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Sample records for river rhine germany

  1. Impact of nitrogen reduction measures on the nitrogen loads of the river Ems and Rhine (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, F.; Bogena, H.; Goemann, H.; Hake, J. F.; Kreins, P.; Kunkel, R.

    The REGFLUD-project, commissioned by Germany’s Federal Research Ministry (BMBF), addresses the problem of reducing diffuse pollution from agricultural production. The objective of the project is the development and application of multi-criteria scientific methods, which are able to predict diffuse pollution in river basins subject to economic feasibility and social acceptability. The selected river basins (the entire Ems basin and sub-catchments of the Rhine) cover a variety of landscape units with different hydrological, hydrogeological and socio-economic characteristics. This paper focuses on the analysis of the effects of certain policy measures to reduce diffuse pollution by nitrogen. For this purpose, a model system consisting of an agricultural sector model, a water balance model and a residence time/denitrification model was combined and applied. First results indicate a wide range of annual nitrogen surpluses for the rural areas between less than 10 N ha -1 a -1 up 200 kg N ha -1 a -1, or more depending on the type and intensity of farming. Compared to the level of nitrogen surpluses the level of nitrogen inputs into the surface waters is relatively moderate because of degradation processes during transport in soil and groundwater. Policy impact analyses for a nitrogen tax and a limitation of the livestock density stress the importance of regionally adjusted measures.

  2. Occurrence and Spatial Distribution of Microplastics in River Shore Sediments of the Rhine-Main Area in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sascha; Worch, Eckhard; Knepper, Thomas P

    2015-05-19

    Plastic debris is one of the most significant organic pollutants in the aquatic environment. Because of properties such as buoyancy and extreme durability, synthetic polymers are present in rivers, lakes, and oceans and accumulate in sediments all over the world. However, freshwater sediments have attracted less attention than the investigation of sediments in marine ecosystems. For this reason, river shore sediments of the rivers Rhine and Main in the Rhine-Main area in Germany were analyzed. The sample locations comprised shore sediment of a large European river (Rhine) and a river characterized by industrial influence (Main) in areas with varying population sizes as well as sites in proximity to nature reserves. All sediments analyzed contained microplastic particles (plastics by infrared spectroscopy showed a large abundance of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene, which covered more than 75% of all polymer types identified in the sediment. Short distance transport of plastic particles from the tributary to the main stream could be confirmed by the identification of pellets, which were separated from shore sediment samples of both rivers. This systematic study shows the emerging pollution of inland river sediments with microplastics and, as a consequence thereof, underlines the importance of rivers as vectors of transport of microplastics into the ocean. PMID:25901760

  3. Groundwater borne nitrate intakes in the surface waters of the river Rhine and Ems basins (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, F.; Bogena, H.; Gömann, H.; Kreins, P.; Kunkel, R.; Behrendt, H.

    2003-04-01

    In the framework of the project REGFLUD commissioned by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research within the research program “ River basin Management” an integrated model system was applied to estimate groundwater-borne nitrogen inputs into the surface waters of the river Rhine and Ems basins. The nitrogen inputs into groundwater are calculated from the nitrogen surpluses reduced by the denitrification losses in the soil related to the ground-water recharge/total runoff ratio. These inputs are transported with the groundwater to the surface waters. On its way nitrate degradation may occur. Thus, a calculation of the groundwater-borne nitrate inputs into surface waters requires knowledge of the groundwater flow paths, the total residence time of the nitrate and the denitrification kinetics in the upper aquifer. These processes were considered by different models: The results of the nitrogen balance model RAUMIS (Henrichsmeyer et al., 1996), which considers the most important N-inputs to the soil (manure, inorganic fertiliser, atmospheric deposition) and N-removals from the soil through crop harvest, were combined with the water balance model GROWA (Kunkel &Wendland, 2002) and the groundwater residence time/denitrification model WEKU (Kunkel &Wendland, 1997). The modelled groundwater-borne nitrogen inputs into surface waters were validated for about 100 monitoring stations using results from the MONERIS model (Behrendt et al., 2002) concerning riverine nitrogen retention, nitrogen inputs from point sources as well as nitrogen inputs through direct runoff (drainage etc.). The values calculated with the integrated model approach used here only show relatively small differences to the observed values (about 10-20 %). This can be regarded as a good agreement. An overall look on the results show that especially rivers in the solid rock areas of the Rhine catchment area display considerably high groundwater borne nitrogen inputs into surface waters. The reasons for this are predominantly unfavourable denitrification conditions and short residence times of groundwater. There only 30% of the diffuse nitrogen input into the groundwater are degraded. The surface waters in the unconsoli-dated rock areas of the river Ems catchment area displayed considerably lower groundwater borne nitrate inputs into surface waters instead. There, the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer is high and the groundwater is predominantly oxygen free and contains pyrite and/or organic carbon compounds, allowing a halving of the nitrate loads in the groundwater within a period of 1 to 4 years. In river basins falling into this regions it could be shown that about 90% of the diffuse nitrogen input into the groundwater are degraded in this way. References Behrendt, H., Huber, P., Kornmilch, M., Opitz, D., Schmoll, O., Scholz, G. &Uebe, R. (2000): Nutrient balances of German river basins. UBA-Texte,23/2000, 261p . Henrichsmeyer, W. et al., Development of the German Agricultural Sector Model RAUMIS96. Final Report of the Cooperation-Project. Research Report for the BMELF (94 HS 021), unpublished, Bonn/Braunschweig, 1996 Kunkel, R. &Wendland, F. (1997). WEKU-a GIS supported stochastic model of groundwater residence times in upper aquifers for the supraregional groundwater management. Envir. Geol., 30(1/2), 1-9. Kunkel, R. &Wendland, F. (2002). The GROWA98 model for water balance analysis in large river basins the river Elbe case study. Journal of Hydrology 259, 152-162.

  4. Flood magnification on the River Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Nicholas; van der Ploeg, Rienk R.; Schweigert, Peter; Hoefer, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Flooding on the German Rhine during the 20th century was tested for trends and assessed to identify causal mechanisms driving worsening of flooding. A review of previous research outlines the range of impacts due to climate change, land-use shifts, and river regulation. Analysis of hydrologic data, especially of the long record at Cologne, documents statistically significant increases in both flood magnitudes and frequencies. Specific-gauge analysis, which isolates the effects of channel modification, documents that 20th century river engineering has caused little of the observed increase in flooding on the German Rhine. Precipitation records from the Rhine basin confirm that flood magnification has been driven by upstream factors, including an increase in flood-producing precipitation of roughly 25% during the past 100 years and increases in runoff yields. In addition, agricultural land-use records suggest that flood magnification can be partially explained by 20th century trends documenting intensification and industrialization of German agriculture.

  5. Microplastics profile along the Rhine River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Thomas; Hauk, Armin; Walter, Ulrich; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics result from fragmentation of plastic debris or are released to the environment as pre-production pellets or components of consumer and industrial products. In the oceans, they contribute to the 'great garbage patches'. They are ingested by many organisms, from protozoa to baleen whales, and pose a threat to the aquatic fauna. Although as much as 80% of marine debris originates from land, little attention was given to the role of rivers as debris pathways to the sea. Worldwide, not a single great river has yet been studied for the surface microplastics load over its length. We report the abundance and composition of microplastics at the surface of the Rhine, one of the largest European rivers. Measurements were made at 11 locations over a stretch of 820?km. Microplastics were found in all samples, with 892,777 particles km (-2) on average. In the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, a peak concentration of 3.9 million particles km (-2) was measured. Microplastics concentrations were diverse along and across the river, reflecting various sources and sinks such as waste water treatment plants, tributaries and weirs. Measures should be implemented to avoid and reduce the pollution with anthropogenic litter in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26644346

  6. Microplastics profile along the Rhine River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Thomas; Hauk, Armin; Walter, Ulrich; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Microplastics result from fragmentation of plastic debris or are released to the environment as pre-production pellets or components of consumer and industrial products. In the oceans, they contribute to the ‘great garbage patches’. They are ingested by many organisms, from protozoa to baleen whales, and pose a threat to the aquatic fauna. Although as much as 80% of marine debris originates from land, little attention was given to the role of rivers as debris pathways to the sea. Worldwide, not a single great river has yet been studied for the surface microplastics load over its length. We report the abundance and composition of microplastics at the surface of the Rhine, one of the largest European rivers. Measurements were made at 11 locations over a stretch of 820 km. Microplastics were found in all samples, with 892,777 particles km ‑2 on average. In the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, a peak concentration of 3.9 million particles km ‑2 was measured. Microplastics concentrations were diverse along and across the river, reflecting various sources and sinks such as waste water treatment plants, tributaries and weirs. Measures should be implemented to avoid and reduce the pollution with anthropogenic litter in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Microplastics profile along the Rhine River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Thomas; Hauk, Armin; Walter, Ulrich; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics result from fragmentation of plastic debris or are released to the environment as pre-production pellets or components of consumer and industrial products. In the oceans, they contribute to the ‘great garbage patches’. They are ingested by many organisms, from protozoa to baleen whales, and pose a threat to the aquatic fauna. Although as much as 80% of marine debris originates from land, little attention was given to the role of rivers as debris pathways to the sea. Worldwide, not a single great river has yet been studied for the surface microplastics load over its length. We report the abundance and composition of microplastics at the surface of the Rhine, one of the largest European rivers. Measurements were made at 11 locations over a stretch of 820?km. Microplastics were found in all samples, with 892,777 particles km ?2 on average. In the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, a peak concentration of 3.9 million particles km ?2 was measured. Microplastics concentrations were diverse along and across the river, reflecting various sources and sinks such as waste water treatment plants, tributaries and weirs. Measures should be implemented to avoid and reduce the pollution with anthropogenic litter in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26644346

  8. Flood trends along the Rhine: the role of river training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vorogushyn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have detected positive trends in flood flows in German rivers, among others, at Rhine gauges over the past six decades. The presence and detectability of the climate change signal in flood records has been controversially discussed, particularly against the background of massive river training measures in the Rhine. In the past the Rhine catchment has been heavily trained, including the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. The present study investigates the role of river training on changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the effect of the Rhine weir cascade and of a series of detention basins was investigated. By homogenising the original flood flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be from a few percentage points to more than 10 percentage points smaller compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures, and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges during this period was partly caused by an unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. This superposition resulted from an acceleration of the Rhine waves due to the construction of the weir cascade and associated channelisation and dike heightening. However, at the same time, tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual maximum Rhine peaks, showed strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of another driver or drivers which acted alongside river training.

