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Sample records for river rhine germany

  1. Non-native Gobiid species in the lower River Rhine (Germany): recent range extensions and densities

    Borcherding, J.; Staas, S.; Krüger, S.; Ondračková, Markéta; Šlapanský, Luděk; Jurajda, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2011), s. 153-155. ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : the lower River Rhine Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.869, year: 2011

  2. Changes of floodplain morphology by water mills: Legacy sediments stored behind mill dams as archive and source for pollution - Examples from the Wurm River, Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    Buchty-Lemke, Michael; Frings, Roy; Hagemann, Lukas; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Maaß, Anna-Lisa; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The Wurm River (Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany) is a small stream in a low mountain area near the Dutch-German border that has seen a lot of anthropogenic changes of its morphology since medieval times. Among other influencing factors, water mills, in particular, had an early impact on the sediment dynamics and created sediment traps. Several knickpoints in the long profile may represent the legacy of mill damming - or founded mill building at these spots. The knickpoints may also represent the aftermath of the colliery history. A study site in the upper reaches of the Wurm River features erosion terraces, incised following the demise of a mill dam in the early 20th century. The mill pond most likely collected sediment and additives e.g. used in agricultural and industrial processes. These legacy sediments from behind former mill dams provide information about anthropogenic pollution, particularly for the era of industrialization in the vicinity of the old industrial area of the city of Aachen. Along with the demise of the mill dam and the increased incision tendency, the sediments are also a secondary source for pollution in case of remobilization of contaminated sediments. Two major research questions are addressed. A) Which individual hydrological and geomorphological processes, both upstream and downstream, triggered the incision and the construction of the erosion terraces, which are preserved in the mill pond sediments? Is either the demised mill dam, or subsidence effects, or a combination of both the determining factor? B) Which contaminants are retained in the sediments? Is there a detectable point source for the pollutants or is it a mixture of diffuse anthropogenic (industry, agriculture, traffic, wastewater) and natural origin? To tackle these questions, sedimentological data are combined with geomorphological mapping and evaluation of historical data. A soil profile provides insight into the architecture of the floodplain, which is built of riverbed

  3. Microplastics profile along the Rhine River

    Mani, Thomas; Hauk, Armin; Walter, Ulrich; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Microplastics result from fragmentation of plastic debris or are released to the environment as pre-production pellets or components of consumer and industrial products. In the oceans, they contribute to the ‘great garbage patches’. They are ingested by many organisms, from protozoa to baleen whales, and pose a threat to the aquatic fauna. Although as much as 80% of marine debris originates from land, little attention was given to the role of rivers as debris pathways to the sea. Worldwide, not a single great river has yet been studied for the surface microplastics load over its length. We report the abundance and composition of microplastics at the surface of the Rhine, one of the largest European rivers. Measurements were made at 11 locations over a stretch of 820 km. Microplastics were found in all samples, with 892,777 particles km -2 on average. In the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, a peak concentration of 3.9 million particles km -2 was measured. Microplastics concentrations were diverse along and across the river, reflecting various sources and sinks such as waste water treatment plants, tributaries and weirs. Measures should be implemented to avoid and reduce the pollution with anthropogenic litter in aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Flood trends along the Rhine: the role of river training

    S. Vorogushyn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have detected positive trends in flood flows in German rivers, among others, at Rhine gauges over the past six decades. The presence and detectability of the climate change signal in flood records has been controversially discussed, particularly against the background of massive river training measures in the Rhine. In the past the Rhine catchment has been heavily trained, including the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. The present study investigates the role of river training on changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the effect of the Rhine weir cascade and of a series of detention basins was investigated. By homogenising the original flood flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be from a few percentage points to more than 10 percentage points smaller compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures, and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges during this period was partly caused by an unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. This superposition resulted from an acceleration of the Rhine waves due to the construction of the weir cascade and associated channelisation and dike heightening. However, at the same time, tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual maximum Rhine peaks, showed strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of another driver or drivers which acted alongside river training.

  5. Genotoxic and teratogenic effect of freshwater sediment samples from the Rhine and Elbe River (Germany) in zebrafish embryo using a multi-endpoint testing strategy.

    Garcia-Käufer, M; Gartiser, S; Hafner, C; Schiwy, S; Keiter, S; Gründemann, C; Hollert, H

    2015-11-01

    The embryotoxic potential of three model sediment samples with a distinct and well-characterized pollutant burden from the main German river basins Rhine and Elbe was investigated. The Fish Embryo Contact Test (FECT) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) was applied and submitted to further development to allow for a comprehensive risk assessment of such complex environmental samples. As particulate pollutants are constructive constituents of sediments, they underlay episodic source-sink dynamics, becoming available to benthic organisms. As bioavailability of xenobiotics is a crucial factor for ecotoxicological hazard, we focused on the direct particle-exposure pathway, evaluating throughput-capable endpoints and considering toxicokinetics. Fish embryo and larvae were exposed toward reconstituted (freeze-dried) sediment samples on a microcosm-scale experimental approach. A range of different developmental embryonic stages were considered to gain knowledge of potential correlations with metabolic competence during the early embryogenesis. Morphological, physiological, and molecular endpoints were investigated to elucidate induced adverse effects, placing particular emphasis on genomic instability, assessed by the in vivo comet assay. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the extent of induced cell death, since cytotoxicity can lead to confounding effects. The implementation of relative toxicity indices further provides inter-comparability between samples and related studies. All of the investigated sediments represent a significant ecotoxicological hazard by disrupting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Beside the induction of acute toxicity, morphological and physiological embryotoxic effects could be identified in a concentration-response manner. Increased DNA strand break frequency was detected after sediment contact in characteristic non-monotonic dose-response behavior due to overlapping cytotoxic effects. The embryonic zebrafish toxicity model along with the in vivo comet

  6. Fluvial sedimentary styles and associated depositional environments in the buntsandstein west of river rhine in saar area and pfalz (F.R. Germany) and vosges (France)

    Dachroth, Wolfgang

    The Buntsandstein west of river Rhine in Saar area, Pfalz and Vosges consists of three fluvial magnacycles which are characterized by different associated non-alluvial environments. The stratigraphic sequence is divided by several unconformities reflecting tectonic movements which were connected with periods of extension of the depositional area. Two major phases and two minor events are recognized by the evaluation of the Pfalz unconformity and the Lothringen unconformity, and the Leuter unconformity and the Saar unconformity, respectively. The Lower Buntsandstein (including Zechstein) compries the first magnacycle and is built up of alluvial-fan deposits, fluvial braidplain sediments and marine to lagoonal deposits. Some aeolian sands as well as several palaeosols are also present. The palaeolandscape consists of alluvial fans seaming the margin of the basin and fluvial braidplains reaching from the toes of the fan belt to the centre of the depositional area which is occupied by a lagoonal sea that partially evolves into a playa-lake with progressive refreshment. The Middle Buntsandstein comprises the second magnacycle and is composed of an alternation of aeolian Dünnschichten and fluvial Felsbänke. The third facies are alluvial-fan deposits of palaeogeographically restricted distribution along the margins of the basin. The aeolian Dünnschichten originate in the marginal parts of chott-type depressions (in comparison with the recent Chott Djerid in Tunesia) where rising ground water moistens the dry sediments that are laid down on the playa floor and thus allows their enhanced preservation. In dry periods, wind-blown sand is spread out as plane sheets or as migrating wind ripple trains, or accumulates to barchanoid-type dunes that advance across the flat. Depending on supply of sand, all stages of transition between dune fields with only narrow interdune corridors between the ridges and interdune playas with isolated widely-spaced dunes are developed. The

  7. Computer Science Education in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany--A Case Study

    Knobelsdorf, Maria; Magenheim, Johannes; Brinda, Torsten; Engbring, Dieter; Humbert, Ludger; Pasternak, Arno; Schroeder, Ulrik; Thomas, Marco; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In North-Rhine Westphalia, the most populated state in Germany, Computer Science (CS) has been taught in secondary schools since the early 1970s. This article provides an overview of the past and current situation of CS education in North-Rhine Westphalia, including lessons learned through efforts to introduce and to maintain CS in secondary…

  8. Contaminant variability in a sedimentation area of the river Rhine.

    Winkels, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended solids an

  9. Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river

    In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

  10. Contaminant variability in a sedimentation area of the river Rhine.

    Winkels, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended solids and erosion of deposited sediment in the shallow Dutch lakes (due to wave action) are likely to change contamination levels of sediments in these lakes, which is the subject of this thesis. The aim o...

  11. Future flood risk estimates along the river Rhine

    A. H. te Linde

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, water management is moving from flood defence to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. It is expected that climate change and socio-economic development will lead to an increase in flood risk in the Rhine basin. To optimize spatial planning and flood management measures, studies are needed that quantify future flood risks and estimate their uncertainties. In this paper, we estimated the current and future fluvial flood risk in 2030 for the entire Rhine basin in a scenario study. The change in value at risk is based on two land-use projections derived from a land-use model representing two different socio-economic scenarios. Potential damage was calculated by a damage model, and changes in flood probabilities were derived from two climate scenarios and hydrological modeling. We aggregated the results into seven sections along the Rhine. It was found that the annual expected damage in the Rhine basin may increase by between 54% and 230%, of which the major part (~ three-quarters can be accounted for by climate change. The highest current potential damage can be found in the Netherlands (110 billion €, compared with the second (80 billion € and third (62 billion € highest values in two areas in Germany. Results further show that the area with the highest fluvial flood risk is located in the Lower Rhine in Nordrhein-Westfalen in Germany, and not in the Netherlands, as is often perceived. This is mainly due to the higher flood protection standards in the Netherlands as compared to Germany.

  12. Decision support and river management strategies for the Rhine in the Netherlands

    This paper describes a methodology for assessing and comparing alternative river management strategies for the Dutch branches of the river Rhine. The three objectives considered in the analysis are: safety against flooding which is a necessary condition to maintain and enhance economic development of a major part of the Netherlands, improving inland navigation conditions along the river (the Rhine is a major transport route between the port of Rotterdam and Germany), and increasing the ecological values of the river system. This paper describes the methodology and models that are used to assess alternative ways of meeting these objectives. We used hydrodynamic modeling aided by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a new approach that has some important advantages compared to traditional approaches. The analysis shows the trade-offs for various strategies (for example safety versus nature, nature versus inland navigation, agriculture versus nature etc.) and looks for possibility to create win-win situations. It also produces scorecards for various strategies, which show their impacts on the functions of the river and their financial consequences. (author)

  13. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of detrital heavy minerals from the Rhine River in Germany as evidence to their provenance, sedimentary and depositional history: focus on platinum-group minerals and remarks on cassiterite, columbite-group minerals and uraninite

    Oberthür, Thomas; Melcher, Frank; Goldmann, Simon; Wotruba, Hermann; Gerdes, Axel; Dijkstra, Arjan; Dale, Christopher W.

    2016-03-01

    In the course of studying the gold-bearing heavy mineral spectrum of sediments from the upper Rhine River, a distinct suite of detrital grains comprising platinum-group minerals (PGM), cassiterite, columbite-group minerals and uraninite was identified and investigated using conventional and modern analytical methods. This study aimed to characterize the selected mineral groups mineralogically and geochemically in order to identify possible source areas and to reconstruct different aspects of the complex sedimentary history of the Rhine River sediments. The PGM assemblage is dominated by grains of Ru-Os-Ir alloys (~70 %), followed by Pt-Fe alloys, sperrylite and rare other PGM. Accordingly, this PGM assemblage represents highly mature, physically and chemically extremely resistant compounds which may have experienced and survived repeated reworking during their sedimentary history. Pt-Fe alloys and sperrylite may originate from various sources; however, the predominant Ru-Os-Ir alloy grains point to an origin from ophiolite sequences of unknown age (but likely pre-Alpine; Variscan or older). The exact locations of the primary sources and the complex, prolonged sedimentary history of the detrital PGM with possibly multiple intermittent storages remain unknown. Detrital cassiterite grains were dated by the U-Pb method using LA-ICP-MS. The age dates of cassiterite largely overlap with zircon age distributions by peaking distinctly at ca. 325 Ma (majority of ages), thereby implying a predominantly Variscan age of the cassiterite grains and possible derivation from mineralization in the Black Forest area. Columbite-group minerals are dominantly tapiolite originating from pegmatites. Rare uraninite grains attest that this mineral experienced rapid erosion, transport and deposition in a reducing environment.

  14. Comparative Study of Flood Risk Management and Land Use in the Deltas of Rhine River, Yellow River and Mississippi River

    Huang B; Guangzhou, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Rhine River in the Netherlands, the Yellow River in China and the Mississippi River in the U.S. are three great rivers in the world. Each of them is performing a significant role in the country. The delta area for each river, in particular, is served as the centre in importance and commonly the

  15. Microplastics profile along the Rhine River

    Thomas Mani; Armin Hauk; Ulrich Walter; Patricia Burkhardt-Holm

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics result from fragmentation of plastic debris or are released to the environment as pre-production pellets or components of consumer and industrial products. In the oceans, they contribute to the ‘great garbage patches’. They are ingested by many organisms, from protozoa to baleen whales, and pose a threat to the aquatic fauna. Although as much as 80% of marine debris originates from land, little attention was given to the role of rivers as debris pathways to the sea. Worldwide, n...

  16. The impact of climate change on the water quality of the Rhine river

    Van Bokhoven, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this research the effect of hydrological extremes on water quality are studied for the Rhine River, in order to assess potential water quality effects of climate change. The water quality of the Rhine was studied for the periods 1975-1977 and 1987-2005. During these periods eight hydrological ext

  17. Today's sediment budget of the Rhine River channel, focusing on the Upper Rhine Graben and Rhenish Massif

    Frings, Roy M.; Gehres, Nicole; Promny, Markus; Middelkoop, Hans; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Vollmer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The river bed of the Rhine River is subject to severe erosion and sedimentation. Such high geomorphological process rates are unwanted for economical, ecological, and safety reasons. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the geomorphological development of the Rhine River between 1985 and 2006; (2) to investigate the bed erosion process; and (3) to distinguish between tectonic, hydrological, and human controls. We used a unique data set with thousands of bedload and suspended-load measurements and quantified the fluxes of gravel, sand, silt, and clay through the northern Upper Rhine Graben and the Rhenish Massif. Furthermore, we calculated bed level changes and evaluated the sediment budget of the channel. Sediment transport rates were found to change in the downstream direction: silt and clay loads increase because of tributary supply; sand loads increase because of erosion of sand from the bed; and gravel loads decrease because of reduced sediment mobility caused by the base-level control exerted by the uplifting Rhenish Massif. This base-level control shows tectonic setting, in addition to hydrology and human interventions, to represent a major control on morphodynamics in the Rhine. The Rhine bed appears to be in a state of disequilibrium, with an average net bed degradation of 3 mm/a. Sand being eroded from the bed is primarily washed away in suspension, indicating a rapid supply of sand to the Rhine delta. The degradation is the result of an increased sediment transport capacity caused by nineteenth and twentieth century's river training works. In order to reduce degradation, huge amounts of sediment are fed into the river by river managers. Bed degradation and artificial sediment feeding represent the major sources of sand and gravel to the study area; only small amounts of sediment are supplied naturally from upstream or by tributaries. Sediment sinks include dredging, abrasion, and the sediment output to the downstream area. Large uncertainties

  18. How fish benefit from floodplain restoration along the lower River Rhine

    Grift, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the beneficial value of newly created secondary channels and reconnected oxbow lakes along the lower River Rhine for fish and to give advice on position, shape and character of future water bodies. These water bodies should contribute to the rebuilding of the population of rheophilic cyprinids that are endangered due to embankment and normalization of the Rhine. The functions these water bodies fulfil during the life cycle of distinct fish species, we...

  19. Benchmark verification of deterministic and ensemble forecasts for the river Rhine

    van Osnabrugge, Bart; Weerts, Albrecht; Verkade, Jan; den Toom, Matthijs; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Sprokkereef, Eric

    2016-04-01

    As part of the IMPREX project (IMproving PRedictions and management of EXtremes) we perform a benchmark verification study (tier 1) of an operational active hydrological forecasting system of the river Rhine. We assess the current forecast skill and contributions of current DA methods (e.g. error correction) to forecast skill. Our results will be compared with previous verification studies (Renner et al., 2009, Verkade et al., 2013) for the Rhine. Based on the results we will identify weaknesses and opportunities for future improvements. After model improvements and introduction of more advanced (ensemble) DA methods the benchmark will be conducted again later in the project (tier 2). From these experiments, we hope to show the relative importance of data assimilation, the availability of real-time hydrologic measured data in comparison with (improved) meteorological forecast skill and their effect on hydrologic predictability for the river Rhine.

  20. Dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes as tracers of prefential fluid flow along faults in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    Bense, V.F.; Gumm, L.P.; Dennis, P.; Hiscock, N.; Cremer, N.; Simon, S.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in shallow unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers close to the Bornheim fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, has relatively low d2H and d18O values in comparison to regional modern groundwater recharge, and 4He concentrations up to 1.7¿×¿10-4 cm3 (STP) g–1¿±¿2.2 % which is app

  1. Inhibition of bacterial and phytoplanktonic metabolic activity in the lower River Rhine by ditallowdimethylammonium chloride.

    Tubbing, D M; Admiraal, W

    1991-12-01

    The effects of a quaternary ammonium compound, ditallowdimethylammonium chloride (DTDMAC), on natural populations of bacteria and phytoplankton from the lower River Rhine were examined to estimate their sensitivity to the discharges of cationic surfactants in the river basin. In short-term experiments, significant decreases in the growth rate of bacterioplankton and in the photosynthetic rate of phytoplankton were observed at a nominal concentration of 0.03 to 0.1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. Nitrification was measured with an ion-selective electrode and by the rate of acid production in ammonium-spiked river water and was found to be only sensitive to the addition of concentrations higher than 1 mg of DTDMAC liter-1. This does not support an earlier suggestion that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria are specifically sensitive to quaternary ammonium compounds. The effect of DTDMAC on thymidine incorporation was shown to depend strongly on the concentration of suspended material, which varied with the sampling date. This effect was also quantified in experimental manipulations with Rhine water. Calculations on the partitioning of DTDMAC between water and suspended matter confirmed the role of suspended solids and showed that an increase of the dissolved DTDMAC concentration in Rhine water by circa 0.01 mg liter-1 leads to a slight inhibition of the growth of heterotrophic bacteria. It is concluded that a total concentration of circa 0.01 mg of DTDMAC liter-1 measured in the River Rhine is likely to have biological consequences. PMID:1785934

  2. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case

    Tobias Bölscher; Erik van Slobbe; Michelle T.H. van Vliet; Saskia E. Werners

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing adaptiv...

  3. Evaluation of the Non-Formal Forest Education Sector in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: Organisations, Programmes and Framework Conditions

    Grimm, Anne; Mrosek, Thorsten; Martinsohn, Anna; Schulte, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Although a large number of different organisations offer various forest education programmes within Germany, specific information (i.e., sectoral and programme content and provision at a state level) is lacking. This study used a survey of all 61 forest education organisations (43 respondents) in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, to…

  4. Genotoxic effects in the Eastern mudminnow (Umbra pygmaea) after prolonged exposure to River Rhine water, as assessed by use of the in vivo SCE and Comet assays

    Penders, E.J.M.; Spenkelink, A.; Hoogenboezem, W.; Rotteveel, S.G.P.; Maas, J.L.; Alink, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The production of drinking water from river water requires a certain minimal river water quality. The Association of River Rhine Water Works (RIWA), therefore, operates a monitoring network. In vitro mutagenicity studies have shown that the genotoxicity of the River Rhine water steadily decreased fr

  5. Distribution and sources of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the River Rhine watershed

    Moeller, Axel, E-mail: axel.moeller@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Institute for Coastal Research, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Ahrens, Lutz; Surm, Renate [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Institute for Coastal Research, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Westerveld, Joke; Wielen, Frans van der [University of Amsterdam, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ebinghaus, Ralf [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Institute for Coastal Research, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Voogt, Pim de [University of Amsterdam, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    The concentration profile of 40 polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface water along the River Rhine watershed from the Lake Constance to the North Sea was investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of point as well as diffuse sources, to estimate fluxes of PFAS into the North Sea and to identify replacement compounds of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the method performance was conducted. The PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) with concentrations up to 181 ng/L and 335 ng/L, respectively, which originated from industrial point sources. Fluxes of {Sigma}PFAS were estimated to be {approx}6 tonnes/year which is much higher than previous estimations. Both, the River Rhine and the River Scheldt, seem to act as important sources of PFAS into the North Sea. - The short-chained polyfluoroalkyl substances PFBA and PFBS replace PFOA and PFOA as dominating PFAS in surface waters in the River Rhine watershed.

  6. Distribution and sources of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the River Rhine watershed

    The concentration profile of 40 polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface water along the River Rhine watershed from the Lake Constance to the North Sea was investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of point as well as diffuse sources, to estimate fluxes of PFAS into the North Sea and to identify replacement compounds of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the method performance was conducted. The PFAS pattern was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) with concentrations up to 181 ng/L and 335 ng/L, respectively, which originated from industrial point sources. Fluxes of ΣPFAS were estimated to be ∼6 tonnes/year which is much higher than previous estimations. Both, the River Rhine and the River Scheldt, seem to act as important sources of PFAS into the North Sea. - The short-chained polyfluoroalkyl substances PFBA and PFBS replace PFOA and PFOA as dominating PFAS in surface waters in the River Rhine watershed.

  7. Dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes as tracers of prefential fluid flow along faults in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    Bense, V. F.; Gumm, L.P.; Dennis, P.; Hiscock, N.; Cremer, N; Simon., S

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in shallow unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers close to the Bornheim fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, has relatively low d2H and d18O values in comparison to regional modern groundwater recharge, and 4He concentrations up to 1.7¿×¿10-4 cm3 (STP) g–1¿±¿2.2 % which is approximately four orders of magnitude higher than expected due to solubility equilibrium with the atmosphere. Groundwater age dating based on estimated in situ production and terrigenic flux of heliu...

  8. Geophysical prospecting of a slow active fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment, NW Germany

    Streich, R.; Strecker, M.; Lück, E.; Scherbaum, F.; Schäbitz, F.; Spangenberg, U.

    2003-04-01

    The Lower Rhine embayment, Germany, is currently one of the most active sectors of the Cenozoic rift system of western and central Europe. Historical records denote at least 21 earthquakes with epicentral intensities >=7, and instrumental records show a concentration of seismicity at the major bounding Peel Boundary, Erft, Feldbiss and Rurrand faults. Many fault segments were active in the recent past and formed numerous morphologic scarps. However, fault scarps are poorly preserved since low displacement rates are opposed to interference of fluvioglacial with tectonic processes, a dense vegetation cover, high precipitation rates, and human landscape modification. This makes it difficult to determine the exact location, size and geometry of active fault segments in this region and hampers estimation of long-term displacement rates and fault activity. To overcome these difficulties, we applied a combination of morphologic, geophysical, and geological methods. We carried out detailed studies at the Hemmerich site located in the Erft fault system, SE Lower Rhine embayment (6.918oE, 50.758oN). The site is characterized by a topographic scarp, 4 m high and several km long. We placed special emphasis on testing the applicability of fast and simple geophysical prospecting techniques to fault assessment, and on evaluating the scarp as a potential site to excavate the suspected fault. The geophysical methods applied comprise resistivity and chargeability tomography, ground penetrating radar, and shallow seismic reflection, all carried out along profiles perpendicular to the topographic scarp. In addition, electromagnetic and magnetic maps were acquired. Beside geophysical prospecting, we conducted microtopographic levelling and coring. We detected a major break in a shallow radar reflector, and a steep seismic velocity contrast discernible both by seismic refraction tomography and dispersion analysis. These features are in good spatial correlation with each other and with

  9. The operational flood forecasting system WAVOS for the Rivers Rhine, Elbe and Odra

    The extreme floods of the past decade at the river Rhine (1993 and 1995), at the river Odra (1997) and at the River Elbe (2002) caused serious damages and confirmed again the urgency of exact and reliable flood forecasting systems as tools for decision support in order to reduce flood damages. The Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) is developing suitable operational water level forecast models for the River Rhine (WAVOS Rhein), for the River Odra (WAVOS Oder), and for the River Elbe (ELBA and WAVOS Elbe). These forecast systems are continuously used by the Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration on a daily basis for low water forecasting to support inland navigation. In case of floods the systems are used by four Federal State Flood Centres for flood forecasting several times per day. In this paper the operational WAVOS water level forecasting system is described and for the three river basins examples of the forecasting results of the last floods are given. With the growing demand for prolonging the forecasting period, increasing the accuracy and spatial density of forecasts, the tasks for future improvements of the models are shown.(Author)

  10. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case

    Tobias Bölscher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing adaptive action. The paper shows that the moment at which salmon reintroduction may fail due to climate change can only be approximated because of inherent uncertainties in the interaction between salmon and its environment. The added value of the assessment presented in this paper is that it provides researchers with a set of questions that are useful from a policy perspective (by focusing on the feasibility of a concrete policy ambition under climate change. Thus, it offers opportunities to supply policy makers with practical insight in the relevance of climate change.

  11. Simulation of Artificial Grain Feeding in Order to Reach Dynamical Bed Stabilisation Along the River Rhine

    Thomas; WENKA

    2005-01-01

    The Wesel-Xanten stretch of the fiver Rhine between km-812.5 and km-821.5 is one of the reaches where strong erosion leads to high maintenance efforts conceming navigability.In order to improve the naviga- tion conditions without aggravating the flood protection,but also ensuring that the ecological system of the river is not damaged,investigations of the morphodynamical processes in connection with artificial grain feeding ac- tivities have to be carried out by Federal Waterways Engineering and Research...

  12. The status of limnophilic fish and the need for conservation in floodplains along the lower Rhine, a large regulated river

    Grift, R.E.; Buijse, A.D.; Van Geest, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Recovery of the fish community of the river Rhine focussed mainly on the return of migratory species, in particular the Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar, and to a lesser extent on rheophilic fish species. Several limnophilic species that characterize remote parts of the floodplains are, however, also en

  13. Diversity of Archaea and detection of crenarchaeotal amoA genes in the rivers Rhine and Têt

    Herfort, L.; Kim, J.H.; Coolen, M.J.L.; Abbas, B.; Schouten, S.; Herndl, G.J.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Pelagic archaeal phylogenetic diversity and the potential for crenarchaeotal nitrification of Group 1.1a were determined in the rivers Rhine and Têt by 16S rRNA sequencing, catalyzed reported deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD–FISH) and quantification of 16S rRNA and functional gene

  14. Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany

    Helmer Stefanie M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Findings Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was used (N=3,306. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale with three dimensions (one internal and two external and six aspects of health behaviour (smoking habits, alcohol use, drug consumption, being over-/ or underweight, physical activity, and importance of healthy nutrition were evaluated. Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals with a stronger belief in health professionals were less likely to use drugs and paid more attention to healthy nutrition. Furthermore, higher scores in the second external locus of control dimension (beliefs in luck or chance were associated with a higher likelihood of current smoking, lower physical activity and less attention to healthy nutrition. Conclusions Students engaged more strongly in unhealthy behaviour if they believed that luck determines health. In contrast, believing in having control over one’s own health was associated with more healthy behaviour. These findings support the need to consider health control beliefs while designing preventive strategies in this specific population.

  15. Monitoring of health effects in a vulnerable population exposed to air pollution in North-Rhine Westfalia, West Germany

    Frank, K.; Wichmann, H.E. (Universitat Wuppertal (West Germany)); Boeriu, A.; Ulmer, W.T. (Universitatsklinik Bergmannsheil, Bochum (West Germany)); Ranft, U.; Schlipkoter, H.W. (Medizinisches Institute fur Umwelthygiene, Dusseldorf (West Germany))

    A cohort study in West Germany investigates the effects of air pollutants in patients with chronic obstructive airway diseases, such as chronic bronchitis, asthma, and emphysema. Within the state of North-Rhine Westfalia, some parts of the Ruhr district are more heavily contaminated with air pollutants than others. Patients between the age of 50 and 70 y from ares with different levels of air pollutants are included in the study. The cohort will be followed for 3 y, from September through April, when the level of air pollutants is the highest in West Germany. After a complete physical examination each participant will be seen by a physician every two months during the observation period. The most important component of the study is the daily diaries. Each day, three peak-flow measurements are taken and recorded. Other parameters inquired about daily include the use of medication, smoking habits, time spent outside, and the participants' well-being. These parameters will be compared with daily measurements of air pollutants to see whether already small increases will result in acute health problems of this group. A pilot study, which started in September 1987 and ended in April 1988, showed a good compliance. Of 108 participants, only 8 withdrew from the study during that time. The second phase of the study lasted from September 1988 through April 1989, and the last phase began in September 1989 and finished in April 1990.

