forcast. (orig./GL)

1978-06-22

 
 
 
 
261

Experimental and theoretical studies on heat exchange of a river to the atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes above the river Rhine as well as other meteorologic parameters carried out at the Rheinhausen measuring station were evaluated according to the following viewpoints: Agreement of the measured transfer coefficients with theory and with experimental results (ocean measurements). Recommendation of averaged heat transfer coefficients for use in practical calculations. Experimental test of the Bowen ratio concept. Studies on the influence of topographic environment on exchange conditions. (orig.)

1980-01-01

262

Seismic risk evaluation for the Upper Rhine Graben and its vicinity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A probabilistic large-scale seismicity model for the Upper Rhine graben and adjoining regions has been developed considering all available seismological and geological information. With this model the probability distribution of macroseismic intensities (MSK-scale) was calculated for 208 sites regularly covering the region under investigation with a grid width of 25 km. Four maps with intensity isolines are presented according to exceedance probabilities 63%, 10%, 1% and 0,1% for a period of 50 years (corresponding to annual occurence rates 2.10-2, 2.10-3, 2.10-4 and 2.10-5). The intensities given reflect the regional seismicity level with respect to quantitative risk values, which might be modified by local particularities (soil conditions, nearby seismoactive fault lines, etc.) for a special site. The risk for an average site in the Upper Rhine graben is characterized by an annual occurrence rate of about 10-4 for intensity VIII. On a statistical basis, the exceedance of intensity IX cannot be excluded, but could only occur at a very low probability level. (orig.) 891 HP

1978-01-01

263

Chinese Companies in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dissertation analyses the internationalization activities of Chinese manufacturing companies which have invested in Germany. On the basis of an intensive analysis of the existing literature on the one hand, and of qualitative exploratory case studies on the other the globalization strategies of Chinese companies will be presented in historical perspective, and ideal-typical models of management and industrial relations in German and Chinese companies will be described. The second part of...

Ge, Subo

2012-01-01

264

Cultural integration in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This chapter investigates the integration processes of immigrants in Germany by comparing certain immigrant groups to natives differentiating by gender and immigrant generation. Indicators which are supposed to capture cultural integration of immigrants are differences in marital behavior as well as language abilities, ethnic identification and religious distribution. A special feature of the available data is information about overall life satisfaction, risk aversion and political interest. ...

Constant, Amelie F.; Nottmeyer, Olga; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

2009-01-01

265

Germany knows mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

NONE

2006-11-15

266

Nuclear power in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany was after the war a great nation in the nuclear industry and between 1957 and 2004 about 110 nuclear installations were commissioned among which PWR, BWR, HTR, sodium reactors and research reactors. The opposition to nuclear energy became more extreme and took momentum after the Chernobyl accident. In 1998 the red-green coalition launched the progressive nuclear power phaseout policy and now nuclear energy appears as a transition energy before the takeover of full-grown alternative energies. This new policy had impacts on the research programs and the curricula of the universities, for instance the training in nuclear sciences is waning. Today 17 reactors dispatched on 12 sites are operating and have generated 23% of the electricity produced in 2008. As for the disposal of radioactive wastes, Germany has since long studied the disposal in deep geological layers. 2 sites have been selected: the Gorleben salt mines and the clay site of Konrad. The government has acknowledged the insufficient development of alternative energies and has proposed in its program to extend the service life of today's reactors. Despite the nuclear phaseout, there is in Germany a powerful nuclear industry whose main actors are Siemens, RWE, EON, Areva-NS and Urenco. (A.C.)

267

Meteorological field measurements in the context of the research project on 'waste heat in the Upper Rhine area'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The description of the climatic conditions of the Upper Rhine area between Frankfurt on Main and Basle in connection with the anthropogeneous waste heat, working out a regional weather classification related to the application, working on small aerological rises and preparing meteorological data are all part of the project for climatological and small aerological investigations. (DG)

1979-11-07

268

Cellular changes in the skin of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) after short-term exposure to increased water temperature: Part 2: Experiments with Rhine water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study on the title subject is to show that salmonides in a simulated cooling water outlet area of an electric power plant along the river Rhine do not experience long-term or permanent negative consequences of their presence in the heated water. Laboratory experiments were carried out with 'test trouts'. The water in which the trouts were kept was heated up from 9C to 16C in 30 minutes. The temperature of 16C was maintained for 3 hours. After the heating up skin samples were taken at different periods for 35 days. Histochemical and electron microscopic investigations were carried out. The short term increase of the water temperature clearly effected the ultrastructure of the fish. The changes in the epidermis did not recover within 35 days. It is suggested that a number of the found cellular reactions can be used as indicators for environmental stress. These reactions concern the production of lysosomes and the migration of macrophages in the epidermis. No serious effects as skin decomposition and an excess of mucous secretion were found

1994-01-01

269

The Chernobyl accident and its direct and late effects an surface bodies of water in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects on the tritium content (monthly composite samples) of German surface waters could not be detected. After the nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl, however, the increased radioactive content in the Rhine and the Moselle could easily be detected in the samples of May 1986 by means of the residual ? determination. The Sr-90 contents of up to 0.010 Bq/l measured in the Rhine and the Moselle were only slightly higher than the values measured in 1985. For the nuclide ratio Sr-89/Sr-90, measured in rainwater samples, a value of 18.7 ±8.7 (n=10) was determined. An extraordinary high nuclide content was observed in the solids contained in water (suspended matters, sediments). Cs-137 contents of up to 6000 Bq/kg TM were measured in suspended matter samples from the Moselle (monthly composite samples). A careful analysis of the activity quotient, adjusted to decay, measured in different German river areas on samples of suspended matters, sediments, and - with restrictions - of rainwater, showed a distinct increase in South-North direction. This regional fractionation can obviously be set in correlation with the local conditions of the place of release. (orig./DG)

1987-01-01

270

Medical education in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the changes made to the medical licensing regulations of 2002, medical education in Germany has been subject to radical modification, especially at undergraduate level. The implementation of the Bologna Process is still a matter of intense political debate, whilst positive movement has occurred in developing the professionalisation of teaching staff through a Masters Degree in Medical Education. In the area of postgraduate medical education, major restructuring of programmes is occurring, whilst the debate in continuing medical education is related to the amount of practical clinical education that is required. PMID:19811144

Nikendei, Christoph; Weyrich, Peter; Jünger, Jana; Schrauth, Markus

2009-07-01

271

Commission denies Germany'  

... But sources say German Finance Minister Wolfgang Schäuble has angered the president of the European Commission, José Manuel Barroso. Schäublersquo;... They accuse Schäuble of trying to deflect blame towards the Commission ldquo;because Germany has had to take a lot of flak ...WDRrsquo;s Europaforum, a yearly forum on the future of Europe, Schäuble said the Commission had been too slow in implementing unemployment support ...Rehn is precisely the Commissioner responsible for Greece for which Mr Schäuble was calling. Mr Rehn has clear decision-making authority in this ...

272

Destination Poland and Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson was designed to provide students the opportunity to conduct research using a variety of print and electronic resources in order to gather information about the countries of Poland and Germany. In small groups, the students will scavenger through online and print resources including: a dictionary, thesaurus, encyclopedia, and atlas. They will create a poster with the accompanying information to present to the whole class. This lesson is usually taught at the start of the Holocaust novel study unit Daniel's Story by Carol Matas, however, it can easily be adapted for any country or novel.

Ryan, Kris

2012-06-29

273

Seismicity in Northern Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR in October 2012. The instrumental analysis like the determination of hypocenters, magnitudes and fault plane solutions whenever possible, is supplemented by macroseismic investigations based on reports by the public.

Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

2013-04-01

274

[Prenatal care in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal care in Germany is based on a nationwide standardized program of care for pregnant women. Besides support and health counseling, it comprises prevention or early detection of diseases or unfavorable circumstances with risks for mother and child. Prenatal care is regulated by law and structured by directives and standard procedures in maternity guidelines (Mutterschafts-Richtlinien). This includes information and counseling of future mothers on offers of psychosocial and medical assistance in normal pregnancies as well as in unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. Further aspects are clinical examinations and risk determinations for genetic variations or direct genetic analysis. During pregnancy, medical history, clinical examination, and blood testing are part of the sophisticated program, which includes at least three standardized sonographic examinations at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of gestation. The maternity passport allows a pregnant woman to carry the most relevant information on her pregnancy and her personal risks with her. For 45 years now, women in Germany are used to carrying their Mutterpass. Societal changes have influenced the central goals of maternity care: In the beginning, the mortality of mother and child had to be reduced. Today, maternal morbidity and impaired development of the child are the center of interest, with expansion to familial satisfaction. The reduction in the mortality and morbidity of both the mother and the child during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum can be attributed to prenatal care. Thus, investment in a program of nationwide structured prenatal care seems to be worthwhile-despite the lack of evidence concerning its effectiveness. PMID:24337130

Vetter, K; Goeckenjan, M

2013-12-01

275

Analysis of radium in sediment samples from the Rhine delta. Results over 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen sediment samples, collected in the harbours and waterways of the Rhine delta in 1997, were analysed for their 226Ra content and grain-size distribution. The effect of the emissions from the phosphate-processing industries on the 226Ra content could be inferred on the basis of these data. As observed in previous monitoring campaigns, the influence of this industry is greatest in and nearby the first and second petroleum harbours. Increases in the 226Ra content of up to 211 Bq/kg were measured in comparison to background levels of 22 to 46 Bq/kg. Approximately 13% of the released 226Ra is deposited in the harbours and waterways. Samples collected once every year were found to reflect the long-term trend in the emissions. 6 refs

1998-01-01

276

Impact of waste heat emissions in the Upper-Rhine region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy supply of industrialized regions is ultimately transformed into waste heat and reaches the atmosphere. In the Upper-Rhine Region (inventory area 27,500 km"2) the mean annual waste heat emission is about 1.6 W/m"2 and thus exceeds the mean global anthropogenic heat release by a factor of 100. The heat emission consists of energy conversion (16 %), major industry (33 %), small industry and domestic consumption (38 %) as well as transportation (13 %); it is released in the form of radiative (17 %), sensible (69 %) and latent heat (14 %). The largest amount of waste heat is released in urban and industrial areas showing flux densities of about 30 W/m"2 on 2 km x 2 km grid areas (some of this waste heat orginates from nuclear power plants). The influence on regional climate is studied using a non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulation model, which calculates the topographically influenced wind field. (Auth.)

1980-03-06

277

Energy policy from the angle of the Land North-Rhine Westphalia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Even the best of all efforts towards maximizing energy conservation, rational use of energy, and development of renewable sources will not make coal a redundant source of energy. The government of North-Rhine Westphalia therefore continues to support the exploitation of the coal and brown coal reserves in its territory. Operation of the two brown coal surface mines at Hambach and Inden is safeguarded for the next 25 years to come, but the extension of the site Garzweiler I by a Garzweiler II pit is an item of political contestation. The nuclear power phase-out policy in this Land continues, and the AVR and the Hamm-Uentrop THTR will be decommisioned. (HP)

1996-01-01

278

Simulation of extreme precipitation in the Rhine basin by nearest-neighbour resampling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of the nonparametric nearest-neighbour resampling technique is studied for generating time series of daily rainfall and temperature for seven stations in the German part of the Rhine basin. The emphasis is on the reproduction of extreme N-day precipitation amounts. The daily temperatures are used to determine snow accumulation and melt in winter. Two versions of the resampling method, conditional on the atmospheric circulation and unconditional, show comparable results. For precipitation, the autocorrelation properties are well reproduced, whereas for temperature the autocorrelation coefficients are systematically underpredicted. The distributions of the N-day annual maximum precipitation amounts are adequately preserved. Despite the systematic underprediction of the temperature autocorrelation, the distributions of N-day maximum snowmelt are well reproduced. A 1000-year simulation for the seven stations shows that unprecedented rainfall situations can be generated.