  9. Genotoxic and teratogenic effect of freshwater sediment samples from the Rhine and Elbe River (Germany) in zebrafish embryo using a multi-endpoint testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Käufer, M; Gartiser, S; Hafner, C; Schiwy, S; Keiter, S; Gründemann, C; Hollert, H

    2015-11-01

    The embryotoxic potential of three model sediment samples with a distinct and well-characterized pollutant burden from the main German river basins Rhine and Elbe was investigated. The Fish Embryo Contact Test (FECT) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) was applied and submitted to further development to allow for a comprehensive risk assessment of such complex environmental samples. As particulate pollutants are constructive constituents of sediments, they underlay episodic source-sink dynamics, becoming available to benthic organisms. As bioavailability of xenobiotics is a crucial factor for ecotoxicological hazard, we focused on the direct particle-exposure pathway, evaluating throughput-capable endpoints and considering toxicokinetics. Fish embryo and larvae were exposed toward reconstituted (freeze-dried) sediment samples on a microcosm-scale experimental approach. A range of different developmental embryonic stages were considered to gain knowledge of potential correlations with metabolic competence during the early embryogenesis. Morphological, physiological, and molecular endpoints were investigated to elucidate induced adverse effects, placing particular emphasis on genomic instability, assessed by the in vivo comet assay. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the extent of induced cell death, since cytotoxicity can lead to confounding effects. The implementation of relative toxicity indices further provides inter-comparability between samples and related studies. All of the investigated sediments represent a significant ecotoxicological hazard by disrupting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Beside the induction of acute toxicity, morphological and physiological embryotoxic effects could be identified in a concentration-response manner. Increased DNA strand break frequency was detected after sediment contact in characteristic non-monotonic dose-response behavior due to overlapping cytotoxic effects. The embryonic zebrafish toxicity model along with the in vivo comet assay and molecular biomarker analysis should prospectively be considered to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments allowing for a comprehensive hazard ranking. In order to elucidate mode of action, novel techniques such as flow cytometry have been adopted and proved to be valuable tools for advanced risk assessment and management. PMID:25471716

  10. Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine

    OpenAIRE

    Emde, Sebastian; Rückert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W.; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Thr...

  11. Computer Science Education in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobelsdorf, Maria; Magenheim, Johannes; Brinda, Torsten; Engbring, Dieter; Humbert, Ludger; Pasternak, Arno; Schroeder, Ulrik; Thomas, Marco; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In North-Rhine Westphalia, the most populated state in Germany, Computer Science (CS) has been taught in secondary schools since the early 1970s. This article provides an overview of the past and current situation of CS education in North-Rhine Westphalia, including lessons learned through efforts to introduce and to maintain CS in secondary…

  12. Computer Science Education in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobelsdorf, Maria; Magenheim, Johannes; Brinda, Torsten; Engbring, Dieter; Humbert, Ludger; Pasternak, Arno; Schroeder, Ulrik; Thomas, Marco; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In North-Rhine Westphalia, the most populated state in Germany, Computer Science (CS) has been taught in secondary schools since the early 1970s. This article provides an overview of the past and current situation of CS education in North-Rhine Westphalia, including lessons learned through efforts to introduce and to maintain CS in secondary…

  13. Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

  14. Today's sediment budget of the Rhine River channel, focusing on the Upper Rhine Graben and Rhenish Massif

    OpenAIRE

    Frings, Roy M.; Gehres, Nicole; Promny, Markus; Middelkoop, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152500693; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Vollmer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The river bed of the Rhine River is subject to severe erosion and sedimentation. Such high geomorphological process rates are unwanted for economical, ecological, and safety reasons. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the geomorphological development of the Rhine River between 1985 and 2006; (2) to investigate the bed erosion process; and (3) to distinguish between tectonic, hydrological, and human controls. We used a unique data set with thousands of bedload and suspended-load...

  15. Contaminant variability in a sedimentation area of the river Rhine.

    OpenAIRE

    Winkels, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended solids and erosion of deposited sediment in the shallow Dutch lakes (due to wave action) are likely to change contamination levels of sediments in these lakes, which is the subject of this thesis. The aim o...

  16. Future flood risk estimates along the river Rhine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. te Linde

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, water management is moving from flood defence to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. It is expected that climate change and socio-economic development will lead to an increase in flood risk in the Rhine basin. To optimize spatial planning and flood management measures, studies are needed that quantify future flood risks and estimate their uncertainties. In this paper, we estimated the current and future fluvial flood risk in 2030 for the entire Rhine basin in a scenario study. The change in value at risk is based on two land-use projections derived from a land-use model representing two different socio-economic scenarios. Potential damage was calculated by a damage model, and changes in flood probabilities were derived from two climate scenarios and hydrological modeling. We aggregated the results into seven sections along the Rhine. It was found that the annual expected damage in the Rhine basin may increase by between 54% and 230%, of which the major part (~ three-quarters can be accounted for by climate change. The highest current potential damage can be found in the Netherlands (110 billion €, compared with the second (80 billion € and third (62 billion € highest values in two areas in Germany. Results further show that the area with the highest fluvial flood risk is located in the Lower Rhine in Nordrhein-Westfalen in Germany, and not in the Netherlands, as is often perceived. This is mainly due to the higher flood protection standards in the Netherlands as compared to Germany.

  17. Historical geomorphic analysis (1932-2011) of a by-passed river reach in process-based restoration perspectives: The Old Rhine downstream of the Kembs diversion dam (France, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, F.; Piégay, H.; Schmitt, L.; Rollet, A. J.; Ferrier, V.; Béal, D.

    2015-05-01

    The Old Rhine downstream of the Kembs diversion dam is one of the largest by-passed river reaches in the world (50 km). It offers a unique opportunity to study the morphological effects of by-passing and address physical and ecological restoration approaches in regulated rivers. We conduct a space-time analysis of channel adjustment over a period of 80 years (1932 to 2011). We examine planform changes (from aerial photographs), erosional and depositional patterns (from vertical profiles), sediment sizes within the active channel and the new established floodplain, and we date riparian vegetation encroachment. Results show that the Old Rhine exhibited rapid response to the completion of the by-passing scheme in the 1950s, with a 26% narrowing in median active channel width between 1956 and 2008, from vegetation encroachment on dewatered channel margins (mostly groyne fields). The narrowing was accompanied by overbank fine sediment deposition (~ 1.5 cm y- 1 aggradation since 1950) as well as slight bed degradation (~ 0.7 cm y- 1 since 1950). We found no downstream propagation of active channel narrowing over time, nor propagation of bed degradation. The channel was already significantly adjusted prior to the diversion scheme, following the nineteenth century river straightening and groyne construction. By-passing (dewatering) mainly provided new pioneer habitat for synchronous vegetation establishment and promoted channel stability by decreasing sediment transport owing to peak flow reduction. The morphological budget calculated over the past 20 years estimated a downstream output for coarse sediments at 16,000 m3 y- 1, with 80% originating from bed degradation and 20% from bank erosion, without significant inputs from upstream. The present-day morphodynamics remain sensitive to changes because of dynamic bed armouring (ecological habitats. These actions should not be implemented without prior analysis of local sediment transfer processes based on in situ experiments and modelling.

  18. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of detrital heavy minerals from the Rhine River in Germany as evidence to their provenance, sedimentary and depositional history: focus on platinum-group minerals and remarks on cassiterite, columbite-group minerals and uraninite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Thomas; Melcher, Frank; Goldmann, Simon; Wotruba, Hermann; Gerdes, Axel; Dijkstra, Arjan; Dale, Christopher W.

    2015-05-01

    In the course of studying the gold-bearing heavy mineral spectrum of sediments from the upper Rhine River, a distinct suite of detrital grains comprising platinum-group minerals (PGM), cassiterite, columbite-group minerals and uraninite was identified and investigated using conventional and modern analytical methods. This study aimed to characterize the selected mineral groups mineralogically and geochemically in order to identify possible source areas and to reconstruct different aspects of the complex sedimentary history of the Rhine River sediments. The PGM assemblage is dominated by grains of Ru-Os-Ir alloys (~70 %), followed by Pt-Fe alloys, sperrylite and rare other PGM. Accordingly, this PGM assemblage represents highly mature, physically and chemically extremely resistant compounds which may have experienced and survived repeated reworking during their sedimentary history. Pt-Fe alloys and sperrylite may originate from various sources; however, the predominant Ru-Os-Ir alloy grains point to an origin from ophiolite sequences of unknown age (but likely pre-Alpine; Variscan or older). The exact locations of the primary sources and the complex, prolonged sedimentary history of the detrital PGM with possibly multiple intermittent storages remain unknown. Detrital cassiterite grains were dated by the U-Pb method using LA-ICP-MS. The age dates of cassiterite largely overlap with zircon age distributions by peaking distinctly at ca. 325 Ma (majority of ages), thereby implying a predominantly Variscan age of the cassiterite grains and possible derivation from mineralization in the Black Forest area. Columbite-group minerals are dominantly tapiolite originating from pegmatites. Rare uraninite grains attest that this mineral experienced rapid erosion, transport and deposition in a reducing environment.

  19. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of detrital heavy minerals from the Rhine River in Germany as evidence to their provenance, sedimentary and depositional history: focus on platinum-group minerals and remarks on cassiterite, columbite-group minerals and uraninite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Thomas; Melcher, Frank; Goldmann, Simon; Wotruba, Hermann; Gerdes, Axel; Dijkstra, Arjan; Dale, Christopher W.

    2016-03-01

    In the course of studying the gold-bearing heavy mineral spectrum of sediments from the upper Rhine River, a distinct suite of detrital grains comprising platinum-group minerals (PGM), cassiterite, columbite-group minerals and uraninite was identified and investigated using conventional and modern analytical methods. This study aimed to characterize the selected mineral groups mineralogically and geochemically in order to identify possible source areas and to reconstruct different aspects of the complex sedimentary history of the Rhine River sediments. The PGM assemblage is dominated by grains of Ru-Os-Ir alloys (~70 %), followed by Pt-Fe alloys, sperrylite and rare other PGM. Accordingly, this PGM assemblage represents highly mature, physically and chemically extremely resistant compounds which may have experienced and survived repeated reworking during their sedimentary history. Pt-Fe alloys and sperrylite may originate from various sources; however, the predominant Ru-Os-Ir alloy grains point to an origin from ophiolite sequences of unknown age (but likely pre-Alpine; Variscan or older). The exact locations of the primary sources and the complex, prolonged sedimentary history of the detrital PGM with possibly multiple intermittent storages remain unknown. Detrital cassiterite grains were dated by the U-Pb method using LA-ICP-MS. The age dates of cassiterite largely overlap with zircon age distributions by peaking distinctly at ca. 325 Ma (majority of ages), thereby implying a predominantly Variscan age of the cassiterite grains and possible derivation from mineralization in the Black Forest area. Columbite-group minerals are dominantly tapiolite originating from pegmatites. Rare uraninite grains attest that this mineral experienced rapid erosion, transport and deposition in a reducing environment.