  16. Anthropogenic Rare Earth Element in rivers: Gadolinium and lanthanum. Partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases in the Rhine River and spatial propagation through the Rhine-Meuse Delta (the Netherlands)

    Highlights: • We report for the first time lanthanum and gadolinium anomalies at catchment scale. • Partitioning of their anthropic contents between dissolved and particulate phases. • Anthropogenic lanthanum (LaANTHRO) is mainly present in the particulate phase. • Anthropogenic gadolinium (GdANTHRO) is mainly present in the dissolved phase. - Abstract: In this study, we report for the first time lanthanum and gadolinium anomalies at the catchment scale (Rhine-Meuse River system) together with the partitioning of their anthropogenic contents between the dissolved and the particulate phases. We compare the dissolved and total REE patterns of samples taken at 9 locations in the Rhine Branches including Lobith (situated at the German–Dutch border where the Rhine is not yet divided in three Branches), in surface water fed by the Rhine Branches (canals and lake IJsselmeer and Ketelmeer) and 3 locations where the water is derived from the river Meuse (originating from Belgium and France). We demonstrate that the anthropogenic input of lanthanum in the German part of the Rhine River identified by Kulaksiz and Bau (2011) can be traced in the complex Rhine-Meuse Delta up to the North Sea. In the Dutch Branches of the Rhine River, in contrast to the German part of the Rhine River, the anthropogenic lanthanum (LaANTHRO) is mainly present in the particulate phase (SPM) and not in the dissolved phase (defined as the <0.45 μm fraction). In the Meuse River no anthropogenic lanthanum was found. The amount of LaANTHRO transported by the Rhine River at the Lobith station (German–Dutch border) varies from 2008 to 2010 between 3.7 and 5.2 tons/y in the dissolved phase, and between 28.8 and 37.4 tons/y in the particulate phase. However, a big discrepancy is evidenced when we compare the LaANTHRO load calculated on bases of the total water samples with the LaANTHRO load calculated as the sum of the particulate and dissolved load: the total LaANTHRO load is roughly 2 times

  17. Estimates of future discharges of the river Rhine using two scenario methodologies: direct versus delta approach

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations with a hydrological model for the river Rhine for the present (1960–1989 and a projected future (2070–2099 climate are discussed. The hydrological model (RhineFlow is driven by meteorological data from a 90-years (ensemble of three 30-years simulation with the HadRM3H regional climate model for both present-day and future climate (A2 emission scenario. Simulation of present-day discharges is realistic provided that (1 the HadRM3H temperature and precipitation are corrected for biases, and (2 the potential evapotranspiration is derived from temperature only. Different methods are used to simulate discharges for the future climate: one is based on the direct model output of the future climate run (direct approach, while the other is based on perturbation of the present-day HadRM3H time series (delta approach. Both methods predict a similar response in the mean annual discharge, an increase of 30% in winter and a decrease of 40% in summer. However, predictions of extreme flows differ significantly, with increases of 10% in flows with a return period of 100 years in the direct approach and approximately 30% in the delta approach. A bootstrap method is used to estimate the uncertainties related to the sample size (number of years simulated in predicting changes in extreme flows.

  18. Comparing complementary NWP model performance for hydrologic forecasting for the river Rhine in an operational setting

    Davids, Femke; den Toom, Matthijs

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the performance of complementary NWP models for hydrologic forecasting for the river Rhine, a large river catchment in Central Europe. An operational forecasting system, RWsOS-Rivieren, produces daily forecasts of discharges and water levels at the Water Management Centre Netherlands. A combination of HBV (rainfall-runoff) and SOBEK (hydrodynamic routing) models is used to produce simulations and forecasts for the catchment. Data assimilation is applied both to the model state of SOBEK and to model outputs. The primary function of the operational forecasting system is to provide reliable and accurate forecasts during periods of high water. The secondary main function is producing daily predictions for water management and water transport in The Netherlands. In addition, predicting water levels during drought periods is becoming increasingly important as well. At this moment several complementary deterministic and ensemble NWP models are used to provide the forecasters with predictions with varied initial conditions, such as ICON, ICON-EU Nest, ECMWF-DET, ECMWF-EPS, HiRLAM, COSMO-LEPS and GLAMEPS. ICON and ICON-EU have recently replaced DWD-GME and DWD COSMO-EU. These models provide weather forecasts with different lengths of lead times and also different periods of operational usage. A direct and quantitative comparison is therefore challenging. Nevertheless, it is important to investigate the suitability of the different NWP models for certain lead times and certain weather situations to help support the hydrological forecasters make an informed forecast during an operational crisis. A hindcast study will investigate the performance of these models in the operational system for different lead times and focusing on periods of both high and low water for Lobith, the location of entry of the river Rhine into The Netherlands.

  19. Diversity of Archaea and detection of crenarchaeotal amoA genes in the rivers Rhine and Têt

    Herfort, L.; Kim, J.H.; M J L Coolen; Abbas, B.; Schouten, S; Herndl, G. J.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Pelagic archaeal phylogenetic diversity and the potential for crenarchaeotal nitrification of Group 1.1a were determined in the rivers Rhine and Têt by 16S rRNA sequencing, catalyzed reported deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD–FISH) and quantification of 16S rRNA and functional genes. Euryarchaeota were, for the first time, detected in temperate river water even though a net predominance of crenarchaeotal phylotypes was found. Differences in phylogenic distribution were obser...

  20. Modelling the transport of engineered metallic nanoparticles in the river Rhine.

    Markus, A A; Parsons, J R; Roex, E W M; de Voogt, P; Laane, R W P M

    2016-03-15

    As engineered nanoparticles of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and silver, are increasingly used in consumer products, they will most probably enter the natural environment via wastewater, atmospheric deposition and other routes. The aim of this study is to predict the concentrations of these nanoparticles via wastewater emissions in a typical river system by means of a numerical model. The calculations rely on estimates of the use of nanomaterials in consumer products and the removal efficiency in wastewater treatment plants as well as model calculations of the fate and transport of nanoparticles in a riverine system. The river Rhine was chosen for this work as it is one of the major and best studied rivers in Europe. The study gives insight in the concentrations that can be expected and, by comparing the model results with measurements of the total metal concentrations, of the relative contribution of these emerging contaminants. Six scenarios were examined. Two scenarios concerned the total emission: in the first it was assumed that nanoparticles are only released via wastewater (treated or untreated) and in the second it was assumed that in addition nanoparticles can enter the river system via runoff from the application of sludge as a fertilizer. In both cases the assumption was that the nanoparticles enter the river system as free, unattached particles. Four additional scenarios, based on the total emissions from the second scenario, were examined to highlight the consequences of the assumption of free nanoparticles and the uncertainties about the aggregation processes. If all nanoparticles enter as free particles, roughly a third would end up attached to suspended particulate matter due to the aggregation processes nanoparticles are subject to. For the other scenarios the contribution varies from 20 to 45%. Since the Rhine is a fast flowing river, sedimentation is unlikely to occur, except at the floodplains and the lakes in the downstream regions, as in fact

  1. The climate protection legislation in Germany. The example North Rhine-Westphalia

    The contribution on the climate protection legislation in Germany deals with the example Nordrhein-Westfalen. The covered topics include the legislative competence, climate protection targets, the climate protection plan, climate protection concepts and the climate commission and monitoring. The climate protection law is discusses in the view of sustainability and in respect with the consequences for the rural region in Nordrhein-Westfalen.

  2. Assessing the potential skill of seasonal streamflow forecasting for the River Rhine and the Upper Danube Basin

    Klein, B.; Meissner, D.; Gerl, N.; Hemri, S.; Gneiting, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Reliable seasonal streamflow forecasts could be a valuable tool for the medium-term to long-term planning of many users of the water sector. Especially for the optimization of hydropower generation and the water-related logistic transportation chain the knowledge about the possible future evolution of streamflows within the next 1 to 6 months would be an important additional information in the decision process. Although there is a strong need for seasonal forecast products there is no operational forecasting system available for the large rivers in Germany. One of the main reasons is that the long-term meteorological predictability, especially for precipitation, is quite limited over Central Europe. Potential gain of predictability in the hydrological system that makes us believe that skillful seasonal streamflow forecasts in Central Europe are not out of reach is the hydrological memory and the delayed and damped system response of river basins. Natural (like snow pack, groundwater, soil moisture) as well as man-made reservoirs and dams have a large influence on the future runoff. In hydrological forecasting this memory is represented by the initial conditions of the hydrological model. In addition the streamflow at a gauge is an integrated system response with the meteorological variables as system input. If there is at least some valuable information in the numeric seasonal weather forecasts about the future evolution of precipitation and temperature as the main drivers of the hydrological processes, it could be possibly assessed through spatial (considering larger catchments) and temporal aggregation (e.g. monthly mean runoff values instead of daily values). In this contribution the potential skill of seasonal streamflow forecasting is evaluated for River Rhine and the Upper Danube Basin (up to the gauge Vienna). Different spatial and temporal scales are considered as well as different meteorological forcings. Two different hydrological models are applied in

  3. Transport function vs. post-industrial identities: The urban restructuration of the Rhine river ports (1990-2010)

    BEYER, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades most of the German ports, but also Strasbourg (F) and Basel (CH), are on the way or have already developed impressive urban waterfronts projects. They usually followed models adopted by numerous sea ports from the 70ies on. Thus, urban authorities consider the port areas as underused and sometime merely as wasteland. Their claims for urbanizing river banks are part of a global strategy were the Rhine metropolis have to compensate the decline of manufacturing industries...

  4. Dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes as tracers of preferential fluid flow along faults in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    Gumm, L. P.; Bense, V. F.; Dennis, P. F.; Hiscock, K. M.; Cremer, N.; Simon, S.

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater in shallow unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers close to the Bornheim fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, has relatively low δ2H and δ18O values in comparison to regional modern groundwater recharge, and 4He concentrations up to 1.7 × 10-4 cm3 (STP) g-1 ± 2.2 % which is approximately four orders of magnitude higher than expected due to solubility equilibrium with the atmosphere. Groundwater age dating based on estimated in situ production and terrigenic flux of helium provides a groundwater residence time of ˜107 years. Although fluid exchange between the deep basal aquifer system and the upper aquifer layers is generally impeded by confining clay layers and lignite, this study's geochemical data suggest, for the first time, that deep circulating fluids penetrate shallow aquifers in the locality of fault zones, implying that sub-vertical fluid flow occurs along faults in the LRE. However, large hydraulic-head gradients observed across many faults suggest that they act as barriers to lateral groundwater flow. Therefore, the geochemical data reported here also substantiate a conduit-barrier model of fault-zone hydrogeology in unconsolidated sedimentary deposits, as well as corroborating the concept that faults in unconsolidated aquifer systems can act as loci for hydraulic connectivity between deep and shallow aquifers. The implications of fluid flow along faults in sedimentary basins worldwide are far reaching and of particular concern for carbon capture and storage (CCS) programmes, impacts of deep shale gas recovery for shallow groundwater aquifers, and nuclear waste storage sites where fault zones could act as potential leakage pathways for hazardous fluids.

  5. Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 2. Summary of results and conclusions

    This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

  6. Uncertainty quantification for a hydro-morphodynamic model of river Rhine

    Hieu Mai, Trung; Nowak, Wolfgang; Kopmann, Rebekka; Oladyshkin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    analysis better than with FOSM-type methods. All methods have been applied to a laboratory experiment in steady state and in transient state to verify the performance of FOSM method. The uncertainty analysis is carried out on a hydro-morphodynamic model of river Rhine to define confidence intervals of river bed evolution during an artificial flood event and to detect the most sensitive parameters which contribute most to the change of the river bed. The study presents the benefit of uncertainty analysis with suitable methods to enhance the reliability of sediment transport models in river engineering practice.

  7. Assimilating GRACE terrestrial water storage data into a conceptual hydrology model for the River Rhine

    Widiastuti, E.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Gunter, B.; Weerts, A.; van de Giesen, N.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is a key component of the terrestrial and global hydrological cycles, and plays a major role in the Earth’s climate. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin satellite mission provided the first space-based dataset of TWS variations, albeit with coarse resolution and limited accuracy. Here, we examine the value of assimilating GRACE observations into a well-calibrated conceptual hydrology model of the Rhine river basin. In this study, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) were applied to assimilate the GRACE TWS variation data into the HBV-96 rainfall run-off model, from February 2003 to December 2006. Two GRACE datasets were used, the DMT-1 models produced at TU Delft, and the CSR-RL04 models produced by UT-Austin . Each center uses its own data processing and filtering methods, yielding two different estimates of TWS variations and therefore two sets of assimilated TWS estimates. To validate the results, the model estimated discharge after the data assimilation was compared with measured discharge at several stations. As expected, the updated TWS was generally somewhere between the modeled and observed TWS in both experiments and the variance was also lower than both the prior error covariance and the assumed GRACE observation error. However, the impact on the discharge was found to depend heavily on the assimilation strategy used, in particular on how the TWS increments were applied to the individual storage terms of the hydrology model.

  8. Plant communities in relation to flooding and soil contamination in a lowland Rhine River floodplain

    Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), relationships were investigated between plant species composition and flooding characteristics, heavy metal contamination and soil properties in a lowland floodplain of the Rhine River. Floodplain elevation and yearly average flooding duration turned out to be more important for explaining variation in plant species composition than soil heavy metal contamination. Nevertheless, plant species richness and diversity showed a significant decrease with the level of contamination. As single heavy metal concentrations seemed mostly too low for causing phytotoxic effects in plants, this trend is possibly explained by additive effects of multiple contaminants or by the concomitant influences of contamination and non-chemical stressors like flooding. These results suggest that impacts of soil contamination on plants in floodplains could be larger than expected from mere soil concentrations. In general, these findings emphasize the relevance of analyzing effects of toxic substances in concert with the effects of other relevant stressors. - Multiple contaminants and periodic flooding may pose cumulative stress to plants in lowland floodplains.

  9. The influence of extreme river discharge conditions on the quality of suspended particulate matter in Rivers Meuse and Rhine (The Netherlands).

    Hamers, Timo; Kamstra, Jorke H; van Gils, Jos; Kotte, Marcel C; van Hattum, Albertus G M

    2015-11-01

    As a consequence of climate change, increased precipitation in winter and longer periods of decreased precipitation in summer are expected to cause more frequent episodes of very high or very low river discharge in the Netherlands. To study the impact of such extreme river discharge conditions on water quality, toxicity profiles and pollutant profiles were determined of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected from Rivers Meuse and Rhine. Archived (1993-2003) and fresh (2009-2011) SPM samples were selected from the Dutch annual monitoring program of the national water bodies (MWTL), representing episodes with river discharge conditions ranging from very low to regular to very high. SPM extracts were tested in a battery of in vitro bioassays for their potency to interact with the androgen receptor (AR), the estrogen receptor (ER), the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the thyroid hormone transporter protein transthyretin (TTR). SPM extracts were further tested for their mutagenic potency (Ames assay) and their potency to inhibit bacterial respiration (Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay). Target-analyzed pollutant concentrations of the SPM samples and additional sample information were retrieved from a public database of MWTL results. In vitro toxicity profiles and pollutant profiles were analyzed in relation to discharge conditions and in relation to each other using correlation analysis and multivariate statistics. Compared to regular discharge conditions, composition of SPM during very high River Meuse and Rhine discharges shifted to more coarse, sandy, organic carbon (OC) poor particles. On the contrary, very low discharge led to a shift to more fine, OC rich material, probably dominated by algae. This shift was most evident in River Meuse, which is characterized by almost stagnant water conditions during episodes of drought. During such episodes, SPM extracts from River Meuse demonstrated increased potencies to inhibit bacterial respiration and to

  10. Determination of flow times and flow velocities in the upper Rhine river using 3HHO as tracer

    The behaviour of water bodies of the Upper Rhine river discretely traced with 3HHO-loaded waste waters from the nuclear power plants of Beznau, Fessenheim, Philippsburg and Biblis was investigated along a distance of nearly 385 km down to Nierstein. The passage of the distinct entrainment charged by different emissions was measured at the sampling points of Bad Saeckingen, Weil, Weisweil, Iffezheim and Nierstein. From these profiles the flow times and flow velocities were calculated for the discharge range from 0.6 to 1.7 MQ (mean discharge), taking the begin, end and duration of the individual releases into account. (orig./HP)

  11. Alcohol Consumption among University Students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany--Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    Akmatov, Manas K.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Meier, Sabine; Kramer, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess alcohol use and problem drinking among university students in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and to examine the associated factors. Method: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 universities in 2006-2007 in NRW by a standardized questionnaire and 3,306 students provided information…

  12. Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Text volume

    This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex I lists the references arranged in the order of authors and years of publication, presents a list of experts, an overview on research projects, current measuring and observation programmes on the river Rhine and makes proposals for future monitoring sites. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

  13. Epitheliocystis Distribution and Characterization in Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) from the Headwaters of Two Major European Rivers, the Rhine and Rhone

    Guevara Soto, Maricruz; Vaughan, Lloyd; Segner, Helmut; Wahli, Thomas; Vidondo, Beatriz; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike

    2016-01-01

    We present a first description of the distribution and characterization of epitheliocystis infections in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the upper catchments of two major European rivers, the Rhine and the Rhone. Overall, epitheliocystis was widely distributed, with 70% of the Rhine and 67% of the Rhone sites harboring epitheliocystis positive brown trout. The epitheliocystis agents Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis and Candidatus Clavichlamydia salmonicola could be identified in both catchments, although their relative proportions differed from site to site. Additionally, in two rivers in the Rhine catchment, a new species of Candidatus Similichlamydia was identified. Based on the histology, infection intensity, and severity of pathological changes were significantly more pronounced in mixed chlamydial infections, whereas single infections showed only low numbers of cysts and mild pathology. Infections could be found over a wide range of temperatures, which showed no correlation to infection prevalence or intensity. PMID:27148070

  14. Epitheliocystis Distribution and Characterization in Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) from the Headwaters of Two Major European Rivers, the Rhine and Rhone.

    Guevara Soto, Maricruz; Vaughan, Lloyd; Segner, Helmut; Wahli, Thomas; Vidondo, Beatriz; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike

    2016-01-01

    We present a first description of the distribution and characterization of epitheliocystis infections in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the upper catchments of two major European rivers, the Rhine and the Rhone. Overall, epitheliocystis was widely distributed, with 70% of the Rhine and 67% of the Rhone sites harboring epitheliocystis positive brown trout. The epitheliocystis agents Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis and Candidatus Clavichlamydia salmonicola could be identified in both catchments, although their relative proportions differed from site to site. Additionally, in two rivers in the Rhine catchment, a new species of Candidatus Similichlamydia was identified. Based on the histology, infection intensity, and severity of pathological changes were significantly more pronounced in mixed chlamydial infections, whereas single infections showed only low numbers of cysts and mild pathology. Infections could be found over a wide range of temperatures, which showed no correlation to infection prevalence or intensity. PMID:27148070

  15. Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river; Renouvellement de la concession de la chute hydro-electrique de Kembs sur le Rhin

    Baron, P.; Defoug, H.; Petit, D

    2000-07-15

    In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

  16. The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD

    Grazhdankin A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.

  17. Reducing Pollution of the Rhine River: The Influence of International Cooperation

    Bernauer, T.; Moser, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper was written by Thomas Bernauer and Peter Moser as a commissioned study in the framework of the Regional Material Balance Approaches to Long-Term Environmental Policy Planning project (IND project). The policy part of this project - the Rhine/Black Triangle Policy Comparison - aims at a better understanding of policy options for cleaning up the Black Triangle, particularly with regard to pollution by heavy metals. The paper examines the contribution of transboundary political a...

  18. Post mining hazard assessment in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district

    In North Rhine-Westphalia, large areas are affected by mining legacies endangering the ground surface and public safety. The problems arising and the current risk management are demonstrated at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district. Hazards especially result from outcrops of coal seams mined at shallow depths and shafts whilst galleries usually seem to be rather unperilous due to their depth and small dimension. In this paper, the design of hazard zones and the assignment of hazard classes are described. Recent scientific developments related to the size of hazard areas are described and an outlook on future procedures is given. (authors)

  19. Post mining hazard assessment in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district

    Heitfeld, M.; Mainz, M.; Schetelig, K. [IngenieurBuro Heitfeld-Schetelig, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In North Rhine-Westphalia, large areas are affected by mining legacies endangering the ground surface and public safety. The problems arising and the current risk management are demonstrated at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district. Hazards especially result from outcrops of coal seams mined at shallow depths and shafts whilst galleries usually seem to be rather unperilous due to their depth and small dimension. In this paper, the design of hazard zones and the assignment of hazard classes are described. Recent scientific developments related to the size of hazard areas are described and an outlook on future procedures is given. (authors)

  20. Radioactivity in the Rhine - the LWA controls North-Rhine-Westphalian surface waters

    The State Authority for Water and Waste Management has been testing the Rhine and the most important surface waters of North-Rhine Westphalia for radioactivity ever since it was founded in 1969. Radiation exposure of human beings who use Rhine water is far below the permitted maximum values of the 'radiation protection ordinance'. Pollution of the Rhine and its tributaries in North-Rhine Westphalia with artificial radioactive substances has even slightly decreased over the past ten years; pollution of the River Emscher with natural radioactive material remained high, the Lippe River now contains less radium than before. (orig./PW)

  1. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    The Permocarboniferous siliciclastic formations represent the largest hydrothermal reservoir in the northern Upper Rhine Graben in SW Germany and have so far been investigated in large-scale studies only. The Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin, a Variscan intramontane molasse basin. Due to the subsidence in this graben structure, the top of the up to 2-km-thick Permocarboniferous is located at a depth of 600-2900 m and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. At this depth, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150 °C, which are sufficient for geothermal electricity generation with binary power plants. To further assess the potential of this geothermal reservoir, detailed information on thermophysical and hydraulic properties of the different lithostratigraphical units and their depositional environment is essential. Here, we present an integrated study of outcrop analogues and drill core material. In total, 850 outcrop samples were analyzed, measuring porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Furthermore, 62 plugs were taken from drillings that encountered or intersected the Permocarboniferous at depths between 1800 and 2900 m. Petrographic analysis of 155 thin sections of outcrop samples and samples taken from reservoir depth was conducted to quantify the mineral composition, sorting and rounding of grains and the kind of cementation. Its influence on porosity, permeability, the degree of compaction and illitization was quantified. Three parameters influencing the reservoir properties of the Permocarboniferous were detected. The strongest and most destructive influence on reservoir quality is related to late diagenetic processes. An illitic and kaolinitic cementation and impregnation of bitumina document CO2- and CH4-rich acidic pore water conditions, which are interpreted as fluids that migrated along a hydraulic contact from an underlying Carboniferous hydrocarbon source rock. Migrating

  2. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2015-11-01

    The Permocarboniferous siliciclastic formations represent the largest hydrothermal reservoir in the northern Upper Rhine Graben in SW Germany and have so far been investigated in large-scale studies only. The Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin, a Variscan intramontane molasse basin. Due to the subsidence in this graben structure, the top of the up to 2-km-thick Permocarboniferous is located at a depth of 600-2900 m and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. At this depth, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150 °C, which are sufficient for geothermal electricity generation with binary power plants. To further assess the potential of this geothermal reservoir, detailed information on thermophysical and hydraulic properties of the different lithostratigraphical units and their depositional environment is essential. Here, we present an integrated study of outcrop analogues and drill core material. In total, 850 outcrop samples were analyzed, measuring porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Furthermore, 62 plugs were taken from drillings that encountered or intersected the Permocarboniferous at depths between 1800 and 2900 m. Petrographic analysis of 155 thin sections of outcrop samples and samples taken from reservoir depth was conducted to quantify the mineral composition, sorting and rounding of grains and the kind of cementation. Its influence on porosity, permeability, the degree of compaction and illitization was quantified. Three parameters influencing the reservoir properties of the Permocarboniferous were detected. The strongest and most destructive influence on reservoir quality is related to late diagenetic processes. An illitic and kaolinitic cementation and impregnation of bitumina document CO2- and CH4-rich acidic pore water conditions, which are interpreted as fluids that migrated along a hydraulic contact from an underlying Carboniferous hydrocarbon source rock. Migrating

  3. Aspects of clinical features, diagnosis, notification and tracing back referring to Trichinella outbreaks in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 1998

    Noeckler K.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available 52 cases of human trichinellosis were notified from 11 towns in North Rhine-Westphalia from November 1998 to March 1999. After non-typical symptoms in the enteral phase, fever, muscular ache, headache, oedema, disorder of vision and rash occurred in the parenteral phase. Trichinellosis was serologically confirmed by ELISA, IFAT or western blot. Raw sausage and minced meat produced from raw pork could be determined as probable source of infection with 44 and eight notified cases, respectively. Whereas questionable raw sausage was not available for examination, frozen minced meat from the second outbreak could be secured in households of infected people. Larvae were isolated from minced meat and were identified by PCR as Trichinella spiralis. Tracing back to the source of infection was difficult because of the long time between clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnosis and notification as well as complex trade routes for pork and its products. Trichinella cases emphasize the necessity to meet the prescribed slaughter inspection and to guarantee a reliable prove of origin for meat products especially in view of specific consumer habits, i.e. the consumption of raw meat.

  4. The Rhine - A major fluvial record

    Westerhoff, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    This special issue contains the papers presented during the 2004 DEUQUA meeting. The papers provide an overview of recently carried out Quaternary geological studies on different aspects of the river Rhine system. The introductory paper follows the pathway of the Rhine downstream from its source in

  5. Uncertainty in design water levels due to uncertain bed form roughness in the river Rhine

    Warmink, J.J.; Booij, M.J.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Klis, van der H.; Dittrich, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic river models are applied to design and evaluate measures for purposes such as safety against flooding. The modeling of river processes involves numerous uncertainties, resulting in uncertain model results. Knowledge of the type and magnitude of these uncertainties is crucial for a meani

  6. From gravel to sand. Downstream fining of bed sediments in the lower river Rhine

    Frings, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    A common characteristic of many rivers is the tendency for bed sediments to become finer in downstream direction. This phenomenon, which is generally known as downstream fining, has a strong effect on the morphologic and hydrodynamic behaviour of a river. The fundamental causes of downstream finin

  7. Data assimilation of GRACE terrestrial water storage estimates into a regional hydrological model of the Rhine River basin

    N. Tangdamrongsub

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to estimate Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS realistically is essential for understanding past hydrological events and predicting future changes in the hydrological cycle. Inadequacies in model physics, uncertainty in model land parameters, and uncertainties in meteorological data commonly limit the accuracy of hydrological models in simulating TWS. In an effort to improve model performance, this study investigated the benefits of assimilating TWS estimates derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE data into the OpenStreams-wflow model using an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF approach. The study area chosen was the Rhine River basin, which has both well-calibrated model parameters and high-quality forcing data that were used for experimentation and comparison. Four different case studies were examined which were designed to evaluate different levels of forcing data quality and resolution including those typical of other less well-monitored river basins. The results were validated using in situ groundwater and stream gauge data. The analysis showed a noticeable improvement in groundwater estimates when GRACE data were assimilated, with an overall improvement of up to 71% in correlation coefficient (from 0.31 to 0.53 and 35% in RMS error (from 8.4 to 5.4 cm compared to the reference (ensemble open-loop case. Only a slight overall improvement was observed in streamflow estimates when GRACE data were assimilated. Further analysis suggested that this is likely due to sporadic short terms, but sizeable, errors in the forcing data and the lack of sufficient constraints on the soil moisture component. Overall, the results highlight the benefit of assimilating GRACE data into hydrological models, particularly in data-sparse regions, while also providing insight on future refinements of the methodology.

  8. Flood risk along the upper Rhine since AD 1480

    I. Himmelsbach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the occurrence, cause and frequency changes of floods, their development and distribution along the southern part of the upper Rhine River and of 14 of its tributaries in France and Germany covering the period from 1480 BC. Special focus is given on the temporal and spatial variations and underlying meteorological causes which show a significant change over space and time. Examples are presented how long-term information can help to improve transnational risk and risk management analysis while connecting single historical and modern extreme events.

  9. Temperature monitoring along the Rhine River based on airborne thermal infrared remote sensing: qualitative results compared to satellite data and validation with in situ measurements

    Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn

    2014-10-01

    Water temperature is an important parameter of water quality and influences other physical and chemical parameters. It also directly influences the survival and growth of animal and plant species in river ecosystems. In situ measurements do not allow for a total spatial coverage of water bodies and rivers that is necessary for monitoring and research at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany. Hence, the ability of different remote sensing products to identify and investigate water inflows and water temperatures in Federal waterways is evaluated within the research project 'Remote sensing of water surface temperature'. The research area for a case study is the Upper and Middle Rhine River from the barrage in Iffezheim to Koblenz. Satellite products (e. g. Landsat and ASTER imagery) can only be used for rivers at least twice as wide as the spatial resolution of the satellite images. They can help to identify different water bodies only at tributaries with larger inflow volume (Main and Mosel) or larger temperature differences between the inflow (e. g. from power plants working with high capacity) and the river water. To identify and investigate also smaller water inflows and temperature differences, thermal data with better ground and thermal resolution is required. An aerial survey of the research area was conducted in late October 2013. Data of the surface was acquired with two camera systems, a digital camera with R, G, B, and Near-IR channels, and a thermal imaging camera measuring the brightness temperature in the 8-12 m wavelength region (TIR). The resolution of the TIR camera allowed for a ground resolution of 4 m, covering the whole width of the main stream and larger branches. The RGB and NIR data allowed to eliminate land surface temperatures from the analysis and to identify clouds and shadows present during the data acquisition. By degrading the spatial resolution and adding sensor noise, artificial Landsat ETM+ and TIRS datasets were created

  10. Methodology of a hydro-geomorphological river typology in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine.

    Hallot, Eric; Petit, François

    2010-05-01

    The achievement of the rivers good ecological status of rivers for 2015 requested by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60) led the competent authorities of the Member States to establish the concept of Ecological Quality Status, determined by biological, physico-chemical and hydromorphological elements. To assess the hydromorphological quality of surface waters, homogeneous units of management, called "water bodies" by the authorities, had to be defined. Numerous studies use qualitative and quantitative variables that have proven difficult to transpose, export or compare. Most existing river typologies, often created or adapted in a hurry to meet timing of WFD, are moderately accurate and effective at local scale. Currently, the implementation of operational programs (e.q. restoration works) requires methods to define (i) precisely natural or quasi natural reaches and (ii) catchment-scale homogeneous sectors based on geomorphological and hydrological elements. In this framework, we set up a river network sectorization method based on three variables namely the main confluences (locating the main breaks in watershed area), the slope breaks (describing additional profile discontinuities) and finally a the sinuosity index. GIS routines were developed to make this method semi-automatic at he whole network level. Next, a hydro-geomorphological method for river typology has been developed, based on factorial and non-factorial (clustering) multivariate analysis of quantitative varialbes only. The measurement sites were selected by stratified random sampling based on the Strahler hierarchy within each of the subbasins. In each case, 17 morphological or dynamic variables related to the channel forms, the bedload granulometry, the floodplain width and the location in the basin are measured. The data set is extracted from accurate 10 m x 10 m DEM or obtained by direct field measurements using a simplified protocol. The measures were done in 115 sites

  11. Isotope experiments for the determination of the abiotic mercury methylation potential of a river Rhine sediment; Isotopenexperimente zur Ermittlung des abiotischen Quecksilber-Methylierungspotentials eines Rheinsediments

    Falter, R.; Wilken, R.D. [ESWE Inst. fuer Wasserforschung und Wassertechnologie GmbH, Wiesbaden-Schierstein (Germany)

    1998-03-01

    With the aid of vacuum water vapour distillation experiments the abiotic methylation of inorganic mercury at a river Rhine sediment was investigated at environmental relevant temperatures. For the experiments stable enriched mercury isotopes were used in combination with a reliable HPLC-ICP-MS technology. The results have shown, that the responsible compounds for the abiotic methylation in the river Rhine sediment are extractable by acetone. They showed an abiotic methylation of Hg{sup 2+} within short time at environmental relevant temperatures and pH conditions. The maximum of the abiotic mercury methylation was observed at pH 5 and rises with increasing temperature. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Vakuum-Wasserdampfdestillations-Experimenten wurde die abiotische Methylierung von anorganischem Quecksilber bei umweltrelevanten Temperaturen an einem Rheinsediment untersucht. Hierzu wurden angereicherte Quecksilberisotope in Verbindung mit einer bewaehrten HPLC-ICP-MS Technologie eingesetzt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass die fuer die abiotische Methylierung verantwortlichen Verbindungen aus dem Rheinsediment mit Aceton extrahierbar sind und in kurzen Zeitraeumen bei umweltrelevanten Temperaturen und pH-Bedingungen Hg{sup 2+} abiotisch methylieren koennen. Das Maximum der Methlyierung liegt bei einem mittleren pH von 5 und nimmt mit steigender Temperatur zu. (orig.)