T. Brandsma

1998-01-01

279

Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fishbones, shells, human bones or food crusts on pottery from sites next to rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in rivers containing considerable amounts of dissolved 14C-free carbonates can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. For accurate radiocarbon dating of freshwater-based samples, the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect as well as the degree of variability has to be known. The initial problem in this case was the accurate dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude and variability that can also be expected for the past. Water DIC from different seasons, and from the same season in different years, has been dated because it is the carbon source in photosynthesis and thus at the basis of the riversâ?? food webs. The radiocarbon ages of underwater plants and different parts (underwater or floating) of emerging water plants are compared, as it might be expected that the reservoir age is higher for plants that assimilate DIC as for plants or parts of plants that assimilate atmospheric CO2. Mollusc shells as well as flesh and bone collagen of fish are dated as well. Radiocarbon datings of archaeological samples from the two Mesolithic sites will be analysed, considering the insights provided by the study of modern material.

Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

280

CAS School in Germany  

CERN Multimedia

The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

CERN Accelerator School

 
 
 
 
281

Germany at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

C. Laignel / FI-DI

2005-01-01

282

Germany Under Reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Offered as part of the University of Wisconsin Digital Collection's History collection, Germany Under Reconstruction provides the public with access to a variety of publications in English and German from the early days following World War II. The documents cover a wide range of topics, and they include works that look at the political, economic, and cultural milieu in the nation during the period. All told, there are 516 documents included here, and visitors can perform complex searches or just browse through them at their leisure. Some of the more notable English language items include the 1945 work "After Nazism-Democracy? A symposium by four Germans" and Elmer Beck's 1948 book "The trade union press in the U.S. occupied area". The site is rounded out by the complete run of the Weekly Information Bulletin, published by the United States European Theater's Military Army of Occupation from 1945 to 1948.

283

Germany AT CERN  

CERN Multimedia

From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

2005-01-01

284

Germany AT CERN  

CERN Document Server

From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

C. Laignel / FI-DI

2005-01-01

285

Increasing circulation of Alaria alata mesocercaria in wild boar populations of the Rhine valley, France, 2007-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of the mesocercarial stage of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in wild boar meat represents a potential risk for human, but little is known about the circulation of mesocercaria in wild boar populations. Routine Trichinella inspection, mandatorily performed in wild boar in France, also allowed detecting mesocercaria. We analyzed the results of this detection in the carcasses of 27,582 wild boars hunted in 2007-2011, in 502 hunting areas of the Rhine valley. Prevalence was globally low (0.6%), but 12% of the hunting areas were affected. These were clustered in lowlands of the Rhine valley, and prevalence strongly decreased with increasing elevation. In the lowlands, prevalence doubled between 2007 and 2011. This time trend and the geographic aggregation of positive wild boars suggest risk management measures based on targeted surveillance, control and prevention. PMID:24262388

Portier, Julien; Vallée, Isabelle; Lacour, Sandrine A; Martin-Schaller, Régine; Ferté, Hubert; Durand, Benoit

2014-01-31

286

Tests with reverse electrodialysis for the treatment of water from the Rhine for use as boiler feedwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By means of reverse electrodialysis it is possible to remove ionally dissolved materials with ion selective membranes from water. The driving force for this process is a potential difference which is applied to membranes. Some experiments with town water were first undertaken, for familiarization with the apparatus. Following these introductory experiments Rhine water was used as make-up water for the reverse electrodialysis. The initial results showed that Rhine water can be desalinated to a high degree (97%) with very low energy consumption (in total 1 kWh per 1.3 m/sup 3/ of water product). This preliminary desalination means in practice that ion exchangers fitted on the load side are less loaded. The period of operation between the two regenerations is extended and the consumption of the regenerating agent as well as the quantity of waste water to be disposed of are reduced.

Enoch, G.D.; Tigchelaar, P.; Lefers, J.B.; Overman, L.J.; Venderbosch, H.W.

1988-05-01

287

Determination of organic chlorine compounds in Rhine water, in activated carbon filters of waterworks and in organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organic chlorine compounds represent a grave danger to the drinking water supply from surface waters. The investigations described here deal with the determination of lipophile chlorine compounds in Rhine water and in fish where micro-coulometric determination methods and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in connection with a solvent extraction of the organic compounds are used. In order to be able to make statements on the toxicological effects of the harmful substances in the Rhine water, special-purpose feeding tests on rats were carried out. They showed, e.g., that hexachlorobenzene has all the properties for a particularly good storage in the organism: 1) very volatile, 2) very lipophile and 3) hard to metabolize. Further investigations deal with adsorption properties of activated carbon of different structure and surface parameters for certain organic chlorine compounds, for which the above-mentioned method was also used. (RB/LH)

1974-11-01

288

The influence of tidal straining and wind on suspended matter and phytoplankton distribution in the Rhine outflow region  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To study the short-term effects of the physical environment on phytoplankton dynamics in the Rhine outflow area. changes in salinity, beam attenuation and phytoplankton distribution were observed in a series of high resolution measurements. During periods of weak wind and neap tide (low turbulent kinetic energy, TKE), the system was dominated by tidal straining that resulted in semi-diurnal oscillations in stratification. Phytoplankton was kept in resuspension at about 10-15 m depth. Subsequent strong wind and tidal mixing (high TKE) broke down stratification, enhanced horizontal gradients and suppressed estuarine transport. It is hypothesised that during low TKE, tidal straining and frontal circulation determined the phytoplankton distribution; and at high TKE, input by wind and tide enhanced conditions for growth, which resulted in a bloom in the surface layer of the Rhine Plume, where light and nutrients were available. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Joordens, J.C.A.; Souza, A.J.

2001-01-01

289

Evaluation of bioassays versus contaminant concentrations in explaining the macroinvertebrate community structure in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is often assumed that bioassays are better descriptors of sediment toxicity than toxicant concentrations and that ecological factors are more important than toxicants in structuring macroinvertebrate communities. In the period 1992 to 1995, data were collected in the enclosed Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands, on macroinvertebrates, sediment toxicity, sediment contaminant concentrations, and ecological factors. The effect of various groups of pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ...

2001-01-01

290

A review of the past and present status of anadromous fish species in the Netherlands: is restocking the Rhine feasible?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper reviews the past, present and future of eight anadromous fish species inhabiting the Lower Rhine (The Netherlands), viz. -sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), whitefish and houting (Coregonus lavaretus, C. oxyrinchus), smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), allis and twaite shad (Alosa alosa, A. fallax), sea trout (Salmo trutta) and salmon (Salmo salar). All species are under threat or became extinct (e.g. sturgeon, allis shad). It is not possible to single out a specific factor for the decline or disa...

Groot, S. J.

2002-01-01

291

Country report Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany, there are 19 operating nuclear power plants, with a total installed capacity of 21.4 GWe. In 2002, the electricity production of these 19 nuclear power plants amounted to 165 TWh, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity production. The average availability of the German nuclear power plants was 85.6 % (this low value is due to the unexpected outage of some NPPs). The expressed goal of the German Federal Government is to phase out of nuclear energy without paying compensations to the utilities. On 11 June 2001, the final agreement between the German utilities and the German Federal Government was signed, and the amendment to the German Atomic Law (AtG-Novelle) was enforced on 27 April 2002. The overall objective of the new AtG is changed from 'support of nuclear energy' to 'fix phase-out of nuclear energy'. After the German parliament elections, the new Government coalition formulated a Coalition Contract which has the following statements on Nuclear Energy: - Work out an energy research programme which gives first priority to renewable energies and energy efficiency, - Assess termination of EURATOM membership, - Terminate nuclear electricity production on the base of a guaranteed total amount of electricity produced (in GWh),No reprocessing after 2005, - Erection of interim storages at nuclear power plant sites, - Support of research to improve safety of existing reactors, - Stop of national support for development of techniques for nuclear energy production (this includes fission and fusion). The German Committee on a Selection Procedure for Repository Sites (AkEnd) was established 1998 by the Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) reached agreement on the following main issues: - One final repository concept, - Storage in deep geological formation starting about 2030, - Isolation for 1 million years, - Under-ground exploration of at lease two sites, - One selection criteria for the final repository is the transparency of selection procedure. As regards the nuclear energy research in Germany, the 'Alliance for Competence in Nuclear Technology' with the main partners FZK, FZJ, FZR, GRS, and associated universities compiled a summary report on the status of nuclear safety research in the country. The mission of this Alliance is to increase the efficiency of existing R and D activities in the areas of nuclear safety and repository research, to preserve complementary competence at universities, and to support the Federal Government in fulfilling its legal duties. The Alliance established an industry funded project for PhD students in order to strengthen education in nuclear technology and to prevent a loss of competence. The two nuclear research centers Karlsruhe (FZK) and Juelich (FZJ) are members of the Helmholtz Association (HGF). The mission of the HGF is to perform and foster research in the field of natural sciences and medicine which is of national importance and public interest. The HGF is the largest science organisation in Germany, encompassing 15 centres with 24000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2.1 billion EUR. The HGF covers six research areas: health, energy, environment, structure of matter, transportation and space, and key technologies. Within the energy research area, there are four programmes: renewable energies, efficient conversion of energy, fusion technology, and nuclear safety research. The programme Nuclear Safety Research is divided into two programme topics (PT). The programme Nuclear Safety Research was evaluated in February 2003 by an international Evaluation Committee with the following main results: The proposed research programme is scientifically excellent and well embedded in international cooperations and programmes; The strategy and long-term perspectives in PT1 are limited according to the given research-political restrictions (no work using public funding on innovative reactor systems is permitted); The recruitment and education of young scientists and engineers has to be improved by participation in international bodies and innovative projects

2003-05-12

292

Germany warily maps genome project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German government has quietly been putting together a major genetics research program, but disagreements over emphasis stalled its launch. A vocal group of molecular biologists objected to the emphasis and structure of the program. This article goes into the difficult legacy which delayed development of biotechnology and genetics in Germany, the conflicts surrounding the new genome program, how the future of the genome resource center is planned, and how heavily financed it will be. In the end Germany`s genome project may well end up with the problem of having to make choices among many good ideas.

Kahn, P.

1995-06-16

293

Germany after March 11th  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective since March 11th is presented with stress on the Fukushima accident, political situation in Germany, media and public opinion. Fukushima has devastated the trust in expert opinions about safety of NPPs. Germany’s Turn in Energy - consensus for nuclear phase-out exists between All political parties. The government has already announced adoption of the recommendations of the ethics commission. The 7 oldest units will remain shut-down. Further 7 units will be shut down until 2021. The youngest 3 units will be permanently shut down until 2022

2011-06-02

294

GERMANY AT CERN  

CERN Multimedia

13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

2001-01-01

295

Do high levels of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in sediments of Rhine and Meuse floodplains affect structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded.

Rozema, Jelte [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Notten, Martje J.M.; Aerts, Rien [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Hobbelen, Peter H.F. [Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hamers, Timo H.M. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2008-12-01

296

Do high levels of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in sediments of Rhine and Meuse floodplains affect structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded

2008-12-01

297

Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in the Rhine Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.

Karina Speil

2010-12-01

298

Geothermal, structural and petrophysical characteristics of Buntsandstein sandstone reservoir in the Upper Rhine Graben  

Science.gov (United States)

Petrophysical measurements, including porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and P-waves velocity, were performed on cores of EPS1 borehole (Soultz-sous-Forêts, Upper Rhine Graben, France) in order to characterise Buntsandstein sandstone (lower Triassic) reservoir properties. Temperature gradient analysis, made from (1) thermal conductivity measurements performed on cores and (2) a temperature profile, suggest that fluid flow occurs locally in the reservoir. Petrophysical measurements and structural analysis of flow zones suggest that they are controlled first by a macroscopic network: with two major fault zones, and second by a matrix network: formed by sedimentary or diagenetic processes within two distinguishable facies: the Playa-lake and Fluvio-aeolian marginal erg facies. In order to validate the previous proposed methodology and reservoir model, we propose to simulate fluid flow in the Buntsandstein reservoir, thanks to TOUGH2 software, especially by copying temperature profile from static reservoir model. This model integrates, with horizontal layers, the lithostratigraphic context described from cores observation, and with vertical layers, two faults corresponding to the Soultz-sous-Forêts horst boundary. Petrophysical characteristics are integrated thanks to previous measurements. Two cases are tested. In the first, the temperature profile is determined in a model in which there is no fluid circulation between faults; heat transfer is governed only by conduction. In the second, the temperature profile is determined in a model in which there is flow circulation between faults. In the first case, same overpressures (10 bars) are applied at the base of both faults, whereas in the second case, two different pressures are applied (5 and 10 bars). In one hand, temperature profile obtained in the first case show an opposite global trend to those measured in the borehole. In the other hand, temperature profile obtained in the second case indicates a global trend similar to those measured in the borehole. In the last case, fluid circulation occurs in faults zones and in three lithostratigraphic levels, previously identified as fluid circulation zones in the reservoir. The differential pressure between faults, driving to the fluid flow inside the rock formation, could be explained by a tilt of the horst, as what was noticed at Soultz-sous-Forêts. Data obtained from thermal gradients analysis are associated to those obtained from different outcrops analysis. Two 3D conceptual bloc models have been built for the Buntsandstein sandstones reservoir of the Upper Rhine Graben: the first integrated solely fracturation of the reservoir, whereas the second takes into account data of fracturation, sedimentology and fluid flow. These models appear as new kind of data important for future exploration and exploitation of the reservoir.