  20. Microplastics profile along the Rhine River

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Mani; Armin Hauk; Ulrich Walter; Patricia Burkhardt-Holm

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics result from fragmentation of plastic debris or are released to the environment as pre-production pellets or components of consumer and industrial products. In the oceans, they contribute to the ‘great garbage patches’. They are ingested by many organisms, from protozoa to baleen whales, and pose a threat to the aquatic fauna. Although as much as 80% of marine debris originates from land, little attention was given to the role of rivers as debris pathways to the sea. Worldwide, n...

  1. Today's sediment budget of the Rhine River channel, focusing on the Upper Rhine Graben and Rhenish Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Roy M.; Gehres, Nicole; Promny, Markus; Middelkoop, Hans; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Vollmer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The river bed of the Rhine River is subject to severe erosion and sedimentation. Such high geomorphological process rates are unwanted for economical, ecological, and safety reasons. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the geomorphological development of the Rhine River between 1985 and 2006; (2) to investigate the bed erosion process; and (3) to distinguish between tectonic, hydrological, and human controls. We used a unique data set with thousands of bedload and suspended-load measurements and quantified the fluxes of gravel, sand, silt, and clay through the northern Upper Rhine Graben and the Rhenish Massif. Furthermore, we calculated bed level changes and evaluated the sediment budget of the channel. Sediment transport rates were found to change in the downstream direction: silt and clay loads increase because of tributary supply; sand loads increase because of erosion of sand from the bed; and gravel loads decrease because of reduced sediment mobility caused by the base-level control exerted by the uplifting Rhenish Massif. This base-level control shows tectonic setting, in addition to hydrology and human interventions, to represent a major control on morphodynamics in the Rhine. The Rhine bed appears to be in a state of disequilibrium, with an average net bed degradation of 3 mm/a. Sand being eroded from the bed is primarily washed away in suspension, indicating a rapid supply of sand to the Rhine delta. The degradation is the result of an increased sediment transport capacity caused by nineteenth and twentieth century's river training works. In order to reduce degradation, huge amounts of sediment are fed into the river by river managers. Bed degradation and artificial sediment feeding represent the major sources of sand and gravel to the study area; only small amounts of sediment are supplied naturally from upstream or by tributaries. Sediment sinks include dredging, abrasion, and the sediment output to the downstream area. Large uncertainties exist about the amounts of sediment deposited on floodplains and in groyne fields. Compared to the natural situation during the middle Holocene, the present-day gravel and sand loads seem to be lower, whereas the silt and clay loads seem to be higher. This is probably caused by the present-day absence of meander migration, the deforestation, and the reduced sediment trapping efficiency of the floodplains. Even under natural conditions no equilibrium bed level existed.

  2. Water surface temperature profiles for the Rhine River derived from Landsat ETM+ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn

    2013-10-01

    Water temperature influences physical and chemical parameters of rivers and streams and is an important parameter for water quality. It is a crucial factor for the existence and the growth of animal and plant species in the river ecosystem. The aim of the research project "Remote sensing of water surface temperature" at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany, is to supplement point measurements of water temperature with remote sensing methodology. The research area investigated here is the Upper and Middle Rhine River, where continuous measurements of water temperature are already available for several water quality monitoring stations. Satellite imagery is used to complement these point measurements and to generate longitudinal temperature profiles for a better systematic understanding of the changes in river temperature along its course. Several products for sea surface temperature derived from radiances in the thermal infrared are available, but for water temperature from rivers less research has been carried out. Problems arise from the characteristics of the river valley and morphology and the proximity to the riverbank. Depending on the river width, a certain spatial resolution of the satellite images is necessary to allow for an accurate identification of the river surface and the calculation of water temperature. The bands from the Landsat ETM+ sensor in the thermal infrared region offer a possibility to extract the river surface temperatures (RST) of a sufficiently wide river such as the Rhine. Additionally, problems such as cloud cover, shadowing effects, georeferencing errors, different emissivity of water and land, scattering of thermal radiation, adjacency and mixed pixel effects had to be accounted for and their effects on the radiance temperatures will be discussed. For this purpose, several temperature data sets derived from radiance and in situ measurements were com- pared. The observed radiance temperatures are strongly influenced by the atmosphere. Without atmospheric correction, the absolute mean difference between RST and in situ measurements was 1.1°C with a standard devi- ation of 1.3°C. Thus, a correction of atmospheric influences on radiances measured at the top of the atmosphere was necessary and two different methods for atmospheric correction (ATCOR2 and the Atmospheric Correction Parameter Calculator) were applied. The correction results showed that for both methods, the correct choice of atmospheric profiles is very important. With the calculator, an absolute mean difference of 0.8 +/- 1.0°C and with the selected overall best scenes, an absolute mean difference of 0.5 ± 0.7°C was achieved. The selected corrected RST can be used to interpolate between in situ measurements available only for a limited number of points along the river course and longitudinal example profiles of the surface water temperature in the Upper and Middle Rhine could be calculated for different seasons. On the basis of these profiles, the increasing temperature gradient along the Upper Rhine could be identified and the possibility to detect heat or cooling discharge from tributaries and other sources is evaluated.

  3. Harmonising sediment criteria of North sea and Rhine river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, E. [Fractiekamer PVDA, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    As a result of convenants between the Port of Rotterdam and the German Chemical Industry, the emissions in the Rhine between Basle (Switzerland) and the Dutch boarder have fallen by more than half in the past fifteen years. Recent studies have concluded that people are nowadays polluting the Rhine more than industry. This places Rotterdam's involvement with the quality of water and the sediment of the Rhine, port and North Sea in a different perspective. As a medium-sized European municipality, Rotterdam doesn't want to take on too much, certainly not when cross-border issues such as the quality of the North Sea and the Rhine water are concerned. Rotterdam is now trying to get other organisations to co-operate in solving this problem. A cleaner Rhine, after the success on point sources, can be achieved primarily by reducing the contamination from diffuse sources, over which the port itself has absolutely no control. (orig.)

  4. Flood-related variations in provenance of fine-grained palaeochannel sediments in the Rhine river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Perk, Marcel; Toonen, Willem H. J.; Ypma, Jochem; Brewer, Paul A.; Prins, Maarten A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Middelkoop, Hans

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we examine flood-related variations in provenance of fine-grained palaeochannel sediments from the Bienener Altrhein (Germany), an abandoned river channel close to the apex of the Rhine river delta. Geochemical and grain size analyses were conducted on channel-fill sediments from multiple core sections, ranging from 1.15 m to 8.48 m depth, which represents pre-industrial sediment deposited from approximately 1550 AD to 1850 AD. In addition, four sediment cores of ~ 1 m length were retrieved from channel-fills or overbank deposits along the Upper Rhine and the three main tributaries of the Rhine in Germany (Neckar River, Main River and Moselle River). Sediment geochemistry was analysed using an Itrax X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner. Four elements (Ti, Co, Rb, W) were selected for further analysis based on the following a priori criteria: (1) The elements must be associated with minerals in the fine particle size fractions; 2) they must not be susceptible to precipitation-dissolution reactions during early diagenenis of the sediment; 3) the elements must be detected in the vast majority of the measurements; 4) the difference between the minimum and maximum number of the XRF counts for the upstream cores must be greater than 50% of the average number of counts. The XRF counts for these elements were standardised to z-scores and were subsequently corrected for the variation clay content ( 150 ?m), which was primarily deposited during historical flood events. The results show the Mahalanobis distances are larger than 1 for most increments, which indicates that the four sampled upstream sites do not entirely cover all sources of sediment deposited in the Bienener Altrein channel. The logtransformed Mahalonibis distance correlates significantly (? = 0.05) with the >150 ?m particle size fraction for the Upper Rhine River (negative) and the Moselle River (positive). This implies that the proportion of fine sediment that originates from the upper parts of the river basin and, hence, the sediment transport distance increases with flood magnitude. These results provide an excellent starting point to reconstruct the origin of historic flood events as documented in the sedimentary records of channel fills and dike breach ponds.

  5. The impact of climate change on the water quality of the Rhine river:

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bokhoven, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this research the effect of hydrological extremes on water quality are studied for the Rhine River, in order to assess potential water quality effects of climate change. The water quality of the Rhine was studied for the periods 1975-1977 and 1987-2005. During these periods eight hydrological extremes occured, five of which being classified as floods and three as periods of drought. The water quality during these hydrological extremes has been compared with the water quality in reference p...

  6. Microseismicity at two geothermal power plants at Landau and Insheim in the Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groos, Jörn; Zeiß, Jens; Grund, Michael; Ritter, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben in south-western Germany and especially the southern part of Rhineland-Palatinate is one of the regions with the highest potential for deep geothermal power generation in Germany. One geothermal power plant is operated since 2007 in the city of Landau and a second power plant since Oct. 2012 near Insheim (~4 km south-east of Landau). Further geothermal power plants are currently projected in this region. In 2009 two earthquakes with magnitudes (ML) of 2.4 and 2.7 occurred in direct vicinity of the geothermal reservoir below Landau (depth ~3 km) and were felt within a radius of several kilometres (intensity up to V+). Furthermore, two felt earthquakes with magnitudes (ML) of 2.2 and 2.4 occurred during the stimulation of the reservoir near Insheim in April 2010. Therefore, a temporary seismic network was deployed and is continuously extended by the Geophysical Institute of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology with 12 stations (surface and shallow borehole) of the KArlsruhe Broad Band Array KABBA. In total more than 35 stations are operated by four operators for the microseismic monitoring of the region around Landau. The main challenge of the monitoring is the detection of the microseismic events with a magnitude ML below 1 due to the high seismic noise conditions in the densely populated Upper Rhine Graben. The application of established short-term to long-term average trigger algorithms is not feasible due to the large amount of transient signals caused by human activity (e.g. traffic). We apply an automated detection of microseismic events based on a combined cross-correlation and correlation coefficient analysis with known seismic events. The detected events are localized for absolute (HYPOSAT) and relative (hypoDD) hypocentres. Furthermore, we determine the peak ground velocities and vibration intensities after the German standard (DIN 4150-2 Structural vibration: human exposure to vibration in buildings) to evaluate the perceptibility of the shallow seismic events with MLNuclear Safety of the Federal Republic of Germany (FKZ 0325191A-F) and supervised by Projektträger Jülich (PT-J).

  7. Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Helmer Stefanie M; Krämer Alexander; Mikolajczyk Rafael T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Findings Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Wes...

  8. Analysis of River – Sea Transport in the Direction of the Danube – Black Sea and the Danube Rhine River River Main

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Šo?kic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the river sea transport is directly related to the characteristics of waterway network which enables navigation between river basins and seas. Inland waterways in Serbia belong to the Danube navigational system. There are two navigational directions: Danube East and Danube West. River-sea transport can be directly established in these directions between the Serbian international ports on the Danube (Apatin, Novi Sad, Belgrade, Pan?evo, Smederevo and Prahovo. Development of the Pan-European Corridor VII and the River Danube-Black Sea and Danube-Rhine-Main region would allow not only in Serbia but also in neighbouring states and all over Europe connection with the sea. In this paper the technical and exploitation characteristics of the river Danube will be analysed in terms of the navigation of various river and sea vessels with different exploitation characteristics.