  12. Quantification of uncertainty sources in a 2D hydraulic model for the river Rhine using expert opinions

    Warmink, J. J.; van der Klis, H.; Booij, M. J.; Hulscher, S. J. M. H.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrodynamic river models are applied to design and evaluate measures for purposes such as safety against flooding. These numerical models are all based on a deterministic approach. However, the modeling of river processes involves numerous uncertainties, resulting in uncertain model results. Uncertainty is defined as any deviation from the unachievable ideal of complete determinism. Uncertainty in models comprises (1) the difference between a model outcome and a measurement and (2) the possible variation around the computed value or measurements. Knowledge of the type and magnitude of these uncertainties is crucial for a meaningful interpretation of the model results. The aim of this study is to identify the sources of uncertainty that induce the largest uncertainties in the model outcomes and quantify this uncertainty using expert opinions. In this study, the two-dimensional WAQUA model for the Dutch river Rhine is used as an example for the quantification of uncertainty sources. Sixteen experts have been selected based on a Pedigree matrix with 4 criteria: 1) experience with code development, 2) experience with WAQUA projects, 3) experience in years, and 4) number and type of publications about WAQUA. The 16 experts with the highest Pedigree scores have been invited for an interview. Interviews are held with 11 of these experts. During the interviews, the experts are asked to list the most important uncertainty sources for the following two situations: (1) the computation of design water levels (DWL), based on a design discharge wave and (2) the computation of the effect of a measure in the river bed, which is done using a constant discharge as input. To compare the different experts, the experts are asked to quantify the uncertainty sources on the same level of detail. Finally, the experts are asked to quantify the effect of the uncertainty sources on the computed water levels. The experts stated that the sources of uncertainty are different for the computation

  13. Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations

    M. C. Demirel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows are analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch–German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows are estimated, namely seasonality ratio (SR, weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD and weighted persistence (WP. These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices are estimated from: (1 observed low flows; (2 simulated low flows by the semi distributed HBV model using observed climate; (3 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven climate scenarios for the current climate (1964–2007; (4 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven climate scenarios for the future climate (2063–2098 including different emission scenarios. These four cases are compared to assess the effects of the hydrological model, forcing by different climate models and different emission scenarios on the three indices. The seven climate scenarios are based on different combinations of four General Circulation Models (GCMs, four Regional Climate Models (RCMs and three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Significant differences are found between cases 1 and 2. For instance, the HBV model is prone to overestimate SR and to underestimate WP and simulates very late WMODs compared to the estimated WMODs using observed discharges. Comparing the results of cases 2 and 3, the smallest difference is found in the SR index, whereas large differences are found in the WMOD and WP indices for the current climate. Finally, comparing the results of cases 3 and 4, we found that SR has decreased substantially by 2063–2098 in all seven subbasins of the River Rhine. The lower values of SR for the future climate indicate a shift from winter low flows (SR > 1 to summer low flows (SR < 1 in the two Alpine subbasins. The WMODs of low flows tend to be earlier than for the current climate in

  14. Global and local scale flood discharge simulations in the Rhine River basin for flood risk reduction benchmarking in the Flagship Project

    Gädeke, Anne; Gusyev, Maksym; Magome, Jun; Sugiura, Ai; Cullmann, Johannes; Takeuchi, Kuniyoshi

    2015-04-01

    The global flood risk assessment is prerequisite to set global measurable targets of post-Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) that mobilize international cooperation and national coordination towards disaster risk reduction (DRR) and requires the establishment of a uniform flood risk assessment methodology on various scales. To address these issues, the International Flood Initiative (IFI) has initiated a Flagship Project, which was launched in year 2013, to support flood risk reduction benchmarking at global, national and local levels. In the Flagship Project road map, it is planned to identify the original risk (1), to identify the reduced risk (2), and to facilitate the risk reduction actions (3). In order to achieve this goal at global, regional and local scales, international research collaboration is absolutely necessary involving domestic and international institutes, academia and research networks such as UNESCO International Centres. The joint collaboration by ICHARM and BfG was the first attempt that produced the first step (1a) results on the flood discharge estimates with inundation maps under way. As a result of this collaboration, we demonstrate the outcomes of the first step of the IFI Flagship Project to identify flood hazard in the Rhine river basin on the global and local scale. In our assessment, we utilized a distributed hydrological Block-wise TOP (BTOP) model on 20-km and 0.5-km scales with local precipitation and temperature input data between 1980 and 2004. We utilized existing 20-km BTOP model, which is applied globally, and constructed the local scale 0.5-km BTOP model for the Rhine River basin. For the BTOP model results, both calibrated 20-km and 0.5-km BTOP models had similar statistical performance and represented observed flood river discharges, epecially for 1993 and 1995 floods. From 20-km and 0.5-km BTOP simulation, the flood discharges of the selected return period were estimated using flood frequency analysis and were comparable to

  15. Numerical tables. Physical and chemical analyses of Rhine water 1984

    Tables present the methods of analysis and the data obtained on inorganic, organic, and radioactive impurities in Rhine water. The measuring stations were located in Switzerland, France, West Germany, and the Netherlands. (HP)

  16. The "WFD-effect" on upstream-downstream relations in international river basins - insights from the Rhine and the Elbe basins

    Moellenkamp, S.

    2007-06-01

    The upstream-downstream relationship in international river basins is a traditional challenge in water management. Water use in upstream countries often has a negative impact on water use in downstream countries. This is most evident in the classical example of industrial pollution in upstream countries hindering drinking water production downstream. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) gives new impetus to the river basin approach and to international co-operation in European catchments. It aims at transforming a mainly water quality oriented management into a more integrated approach of ecosystem management. After discussing the traditional upstream-downstream relationship, this article shows that the WFD has a balancing effect on upstream-downstream problems and that it enhances river basin solidarity in international basins. While it lifts the downstream countries to the same level as the upstream countries, it also leads to new duties for the downstream states. Following the ecosystem approach, measures taken by downstream countries become increasingly more important. For example, downstream countries need to take measures to allow for migrating fish species to reach upstream stretches of river systems. With the WFD, fish populations receive increased attention, as they are an important indicator for the ecological status. The European Commission acquires a new role of inspection and control in river basin management, which finally also leads to enhanced cooperation and solidarity among the states in a basin. In order to achieve better water quality and to mitigate upstream-downstream problems, also economic instruments can be applied and the WFD does not exclude the possibility of making use of financial compensations, if at the same time the polluter pays principle is taken into account. The results presented in this article originate from a broader study on integrated water resources management conducted at Bonn University and refer to the Rhine and

  17. Reconstruction of flood events based on documentary data and transnational flood risk analysis of the Upper Rhine and its French and German tributaries since AD 1480

    Himmelsbach, I.; Glaser, R; J. Schoenbein; Riemann, D.; Martin, B

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the long-term analysis of flood occurrence along the southern part of the Upper Rhine River system and of 14 of its tributaries in France and Germany covering the period starting from 1480 BC. Special focus is given on the temporal and spatial variations of flood events and their underlying meteorological causes over time. Examples are presented of how long-term information about flood events and knowledge about the historical aspect of flood protection i...

  18. Long-term development and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures: an analysis for the German part of the river Rhine

    P. Bubeck

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood mitigation measures implemented by private households have become an important component of contemporary integrated flood risk management in Germany and many other countries. Despite the growing responsibility of private households to contribute to flood damage reduction by means of private flood mitigation measures, knowledge on the long-term development of such measures, which indicates changes in vulnerability over time, and their effectiveness, is still scarce. To gain further insights into the long-term development, current implementation level and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures, empirical data from 752 flood-prone households along the German part of the Rhine are presented. It is found that four types of flood mitigation measures developed gradually over time among flood-prone households, with severe floods being important triggers for an accelerated implementation. At present, still a large share of respondents has not implemented a single flood mitigation measure, despite the high exposure of the surveyed households to floods. The records of household's flood damage to contents and structure during two consecutive flood events with similar hazard characteristics in 1993 and 1995 show that an improved preparedness of the population led to substantially reduced damage during the latter event. Regarding the efficiency of contemporary integrated flood risk management, it is concluded that additional policies are required in order to further increase the level of preparedness of the flood-prone population. This especially concerns households in areas that are less frequently affected by flood events.

  19. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI)

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are negotiating the border between the river and the urban realm. This produces complex spatial constellations between the river system and the urban realm with a diverse set of interdependencies, where program...

  20. The geothermal conditions in the Rhine Graben - a summary

    Rybach, L.

    2007-07-15

    This article takes a look at the situation in the upper Rhine valley with respect to its geothermal potential. The Rhine Graben, being part of the European Mid-Continental Rift System is characterised by thinned crust and therefore higher heat flow rates. According to the author, the Rhine Graben presents generally favourable conditions for geothermal energy development and utilisation. This illustrated article presents information on the geological structures to be found and figures obtained from the geothermal exploration project at Soulz-sous-Forets, France, and a number of other geothermal investigation and production projects in Germany.

  1. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI)

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are negotiati

  2. Quantification of uncertainties in a 2D hydraulic model for the Dutch river Rhine using expert opinions

    Warmink, Jord J.; Klis, van der Hanneke; Booij, Martijn J.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Lopez Jimenez, P. Amparo

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic–morphological river models are applied to design and evaluate measures for purposes such as safety against flooding. These numerical models are all based on a deterministic approach. However, the modeling of river processes involves numerous uncertainties. The aim of this study is to ident

  3. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part II.

    Tuttenuj, Daniel; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers in Switzerland. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet systematically analysed the period from 1446-1542 and could prove a large number of pre-instrumental flood events of river Rhine, Birs, Birsig and Wiese in Basel. All in all the weekly led account books

  4. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part I

    Wetter, Oliver; Tuttenuj, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Part I: Dr. Oliver Wetter. (Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland) Part II: PhD student Daniel Tuttenuj (Oeschger Centre of Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland) The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet

  5. Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria – analysis of the data obtained through a mandatory reporting system in the Rhine-Main region, Germany, 2012–2015

    Heudorf, Ursel; Büttner, Barbara; Hauri, Anja M.; Heinmüller, Petra; Hunfeld, Klaus-Peter; Kaase, Martin; Kleinkauf, Niels; Albert-Braun, Sabine; Tessmann, Rolf; Kempf, Volkhard A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN) and the infections they cause are a serious threat and a challenge to the healthcare system. This particularly applies to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGN). Currently, the introduction of a nationwide mandatory notification system for CRGN in Germany is under consideration. Against this background, this paper presents an analysis of the mandatory reporting system for CRGN in effect since November 2011 in the federa...

  6. Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria – analysis of the data obtained through a mandatory reporting system in the Rhine-Main region, Germany, 2012–2015

    Heudorf, Ursel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN and the infections they cause are a serious threat and a challenge to the healthcare system. This particularly applies to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGN. Currently, the introduction of a nationwide mandatory notification system for CRGN in Germany is under consideration. Against this background, this paper presents an analysis of the mandatory reporting system for CRGN in effect since November 2011 in the federal state of Hesse (Germany. Materials and methods: All carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and the detected carbapenemases reported to the public health department of the city of Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany, on the basis of the mandatory notification system were analyzed.Results: 827 CRGN cases were reported to the public health department of Frankfurt/Main between April 2012 and December 2015. The following bacterial species were reported: spp. (n=268, spp. (n=183, spp. (n=195, spp. (n=77, (n=75 and others (n=29. Between 2012 and 2015, a reduction of the CRGN reports was noticed, mainly due to changes in the reporting of spp. Between 2012 and 2015, the total number of notifications decreased slightly, although the number of reported CRGN in screening samples increased, thus giving no indication of a decreased testing frequency. For 10.5% of the patients, the place of residence was not Germany, 18.0% of the patients had previously stayed in hospitals abroad, often in countries with a high CRGN prevalence. CRGN bacteria were reported from all of Frankfurt’s hospitals, and 3.9% were reported from out-patient care facilities. Carbapenemases were detected and reported in 251 CRGN bacteria, including 73 OXA-48, 76 OXA-23, 56 NDM subtypes, and 21 KPC subtypes. There have been no major epidemiological signs of outbreak scenarios.Discussion: CRGN bacteria are already widespread in patients from hospitals and out-patient care facilities. Clearly

  7. Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria – analysis of the data obtained through a mandatory reporting system in the Rhine-Main region, Germany, 2012–2015

    Heudorf, Ursel; Büttner, Barbara; Hauri, Anja M.; Heinmüller, Petra; Hunfeld, Klaus-Peter; Kaase, Martin; Kleinkauf, Niels; Albert-Braun, Sabine; Tessmann, Rolf; Kempf, Volkhard A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN) and the infections they cause are a serious threat and a challenge to the healthcare system. This particularly applies to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGN). Currently, the introduction of a nationwide mandatory notification system for CRGN in Germany is under consideration. Against this background, this paper presents an analysis of the mandatory reporting system for CRGN in effect since November 2011 in the federal state of Hesse (Germany). Materials and methods: All carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and the detected carbapenemases reported to the public health department of the city of Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany, on the basis of the mandatory notification system were analyzed. Results: 827 CRGN cases were reported to the public health department of Frankfurt/Main between April 2012 and December 2015. The following bacterial species were reported: Pseudomonas spp. (n=268), Acinetobacter spp. (n=183), Klebsiella spp. (n=195), Enterobacter spp. (n=77), Escherichia coli (n=75) and others (n=29). Between 2012 and 2015, a reduction of the CRGN reports was noticed, mainly due to changes in the reporting of Pseudomonas spp. Between 2012 and 2015, the total number of notifications decreased slightly, although the number of reported CRGN in screening samples increased, thus giving no indication of a decreased testing frequency. For 10.5% of the patients, the place of residence was not Germany, 18.0% of the patients had previously stayed in hospitals abroad, often in countries with a high CRGN prevalence. CRGN bacteria were reported from all of Frankfurt’s hospitals, and 3.9% were reported from out-patient care facilities. Carbapenemases were detected and reported in 251 CRGN bacteria, including 73 OXA-48, 76 OXA-23, 56 NDM subtypes, and 21 KPC subtypes. There have been no major epidemiological signs of outbreak scenarios. Discussion: CRGN bacteria are already widespread in

  8. Germany

    Döbrich, Peter; Kodron, Christoph

    1992-01-01

    After summing up the competencies of the Federal Government and the States regarding the area of teacher education and the teaching profession in Germany, the author describes the two phases of teacher training and research as well as the "research and inservice education of teachers" (INSET). Furthermore, he analyses the institutional backgrounds of educational research in Germany and the influence of educational research on political parties and parliaments. Finally, "priorities and new tre...

  9. Interaction surface water - groundwater: Investigation in the Rhine Valley using environmental isotopes

    The investigation area is located in the Rhine Valley, a floodplain composed of Upper Quaternary sediments near Karlsruhe, Germany. The upper two gravel layers build highly permeable and productive aquifers which are used by many drinking water supplies. These two layers are partial hydraulically divided by an impermeable interlayer which does not exist everywhere. On the other hand many gravel extraction sites are dug out, which form small artificial lakes. To overcome the conflict between both, water supply and gravel industry, a precise knowledge of the interaction of surface water - groundwater is absolutely necessary. The hydraulic relationship between the groundwater storey, the gravel pit lakes, and the rivers could not be adequately explained using only water level measurements. Only with the aid of the results from the hydro-chemical and isotope-hydrological investigations (δ18O, δ2H, 3H), the components of the regional groundwater recharge, Rhine bank infiltration, lake bank filtration, as well as local specifically marked water types could be identified, classified and quantified in surface - and groundwater. Utilizing these methods it was shown that the deep pumping wells of the water supply have over 90% Rhine riverbank filtration water and have no inflow from any of the investigated gravel pit lakes. The groundwater in the two investigated upper aquifers differ mainly isotope-hydrological and respectively in age, less pronounced in their hydro-chemical properties. In both aquifers there is a zone of ca. 1 to 3 km wide, in parts reaching to the gravel quarry lakes, which generally follows the Rhine with a flow of depleted isotopic Rhine filtration water with varying ages. From the east-southeast there is an inflow from the lower terrace of relatively young and identifiably anthropogenic influenced as well as almost totally reduced in nitrate, In the aquifer below, the water is usually tritium-free, i.e., older than 50 years, not anthropogenic

  10. Rol' reki Rejn v formirovanii prostranstvennoj struktury jekonomiki stran Evropy (I vek do nashej jery — XIX vek [The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD

    Grazhdankin Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.

  11. Germany

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Germany for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  12. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in the aquatic environment: A case study of the Elbe River, Germany.

    Wolschke, Hendrik; Sühring, Roxana; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    This study reports the occurrence and distribution of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (OPEs) in the Elbe and Rhine rivers. A special focus of this investigation concerns the potential impacts of a major flood event in 2013 on the OPE patterns and levels in the Elbe River. In this river, 6 of 13 OPEs were detected, with tris-ethyl-phosphate (TEP, 168 ± 44 ng/L), tris-1,3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate (TDCPP, 155 ± 14 ng/L) and tris-1-chloro-2-propyl phosphate (TCPP, 126 ± 14 ng/L) identified as the dominant compounds. Relative to previous studies, an increase in the concentrations and relative contributions of TDCPP to the total level of OPEs was observed, which was likely caused by its increased use as a replacement for the technical pentaBDE formulation. During the flood event, the concentrations of OPEs were similar to the normal situation, but the mass fluxes increased by a factor of approximately ten (∼16 kg/d normal versus ∼160 kg/d flood peak). No input hotspots were identified along the transects of the Elbe and Rhine rivers, and the mass flux of OPEs appeared to be driven by water discharge. PMID:26284344

  13. Ecological restoration and dike relocation on the river Elbe, Germany

    Damm, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Floodplain restoration has been successfully initiated on a 420 hectare area on the Middle Elbe River in the German Federal State of Brandenburg. Within a federally funded “Large Scale Conservation Project”, grassland dominated agricultural landscape was converted into a natural floodplain area between 2002 and 2011. The relocation of a dike was essential to re-establish natural flooding conditions as a prerequisite for the rehabilitation of floodplain specific animal and plant communities...

  14. Germany

    Sciences (FH) Zittau/Goerlitz; -The Association for Research and Lecturing in Nuclear Engineering in Southwest Germany (2007), consisting of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), the Materials Testing Laboratory (MPA) Stuttgart, and the Universities of Karlsruhe, Stuttgart and Heidelberg as well as the Universities of Applied Sciences in Ulm and Furtwangen; -The Nuclear Engineering Forum West (2009), consisting of the Juelich Research Centre (FZJ), the RWTH Aachen University, and the Aachen/Juelich University of Applied Sciences; - The subject-oriented Final Disposal Research Group, consisting of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the Technical University of Berlin, and the University of Clausthal-Zellerfeld; - The interregional Alliance of Competence in Radiation Research (2007), consisting of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in Salzgitter (BfS), the Centre for Radiation Protection and Radioecology (ZSR) in Hanover, the German Research Centre for Environmental Health (GSF) in Munich, the Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) Leipzig-Halle, the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, the Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt, and the research centres in Juelich, Dresden/Rossendorf, and Karlsruhe. International activities were geared to two initiatives for the promotion of young nuclear scientists, in particular to the: - ENEN (European Nuclear Engineering Network); -WNU (World Nucl ear University). In both organizations, the Technical University of Munich is involved as the German representative of the Alliance of Competence. By the end of January 2010, the ENELA (European Nuclear Energy Leadership Academy) with its headquarters in Munich also joined

  15. Medicinal footprint of the population of the Rhine basin

    Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Houtman, Corine J.

    2013-12-01

    The relation between pharmaceutical residues along the river Rhine and the demographic characteristics of the upstream population was studied. A sampling campaign was performed in which water samples from the Rhine were taken at 42 locations. Measurements were compared to a two parameter model with regional demographic data as main input. For 12 out of the 21 studied pharmaceuticals, a significant dominant demographic group could be identified. For 3 out of these 12 pharmaceuticals the male elderly were the most contributing demographic group. A Monte Carlo analysis showed a high level of significance for the results of this study (p < 0.01). By combining environmental water quality data and demographic data, better insight was gained in the interplay between humans and their environment, showing the medicinal footprint of the population of the Rhine basin.

  16. Heavy metal storage in near channel sediments of the Lahn River, Germany

    Martin, Charles W.

    2004-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution in urban, industrial, and mined watersheds of Europe is well documented, but less is known about metal contamination in agrarian watersheds or those with no history of mining. Along a 75-km reach of the Lahn River, central Germany, near-channel flood-plain sediments (urbanized drainage basins. Several sites along the Lahn are "excessively contaminated" with Cd and "moderately/strongly" contaminated with Cu, Pb, and Zn. Metal concentrations are generally higher and more variable downstream from metal-producing locations and in the vicinity of industrial facilities. Topographic and geomorphic factors appear to have minimal influence on near-channel metal concentrations. The elevated concentrations of metals in geomorphically sensitive channel banks and near-channel sediments raise the possibility of future metal pollution in the Lahn River watershed even as metal emissions to the environment decline.

  17. Validation of a social vulnerability index in context to river-floods in Germany

    Fekete, A.

    2009-03-01

    Social vulnerability indices are a means for generating information about people potentially affected by disasters that are e.g. triggered by river-floods. The purpose behind such an index is in this study the development and the validation of a social vulnerability map of population characteristics towards river-floods covering all counties in Germany. This map is based on a composite index of three main indicators for social vulnerability in Germany - fragility, socio-economic conditions and region. These indicators have been identified by a factor analysis of selected demographic variables obtained from federal statistical offices. Therefore, these indicators can be updated annually based on a reliable data source. The vulnerability patterns detected by the factor analysis are verified by using an independent second data set. The interpretation of the second data set shows that vulnerability is revealed by a real extreme flood event and demonstrates that the patterns of the presumed vulnerability match the observations of a real event. It comprises a survey of flood-affected households in three federal states. By using logistic regression, it is demonstrated that the theoretically presumed indications of vulnerability are correct and that the indicators are valid. It is shown that indeed certain social groups like the elderly, the financially weak or the urban residents are higher risk groups.

  18. Future discharge of the French tributaries of the Rhine: a semi-distributed multi-model approach using CMIP5 projections

    Thirel, Guillaume; de Lavenne, Alban; Wagner, Jean-Pierre; Perrin, Charles; Gerlinger, Kai; Drogue, Gilles; Renard, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Several projects studied the impact of climate change on the Rhine basin during the past years, using the CMIP3 projections (see Explore2070, FLOW MS, RheinBlick2050 or VULNAR), either on the French or German sides. These studies showed the likely decrease of low flows and a high uncertainty regarding the evolution of high flows. This may have tremendous impacts on several aspects related to discharge, including pollution, flood protection, irrigation, rivers ecosystems and drinking water. While focusing on the same basin (or part of it), many differences including the climate scenarios and models, the hydrological models and the study periods used for these projects make the outcomes of these projects difficult to compare rigorously. Therefore the MOSARH21 (stands for MOselle-SArre-RHine discharge in the 21st century) was built to update and homogenise discharge projections for the French tributaries of the Rhine basin. Two types of models were used: the physically-oriented LARSIM model, which is widely used in Germany and was used in one of the previous projects (FLOW MS), and the semi-distributed conceptual GRSD model tested on French catchments for various objectives. Through the use of these two hydrological models and multiple sets of parameters obtained by various calibrations runs, the structural and parametric uncertainties in the hydrological projections were quantified, as they tend to be neglected in climate change impact studies. The focus of the impact analysis is put on low flows, high flows and regime. Although this study considers only French tributaries of the Rhine, it will foster further cooperation on transboundary basins across Europe, and should contribute to propose better bases for the future definition of adaptation strategies between riverine countries.

  19. Impact of former uranium mining activities on the floodplains of the Mulde River, Saxony, Germany

    The Mulde River drains the former uranium mining areas in Saxony (Germany), which has led to a large-scale contamination of the river and the adjacent floodplain soils with radionuclides of the uranium decay series. The objective of the investigation is to quantify the long-term effect of former uranium mining activities on a river system. All of the investigated environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil) still reveal an impact from the former uranium mining and milling activities. The contamination of water has decreased considerably during the last 20 years due to the operation of water treatment facilities. The uranium content of the sediments decreased as well (on average by a factor of 5.6), most likely caused by displacement of contaminated material during flood events. Currently, the impact of the mining activities is most obvious in soils. For some of the plots activity concentrations of >200 Bq/kg of soil were detected for uranium-238. Alluvial soils used as grassland were found to be contaminated to a higher degree than those used as cropland. - Highlights: • Water, sediments, and soils affected by uranium mining were investigated. • All environmental compartments still reveal an impact of former uranium mining. • Contamination of water and sediment has decreased over the past 20 years. • Alluvial soils under pasture are higher contaminated than those from cropland

  20. Ecological Status of Rivers and Streams in Saxony (Germany) According to the Water Framework Directive and Prospects of Improvement

    Uwe Müller; Katrin Ziegler; Karin Kuhn; Michaela Schönherr; Sylvia Rohde; Antje Mickel; Kerstin Jenemann; Frank Herbst; Steve Harnapp; Roland Dimmer; Holm Friese; Bernd Spänhoff

    2012-01-01

    The Federal State of Saxony (Germany) transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams) for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD). Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton) and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements wer...

  1. Geologic-geothermal cross sections through the upper Rhine Graben between Heidelberg and Freiburg (Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany); Geologisch-geothermische Tiefenprofile fuer den baden-wuerttembergischen Teil des noerdlichen und mittleren Oberrheingrabens

    Jodocy, Marco; Stober, Ingrid [Regierungspraesidium Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Based on seismic reflection profiles and data from deep wells the District Authority (Regierungspraesidium) Freiburg (RPF) has developed 18 geologic-geothermal cross sections and 6 longitudinal sections for the northern and middle Upper Rhine Graben between Heidelberg in the north and the Kaiserstuhl in the south. All sections are situated in the area of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Primary targets are the potential geothermal reservoirs of the Hauptrogenstein (Middle Jura), Oberer Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein. The geologic-geothermal sections provide details about depth and thickness of the hydrogeothermal reservoirs and allow an insight into the regional structural and tectonic situation. The article focuses on three selected regions with significant tertiary basin structures near Heidelberg, Rastatt and Kehl. For these areas the tectonic situation and the geological characteristics of the deep geothermal reservoirs are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  2. Isotopic study of a deep groundwater system near the Danube-river/South Germany

    The groundwater flow regime in the jurassic karst and tertiary terrain near the Danube-river in the area of Ingolstadt/South Germany has been well discussed and investigated for years. However, a stringent explanation of the complex deep groundwater system at the meeting-point of young, karstic groundwater from the north (open karst) and old deep groundwater in the south (covered karst) is still lacking. Today, because of the increasing water use for drinking water supply in the high industrialized area of Ingolstadt, reliable hydrogeological answers and a future sustainable groundwater management system are needed. First symptoms of overexploitation are visible by hydrochemical and isotopic measurements. Coming from the actual state of hydrogeological knowledge, the use of isotope techniques provide distinct explanation for the complex genesis of the occurring groundwaters

  3. Quantification of uncertain bed roughness under design conditions and propagation to the design water levels, a case study for the river Rhine

    Warmink, J.J.; Booij, M.J.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Klis, van der H.; Quarda, T.B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic river models are applied to design and evaluate measures for purposes such as safety against flooding. The modeling of river processes involves numerous uncertainties, resulting in uncertain model results. Knowledge of the type and magnitude of these uncertainties is crucial for a meani

  4. Regional medicine use in the Rhine basin and its implication on water quality

    Hut, R. W.; Houtman, C. J.; van de Giesen, N. C.; de Jong, S. A. P.

    2012-04-01

    Do Germans use more painkillers than the French? Pharmaceuticals used in our Western society form an important group of contaminants found in the river Rhine. As this river is the drinking water source for millions of Europeans, methods to investigate relations between drug use and their penetration in the watercycle are of great importance. An analysis is presented relating medicine residue in the river Rhine to the number of people living in its watershed. An extensive measuring campaign was carried out, sampling river Rhine at 42 locations from its source to the start of its delta (Dutch-German border). The samples were analyzed for 40 common pharmaceuticals. Using discharge data, digital elevation models and demographic data from Eurostat, the relation between total load of drug residue and population was analyzed. Results show regional differences in drug use as well as implications for (down)stream water quality concerning contamination with pharmaceuticals.

  5. How extreme where the Floods of River Rhine in the pre-instrumental Period? A novel interdisciplinary approach to reconstruct and quantify pre-instrumental floods

    Wetter, O.; Pfister, C.; Weingarnter, R.; Röser, I.