Haffen, Sébastien; Geraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Dezayes, Chrystel; Siffert, Déborah; Garcia, Michel

2014-05-01

299

Reworked planktonic Foraminifera from the Late Rupelian of the southern Upper Rhine Graben and their palaeogeographic and biostratigraphic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

During the Late Rupelian the widespread second transgression (corresponding to international Ru2-3 transgressions; BERGER et al. 2005) affected the whole Upper Rhine Graben basin and led to the deposition of the several hundred meters thick marine "Série grise". An abrupt transition (erosion surface) between the uppermost "Série grise" and Niederroedern Formation indicates the change to fluviatile and lacustrine conditions throughout the basin close to the Late Rupelian / Early Chattian boundary. Abundant reworked Middle to Late Cretaceous (e.g., Marginotruncana pseudolinneiana) and Late Paleocene to Late Eocene (e.g., Acarinina bullbrooki, Morozovella subbotinae, Turborotalia cocoaensis) ranging planktonic Foraminifera occur in the "Série Grise" and equivalent lithological units of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Mainz Basin (e.g., FISCHER 1965, PIRKENSEER 2007, SCHÄFER & KUHN 2004). At least Late Cretaceous, Ypresian, Lutetian and Priabonian ages of source sediments are indicated by the overlapping biostratigraphic ranges of the reworked specimens. Abundant reworked material first appears in the lower "Couches à Mélettes" and reaches its acme in the increasingly "Marnes à Cyrènes" (terminal "Série grise"). Only sparse records are documented from the subsequent terrestrial Niederroedern Formation. These reworking events are linked to intervals of increased clastic input throughout the "Série grise". The planktonic Foraminifera are proposed to be reworked from related alpine deposits (later Helvetikum?) via a northwards trending fluviatile system, as no autochthonous Cretaceous and Early to Middle Eocene marine sediments were deposited within the graben basin. Furthermore other possible source areas (e.g., Paris Basin) were either not connected to the Upper Rhine Graben or were not subject to erosion in the Late Rupelian. This accords with the proposition (ROUSSÉ 2006) of a vast northwards prograding delta-system that was located close to the southern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben. Reworked Mesozoic and Paleogene calcareous nannoplankton from the Upper Rhine Graben and the Mainz Basin confirms the data derived from planktonic Foraminifera. The existence of reworked planktonic Foraminifera influences the biostratigraphic interpretation of the assemblage ranges attributed to "Série grise" samples. Facultatively reworked planktonic Foraminifera as Subbotina utilisindex and Pseudohastigerina micra ranging from the Lutetian to the Late Rupelian should not be included in the biostratigraphic analyses, as the occurrences of these facultatively reworked species are always linked to those of exclusively Cretaceous and Eocene age. Therefore the age of the "Série grise" deposits at Allschwil-2 is most likely to be placed within the "Chiloguembelina cubensis - Globigerinella obesa / Globorotaloides variabilis"-assemblage range of Mid P20 to Final P21a, lasting considerably longer than the very short Mid P20 range based on the presence of Pseudohastigerina micra as "last occurrence"-marker (PIRKENSEER 2007). This study was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation projects 109457 and 118025. References: BERGER, J.-P., REICHENBACHER, B., BECKER, D., et al. (2005): Eocene-Pliocene time scale and stratigraphy of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB). - International Journal of Earth Sciences, 94, 4: 711-731. FISCHER, H. (1965): Geologie des Gebietes zwischen Blauen und Pfirter Jura. - Beiträge zur geologischen Karte der Schweiz, NF 122: 106p. PIRKENSEER, C. (2007): Foraminifera, Ostracoda and other microfossils of the Southern Upper Rhine Graben - Palaeoecology, biostratigraphy, palaeogeography and geodynamic implications. - PhD thesis: 340p, Fribourg. ROUSSÉ, S. (2006): Architecture et dynamique des séries marines et continentales de ?Oligocène Moyen et Supérieur du Sud du Fossé Rhénan: Evolution des milieux de dépôt en contexte de rift en marge de ?avant-pays alpin.

Pirkenseer, C.; Spezzaferri, S.; Berger, J.-P.

2009-04-01

300

Numerical tables of the physico-chemical analyses of Rhine water 1989. Zahlentafeln der physikalisch-chemischen Untersuchungen des Rheinwassers 1989. Tableaux numeriques des analyses physico-chimiques des eaux du Rhin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These tables of the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine against Pollution contain the results of the 1989 measuring campaign. The following data were acquired in measuring stations along the Rhine: General parameters, organic substances, eutrophicating substances, metals, organic micropollution, radioactivity. (BWI).

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Wind energy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

1994-08-01

302

Fatty acid composition of Yersinia ruckeri isolates from aquaculture ponds in northwestern Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia (Y.) ruckeri is one of the most important diseases in salmonid aquaculture. Outbreaks of ERM were controlled by vaccines directed against motile strains of the bacterium, until recently nonmotile vaccine-resistant strains evolved and caused severe outbreaks. Non-motile isolates were found widespread in aquaculture populations in north-western Germany. In the present study, 82 Y. ruckeri isolates were isolated from trout hatcheries in North Rhine Westfalia, Lower Saxony and Hessen and only 20% of them were motile. In order to further characterise the Y. ruckeri isolates from fish aquaculture populations in north-western Germany, the fatty acid compositions of 82 Y. ruckeri field isolates from this area and of the Y. ruckeri reference strain DSM 18506 were analysed by gas chromatography. All Y. ruckeri isolates exhibited 15 major fatty acids, including 12:0, 13:0, 13.957 (equivalent chain length, ECL unknown), 14:0, 14.502 (ECL unknown), 15:0, 16:1omega5c, 16:0, 17:1omega8c, 17:0 CYCLO, 17:0, 16:1 2OH, 18:1omega9c, 18:1omega7c and 18:0. From a dendrogram, all isolates were close to one another, clustering together; while slight differences were detected among the isolates and the reference strain DSM 18506. Compared to their epidemiological and biochemical characteristics, there was no relationship found between the fatty acid profiles, API 20E profiles, motility and geographic distribution. Our results show that the fatty acid composition of Y. ruckeri isolates from north-western Germany is highly homogenous. PMID:24693657

Huang, Yidan; Ryll, Martin; Walker, Charles; Jung, Arne; Runge, Martin; Steinhagen, Dieter

2014-01-01

303

Migrations from Yugoslavia to Germany: Migrants, emigrants, refugees and asylum-seekers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Migrations from Yugoslavia to Germany have a long tradition. There have been various economic and social causes, and in some periods even political ones for that phenomenon. Taking into consideration the historical aspect and also the contemporary migration flows, the dynamics of migrations of the Yugoslav population to Germany has the following stages in its development. The first stage had begun in late XIX century and ended with the World War I. Although the overseas migration flows prevailed, yet the German agriculture and its mine industry attracted a part of the Yugoslav population. Between the two world wars mostly "Westfahl Slovenes" and Croats and Serbs from Bosnia-Herzegovina got "temporary employed" in the Rhine-Westfahl industrial area, along with several thousand Serb-Croat-Slovene agricultural seasonal workers per year. The second stage began immediately after the Second World War when most of about 200,000 citizens from the former Yugoslavia, being mostly refugees, moved from the West European to overseas countries, but some of them stayed in Germany. Involuntary migrants and refugees, however, returned in great number from Germany to Yugoslavia. At that stage non-extradition of war criminals on the part of the West occupying powers on German territory, then disregard of West German Governments of the anti-Yugoslav activities of the part of extreme Yugoslav emigration, and different interpretation of the bilateral agreement on extradition, became the essential problem in relations between SFR Yugoslavia and FR Germany. The third stage in development of migrations commenced in early 1960s. At that time, Germany and other Western countries became prominently immigrational, while since mid-1960s till 1973 economic emigrants from Yugoslavia became more and more important in the German economic space. From 1954 to 1967 migration of Yugoslav citizens had not yet been intensive and their intention was mostly to work abroad. Illegal employment was, however, prominent at that time. Due to the normalisation of political relations, re-establishment of diplomatic relations and conclusion of bilateral agreements that legally defined employment of foreign workers, since 1968 till 1973 a great number of Yugoslavs got employed in FR Germany. The contemporary migrations from FR Yugoslavia to Germany resulted from the economic and political crisis in the former SFRY as well as from the civil wars that were waged in the Yugoslav territory. FR Germany became the most important destination country of Yugoslav migrants - workers, refugees, false asylum-seekers and political emigrants. Different categories of migrants from Yugoslavia to Germany enjoy the treatment that is in accordance with the immigration policies of the German governments as well as with the degree of development of the German-Yugoslav political and economic relations, and the degree of the established co-operation in the field of legal assistance and social welfare. Migrant workers, who have legally regulated their employment and residence status, could in the future expect to gain assistance from their mother country in getting efficient protection of their rights and interests in all stages of the migration process. Numerous migrants asylum-seekers, in spite of the proclaimed international protection, share, however, the fate resulting from the politically motivated measures and actions taken by the German authorities within the arbitrary decision-making of the right and/or abuse of the right to asylum. This is the reason why as early as in late 1994 the Government of FRG announced that it would expel foreigners from the country. The remaining refugees, or actually the so-called false asylum-seekers in FR Germany, share the fate of forced repatriation. Within this category special emphasis should be placed on the attitude of the German government to the Albanians and Roma from Kosovo. At first, the Germans treated the Albanians from Kosovo as politically persecuted persons, offering them refuge. Then they declared them (and Roma also to

Pavlica Branko

2005-01-01

304

Suitability of Rhine lignite filter ash for construction materials; Eignung von rheinischer Braunkohlenfilterasche fuer Baustoffe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Rhine lignite power stations of RWE Energie, about 4 mill. t of lignite ash are produced annually. Of this, 80% is filter ash and 20% wet ash. At the present time, this ash is used for the refilling of worked out lignite open-cast mines. Consequently, extensive restoration of the surface for subsequent agricultural and forestry utilization is possible. In recent years, several research projects have been carried out with the object of discovering, scientifically and practically, additional possibilities for the utilization of lignite filter ash. Ash with various compositions has been tested for its suitability for application in hydraulic systems. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlekraftwerken der RWE Energie AG werden jaehrlich rund 4 Mill. t Braunkohlenaschen produziert, die zu 80% als Filterasche und zu 20% als Nassasche anfallen. Die Aschen werden derzeit zur Wiederauffuellung der ausgekohlten Braunkohlentagebaue verwendet. Damit ist eine umfangreiche Wiederherstellung der Oberflaeche fuer eine land- bzw. forstwirtschaftliche Folgenutzung moeglich. Mit dem Ziel der wissenschaftlichen und praxisorientierten Erkundung weiterer Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten fuer die Braunkohlenfilterasche wurden in den letzten Jahren mehrere Forschungsvorhaben durchgefuehrt. Aschen mit unterschiedlichen Zusammensetzungen wurden auf ihre Eignung fuer den Einsatz in hydraulischen Systemen getestet. (orig.)