  9. Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Sebastian; Rueckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens), Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454), Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695) and Orchestia cavimana (1,448) were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby) and invertebrates (amphipods) under special consideration of parasite dispersal. PMID:23300895

  10. Suitable habitats for 0-group fish in rehabilitated floodplains along the lower River Rhine

    OpenAIRE

    Grift, R.E.; Buijse, A.D.; Densen, W.L.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Kranenbarg, S.; Breteler, J.P.K.; Backx, J.J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    The suitability of rehabilitated floodplains along the lower River Rhine for rheophilic cyprinids was assessed by investigating the spatial distribution of 0-group fish among, and within, three newly created secondary channels, an oxbow lake reconnected at its downstream end and several existing groyne fields. Fish were sampled during April through September 1997-1999 with seine nets and trawls and, for each sample, the habitat (physical environment) was characterized (flow, depth, substrate ...

  11. Geoarchaeological research for Roman waterworks in the Rhine-Meuse river delta, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Jan; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van Leeuwen, Liz; Anker, Emiel

    2015-04-01

    It is known that Romans in the Low Countries at the northern margin of their empire were practicing diverse systems of water state management to maintain economic and above all strategic stability. In early Roman period Romans created a shipping route from the Rhine towards the north by digging canals and constructing dams. This was done in order to submit the northern part of Germania through the Waddenzee and the German rivers Eems, Weser and Elbe. During the middle Roman period the Romans had canceled their efforts to submit Germania. In that period we know the River Rhine as the limes, which not only was a borderline of the Roman empire, but can also be seen as a guarded transport route. The research area is situated in the eastern part of the Rhine-Meuse river valley/delta system. The area represents a highly dynamic geological history of erosion and deposition close to the river system's equilibrium point. In order to reconstruct the former landscape and investigate whether traces of Roman waterworks could be indicated or disproved geoarchaeological coring campaigns have been carried out with lithological, textural and palaeoecological analyses. The results of the research presented in this poster will be: 1) Assessment of the condition of the covered Pleistocene sediments in the area, 2) Identification of the buried gullies and levees in the vicinity of the remains of the Roman castellum 'Carvium ad molem', which should have been built at the bifurcation of the delta branches of Rhine and Waal, 3) Chronological control of gullies and levees, 4) Landscape reconstruction in different time periods. Finally based on the geoarchaeological results a comment will be made on the location of the Drusus dam in the study area, the landscape context of the castellum and its position on the apex of the Insula Batavorum.

  12. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bölscher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing adaptive action. The paper shows that the moment at which salmon reintroduction may fail due to climate change can only be approximated because of inherent uncertainties in the interaction between salmon and its environment. The added value of the assessment presented in this paper is that it provides researchers with a set of questions that are useful from a policy perspective (by focusing on the feasibility of a concrete policy ambition under climate change. Thus, it offers opportunities to supply policy makers with practical insight in the relevance of climate change.

  13. Management of regional German river catchments (REGFLUD) impact of nitrogen reduction measures on the nitrogen load in the River Ems and the River Rhine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, R; Bogena, H; Goemann, H; Kreins, P; Wendland, F

    2005-01-01

    The REGFLUD-project, commissioned by Germany's Federal Research Ministry (BMBF), addresses the problem of reducing diffuse pollution from agricultural production. The objective of the project is the development and application of multi-criteria scientific methods, which are able to predict diffuse pollution in river basins subject to economic feasibility and social acceptability. The selected river basins (Ems and Rhine basins) cover a variety of landscape units with different hydrological, hydrogeological and socio-economic characteristics. This paper focuses on the analysis of the effects of certain policy measures to reduce diffuse pollution by nitrogen. For this purpose a model system consisting of an agricultural sector model, a water balance model and a residence time/denitrification model was developed and applied. First results indicate a wide range of annual nitrogen surpluses for the rural areas between less than 10 kg N/ha up to 200 kg N/ha or more depending on the type and intensity of farming. Compared to the level of nitrogen surpluses the level of nitrogen inputs into the surface waters is relatively moderate because of degradation processes during transport in soil and groundwater. Policy impact analysis for a nitrogen tax and a limitation of the livestock density stress the importance of regionally tailored measures. PMID:15850202

  14. Degradation and recovery of the freshwater fauna in the lower sections of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    OpenAIRE

    Vaate, A., bij de

    2003-01-01

    Exponential increase of anthropogenic stress in European rivers, like Rhine and Meuse, started several centuries ago when inhabitants of floodplains used them for an increasing number of purposes. Step by step, the river basins lost their naturalness and ecological integrity. Usually, river regulation was a first step. Floodplains in the lower parts were narrowed by the construction of levees and dikes for land reclamation and to protect inhabitants against floods. Rivers channels were shorte...

  15. Composition, structure and size distribution of suspended particulates from the Rhine River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartiges, B S; Deneux-Mustin, S; Villemin, G; Mustin, C; Barrès, O; Chamerois, M; Gerard, B; Babut, M

    2001-03-01

    Fluvial suspended particulates collected from the Rhine River were investigated in terms of composition, structure and size distribution. Elemental analysis and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy reveal that most particulate organic matter is formed from material derived from microorganisms. Transmission Electron Microscopy observations on resin-embedded samples and structural characterization from break-up experiments, show that fluvial particulate matter should be viewed as fractal aggregates organized by bacterial exopolymeric substances. The shape of particulate size distribution suggests that the formation and dynamics of suspended particulate matter are controlled mainly by physical processes. Finally, particulate growth and structure are consistent with a cluster-cluster aggregation scheme. PMID:11228980

  16. From river valley to estuary: the evolution of the Rhine mouth in the early to middle Holocene (western Netherlands, Rhine-Meuse delta)

    OpenAIRE

    Hijma, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266562426; Cohen, K. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185633374; Hoffmann, G.; Van der Spek, A.J.F.; Stouthamer, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189627743

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the evolution of the early to middle Holocene Rhine-Meuse river mouths in the western Netherlands and to understand the observed spatial and temporal changes in facies. This is achieved by constructing three delta wide cross-sections using a newly accumulated database with thousands of core descriptions and cone penetration test results, together with a large set of pollen/diatom analyses and OSL/14C-dates. Most of the studied deposits accumula...

  17. Geomorphological Monitoring of a Sediment Injection Experimentation: the Old Rhine between Kembs and Breisach dams (France, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béal, D.; Arnaud, F.; Piégay, H.; Rollet, A.-J.; Schmitt, L.

    2012-04-01

    A sediments injection test has been realized within the river Rhine in the frame of the French and German INTERREG project 'Revitalisation of the Old Rhine'. The project aims at establishing sediment transport restoration modalities and recreating a variety of ecological habitats that feeds the reach biodiversity. 22,000 m3 of sediments have been injected in late 2010 within the by-passed 45 km reach between Kembs and Breisach, forming a 600 m long deposit disconnected from the bank. A geomorphological survey of the deposit has been done to study the mass spreading and river transport capacity. Geomorphological monitoring of recharge, before and after flood is based on 4 types of measures: • monitoring radio frequency of 1500 tracer pebbles inserted into the surface of the deposit: the trajectories of movement were analyzed using the particle size and initial position; • grain size monitoring: immersed and emerged samples allow to characterize injected sediment -nearby excavated for retention area purposes without any sorting- and to learn about the sorting effect of the recharge spreading; • topographic and bathymetric monitoring: it is used to determine changes in channel geometry by comparison of cross sections; • surveys by very high spatial aerial imagery using an ultra light aircraft: bathymetric models calibrated with field surveys are generated to track the front of the wave dispersion and morphological changes of the bed in the study area. These complementary measures confirmed the estimates according to experts of transport capacity (20,000 m3/year), spread the risk of revegetation of the initial deposit, and allow calibration of hydraulic sedimentary and physical models. Three after flood states and initial conditions are analyzed in this study featured by the largest number of tracers used in a river restoration experiment as well as the amount of aerial data (multi temporal and multi resolution). In a second step, measures will feed scenarios of recommendations for a sustainable sediment dynamics restoration. The injection test provides concrete elements for construction of scenarios of evolution, and for guiding future restoration strategies to diversify aquatic and riparian habitats of the Old Rhine. Moreover equivalent injections performed soon by the local hydroelectric manager (Electricité De France) have already the feedback of this life test.

  18. Estimates of future discharges of the river Rhine using two scenario methodologies: direct versus delta approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations with a hydrological model for the river Rhine for the present (1960–1989 and a projected future (2070–2099 climate are discussed. The hydrological model (RhineFlow is driven by meteorological data from a 90-years (ensemble of three 30-years simulation with the HadRM3H regional climate model for both present-day and future climate (A2 emission scenario. Simulation of present-day discharges is realistic provided that (1 the HadRM3H temperature and precipitation are corrected for biases, and (2 the potential evapotranspiration is derived from temperature only. Different methods are used to simulate discharges for the future climate: one is based on the direct model output of the future climate run (direct approach, while the other is based on perturbation of the present-day HadRM3H time series (delta approach. Both methods predict a similar response in the mean annual discharge, an increase of 30% in winter and a decrease of 40% in summer. However, predictions of extreme flows differ significantly, with increases of 10% in flows with a return period of 100 years in the direct approach and approximately 30% in the delta approach. A bootstrap method is used to estimate the uncertainties related to the sample size (number of years simulated in predicting changes in extreme flows.

  19. Determination of spatially differentiated water balance components including groundwater recharge on the Federal State level – A case study using the mGROWA model in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Frank; Keller, Luise; Kunkel, Ralf; Vereecken, Harry; Wendland, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Study region: The Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany.Study focus: On behalf of the Federal State Agency for Nature, Environment and Consumer Protection of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (LANUV) the mGROWA model is applied, in order to simulate the water balance components actual evapotranspiration, total runoff, direct runoff and groundwater recharge at Federal State level. mGROWA-simulations were performed in daily time steps for the hydrological reference period 1971–20...

  20. Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Stefanie M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Findings Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was used (N=3,306. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale with three dimensions (one internal and two external and six aspects of health behaviour (smoking habits, alcohol use, drug consumption, being over-/ or underweight, physical activity, and importance of healthy nutrition were evaluated. Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals with a stronger belief in health professionals were less likely to use drugs and paid more attention to healthy nutrition. Furthermore, higher scores in the second external locus of control dimension (beliefs in luck or chance were associated with a higher likelihood of current smoking, lower physical activity and less attention to healthy nutrition. Conclusions Students engaged more strongly in unhealthy behaviour if they believed that luck determines health. In contrast, believing in having control over one’s own health was associated with more healthy behaviour. These findings support the need to consider health control beliefs while designing preventive strategies in this specific population.