    2009-04-01

    History of natural disasters has become a key topic during the last decade, not least because of the widespread impression that the world in our days is being hit by such events at more frequent intervals. The still very young scientific field of Historical Hydrology mainly concentrates on reconstructing flood events of the pre instrumental period, usually by specifying damages caused or occasionally by addressing the issue to inundation heights or meteorological reasons. This paper in contrast is going to shed light on discharge quantities of several pre instrumental floods in such a way that comparisons between instrumental measured and unmeasured pre instrumental floods can be drawn for the first time. Why Rhine floods at Basel? The evidence for this town from the Middle Ages up to the present days is well preserved, because Basel was never destroyed since the disastrous earthquake in 1356 which nearly annihilated the town. Narrative reports of several trustworthy contemporary town chroniclers are still at hand more or less without gaps from the thirteenth to the late seventeenth century. Most major events are so well documented that the maximum height of the flood as well as the size and location of inundated areas could be assessed. More recent events are documented with flood marks or with reports referring to flood-marks which were later destroyed. In 1808 a gauge was established near the (only) bridge. Daily readings are preserved up to the present overlapping with streamflow measurements after 1867. The traditional scheme of flood reporting documented in nineteenth century newspapers was compared with flood-marks and gauge readings especially from the example of the extreme flood in 18th September 1852. The intercomparison of narrative with instrumental evidence allowed calibrating flood information from the Medieval Period. Based on this calibration hydrologists attempted discharge calculations based upon software Flux/Floris2000. Moreover Baseĺs body of

  6. River flooding and landscape changes impact water quality and species composition in a lake catchment of the Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands

    Bunnik, F. P. M.; Cremer, H.; Donders, T. H.; Kroon, I. C.

    2009-04-01

    A 400-year sediment record from a deep water scour hole near the Meuse River in the Netherlands (Haarsteegse Wiel) was investigated for past changes in water quality, flooding regime and landscape change using a combined geochemical and micropaleontological (diatom and pollen analyses) approach. The results are highly significant for determining natural water quality, the impact of (atmospheric) pollution on the (aquatic) flora and the study of the impact and signals related to river floods. The sediment was dated by combining 137Cs activity measurements, biostratigraphical ages and historically documented floodings indicated by the magnetic susceptibility of the sediment. The first flooding event is indicated in the sediment at AD 1610 when the lake was created by water masses bursting through a dike. The extent of large historical river floods are well described in historical chronicles and present an opportunity to study how a flood signal is represented in the lake catchment and provide an additional age calibration point. The resulting chronology is highly accurate and shows that sedimentation rates decrease sharply with the widespread change from wheat cultivation to pasture land from around AD 1875 as a direct result of falling wheat prices and intensified cattle farming. Water quality changes and absolute phosphorous concentrations are reconstructed using diatom-based transfer function. Results show that the currently nutrient rich lake water has mostly been in a mesotrophic state prior to AD 1920, with the exception of several sharp eutrophication events. These events generally occur in sediments deposited during river floods. The river flooding also impacts the vegetation composition by importing allochtonous components such as Nymphaea candida (non-native waterlillies), and indirectly by the deposition of nutrients which have a clear impact on vegetation composition and richness. Magnetic susceptibility changes and pollen data show that from AD 1610

  7. Pressures at larger spatial scales strongly influence the ecological status of heavily modified river water bodies in Germany.

    Kail, Jochem; Wolter, Christian

    2013-06-01

    River biota are influenced by anthropogenic pressures that operate at different spatial scales. Understanding which pressures at which spatial scales affect biota is essential to manage and restore degraded rivers. In Europe, many river reaches were designated as Heavily Modified Water Bodies (HMWB) according to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), where the ecological potential might mainly be determined by pressures at larger spatial scales outside the HMWB (e.g. hydromorphological alterations at the river network and land use at the catchment scale). In Germany, hydromorphological alterations and diffuse pollution were the main pressures. Therefore, the three objectives of this study were to (i) identify the hydromorphological pressures at the site, reach, and river network scale, and land use categories at the catchment scale which significantly affect the ecological status of HMWB in Germany, (ii) quantify the relative importance of these pressures at different spatial scales, and (iii) analyse the differences in response between fish and macroinvertebrates. The results indicated that: (i) At the reach scale, fish were most strongly influenced by channel-bank conditions whilst the naturalness of channel-planform was the best proxy for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. At the catchment scale, urbanization was the most detrimental land use. (ii) The pressures at larger spatial scales (catchment land use and hydromorphological alterations in the river network) generally were more important than hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale. (iii) Fish were affected equally by both, hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale and large-scale pressures whereas the latter were far more important for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. In conclusion, these results indicated that large-scale pressures may often limit the efficiency of reach-scale restoration, especially for macroinvertebrates, even in the absence of saprobic

  8. Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain

    Thonon, I.; Klok, C.

    2007-01-01

    River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbe

  9. Serological survey of Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Leptospira spp., Echinococcus, Hanta-, TBE- and XMR-virus infection in employees of two forestry enterprises in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 2011-2013.

    Jurke, Annette; Bannert, N; Brehm, K; Fingerle, V; Kempf, V A J; Kömpf, D; Lunemann, M; Mayer-Scholl, A; Niedrig, M; Nöckler, K; Scholz, H; Splettstoesser, W; Tappe, D; Fischer, Silke F

    2015-10-01

    We initiated a survey to collect basic data on the frequency and regional distribution of various zoonoses in 722 employees of forestry enterprises in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) from 2011 to 2013. Exposures associated with seropositivity were identified to give insight into the possible risk factors for infection with each pathogen. 41.2% of participants were found to be seropositive for anti-Bartonella IgG, 30.6% for anti-Borrelia burgdorferi IgG, 14.2% for anti-Leptospira IgG, 6.5% for anti-Coxiella burnetii IgG, 6.0% for anti-Hantavirus IgG, 4.0% for anti-Francisella tularensis IgG, 3.4% for anti-TBE-virus IgG, 1.7% for anti-Echinococcus IgG, 0.0% for anti-Brucella IgG and anti-XMRV IgG. Participants seropositive for B. burgdorferi were 3.96 times more likely to be professional forestry workers (univariable analysis: OR 3.96; 95% CI 2.60-6.04; pforestry workers nor office workers represent a risk population and that NRW is not a typical endemic area. Forestry workers appear to have higher risk for contact with B. burgdorferi-infected ticks and a regionally diverse risk for acquiring Hantavirus-infection. The regional epidemiology of zoonoses is without question of great importance for public health. Knowledge of the regional risk factors facilitates the development of efficient prevention strategies and the implementation of such prevention measures in a sustainable manner. PMID:26422407

  10. The Rhine outflow: A prototypical pulsed discharge plume in a high energy shallow sea

    de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.; Visser, Andre W.; Bos, W. G.

    1997-08-01

    Over the past years, a wealth of data has been collected in the Rhine ROFI (Region Of Freshwater Influence) where freshwater from the Rhine is transported and dispersed along the Netherlands coast. The Rhine ROFI may be considered as a prototypical one, its spreading being relatively uncomplicated by coastal and bathymetric features. The discharge of the Rhine, and comparable rivers like the Connecticut, is heavily modulated by the tidal wave propagating into the estuary. As a result, this river water exits into the coastal zone as successive low salinity pulses. The processes and parameters involved in the development of such pulsed river plumes are qualitatively examined. The main criteria that lead to a pulsed discharge are that the net discharge is halted at some stage during the tidal cycle and that a pulse is sufficiently far removed from the river mouth after one tidal cycle so as not to interfere with the development of the successive pulses. From this we have derived necessary conditions for the formation of a pulsed discharge, namely (1) the maximal tidal current amplitude exceeds the river discharge velocity and (2) the inertial radius is larger than the river mouth width. Within this parameter regime rivers can thus be classified as falling within the pulsed plume regime or not. Mixing processes, particularly by winds and tides, are important at all times. Without wind and around neap tide (low mixing rates) the "life expectancy" of a typical Rhine pulse is of the order of a week, an upper bound. This order decreases quickly with increasing winds. However, then also velocities in the long shore "Dutch Coastal Current" go up. The observations show that under such extreme conditions a train of fresh water lenses can be transported along the Dutch coast.

  11. Non-Destructive Monitoring of Rice by Hyperspectral In-Field Spectrometry and Uav-Based Remote Sensing: Case Study of Field-Grown Rice in North Rhine-Westphalia Germany

    Willkomm, M.; Bolten, A.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    In the context of an increasing world population, the demand for agricultural crops is continuously rising. Especially rice plays a key role in food security, not only in Asia. To increase crop production of rice, either productivity of plants has to be improved or new cultivation areas have to be found. In this context, our study investigated crop growth of paddy rice (Oryza Sativa J.) in Germany. An experimental field in the vegetation period of 2014 with two nitrogen treatments was conducted using remote sensing methods. The research project focussed on two main aspects: (1) the potential of UAV-based and hyperspectral remote sensing methods to monitor selected growth parameters at different phenological stages; (2) the potential of paddy rice cultivation under the present climate condition in western Germany. We applied a low-cost UAV-system (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) to generate high resolution Crop Surface Models (CSM). These were compared with hyperspectral in-field measurements and directly measured agronomic parameters (fresh and dry aboveground biomass (AGB), leaf-area-index (LAI) and plant nitrogen concentration (PNC)). For all acquisition dates we could determine single in-field structures in the CSM (e.g. distribution of hills) and different growth characteristics between the nitrogen treatments. Especially in the second half of the growing season, the plants with higher nitrogen availability were about 25 - 30 % larger. The plant height in the CSM correlates particularly with fresh AGB and the LAI (R2 > 0.8). Thus, the conducted methods for plant growth monitoring can be a contribution for precision agriculture approaches.

  12. SchussenAktivplus: reduction of micropollutants and of potentially pathogenic bacteria for further water quality improvement of the river Schussen, a tributary of Lake Constance, Germany

    Triebskorn, Rita; Amler, Klaus; BLAHA, Ludek; Gallert, Claudia; Giebner, Sabrina; Güde, Hans; Henneberg, Anja; Hess, Stefanie; Hetzenauer, Harald; Jedele, Klaus; Jung, Ralph-Michael; Kneipp, Sven; Köhler, Heinz-R.; Krais, Stefanie; Kuch, Bertram

    2013-01-01

    The project focuses on the efficiency of combined technologies to reduce the release of micropollutants and bacteria into surface waters via sewage treatment plants of different size and via stormwater overflow basins of different types. As a model river in a highly populated catchment area, the river Schussen and, as a control, the river Argen, two tributaries of Lake Constance, Southern Germany, are under investigation in this project. The efficiency of the different cleaning technologies i...

  13. Modeling the fate of organic micropollutants during river bank filtration (Berlin, Germany)

    Henzler, Aline F.; Greskowiak, Janek; Massmann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are frequently detected in urban surface water and the adjacent groundwater and are therefore an increasing problem for potable water quality. River bank filtration (RBF) is a beneficial pretreatment step to improve surface water quality for potable use. Removal is mainly caused by microbial degradation of micropollutants, while sorption retards the transport. The quantification of biodegradation and adsorption parameters for EOCs at field scale is still scarce. In this study, the fate and behavior of a range of organic compounds during RBF were investigated using a two dimensional numerical flow- and transport model. The data base used emanated from a project conducted in Berlin, Germany (NASRI: Natural and Artificial Systems for Recharge and Infiltration). Oxygen isotope signatures and hydraulic head data were used for model calibration. Afterwards, twelve organic micropollutants were simulated with a reactive transport model. Three compounds (primidone, EDTA, and AMDOPH) showed conservative behavior (no biodegradation or sorption). For the nine remaining compounds (1.5 NDSA, AOX, AOI, MTBE, carbamazepine, clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole), degradation and/or sorption was observed. 1.5 NDSA and AOX were not sorbed, but slightly degraded with model results for λ = 2.25e- 3 1/d and 2.4e- 3 1/d. For AOI a λ = 0.0106 1/d and R = 1 were identified. MTBE could be characterized well assuming R = 1 and a low 1st order degradation rate constant (λ = 0.0085 1/d). Carbamazepine degraded with a half life time of about 66 days after a threshold value of 0.2-0.3 μg/L was exceeded and retarded slightly (R = 1.7). Breakthrough curves of clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole could be fitted less well, probably due to the dependency of degradation on temperature and redox conditions, which are highly transient at the RBF site. Conditions range from oxic to anoxic (up to iron-reducing), with the oxic

  14. Groundwater dynamics of an aquifer system dependent on the Rhine river. Development of pollutant plumes and consequences for monitoring; Grundwasserdynamik eines vom Rhein gepraegten Aquifersystems. Entwicklung von Schadstofffahnen und Konsequenzen fuer Monitoring-Ansaetze

    Danzer, J.; Baumeister, S.; Olbertz, R.

    2005-06-01

    For an industrial site on the Rhine, which is typical of industrial sites in floodlands, the groundwater dynamics was modelled on a large scale in order to provide data on the local groundwater dynamics as well as the dynamics of pollutant plume formation. A monitoring programme developed on this basis enables realistic assessment of potential hazards and/or a quantification of NA processes. (orig.)

  15. Regional nitrogen dynamics in the TERENO Bode River catchment, Germany, as constrained by stable isotope patterns.

    Mueller, Christin; Krieg, Ronald; Merz, Ralf; Knöller, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between hydrological characteristics and microbial activities affect the isotopic composition of dissolved nitrate in surface water. Nitrogen and oxygen isotopic signatures of riverine nitrate in 133 sampling locations distributed over the Bode River catchment in the Harz Mountains, Germany, were used to identify nitrate sources and transformation processes. An annual monitoring programme consisting of seasonal sampling campaigns in spring, summer and autumn was conducted. δ(15)N and δ(18)O of nitrate and corresponding concentrations were measured as well as δ(2)H and δ(18)O of water to determine the deuterium excess. In addition, precipitation on 25 sampling stations was sampled and considered as a potential input factor. The Bode River catchment is strongly influenced by agricultural land use which is about 70 % of the overall size of the catchment. Different nitrogen sources such as ammonia (NH4) fertilizer, soil nitrogen, organic fertilizer or nitrate in precipitation show partly clear nitrate isotopic differences. Processes such as microbial denitrification result in fractionation and lead to an increase in δ(15)N of nitrate. We observed an evident regional and partly temporal variation of nitrate isotope signatures which are clearly different between main landscape types. Spring water sections within the high mountains contain nitrate in low concentrations with low δ(15)NNO3 values of -3 ‰ and high δ(18)ONO3 values up to 13 ‰. High mountain stream water sub-catchments dominated by nearly undisturbed forest and grassland contribute nitrate with δ(15)NNO3 and δ(18)ONO3 values of -1 and -3.5 ‰, respectively. In the further flow path, which is affected by an increasing agricultural land use and urban sewage, we recognized an increase in δ(15)NNO3 and δ(18)ONO3 up to 22 and 18 ‰, respectively, with high variations during the year. A correlation seems to exist between the percentage of agricultural land use area and the

  16. Assessing the water balance of the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem

    Thierion, Charlotte; Longuevergne, Laurent; Habets, Florence; Ledoux, Emmanuel; Ackerer, Philippe; Majdalani, Samer; Leblois, Etienne; Lecluse, Simon; Martin, Eric; Queguiner, Solen; Viennot, Pascal

    2012-03-01

    SummaryThe Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource. However, as in many alluvial systems, the aquifer inflows and outflows are not precisely known because of the difficulty of estimating the river infiltration flux and the boundary subsurface flow. To provide a thorough representation of the aquifer system, a coupled surface-subsurface model was applied to the whole aquifer basin, and several parameter sets were tested to investigate the uncertainty due to poorly known parameters (e.g. aquifer transmissivity computed by an inverse model, river bed characteristics). Twelve simulations were run and analyzed using standard statistical criteria and also a more advanced statistical method, the Karhunen Loève transform (KLT). This analysis showed that, although the model performed reasonably well, some piezometric level underestimations persisted in the south of the basin. An accurate representation of the aquifer behaviour would require river infiltration and the functioning of irrigation canals in the Hardt area to be taken into account. It also appeared that increasing the maximum river infiltration flow deteriorated the quality of the results. River infiltration to the aquifer was estimated to represent about 80% of the aquifer inflows with a mean annual value around 115 ± 16.5 m3/s, thus with an uncertainty of 14%. This quantity is larger than estimated in previous studies but is in agreement with some results obtained during low water periods. This important conclusion highlights the vulnerability of the Upper Rhine Graben aquifer to pollution from the rivers and to climate change since it is highly probable that the rivers' regimes will be affected by reduced snow cover on the neighbouring mountain ranges.

  17. Medicinal footprint of the population of the Rhine basin

    The relation between pharmaceutical residues along the river Rhine and the demographic characteristics of the upstream population was studied. A sampling campaign was performed in which water samples from the Rhine were taken at 42 locations. Measurements were compared to a two parameter model with regional demographic data as main input. For 12 out of the 21 studied pharmaceuticals, a significant dominant demographic group could be identified. For 3 out of these 12 pharmaceuticals the male elderly were the most contributing demographic group. A Monte Carlo analysis showed a high level of significance for the results of this study (p < 0.01). By combining environmental water quality data and demographic data, better insight was gained in the interplay between humans and their environment, showing the medicinal footprint of the population of the Rhine basin. (letter)

  18. Ecological Status of Rivers and Streams in Saxony (Germany According to the Water Framework Directive and Prospects of Improvement

    Uwe Müller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Federal State of Saxony (Germany transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD. Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements were used to identify significant anthropogenic pressures, which surface water bodies are susceptible to, and to assess the effect of these pressures on the status of surface water bodies. In 2009, the data for classification of the ecological status and the main pressures and impacts on water bodies were published in the river basin management plans (RBMP of the Elbe and Oder rivers. To that date, only 23 (4% streams achieved an ecological status of “good”, while the rest failed to achieve the environmental objective. The two main reasons for the failure were significant alterations to the stream morphology (81% of all streams and nutrient enrichment (62% caused by point (industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants and non-point (surface run-off from arable fields, discharges from urban drainages and decentralized waste water treatment plants sources. It was anticipated that a further 55 streams would achieve the environmental objective by 2015, but the remaining 539 need extended deadlines.

  19. 100 years of mapping the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain: combining research and teaching

    Cohen, K.M.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoek, W.Z.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-01-01

    The history of modern soil, geomorphological and shallow geological mapping in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain goes back about 100 years. The delta plain is of very heterogeneous build up, with clayey and peaty flood basins, dissected by sandy fluvial distributary channel belts with fine textured levees grading into tidal-influenced rivers and estuaries. Several generations of precursor rivers occur as alluvial ridges and buried ribbon sands. They form an intricate network originating fr...

  20. Fuel cell and hydrogen network North Rhine-Westphalia

    Ziolek, A.; Koch, F. [Energy Agency NRW, Dusseldorf (Germany). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Network

    2007-07-01

    The Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Network North-Rhine-Westphalia (FCHN NRW) is a non-profit regional technology platform whose mandate is to commercialize fuel cell technologies and establish a sustainable hydrogen economy. The FCHN NRW aims to position the North Rhine-Westphalia region as international centre for fuel cell and hydrogen technology. The network consists of more 300 members from research institutes, government agencies, and private businesses who are encouraged to adapt their products to the special needs of fuel cell systems. The FCHN NRW also aids in the procurement of project partners and provides advice on funding. The region currently has a 240 km hydrogen pipeline connecting several chemical plants and producers and consumers of hydrogen. Approximately 1250 GWh of hydrogen are produced in the region, the majority of which is consumed. The network is also involved in a European-wide project to deploy fuel cell vehicles and create a hydrogen infrastructure. Other projects in the past have included the development of 10 kW fuel cell midi buses; fuel cell cargo-bikes; mobile filling stations; and outdoor terminals. The network is now involved in a national 10 year program in Germany which aims to prepare the country for a hydrogen economy. 7 figs.

  1. The cadastre of waste heat in the Upper Rhine Valley

    The cadastre of waste heat provides the distribution in space and time of anthropogeneous waste heat emissions on a 2 x 2 km2 grid. In the case of the Upper Rhine Valley it serves as a basis for the numerical evaluations of climatic changes caused by man. Such a cadastre also allows to analyse the distribution of pollutant emissions and the heat or energy supply, respectively, of the region. In a close approximation the distribution of waste heat is equal to the distribution of energy consumption. As there are generally difficulties in obtaining data about the consumption of the types of energy on the grid level, methods were developed which allow to determine the local energy consumption by using the relevant structural data. The methods used for the Federal Republic of Germany and neighbouring countries and the results for the Upper Rhine Valley, obtained by these methods, are presented. The cadastre of waste heat is based on data of the year 1973 which was a time of great energy consumption. Only in 1978 this energy consumption was exceeded. To be able to estimate the change in the influence of the anthropogeneous waste heat during the next 20 years, the cadastre was extrapolated until the year 2000. (orig.)

  2. A multi-tracer approach for the exploration of deep geothermal energy potential and fault zone characterisation, applied in the Upper Rhine Graben

    Freundt, Florian; Najem, Sami Al; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Isenbeck-Schröter, Margot; Schmidt, Gerhard; Grobe, René; Kraml, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Current methods of geothermal exploration rely on various expensive geophysical methods (e.g. 3D reflection seismics) to identify permeable fault zones and the geometry of geothermal aquifers. However this analysis alone does not allow for an estimation of an active fault's hydraulic permeability nor provides a characterisation of the chemical properties of the deep aquifer fluid. Both factors play an important role in optimising siting of geothermal wells and operation of a geothermal power plant. This work presents a low cost strategy characterizing deep hydrogeochemical reservoirs using a combination of methods from hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrology in hot springs and near surface groundwater. The main goal is to confine the area of interest for further, indirect geophysical investigation. For this purpose natural geochemical and isotopical tracers as well as rare earth elements, 3He/4He ratios, and radiogenic isotopes (Sr and Pb) are investigated. Data from the first sampling campaign in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, close to Groß-Gerau, Germany, shows promising results, indicating an area of increased interest where elevated helium ratios coincide with characteristic geochemical data, fault location and a previously known saltwater anomaly. Geochemical analyses exhibit three different types of fluids and various mixtures. CaHCO3-dominated waters represent Quaternary aquifer conditions whereas MgSO4-dominated waters are characterised by a Tertiary aquifer rock. Higher saline NaCl-dominated waters show an impact of mantle fluids revealed by 3He/4He isotope analysis. The ratio is highest where the main fault of the northern Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Rhine river. This suggests that the fault is hydraulically active and connects ascending deep fluids with the shallow aquifer. Further investigations of rare earth element patterns as well as radiogenic isotopes will identify the origin, the ascent as well as the retention time of the deep fluids more

  3. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for a NPP in the Upper Rhine Graben, France

    Clément, Christophe; Chartier, Thomas; Jomard, Hervé; Baize, Stéphane; Scotti, Oona; Cushing, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) straddling the border between eastern France and western Germany, presents a relatively important seismic activity for an intraplate area. A magnitude 5 or greater shakes the URG every 25 years and in 1356 a magnitude greater than 6.5 struck the city of Basel. Several potentially active faults have been identified in the area and documented in the French Active Fault Database (web site in construction). These faults are located along the Graben boundaries and also inside the Graben itself, beneath heavily populated areas and critical facilities (including the Fessenheim Nuclear Power Plant). These faults are prone to produce earthquakes with magnitude 6 and above. Published regional models and preliminary geomorphological investigations provided provisional assessment of slip rates for the individual faults (0.1-0.001 mm/a) resulting in recurrence time of 10 000 years or greater for magnitude 6+ earthquakes. Using a fault model, ground motion response spectra are calculated for annual frequencies of exceedance (AFE) ranging from 10-4 to 10-8 per year, typical for design basis and probabilistic safety analyses of NPPs. A logic tree is implemented to evaluate uncertainties in seismic hazard assessment. The choice of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and range of slip rate uncertainty are the main sources of seismic hazard variability at the NPP site. In fact, the hazard for AFE lower than 10-4 is mostly controlled by the potentially active nearby Rhine River fault. Compared with areal source zone models, a fault model localizes the hazard around the active faults and changes the shape of the Uniform Hazard Spectrum at the site. Seismic hazard deaggregations are performed to identify the earthquake scenarios (including magnitude, distance and the number of standard deviations from the median ground motion as predicted by GMPEs) that contribute to the exceedance of spectral acceleration for the different AFE

  4. Late Quaternary evolution of rivers, lakes and peatlands in northeast Germany reflecting past climatic and human impact – an overview

    Knut Kaiser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of regional palaeohydrology is essential for understanding current environmental issues, such as the causes of recent hydrologic changes, impacts of land use strategies and effectiveness of wetland restoration measures. Even the interpretation of model results on future impacts of climatic and land-cover changes may be improved using (pre-historic analogies. An overview of palaeohydrologic findings of the last c. 20,000 years is given for northeast Germany with its glacial landscapes of different age. River development is examined with a focus on valley(-floor formation and depositional changes, river course and channel changes, and palaeodischarge/-floods. Major genetic differences exist among ‘old morainic’ (Elsterian, Saalian and ‘young morainic’ (Weichselian areas, and among topographically high- and low-lying valleys, the latter of which are strongly influenced by water-level changes in the North and Baltic Seas. Lake development was analysed with respect to lake formation, which was predominantly driven by late Pleistocene to early Holocene dead-ice dynamics, and with respect to depositional changes. Furthermore, lake-level changes have been in the focus, showing highly variable local records with some conformity. The overview on peatland development concentrated on phases of mire formation and on long-term groundwater dynamics. Close relationships between the development of rivers, lakes and peatlands existed particularly during the late Holocene by complex paludification processes in large river valleys. Until the late Holocene, regional hydrology was predominantly driven by climatic, geomorphic and nonanthropogenic biotic factors. Since the late Medieval times, human activities have strongly influenced the drainage pattern and the water cycle, for instance, by damming of rivers and lakes, construction of channels and dikes, and peatland cultivation. Indeed, the natural changes caused by long-term climatic and

  5. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of subcatchments of the River Spree, Germany

    Pohle, I.; Koch, H; U. Grünewald

    2012-01-01

    Lusatia is considered one of the driest regions of Germany. The climatic water balance is negative even under current climate conditions. Due to global climate change, increased temperatures and a shift of precipitation from summer to winter are expected. Therefore, it is of major interest whether the excess water in winter can be stored and to which extent it is used up on increasing evapotranspiration. Thus, this study focuses on estimating potential climate change imp...

  6. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in the sediment of the Roter Main river, Bayreuth, Germany

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems. Their sources are known but few studies about their accumulation potential in river sediments exist. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in sediments in relation to their levels in river water receiving effluent from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). PFOS accumulates by a factor of about 40 relative to river water, PFOA only up to threefold. In contrast to previous suggestions, in this case the enrichment on sediment is not correlated to the total organic carbon contents. - River sediments constitute a sink of perfluorinated surfactants released from the waste water treatment plant

  7. Reconstruction of flood events based on documentary data and transnational flood risk analysis of the Upper Rhine and its French and German tributaries since AD 1480

    Himmelsbach, I.; Glaser, R.; Schoenbein, J.; Riemann, D.; Martin, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the long-term analysis of flood occurrence along the southern part of the Upper Rhine River system and of 14 of its tributaries in France and Germany covering the period starting from 1480 BC. Special focus is given on the temporal and spatial variations of flood events and their underlying meteorological causes over time. Examples are presented of how long-term information about flood events and knowledge about the historical aspect of flood protection in a given area can help to improve the understanding of risk analysis and therefor transnational risk management. Within this context, special focus is given to flood vulnerability while comparing selected historical and modern extreme events, establishing a common evaluation scheme. The transnational aspect becomes especially evident analyzing the tributaries: on this scale, flood protection developed impressively different on the French and German sides. We argue that comparing high technological standards of flood protection, which were initiated by the dukes of Baden on the German side starting in the early 19th century, misled people to the common belief that the mechanical means of flood protection like dams and barrages can guarantee the security from floods and their impacts. This lead to widespread settlements and the establishment of infrastructure as well as modern industries in potentially unsafe areas until today. The legal status in Alsace on the French side of the Rhine did not allow for continuous flood protection measurements, leading to a constant - and probably at last annoying - reminder that the floodplains are a potentially unsafe place to be. From a modern perspective of flood risk management, this leads to a significant lower aggregation of value in the floodplains of the small rivers in Alsace compared to those on the Baden side - an interesting fact - especially if the modern European Flood directive is taken into account.

  8. Promotion strategies shown for the example of North-Rhine Westphalia

    As one of Germany's technology and energy centres the Land of North-Rhine Westphalia sees it as a great challenge to implement a proactive policy for the protection of the Earth's atmosphere and in particular to bring about the urgently needed reduction in climatically active emissions. The current degree of efficient energy utilisation, in particular from renewable sources, still lags behind what is economically possible. Active political and governmental support is needed to promote the cause of efficient energy utilisation and the use of renewable energy sources and accord them the status they deserve. This insight led the Government of North-Rhine Westphalia in 1987 to frame a programme for ''Efficient energy utilisation and use of renewable renewable energy sources''. The present paper describes the aims and promotion strategies of the programme, examines the results it has produced, and sketches out perspectives for the near future

  9. The "Redynamisation of the Old Rhine", an international and interdisciplinary INTERREG project focused on for channel braiding restoration - 2009-2013

    Piégay, H.; Béal, D.; Rollet, A.-J.; Arnaud, F.; Schmitt, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper Rhine between France and Germany has been heavily impacted by channelization for navigation and then by dams works during the last two centuries. Most of the flows are now conveyed in a canalized section, a minimum discharge been reserved in the old section, so called the "Old Rhine". Between Huningue and Neuf-Breisach (45 km), the longest disconnected section, engineering works induced simplification and stabilization of the channel pattern from a formerly braiding reach to a single incised channel (incision of 7m between 184 and 1920 before Kembs dam construction), hydrological modifications, channel bottom armouring due to bedload decrease, and thus ecological alterations. Within the framework of current research works on river restoration, a new international and interdisciplinary project on the Upper Rhine entitled "INTERREG IV - Redynamisation of the Old Rhine" began in early 2009 running for four years. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of an important hydro-morphological and ecological restoration plan on the 45 km reach, expanding and gathering some independent national projects, by a closed partnership between French and German scientists, water management organisations and practitioners. The finality of the project is to provide possible prospective scenarios, in order to partially restore a braiding channel pattern on the Old Rhine channel, by promoting left bank erosion, channel enlargement and/or artificial sediment inputs. The Alsace Region will conduct the project administratively, and the scientific group will be coordinated by the University of Lyon (UMR 5600 CNRS). The study will involve historical, hydro-morphological, ecological and sociological parts. On one hand a historical approach, led by UMR 5600 and Electricité de France (EDF), will be necessary to understand long term channel changes since 1800 and thus to orientate restoration strategies. This task will be based on old maps, aerial photographs and

  10. From Sandoz to Salmon: Conceptualizing resource and institutional dynamics in the Rhine watershed through the SES framework

    Villamayor-Tomas, Sergio; Fleischman, Forrest; Perez Ibarra, Irene; Thiel, Andreas; van Laerhoven, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we use a case study of the Rhine River to examine the relevance of Common Pool Resource (CPR) Theory for two conditions in which it has not been extensively tested: large scale international water management and pollution problems. For that purpose, we link variation in pollution abate

  11. Is there a future for wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris) in the Rhine Valley?

    Arnold, Claire; Schnitzler, Annik; Douard, Anne; Peter, Richard; Gillet, François

    2011-01-01

    The wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, is considered to be an endangered taxon in Europe, mainly as a consequence of the introduction of pathogens from North America and of the destruction of its habitat. In the Rhine Valley, nearly all populations disappeared due to river management, the intensi.cation of forestry, and the introduction of phylloxera. After a growing awareness of the need to preserve endangered forest ecosystems, attempts to reintroduce wild grape...