Bartscherer-Sauer, A. [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany); Miskiewicz, K. [RFE, Wesseling (Germany); Kirchen, G. [ProMineral, Bergheim (Germany); Kwasny-Echterhagen, R. [Sicowa, Aachen (Germany); Peters, K. [RWE AG, Essen (Germany)

1997-01-01

305

Incidence and prevalence of chronic bronchitis : impact of smoking and welding. The RHINE study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and incidence rate of chronic bronchitis (CB) in relation to smoking habits and exposure to welding fumes in a general population sample.METHODS: Subjects from Northern Europe born between 1945 and 1971 who participated in Stage 1 (1989-1994) of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey were mailed a respiratory questionnaire in 1999-2001 (the RHINE study); 15â??909 answered the questionnaire and gave complete data on smoking. CB was defined as chronic productive cough of at least 3 months a year for 2 consecutive years. The questionnaire comprised an item about age when CB started and items about exposure to welding fumes. The incidence of CB was retrospectively assessed for the observation period 1980-2001.RESULTS: CB had a prevalence of 5.4%, and was associated with current smoking and welding exposure. The incidence rate of CB was 1.9 per 1000 person-years, and was increased in relation to welding exposure (low exposure HR 1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.8; high exposure HR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.7) and in relation to smoking (HR 2.1, 95%CI 1.8-2.5).CONCLUSION: Smoking and occupational exposure to welding fumes are both associated with an increased risk of CB.

Holm, M; Kim, J-L

2012-01-01

306

Evaluation of modeled changes in extreme precipitation in Europe and the Rhine basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, we investigate the change in multi-day precipitation extremes in late winter in Europe using observations and climate models. The objectives of the analysis are to determine whether climate models can accurately reproduce observed trends and, if not, to find the causes of the difference in trends. Similarly to an earlier finding for mean precipitation trends, and despite a lower signal to noise ratio, climate models fail to reproduce the increase in extremes in much of northern Europe: the model simulations do not cover the observed trend in large parts of this area. A dipole in the sea-level pressure trend over continental Europe causes positive trends in extremes in northern Europe and negative trends in the Iberian Peninsula. Climate models have a much weaker pressure trend dipole and as a result a much weaker (extreme) precipitation response. The inability of climate models to correctly simulate observed changes in atmospheric circulation is also primarily responsible for the underestimation of trends in the Rhine basin. When it has been adjusted for the circulation trend mismatch, the observed trend is well within the spread of the climate model simulations. Therefore, it is important that we improve our understanding of circulation changes, in particular related to the cause of the apparent mismatch between observed and modeled circulation trends over the past century. (letter)

2013-01-01

307

Sediment assessment in European River Basins. Contributions; Sedimentbewertung in europaeischen Flussgebieten. Beitraege  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Selected papers presented at the symposium 'Sediment Assessment in European River Basins' under three thematic complexes are published in this volume. Under the heading 'The Framework Directive on Water Policy of the European Union', the participants received first-hand information on the objectives, subjects, and the current state of development. The Directive came into being upon requests by the Member States, and it is expected to be adopted later this year. With a view to surface waters, the operational objective of the Directive is a 'good ecological status'. In the second thematic block of the symposium, titled 'Contaminants in sediments of European river basins', the sediment situation in the rivers Oder, Vistula, Elbe, Rhine, Moselle, Rhone, Seine, and Danube was considered. Sources and fate of contaminants and the prospects of sediment quality in these rivers were discussed. Geogenic background loads remain a topical issue, as research projects on the rivers Elbe and Oder showed. The notion that only combined approaches to sediment assessment, comprising chemical analyses, benthos surveys, studies of contamination effects in the field and in the laboratory, allow a meaningful classification of sediments was pursued under the thematic heading 'Ecological risk assessment of contaminated sediments'. Papers from Canada and Germany acquainted with the state-of-the-art of ecotoxicological assessment, criteria for the handling of contaminated sediments, and the classification of sediments. Case studies from very different European regions on the rivers Danube, Elbe and Seine focused on aspects of ecological risk assessment and the connection between chemical load and ecotoxicological effects. (orig.) [German] Mit dem vorliegenden Band werden ausgewaehlte Beitraege aller drei behandelten Themenkomplexe des Symposiums 'Sedimentbewertung in Europaeischen Flussgebieten' veroeffentlicht. Unter der Ueberschrift 'Die Wasserrahmenrichtlinie der Europaeischen Union' erhielten die Teilnehmer aus erster Hand Informationen ueber Ziele, Inhalte und den erreichten Stand bei der Ausarbeitung der Richtlinie. Sie kam auf Draengen der Mitgliedstaaten zustande und wird voraussichtlich noch in diesem Jahr verabschiedet werden. Das operative Ziel der Richtlinie besteht mit Blick auf die Oberflaechengewaesser in der Erreichung einer guten oekologischen Qualitaet. Im zweiten Teil der Veranstaltung unter der Ueberschrift 'Vorkommen und Erfassung von Schadstoffen in Sedimenten europaeischer Flussgebiete' kamen die Belastungssituation der Sedimente in Oder, Weichsel, Elbe, Rhein, Mosel, Rhone, Seine und Donau zur Sprache. Diskutiert wurden auch die Quellen und der Verbleib von Schadstoffen und die Perspektiven der Sedimentbeschaffenheit in diesen Fluessen. Unveraendert aktuell ist, wie Forschungsvorhaben an Elbe und Oder zeigen, die Frage der geogenen Hintergrundwerte. Der zentrale Gedanke, dass erst kombinierte Sedimentbewertungen anhand stofflicher Belastungen, durch Benthosanalysen, die Erfassung von in-situ-Wirkungen und Wirkungstests im Labor eine stichhaltige Klassifikation zulassen, wurde im Rahmen des Themenkomplexes 'Oekologische Risikoabschaetzung kontaminierter Sedimente' verfolgt. Beitraege aus Kanada und Deutschland machen mit dem Stand der oekotoxikologischen Bewertung, mit Kriterien fuer den Umgang mit kontamanierten Sedimenten und mit der Sedimentklassifikation bekannt. In Fallbeispielen aus ganz unterschiedlichen europaeischen Regionen an Donau, Elbe und Seine werden Aspekte der oekologischen Risikoabschaetzung und des Zusammenhangs zwischen stofflicher Belastung und oekotoxischer Wirkung behandelt. (orig.)

Heininger, P.; Strunck, Y.; Feldmann, H. [comps.

2000-11-01

308

Arthroplasty register for Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and/or hospitals, provide annual reports and publish scientific articles and/or presentations. The effects of the arthroplasty registers on clinical practice and on health political decisions in the time after the introduction of these registers are documented in some countries. The influence on cost savings for health services is also reported. Discussion: The most important legal and ethical aspect is the patient’s data protection and, therefore, the requirement of patient’s consent. The involvement of the physicians in the data collection process is a further organisational and legal challenge. The 100% data collection, which is the aim of the registers due to their definition, should not cause disadvantages for certain groups of patients.ConclusionThe arthroplasty registers have a large medical and health-economic potential. Aspects of the patient’s data protection and the guaranteed financial support of the registers should be clarified before the introduction of a register.

Hagen, Anja

2009-10-01

309

Fractionation of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in floodplain soils from Egypt, Germany and Greece  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trace elements are potentially toxic to human life and the environment. Element toxicity depends on chemical associations in soils. Therefore, determining the chemical form of an element in soils is important to evaluate its mobility and bioavailability. Initial soil development in river floodplains influences soil properties, processes and therefore behavior of trace elements. In this study, three different floodplain soils sampled at three rivers (Nile/Egypt, Elbe/Germany and Penios/Greece)...

Shaheen S. M.; Rinklebe J.; Tsadilas C.

2013-01-01

310

Drawing up a heat load chart for a river to determine the limits for open-circuit water cooling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to be in a position to make a statement on the waste heat absorbing capacity of waters, it is necessary to know about their heat loading capacity. In this context, the cooling capacity which can be utilized during peak load times is of particular interest for the planning of nuclear power plant cooling systems. The 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Laender zur Reinhaltung des Rheins' (working group of the Laender for the purification of the Rhine) has elaborated the first heat load chart for the Rhine. This chart investigates the thermal loading capacity of the river between the junction with the Aare and the German-Dutch border during peak periods in the summer and autumn. (orig.)

1975-01-01

311

Yield and quality of white wine cultivars Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian and Zupljanka in the vine district of Rasina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparative study of different pruning ways and bud load, as well as their influence on growth, yield and quality of Rhine Riesling B-21, Riesling Italian, and Zupljanka vine cultivars in the conditions of the Rasina vine district, during the period 2000 - 2001, is given in this paper. This research results have shown that grape yield and quality varied, and the greatest grape yield was observed in the variant with the greatest bud load. The Rhine Riesling B-21 demonstrated the best results. It should be pointed out that bud load per vine had a much greater influence on the studied traits than the applied way of pruning. .

?irkovi? Bratislav

2006-01-01

312

Processes affecting the distribution and speciation of heavy metals in the Rhine/Meuse estuary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When rivers drain areas with a high population density the sediments are often contaminated with heavy metals, such as chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead. The extent and seriousness of sediment contamination is most pronounced in the lower reaches of rivers, where river water meets seawater. In these regions often a large preferential sedimentation of contaminated suspended solids occur. The question arises if these contaminated sediments pose ...

Paalman, M. A. A.

1997-01-01

313

Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse ...

2011-01-01

314

[Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

2012-05-01

315

Evaluating the effect of snow and ice melt in an Alpine headwater catchment and further downstream in the River Rhine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Le régime hydrologique des bassins versants amont glaciaires dans les Alpes est essentiellement caractérisé par la fonte de neige et de glace. Les hauts bassins versants alpins influencent les débits du Rhin loin en aval. Avec le changement climatique, des faibles débits seront possibles en période estivale en raison de la forte diminution de la fonte de neige et de glace. Cette étude tente de quantifier les contributions actuelles et futures de la fonte de neige et de glace dans l'éc...

Junghans, Nadine; Cullmann, Johannes; Huss, Matthias

2011-01-01

316

Restructuring power supply in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to recent calculations of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Office), all German nuclear power plants can be decommissioned from 2017. This will result neither in supply shortages nor in higher electricity rates, and Germany's climate protection goals will not be in danger either. There will be no need to import nuclear power from other countries. (orig.)

2011-01-01

317

Lise Meitner's escape from Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Lise Meitner (1878-1968) achieved prominence as a nuclear physicist in Germany; although of Jewish origin, her Austrian citizenship exempted her from Nazi racial laws until the annexation of Austria in 1938 precipitated her dismissal. Forbidden to emigrate, she narrowly escaped to the Netherlands with the help of concerned friends in the international physics community.

Sime, Ruth Lewin

1990-03-01

318

New Adenovirus in Bats, Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We tested 55 deceased vespertilionid bats of 12 species from southern Germany for virus infections. A new adenovirus was isolated from tissue samples of 2 Pipistrellus pipistrellus bats, which represents the only chiropteran virus isolate found in Europe besides lyssavirus (rabies virus). Evidence was found for adenovirus transmission between bats.

2009-01-01

319

Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization--the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA) on the management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health...