  1. Modelling the transport of engineered metallic nanoparticles in the river Rhine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, A A; Parsons, J R; Roex, E W M; de Voogt, P; Laane, R W P M

    2016-03-15

    As engineered nanoparticles of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and silver, are increasingly used in consumer products, they will most probably enter the natural environment via wastewater, atmospheric deposition and other routes. The aim of this study is to predict the concentrations of these nanoparticles via wastewater emissions in a typical river system by means of a numerical model. The calculations rely on estimates of the use of nanomaterials in consumer products and the removal efficiency in wastewater treatment plants as well as model calculations of the fate and transport of nanoparticles in a riverine system. The river Rhine was chosen for this work as it is one of the major and best studied rivers in Europe. The study gives insight in the concentrations that can be expected and, by comparing the model results with measurements of the total metal concentrations, of the relative contribution of these emerging contaminants. Six scenarios were examined. Two scenarios concerned the total emission: in the first it was assumed that nanoparticles are only released via wastewater (treated or untreated) and in the second it was assumed that in addition nanoparticles can enter the river system via runoff from the application of sludge as a fertilizer. In both cases the assumption was that the nanoparticles enter the river system as free, unattached particles. Four additional scenarios, based on the total emissions from the second scenario, were examined to highlight the consequences of the assumption of free nanoparticles and the uncertainties about the aggregation processes. If all nanoparticles enter as free particles, roughly a third would end up attached to suspended particulate matter due to the aggregation processes nanoparticles are subject to. For the other scenarios the contribution varies from 20 to 45%. Since the Rhine is a fast flowing river, sedimentation is unlikely to occur, except at the floodplains and the lakes in the downstream regions, as in fact shown by the sediment mass balance. Nanoparticles will therefore be transported along the whole river until they enter the North Sea. For the first scenario, the concentrations predicted for zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles are in the order of 0.5 ?g/l, for silver nanoparticles in the order of 5 ng/l. For zinc and titanium compounds this amounts to 5-10% of the measured total metal concentrations, for silver to 2%. For the other scenarios, the predicted nanoparticle concentrations are two to three times higher. While there are still considerable uncertainties in the inputs and consequently the model results, this study predicts that nanoparticles are capable of being transported over long distances, in much the same way as suspended particulate matter. PMID:26799711

  2. Uncertainties in simulating river/groundwater exchanges over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnes, Jean-Pierre; Habets, Florence

    2014-05-01

    The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for an effective management of water resources. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on choices made to represent the river water stage in the model as well as on the hydrogeological parameters. Recently, a coupled surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin (Thierion et al., 2012). The present study aims at improving the estimation of the river/groundwater exchange, and thus, of the hydrodynamic of the alluvial aquifer, and at getting an idea of the associated uncertainty by performing a set of simulations that best take advantage of the different kinds of observed data. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources quantity and quality in small to regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the ISBA surface scheme that estimates the water balance, the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. In addition, the QtoZ module (Saleh et al., 2011) is used to calculate the river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river, according to three different approaches that are compared: a control experiment with constant river water stage, a rating curves approach derived from observed river discharges and river stages, and the Manning's formula, for which Manning's parameters are defined according to geomorphological parameterizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Supplementary sensitivity tests are also performed by using different hydrogeological parameter datasets (porosity and transmissivity). Two sources of DEM were used for this part. Additionally, sensitivity to the time step of the estimation (daily versus monthly) was studied. The evaluation is made against observed water levels and river discharges collected both from the french and german riversides of the alluvial plain. A heavy network of water table depth observations is also available to evaluate the simulated piezometric heads. Preliminary results show that the primary source of errors when simulating river stage - and hence groundwater-river interactions - is the uncertainties associated with the topographic data used to define the riverbed elevation. It confirms the need to access to more accurate DEM for estimating riverbed elevation and studying groundwater-river interactions, at least at regional scale. References Saleh, F., Flipo, N., Habets, F., Ducharne, A., Oudin, L., Viennot, P., Ledoux, E. Modeling the impact of in-stream water level fluctuations on stream-aquifer interactions at the regional scale (2011)Journal of Hydrology, 400 (3-4) pp 490-500 Thierion C., Longuevergne L., Habets F. Ledoux E., Ackerer P., Majdalani S., Leblois E., Lecluse S., Martin E, Queguiner S., Viennot P., Assessing the water balance of the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem, Journal of Hydrology 424-425 , pp. 68-83

  3. Determination of flow times, flow velocities and longitudinal dispersion in the Middle and Lower Rhine River using 3HHO as a tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow times, flow velocities and parameters describing the longitudinal dispersion in the Middle and Lower Rhine river under natural conditions were determined by use of intermittent emissions of tritated wastewater from nuclear power plants during normal operation situated on the Upper Rhine. In cases of accidental releases of radioactive materials, these data would be the basis of prognoses by which the dispersion behaviour of contaminated sections along the course of river Rhine can be described and radiological consequences within the socalled critical impact areas estimated. (orig.)

  4. Impact of variable river water stage on the simulation of groundwater-river interactions over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, F.; Vergnes, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for effective management of water resources, and hence is the main topic of the NAPROM project financed by the French Ministry of Ecology. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on the choice made to represent the river water stage in the model. Recently, a couple surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin. The river stage was first chosen to be constant over the major part of the basin for the computation of the groundwater-river interactions. The present study aims to introduce a variable river water stage to better simulate these interactions and to quantify the impact of this process over the simulated hydrological variables. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources and quality in regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. The input data consist in runoff and infiltration coming from a simulation of the ISBA land surface scheme covering the 1986-2003 period. The QtoZ module allows to calculate river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river. Two approaches are compared. The first one uses rating curves derived from observed river discharges and river stages. The second one is based on the Manning's formula. Manning's parameters are defined with geomorphological parametrizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). First results show a relatively good agreement between observed and simulated river water height. Taking into account a variable river stage seems to increase the amount of water exchanged between groundwater and river. Systematic biases are nevertheless found between simulated and observed mean river stage elevation. They show that the primary source of errors when simulating river stage - and hence groundwater-river interactions - is the uncertainties associated with the topographic data used to define the riverbed elevation. Thus, this study confirms the need to access to more accurate DEM for estimating riverbed elevation and studying groundwater-river interactions, at least at regional scale.

  5. Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization: the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehr Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA on the management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality.

  6. The climate protection legislation in Germany. The example North Rhine-Westphalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution on the climate protection legislation in Germany deals with the example Nordrhein-Westfalen. The covered topics include the legislative competence, climate protection targets, the climate protection plan, climate protection concepts and the climate commission and monitoring. The climate protection law is discusses in the view of sustainability and in respect with the consequences for the rural region in Nordrhein-Westfalen.

  7. Assessing the potential skill of seasonal streamflow forecasting for the River Rhine and the Upper Danube Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B.; Meissner, D.; Gerl, N.; Hemri, S.; Gneiting, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Reliable seasonal streamflow forecasts could be a valuable tool for the medium-term to long-term planning of many users of the water sector. Especially for the optimization of hydropower generation and the water-related logistic transportation chain the knowledge about the possible future evolution of streamflows within the next 1 to 6 months would be an important additional information in the decision process. Although there is a strong need for seasonal forecast products there is no operational forecasting system available for the large rivers in Germany. One of the main reasons is that the long-term meteorological predictability, especially for precipitation, is quite limited over Central Europe. Potential gain of predictability in the hydrological system that makes us believe that skillful seasonal streamflow forecasts in Central Europe are not out of reach is the hydrological memory and the delayed and damped system response of river basins. Natural (like snow pack, groundwater, soil moisture) as well as man-made reservoirs and dams have a large influence on the future runoff. In hydrological forecasting this memory is represented by the initial conditions of the hydrological model. In addition the streamflow at a gauge is an integrated system response with the meteorological variables as system input. If there is at least some valuable information in the numeric seasonal weather forecasts about the future evolution of precipitation and temperature as the main drivers of the hydrological processes, it could be possibly assessed through spatial (considering larger catchments) and temporal aggregation (e.g. monthly mean runoff values instead of daily values). In this contribution the potential skill of seasonal streamflow forecasting is evaluated for River Rhine and the Upper Danube Basin (up to the gauge Vienna). Different spatial and temporal scales are considered as well as different meteorological forcings. Two different hydrological models are applied in the two basins. For the River Rhine with a catchment area of approx. 185.000 km2 the semi-distributed HBV model with a time-step of one day and for the Upper Danube Basin (102.000 km2) the water balance model COSERO with a time-step of 1 month are applied. As observed meteorological input the ERA Interim dataset is used, which is statistically downscaled from its relatively coarse grid resolution to the subbasins of the models. As meteorological forecast input two different approaches are used for the 30-year hindcast period in this study: (a) the Extended Streamflow Prediction ESP - a resampling approach of historical meteorology - which is applied to asses the potential predictability arising from the initial conditions and (b) the ensemble re-forecasts of the ECMWF seasonal forecast system 4 - a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model - used to quantify the potential benefit of numerical weather forecasts. Bayesian Model Averaging BMA and Ensemble-Model Output statistics EMOS are applied to the generated seasonal ensemble streamflow forecasts for calibration and the estimation of the predictive probability density function. Different skill measures are used to verify the potential skill of the seasonal forecasts of the different methods.

  8. Regional input-output modelling in Germany: The case of North Rhine-Westphalia

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenberg, Tobias; Többen, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The political system of Germany is characterized by strong federalist elements, which means that many important decisions of economic policy are made by the governments of the federal states or Länder. Unfortunately the statistical offices of the Länder do not produce regional input-output tables, claiming that they lack the resources (i.e. manpower) to do so. The lack of official input-output tables for the Länder forms a significant obstacle to the study of regional economic developments an...

  9. The significance of the river Rhine for the environment and for public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the Rhine water is described and figures presented for the total B radioactivity of the Rhine water on the German-Dutch border for the years 1959-1966. They indicate that the danger of radioactivity might become a more serious problem in the future. The signigicance of this and measures to be taken are discussed. (C.F.)