  12. Methylated arsenic and antimony species in suspended matter of the river Ruhr, Germany

    L. Duester

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The methylated antimony and arsenic species content of sediments derived from a sedimentation bowl of the river Ruhr were monitored over a 12 month period. The most prevalent species detected were monomethylarsenic (MMAs and monomethylantimony (MMSb. The methylantimony and methylarsenic species concentration was found to be directly correlated to the winter spate. As the biological activity in the water body is generally low at this time of the year, it may be concluded that the concentration maxima in winter originated from the translocation of soil- and sediment particles to the river by heavy rains and the melting of snow. A second maximum in Spring/early Summer was observed for the methylarsenic species, and specifically the dimethylarsenic species (DMAs; this occurred in parallel to the algal bloom. A change in the methylarsenic speciation pattern was observed between April, May and June, with DMAs replacing MMAs as the dominant methylarsenic species. For methylated antimony species no seasonal variation in the species pattern was detected. Taken together these data strongly indicate a higher degree of transformation of arsenic compared to antimony in the Ruhr river system in spring and can be taken as a record for a biogeochemical different behaviour of these two elements which are often treated as equivalent in environmental studies.

  13. Bacterial abundance, activity, and viability in the eutrophic River Warnow, northeast Germany.

    Freese, H M; Karsten, U; Schumann, R

    2006-01-01

    The River Warnow is the drinking water source for the city of Rostock. Its eutrophic status is accompanied by high amounts of bacteria, which may reach up to 24 x 10(6) cells mL(-1) as recorded during a seasonal study in 2002. Because the river is eutrophic and also heavily loaded with organic matter, this burden is a problem for drinking water purification, as it must be removed completely to not trigger new bacterial growth in the pipeline network. Therefore, restoration measures in the river have to be planned, and bacteria have to be favored as decomposers. That includes the investigation of the physiological state of bacteria in situ. Viable and active cells in the lower reaches of River Warnow were estimated using a broad set of methods. Intact bacteria were investigated by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit, containing a mixture of permeant and impermeant nucleic acid stains. Cells with ribosomes were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization with the EUB338 oligonucleotide probe. Intact cells and ribosome-containing bacteria represented 24% of total numbers stained by 4'6,-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or 66 and 62%, respectively, in relation to all bacteria visualized by the LIVE/DEAD kit. Both fractions were considered as viable, although the fraction of RIB + bacteria is most likely underestimated by the protocol applied. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride (CTC) was applied to mark respiring bacteria. The esterase substrate CellTracker Green 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate showed cells with intracellular hydrolytic activity. Whereas 1.5% of DAPI-stained bacteria were observed as respiring, 3.8% exhibited intracellular hydrolytic activity on average. If these active fractions were calculated as the percentages of intact cells, much higher fractions of 5.4% were respiring and 16% hydrolytic. Temperature was a main factor influencing total and viable cell numbers simultaneously. The results confirm that there are different

  14. The timing of river terrace formation - possibilities and challenges of luminescence dating methods: a case study from Northern Bavaria, Germany

    Kolb, Thomas; Fuchs, Markus; Zöller, Ludwig

    2014-05-01

    north of the city of Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany. Here, within the headwaters of the River Main, five Pleistocene terraces are distinguished. The terraces are interpreted as the result of a complex landscape evolution, which is characterized by an at least twofold river deflection. To shed light on the question of Pleistocene environmental conditions for terrace formation, we investigate the timing of the river terrace accumulation by establishing a terrace chronostratigraphy based on optically stimulated luminescence dating. Despite the described methodological problems, the obtained OSL dating results clearly show the potential to provide a reliable time frame for the terrace formation. They improve the knowledge about the Quaternary landscape evolution within the research area. Indicating significantly older sedimentation ages, these results clearly are in conflict with established explanations of terrace formation based on traditional concepts. They show that the response of fluvial systems to environmental changes is complex and strongly depends on local conditions.

  15. Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany)

    Overesch, M. [Department for Geo- and Agroecology, Institute of Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive Agriculture, University of Vechta, P.O. Box 1553, D-49364 Vechta (Germany)]. E-mail: moveresch@ispa.uni-vechta.de; Rinklebe, J. [Department of Soil Science, UFZ Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: joerg.rinklebe@ufz.de; Broll, G. [Department for Geo- and Agroecology, Institute of Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive Agriculture, University of Vechta, P.O. Box 1553, D-49364 Vechta (Germany)]. E-mail: gbroll@ispa.uni-vechta.de; Neue, H.-U. [Department of Soil Science, UFZ Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: heinz-ulrich.neue@ufz.de

    2007-02-15

    Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. - Soils in the Elbe river floodplains are highly polluted with metals and arsenic and a critical enrichment in the grassland herbage seems to be most likely in flood channels or within special plant species.

  16. Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany)

    Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH4NO3-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. - Soils in the Elbe river floodplains are highly polluted with metals and arsenic and a critical enrichment in the grassland herbage seems to be most likely in flood channels or within special plant species

  17. Nuclear energy controversy in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany

    How can the fact be explained that there are twice as many nuclear power plants operating in France as in the F.R. of Germany in 1983. The book defeats the common thesis that there are hardly any adversaries of nuclear energy on the other side of the Rhine River while the wide protest morement in the F.R. of Germany has prevented the expansion of nuclear energy. The majority of people in the F.R. of Germany and France show a similar reaction to nuclear energy and its risks. But the manifestations and effects of the protests are different. On the other hand, other historically grown political cultures and governmental-administrative structures are responsible. For years the expansion of nuclear energy had been shielded from the population of France. The unsettled conflict between the supporters and adressaries of nuclear energy contains more explosive power there than in the F.R. of Germany, particularly in the long term. (orig.)

  18. An intensive Post Event Campaign (IPEC) on the extreme flash flood which affected the Starzel river (Germany) on the 2nd of June 2008

    Gaume, Eric

    2009-01-01

    On the 2nd of June 2008 in the evening, the Zollernabkreis region, located 50 kilometers South from Stuttgart (Germany), was affected by extreme thunderstorms which induced large flash floods. The most severely affected area appeared to be the upper Starzel river catchment (130 km2) where the extraordinary flood caused large damages in two towns (Hechingen and Jungingen) and killed 3 people. The data collected immediately after the flood event are impressive : 75 mm of rainfall accumulated wi...

  19. Structural control of geothermal reservoirs in extensional tectonic settings: An example from the Upper Rhine Graben

    Meixner, Jörg; Schill, Eva; Grimmer, Jens C.; Gaucher, Emmanuel; Kohl, Thomas; Klingler, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In extensional tectonic settings major structural elements such as graben boundary faults are typically oriented subparallel to the maximum horizontal stress component SHmax. They are often structurally accompanied by transfer zones that trend subparallel to the extension direction. In the Upper Rhine Graben, such transfer faults are typically characterized by strike-slip or oblique-slip kinematics. A major re-orientation of the regional stress field by up to 90° of the Upper Rhine Graben in the Early Miocene led to the present-day normal and strike-slip faulting regimes in the North and South of the Upper Rhine Graben, respectively, and a transition zone in-between. Consequently, conditions for fault frictional failure changed significantly. Moreover, it has been observed during tracer and stimulation experiments that such transfer faults may be of major importance for the hydraulic field of geothermal reservoirs under the present stress condition, especially, when located between production and injection well. In this context we have investigated slip and dilation tendencies (TS and TD) of major structural elements at reservoir scale for two representative geothermal sites, Bruchsal (Germany) and Riehen (Switzerland), located close to the Eastern Main Boundary Fault of the Upper Rhine Graben. We have evaluated the quality and uncertainty range of both tendencies with respect to potential variation in SHmax orientation. Despite significant differences in orientation of the structures and the stress regimes, the resulting variation of TS and TD reveal major similarities concerning the reactivation potential of both, the graben-parallel structures and the transfer faults. The conditions of criticality for tensile failure and non-criticality for shear failure suggest that transfer faults are most likely naturally permeable structures with low stimulation potential. This is in agreement with the absence of both immediate tracer recovery and seismicity in the studied

  20. A joint probability approach using a 1-D hydrodynamic model for estimating high water level frequencies in the Lower Rhine Delta

    H. Zhong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Rhine Delta, a transitional area between the River Rhine and Meuse and the North Sea, is at risk of flooding induced by infrequent events of a storm surge or upstream flooding, or by more infrequent events of a combination of both. A joint probability analysis of the astronomical tide, the wind induced storm surge, the Rhine flow and the Meuse flow at the boundaries is established in order to produce the joint probability distribution of potential flood events. Three individual joint probability distributions are established corresponding to three potential flooding causes: storm surges and normal Rhine discharges, normal sea levels and high Rhine discharges, and storm surges and high Rhine discharges. For each category, its corresponding joint probability distribution is applied, in order to stochastically simulate a large number of scenarios. These scenarios can be used as inputs to a deterministic 1-D hydrodynamic model in order to estimate the high water level frequency curves at the transitional locations. The results present the exceedance probability of the present design water level for the economically important cities of Rotterdam and Dordrecht. The calculated exceedance probability is evaluated and compared to the governmental norm. Moreover, the impact of climate change on the high water level frequency curves is quantified for the year 2050 in order to assist in decisions regarding the adaptation of the operational water management system and the flood defense system.

  1. Hydroclimatic signal and LBK cultural activity in the Upper and Lower Rhine, inferred from abandoned channel fill deposits

    Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely

  2. Analyses of the fluxes of water, sediment, nutrients and metals, after restoration of the tidal regime of a former polder in the River Rhine estuarine, part of The Netherlands.

    Bleuten, W.; Borren, W.; Barendregt, A.

    2009-04-01

    A tidal freshwater wetland, the Mariapolder, was restored in the southwestern part of The Netherlands that involved reconnecting the site to the Rhine estuary. Restoration of tidal dynamics has resulted in the establishment of erosion and sedimentation processes, fluxes of nutrients, metals, and other dissolved substances, and plant and animal communities associated with tidal freshwater wetlands. This paper describes the consequences of the 1994 opening of the dike around the Mariapolder, formerly a polder of 25 ha that had been managed as grasslands. Following restoration, the tidal range within the polder has varied between 0.6 and 0.8 m at the inlet and tidal velocity as high as 4 m3/s have been measured at the same site during incoming tides. Within the restored area, tidal water level amplitude has varied between 0.4 and 0.5 m. Automated water level recorders have been used to estimate water fluxes into and from the Mariapolder over 48-hour study periods. From physical and chemical analyses of water collected during the 48-hour periods, balances of suspended sediments, dissolved nutrients, and metals were calculated. There has been a consistent net flux of suspended sediments into the Mariapolder leading to an average raise of 1 - 2 mm/y in surface elevation. The Mariapolder appears to be a net yearly sink for nitrate-nitrogen and a net exporter of some dissolved metals. The mechanisms that control the sink-source dynamics are not yet fully understood and need further investigation. Following restoration, most of the agricultural grassland vegetation has disappeared and pioneer vegetation typical of TFW has developed within the Mariapolder.

  3. CrossWater - Modelling micropollutant loads from different sources in the Rhine basin

    Moser, Andreas; Bader, Hans-Peter; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Scheidegger, Ruth; Stamm, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The pressure on rivers from micropollutants (MPs) originating from various sources is a growing environmental issue and requiring political regulations. The challenges for the water management are numerous, particularly for international water basins. Spatial knowledge of MP sources and the water quality are prerequisites for an effective water quality policy. In this study we analyze the sources of MPs in the international Rhine basin in Europe, and model their transport to the streams. The spatial patterns of MP loads and concentrations from different use classes are investigated with a mass flow analysis and compared to the territorial jurisdictions that shape the spatial arrangement of water management. The source area of MPs depends on the specific use of a compound. Here, we focus on i) herbicides from agricultural land use, ii) biocides from material protection on buildings and iii) human pharmaceuticals from households. The total mass of MPs available for release to the stream network is estimated from statistical application and consumption data. The available mass of MPs is spatially distributed to the catchments areas based on GIS data of agricultural land use, vector data of buildings and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) locations, respectively. The actual release of MPs to the stream network is calculated with empirical loss rates related to river discharge for agricultural herbicides and to precipitation for biocides. For the pharmaceuticals the release is coupled to the human metabolism rates and elimination rates in WWTP. The released loads from the catchments are propagated downstream with hydraulic routing. Water flow, transport and fate of the substances are simulated within linked river reaches. Time series of herbicide concentrations and loads are simulated for the main rivers in the Rhine basin. Accordingly the loads from the primary catchments are aggregated and constitute lateral or upstream input to the simulated river reaches. Pronounced

  4. Rare earth elements in the aragonitic shell of freshwater mussel Corbicula fluminea and the bioavailability of anthropogenic lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium in river water

    High-technology metals — such as the rare earth elements (REE) — have become emerging contaminants in the hydrosphere, yet little is known about their bioavailability. The Rhine River and the Weser River in Germany are two prime examples of rivers that are subjected to anthropogenic REE input. While both rivers carry significant loads of anthropogenic Gd, originating from contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging, the Rhine River also carries large amounts of anthropogenic La and lately Sm which are discharged into the river from an industrial point source. Here, we assess the bioavailability of these anthropogenic microcontaminants in these rivers by analyzing the aragonitic shells of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Concentrations of purely geogenic REE in shells of comparable size cover a wide range of about one order of magnitude between different sampling sites. At a given sampling site, geogenic REE concentrations depend on shell size, i.e. mussel age. Although both rivers show large positive Gd anomalies in their dissolved loads, no anomalous enrichment of Gd relative to the geogenic REE can be observed in any of the analyzed shells. This indicates that the speciations of geogenic and anthropogenic Gd in the river water differ from each other and that the geogenic, but not the anthropogenic Gd is incorporated into the shells. In contrast, all shells sampled at sites downstream of the industrial point source of anthropogenic La and Sm in the Rhine River show positive La and Sm anomalies, revealing that these anthropogenic REE are bioavailable. Only little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to dissolved REE and their general ecotoxicity, but considering that anthropogenic Gd and even La have already been identified in German tap water and that anthropogenic La and Sm are bioavailable, this should be monitored and investigated further. - Highlights: • Corbicula fluminea shells are bioarchives of dissolved geogenic REE in

  5. Rare earth elements in the aragonitic shell of freshwater mussel Corbicula fluminea and the bioavailability of anthropogenic lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium in river water

    Merschel, Gila, E-mail: g.merschel@jacobs-university.de; Bau, Michael

    2015-11-15

    High-technology metals — such as the rare earth elements (REE) — have become emerging contaminants in the hydrosphere, yet little is known about their bioavailability. The Rhine River and the Weser River in Germany are two prime examples of rivers that are subjected to anthropogenic REE input. While both rivers carry significant loads of anthropogenic Gd, originating from contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging, the Rhine River also carries large amounts of anthropogenic La and lately Sm which are discharged into the river from an industrial point source. Here, we assess the bioavailability of these anthropogenic microcontaminants in these rivers by analyzing the aragonitic shells of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Concentrations of purely geogenic REE in shells of comparable size cover a wide range of about one order of magnitude between different sampling sites. At a given sampling site, geogenic REE concentrations depend on shell size, i.e. mussel age. Although both rivers show large positive Gd anomalies in their dissolved loads, no anomalous enrichment of Gd relative to the geogenic REE can be observed in any of the analyzed shells. This indicates that the speciations of geogenic and anthropogenic Gd in the river water differ from each other and that the geogenic, but not the anthropogenic Gd is incorporated into the shells. In contrast, all shells sampled at sites downstream of the industrial point source of anthropogenic La and Sm in the Rhine River show positive La and Sm anomalies, revealing that these anthropogenic REE are bioavailable. Only little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to dissolved REE and their general ecotoxicity, but considering that anthropogenic Gd and even La have already been identified in German tap water and that anthropogenic La and Sm are bioavailable, this should be monitored and investigated further. - Highlights: • Corbicula fluminea shells are bioarchives of dissolved geogenic REE in

  6. Hierarchical Bayesian clustering for nonstationary flood frequency analysis: Application to trends of annual maximum flow in Germany

    Sun, Xun; Lall, Upmanu; Merz, Bruno; Dung, Nguyen Viet

    2015-08-01

    Especially for extreme precipitation or floods, there is considerable spatial and temporal variability in long term trends or in the response of station time series to large-scale climate indices. Consequently, identifying trends or sensitivity of these extremes to climate parameters can be marked by high uncertainty. When one develops a nonstationary frequency analysis model, a key step is the identification of potential trends or effects of climate indices on the station series. An automatic clustering procedure that effectively pools stations where there are similar responses is desirable to reduce the estimation variance, thus improving the identification of trends or responses, and accounting for spatial dependence. This paper presents a new hierarchical Bayesian approach for exploring homogeneity of response in large area data sets, through a multicomponent mixture model. The approach allows the reduction of uncertainties through both full pooling and partial pooling of stations across automatically chosen subsets of the data. We apply the model to study the trends in annual maximum daily stream flow at 68 gauges over Germany. The effects of changing the number of clusters and the parameters used for clustering are demonstrated. The results show that there are large, mainly upward trends in the gauges of the River Rhine Basin in Western Germany and along the main stream of the Danube River in the south, while there are also some small upward trends at gauges in Central and Northern Germany.

  7. Exploring the Prospects for Cross-Border Climate Change Adaptation between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands

    Marjolein C.J. Van Eerd

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will have various effects on river basins: precipitation levels and water temperature may change, floods and also droughts may occur more frequently. These effects do not respect man-made borders, so climate adaptation in itself is a transnational challenge. Adaptation can reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change effects. Within the Rhine river basin, North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands are dealing with climate adaptation governance, both on the national and on the transboundary level. The aim of this paper is to get a better understanding of factors that stimulate or constrain transboundary governance of climate change adaptation. Our presumption is that the level of congruence between policy arrangements on both sides of the border has an impact on the prospects for cooperation. By applying the Policy Arrangement Approach we found similarities and differences between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands. The two arrangements are similar in their involvement of multiple actors on multiple levels, the degree of decentralization of policy making, a relatively strong feeling of urgency (though framed differently and the availability of knowledge resources. However, in the Netherlands adaptation is primarily water related and sector based, while in North Rhine-Westphalia the focus is more integrated, aiming at a balancing of different values and interests. Other differences are related to the amount and division of financial resources available and to actors’ responsibilities. The latter is geared towards a public responsibility in the Netherlands, while in North Rhine-Westphalia dealing with flood risks is also a responsibility of civilians and other private parties. We conclude that the degree of congruence between the two states is fairly high and will present argument as to why this offers good opportunities for further cooperation.

  8. Backscatter Analysis Using Multi-Temporal and Multi-Frequency SAR Data in the Context of Flood Mapping at River Saale, Germany

    Sandro Martinis; Christoph Rieke

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an analysis of multi-temporal and multi-frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar data is performed to investigate the backscatter behavior of various semantic classes in the context of flood mapping in central Europe. The focus is mainly on partially submerged vegetation such as forests and agricultural fields. The test area is located at River Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, which is covered by a time series of 39 TerraSAR-X data acquired within the time interval December 2009 to Jun...

  9. Incorporating circulation statistics in bias correction of GCM ensembles: hydrological application for the Rhine basin

    Photiadou, Christiana; van den Hurk, Bart; van Delden, Aarnout; Weerts, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    An adapted statistical bias correction method is introduced to incorporate circulation-dependence of the model precipitation bias, and its influence on estimated discharges for the Rhine basin is analyzed for a historical period. The bias correction method is tailored to time scales relevant to flooding events in the basin. Large-scale circulation patterns (CPs) are obtained through Maximum Covariance Analysis using reanalysis sea level pressure and high-resolution precipitation observations. A bias correction using these CPs is applied to winter and summer separately, acknowledging the seasonal variability of the circulation regimes in North Europe and their correlation with regional precipitation rates over the Rhine basin. Two different climate model ensemble outputs are explored: ESSENCE and CMIP5. The results of the CP-method are then compared to observations and uncorrected model outputs. Results from a simple bias correction based on a delta factor (NoCP-method) are also used for comparison. For both summer and winter, the CP-method offers a statistically significant improvement of precipitation statistics for subsets of data dominated by particular circulation regimes, demonstrating the circulation-dependence of the precipitation bias. Uncorrected, CP and NoCP corrected model outputs were used as forcing to a hydrological model to simulate river discharges. The CP-method leads to a larger improvement in simulated discharge in the Alpine area in winter than in summer due to a stronger dependence of Rhine precipitation on atmospheric circulation in winter. However, the NoCP-method, in comparison to the CP-method, improves the discharge estimations over the entire Rhine basin.

  10. Numeric simulation of the Permocarbon in the northern Upper Rhine Graben; Numerische Modellierung des Permokarbon im noerdlichen Oberrheingraben

    Rohrer, L.; Zuehlke, R. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Wenke, A. [GeoThermal Engineering GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Spath, F. [Ueberlandwerke Gross-Gerau GmbH, Gross-Gerau (Germany)

    2012-10-16

    Due to the large countersink depths and broader lateral extension, the sediments of the permocarbon in the Upper Rhine Graben are a potential geothermal reservoir. The Saar Nahe basin as an intramontainous basin of the Variscan Orogen between Alsace-Lorraine and Bad Kreuznach (Federal Republic of Germany) proceeds in the deep underground of the northern Upper Rhine Graben. Neighboured recent and former upper sections of the Central German Crystalline Threshold in S-SE and subordinated to the Taunus mountain in NW are the former supply areas for the Saar Nahe basin. Recently, large-dimensioned exposures in the Saar Nahe basin offer excellent opportunities for reservoir analogue studies of the Rotliegend rock in the underground of the northern Upper Rhine Graben. Based on reprocessed 2D seismology from the 1970ies and 1980ies and based on the data from exploration drillings, a lithofacial and petrophysical database is established for the Rotliegend rock. This database is supplemented by a newly acquired 2D seismology from actual geothermal energy projects. The integrated dataset was interpreted with high-resolution. The resulting static 3D model includes 10 stratigraphic horizons and a fault modelling. The tie-depth-conversion is based on the Geophon sinking measurement and stack velocities. Facial analyses of the digestion analogons as well as further drilling data were implemented in the facies model covering the northern sub basin of the northern Upper Rhine Graben. This implemented structural, stratigraphic and facial model forms the input data set for a pursuing dynamic modelling. The objective is the temporal and spatial simulation of heat distribution and fluid transport within the Permocarbon in the future use of geothermal energy. Coarse sandstone units as well as plugged micro conglomerate units from digestion analogous studies justify the expectation of the existence of suitable reservoir units with a large lateral continuity of the northern Upper Rhine

  11. Human impacts on tides overwhelm the effect of sea level rise on extreme water levels in the Rhine-Meuse delta

    Vellinga, N. E.; Hoitink, A. J F; van der Vegt, M.; Zhang, W.; Hoekstra, P.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to link tidal and subtidal water level changes to human interventions, 70. years of water level data for the Rhine-Meuse tidal river network is analysed using a variety of statistical methods. Using a novel parameterization of probability density functions, mean high and low water level

  12. Nitrate elimination by denitrification in hardwood forest soils of the Upper Rhine floodplain - correlation with redox potential and organic matter

    Brettar, Ingrid; Trémolières, Michèle; Sanchez-Pérez, José-Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Denitrification in floodplains is a major issue for river- and groundwater quality. In the Upper Rhine valley, floodplain forests are about to be restored to serve as flood retention areas (polders). Besides flood attenuation in downstream areas, improvement of water quality became recently a major goal for polder construction. Redox potential monitoring was suggested as a means to support assessment of nitrogen elimination in future floodplains by denitrification during controlled flooding. ...

  13. Unraveling the Quaternary river incision in the Moselle valley (Rhenish Massif, Germany): new insights from cosmogenic nuclide dating (10Be/26Al) of the Main Terrace complex

    Rixhon, Gilles; Cordier, Stéphane; Harmand, Dominique; May, Simon Matthias; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Dunai, Tibor; Binnie, Steven; Brückner, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Throughout the whole river network of the Rhenish Massif, the terrace complex of the so-called Main Terrace forms the morphological transition between a wide upper palaeovalley (plateau valley) and a deeply incised lower valley. The youngest level of this Main Terrace complex (YMT), directly located at the edge of the incised valley, represents a dominant geomorphic feature in the terrace flight; it is often used as a reference level to identify the start of the main middle Pleistocene incision episode (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). The latter probably reflects the major tectonic pulse that affected the whole Massif and was related to an acceleration of the uplift rates (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). The Main terraces are particularly well preserved in the lower Moselle valley and are characterized by a constant absolute elevation of their base along a 150 km-long reach. Despite that various hypotheses have been proposed to explain this horizontality (updoming, faulting...), all studies assumed an age of ca. 800 ka for the YMT, mainly based on the questionable extrapolation of palaeomagnetic data obtained in the Rhine valley. Therefore, a reliable chronological framework is still required to unravel the spatio-temporal characteristics of the Pleistocene evolution of the Moselle valley. In this study, we apply cosmogenic nuclide dating (10Be/26Al) to fluvial sediments pertaining to the Main Terrace complex or to the upper Middle Terraces. Several sites along the lower Moselle were sampled following two distinct sampling strategies: (i) depth profiles where the original terrace (palaeo-)surface is well preserved and did not experience much postdepositional burial (e.g., loess cover); and (ii) the isochron technique where the sediment thickness exceeds 3 m. Cosmogenic nuclide ages recently obtained for three rivers in the Meuse catchment in the western Rhenish Massif demonstrated that the Main Terraces were younger than expected and their abandonment was diachronic along the

  14. Tectonic movements detected recently in the Upper Rhine Graben

    Stemberk, Josef; Fecker, E.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Rybář, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 1 (2008), s. 187-198. ISSN 0453-3267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : tectonic movements * monitoring * Upper Rhine Graben Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  15. Impact of wastewater on fish health: a case study at the Neckar River (Southern Germany) using biomarkers in caged brown trout as assessment tools.

    Vincze, Krisztina; Scheil, Volker; Kuch, Bertram; Köhler, Heinz R; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-08-01

    The present work describes a field survey aiming at assessing the impact of a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent on fish health by means of biomarkers. Indigenous fish were absent downstream of the STP. To elucidate the reason behind this, brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) were exposed in floating steel cages up- and downstream of a STP located at the Neckar River near Tübingen (Southern Germany), for 10 and 30 days. A combination of biomarker methods (histopathological investigations, analysis of the stress protein Hsp70, micronucleus test, B-esterase assays) offered the possibility to investigate endocrine, geno-, proteo- and neurotoxic effects in fish organs. Biological results were complemented with chemical analyses on 20 accumulative substances in fish tissue. Even after short-term exposure, biomarkers revealed clear evidence of water contamination at both Neckar River sites; however, physiological responses of caged brown trout were more severe downstream of the STP. According to this, similar bioaccumulation levels (low μg/kg range) of DDE and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at both sampling sites, while up to fourfold higher concentrations of four PAHs, methyl-triclosan and two synthetic musks occurred in the tissues of downstream-exposed fish. The results obtained in this study suggest a constitutive background pollution at both sites investigated at the Neckar River and provided evidence for the additional negative impact of the STP Tübingen on water quality and the health condition of fish. PMID:25860546

  16. Comparing model performance of two rainfall-runoff models in the Rhine basin using different atmospheric forcing data sets

    A. H. te Linde

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing wish and necessity to simulate the possible effects of climate change on the discharge regime on large rivers such as the Rhine in Europe, there is a need for well performing hydrological models that can be applied in climate change scenario studies. There exists large variety in available models and there is an ongoing debate in research on rainfall-runoff modelling on whether or not physically based distributed models better represent observed discharges than conceptual lumped model approaches do. In this paper, the hydrological models HBV and VIC were compared for the Rhine basin by testing their performance in simulating discharge. Overall, the semi-distributed conceptual HBV model performed much better than the distributed physically based VIC model (E=0.62, r2=0.65 vs. E=0.31, r2=0.54 at Lobith. It is argued here that even for a well-documented river basin such as the Rhine, more complex modelling does not automatically lead to better results. Moreover, it is concluded that meteorological forcing data has a considerable influence on model performance, irrespectively to the type of model structure and the need for ground-based meteorological measurements is emphasized.

  17. The simultaneous occurrence of surge and discharge extremes for the Rhine delta

    Kew, S. F.; Selten, F. M.; Lenderink, G.; Hazeleger, W.