2003-01-01

320

Program status of the high temperature reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of the HTR development program in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1984 is characterized by the beginning of a transition phase from a national program to a commercial program. In the last 20 years the HTR technology program was strongly, nearly completely supported by the Federal Government and the State Government of North-Rhine-Westfalia. Funding of the program up to now exceeded 5 billion DM. Within this framework it was possible to establish competent-reactor-system companies, to enable industries to supply HTR- specific components including fuel elements and nuclear graphites, to maintain the strong engagement of the national centre KFA Juelich in general R and D activities, to build and operate the AVR-plant for more than 16 years, to erect the demonstration plant THTR-300 now approaching completion and to build and operate many efficient test facilities. Thereby the HTR technology development achieved a stage of maturity which is not only considered to be most advanced, but is also ready now for commerical deployment. The assessment report which comprised both the fast breeder and the HTR development included all major impacts, such as history, status, prospects, benefits, industrial aspects and international developments of the technology. The program description is facilitated by distinguishing the five major program elements: AVR, THTR-300, THTR follow-up plant, nuclear process heat program, fuel cycle activities

1984-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

The further spread of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera, Culicidae) towards northern Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

After its first detection in 2008 in the south German federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, another distinct population of the invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus was unexpectedly found in western Germany in 2012. Range expansion had already been observed for the southern German population and was anticipated for the western German one. Here, we report on a third, apparently independent and even more northerly German colonization area of Aedes j. japonicus in southern Lower Saxony and northeastern North Rhine-Westphalia, which was discovered in spring 2013. In a snapshot study, intended to determine the presence or absence of Aedes j. japonicus in an area close to Hanover, the capital of the northern German federal state of Lower Saxony, where a specimen had been collected in late 2012, central water basins of cemeteries were checked for pre-imaginal mosquito stages at the beginning of the mosquito season 2013. Almost 20% of the inspected cemeteries were found positive (25 out of 129), with many of them being located in towns and villages close to the motorways A2 and A7. Being of Far Eastern origin, the Asian bush mosquito is well adapted to moderate climates and appears to be further expanding its distribution area in Central Europe. As it is a proven laboratory vector of several mosquito-borne disease agents, its present and future distribution areas should be carefully monitored. PMID:23974325

Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

2013-10-01

322

Examination of (suspected) neonaticides in Germany: a critical report on a comparative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In cooperation with the Crime Investigation Agency (Landeskriminalamt) of North Rhine-Westphalia, we carried out a study of 150 cases of (suspected) neonaticide dating from 1993 to 2007 from all over Germany. The autopsy reports and additional expert opinions (if performed) were evaluated for a minimum of 78 variables. Emphasis was placed on the application of special preparation techniques and other special questions arising during the examination of a deceased newborn child. Forty-five percent of the cases remained unsolved, which means that the mother could not be identified. Twenty-seven percent of the corpses were in a state of such severe putrefaction that forensic examination was limited. The main causes of death were all forms of suffocation. The signs of maturity (such as length, weight, and fingernails) were recorded in more than 95 % of the cases. Hydrostatic test of the lung was performed in 96 %, and that of the gastrointestinal tract in 84 %. Given the results of the study, standard protocols and checklists are recommended to facilitate comparability and to ensure the completeness of findings. Full-body X-rays or CT scans should be used to complete viability examinations. PMID:23471590

Schulte, Babette; Rothschild, Markus A; Vennemann, Mechtild; Banaschak, Sibylle

2013-05-01

323

3D Simulation of Earthquake Ground Motion in the Cologne Basin, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cologne Basin in the North-West of Germany is seismically one of the most active regions in central Europe. Combined with its dense population and highly concentrated industry it is a region of elevated seismic risk. In order to obtain information about the effects of the underground structure on ground motion parameters in this area we performed 3D elastic and visco-elastic earthquake scenarios simulations for some of the largest events within the last 200 years in the Lower Rhine Embayment. The simulations were carried out in a frequency range of 0 - 1.0 Hz and have shown strong effects of the sedimentary basin on peak amplitudes, shaking duration and waveforms. Due to the sparse distribution of strong motion stations in the study area, it was difficult to compare synthetic seismograms with observed ones. In the past 10 years further seismic stations were placed inside the basin. An ML 4.9 event occurred in the study area on July 22, 2002 with the epicentre near the city of Aachen. Here we compare observations with synthetic seismograms calculated for this event and discuss the implications for the shaking hazard assessment using 3D simulations.

Ewald, M.; Igel, H.; Scherbaum, F.; Hinzen, K.

2002-12-01

324

Space Radar Image of Munich, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This spaceborne radar image of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency radar system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the image, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and radar calibration during the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The image was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

1994-01-01

325

Ectomycorrhizal diversity at five different tree species in forests of the Taunus Mountains in Central Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi were investigated on five different forest tree species growing in pure stands on the south slope of the Taunus Mountains, which are situated at the northern end of the Rhine rift valley in Central Germany. Mycorrhizal fungi accompanying the genus Xerocomus were identified and their frequencies counted. Using ITS markers, 22 different fungal species were identified down to species level and 6 down to genus level. On European beech (Fagus sylvatica 16 fungal species and 4 genera were identified and on Sessile oak (Quercus petraea 16 ectomycorrhizal species and 2 genera were determined. On both deciduous trees we observed exclusively: Cortinarius subsertipes, Genea hispidula, Lactarius quietus, Tylopilus felleus and a Melanogaster genus. On Norway spruce (Picea abies we identified 13 different mycorrhizal species and 3 different genera, on Silver fir (Abies alba 12 species and 3 genera, and in association with European larch (Larix decidua 11 species and 3 genera. On these conifers Cortinarius anomalus, Lactarius necator and a Piloderma genus occurred exclusively. Comparisons with published data of ectomycorrhizal diversity on the same five tree species, growing in different areas of Germany and Europe, led to the conclusion that there is relative site specificity for ectomycorrhizal communities. Upper soil compartments of the stands investigated in the Taunus Mountainssuffer from soil acidification (pH-H20 ~3.7 to ~4.8. However, a clear correlation between upper soil pH-values and fungal diversity was not observed. On the other hand, nitrate concentrations in upper soil compartments (~26 to ~91 kgNO3-/ha were higher in older stands as compared to younger ones. Higher nitrate concentrations in upper soils correlated with lower numbers of mycorrhizal individuals.

Gunter M. Rothe

2013-02-01

326

XIXth century earthquakes in Belgium, the Netherlands and western Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the last quarter of the XXth century, the rules of the historic criticism are applied in the study of the past earthquakes thanks to the collaboration between seismologists and historians. Various monographs have already been published on the historic seismicity of Belgium, Netherlands and nearby regions but few about the XIXth century. The list of the shocks arisen in those regions is not clearly established. For the major earthquakes, we can find useful monographs that where published at the time of the events. However there is a lack of information about smaller earthquakes that are mentioned in the Belgian, Dutch, French and German catalogs. For those smaller events it is often not possible to determine the zone of perceptibility. Sometimes we cannot even take for sure that the reported event is a real one. The aim of our study is to overcome this gap. Taking into account the rules of historical criticism, we read all the available bibliography, undertook researches in the archives and made an analysis of the press in order to establish a reliable list of earthquakes. Several categories of sources were used: narrative and administrative sources, contemporaneous studies, letters sent to the scientific institutions and press. We could confirm that 84 earthquakes are real and determine a list of fake earthquakes that are unfortunately present in the traditional catalogs. In the list of fake earthquakes, we highlighted several events that we consider doubtful and that require additional researches, especially several earthquakes in mining zone. We compiled our results as a four-column table providing the date of the earthquake, the supposed epicenter, the number of founded sources and the number of macroseismic datapoints. Based on the macroseismic datapoints, we estimated the intensities for every great phenomenon according to EMS-98 scale. The map of the epicenters indicates that the most active zone in the area during the XIXth century is the Lower Rhine Graben, at the border between Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. Keywords: historical seismicity, doubtful earthquake, fake earthquake, macroseismic map.

Knuts, Elisabeth; Dost, Bernard; Alexandre, Pierre; Camelbeeck, Thierry

2014-05-01

327

Modeling seismic hazard in the Lower Rhine Graben using a fault-based source model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lower Rhine Graben (LRG) is an active tectonic structure in intraplate NW Europe. It is characterized by NW-SE oriented normal faults, and moderate but rather continuous seismic activity. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PHSA) in this region have hitherto been based on area source models, in which the LRG is modeled as a single or a small number of seismotectonic zones, where the occurrence of earthquakes is assumed to be uniform. Hazard engines usually model earthquakes in area sources as point sources or finite ruptures in a horizontal plane at a fixed depth. The past few years, efforts have increasingly been directed to using fault sources in PSHA, in order to obtain more realistic patterns of ground motion. This requires an inventory of all fault sources, and definition of their physical properties (at least length, width, strike, dip, rake, slip rate, and maximum magnitude). The LRG is one of the few regions in intraplate NW Europe where seismic activity can be linked to active faults. In the frame of the EC project SHARE ("Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe", http://www.share-eu.org/), we have compiled the first parameterized fault model for the LRG that can be used in PSHA studies. We construct the magnitude-frequency distribution (MFD) of each fault from two contributions: 1) up to the largest observed magnitude (M=5.7), we use the MFD determined from the historical and instrumental earthquake catalog, weighted in proportion to the total moment rate, and 2) the frequency of the maximum earthquake predicted by the fault model. We consider the ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) that were selected in the SHARE project for active shallow crust. This selection includes GMPE's with different distance metrics, the main difference being whether depth of rupture is taken into account or not. Seismic hazard is computed with OpenQuake (http://openquake.org/), an open-source hazard and risk engine that is developed in the frame of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). Compared to other commonly-used, non-commercial hazard engines, OpenQuake offers better support for fault sources with simple or complex geometries. We compute hazard maps for return periods of 475, 2375, and 10,000 yr, and compare the results with hazard maps based on area sources. In addition, we conduct sensitivity tests to determine the impact of various parameter choices, e.g. maximum magnitude, inclusion of a background zone to account for lower magnitudes, and GMPE distance metric.

Vanneste, Kris; Vleminckx, Bart; Verbeeck, Koen; Camelbeeck, Thierry

2013-04-01

328

Valley evolution of the Lower Rhine in LGM, Lateglacial and Early Holocene.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of transient climate change, for example at glacial-interglacial transitions, on the alluvial valley of the lower reaches of larger river systems has become a classic topic of fluvial geomorphology and quaternary geological study. The process of contraction of Holocene river activity into a narrower channel belt than in LGM counterparts of the last cycle, links to terrace flight formation over multiple glacial cycles in inland reaches. Not only were valley reaches affected by the p...

Cohen, K. M.; Hoek, W. Z.; Stouthamer, E.; Geurts, A. H.; Janssens, M.; Kasse, C.; Busschers, F. S.; Hijma, M. P.; Erkens, G.

2013-01-01

329

[Animal welfare aspects regarding the raising of breeding ostriches in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

The commercial housing of African Ostriches in Germany for the breed and meat production still represents a disputed topic under the criterion of the animal's welfare. Above all critics state that the frequently wet-cold weather in Germany impairs the well-being and health of the animals. So far however there are just a few scientifically documented data about requirements for housing conditions of ostriches in Central Europe and thus hardly answers whether housing in Germany is possible under the criteria of the animal's welfare. This study tried to evaluate ostrich housing under South German climatic conditions (Rhine level), on the basis of behavioral observations of breeding ostriches. The use of the stable and the influence of different climatic parameters on the behavior were considered. In addition the behavior of 18 adult animals in 5 breeding groups from January to December 2002 was observed. Parallel various climatic data were raised. The housing of the animals took place in open stables with unrestricted pasture possibility. The ostriches reacted in their behavior to different climatic conditions. Particularly at cold weather and adverse soil conditions they used the open stable increasingly as weather protection. In addition, with increased wind velocities the animals spent more time in the stables. The daily amount of precipitation showed no influence on the frequency or duration of the stable use. Rainfall did not animate the animals to look for protection within the stable, but more to set itself on the ground in the external enclosure. The locomotion activity of the animals was strongly in dependence to the reproduction time and the territorial behavior and therefore highest in spring. On cold days the animals performed their reproduction behavior mainly in the stable. For the comfort behaviour distinct weather dependence was seen particularly for sand bathing. Warm temperatures and dry sand were the preconditions for it. Regarding the results it seems, that with the conditions existing on the examined farm, housing of ostriches under respect of animal welfare in Germany is possible. New regulations are to be demanded, adjusted to the newest level of knowledge about ostrich husbandry, with requirements for care, support, accommodation and nutrition of the animals as well as about the qualification of the owners. An occasional hobby animal husbandry limited to few single ostriches is to be rejected. Further scientific investigations at other farms, possibly also under variable climatic conditions are however necessary. PMID:15847067

Wöhr, A C; Schulz, A; Erhard, M H

2005-03-01

330

Mud flat frac. [North Sea coastline of West Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a region of shallow water, sandbars, and tidal flats off the far northwest coast of W. Germany, Halliburton Co. Germany took unusual steps to successfully perform a large fracturing treatment in June, 1980. The job required pumping for 7 hr at pressures expected to exceed 11,000 psi, using 200,000 gal of gelled water and 300,000 lb of super prop proppant. The wellhead, without any working area around it, no platform or such, was in the North Sea near the coast west of the town of Norden where the sea comes in to meet the Ems River. To do the job, Halliburton would need 16 ht-400 skid units, 4 ht-1000 intensifiers, two 50-bbl blenders, a 25-bbl blender, four 20,000-gal horizontal tanks, a 10,000-gal horizontal tank, eight 16,000-gal vertical tanks, and 2 bulk sand silos. Nearly 1-1/4 acres of pontoon barge were used by Halliburton Germany to assemble equipment at the site of the shallow-water North Sea well.