  10. Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U. Braun (new for Germany) on Pastinaca sativa L., Podosphaera tridactyla (WalIr.) de Bary on Prunus laurocerasus L., Septoria cornicola Desm. on Cornus sanguinea L., Stigmina tinea (Sacc.) M.B.Ellis on Viburnum opulus L., Torula herbarum (Pers.) Link on Potentilla argentea L., etc. All species are located in the herbarium Mycotheca parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:20222564

  11. Flood management along the Lower Mississippi and Rhine Rivers (The Netherlands) and the continuum of geomorphic adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Paul F.; Middelkoop, Hans; Stouthamer, Esther

    2008-10-01

    Flood management alters fundamental fluvial processes that have geomorphic consequences for rivers and floodplains. The Lower Mississippi and Rhine Rivers (The Netherlands) are two important examples of intensively regulated large rivers. Understanding the magnitude and direction of change caused by flood management requires a long-term perspective. This is particularly true of large lowland fluvial systems because of substantial lag-times required for adjustment to be manifest in the floodplain geomorphology. This study is a historical analysis and synthesis of the impacts of flood management on the Lower Mississippi and Rhine Rivers (The Netherlands), and investigates the interrelations of flood management with floodplain geomorphology. Although flood management varies between the Rhine and Mississippi on many accounts, the actual techniques of flood (and river) management are somewhat similar, and primarily include dikes, groynes, cutoffs, and bank protection. The implementation and history of these specific types of activities, however, varies considerably. Historical flood management along the Lower Mississippi can be characterized as abrupt, with the major options imposed within about five decades, while historical flood management along the Rhine River in The Netherlands is characterized as incremental and adaptive, with the major options imposed over about eight centuries. Conversely, modern flood management plans are implemented much more promptly along the Dutch Rhine than the Lower Mississippi. Changes to the Lower Mississippi include channel adjustment (width and incision) caused by meander bend cutoffs. The majority of the knickpoint incision in response to cutoffs occurred by 1963. Channel adjustment in some reaches is likely constrained by the presence of resistant alluvium and lithology. Floodplain geomorphic changes include the creation of new oxbow lakes within an embanked floodplain. Embanked floodplain sedimentation of oxbow lakes created from the 1928 Mississippi River & Tributaries Act have rapidly infilled, with 67% of the lake area converted to wetlands. In comparison, older oxbow lakes located outside of the embanked floodplain have undergone much lower amounts of infilling, averaging 37% of oxbow lake area converted to wetlands. The floodplain geomorphology is further modified by numerous large floodplain borrow pits and the selective removal of fine-grained deposits, primarily created for dike (levee) construction and maintenance. The Dutch Rhine has been managed for flooding for over eight centuries and exhibits specific types of humanized embanked floodplain geomorphology that require a greater period of adjustment. Dike breaches create ponds (wielen) and sandy splay-like deposits, which represent distinctive anthro-geomorphic environments along the margins of embanked floodplains. Channel stabilization by groynes and dikes has resulted in the formation of new floodplains along Rhine distributaries. The trapping of flood sediments within the embanked floodplain has resulted in aggradation that has reduced the inundation capacity of the embanked floodplain. This geomorphic alteration reduced the effectiveness of the existing flood management infrastructure and has stimulated a change towards a new flood management approach designed to "work with the river". The major conclusions are placed within a conceptual model, and illustrate that; 1. in many instances specific flood management options were constrained by the type of floodplain deposit; 2. geomorphic adjustment to flood management occurs along a time-space continuum; 3. flood management initiates positive feedbacks with unintended geomorphic consequences that require further management options to minimize flood risk.

  12. Dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes as tracers of preferential fluid flow along faults in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumm, L. P.; Bense, V. F.; Dennis, P. F.; Hiscock, K. M.; Cremer, N.; Simon, S.

    2015-10-01

    Groundwater in shallow unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers close to the Bornheim fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, has relatively low ?2H and ?18O values in comparison to regional modern groundwater recharge, and 4He concentrations up to 1.7 × 10-4 cm3 (STP) g-1 ± 2.2 % which is approximately four orders of magnitude higher than expected due to solubility equilibrium with the atmosphere. Groundwater age dating based on estimated in situ production and terrigenic flux of helium provides a groundwater residence time of ˜107 years. Although fluid exchange between the deep basal aquifer system and the upper aquifer layers is generally impeded by confining clay layers and lignite, this study's geochemical data suggest, for the first time, that deep circulating fluids penetrate shallow aquifers in the locality of fault zones, implying that sub-vertical fluid flow occurs along faults in the LRE. However, large hydraulic-head gradients observed across many faults suggest that they act as barriers to lateral groundwater flow. Therefore, the geochemical data reported here also substantiate a conduit-barrier model of fault-zone hydrogeology in unconsolidated sedimentary deposits, as well as corroborating the concept that faults in unconsolidated aquifer systems can act as loci for hydraulic connectivity between deep and shallow aquifers. The implications of fluid flow along faults in sedimentary basins worldwide are far reaching and of particular concern for carbon capture and storage (CCS) programmes, impacts of deep shale gas recovery for shallow groundwater aquifers, and nuclear waste storage sites where fault zones could act as potential leakage pathways for hazardous fluids.

  13. Dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes as tracers of preferential fluid flow along faults in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumm, L. P.; Bense, V. F.; Dennis, P. F.; Hiscock, K. M.; Cremer, N.; Simon, S.

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater in shallow unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers close to the Bornheim fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, has relatively low δ2H and δ18O values in comparison to regional modern groundwater recharge, and 4He concentrations up to 1.7 × 10-4 cm3 (STP) g-1 ± 2.2 % which is approximately four orders of magnitude higher than expected due to solubility equilibrium with the atmosphere. Groundwater age dating based on estimated in situ production and terrigenic flux of helium provides a groundwater residence time of ˜107 years. Although fluid exchange between the deep basal aquifer system and the upper aquifer layers is generally impeded by confining clay layers and lignite, this study's geochemical data suggest, for the first time, that deep circulating fluids penetrate shallow aquifers in the locality of fault zones, implying that sub-vertical fluid flow occurs along faults in the LRE. However, large hydraulic-head gradients observed across many faults suggest that they act as barriers to lateral groundwater flow. Therefore, the geochemical data reported here also substantiate a conduit-barrier model of fault-zone hydrogeology in unconsolidated sedimentary deposits, as well as corroborating the concept that faults in unconsolidated aquifer systems can act as loci for hydraulic connectivity between deep and shallow aquifers. The implications of fluid flow along faults in sedimentary basins worldwide are far reaching and of particular concern for carbon capture and storage (CCS) programmes, impacts of deep shale gas recovery for shallow groundwater aquifers, and nuclear waste storage sites where fault zones could act as potential leakage pathways for hazardous fluids.

  14. Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 2. Summary of results and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

  15. Plant communities in relation to flooding and soil contamination in a lowland Rhine River floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), relationships were investigated between plant species composition and flooding characteristics, heavy metal contamination and soil properties in a lowland floodplain of the Rhine River. Floodplain elevation and yearly average flooding duration turned out to be more important for explaining variation in plant species composition than soil heavy metal contamination. Nevertheless, plant species richness and diversity showed a significant decrease with the level of contamination. As single heavy metal concentrations seemed mostly too low for causing phytotoxic effects in plants, this trend is possibly explained by additive effects of multiple contaminants or by the concomitant influences of contamination and non-chemical stressors like flooding. These results suggest that impacts of soil contamination on plants in floodplains could be larger than expected from mere soil concentrations. In general, these findings emphasize the relevance of analyzing effects of toxic substances in concert with the effects of other relevant stressors. - Multiple contaminants and periodic flooding may pose cumulative stress to plants in lowland floodplains.

  16. Migration of bream between the main channel and floodplain lakes along the lower River Rhine during the connection phase

    OpenAIRE

    Grift, R.E.; Buijse, A.D.; Klein Breteler, J.G.P.; Densen, W.L.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Backx, J.J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Mature bream (>30 cm LF) dominated the fish communities in floodplain lakes along the lower River Rhine in The Netherlands, in terms of biomass, in all lakes at all times. In some lakes bream made up 99 f the total fish biomass. While immature, medium-sized bream (10–30 cm) and white bream and roach were abundant in the main channel of the river, these species were almost absent from the floodplain lakes. Inundation of the floodplains did not lead to spatial homogenization of species and l...

  17. River habitat monitoring and assessment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Ulrich; Binder, Walter; Hölzl, Konrad

    2007-04-01

    Whereas assessing the biological and chemical quality of water is a standard environmental procedure in many countries, the use of habitat survey methods that assess the ecomorphological quality of rivers is relatively new. In Europe, the EC Water Framework Directive requires such assessment from all EU Member States. In Germany, the first river habitat assessments were introduced in the late 1990 s. Each federal state develops its own river habitat map using the 'On-site Survey' and/or the 'Overview Survey'. The assessment describes the difference of the actual condition from a previously defined reference condition. In practice, a defined 'potential for restoration', a more realistic condition, makes restoration activities much easier and more successful. In Germany, the first River Habitat Map 2001 was published in 2002. The survey covered 33,000 km of river length, which equates to 10% of all rivers. A wide range from 'Undisturbed' (class 1) to 'Totally Disturbed' (class 7) river units exists; 77% of them are 'Clearly Disturbed' (class 4) or in worse condition. These result reflects extensive anthropogenic impact on the environment in general, but also past intense technical river 'improvements' that focused on the protection of settlements and traffic routes from flooding, better shipping conditions, the use of water power, and drainage of floodplains for agriculture and urban development. For comparability of survey results between EU Member States, a harmonization of national survey methods is in progress. A crucial point here is the definition of the reference condition for each river (near-natural conditions), since it influences the survey results. PMID:17058007

  18. Dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes as tracers of prefential fluid flow along faults in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany (online first)

    OpenAIRE

    Bense, V. F.; Gumm, L.P.; P. Dennis; Hiscock, N.; Cremer, N; Simon, S.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in shallow unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers close to the Bornheim fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), Germany, has relatively low ?2H and ?18O values in comparison to regional modern groundwater recharge, and 4He concentrations up to 1.7?×?10?4 cm3 (STP) g–1?±?2.2 % which is approximately four orders of magnitude higher than expected due to solubility equilibrium with the atmosphere. Groundwater age dating based on estimated in situ production and terrigenic flux of heliu...

  19. Thermal maturity and petroleum kitchen areas of Liassic Black Shales (Lower Jurassic) in the central Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Johannes; Littke, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    In the central Upper Rhine Graben (URG), several major oil fields have been sourced by Liassic Black Shales. In particular, the Posidonia Shale (Lias ɛ, Lower Toarcian) acts as excellent and most prominent source rock in the central URG. This study is the first comprehensive synthesis of Liassic maturity data in the URG area and SW Germany. The thermal maturity of the Liassic Black Shales has been analysed by vitrinite reflectance (VRr) measurements, which have been verified with T max and spore coloration index (SCI) data. In outcrops and shallow wells (<600 m), the Liassic Black Shales reached maturities equivalent to the very early or early oil window (ca. 0.50-0.60 % VRr). This maturity is found in Liassic outcrops and shallow wells in the entire URG area and surrounding Swabian Jura Mountains. Maximum temperatures of the Posidonia Shale before graben formation are in the order of 80-90 °C. These values were likely reached during Late Cretaceous times due to significant Upper Jurassic and minor Cretaceous deposition and influenced by higher heat flows of the beginning rift event at about 70 Ma. In this regard, the consistent regional maturity data (VRr, T max, SCI) of 0.5-0.6 % VRr for the Posidonia Shale close to surface suggest a major burial-controlled maturation before graben formation. These consistent maturity data for Liassic outcrops and shallow wells imply no significant oil generation and expulsion from the Posidonia Shale before formation of the URG. A detailed VRr map has been created using VRr values of 31 wells and outcrops with a structure map of the Posidonia Shale as reference map for a depth-dependent gridding operation. Highest maturity levels occur in the area of the Rastatt Trough (ca. 1.5 % VRr) and along the graben axis with partly very high VRr gradients (e.g. well Scheibenhardt 2). In these deep graben areas, the maximum temperatures which were reached during upper Oligocene to Miocene times greatly exceed those during the Cretaceous.