    2013-08-01

    The low-lying Netherlands is at risk from multiple threats of sea level rise, storm surges and extreme river discharges. Should these occur simultaneously, a catastrophe will be at hand. Knowledge about the likelihood of simultaneous occurrence or the so-called "compound effect" of such threats is essential to provide guidance on legislation for dike heights, flood barrier design and water management in general. In this study, we explore the simultaneous threats of North Sea storm surges and extreme Rhine river discharge for the current and future climate in a large 17-member global climate model ensemble. We use a simple approach, taking proxies of north-northwesterly winds over the North Sea and multiple~day precipitation averaged over the Rhine basin for storm surge and discharge respectively, so that a sensitivity analysis is straightforward to apply. By investigating soft extremes, we circumvent the need to extrapolate the data and thereby permit the model's synoptic development of the extreme events to be inspected. Our principle finding based on the climate model data is that, for the current climate, the probability of extreme surge conditions following extreme 20-day precipitation sums is around 3 times higher than that estimated from treating extreme surge and discharge probabilities as independent, as previously assumed. For the future climate (2070-2100), the assumption of independence cannot be rejected, at least not for precipitation sums exceeding 7 days.

  18. The simultaneous occurrence of surge and discharge extremes for the Rhine delta

    S. F. Kew

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The low-lying Netherlands is at risk from multiple threats of sea level rise, storm surges and extreme river discharges. Should these occur simultaneously, a catastrophe will be at hand. Knowledge about the likelihood of simultaneous occurrence or the so-called "compound effect" of such threats is essential to provide guidance on legislation for dike heights, flood barrier design and water management in general. In this study, we explore the simultaneous threats of North Sea storm surges and extreme Rhine river discharge for the current and future climate in a large 17-member global climate model ensemble. We use a simple approach, taking proxies of north-northwesterly winds over the North Sea and multiple~day precipitation averaged over the Rhine basin for storm surge and discharge respectively, so that a sensitivity analysis is straightforward to apply. By investigating soft extremes, we circumvent the need to extrapolate the data and thereby permit the model's synoptic development of the extreme events to be inspected. Our principle finding based on the climate model data is that, for the current climate, the probability of extreme surge conditions following extreme 20-day precipitation sums is around 3 times higher than that estimated from treating extreme surge and discharge probabilities as independent, as previously assumed. For the future climate (2070–2100, the assumption of independence cannot be rejected, at least not for precipitation sums exceeding 7 days.

  19. Cohabiting unions in France and West Germany

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the non-marital birth pattern in France and West Germany. Since the beginning of the eighties, France witnessed a steady increase in non-marital birth rates, while in West Germany non-marital birth rates have remained at a relatively low level. We attribute these differences to the institutional and legal constraints from both sides of the Rhine which hamper or foster childbearing in cohabiting unions. Using data from the French and German Family and Fertility Survey, we apply event history modeling to the transition to marriage and first birth. Our results indicate a polarization of family forms in both countries. In West Germany, we find a polarization in a "family sector" and a "non-family sector" while in France there is a polarization in a "marriage sector" and a "cohabiting sector".

  20. Fiscal Supervision and the Soft Budget Constraint: Evidence from Germany

    Christofzik, Désirée I.; Kessing, Sebastian G.

    2014-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of local borrowing regulations in maintaining fiscal sustainability and the effect of supervision over municipal budgeting on local debt using a panel on municipalities in Germany's most populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia from 2003 to 2011. The identification strategy relies on a differences-in-differences approach and exploits the fact that a reform making it temporarily more likely to prevent financial supervision was implemented gradually across municipalit...

  1. The effectiveness of polder systems on peak discharge capping of floods along the middle reaches of the Elbe River in Germany

    S. Huang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In flood modelling, many one-dimensional (1-D hydrodynamic models are too restricted in capturing the spatial differentiation of processes within a polder or system of polders and two-dimensional (2-D models are very demanding in data requirements and computational resources. The latter is an important consideration when uncertainty analyses using the Monte Carlo techniques are to complement the modelling exercises. This paper describes the development of a quasi-2-D modeling approach, which still calculates the dynamic wave in 1-D but the discretisation of the computational units is in 2-D, allowing a better spatial representation of the flow in polders and avoiding large additional expenditure on data pre-processing and computational time. The model DYNHYD (1-D hydrodynamics from the WASP5 modeling package was used as a basis for the simulations and extended to incorporate the quasi-2-D approach. A local sensitive analysis shows the sensitivity of parameters and boundary conditions on the filling volume of polders and capping of the peak discharge in the main river system. Two flood events on the Elbe River, Germany were used to calibrate and test the model. The results show a good capping effect on the flood peak by the proposed systems. The effect of capping reduces as the flood wave propagates downstream from the polders (up to 0.5 cm of capping is lost for each additional kilometer from the polders.

  2. Seasonal variations of rare earths and yttrium distribution in the lowland Havel River, Germany, by agricultural fertilization and effluents of sewage treatment plants

    Highlights: • Seasonal variations of REE abundance in surface waters depending on agricultural fertilisation and drainage flux. • Control of Eu in surface water by barite as a component of common NPK fertilisers. • Variation of anthropogenic Gd chelates in surface water due to sewage treatment management. - Abstract: REE and Y (REY) distribution in the lowland Havel River passing the Federal State of Berlin, Germany, depends on contributions of point sources such pharmaceutical and high-tech industries, acid water from the open pit lignite mining, and medical application of very stable organic Gd chelates. Another omnipresent dispersed source of REY are water-soluble Ca-phosphates containing micro-amounts of Eu(II)-bearing barite as components of common agricultural fertilizers. After distribution in the field during the cold season (October through March) these Ca-phosphates dissolve and secondary phosphates and calcite precipitate both being enriched in light REE. Heavy REE are preferably exported by runoff together with part of the micro-contaminant barite leading to high Yb/Nd ratios in the Havel water and REY distribution patterns with only small Eu deficits. During the warm season (April through September) light REE together with phosphate are leached from secondary soil minerals by runoff. The micro-component barite is retained in vegetation-covered soil. Thus, REY patterns of Havel water show significant Eu deficits. The high Gd anomalies result from medical applications of Gd-chelates which after urination pass the sewage treatment plants. The seasonal variations of total Gd in the Havel River are artifacts based on seasonal locally varied discharge of effluents from sewage treatment plants. The natural Gd concentration of 8 pmol/l in the northern Havel is enhanced to 3300 pmol/l, when the Havel River leaves Berlin territory. The elimination of phosphate from Lake Tegel water affects the fractionation of REE but not the concentration of total Gd

  3. Fluvial dynamics of the Meuse-Rhine system at the SW-border of the Roer Valley Graben (Belgium-Netherlands) during the Early to Middle Pleistocene transition

    Beerten, Koen; Westerhoff, Wim E.; Menkovic, Armin

    2015-04-01

    . Deposition of Rhine sediments was interrupted when the Meuse prograded deeper into the graben, as can be inferred from gravel petrology and grain size. The sequence ends with another episode of deposition by the Rhine, after which the graben area evolves into a local sedimentation system (Boxtel Formation). The pollen spectra suggest that sedimentation took place during stadials and interstadials, while interglacial sediments are not preserved. We conclude that the poor development of Cromerian Meuse sediments in the Roer Valley Graben is probably due to a drastic decrease of river competence and capacity when it leaves the Campine block and enters the flat graben floor. There, the competence of the sand-dominated Rhine is insufficient to transport the (very) coarse gravels of the Meuse.

  4. Simultaneous measurements of tidal straining and advection at two parallel transects far downstream in the Rhine ROFI

    Rijnsburger, Sabine; van der Hout, Carola M.; van Tongeren, Onno; de Boer, Gerben J.; van Prooijen, Bram C.; Borst, Wil G.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2016-05-01

    This study identifies and unravels the processes that lead to stratification and destratification in the far field of a Region of Freshwater Influence (ROFI). We present measurements that are novel for two reasons: (1) measurements were carried out with two vessels that sailed simultaneously over two cross-shore transects; (2) the measurements were carried out in the far field of the Rhine ROFI, 80 km downstream from the river mouth. This unique four dimensional dataset allows the application of the 3D potential energy anomaly equation for one of the first times on field data. With this equation, the relative importance of the depth mean advection, straining and nonlinear processes over one tidal cycle is assessed. The data shows that the Rhine ROFI extends 80 km downstream and periodic stratification is observed. The analysis not only shows the important role of cross-shore tidal straining but also the significance of along-shore straining and depth mean advection. In addition, the nonlinear terms seem to be small. The presence of all the terms influences the timing of maximum stratification. The analysis also shows that the importance of each term varies in the cross-shore direction. One of the most interesting findings is that the data are not inline with several hypotheses on the functioning of straining and advection in ROFIs. This highlights the dynamic behaviour of the Rhine ROFI, which is valuable for understanding the distribution of fine sediments, contaminants and the protection of coasts.

  5. Influence of a Storm Surge Barrier’s Operation on the Flood Frequency in the Rhine Delta Area

    Hua Zhong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rhine River Delta is crucial to the Dutch economy. The Maeslant barrier was built in 1997 to protect the Rhine estuary, with the city and port of Rotterdam, from storm surges. This research takes a simple approach to quantify the influence of the Maeslant storm surge barrier on design water levels behind the barrier. The dikes in the area are supposed to be able to withstand these levels. Equal Level Curves approach is used to calculate the Rotterdam water levels by using Rhine discharges and sea water levels as input. Their joint probability function generates the occurrence frequency of a certain combination that will lead to a certain high water level in Rotterdam. The results show that the flood frequency in Rotterdam is reduced effectively with the controlled barrier in current and in future scenarios influenced by climate change. In addition, an investigation of the sensitivity of the operational parameters suggests that there is a negligible influence on the high water level frequency when the decision closing water level for the barrier is set higher due to the benefits of navigation (but not exceeding the design safety level 4 m MSL.

  6. Waste heat project for the Upper Rhine region

    This third semiannual report gives a picture of the progress made in the work of sub-projects. Interim results are given for the fields treated by sub-projects 1 to 4. Among others, this report for the first time presents the final official survey on thermal pollution in the upper Rhine region for the year of reference 1973. Analyses and evaluations of waste heat effects in the upper Rhine region have not been carried out yet at the present state of the project. (orig.)

  7. Maximum magnitude in the Lower Rhine Graben

    Vanneste, Kris; Merino, Miguel; Stein, Seth; Vleminckx, Bart; Brooks, Eddie; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Estimating Mmax, the assumed magnitude of the largest future earthquakes expected on a fault or in an area, involves large uncertainties. No theoretical basis exists to infer Mmax because even where we know the long-term rate of motion across a plate boundary fault, or the deformation rate across an intraplate zone, neither predict how strain will be released. As a result, quite different estimates can be made based on the assumptions used. All one can say with certainty is that Mmax is at least as large as the largest earthquake in the available record. However, because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, larger earthquakes than anticipated often occur. Estimating Mmax is especially challenging within plates, where deformation rates are poorly constrained, large earthquakes are rarer and variable in space and time, and often occur on previously unrecognized faults. We explore this issue for the Lower Rhine Graben seismic zone where the largest known earthquake, the 1756 Düren earthquake, has magnitude 5.7 and should occur on average about every 400 years. However, paleoseismic studies suggest that earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. What to assume for Mmax is crucial for critical facilities like nuclear power plants that should be designed to withstand the maximum shaking in 10,000 years. Using the observed earthquake frequency-magnitude data, we generate synthetic earthquake histories, and sample them over shorter intervals corresponding to the real catalog's completeness. The maximum magnitudes appearing most often in the simulations tend to be those of earthquakes with mean recurrence time equal to the catalog length. Because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, we expect larger earthquakes than observed to date to occur. In a next step, we will compute hazard maps for different return periods based on the

  8. Passage of native riverine fishes through geometrically different sections of a vertical slot fishway on the Moselle River, Germany

    Pitsch, Matthias; Mockenhaupt, Bernd; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study effects of different geometric types of pools or change of the flow direction on the passability of fish, sets of PIT antennas were installed inside a modern vertical slot fishway at the mouth of the River Moselle. Fish of 13 abundant species were caught and tagged with PIT tags in 2013 and released in the tailwater of Koblenz. 16% of the tagged fish were detected entering the fishway a short time after release. These individuals provided data on entry and passage rates for different sections of the fishway. Preliminary results show differences in passage time and passage rates between different sections of the fishway.

  9. Long-term and short-term erosion rates in river catchments of the Rhenish Massif and the Black Forest, Germany

    Meyer, H.; Hetzel, R.; Strauss, H.

    2007-12-01

    We constrained long-term erosion rates from the concentration of cosmogenic 10Be in stream sediments in order to quantify the Late Quaternary denudation history of mountain ranges in central Europe. Four different catchments in Germany, ranging in size from 8 to 379 km2 were investigated. Two of them, the Aabach and Möhne catchments drain predominantly low-grade Paleozoic metasediments. The other two, the Gutach and Acher catchments in the Black Forest are situated in Late Paleozoic granites. Erosion rates derived from the 10Be concentrations range from 29 to 86 mm/ka in the Rhenish Massif and from 26 to 91 mm/ka in the Black Forest. These spatially-averaged erosion rates integrate over the past 7 to 23 ka. Central to our investigation are questions concerning the relative importance of lithology and catchment relief on long-term erosion rates. Short-term erosion rates for all catchments were quantified by combining the amounts of suspended and dissolved loads in water samples with water discharge data and basin area. By analyzing the stable isotope signatures δ18O of river water and δ13C of dissolved anorganic carbon and by taking into account the precipitation and evaporation we corrected the dissolved load for organic, atmospheric and anthropogenic inputs. The preliminary short-term erosion rates vary between 9 and 33 mm/ka and are only about one third of the erosion rates derived from 10Be. The short-term erosion rates are complemented by erosion rates derived from the volume of sediment stored behind reservoirs of known age. These erosion rates range from 2 to 13 mm/ka and are lower than the erosion rates derived from river loads, as they do not take into account the dissolved load. Furthermore, we focused on dependence of lithology and land use on short-term erosion rates.

  10. Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany

    Kronimus, Alexander [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: kronimus@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, Jan [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de

    2007-05-15

    Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile.

  11. Backscatter Analysis Using Multi-Temporal and Multi-Frequency SAR Data in the Context of Flood Mapping at River Saale, Germany

    Sandro Martinis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analysis of multi-temporal and multi-frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar data is performed to investigate the backscatter behavior of various semantic classes in the context of flood mapping in central Europe. The focus is mainly on partially submerged vegetation such as forests and agricultural fields. The test area is located at River Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, which is covered by a time series of 39 TerraSAR-X data acquired within the time interval December 2009 to June 2013. The data set is supplemented by ALOS PALSAR L-band and RADARSAT-2 C-band data. The time series covers two inundations in January 2011 and June 2013 which allows evaluating backscatter variations between flood periods and normal water level conditions using different radar wavelengths. According to the results, there is potential in detecting flooding beneath vegetation in all microwave wavelengths, even in X-band for sparse vegetation or leaf-off forests.

  12. Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany

    Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile

  13. Robust assessment of future changes in extreme precipitation over the Rhine basin using a GCM

    S. F. Kew

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of future changes in extremes of multiday precipitation sums are critical for estimates of future discharge extremes of large river basins. Here we use a large ensemble of global climate model SRES A1b scenario simulations to estimate changes in extremes of 1–20 day precipitation sums over the Rhine basin, projected for the period 2071–2100 with reference to 1961–1990.

    We find that in winter, an increase of order 10%, for the 99th percentile precipitation sum, is approximately fixed across the selected range of multiday sums, whereas in summer, the changes become increasingly negative as the summation time lengthens. Explanations for these results are presented that have implications for simple scaling methods for creating time series of a future climate. We show that this scaling behavior is sensitive to the ensemble size and indicate that currently available discharge estimates from previous studies are based on insufficiently long time series.

  14. Analysis of possible impacts of climate change on the hydrological regimes of different regions in Germany

    H. Bormann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of climate change scenarios on the hydrological regimes of five different regions in Germany is investigated. These regions (Northwest Germany, Northeast Germany and East German basins, upper and lower Rhine, pre-Alps differ with respect to present climate and projected climate change. The physically based SVAT-model SIMULAT is applied to theoretical soil columns based on combinations of land use, soil texture and groundwater depth to quantify climate change effects on the hydrological regime. Observed climate, measured at climate stations of the German Weather Service (1991–2007, is used for comparison with climate projections (2071–2100 generated by the regional scale climate model WETTREG.

    While all climate scenarios implicate an increase in precipitation in winter, a decrease in precipitation in summer and an increase in temperature, the simulated impacts on the hydrological regime are regionally different. In the Rhine region and in Northwest Germany, an increase in the annual runoff and groundwater recharge is simulated despite the increase in temperature and potential evapotranspiration. In the Eastern part of Germany and the pre-Alps, annual runoff and groundwater recharge will decrease. Due to dry conditions in summer, the soil moisture deficit will increase (in Northeast Germany and the East German basins in particular or remain constant (Rhine region. In all regions the seasonal variability in runoff and soil moisture status will increase. Despite regional warming actual evapotranspiration will decrease in most regions except in areas with shallow groundwater tables and the lower Rhine. Although the study is limited by the fact that only one climate model was used to drive one hydrologic model, the study shows that the hydrological regime will be affected by climate change. The direction of the expected changes seems to be obvious as well as the necessity of the adaptation of future water

  15. Process interpretation of laminated lacustrine sediments from the valley of the river Alf, Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    Eichhorn, Luise; Pirrung, Michael; Zolitschka, Bernd; Büchel, Georg

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution annually laminated sediment archives from lakes Holzmaar and Meerfelder Maar located in the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field are in the focus of many investigations (e.g. Brauer et al. 2001, Zolitschka 1991). These publications are related to predominantly biogenic varves covering the last ca. 14 ka years, i.e. the Lateglacial and the Holocene. In our study, laminated sediments consisting of clay-silt couplets are presented from paleolake Alf. This paleolake formed in a valley dammed by volcanic products, and covers the Pleniglacial between 31 and 24 ka BP (Pirrung et al. 2007). The focus of our study is the characterization of the structure of clay-silt couplets and the determination of their origin. The applied granulometry revealed mean grain sizes of 10 μm for the light laminae (colors refer to core scan photo) and 14 μm for the dark laminae (both middle silt). X-ray diffraction confirms identical mineral phases for light and dark laminae, with light laminae being clay-enriched containing a higher amount of sericite and chlorite while dark laminae are enriched in quartz. X-ray fluorescence and detrital microfacies analysis on thin sections indicate that calcite dominates in the dark laminae. Microscopically, three different types of silt layers are present. Type I are laminae with homogeneous sublayers, Type II are graded laminae and Type III are laminae with graded sublayers. Processes causing the formation of these silt lamination types can be attributed to repeatedly occurring snow melting, permafrost thawing or rain events linked with sediment delivery from the catchment into the lake. The amount of precipitation and melt water, sediment discharge and density stratification lead to gravity suspension fall out, partial erosion of previously deposited unconsolidated sediments and resuspension in the lake. Brauer, A., et al. (2001). Lateglacial varve chronology and biostratigraphy of lakes Holzmaar and Meerfelder Maar, Germany. Boreas 30

  16. Determination of moderately polar arsenolipids and mercury speciation in freshwater fish of the River Elbe (Saxony, Germany).

    Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Mothes, Sibylle; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Piechotta, Christian; Mattusch, Jürgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic and mercury are frequent contaminants in the environment and care must be taken to limit their entrance into the food chain. The toxicity of both elements strongly depends upon their speciation. Total amounts of As and Hg as well as their species were analyzed in muscle and liver of 26 fishes of seven freshwater fish species caught in the River Elbe. The median concentrations of As were 162 μg kg(-1) w.w. in liver and 92 μg kg(-1) w.w. in muscle. The median concentrations of total Hg were 241 μg kg(-1) w.w. in liver and 256 μg kg(-1) w.w. in muscle. While this level of Hg contamination of the freshwater fish in the River Elbe is significantly lower than 20 years ago, it exceeds the recommended environmental quality standard of 20 μg Hg kg(-1) w.w. by a factor of 5-50. However, the European maximum level of 500 μg Hg kg(-1) for fish for human consumption is rarely exceeded. Arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons were determined and partially identified in methanolic extracts of the fish by HPLC coupled in parallel to ICP-MS (element specific detection) and ESI-Q-TOF-MS (molecular structure detection). While arsenobetaine was the dominant As species in the fish, six arsenolipids were detected and identified in the extracts of liver tissue in common bream (Abramis brama), ide (Leuciscus idus), asp (Aspius aspius) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Four arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFA) and two arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHC) are reported in freshwater fish for the first time. With respect to mercury the more toxic MeHg(+) was the major species in muscle tissue (>90% of total Hg) while in liver Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) were of equal importance. The results show the high relevance of element speciation in addition to the determination of total element concentrations to correctly assess the burden of these two elements in fish. PMID:26552521

  17. Floodplain lakes as an archive for the metal pollution in the River Elbe (Germany) during the 20th century

    Highlights: • A floodplain sediment sequence (about 1900–1998) was analyzed on potentially harmful elements. • High sediment contamination by industry restricted to unstable metal binding forms. • After closure of industries (1990) the level of floodplain contamination perpetuates. • Antagonistic binding forms indicate a sensitive equilibrium in sediments. • Floodplain management requires the stabilization of the environmental equilibrium. - Abstract: The German Elbe River floodplains rank under the most polluted areas in Europe. A sudden concentration increase of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is documented in sediment profiles of Elbe bayous. The increase is dated to the mid of the 20th century (137Cs) and indicates industrialization of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) as the source of intense pollution. The collapse of the GDR and the industries in the 1990s is traced by a concentration decrease in young sediments. The contamination is restricted to an increase of unstable binding forms; the hydroxide binding form is predominant. The geogenic concentration portions are of normal level and remain stable throughout the profiles (0–2 m). The equilibrium of contradictory binding forms in the sediments makes it mandatory not to interfere with the thermodynamic conditions and to keep the Elbe floodplain as an undisturbed ecological system

  18. Temperature predictions for geothermal exploration - a lithospheric-scale 3D approach applied to the northern Upper Rhine Graben

    Freymark, Jessica; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Bär, Kristian; Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Kracht, Matthias; Stiller, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben and its prolongation, the Hessian depression, were formed as part of the European Cenozoic Rift System in a complex extensional to transtensional setting. At present-day, the Upper Rhine Graben is one of the regions in Germany that are well suitable for deep geothermal exploitation. In the framework of the EU-funded project "IMAGE" (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration) we aim to contribute to the development of an integrated and multidisciplinary approach for the exploration of geothermal reservoirs by understanding the processes and properties controlling the spatial distribution of key parameters such as the underground temperature. Typically, reservoir-scale numerical models are developed for predictions on the subsurface hydrothermal conditions and for reducing the risk of drilling non-productive geothermal wells. One major problem related to such models is setting appropriate boundary conditions that define, for instance, how much heat enters the reservoir from greater depths. To understand the deep thermal field of the northern Upper Rhine Graben in the federal state of Hessen, we first develop a 3D structural model that differentiates the main geological units of the lithosphere including the shallow sedimentary fill. This model allows to solve the steady-state conductive heat equation and understand the first-order controlling factors of the regional thermal field. We present the database (e.g. seismic reflection data) and the methodological workflow (involving, e.g., 3D gravity modelling) that were used to develop the lithospheric-scale 3D structural model. Furthermore, we show how certain features of the structural model such as thickness variations of the radiogenic-heat-producing crystalline crust control the temperature distribution in the subsurface.

  19. Weimar Germany

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  20. Weimar Germany

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...... dissolution of open access and that the political system needs the capacity of efficiently creating legitimacy in order to sustain openness. The failure of Weimar Germany also indicates that the international political system might work as a destabilizing factor of open access and that the nation...

  1. Calculation of emissions into rivers in Germany using the MONERIS model. Nutrients, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Berechnung von Stoffeintraegen in die Fliessgewaesser Deutschlands mit dem Modell MONERIS. Naehrstoffe, Schwermetalle und Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe

    Fuchs, Stephan; Scherer, Ulrike; Wander, Ramona [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser und Gewaesserentwicklung; Behrendt, Horst; Venohr, Markus; Optiz, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V., Berlin (Germany); Hillenbrand, Thomas; Marscheider-Weidemann, Frank; Goetz, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of both projects was a methodological development of the MONERIS model to quantify emissions from point and diffuse sources into Germany's surface waters. Both projects are based on consistent sub-basins and the according basic data as well as homogenous calculation algorithms that are adapted to the specifications of each substance group. The research encompasses Germany's large river basins as well as their catchment areas outside Germany and in total covers an area of 650,000 km{sup 2}. This was divided into 3456 analytical units (2759 of those in Germany), the average catchment areas being 190 km{sup 2} (135 km{sup 2} in Germany). All input data was collected and preprocessed with the highest spatial and temporal resolution possible based on the detailed topology. The modelling was performed in individual annual steps for the period between 1983-2005. For the evaluation of the temporal trends the data was aggregated for the periods 1983-1987 (''1985''), 1993-1997 (''1995''), 1998-2002 (''2000'') and 2003-2005 (''2005'') to soften the impact of hydrological influences. The basic data and model results for all sub-basins, years and substance groups of both projects were merged into one database. Additionally, a web-based graphical user interface was developed to visualise the emissions for any area aggregation can be visualised. The completion of both projects delivered for the first time ever homogenous instruments that can identify the most important sources and contamination hotspots for different relevant substance groups in larger river basins which can then serve as a basis for further analyses to achieve efficient measures to reduce pollution. (orig.)

  2. From Sandoz to Salmon: Conceptualizing resource and institutional dynamics in the Rhine watershed through the SES framework

    Sergio Villamayor-Tomas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a case study of the Rhine River to examine the relevance of Common Pool Resource (CPR Theory for two conditions in which it has not been extensively tested: large scale international water management and pollution problems. For that purpose, we link variation in pollution abatement to a set of explanatory variables proposed by CPR theory. Causal inference is established through process tracing and a series of within-case comparison across actor groups (i.e. riparian nations, industry, and agriculture, resource types (i.e. point source, and non-point source pollutants, and time periods (1976–1986, when treaties provided a limited basis for collective action and pollution abatement, and 1987–2001, when the Rhine Action Plan proved more successful. According to our analysis, a number of CPR variables can help understanding cooperation for pollution abatement in the Rhine case. These include physical attributes such as clear hydrological boundaries; governance factors such as the articulation of monitoring and decision-making at different governance levels and the proportional allocation of costs and benefits of abating pollution; and actor factors like the small size, trust and homogeneity of some actor groups and leadership. Other variables proposed by CPR theory proved to be irrelevant or in need of qualification. These include the right to self-organize and to participate in decision-making, communication and resource-dependence. Finally, two variables, not emphasized by CPR theory, proved relevant: the occurrence of external disturbances and the role of interest groups. We conclude that CPR theory is valuable for explaining pollution management in large trans-boundary river basins, but requires qualification and extension.

  3. Characterization of flood and precipitation events in Southwestern Germany and stochastic simulation of extreme precipitation (Project FLORIS-SV)

    Florian, Ehmele; Michael, Kunz

    2016-04-01

    Several major flood events occurred in Germany in the past 15-20 years especially in the eastern parts along the rivers Elbe and Danube. Examples include the major floods of 2002 and 2013 with an estimated loss of about 2 billion Euros each. The last major flood events in the State of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany occurred in the years 1978 and 1993/1994 along the rivers Rhine and Neckar with an estimated total loss of about 150 million Euros (converted) each. Flood hazard originates from a combination of different meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic processes. Currently there is no defined methodology available for evaluating and quantifying the flood hazard and related risk for larger areas or whole river catchments instead of single gauges. In order to estimate the probable maximum loss for higher return periods (e.g. 200 years, PML200), a stochastic model approach is designed since observational data are limited in time and space. In our approach, precipitation is linearly composed of three elements: background precipitation, orographically-induces precipitation, and a convectively-driven part. We use linear theory of orographic precipitation formation for the stochastic precipitation model (SPM), which is based on fundamental statistics of relevant atmospheric variables. For an adequate number of historic flood events, the corresponding atmospheric conditions and parameters are determined in order to calculate a probability density function (pdf) for each variable. This method involves all theoretically possible scenarios which may not have happened, yet. This work is part of the FLORIS-SV (FLOod RISk Sparkassen Versicherung) project and establishes the first step of a complete modelling chain of the flood risk. On the basis of the generated stochastic precipitation event set, hydrological and hydraulic simulations will be performed to estimate discharge and water level. The resulting stochastic flood event set will be used to quantify the

  4. Nudging Germany

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed...

  5. Characterization of fault zones in shell lime of the Upper Rhine Graben. Digestion analogue studies; Charakterisierung von Stoerungszonen im Muschelkalk des Oberrheingrabens. Aufschlussanalogstudien

    Meier, Silke; Bauer, Johanna F.; Philipp, Sonja L. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Strukturgeologie

    2012-10-16

    The authors of the contribution under consideration present first results on the features of fault zones with different displacements in the shell limestone of the region Kraichgau (Federal Republic of Germany) as digestion analogues for the shell limestone of the Upper Rhine Graben. At small displacements, the fault nuclei are not so mighty. However, the failure zones are well expressed also at small fault zones. These results are significant for the permeability of the reservoir especially during the inactive phases of the fault zones.

  6. 18O/16O ratio in groundwater of the Federal Republic of Germany

    More than 900 groundwater samples of 480 municipal water factories were collected at the area of the Federal Republic of Germany. The 18O/16O-ratio decreases from the north (-7per mill) to south (below -11per mill) due to an increasing distance from the south ('continental effect') and an increasing altitude above sealevel ('altitude effect'). The decrease of the 18O/16O-ratio per 1000 m altitude above sea level is 2.8per mill, per 1000 km distance from the sea 2.4per mill. At the coast an initial value of -7.2per mill results from the multicorrelation analysis. Except of two cases, some samples near to the coast and alongside river Rhine, the groundwater samples represent the mean oxygen isotope ratio of the local precipitation. This oxygen isotope ratio will be found in the conductive tissues of the plants (trees), too. Therefore the knowledge of the natural variation of the oxygen isotope ratio can serve as a tool in studies of plant physiology, water ecology, palaeclimatology and food analysis. (orig.)