1981-02-01

331

Exports and productivity in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using unique recently released nationally representative high-quality longitudinal data at the plant level, this paper presents the first comprehensive evidence on the relationship between exports and productivity for Germany, a leading actor on the world market for manufactured goods. It applies and extends the now standard approach from the international literature to document that the positive productivity differential of exporters compared to non-exporters is statistically significant, an...

Wagner, Joachim

2007-01-01

332

Integrated Financial Supervision in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the establishment of the Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht (BaFin) in May 2002 Germany followed the trend towards integrated financial supervision. The main reason for unification of supervision is the growing integration of financial sectors leading to the blurring of boundaries between banking, insurance and securities activities. The aim of this paper is to analyse the development of Allfinanz, and hence the driving forces for the creation of the single supervisory auth...

Schu?ler, Martin

2004-01-01

333

The economic integration of Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the integration of the two Germanies two countries will be united which differ widely in their institutional and constitutional arrangements as well as in their monetary systems and real economic conditions. Integration therefore means - harmonization of the institutional systems, - introduction of a common currency and a unified monetary policy, and - adjustment in the real economies. In the process of integration, these three aspects of institutional harmonization, establishing a single ...

Siebert, Horst

1990-01-01

334

Law And Economics In Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Law and economics in Germany was dominated by regulation, competition, and ?German Ordnungspolitik? until the early 1970s. Since then, German scholars have published a broad body of work in German and in the English language, covering fields like contract law, environmental law, labor law, public law, bankruptcy law, constitutional economics and legal procedure. Also in the 1970s, teaching activities were started at German universities. In addition to this, several (bi)annual conferences on l...

Kirstein, Roland

1997-01-01

335

Forecasting house prices in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the academic debate there is a broad consensus that house price fluctuations have a substantial impact on financial stability and real economic activity. Therefore, it is important to have timely information on actual and expected house price developments. The aim of this paper is to measure the latest price movements in different real estate markets in Germany and forecast near-term price developments. Therefore we construct hedonic house price indices based on real estate advertisements ...

An Meulen, Philipp; Micheli, Martin; Schmidt, Torsten

2011-01-01

336

Labour Market Dynamics in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of labour market dynamics in Western Germany by looking at gross worker flows. To do so, we use a subsample of the registry data collected by the German social security system, the IAB employment sample, for the time period 1975-2001. The latter provides daily information on 2% of the German workforce covered by social security legislation. Using these data, we are able to exactly calculate the number of transitions between the different labo...

Bachmann, Ronald

2005-01-01

337

Epidemic conjunctivitis in Germany, 2004  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidemic conjunctivitis can be associated with viral or bacterial pathogens, whereas epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is caused mainly by adenoviruses type 8,19 and 37. In Germany, the incidence of adenovirus conjunctivitis cases increased from 0.2 per 100 000 inhabitants (in 2001 and 2002) eventually to 0.5 in 2003 and 0.8 in 2004. The detection of adenovirus in conjunctival swabs is notifiable to the local health departments. Data about cases with positive conjunctival swabs are then transmitt...

2006-01-01

338

Heavy metal depositions in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods and importance of the measurement of dust precipitation and its metallic components are discussed. Test programs and results of heavy metal measurements in precipitations in Germany are summarized. The focus is on measurements of lead and cadmium. There is a clearly decreasing trend also seen in long-term test programs. The limiting values set in the Clean Air Act were hardly ever exceeded in recent years. (orig.)

1990-05-15

339

Cegelec Germany; Cegelec Deutschland. Unternehmensportraet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

NONE

2011-03-15

340

Impact of decreasing water demand on bank filtration in Saxony, Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bank filtration has been of great importance to the drinking water supply in Germany for many decades. The water quality of pumped raw water from bank filtration sites depends to a high degree on the water quality of the infiltrating surface water and the landside groundwater, the mixed portion of both, as well as the flow and transport conditions in the aquifer. Following the improvement of river water quality and a drastic decrease in water demand during the last 20 years in Germany, the in...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Impact of decreasing water demand on bank filtration in Saxony, Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bank filtration has been of main importance for the drinking water supply in Germany for many decades. The water quality of pumped raw water from bank filtration sites depends to a high degree on the water quality of the infiltrating surface water and the landside groundwater, the mixing portion of both as well as the flow and transport conditions in the aquifer. Since the improvement of river water quality and a drastic decrease in water demand during the last 15 years in Germany, the influe...

2009-01-01

342

Geodetic monitoring strategy at the geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen (Upper Rhine Graben, France)  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Cenozoic rift system, and in particular the Upper Rhine Graben offers a high potential of deep geothermal energy due to the well known geothermal anomaly and to the number of subsurface temperature data from oil exploration in the Upper Rhine Graben. One example is the Soultz-sous-Forêts Enhance Geothermal System (EGS) located in the French part of the Upper Rhine Graben. The Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS started in 1987 as a deep geothermal research site. The wells are drilled in naturally fractured and altered granites from 3200 to 5260 m depth located in the vicinity of quasi North-South faults. It is the first EGS site connected to the electric network, its electric production capacity is of 1.5MWe. A second EGS site, ECOGI, is in development near the village of Rittershoffen located at 7 km from Soultz-sous-Forêts. The objective of ECOGI is to produce 24MWth energy for an industrial use with a doublet configuration of wells at depths around 2500 and 3000 meters. Both EGS sites benefit of the natural circulation of geothermal water. Some challenges in geothermal power plant are to understand the long-term behavior of the geothermal system and the induced seismicity. In the Soultz-sous-Forêts plant, borehole measures give evidences of aseismic slip (Bailleux et al., 2013). And previous geodetic monitoring studies of other deep geothermal plants show subsidence and horizontal displacements due to geothermal exploitation (e.g. Massonnet et al., 1997; Nishijima et al., 2005; Fialko and Simons, 2000). The ability of geodesy tools to provide information about dynamic behaviour and the change in the local stress field around the geothermal site make them a suitable method to meet these challenges. Therefore, we establish a long-term geodetic monitoring system of the two geothermal sites. This work presents the monitoring strategy and the preliminary results. We install a network of continuous GNSS and INSAR data are in acquisition. Our aim is to monitor local surface displacement in natural, in stimulation and production states of the geothermal plants. GNSS and INSAR are two spatial geodetic methods with millimeter accuracy. The GNSS provides information about the absolute 3D displacement at some point location. And the INSAR method gives high spatial (meters) information of relative displacement.

Heimlich, Christine; Masson, Frédéric; Gourmelen, Noël

2014-05-01

343

River levels: Severn Uplands  

River levels: Severn Uplands River Town River level station Flood Channel Maesbrook Maesbrook Rea Brook Hookagate Hookagate River Severn Crewgreen Crew Green River Severn Melverley Cae Howel River Severn Montford Montford River Severn Shrewsbury Welsh Bridge River Tanat Llanyblodwel Llanyblodwel

344

Impact of climate change on river flooding conditions in Central Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

Central Europe has been struck with a series of devastating floods during the past decade, such as the floods at the Rhine river in 1993 and 1995, the Oder/Odra flood in summer 1997, the floods at the Tisza and Vistula in 1998 and 2001, and the great flood in the Elbe and Danube basins in August 2002. Accordingly, flood risk and flood damage caused by river floods in Central Europe has increased significantly. This contribution discusses indications for impacts of anthropogenic climate change on extreme weather conditions and on subsequent river flooding events in Central Europe. Moreover, it presents "climate change projections" of maximum precipitation probabilities for four European catchments. These results show a significant increase of annual maximum precipitation values for given return periods in case of the changes climatic conditions. The contribution concludes with an outlook on implications of climate change impacts for flood management.

Bronstert, A.

2003-04-01

345

Country report for Germany [Fast reactors in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The primary energy consumption in Germany in 2005 was about 492.6 MtSKE in total. The distribution on the main energy sources is: mineral oil: 36.4%, natural gas 22.4%, black coal 13.5%, brown coal 11.4%, nuclear energy 12.6%, water and wind 1.2%, others 2.5%. The net electricity production in Germany in 2005 was about 495.9 billion kWh. The distribution is: nuclear energy 32%, lignite coal 28.9%, black coal 23.1%, oil 0.2%, natural gas 9.1%, water 4.7%, others (being biomass, photovoltaics, wind) 2.0%. In 2005, 18 nuclear power plants were in operation in Germany. In May 2005 the KWO Obrigheim was closed due to the new Atomic law which fixes the phase out of nuclear power production. The net installed nuclear power was 20.7GWel, the net nuclear electricity production was 163TWh, the time availability was 88%. Nuclear makes up for about 50% of the base-load electricity production in Germany. In absolute numbers, Germany is number 5 in nuclear electricity production. Among the top ten nuclear power plants world-wide, in 2005 there were 7 German plants including the plant with the highest amount of electricity produced, being NPP Brokdorf with 1440MWel and 11.98TWhel. The net electricity output of the nuclear power plants is constantly increasing due to power upgrading and higher time availabilities. As for the renewable energies, there is no significant absolute increase except for wind. About 50% of the government support for renewable energies from the Environmental Ministry goes to photovoltaics. The Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (HGF), summarising 15 national research centres, 24.000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2,1 billion Euro is the largest research organisation in Germany. The HGF identifies and works on complex and urgent questions of society, science and economy, especially concentrating on systems of high complexity. There are six research areas, being energy, earth and environment, health, key technologies, structure of matter, traffic and space. Within energy, there are four programmes: efficient energy conversion, fusion technology, nuclear safety research, renewable energies. - In 2005/2006, there was an evaluation of the research programme and long-term future of FZK by an internationally composed Perspective Commission set up by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The Commission supports the concentration of FZK on 3 columns: energy (?50%), including the effects of energy use on the atmosphere and climate, nano- and microtechnology (33%) and astroparticle physics (17%). Becoming the preeminent energy laboratory for Germany, it should take the lead in developing an energy R and D strategy for Germany including the aspect of societal understanding and acceptance of new energy sources. It is recommended that FZK should be the German liaison to the international R and D effort on Generation IV fission reactors. However, this recommendation still needs the approval of the German government. As for nuclear energy research, the Alliance for Competence in Nuclear Technology set up a consistent and efficiency nuclear R and D programme including all nuclear stake holders in Germany. In this context, some seven heads of nuclear institutes (e.g. nuclear technology, reactor physics, actinide chemistry, repository research) are presently being replaced. This is in line with a survey of 2004 which set the need for about 6300 academic nuclear personnel in 2010, out of which about 2000 have to be newly positioned. Having the decision for an EPR in Finland this number of required academics is even increasing. German nuclear institutions are involved in all major international programmes and projects in the areas of reactor safety, partitioning and transmutation, and waste disposal. Due to the research-political conditions, a German contribution to the Generation IV Initiative using government budget is not yet possible. (author)

2006-05-15

346

Spatial and temporal variations of river nitrogen exports from major basins in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provincial-level data for population, livestock, land use, economic growth, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment rates were used to construct a river nitrogen (N) export model in this paper. Despite uncertainties, our results indicated that river N export to coastal waters increased from 531 to 1,244 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Changjiang River basin, 107 to 223 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Huanghe River basin, and 412 to 1,219 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Zhujiang River basin from 1980 to 2010 as a result of rapid population and economic growth. Significant temporal changes in water N sources showed that as the percentage of runoff from croplands increased, contributions of natural system runoff and rural human and livestock excreta decreased in the three basins from 1980 to 2010. Moreover, the nonpoint source N decreased from 72 to 58 % in the Changjiang River basin, 80 to 67 % in the Huanghe River basin, and 69 to 51 % in the Zhujiang River basin, while the contributions of point sources increased greatly during the same period. Estimated results indicated that the N concentrations in the Changjiang, Huanghe, and Zhujiang rivers during 1980-2004 were higher than those in the St. Lawrence River in Canada and lower than those in the Thames, Donau, Rhine, Seine, and Han rivers during the same period. River N export will reduce by 58, 54, and 57 % for the Changjiang River, Huanghe River, and Zhujiang River in the control scenario in 2050 compared with the basic scenario. PMID:23608986

Ti, Chaopu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

2013-09-01

347

Deposition of clastic rock during the formation of the Rhine lignite seams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When the Rhenish soft coal developed, synchronous clastic sediments were deposited within the immediate vicinity of the soft coal seams. Media of transport were the Urrhine river and the Tertiary North sea. During certain periods swamps spread over the coastal plain which had been abandoned by the sea. The Urrhine river passed this plain in a relatively narrow channel. At other periods marine and fluviatile sedimentation dominated and the swamp areas were rather limited. A subsidence of the basin and/or uplift of the hinterland is considered to be responsible for these changes in clastic sedimentation patterns. Independently from such movements, the Urrhine river abandoned its course through the plain several times. An explanation has not yet been forwarded.