  20. Thermal maturity and petroleum kitchen areas of Liassic Black Shales (Lower Jurassic) in the central Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Johannes; Littke, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    In the central Upper Rhine Graben (URG), several major oil fields have been sourced by Liassic Black Shales. In particular, the Posidonia Shale (Lias ?, Lower Toarcian) acts as excellent and most prominent source rock in the central URG. This study is the first comprehensive synthesis of Liassic maturity data in the URG area and SW Germany. The thermal maturity of the Liassic Black Shales has been analysed by vitrinite reflectance (VRr) measurements, which have been verified with T max and spore coloration index (SCI) data. In outcrops and shallow wells (<600 m), the Liassic Black Shales reached maturities equivalent to the very early or early oil window (ca. 0.50-0.60 % VRr). This maturity is found in Liassic outcrops and shallow wells in the entire URG area and surrounding Swabian Jura Mountains. Maximum temperatures of the Posidonia Shale before graben formation are in the order of 80-90 °C. These values were likely reached during Late Cretaceous times due to significant Upper Jurassic and minor Cretaceous deposition and influenced by higher heat flows of the beginning rift event at about 70 Ma. In this regard, the consistent regional maturity data (VRr, T max, SCI) of 0.5-0.6 % VRr for the Posidonia Shale close to surface suggest a major burial-controlled maturation before graben formation. These consistent maturity data for Liassic outcrops and shallow wells imply no significant oil generation and expulsion from the Posidonia Shale before formation of the URG. A detailed VRr map has been created using VRr values of 31 wells and outcrops with a structure map of the Posidonia Shale as reference map for a depth-dependent gridding operation. Highest maturity levels occur in the area of the Rastatt Trough (ca. 1.5 % VRr) and along the graben axis with partly very high VRr gradients (e.g. well Scheibenhardt 2). In these deep graben areas, the maximum temperatures which were reached during upper Oligocene to Miocene times greatly exceed those during the Cretaceous.

  1. High-resolution seismic imaging of near-surface fault structures in the Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musmann, Patrick; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte

    2010-05-01

    Faults systems are important targets in different fields of exploration geophysics. Recently, exploration is focussed on deep-seated faults systems for hydro-geothermal utilization, where fluid flow may be enhanced compared to the surrounding host rock (fracture dominated aquifers). In fault related exploration, special interest of geothermal research is given to size, shape and age of fault patterns as well as to the geological periods of fault activity, because fluid flow critically depends on those parameters. A well-established way to explore structural architecture of fault systems is the use of 3D reflection seismics. This technique, if applied to targets at several kilometers depth, inevitably leaves a gap in the near-surface domain due economic line spacing. To bridge the gap between target exploration at several kilometers depth (here 2-4 km) and the need to trace structures from the reservoir to the near surface, a study in the Upper Rhine Graben, Germany, was performed to supplement large-scale 3D seismic imaging of fault systems with high-resolution 2D reflection seismics. Here, we present results from three different high-resolution reflection seismic profiles, which were carried out across the projected outcrop of local fault structures. These structures appear in 3D seismic datasets recently acquired for hydro-geothermal exploration, but fade out towards surface. The new shallow seismic sections image Quaternary and Late Tertiary units between approximately 20 m and 1000 m depth. The sedimentary strata are resolved at high-resolution and different fault patterns can be identified therein. At one site, a 300 m wide normal fault zone was observed, while the other site shows a prominent horst structure with bounding faults branching into smaller ones at depth. From these fault images the last geological time of activity could be narrowed. Imaging limitations can be explained by an increasingly high-energy depositional system on one site, preventing unequivocal fault imaging into Quaternary times, or are methodology inherent to a depth of approximately 20 m at the other site, which reveals at least a sub-recent activity of this fault system. In summary, structures are visible and can be deduced from these 2D measurements, which are not apparent in the lower frequency, large-scale 3D datasets. Thus high-resolution 2D measurements are well suited for complementing the missing near-surface information of 3D datasets; the imaging of structural details allows a deeper insight into the architecture and kinematics of fault systems.

  2. Prehistoric alteration of soil in the Lower Rhine Basin, Northwest Germany—archaeological, 14C and geochemical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, R.; Baumewerd-Schmidt, H; van den Borg, K; E. Eckmeier; Schmidt, M W I

    2006-01-01

    In Early Holocene, Chernozems were assumed to have covered the entire loess landscape of the Lower Rhine basin—today mirrored by the distribution of Luvic Phaeozems. These Luvic Phaeozems have characteristic dark brown (Bht) horizons accumulating clay and humus, inherited and translocated from their precursors Chernozem black humic A horizons. We examined Luvic Phaeozems along a 33-km-long and 2.0–2.5-m-deep gas pipeline trench in the Lower Rhine Basin, west of Cologne. Along this transect...

  3. Determination of flow times and flow velocities in the upper Rhine river using 3HHO as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of water bodies of the Upper Rhine river discretely traced with 3HHO-loaded waste waters from the nuclear power plants of Beznau, Fessenheim, Philippsburg and Biblis was investigated along a distance of nearly 385 km down to Nierstein. The passage of the distinct entrainment charged by different emissions was measured at the sampling points of Bad Saeckingen, Weil, Weisweil, Iffezheim and Nierstein. From these profiles the flow times and flow velocities were calculated for the discharge range from 0.6 to 1.7 MQ (mean discharge), taking the begin, end and duration of the individual releases into account. (orig./HP)

  4. The influence of extreme river discharge conditions on the quality of suspended particulate matter in Rivers Meuse and Rhine (The Netherlands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Timo; Kamstra, Jorke H; van Gils, Jos; Kotte, Marcel C; van Hattum, Albertus Gm

    2015-11-01

    As a consequence of climate change, increased precipitation in winter and longer periods of decreased precipitation in summer are expected to cause more frequent episodes of very high or very low river discharge in the Netherlands. To study the impact of such extreme river discharge conditions on water quality, toxicity profiles and pollutant profiles were determined of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected from Rivers Meuse and Rhine. Archived (1993-2003) and fresh (2009-2011) SPM samples were selected from the Dutch annual monitoring program of the national water bodies (MWTL), representing episodes with river discharge conditions ranging from very low to regular to very high. SPM extracts were tested in a battery of in vitro bioassays for their potency to interact with the androgen receptor (AR), the estrogen receptor (ER), the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the thyroid hormone transporter protein transthyretin (TTR). SPM extracts were further tested for their mutagenic potency (Ames assay) and their potency to inhibit bacterial respiration (Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay). Target-analyzed pollutant concentrations of the SPM samples and additional sample information were retrieved from a public database of MWTL results. In vitro toxicity profiles and pollutant profiles were analyzed in relation to discharge conditions and in relation to each other using correlation analysis and multivariate statistics. Compared to regular discharge conditions, composition of SPM during very high River Meuse and Rhine discharges shifted to more coarse, sandy, organic carbon (OC) poor particles. On the contrary, very low discharge led to a shift to more fine, OC rich material, probably dominated by algae. This shift was most evident in River Meuse, which is characterized by almost stagnant water conditions during episodes of drought. During such episodes, SPM extracts from River Meuse demonstrated increased potencies to inhibit bacterial respiration and to compete with thyroid hormone to bind to TTR, possibly due to the presence of fycotoxins. Meanwhile concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in SPM were also increased. Very high River Meuse discharges on the other hand corresponded to increased androgenic and AhR agoniztic responses, which coincided with increased PAH levels and PAH-related in vivo risk estimates (i.e. multi-substance potentially affected fraction of species; msPAF). In River Rhine, very high discharges also corresponded to increasing androgenic potencies in SPM. Concentrations and corresponding msPAF values of PAHs (and metals), however, decreased with very high discharges in River Rhine in contrast to River Meuse. Mutagenicity was observed for SPM extracts from River Rhine collected during all discharge conditions, except during regular discharge. Aggregated toxicity index values, which were useful to identify toxicity profiles deviating from the generally observed pattern, did not correlate with river discharges, probably due to opposite effects of discharge conditions on different bioassay responses. In conclusion, SPM quality and related in vivo risk estimates changed during very low or very high discharge conditions but the changes were specific for the different toxic endpoints and pollutants in the different rivers. Moreover, bioassay responses to a series of consecutively collected samples from River Rhine during the Christmas flood of 1993 indicated that SPM quality is variable within a single episode of extreme discharge. PMID:26519830

  5. Alcohol Consumption among University Students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany--Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmatov, Manas K.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Meier, Sabine; Kramer, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess alcohol use and problem drinking among university students in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and to examine the associated factors. Method: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 universities in 2006-2007 in NRW by a standardized questionnaire and 3,306 students provided information…

  6. Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Text volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex I lists the references arranged in the order of authors and years of publication, presents a list of experts, an overview on research projects, current measuring and observation programmes on the river Rhine and makes proposals for future monitoring sites. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

  7. Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river; Renouvellement de la concession de la chute hydro-electrique de Kembs sur le Rhin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, P.; Defoug, H.; Petit, D

    2000-07-15

    In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

  8. The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazhdankin A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.