  7. An analysis of seismic hazard in the Upper Rhine Graben enlightened by the example of the New Madrid seismic zone.

    Doubre, Cécile; Masson, Frédéric; Mazzotti, Stéphane; Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-05-01

    Seismic hazard in the "stable" continental regions and low-level deformation zones is one of the most difficult issues to address in Earth sciences. In these zones, instrumental and historical seismicity are not well known (sparse seismic networks, seismic cycle too long to be covered by the human history, episodic seismic activity) and many active structures remain poorly characterized or unknown. This is the case of the Upper Rhine Graben, the central segment of the European Cenozoic rift system (ECRIS) of Oligocene age, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100 km. Even if this region has already experienced some destructive earthquakes, its present-day seismicity is moderate and the deformation observed by geodesy is very small (below the current measurement accuracy). The strain rate does not exceed 10-10 and paleoseismic studies indicate an average return period of 2.5 to 3 103 ka for large earthquakes. The largest earthquake known for this zone is the 1356 Basel earthquake, with a magnitude generally estimated about 6.5 (Meghraoui et al., 2001) but recently re-evaluated between 6.7 and 7.1 (Fäh et al et al., 2009). A comparison of the Upper Rhine Graben with equivalent regions around the world could help improve our evaluation of seismic hazard of this region. This is the case of the New Madrid seismic zone, one of the best studied intraplate system in central USA, which experienced an M 7.0 - 7.5 earthquake in 1811-1812 and shares several characteristics with the Upper Rhine Graben, i.e. the general framework of inherited geological structures (reactivation of a failed rift / graben), seismicity patterns (spatial variability of small and large earthquakes), the null or low rate of deformation, and the location in a "stable" continental interior. Looking at the Upper Rhine Graben as an analogue of the New Madrid seismic zone, we can re-evaluate its seismic hazard and consider the

  8. Operational forecasting for the Rhine-Meuse Estuary - Modelling and Operating Storm Surge Barriers

    Bogaard, Tom; van Dam, Theo; Twigt, Daniel; de Goederen, Sacha

    2016-04-01

    Large parts of the Netherlands are very vulnerable to extreme storm surges, due to its low lying, highly populated and economically valuable coastal areas. In this project the focus is on the low-lying Rhine-Meuse estuary in the south-western part of the Netherlands. The area is protected by a complex defence system, including dunes, dikes, large barriers and a retention basin. Hydrodynamics in this complex delta area are influenced by tide, storm surge, discharges of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and the operation of barriers. A forecasting system based on the generic operational platform software Delft-FEWS has been developed in order to produce timely and accurate water level forecasts for the Rhine-Meuse estuary. Barriers as well as their complex closing procedures are included in this operational system. A high resolution 1D hydrodynamic model, forced by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) product from the Dutch national weather service (KNMI) and hydrodynamic conditions from the Dutch Water Authority (Rijkswaterstaat), runs every six-hours with a forecast horizon of seven days. The system is operated at Rijkswaterstaat, who is responsible for hydrodynamic forecasting and the operation of the main storm surge barriers of the Netherlands. By running the hydrodynamic model in an automated way the system is able to provide accurate forecasts at all times: during calm weather conditions or when severe storm situations might require closing of the barriers. Especially when storm and peak discharge events coincide, careful operation of the barriers is required. Within the Delft-FEWS platform tools have been developed to test different closing procedures instantly, in case of an event. Expert forecasters will be able to examine effects of multiple closing procedures as well as (partial) failure of the barriers on water levels in the estuary. Apart from forecasting, the system can be used offline to mimic storm events for training purposes. Forecasters at Dutch Water

  9. Genetic Analysis of a Population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.)in the Rhine System

    Papa, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The present study was developed under the guidelines of a regional project to support the management of the anadromous salmonids in the Rhine, particularly the reintroduction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) The main aim was to assign the salmons ascending to the Iffezheim lock to salmons used for reintroduction in the Rhine. It was analysed if such an assignment was reasonably possible. Furthermore, we wanted to find out if an established Rhine population already exists. The Ph.D. st...

  10. CrossWater - Modelling micropollutant loads from different sources in the Rhine basin

    Moser, Andreas; Bader, Hans-Peter; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Scheidegger, Ruth; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The contamination of fresh surface waters with micropollutants originating from various sources is a growing environmental issue. The challenges for an effective political regulation are numerous, particularly for international water basins. One prerequisite for effective management is the knowledge of water quality across different parts of a basin. In this study within the Rhine basin, the spatial patterns of micropollutant loads and concentrations from different use classes are investigated with a mass flow analysis and compared to the established territorial jurisdictions on micropollutants and water quality. The source area of micropollutants depends on the specific use of a compound. The focus of this study is on i) herbicides from agricultural landuse, ii) biocides from material protection on buildings and iii) human pharmaceuticals from households. The total mass of micropollutants available for release to the stream network is estimated based on statistical application and consumption data. Based on GIS data of agricultural landuse, vector data of buildings, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) locations, respectively, the available mass of micropollutants is spatially distributed to the catchment areas. The actual release of micropollutants to the stream network is calculated with empirical loss rates related to river discharge for agricultural herbicides and to precipitation for biocides. For the pharmaceuticals the release is coupled to the metabolism rates and elimination rates in WWTP. For a first approximation national sales are downscaled to the catchment level to specify the available mass for selected model compounds (agricultural herbicides: Isoproturon, biocides: Carbendazim, human pharmaceuticals: Carbamazepine and Diclofenac). The available mass of herbicides and biocides is multiplied with empirical loss rates independent from discharge or precipitation to calculate the loads. The release of the pharmaceuticals was calculated by multiplying

  11. School Assistance in Special Schools in North Rhine-Westphalia: Initial Position, Study Design, and First Results

    Rüdiger Kißgen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available School assistance, where it is practiced in Germany, appears to be a permanent personnel resource in the daily routine of special schools, as the first initial surveys in the counties ofBavaria and Thuringia show. To clarify the situation in special schools in the counry of North Rhine-Westphalia, a study was designed to examine the topic from the perspective of the school management, class teachers, and school assistants using a questionnaire-based survey. In this article, in addition to the study design, the results of the survey from the school management questionnaire are presented. Among other things, it shows that the utilization of school assistants has increased more than thirtyfold between the school years 2000/2001 and 2010/2011. The consequences of this development are discussed in terms of inclusive education in general schools.

  12. Retrodeformation of the southern Upper Rhine Graben: new insights on continental oblique rifting

    Bertrand, Guillaume; Horstmann, Mathias; Hermann, Oliver; Behrmann, Jan H.

    2005-02-01

    Surface flattening retrodeformations of the southern Upper Rhine Graben (URG) are presented in this paper. The two models presented cover the southwestern and southeastern parts of the URG (Colmar, France, and Freiburg, Germany, areas respectively). Results from these models indicate that the URG resulted from a sinistrally oblique extension for a significant part of the rifting. Early extension was along a nearly E-W (i.e. orthogonal) direction and concentrated on the main border faults. Deformation then propagated toward the graben interior as stretching direction rotated counter clockwise of 20-40°. Systematic along-strike variation of cumulated heave, throw and slip is also shown. It is suggested that this along-strike variation of fault displacement could be a characteristic feature of oblique continental rifting in general. Offset analyses of selected geological horizons indicate that some fault segments (Vosgian fault, near Selestat, France) were possibly active prior to deposition of early Tertiary sediments. Finally, close spatial coincidence between major fault segments and recent earthquakes hypocenters indicates that part of the fault system, at least in the Freiburg area, is still active.

  13. Numerical Modeling of a Potential Geological CO2 Sequestration Site at Minden (Germany)

    Naderi Beni, A.; Michael Kühn; R. Meyer; C. Clauser

    2012-01-01

    We study opportunities for CO2 sequestration in geological formations of the state North Rhine Westphalia in Germany. Simulations are performed for evaluating a potential site within the Bunter sandstone formation near the town of Minden in a depth of around 3,000 m using the numerical simulator TOUGHREACT. Our focus is on three CO2 storage mechanisms: (1) hydrodynamic trapping, (2) dissolution trapping, and (3) mineral trapping. The results show that due to buoyancy the injected CO2 phase in...

  14. Material and non-material motivation for compliance: disclosure of food hygiene inspection results in Germany

    Bavorova, Miroslava; Fietz, Anica

    2014-01-01

    The publication of food inspection results is one of the innovative measures introduced that use both material and non-material motivation of food businesses to increase regulatory compliance. Disclosure is not a new instrument and has been implemented in, for instance, Denmark, Los Angeles or New York. In Germany, in the last decade a few food hygiene controls results were established (e.g., Berlin Pankow, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Zwickau). In this paper, we present the first results of...

  15. FLOOD ACTION PLAN OF THE RIVER RHINE——DEVELOPMENT AND REALIZATION(IN BRIEF)%莱茵河流域防洪规划——发展及其实施(论文摘编)

    KARL-Heinz Rother

    2006-01-01

    @@ The River Rhine situated in the middle of central Europe is a striking example for the diverging concerns of natural wetland schemes and human uses. The River Rhine basin covers an area of 190 000 km2and is settled by 50 million people, living in nine different countries. Only in the 19th century the natural moving water courses of the River Rhine were fixed in a singular riverbed allowing the human utilization of the flood prone areas by agriculture, settlement and infrastructure.

  16. Geothermal energy - hydrothermal utilisation of geothermal energy in Germany

    In this phase of developing and utilisation of geothermal potentials the hydrothermal sector plays a very important role due to its possibilities of supplying heat in the MW-range at any time of day or night or year. The heat is contained in thermal water extracted from depth between 2000 and 2500 m by means of deep drilling. In Germany there are hydrothermal potentials in the South (Rhine Valley) and North. The following article describes the geological, technological and economic aspects of thermal water utilisation for the generation of thermal energy. (orig.)

  17. New generation of integrated geological-geomorphological reconstruction maps in the Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands

    Pierik, Harm Jan; Cohen, Kim; Stouthamer, Esther

    2016-04-01

    Geological-geomorphological reconstructions are important for integrating diverse types of data and improving understanding of landscape formation processes. This works especially well in densely populated Holocene landscapes, where large quantities of raw data are produced by geotechnical, archaeological, soil science and hydrological communities as well as in academic research. The Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands, has a long tradition of integrated digital reconstruction maps and databases. This contributed to improve understanding of delta evolution, especially regarding the channel belt network evolution. In this contribution, we present a new generation of digital map products for the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. Our reconstructions expand existing channel belt network maps, with new map layers containing natural levee extent and relative elevation. The maps we present have been based on hundreds of thousands of lithological borehole descriptions, >1000 radiocarbon dates, and further integrate LIDAR data, soil maps and archaeological information. For selected time slices through the Late Holocene, the map products describe the patterns of levee distribution. Additionally, we mapped the palaeo-topography of the levees through the delta, aiming to resolve what parts of the overbank river landscape were the relatively low and high positioned areas in the past landscape. The resulting palaeogeographical maps are integrative products created for a very data-rich research area. They will allow for delta-wide analysis in studying changes in the Late Holocene landscape and the interaction with past habitation.

  18. Paleogeography of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB) from Eocene to Pliocene

    Berger, Jean-Pierre; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Becker, Damien; Grimm, Matthias; Grimm, Kirsten; Picot, Laurent; Storni, Andrea; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Derer, Christian; Schaefer, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    Twenty paleogeographic maps are presented for Middle Eocene (Lutetian) to Late Pliocene times according to the stratigraphical data given in the companion paper by Berger et al. this volume. Following a first lacustrine-continental sedimentation during the Middle Eocene, two and locally three Rupelian transgressive events were identified with the first corresponding with the Early Rupelian Middle Pechelbronn beds and the second and third with the Late Rupelian ≪ Serie Grise ≫ (Fischschiefer and equivalents). During the Early Rupelian (Middle Pechelbronn beds), a connection between North Sea and URG is clearly demonstrated, but a general connection between North Sea, URG and Paratethys, via the Alpine sea, is proposed, but not proved, during the late Rupelian. Whereas in the southern URG, a major hiatus spans Early Aquitanian to Pliocene times, Early and Middle Miocene marine, brackish and freshwater facies occur in the northern URG and in the Molasse Basin (OMM, OSM); however, no marine connections between these basins could be demonstrated during this time. After the deposition of the molasse series, a very complex drainage pattern developed during the Late Miocene and Pliocene, with a clear connection to the Bresse Graben during the Piacenzian (Sundgau gravels). During the Late Miocene, Pliocene and Quaternary sedimentation persisted in the northern URG with hardly any interruptions. The present drainage pattern of the Rhine river (from Alpine area to the lower Rhine Embayment) was not established before the Early Pleistocene.

  19. Permeability in fractured rocks from deep geothermal boreholes in the Upper Rhine Graben

    Vidal, Jeanne; Whitechurch, Hubert; Genter, Albert; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Baujard, Clément

    2015-04-01

    Permeability in fractured rocks from deep geothermal boreholes in the Upper Rhine Graben Vidal J.1, Whitechurch H.1, Genter A.2, Schmittbuhl J.1, Baujard C.2 1 EOST, Université de Strasbourg 2 ES-Géothermie, Strasbourg The thermal regime of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is characterized by a series of geothermal anomalies on its French part near Soultz-sous-Forêts, Rittershoffen and in the surrounding area of Strasbourg. Sedimentary formations of these areas host oil field widely exploited in the past which exhibit exceptionally high temperature gradients. Thus, geothermal anomalies are superimposed to the oil fields which are interpreted as natural brine advection occurring inside a nearly vertical multi-scale fracture system cross-cutting both deep-seated Triassic sediments and Paleozoic crystalline basement. The sediments-basement interface is therefore very challenging for geothermal industry because most of the geothermal resource is trapped there within natural fractures. Several deep geothermal projects exploit local geothermal energy to use the heat or produce electricity and thus target permeable fractured rocks at this interface. In 1980, a geothermal exploration well was drilled close to Strasbourg down to the Permian sediments at 3220 m depth. Bottom hole temperature was estimated to 148°C but the natural flow rate was too low for an economic profitability (Muschelkalk and the sandstones of Buntsandstein also. For the ongoing project at Rittershoffen, two deep boreholes, drilled down to 2.7 km depth target a reservoir in the sandstones of Buntsandstein and in the granitic basement interface. The thermal, hydraulic and chemical stimulations of the first well lead the project to an economic profitability with a temperature of 170° C and an industrial flow rate of 70 L/s. The deep sedimentary cover and the top of the granitic basement are the main target of the geothermal project in the URG. Permeability of fractured rocks after drilling operations or

  20. Cegelec Germany

    Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

  1. Roman and early-medieval occupation of a delta: settlement dynamics in the Rhine-Meuse delta (The Netherlands)

    Pierik, Harm Jan; van Lanen, Rowin

    2016-04-01

    River landscapes are, since they are cultivated and inhabited by humans, among the most densely populated areas in the world. These landscapes provide fertile substrates, natural resources (e.g. food, raw materials), and abundant water routes for long-distance transport. However, these wet and dynamic landscapes often pose challenges to the people. In the past this sometimes even led to the relocation of production areas and settlements to more suitable areas. In the fluvial dominated part of the Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands, the late-Roman and early-medieval periods (AD 270 - 1050) are characterized by both cultural changes (e.g. in demography, settlement location) and environmental changes (river avulsions, changes in flooding frequency). In the delta plain, the relatively high and dry natural levees were most favourable for habitation. The extension and relative elevation of these important landscape units has recently been mapped in high detail, exploring the distribution of settlements on these landscape units and the changing patterns of settlements through time is the next step. To perform this, we need to integrate the geomorphological reconstructions with archaeological datasets. We have applied a multidisciplinary approach by integrating new high-resolution palaeoenvironmental reconstructions with archaeological datasets. Our aims were to: 1) determine the spatial distribution of settlements on geomorphological landscape units, and 2) explore changes in human-environment interactions from the late Roman period to the Early Middle Ages. In this contribution, we present the first results of these analyses. Integrating these datasets is an important step towards further understanding of the relative contribution of (and the interaction between) environmental and cultural factors in determining settlement distribution in the Rhine-Meuse delta.

  2. Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part II

    Purpose: In the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part II of this study aims to determine the quality of the process and outcome. The reference standard is the assessment of both radiologists and physicians without board certification in radiology working at a university hospital and in outpatient facilities. Materials and Methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. A file was created for each of the 394 patients with image documentation of at least one examination. Each file, which included medical history, physical findings, imaging documentation and written report, was sequentially forwarded to a board-certified radiologist and to a physician without board certification in radiology working in a university hospital and in an outpatient facility. All physicians were requested to complete a structured questionnaire for each file. Results: The referral diagnoses were rated as medically plausible in 81%, the indications for imaging found correct in 76%, the examination techniques considered appropriate in 69%, the clinical question answered in 63%, the interpretation judged medically correct in 50% and all incidental findings documented in 49%. In retrospect, 32% of the examinations were judged superfluous. The sequence of multiple examinations performed on a particular patient was rated as appropriate in 51%. The interpretation revealed specialty-related differences. The plausibility of the referral diagnoses had a significant impact on the appropriateness of subsequent diagnostic investigations. Marked deficits showed sonography, performance by non-radiologists, self

  3. HydroQual: Visual analysis of river water quality

    Accorsi, Pierre; Sallaberry, Arnaud; Lalande, Nathalie; Bringay, Sandra; Le Ber, Florence; Poncelet, Pascal; Fabrègue, Mickaël; Cernesson, Flavie; Braud, Agnès; Teisseire, Maguelonne

    2014-01-01

    Economic development based on industrialization, intensive agriculture expansion and population growth places greater pressure on water resources through increased water abstraction and water quality degradation [40]. River pollution is now a visible issue, with emblematic ecological disasters following industrial accidents such as the pollution of the Rhine river in 1986 [31]. River water quality is a pivotal public health and environmental issue that has prompted governments to plan initiat...

  4. Imaging fractured systems in the Upper Rhine Graben

    Rumpel, H.-M.; Buness, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) holds a large potential for geothermal power production. Until the end of 2008, one geothermal power plant operates in Landau and five are under construction. Glancing at the amount of licences planed for or already given away in the URG gives a good overview of what to expect in future years (www.geotis.de). The main target reservoirs are the Muschelkalk, the Buntsandstein and connecting fracture systems. To exploit these reservoirs, boreholes have to be drilled down to 3000m - 5000m. Seismic exploration helps to build a structural model of the subsurface and to identify the drilling targets. For every survey, the seismic processing should be adapted to the target depth and structure, e.g. fracture zones, karstified aquifers or highly porous sediments. In addition, the best migration method should be chosen to image the geologic structure. Nevertheless, often a standard processing and imaging routine is used to save time and hence to reduce costs. For the URG, the dominant features to image are faults. Many of them are found in the 3D seismic survey, which we used for our study. The survey was especially designed for geothermal exploration in the southern Upper Rhine Graben. We tested five different 3D poststack migration methods, i.e. Kirchhoff, FD, Stolt, phase shift and phase shift plus corrections for lateral velocity variations, and a Kirchhoff 3D prestack migration in time. The same velocity model was used for all poststack migrations and a simplified version for the prestack migration. The FD migration and phase shift plus lateral velocity corrections migration provided the best results of the tested poststack migrations. The prestack migration imaged small faults in the target depths surprisingly well even though we used a basic velocity model.

  5. The deep crust of the Southern Rhine Graben: reflectivity and seismicity as images of dynamic processes

    G. Mayer; P. M. Mai; T. Plenefisch; Helmut Echtler; E. Lüschen; V. Wehrle; B. Müller; K.-P. Bonjer; C. Prodehl; K. Fuchs

    1997-01-01

    The Rhine Graben, part of the European Cenozoic rift system, deserves special attention because of its location in the foreland of the Alpine orogen. The Phanerozoic evolution of the lithosphere in this region is defined by a set of major geodynamic events ranging from the Variscan orogeny, late-orogenic crustal re-equilibration to the interference of rifting and Alpine orogeny in Tertiary times. The Rhine Graben is one of the most detailedly studied continental grabens. Prospecting for hydro...

  6. Trends in occurrence of thermophilous dragonfly species in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW

    Klaus-Jürgen Conze

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996 the “Workgroup Odonata in North Rhine-Westphalia” (“AK Libellen NRW” has built up a data base including about 150.000 data sets concerning the occurrence of dragonflies in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW. This data confirms an increase and spread of some thermophilous dragonfly species in NRW, and the effects of climate change evidenced by an increasing average temperature, are considered to be important reasons for this process.

  7. Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den

  8. Leukaemia in the vicinity of two tritium-releasing nuclear facilities: a comparison of the Kruemmel Site, Germany, and the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA

    In 1991, an increased rate of childhood leukaemia was reported from the small northern German community of Elbmarsch, which is located on the banks of the River Elbe opposite the Kruemmel nuclear power plant. Owing to the fact that the increase occurred six years after the start-up of the plant, radioactive discharges were suspected as being implicated in the development of the cases. Previous investigations have failed to identify any exposure which might be associated with the cluster. Nonetheless, concern regarding the increased tritium burden in the environment remains. To further assess the impact of tritium releases to the environment upon population cancer rates, the releases and leukaemia rates at the Savannah River site, USA, were compared with the Kruemmel site. Based on the data from 1991 to 1995, the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of the Savannah River site was non-significantly less than expected compared with the significantly higher than expected rates close to the German plant. In contrast, tritium releases from the Savannah River site exceed those from the Kruemmel site by several orders of magnitude. The results of this observational study suggest that factors other than environmental tritium releases are associated with the increased number of leukaemia cases near the Kruemmel site. (author)

  9. Charles Darwin's Observations on the Behaviour of Earthworms and the Evolutionary History of a Giant Endemic Species from Germany, Lumbricus badensis (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)

    The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809/1882) began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881). Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae) and the role of these annelids as global ecosystem re workers (concept of bioturbation). In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Bio geographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.

  10. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  11. An Approach for Estimating the Design Flood Flowline on Developed Rivers

    ŞENTÜRK, H. Ali

    2002-01-01

    The stages produced by the major floods on developed rivers (like the Rhine in Europe, the Mississippi and the Red rivers in the USA) indicate that existing stage-discharge relationships are usually several feet higher than the stage-discharge relationship if the rivers were natural or partially developed. The objectives of this paper are to discuss the problem of estimating the flowline for the design flood on developed rivers, and in so far as is possible with existing data, poin...

  12. River bed classification using multi-beam echo-sounder backscatter data

    Kinneging, N.; Snellen, M.; Eleftherakis, D.; Simons, D.G.; Mosselman, E.; Siben, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Netherlands form the delta for some of the major river systems of Europe, comprising the Rhine, the Meuse, the Scheldt and the Eems. These rivers are valuable parts of national and international ecological networks and are of high economic importance. A minimum depth should be guaranteed to keep the rivers navigable. This depth depends not only on water discharge but also on river bed topography that changes dynamically in response to discharge fluctuations. Rijkswaterstaat is the Dutch g...

  13. An up-to-date GNSS velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben: an active seismic region without observed present deformations?

    Masson, Frédéric; Henrion, Eric; Ulrich, Patrice

    2016-04-01

    The Rhine Graben is the central, most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system (ECRIS) of Oligocene age, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1000 km. Within GURN the focus will be on the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). The URG is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges mountains and to the east by the Black Forest. The graben is bounded to the north by the uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette and Vendlincourt folds represent the northern-most structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. In this study, we will present an up-to-date GNSS velocity field of the area based on a network of about 70 stations older than 5 years and ranging up to 12 years. The processing of the final velocity field go through some of corrections due to the use of a permanent GNSS network. An antenna switch generally induce a jump in the data which we have to correct. We also have to correct the outliers in the time series. The last step is to analyze the quality of the series based on the support and environment of the site, if the series is too biased by a flicker noise, we decide to reject it. The results seem to clearly indicate the lack of consistent horizontal velocities (on average 0.38mm/yr) in the URG, which could be not true fort vertical velocities.

  14. An experimental study on the mixing behavior of Ti, Zr, V and Mo in the Elbe, Rhine and Weser estuaries

    Schneider, Alexandre B.; Koschinsky, Andrea; Kiprotich, Joseph; Poehle, Sandra; do Nascimento, Paulo C.

    2016-03-01

    Estuaries are important interfaces between land and ocean, in which the input of trace metals into the ocean via the rivers is often significantly modified along the mixing gradient between freshwater and seawater. In the present study we have carried out mixing experiments using river water from the Rhine, the Elbe and the Weser and seawater from the North Sea with the aim of gaining more insights into the behavior of titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), vanadium (V) and molybdenum (Mo) and their distribution between dissolved and particulate forms during mixing in the estuaries. Little is known about the modification of their concentrations in estuaries and these metals increasingly enter the rivers and the ocean due to their application as so-called high-tech metals in industrial activities. Such laboratory experiments at controlled conditions allow the systematic investigation of chemical changes related to the mixing ratios, independent of further influence factors occurring in natural systems. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry was used for the analytical determination of the four metals. Although our data largely confirmed a strong particle-reactive behavior of Ti and Zr and a mostly conservative behavior of Mo, our mixing experiments revealed partial deviation from this behavior. Vanadium mostly does not follow a strict conservative mixing trend but shows both small ad- and desorption effects along the salinity transect. Also Mo shows some deviations from conservative mixing at mid-salinities. The enrichment of dissolved Ti and Zr at about 50:50 river: seawater mixtures agrees with recently published data of similar field studies and appears to be a systematic effect possibly related to charge transitions on particle surfaces or change of the dissolved metal speciation. The observed effects partly differed in experiments with filtered and non-filtered river water samples, especially for Ti and Zr, highlighting the role of riverine particulate matter for the

  15. Fluvial ecosystem services in the Rhine delta distributaries between 1995 and 2035

    Straatsma, Menno; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Mapping of ecosystem services (ES) and documenting their change over time provides important information for the societal debate and decision making on river management. Large and Gilvear (2014) showed how to score fluvial ES using imagery and tools available through Google Earth, linking observable features, or landcover to ES through inferred fluvial processes, and natural ecosystem functions. While the use of Google Earth enables application anywhere on the globe, their method is labor intensive, and involves subjective judgement as not all parameters are easily observable in spectral data, e.g. the location of embankments. In addition, the method does not take advantage of readily available spatial databases, and existing hydrodynamic model parameterizations, nor can it be used in scenario studies of future fluvial landscapes. Therefore, we aimed at the development of a generic GIS routine to extract the ecosystem services from existing spatial and hydrodynamic model data, and its application to historic and future fluvial landscapes in the Rhine delta. Here, we consider the Rhine distributaries, sized 400 km2, where river restoration measures were carried out between 1995 and 2015 to reduce flood risk reduction and simultaneously improve the ecological status. We computed ES scores for provisioning ES (fisheries, agriculture, timber, water supply), regulating ES (flood mitigation, carbon sequestration, water quality), and supporting ES (biodiversity). Historic ES were derived for the years 1997, 2005, and 2012, based on ecotope maps for these respective years, combined with a water levels and flow velocities derived from a calibrated 2D hydrodynamic model (WAQUA). Ecotopes are defined as 'spatial landscape units that are homogeneous as to vegetation structure, succession stage, and the main abiotic factors that are relevant to plant growth'. ES for 2035 were based on scenarios of landscaping measures. Suitable locations for the measures were determined

  16. Hydrologic constraints on the thermal evolution of the Rhine Graben

    Person, Mark; Garven, Grant

    The role of subsurface fluid flow in the thermal evolution of the Rhine Graben is investigated using transient finite element modeling. The analysis helps elucidate the importance of convective-heat transfer on the thermal maturation of organic matter in rift sediments and permits comparison of the different driving forces on fluids during basin development. Modeling results indicate that in Oligocene time, during a period of marine incursion, groundwater flow was driven by sediment compaction. Heat transfer during this time period was dominated by conduction, as groundwater velocities were too small to disturb the temperature field. Uplift of the Graben shoulders in conjunction with marine regression during Miocene to Recent times probably initiated a regional gravity-driven groundwater flow system. Convective-heat transfer during this period resulted in high heat flow (greater than 120 mW m-2) within ground-water discharge areas near the center of the rift and low heat flow (less than 20 mW m-2) within recharge areas near fault escarpments. Computed petroleum maturation indices (TTI) indicate that oil generation occurred much deeper in regions of groundwater recharge than in discharge areas. The model results are in good agreement with observed geothermie data and occurrences of petroleum within the rift.