Gliese, J. (Geologisches Landesamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Krefeld (Germany, F.R.))

1977-04-01

348

Optimization of the pool and weir fishway at the Wyhlen Rhine-Power Plant; Optimierung des Beckenfischpasses am Rheinkraftwerk Wyhlen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past, fish counts in the old fishway at the Wyhlen power-plant showed good results. However, the fishway had some deficits in particular at the entrance and in the structure of the pools. In view of the fact that there were limited possibilities to change the technical aspects of the fishway, the measures to optimize it showed very good results, the best achieved at the Rhine section between Basel and the Lake of Constance. The occurrence of small fish species proves best how efficienct the measures have been. By evaluating the counting results, it has been possible to prove that several fishways at the same dam do complement one another. For the first time a fish count has been carried out in a catchment basin. (orig.)

Ulrich, Jochen [Energiedienst Holding AG, Laufenburg (Switzerland)

2010-07-01

349

Report: treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste in North Rhine-Westphalia: policy-making and operation options.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper summarizes a long-term-investigation of the mechanical treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste materials in North Rhine-Westphalia in the light of applied operation standards and a disposal ban on untreated waste. It is shown how both the allocation of output materials from mechanical treatment plants and the subsequent treatment channels have changed since enforcement of the ban in 2005. Based on the findings of the investigation, two waste management scenarios offering alternative policies have been defined and are discussed. It is suggested that consistent enforcement of the ban affects both the diversion of waste to incineration and the recovery of materials on a regional scale. On the other hand, potential energy recovery may be fully exploited only insofar as operators of mechanical treatment plants concentrate their business on the production of refuse-derived fuel. PMID:17439054

Karavezyris, Vassilios

2007-04-01

350

Germany'  

... What may prove tricky is what measures to take to keep older people active, ambitions and hungry for achievement, writes Žiga Turk. Opinion | Will Ukraine become a new flashpoint on Europe’s map? Opinion | TTIP: The hurdles to overcome Opinion ...de: EU spricht Klartext zu 'Sozialtourismus' COMMENTS We will present you how EU can get billions of Euro using migrant trend From that moment all those debates about this kind of issues will be avoided because any country will like to have enough number of migrants so they ... Žiga Turk Reframing the longevity and ageing AEGEE-Europe One step further toward recognition of volunteers EU-Logos Un ressort est cassé entre la Suisse et l’Union. Comment contourner ce vote ? Georgi Gotev Anti-gay of the world, unite! European Movement Swiss immigration referendum:...

351

Germany'  

... However, Robert Habeck, minister of agriculture for the northernmost Schleswig-Holstein state, was more positive. ldquo;The tough negotiations have paid off,' Habeck said after the conference, which took place in Munich. ldquo;Todayrsquo;s agriculture ministers conference has been successful in enabling national support toward a different subsidies policy for agriculture. Above all, we will use these extra funds toward creating a resource-saving,...

352

Germany'  

...political', commentators say | EurActiv culture,euro-finance,Angela Merkel,euro zone crisis,Eurovision Song Contest EU news & policy debates- across languages - en ...-A + A Published 21 May 2013 7 comments Tags Angela Merkel, euro zone crisis, Eurovision Song Contest Germans lamented their unexpectedly poor showing at the Eurovision Song ...Links International organisations European Broadcasting Union (EBU): Denmark wins the 58th Eurovision song contest (18 May 2013) Eurovision song contest Malmö 2013 ... It was a dull song (a very typical Eurovision song actually), that's why it didn't get points. Stop blaming ...

353

Waste management programs of the reunified Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Germany has been divided into an Eastern and Western part de facto since the end of World War II. The development of the Federal Republic followed the lines of the major Western democracies with respect to its internal organizations, but of course also with respect to the technologies pursued. This report describes radioactive waste management issues in the Federal republic of Germany and discusses the issues with respect to the differences from Eastern and Western Germany.

Janberg, K.G. [GNS/GNB Essen (Germany)

1994-12-31

354

Gender, migration, remittances: evidence from Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gender-specific determinants of remittances are the subject of this study based on German SOEP data (2001-2006). In 2007, about 7.3 million foreigners were living in Germany. While the total number of foreigners has decreased over the last decade, female migration to Germany has increased. Today, women constitute 48.6% of migratory flows to Germany, although the proportion varies significantly by country of origin. A feminization of migration is observable all over the world, and is changing ...

2008-01-01

355

Financial literacy and retirement planning in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine financial literacy in Germany using data from the SAVE survey. We find that knowledge of basic financial concepts is lacking among women, the less educated, and those living in East Germany. In particular, those with low education and low income in East Germany have little financial literacy compared to their West German counterparts. Interestingly, there is no gender disparity in financial knowledge in the East. In order to investigate the nexus of causality between financial lite...

2011-01-01

356

Isolation of Usutu Virus in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged 2001 in Austria and caused deaths in wild birds. In Germany, 70,378 female mosquitoes were captured in 2009 and 2010 and assayed for USUV. Virus was isolated in cell culture from one pool of Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes trapped exclusively in August 2010 in Weinheim, Germany. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the isolated USUV strain from Germany and a USUV strain from Austria, which wa...

Jo?st, Hanna; Bialonski, Alexandra; Maus, Deborah; Sambri, Vittorio; Eiden, Martin; Groschup, Martin H.; Gu?nther, Stephan; Becker, Norbert; Schmidt-chanasit, Jonas

2011-01-01

357

Germany | Convention on Biological Diversity  

... Germany | Convention on Biological Diversity Skip navigation This site uses cookies in order to function as expected. By continuing, you are agreeing to our cookie policy. Agree and close Home News Events About Glossary Photos Advanced search English French Dutch German Login Convention on Biological Diversity Belgian Clearing House Mechanism The Convention Text of the Convention About the Convention Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, including Aichi Biodiversity Targets The Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Biodiversity in Belgium About biodiversity Current status and trends Major ...

358

Break preclusion concept in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Break Preclusion Concept, often called Leak-before-Break (LBB), in Germany as applied since 1979 is based on the basic safety concept. The general concept, the prerequisites and the application to the primary coolant piping are described in detail in a logic chart for the different steps: basic safety, in-service redundancies, LBB, break preclusion (BP) and the break postulates derived from the BP. The safety of the primary piping against break was proven by research programs performed at MPA, Siemens, Interatom, which included fracture mechanics tests on representative pipings under relevant loading conditions. (J.S.). 7 refs., 17 figs.

Bartholome, G.

1995-05-01

359

Break preclusion concept in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Break Preclusion Concept, often called Leak-before-Break (LBB), in Germany as applied since 1979 is based on the basic safety concept. The general concept, the prerequisites and the application to the primary coolant piping are described in detail in a logic chart for the different steps: basic safety, in-service redundancies, LBB, break preclusion (BP) and the break postulates derived from the BP. The safety of the primary piping against break was proven by research programs performed at MPA, Siemens, Interatom, which included fracture mechanics tests on representative pipings under relevant loading conditions. (J.S.). 7 refs., 17 figs

1995-05-01

360

Germany abandons resistance to EU'  

... Jürgen Zöllner represented Germany's federal states. Together with State Secretary for Education and Research Helge Braun, representing the federal government, he finally agreed to the targets. On 16 June, the European Council committed itself to the education targets -but explicitly stressed that the national education targets are the responsibility of the member states. The target of increasing the share of young people with a diploma to at least 40% was interpreted by the education ministers as follows: ''This refers to the percentage of individuals who have ...

 
 
 
 
361

Physician assistant education in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first physician assistant (PA) program in Germany began in 2005. As of 2013 there are three PA programs operational, with a fourth to be inaugurated in the fall of 2013. The programs have produced approximately 100 graduates, all with a nursing background. The PA model of shifting tasks from medical doctors to PAs appears to be growing among senior physicians and hospital administrators. While the development of a German PA movement is in its nascent stage, the training, deployment, and evolution of PA training programs appears underway. PMID:23875496

Kuilman, Luppo; Matthews, Craig; Dierks, Marianne

2013-01-01

362

RiverCare: towards self-sustaining multifunctional rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Rivers are inherently dynamic water systems involving complex interactions among hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. In many deltas around the world lowland rivers are intensively managed to meet objectives like safety, navigation, hydropower and water supply. With the increasing pressure of growing population and climate change it will become even more challenging to reach or maintain these objectives and probably also more demanding from a management point of view. In the meantime there is a growing awareness that rivers are natural systems and that, rather than further regulation works, the dynamic natural processes should be better utilized (or restored) to reach the multifunctional objectives. Currently many integrated river management projects are initiated all over the world, in large rivers as well as streams. Examples of large scale projects in the Netherlands are 'Room for the River' (Rhine), the 'Maaswerken' (Meuse), the Deltaprogramme and projects originating from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). These projects include innovative measures executed never before on this scale and include for example longitudinal training dams, side channels, removal of bank protection, remeandering of streams, dredging/nourishment and floodplain rehabilitation. Although estimates have been made on the effects of these measures for many of the individual projects, the overall effects on the various management objectives remains uncertain, especially if all projects are considered in connection. For all stakeholders with vested interests in the river system it is important to know how that system evolves at intermediate and longer time scales (10 to 100 years) and what the consequences will be for the various river functions. If the total, integrated response of the system can be predicted, the system may be managed in a more effective way, making optimum use of natural processes. In this way, maintenance costs may be reduced, the system remains more natural and more self-sustaining and ecosystem services such as safety, navigability, biodiversity and climate buffering can be safeguarded or even enhanced. The unprecedented extent of these interventions, together with comprehensive in-situ monitoring now offer an excellent opportunity to gain extensive knowledge about their intermediate and long-term impacts. RiverCare is a large research programme that will start in 2014 in which 5 universities, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment, Deltares, consultancy firms and other public and private parties collaborate to get a better understanding of the fundamental processes that drive ecomorphological changes, predict the intermediate and long-term developments, make uncertainties explicit and reduce them where possible and develop best practices to reduce the maintenance costs and increase the benefits of interventions. The projects currently or soon to be carried out in the Netherlands provide a unique opportunity to achieve these objectives and use the results to develop or improve models, guidelines and tools that can be used for river management in the Netherlands and abroad.

Augustijn, Denie; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne

2014-05-01

363

Mercury emissions from flooded soils and sediments in Germany are an underestimated problem: challenges for reliable risk assessments and management strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Environmental pollution by mercury is a world-wide problem. Particularly floodplain ecosystems are frequently affected. One example is the Elbe River in Germany and its catchment areas; large amounts of Hg from a range of anthropogenic and geogenic sources have been accumulated in the soils of these floodplains. They serve as sink for Hg originating from the surface water of adjacent river. Today, the vastly elevated Hg contents of the floodplain soils at the Elbe River often exceed even the ...

Rinklebe J.; Wennrich R.; Du, Laing G.; -j, Sta?rk H.; Mothes S.