  17. Contribution from carbon and sulphur isotopes to the evaluation of biogeochemical processes in groundwater systems controlled by river bank filtration: An example from the Torgau aquifer (Saxony, Germany)

    Sulphur and carbon isotopes were used to reveal flow processes and chemical reactions within an aquifer system partially controlled by river bed infiltration. The investigation site, located at the Elbe river, is the most important water supply area of Saxony. An arrangement of about 40 groundwater sampling points, screened in five or three depth levels within a section crossing the Elbe, was used to describe the situation in the Quaternary aquifer. Using 34S (SO4) and 13C (DIC) as tracers, an improved understanding of the flow pattern has been obtained, especially regarding the penetration of groundwater into the aquifer zone below the Elbe bed. Furthermore, groundwater and Elbe water show different isotope signatures. Depletion of 34S in the area between the Elbe and the production wells is attributed to the oxidation of pyritic sulphur. The measured radiocarbon concentrations of groundwater fulvic acids suggest that less than 50% of the DOC originates from old sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) sources in the aquifer. 14C decrease along the flow path from the Elbe to the captation facilities has been observed and is proposed as being due to a simultaneous degradation of Elbe DOC and dissolution of old SOC from the penetrated aquifer. The unusual chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater near the edge of the investigated profile is interpreted as a local influence of ascending waters coming from Zechstein formations and penetrating the overlaying Triassic and Tertiary layers via tectonic faults or geological windows. (author)

  18. Modeling the habitat suitability for the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    Koch, Lisa K; Cunze, Sarah; Werblow, Antje; Kochmann, Judith; Dörge, Dorian D; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Climatic changes raise the risk of re-emergence of arthropod-borne virus outbreaks globally. These viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors, often mosquitoes. Due to increasing worldwide trade and tourism, these vector species are often accidentally introduced into many countries beyond their former distribution range. Aedes albopictus, a well-known disease vector, was detected for the first time in Germany in 2007, but seems to have failed establishment until today. However, the species is known to occur in other temperate regions and a risk for establishment in Germany remains, especially in the face of predicted climate change. Thus, the goal of the study was to estimate the potential distribution of Ae. albopictus in Germany. We used ecological niche modeling in order to estimate the potential habitat suitability for this species under current and projected future climatic conditions. According to our model, there are already two areas in western and southern Germany that appear suitable for Ae. albopictus under current climatic conditions. One of these areas lies in Baden-Wuerttemberg, the other in North-Rhine Westphalia in the Ruhr region. Furthermore, projections under future climatic conditions show an increase of the modeled habitat suitability throughout Germany. Ae. albopictus is supposed to be better acclimated to colder temperatures than other tropical vectors and thus, might become, triggered by climate change, a serious threat to public health in Germany. Our modeling results can help optimizing the design of monitoring programs currently in place in Germany. PMID:26634351

  19. Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part 1

    Purpose: In the state of North-Rhine Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part I of this study aims to collect characteristic epidemiological data and to assess structural quality. Materials and methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. Two university radiologists documented the pertinent test data from the submitted images and written records. Independently of each other, five university radiologists anonymously reviewed the image quality of each examination using structured questionnaires. Results: A total of 920 patients gave their informed consent and participated. Questionnaires from 787 patients, 852 GPs and 611 radiologists or other interpreting physicians as well as the complete survey data from 530 examinations were available. Of 1503 examinations, conventional radiography made up 52%, sonography 17%, computed tomography (CT) 13% and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 5%. Most indications involved the musculoskeletal (37%) and respiratory systems (24%). Physicians without board certification in radiology interpreted 1% of the CT examinations, 26% of the radiographic examinations and 71% of the sonographic examinations. Of the 174 self-referrals, 1% involved CT, 33% conventional radiography and 66% sonography. Written reports were available for 95% of all 469 examinations performed by radiologists and 74% of all 127 examinations conducted by non-radiologists. Only 44% of the 23 sonographic studies were self-referrals by the patient's GP. On average, the radiographic techniques were acceptable in terms of diagnostic information and radiation hygiene. Conventional radiographs were better exposed

  20. 3D structure and conductive thermal field of the Upper Rhine Graben

    Freymark, Jessica; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Bär, Kristian; Stiller, Manfred; Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Kracht, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) was formed as part of the European Cenozoic Rift System in a complex extensional setting. At present-day, it has a large socioeconomic relevance as it provides a great potential for geothermal energy production in Germany and France. For the utilisation of this energy resource it is crucial to understand the structure and the observed temperature anomalies in the rift basin. In the framework of the EU-funded "IMAGE" project (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration), we apply a data-driven numerical modelling approach to quantify the processes and properties controlling the spatial distribution of subsurface temperatures. Typically, reservoir-scale numerical models are developed for predictions on the subsurface hydrothermal conditions and for reducing the risk of drilling non-productive geothermal wells. One major problem related to such models is setting appropriate boundary conditions that define, for instance, how much heat enters the reservoir from greater depths. Therefore, we first build a regional lithospheric-scale 3D structural model, which covers not only the entire URG but also adjacent geological features like the Black Forest and the Vosges Mountains. In particular, we use a multidisciplinary dataset (e.g. well data, seismic reflection data, existing structural models, gravity) to construct the geometries of the sediments, the crust and the lithospheric mantle that control the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat production and hence temperatures. By applying a data-based and lithology-dependent parameterisation of this lithospheric-scale 3D structural model and a 3D finite element method, we calculate the steady-state conductive thermal field for the entire region. Available measured temperatures (down to depths of up to 5 km) are considered to validate the 3D thermal model. We present major characteristics of the lithospheric-scale 3D structural model and results of the 3D

  1. Oblique continental rifting revealed by 3D retro-deformation : example of the Upper Rhine Graben

    Bertrand, G.; Horstmann, M.; Herrmann, O.; Behrmann, J.

    2003-04-01

    Our work has been done within the EU funded ENTEC network, which goal is to study the environmental impact of tectonics in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). The URG is a NNE-trending crustal-scale small-displacement segment of the European Cenozoic rift system. Subsidence and syn-rift sedimentation started in the late Eocene and reached their maximum during Oligocene and lower Miocene. We present two 3D tectonic models that cover the SE and SW borders of the URG (Freiburg area, SW Germany, and Colmar area, NE France, respectively). As the URG is an asymmetric structure, it was crucial to model both sides. Our goal was to infer the movement history of the fault system, to identify areas of strain concentrations that could help locating possible active movements. Our models include several pre-Tertiary geological horizons, that were retrodeformed as passive objects along the faults. Assuming that "pre-rift" sediments were horizontal, our objective was to obtain this geometry by retrodeforming the models. The best quality of restoration was obtained for displacement directions of N80E to N90E on the main border faults, and N50E to N60E on inner faults. Best results also were obtained with sequences of retrodeformation from the graben center toward its borders. It suggests that faulting migrated toward the graben interior. Our study also shows considerable along-strike variations of cumulated slip on both sides of the graben, with amplitudes up to 2.5 km. This caused warping of the basement with a 30--35 km wavelength. Moreover, analyses of displacement reveal that offset of the base Tertiary is locally smaller than of older horizons, suggesting that segments of the W border fault were active prior to deposition of early Tertiary sediments. Finally, the seismicity in the Freiburg model reveals close coincidence between depth projection of faults and hypocenters of recent earthquakes. This suggests on-going activity of part, at least, of the fault system. Our two models are

  2. Erosion rates on different timescales derived from cosmogenic 10Be and river loads: implications for landscape evolution in the Rhenish Massif, Germany

    Meyer, H.; Hetzel, R.; Strauss, H.

    2010-03-01

    We determined erosion rates on timescales of 101-104 years for two catchments in the northeastern Rhenish Massif, in order to unravel the Quaternary landscape evolution in a Variscan mountain range typical of central Europe. Spatially averaged erosion rates derived from in situ produced 10Be concentrations in stream sediment of the Aabach and Möhne watersheds range from 47 ± 6 to 65 ± 14 mm/ka and integrate over the last 9-13 ka. These erosion rates are similar to local rates of river incision and rock uplift in the Quaternary and to average denudation rates since the Mesozoic derived from fission track data. This suggests that rock uplift is balanced by denudation, i.e., the landscape is in a steady state. Short-term erosion rates were derived from suspended and dissolved river loads subsequent to (1) correcting for atmospheric and anthropogenic inputs, (2) establishing calibration curves that relate the amount of suspended load to discharge, and (3) estimating the amount of bedload. The resulting solid mass fluxes (suspended and bedload) agree with those derived from the sediment volume trapped in three reservoirs. However, resulting geogenic short-term erosion rates range from 9 to 25 mm/ka and are only about one-third of the rates derived from 10Be. Model simulations in combination with published sediment yield data suggest that this discrepancy is caused by at least three factors: (1) phases with higher precipitation and/or lower evapotranspiration, (2) rare flood events not captured in the short-term records, and (3) prolonged periods of climatic deterioration with increased erosion and sediment transport on hillslopes.

  3. Modelling the coupled surface water and groundwater system of the Middle Upper Rhine Valley and its response to climate change.

    Queguiner, Solen; Martin, Eric; Thierion, Charlotte; Habets, Florence; Ackerer, Philippe; Lecluse, Simon; Majdalani, Samer

    2010-05-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem holds one of the most important groundwater resources in Europe. This alluvial aquifer provides three-quarters of the regional needs for water. Its functioning is tightly linked to the hydrographic network in the alluvial plain. Indeed an important part of the available groundwater comes from the infiltration of rivers in the very permeable alluvial material of the plain. In other places in the plain a heavy drainage of the aquifer occurs, contributing to the very dense river network. Consequently, this hydrosystem has to be studied in a coupled way, taking into account the complex interaction between surface and subsurface processes. In the framework of the VULNAR project several surface, hydrological and aquifer models are used to study the vulnerability of the Rhine aquifer. This presentation will focuses on the meteorological and surface aspects and their coupling with hydrological models. The Safran-Isba-Modcou (SIM) chain is used to estimate the climate change impact on the hydrology of the region. SIM is composed of a meteorological analysis system (SAFRAN), a land surface model describing the exchange with the atmosphere (ISBA) and a hydrogeological model (MODCOU). A specific version of MODCOU is currently being developed for the region of study. The mass and energy exchanges between the continental surface (including vegetation and snow) and the atmosphere are simulated by ISBA. The LAI (Leaf Area Index) is provided by the ECOCLIMAP2 database and the vegetation is divided into 12 types. The SAFRAN meteorological analysis is used at a resolution of 8 km in the plain and down to a 1km resolution on the mountains bordering the alluvial plain. In a first step a simulation of the water balance on the studied area is presented. The simulation covers a period of 17 years: 1986-2002. The drainage and the runoff are provided to MODCOU and a comparison of the discharges with the observations is presented. Several developments are

  4. Cumulative metal leaching from utilisation of secondary building materials in river engineering.

    Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Willems, F.H.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper estimates the utilisation of bulky wastes (minestone, steel slag, phosphorus slag and demolition waste) in hydraulic engineering structures in Dutch parts of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt over the period 1980-2025. Although they offer several economic, technical and environme

  5. Biomass in Germany

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  6. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    E. H. Sutanudjaja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Results are promising despite the fact that we still use an offline procedure to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater models (i.e. the simulations of both models are separately performed. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydro-geological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reasonably well reproduce the observed groundwater head time series. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the offline-coupling technique simplifies the dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

  7. Nationalism, racism and propaganda in early Weimar Germany: contradictions in the campaign against the "black horror on the Rhine".

    Roos, Julia

    2012-01-01

    During the early 1920s, an average of 25,000 colonial soldiers from North Africa, Senegal and Madagascar formed part of the French army of occupation in the Rhineland. The campaign against these troops, which used the racist epithet ‘black horror on the Rhine’ (schwarze Schmach am Rhein), was one of the most important propaganda efforts of the Weimar period. In black horror propaganda, images of alleged sexual violence against Rhenish women and children by African French soldiers served as metaphors for Germany’s ‘victimization’ through the Versailles Treaty. Because the campaign initially gained broad popular and official support, historians have tended to consider the black horror a successful nationalist movement bridging political divides and strengthening the German nation state. In contrast, this essay points to some of the contradictions within the campaign, which often crystallized around conflicts over the nature of effective propaganda. Extreme racist claims about the Rhineland’s alleged ‘mulattoization’ (Mulattisierung) increasingly alienated Rhinelanders and threatened to exacerbate traditional tensions between the predominantly Catholic Rhineland and the central state at a time when Germany’s western borders seemed rather precarious in the light of recent territorial losses and separatist agitation. There was a growing concern that radical strands within the black horror movement were detrimental to the cohesion of the German nation state and to Germany’s positive image abroad, and this was a major reason behind the campaign’s decline after 1921/22. The conflicts within the campaign also point to some hitherto neglected affinities between the black horror and subsequent Nazi propaganda. PMID:22454974

  8. Systems for the exchange of information across the borders in the upper Rhine region: Germany - France - Switzerland

    In the event of a nuclear accident, the local authorities are required to take actions for the protection of the population. However, as concerns the regions near the border, the passage of a radioactive cloud will not stop at the state border and several states and their rules are concerned. Furthermore intergovernmental conventions have led to the exchange of information between these states. (orig.)

  9. Rehabilitating closed mining sites in North Rhine Westphalia's coal basin

    The Ruhr is a German region undergoing a reconversion. In recent years, several thousand jobs have been lost in the coal, iron and steel industries, especially in coal mines. This trend is going to continue. Rehabilitating former industrial sites so that they can welcome new industries and businesses, is decisive for this region. A rapid and financially advantageous reconversion requires coherence and continuity in the rehabilitation measures undertaken by the companies that serve as receivers, by local authorities and by investors who want to launch new projects. All these parties must manage the various phases of this process in a spirit of coordination. Germany can boast of a series of successful reconversions into industrial areas, exhibition facilities, nature reserves, tourist centers and leisure and rest places

  10. Petrophysical properties and 3D block model of Buntsandstein Sandstones reservoir (Upper Rhine Graben)

    Sébastien, Haffen; Yves, Géraud; Marc, Diraison; Chrystel, Dezayes

    2013-04-01

    Buntsandstein sandstones (upper Permian to middle Triassic), located in the Upper Rhine Graben, appear as an easy target for geothermal exploitation: this reservoir links more or less permeable argillaceous sandstones, intersected by many major faults, to the regional thermal anomaly. In this context, we propose a conceptual geological 3-D block model of the Buntsandstein reservoir which could be used as a guide for future regional geothermal exploration or exploitation. This block presents the Buntsandstein sandstones reservoir at depth with different sedimentary facies (braided rivers, playa lake and fluvio-aeolian), above the Palaeozoic Granit and below the Muschelkalk limestones, intersecting by faults oriented according regional major azimuths: (1) ≈N020°E, corresponding to Rhenish faults and (2) ≈N060°E (or ≈N130°E) corresponding to Hercynian reactivated faults. Petrophysical properties of the reservoir are both controlled by matrix and faults/fractures characteristics. (1) Matrix properties (porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity, Pwaves velocity) have been determined from petrophysical measurements performed on cores of 15 borehole, mainly on borehole EPS1 (Soultz-sous-Forêts, France), continuously cored through Buntsandstein; (2) from thermal gradient analyses based on thermal conductivity measurements on core samples and also from borehole temperature logs run in the same borehole. This last approach allows locating fluid flow and thus permeability at reservoir scale. The flow paths appear as a composite network controlled by 'sedimentary' permeability on one hand and by 'fracture' permeability on the other. Fracturing associated with major fault zones provide pathways for the upward flowing fluids to connect with stratigraphic levels characterized by high matrix permeability and no impermeable macroscopic layers. This is why the Playa Lake and Fluvio-aeolian marginal erg facies provide a reservoir connected to a deep hot fluid source

  11. Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants

    Koch, E. [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

    1995-12-31

    In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

  12. Revised palaeogeographical reconstruction and avulsion history of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands

    Stouthamer, E.; Cohen, K.M.; Hoek, W.Z.; Pierik, H.J.; Taal, L.J.; Hijma, M.P.; Bos, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta, the geography, architecture, and chronology of the channel belts and their flood basins is known in exceptional high detail. This is due to a long history of intensive geological, geomorphological, and archeological research by various universities and knowledge institutes and archaeological consultancy companies. A first reconstruction showing the build-up and palaeogeographical development of the delta in 500 year time-slices was published in 2001 by Beren...

  13. High-technology metals as emerging contaminants: Strong increase of anthropogenic gadolinium levels in tap water of Berlin, Germany, from 2009 to 2012

    Highlights: • Monitoring study Berlin-2012 confirms tap water contamination with gadolinium. • Contamination confined to western districts of Berlin. • Strong increase of anthropogenic gadolinium from 2009 to 2012. • Anthropogenic gadolinium is tracer for wastewater-derived substances. - Abstract: The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in tap water sampled in December 2012 in Berlin, Germany, is characterized by anomalously high levels of gadolinium (Gd). While the western districts of the city show strong anthropogenic positive Gd anomalies in REE distribution patterns, the eastern districts are (almost) unaffected. This contamination with anthropogenic Gd results from Gd-based contrast agents used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, that enter rivers, groundwater and eventually tap water via the clear water effluent from wastewater treatment plants. While the spatial distribution of anthropogenic Gd in 2012 confirms results of an earlier study in 2009 (Kulaksiz and Bau, 2011a), anthropogenic Gd concentrations have increased between 1.5- and 11.5-fold in just three years. This confirms predictions based upon the increase of anthropogenic Gd concentrations in the Havel River over the past two decades and the time it takes the water to migrate from the Havel River to the groundwater production wells. Anomalously high levels of anthropogenic Gd in tap water, which are not confined to Berlin but have also been observed in London, U.K., and in German cities in the Ruhr area and along the Rhine River, reveal that high-technology metals have become emerging contaminants. While non-toxic at the observed concentrations, the anthropogenic Gd is a microcontaminant that may be used as a conservative pseudo-natural tracer for wastewater-derived xenobiotics such as pharmaceuticals, food additives and personal care products. Our results suggest that monitoring the concentrations of such substances in Berlin’s drinking water can be restricted to a few central and

  14. Differences in sensitivity of native and exotic fish species to changes in river temperature

    R.S.E.W. LEUVEN; A.J. HENDRIKS; M.A.J. HULJBREGTS; H.J.R. LENDERS; J. MATTHEWS; G. VAN DER VELDE

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the effects that temperature changes in the Rhine river distributaries have on native and exotic fish diversity.Site-specific potentially affected fractions (PAFs) of the regional fish species pool were derived using species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for water temperature.The number of fish species in the river distributaries has changed remarkably over the last century.The number of native rheophilous species declined up until 1980 due to anthropogenic disturbances such as commercial fishing,river regulation,migration barriers,habitat deterioration and water pollution.In spite of progress in river rehabilitation,the native rheophilous fish fauna has only partially recovered thus far.The total number of species has strongly increased due to the appearance of more exotic species.After the opening of the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway in 1992,many fish species originating from the Ponto-Caspian area colonized the Rhine basin.The yearly minimum and maximum river temperatures at Lobith have increased by circa 4 ℃ over the period 1908-2010.Exotic species show lower PAFs than native species at both ends of the temperature range.The interspecific variation in the temperature tolerance of exotic fish species was found to be large.Using temporal trends in river temperature allowed past predictions of PAFs to demonstrate that the increase in maximum river temperature negatively affected a higher percentage of native fish species than exotic species.Our results support the hypothesis that alterations of the river Rhine's temperature regime caused by thermal pollution and global warming limit the full recovery of native fish fauna and facilitate the establishment of exotic species which thereby increases competition between native and exotic species.Thermal refuges are important for the survival of native fish species under extreme summer or winter temperature conditions [Current Zoology 57 (6):852-862,2011].

  15. Depression Disturbs Germany

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  16. Banking service in Germany

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  17. Earnings Inequality in Germany

    Katharine G. Abraham; Susan N. Houseman

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have documented the growth of earnings inequality in the United States during the 1980s. In contrast to these studies' findings, our analysis of micro data for the former West Germany yields virtually no evidence of growth in earnings inequality over the same period. Between 1978 and 1988, a reduction in the dispersion of earnings among workers in the bottom half of the earnings distribution led to a narrowing of the overall dispersion of earnings in Germany. Earnings different...

  18. Germany; an Immigration Country

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  19. Successive changes in bacterioplankton communities in the River Rhine after copper additions

    Tubbing, D.M.J.; Admiraal, W. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Katako, A. [International Institute for Infrastructural, Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-09-01

    The sensitivity of bacterioplankton to copper was analyzed to see whether initial steps in the selection of cooper-tolerant life-forms in mixed populations of bacteria were accompanied by changes in basic metabolic parameters. Analysis took place by measuring the incorporation of [{sup 3}H]thymidine and [{sup 3}H]leucine, and the hydrolysis of leucyl-{beta}-naphthylamide over a period of 4 d. In acute toxicity tests the radiochemically determined parameters showed the same sensitivities to copper, whereas in the enzyme test the dose-response curve had a much lower slope, indicating less sensitivity. Marked differences were observed in the susceptibility of the different processes after prolonged exposure to copper. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]thymidine, [{sup 3}H]leucine, and proteolytic activity changed substantially during exposure to concentrations as low as 2 to 31 {micro}g Cu L{sup {minus}1}. Higher copper concentrations 126--1,000 {micro}g Cu L{sup {minus}1} led in the course of 24 to 48 h to the development of a bacterial community with a higher overall copper tolerance. In winter, these successive events in bacterial populations were observed in the absence of substantial populations of algae or zooplankton. In summer, the metabolic changes in bacterioplankton expose to copper were strongly affected by the poisoning of other organisms, notably algae, and the subsequent release of organic material. Thus, moderate copper concentrations alter the metabolic profile of bacterial communities, probably as an initial step in the selection of tolerant life-forms.

  20. Modelling the transport of engineered metallic nanoparticles in the river Rhine

    A.A. Markus; J.R. Parsons; E.W.M. Roex; P. de Voogt; R.W.P.M. Laane

    2016-01-01

    As engineered nanoparticles of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and silver, are increasingly used in consumer products, they will most probably enter the natural environment via wastewater, atmospheric deposition and other routes. The aim of this study is to predict the concentrations of these nanoparti

  1. Metazoan parasites of Ponto-Caspian gobies introduced into the Rhine River

    Ondračková, Markéta; Dávidová, Martina; Borcherding, J.; Michálková, Veronika; Slováčková, Iveta; Valová, Zdenka; Jurajda, Pavel

    Liege : Université de Liege, 2012. s. 164. [European Congress of Ichthyology /14./. 03.07.2012-08.07.2012, Liege] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2569 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gobiid fish * Invasive species * Parasites Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  2. A Holocene flood record of the Lower Rhine

    Toonen, W.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Severe floods caused extensive damage and life-loss throughout Europe over the last decades. The magnitude and the short recurrence interval of large events raised questions about the actual safety standards for flood protection. This was reason to raise the 1,250-yr design flood for river dikes in the Netherlands (Waterwet, 2009) from 15,000 to ~16,000 m3s-1. A major problem in calculating the magnitude of the design flood is uncertainty, which mainly originates from limited data availabilit...

  3. Basal conditions and flow dynamics of the Rhine glacier, Alps, at the Last Glacial Maximum

    Cohen, Denis; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Zwinger, Thomas; Machguth, Horst; Haeberli, Wilfried; Fischer, Urs H.

    2016-04-01

    The safe disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological repositories requires their containment and isolation for up to one million years. In Switzerland, repositories are planned in the northern Swiss lowlands near the marginal zone of the former Rhine glacier that repeatedly formed two extensive piedmont lobes (the Rhine and Linth lobes) over the Swiss Plateau. Future ice-age conditions may thus impact the repositories due to erosion by glaciers, permafrost conditions, and changes in groundwater fluxes. We use the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a representative future ice-age scenario over northern Switzerland and model the Rhine glacier at the LGM using a full three-dimensional, thermo-mechanical model that solves Stokes flow in ice and the heat equation in both ice and rock. Permafrost in rocks and sediments is implemented using an effective heat capacity formulation. The Rhine glacier at the LGM is one of the best studied paleo-glacier with geomorphic reconstructions of terminal moraines, equilibrium lines, provenance of erratics, till extent and provenance, and evidences of cold vs warm subglacial environments. These data are compared with modeled ice ice thickness, cold vs warm basal condition, and flow paths. Numerical results indicate that LGM modeled ice extent and ice thickness are not fully consistent with geomorphic reconstructions and known climate proxies: ice is either too thick in the accumulation zone or summer temperatures are too cold at the terminus. Simulations with different climate parameters all indicate, however, that the beds of the Rhine and Linth lobes were at the melting temperature except above local topographic highs and along a thin marginal zone. Sliding speed was highest along topographic lows with ice moving at 20 to 80 m a‑1 depending on mass balance gradients. Basal shear stress was low (< 30 kPa). Melt water was probably abundant due to above-freezing temperatures in summer. Thus, melt water was likely routed over large

  4. Characteristics of geothermal reservoirs in the Upper Rhine Graben of Baden-Wuerttemberg and France; Eigenschaften geothermischer Nutzhorizonte im baden-wuerttembergischen und franzoesischen Teil des Oberrheingrabens

    Stober, I.; Jodocy, M. [Regierungspraesidium Freiburg, Abteilung Umwelt, Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The project entitled ''Development of an Internet Based Geothermal System for Germany'' includes the design of a geothermal information system for the deep hydrogeothermal resources of Germany. For the first time, hydraulic data from the entire Upper Rhine Graben in Baden-Wuerttemberg and France were collected and interpreted. They give hydraulic conductivities in the geothermal reservoirs of the Hauptrogenstein, Oberer Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein. The mean value of the Hauptrogenstein south of Freiburg is T/H = 1,8 . 10{sup -6} m/s, and the Oberer Muschelkalk average is T/H = 2,0 . 10{sup -6} m/s. For the Buntsandstein, the hydraulic conductivity is T/H > 2,4 . 10{sup -7} m/s. Estimated hydraulic conductivities derived from productivity indices and permeability data are used for further comparative considerations. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Projekts ''Geothermisches Informationssystem fuer Deutschland'' wird ein geothermisches Informationssystem fuer die hydrogeothermischen Ressourcen im tiefen Untergrund Deutschlands entwickelt. Im Zuge dieses Projekts wurden erstmals hydraulische Daten aus dem links- und rechtsrheinischen Teil des Oberrheingrabens in Baden-Wuerttemberg und Frankreich zusammengestellt und geohydraulisch ausgewertet. Die Auswertungen liefern Gebirgsdurchlaessigkeiten fuer die potenziellen hydrogeothermischen Nutzhorizonte des Hauptrogensteins, Oberen Muschelkalks und Buntsandsteins. Der Hauptrogenstein erreicht suedlich von Freiburg mittlere Durchlaessigkeiten von T/H = 1,8 . 10{sup -6} m/s, der Obere Muschelkalk liegt im Mittel bei T/H = 2,0 . 10{sup -6} m/s. Fuer den Buntsandstein sind Durchlaessigkeiten von T/H > 2,4 . 10{sup -7} m/s zu erwarten. Zum Vergleich werden abgeschaetzte Durchlaessigkeiten auf der Basis von Produktivitaetsindizes und Poro-Perm-Daten aus Kernproben und bohrlochgeophysikalischen Messungen herangezogen und bewertet. (orig.)

  5. Report on the 1992 study trip on the Weser aboard the laboratory ship 'Max-Pruess' of the Land North-Rhine-Westfalia

    As agreed by the standing committee of the Weser task force ('Arge Weser'), regular trips on the river for taking measurements have been made since 1965. The ninth trip, from May 8th to 14th, 1992 aboard the ''Max Pruess'', a ship equipped with measuring instruments and a laboratory and owned by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia, was concerned with three areas of investigation: A) the Fulda and Werra estuaries, B) the upper and middle Weser (Hann.-Muenden (km 0.0) to Bremen (km 361.1)), C) the lower Weser (Bremen (km 0.0) to Kolumbuskai (km 67.8)). A uniform water quality longitudinal profile of the Weser was established during this trip by means of chemico-physical and biological tests. While investigations by measuring stations cover a longer period of time, the measurements taken during a voyage reflect a transient condition and complement long-term trend investigations. The voyage also permits to gain an overview of relative changes in the condition of the river at various points of its course. The evaluation of the results of this trip is facilitated by investigations of Arge Weser already carried through for the duration of several years and information obtained by previous trips. (orig./EF)

  6. Environmental protection in Germany

    The publication consists of two parts: 1. The National Report of the Federal Republic of Germany for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in June 1992 in Brazil. This report details the development of environment policy in the Federal Republic of Germany since the last UN Conference in 1972 and describes the fundamental principles and objectives of national environment policy; for the first time, an overview is given of the state of the environment in the united Germany. 2. The National Committee's declaration which was presented after the National Report on the Conference and appeals to the industrialised countries to shoulder the particular responsibility they bear and shows what perspectives it sees for future sustainable development on a global scale. (orig./BBR)

  7. The freshwater fish fauna history between Rhine and Ebro: general considerations and comments from on-going developments in fish taxonomy

    Henri Persat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of its position between Central Europe and the Iberian Peninsula, French territory is an obligatory expansion route for their respective continental faunas, freshwater ones included. The twin Rhine-Rhone river drainage basins make an obvious link between both Central and Northern Europe and the South-Western Europe. But how fish might have dispersed along the series of rivers of the Western side of France (Seine, Loire, Charente, Garonne and Adour is less evident, as the ice ages have had a large impact on the pre-existing faunas, before human intervention blurred phylogeographic patterns, either indirectly with trans-watershed canals, or directly with purposeful translocations. What might have survived during the last glacial times is a key question in terms of management and conservation of the local fish biodiversity. Unfortunately, this diversity had been neglected or underappreciated in France until modern phylogeographic and population genetic research provided new and enlightening insights into interspecific and intraspecific variation. Thus, after one century of scientific starvation, French territory recently "gained" a series of novel species in various genera, such as Gobio, Cottus, Squalius, Leuciscus, Phoxinus, and Esox, waiting for more on going "acquisitions" in a near future. These novelties trace a quite different biogeographic landscape of what was formerly supposed to be uniform. Each major river basin retains traces of a more or less recent evolutionary history to put back into the succession of hydrographic and climatic events since the first major invasion, the entrance of cyprinids in Europe during the Oligocene era initiated by the coalescence of what was formerly only an archipelago. The timing of dispersion and on-site speciation will be discussed from the examples provided by the presently investigated genera according to evidence or hypotheses on river connections, sea-level fluctuations and climatic events.

  8. Structure of the genetic diversity in Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) populations across European river systems: consequences for conservation and restoration

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Cottrell, J.E.; Lefevre, F.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.F.P.; Vosman, B.; Tabbener, H.E.; Grassi, F.; Fossati, T.; Castiglione, S.; Krystufek, V.; Fluch, S.; Burg, K.; Vornam, B.; Pohl, A.; Gebhardt, K.; Alba, N.; Agúndez, D.; Maestro, C.; Notivol, E.; Volosyanchuck, R.; Pospiskova, M.; Bordacs, S.; Bovenschen, J.; Dam, van B.C.; Koelewijn, H.P.; Halfmaerten, D.; Ivens, B.; Slycken, Van J.; Vanden Broeck, A.; Storme, V.; Boerjan, W.

    2008-01-01

    Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is a keystone species for riparian ecosystems in Europe. We analysed the structure of genetic diversity of 17 populations from 11 river valleys that are part of seven catchment systems (Danube, Ebro, Elbe, Po, Rhine, Rhone, and Usk) in Europe, in relation to geography

  9. Teacher Education in Germany.

    Viebahn, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Applies the concepts of idealism, individualism, and pragmatism from the Association for Teacher Education in Europe's scenario model to Germany's teacher education. Discusses the current German teacher training system's scholarly approach to idealism; notes organizational problems; examines the special psychological demands on students made by…

  10. Elementary Education in Germany

    Textor, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    In this overview of preschool education in Germany the history of the kindergarten is tracked from 1802 to the present. Different types of pre-primary institutions (creches, kindergartens) are described; statistical data from December 2002 are presented. The article also deals with curriculum development and staff training. It presents the numbers…