2013-01-01

364

Germany's capital market and corporate governance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Germany?s capital market relies on bank-intermediated products and not so much on capital market processes. Two of the pillars in Germany?s three-pillar banking system, the savings banks and the cooperative banks, have special statutes and are not exposed to the control of the capital market through the usual threat of a change in ownership. Savings banks enjoy public guarantees. In the financing of firms, bank credits are far more important relative to market products - equity and bonds - th...

Siebert, Horst

2004-01-01

365

Expected fluid residence times, thermal breakthrough, and tracer test design for characterizing a hydrothermal system in the Upper Rhine Rift Valley  

Science.gov (United States)

Relying on the structural-hydrogeological model proposed by J. Meixner (2009) for a particular hydrothermal system in South-West Germany (on the East side of the Upper Rhine Rift, this reservoir being used to demonstrate electricity production by means of a well doublet), we set up a distributed-parameter model (using Feflow) enabling to numerically simulate fluid ages, temperature evolutions and tracer test signals for a number of contrasting assumptions w. r. to (a) the nature of boundary conditions and hydrogeological characteristics of remotely situated, large-scale natural faults, (b) the degree of permeability contrast between different system compartments, (c) the hydrogeological characteristics of a naturally-occurring fault, located between injection and production wells. It appears that a spike dimensioning allowing for tracer signals to become detectable during the first three years after tracer injection in all of the contrasting a/b/c scenarios is not feasible in practice. In some of the a/b/c cases considered, the system will act like a very large reservoir, with fluid residence times in the order of decades, and extreme dilution of injected tracers. Even using preparative-scale cleaning of samples, brine separation, sample enrichment by solid phase extraction, evaporative concentrating etc. followed by state-of-the-art chromatography techniques to separate between tracer and natural background, it will not be possible to lower tracer detection limits below a certain threshold, which is mainly dictated by the amount of certain naturally-occurring aromatics in the reservoir fluids. On practical reasons, the spike dimensioning will be limited to some hundred kilogram of one or two organic tracers. This implies that part of the above-mentioned, contrasting a/b/c scenarios will remain indistinguishable during the first three years after tracer injection. However, for this reservoir structure, there is not a bijective correspondence between early-vs.-late appearance of tracer and small-vs.-large reservoir. Therefore, we further examine the questions: How much information will be lost, and what degree of uncertainty will affect temperature predictions, as a consequence of the chosen practical ceiling on injected tracer quantities? Can single-well, dual-tracer push-pull tests (to be conducted at the geothermal re-injection and/or at the geothermal production well) contribute to reducing the ambiguity of inter-well early-signal inversion? Acknowledgement: This work pertains to a research project jointly funded by Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW) and by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU, project key: 0325111B), with operational support from local Energy and Water Supply Plants (EWB), from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Hydrogeology Group), and from the European Institute for Energy Research (EIfER, Dr. Zorn).

Ghergut, I.; Meixner, J.; Rettenmaier, D.; Maier, F.; Nottebohm, M.; Ptak, T.; Sauter, M.

2012-04-01

366

Investigation of the heat exchange river/atmosphere at the Rhine River downstream of the Philippsburg nuclear power station. A contribution of heat loss models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All probes and interfaces with exception of those for oxygen solution in water, water surface flow, roughness of surface, water level and fog density have been installed and are under operation. Automatic data processing is accomplished either by computer or by a 12 channel analog printer. Presently the final calibration of the signal transmission lines is being completed. The data processing software is in a preliminary configuration yet. Another 8 k memory extension box has been installed in order to allow the addition of modules such as powerfail-restart routines, I/O subroutines for magnetic cassettes and tapes and storage capacity for windspeed direction values. The present output is restricted to 10 mins. teletype messages, comprehending the most essential data. Data collection difficulties have generally been overcome. A survey on the water surface temperature distribution in the surrounding of the station has been performed and revealed no inhomogenities in the vicinity of the mast within a accuracy of about 0.20C. (orig.)

1975-05-01

367

General cost analysis for scholarly communication in Germany : results of the "Houghton Report" for Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Management Summary: Conducted within the project “Economic Implications of New Models for Information Supply for Science and Research in Germany”, the Houghton Report for Germany provides a general cost and benefit analysis for scientific communication in Germany comparing different scenarios according to their specific costs and explicitly including the German National License Program (NLP).

Houghton, John W.; Dugall, Berndt; Bernius, Steffen; Kro?nung, Julia; Ko?nig, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

368

Air crew monitoring in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

2006-05-15

369

Air crew monitoring in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

Stegemann, R.; Frasch, G.; Kammerer, L. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

2006-07-01

370

Recycling of plastics in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO{sub 2} abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO{sub 2}, representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling.

Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

1999-07-01

371

Recycling of plastics in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO2, representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

1999-06-15

372

Bayesian frequency analysis of extreme river discharges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Probabilistic design of river dikes is usually based on estimates of a design discharge. In The Netherlands, a design discharge is defined as the discharge with an average return period of 1,250 years. Design discharges are currently estimated using classical statistical methods. A shortcoming of this approach is that statistical uncertainties are not taken into account and that probability distributions are given equal weight. In the paper, a method based on Bayesian statistics is presented. Using Bayes' theorem, the prior distribution representing information about the uncertainty of the statistical parameters can be updated to the posterior distribution as soon as data becomes available. Seven predictive probability distributions are investigated for determining extreme quantiles of discharges: the exponential, Rayleigh, normal, lognormal, gamma, Weibull and Gumbel. The Bayesian method has been successfully applied to estimate the design discharge of the river Rhine while taking account of the statistical uncertainties involved. The Bayes estimates are compared to the classical maximum-likelihood estimates. Furthermore, so-called Bayes factors are used to determine weights corresponding to how well a probability distribution fits the observed data; that is, the better the fit, the higher the weighting. (orig.)

Chbab, E.H. [Ministry of Transport, Public Works, and Water Management, Lelystad (Netherlands); Noortwijk, J.M. van; Duits, M.T. [HKV Consultants, Lelystad (Netherlands)

2000-07-01

373

River levels: Essex  

…Barrier River Blackwater Rivenhall End Appleford Bridge River Blackwater Stisted Stisted River Box Boxford Boxford River Box Polstead Polstead River Brain Witham Guithavon Valley River Brett Cockfield Cockfield River Brett Hadleigh Hadleigh River Can Chelmsford Beach's Mill River Chelmer Chelmsford Springfield… Related Searches: river brett blackwater river level

374

Performance evaluation of on-site oral fluid drug screening devices in normal police procedure in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a need for quick and reliable methods for rapid screening of drug-influenced drivers on the roadside by police. Because the window of detection in oral fluid is more similar to blood than to urine, this matrix should therefore be appropriate for screening procedures. The performance of the Rapid STAT(®) (Mavand Solution GmbH, Mössingen, Germany), DrugWipe5/5+(®) (Securetec Detektions-Systeme AG, Brunnthal, Germany) and Dräger DrugTest(®) 5000 (Draeger Safety AG & Co. KGaA, Luebeck, Germany) on-site oral fluid devices was evaluated with random oral fluid specimens from car drivers in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). Additionally, some drivers were checked using an on-site urine device (DrugScreen(®), NAL von Minden, Regensburg, Germany). During a 11-month period, 1.212 drivers were tested. Both OF and urine on-site tests were compared to serum results. The following sensitivities were obtained by the oral fluid devices: THC 71% (DrugWipe(®)), 87% (Dräger), 91% (RapidSTAT); opiates 95% (Dräger), 100% (DrugWipe(®), RapidSTAT(®)); amphetamine 84% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 90% (RapidSTAT(®)), 100% (DrugTest(®) 5000); methamphetamine 50% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 100% (RapidSTAT(®)); cocaine 76% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 100% (DrugWipe(®), RapidSTAT(®)); methadone 33-63%, and benzodiazepines 0-33% (both with a low number of positives). THC specificity was especially low (29% [DrugWipe(®)] and 47% [DrugTest(®) 5000]) due to low cut-off concentrations. These data were similar to those obtained from the literature (e.g., DRUID project). The urine screening device showed a good sensitivity (THC 93%, opiate 94%, amphetamine 94%, methamphetamine 75% (low number of positives), cocaine 100%) and also an acceptable specificity (39%, 86%, 63%, 77%, 47%, respectively). Although oral fluid may be a useful matrix for on-site testing of drugged drivers, it is evident that oral fluid devices still show a lack of sensitivity (methamphetamine, benzodiazepines) and specificity (THC). Poor results for benzodiazepines may be explained by the small positive test number. Although the sensitivity for THC came out higher than compared to the literature, specificity is not yet satisfactory (only <90%). Furthermore, specificity was poor due to lowered cut-offs resulting in multiple false positive tests. PMID:24699311

Musshoff, Frank; Hokamp, Eva Große; Bott, Ulrich; Madea, Burkhard

2014-05-01

375

River levels: North Cornwall  

…Cornwall Coast Padstow Padstow North Cornwall Coast Wadebridge Wadebridge River Allen St Kew Highway Penvose River Camel Camelford Slaughterbridge River Camel Denby Denby River Camel Sladesbridge Sladesbridge River Gannel Gwills Gwills River Neet Marhamchurch Helebridge River Neet Titson Woolstone Mill…

376

New prospects in geomorphological and geological mapping of the Rhine-Meuse Delta – Application of detailed digital elevation maps based on laser altimetry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past 80 years, the Rhine-Meuse delta has been mapped extensively by drilling boreholes. These maps are compared with a new detailed digital elevation map of the Netherlands (AHN) that became available in 2004 and is based on very accurate, (sub-decimeter) laser-altimetry data. Examples show, that existing maps can be significantly improved. However, field checks remain a necessity. Therefore, the AHN-data need to be confronted with existing borehole descriptions using a GIS. Geomorph...

Berendsen, H. J. A.; Volleberg, K. P.

2007-01-01

377

Model-based analysis of nutrient retention and management for a lowland river  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the context of the European Water Framework Directive options for improving the water quality of the lowland river Havel (Germany) were assessed. The lower section of this river is actually a polytrophic river-lake system suffering from high external nutrient loading and exhibiting significant in-river turnover. In order to gain a better understanding of present conditions and to allow integrated scenarios of nutrient management to be evaluated the catchment models SWIM and ArcEGMO-Urban w...

Kneis, D.; Knoesche, R.; Bronstert, A.

2005-01-01

378

Argillaceous rock as host rock for final storage of radioactive waste in Germany; Tongesteine als Wirtsgesteine fuer die Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology (BMWi), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials (BGR) in a study described argillaceous rock formations as potential host rock for repositories in some areas of Germany, and evaluated them. The study was based on available and usable data derived from maps, archives, and approx. 25,000 drillings. No additional field tests or laboratory examinations were conducted. The study was published in April 2007 under the title of 'Untersuchung und Bewertung von Tongesteinsformationen' (www.bgr.bund.de). The exclusion criteria and minimum requirements recommended by the Working Group on Repository Sites (AkEnd) in 2002 served as a basis for defining the subareas eligible for further study. In addition, internationally acknowledged selection criteria as well as weighting criteria to be taken into account especially under German conditions were applied. The result of the study is not a representation of repository sites. However, the investigations show that argillaceous rock meeting host rock requirements occurs in the Lower Cretacious as well as in rock formations of the Lower and Middle Jurassic of Northern Germany. In Southern Germany, rock of the Middle Jurassic was found to be worthy of examination. The clay formations of the Tertiary are not considered in the study because of their relatively adverse mechanical properties in Germany. The areas highlighted are situated mainly in Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt, Baden-Wuerttemberg and, to a lesser extent, also im Bavaria, Brandenburg, and North Rhine-Westphalia. Other regional restrictions are mentioned in the study. Any further assessment of the argillaceous rock in the study would require an extensive program of investigations with a view to selecting sites for the final storage of high-level radioactive waste. (orig.)

Braeuer, V.; Hoth, P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

2007-05-15

379

The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996–2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London–Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max ?32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max ?46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

2014-05-01

380

Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Adults, Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assessed hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody seroprevalence in a sample of the adult population in Germany. Overall HEV IgG prevalence was 16.8% (95% CI 15.6%–17.9%) and increased with age, leveling off at >60 years of age. HEV is endemic in Germany, and the lifetime risk for exposure is high.

2012-01-01