  9. Investigations of effects of thermal discharges in Rhine river waters. Part of a coordinated programme on the physical and biological effects of cooling systems and thermal discharges at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report envisages two aspects of cooling systems: heat exchange between water and atmosphere; cooling tower plume modelling. The author gives the estimated ''cooling capacity'' of German rivers and estuaries and describes a station at Rheinhausen, measuring directly the heat exchange between the river Rhine and the atmosphere. The influence of meteorological and topographical parameters is discussed and the total incertainty in extrapolating formular is assessed. A number of field studies have been carried out to measure plume behaviour of cooling towers and to provide the data basis for comparison of existing models. The average plume rise is well predicted. The experimental programme carried out in Germany since 1973 is described. The one dimensional models TOWER and SAUNA.S are in agreement with experimental results except for short plumes. The last plume model WALKURE shows considerable improvement. It is specially suited for the calculations of the cooling tower plume behaviour under influence of temperature and humidity stratifications in the ambient atmosphere

  10. Post mining hazard assessment in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In North Rhine-Westphalia, large areas are affected by mining legacies endangering the ground surface and public safety. The problems arising and the current risk management are demonstrated at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district. Hazards especially result from outcrops of coal seams mined at shallow depths and shafts whilst galleries usually seem to be rather unperilous due to their depth and small dimension. In this paper, the design of hazard zones and the assignment of hazard classes are described. Recent scientific developments related to the size of hazard areas are described and an outlook on future procedures is given. (authors)

  11. Post mining hazard assessment in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitfeld, M.; Mainz, M.; Schetelig, K. [IngenieurBuro Heitfeld-Schetelig, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In North Rhine-Westphalia, large areas are affected by mining legacies endangering the ground surface and public safety. The problems arising and the current risk management are demonstrated at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district. Hazards especially result from outcrops of coal seams mined at shallow depths and shafts whilst galleries usually seem to be rather unperilous due to their depth and small dimension. In this paper, the design of hazard zones and the assignment of hazard classes are described. Recent scientific developments related to the size of hazard areas are described and an outlook on future procedures is given. (authors)

  12. Radioactivity in the Rhine - the LWA controls North-Rhine-Westphalian surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State Authority for Water and Waste Management has been testing the Rhine and the most important surface waters of North-Rhine Westphalia for radioactivity ever since it was founded in 1969. Radiation exposure of human beings who use Rhine water is far below the permitted maximum values of the 'radiation protection ordinance'. Pollution of the Rhine and its tributaries in North-Rhine Westphalia with artificial radioactive substances has even slightly decreased over the past ten years; pollution of the River Emscher with natural radioactive material remained high, the Lippe River now contains less radium than before. (orig./PW)

  13. Solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in floodplain soils of the rivers Rhine and Meuse : Field sampling and geochemical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    Solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in floodplain soils of the rivers Rhine and Meuse: Field sampling and geochemical modelling. PhD-thesis, 2005, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 184 p.In the last century large amounts of heavy metals have accumulated in the embanked river floodplain areas of the Netherlands. Since the disposal of these contaminated sediments is costly, there is a need to understand more about the environmental risks that are linked to the presenc...

  14. Monitoring statewide urban development using multitemporal multisensoral satellite data covering a 40-year time span in north Rhine-Westphalia (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettker, Birte; Over, Martin; Braun, Matthias; Menz, Gunter; Siegmund, Alexander

    2004-02-01

    Increasing population growth and growing ecological problems in urban areas require advanced remote sensing technology for the acquisition of detailed and accurate land-use information for urban management and planning issues. Surface consumption of 120 ha per day (2003) for traffic and settlement areas in Germany is far away from the 30 ha per day of the sustainability-strategy intended for the year 2020 by the Federal Environmental Ministry. With regard to the 50ies, imperviousness and sealing almost doubled. The presented study is embedded in a project in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), the most densely populated federal state in Germany. During the last decades, industrial transformation processes as well as strong economic and socio-structural changes have taken place, making NRW most suitable as an exemplary region to study and visualize dynamic developments in Europe. The examined time period of this work includes intense urban development and expansion in the suburban regions. LANDSAT data of three time slices (1975, 1984 & 2001) build the backbone to detect the changes taken place. Applying a multisensoral approach with improved spatial and even spectral resolution the focus is on the urban development of certain "hot spots" in NRW. CORONA, IKONOS as well as ASTER satellite data is used to allow a further characterization of urban land-use types and changes in more detail over the last four decades. Classical change detection methods as PCA are combined with classification of segmented urban land-use areas when evaluating the type of change.

  15. Is telemonitoring an option against shortage of physicians in rural regions? attitude towards telemedical devices in the North Rhine-Westphalian health survey, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terschüren Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GP in rural areas of Germany are struggling to find successors for their private practices. Telemonitoring at home offers an option to support remaining GPs and specialists in ambulatory care. Methods We assessed the knowledge and attitude towards telemedicine in the population of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW, Germany, in a population-based telephone survey. Results Out of 2,006 participants, 734 (36.6% reported an awareness of telemedical devices. Only 37 participants (1.8% have experience in using them. The majority of participants were in favour of using them in case of illness (72.2%. However, this approval declined with age. These findings were similar in rural and urban areas. Participants who were in favour of telemedicine (n = 1,480 strongly agreed that they would have to see their doctor less often, and that the doctor would recognize earlier relevant changes in their vital status. Participants who disliked to be monitored by telemedical devices preferred to receive immediate feedback from their physician. Especially, the elderly fear the loss of personal contact with their physician. They need the direct patient-physician communication. Conclusions The fear of being left alone with the technique needs to be compensated for today's elderly patients to enhance acceptance of home telemonitoring as support for remaining doctors either in the rural areas or cities.

  16. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2015-11-01

    The Permocarboniferous siliciclastic formations represent the largest hydrothermal reservoir in the northern Upper Rhine Graben in SW Germany and have so far been investigated in large-scale studies only. The Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin, a Variscan intramontane molasse basin. Due to the subsidence in this graben structure, the top of the up to 2-km-thick Permocarboniferous is located at a depth of 600-2900 m and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. At this depth, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150 °C, which are sufficient for geothermal electricity generation with binary power plants. To further assess the potential of this geothermal reservoir, detailed information on thermophysical and hydraulic properties of the different lithostratigraphical units and their depositional environment is essential. Here, we present an integrated study of outcrop analogues and drill core material. In total, 850 outcrop samples were analyzed, measuring porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Furthermore, 62 plugs were taken from drillings that encountered or intersected the Permocarboniferous at depths between 1800 and 2900 m. Petrographic analysis of 155 thin sections of outcrop samples and samples taken from reservoir depth was conducted to quantify the mineral composition, sorting and rounding of grains and the kind of cementation. Its influence on porosity, permeability, the degree of compaction and illitization was quantified. Three parameters influencing the reservoir properties of the Permocarboniferous were detected. The strongest and most destructive influence on reservoir quality is related to late diagenetic processes. An illitic and kaolinitic cementation and impregnation of bitumina document CO2- and CH4-rich acidic pore water conditions, which are interpreted as fluids that migrated along a hydraulic contact from an underlying Carboniferous hydrocarbon source rock. Migrating oil and acidic waters led to the dissolution of haematite cements in the lower Permocarboniferous formations. During the Eocene, subsidence of the Upper Rhine Graben porosities and permeabilities of the sandstones of these formations were strongly reduced to 2.5 % and 3.2 × 10-18 m2. The second important influence on reservoir quality is the distinct depositional environment and its influence on early diagenetic processes. In early stage diagenesis, the best influence on reservoir properties exhibits a haematite cementation. It typically occurs in eolian sandstones of the Kreuznach Formation (Upper Permocarboniferous) and is characterized by grain covering haematite coatings, which are interpreted to inhibit cementation, compaction and illitization of pore space during burial. Eolian sandstones taken from outcrops and reservoir depths exhibit the highest porosities (16.4; 12.3 %) and permeabilities (2.0 × 10-15; 8.4 × 10-16 m2). A third important influence on reservoir quality is the general mineral composition and the quartz content which is the highest in the Kreuznach Formation with 73.8 %. Based on the integrated study of depositional environments and diagenetic processes, reservoir properties of the different Permocarboniferous formations within the northern Upper Rhine Graben and their changes with burial depth can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy. This leads to a better understanding of the reservoir quality and enables an appropriate well design for exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources.

  17. Modeling of the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals and arsenic in embanked flood plain soils of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, T.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Vink, J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to predict the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in river flood plain soils. We compared mechanistic geochemical modeling with a statistical approach. To characterize the heavy metal contamination of embanked river flood plain soils in The Netherlands, we collected 194 soil samples at 133 sites distributed in the Dutch part of the Rhine and Meuse river systems. We measured the total amounts of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the soil samples and the metal ...

  18. Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Aafke M. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.schipper@science.ru.nl; Wijnhoven, Sander [Centre for Sustainable Management of Resources, Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Monitor Taskforce, P.O. Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke (Netherlands); Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels.

  19. Methane exchange between coal-bearing basins and the atmosphere: the Ruhr Basin and the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielemann, T. [Institut fuer Erdoel and Organische Geochemie, Juelich (Germany); Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Aachen (Germany); Luecke, A.; Schleser, G.H. [Institut fuer Erdoel and Organische Geochemie, Juelich (Germany); Littke, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Aachen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    A precise knowledge of methane exchange processes is required to fully understand the recent rise of atmospheric methane concentration. Three of these processes take place at the lithosphere/atmosphere boundary: bacterial consumption of methane and emission of bacterial or thermogenic methane. This study was initiated to quantify these processes on a regional scale in the Ruhr Basin and the Lower Rhine Embayment. Since these areas are subject to bituminous coal and lignite mining, natural and anthropogentically-inducted methane exchange processes could be studied. The methane emission and consumption rates and their carbon isotope signal were measured at the lithosphere/atmosphere boundary using flux chambers. On most of the soils studied, methane consumption by bacteria was identified. In active and abandoned bituminous coal mining areas methane emissions were restricted to small areas, where high emission rates were measured. The carbon isotope composition of methane at natural faults and in mining subsidence troughs was typical of thermogenic methane (-45 to -32 per mille {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C). Methane exchange balancing revealed that natural methane emissions from these two basin represent no source of atmospheric importance. However, methane release by upcast mining shafts dominates the methane exchange processes and is about two orders of magnitude greater than methane consumption by bacterial oxidation in the soils. (Author)

  20. Occurrence and temporal variations of TMDD in the river Rhine, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Arlen A. Guedez; Frömmel, Stephan; Diehl, Peter; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope: The chemical substance 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD) is a non-ionic surfactant used as an industrial defoaming agent and in various other applications. Its commercial name is Surynol 104® and the related ethoxylates are also available as Surfynol® 420, 440, 465 and 485 which are characterized by different grades of ethoxylation of TMDD at both hydroxyl functional groups. TMDD and its ethoxylates offer several advantages in waterborne industrial appli...

  1. Propagation prognoses on rivers Rhine, Neckar, Main and Moselle based on 3HHO tracer dispersion investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermittent discharges of 3HHO from nuclear installations have been used to determine flow times, flow velocities and values characterizing the longitudinal dispersion of soluble substances under natural conditions. The data and the knowledge thus gained are the basis for developing propagation prognoses. In case of an accidental input of radioactive or inactive water-soluble substances into the river, the flow and propagation behaviour in the contaminated river sections can be described, what permits also an estimation of the radiologic or toxic effects. The formal interrelation of the values required for a tabular presentation of prognoses on the longitudinal dispersion of these noxious substances is described and exemplified. (orig.)

  2. Temperature monitoring along the Rhine River based on airborne thermal infrared remote sensing: qualitative results compared to satellite data and validation with in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn

    2014-10-01

    Water temperature is an important parameter of water quality and influences other physical and chemical parameters. It also directly influences the survival and growth of animal and plant species in river ecosystems. In situ measurements do not allow for a total spatial coverage of water bodies and rivers that is necessary for monitoring and research at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany. Hence, the ability of different remote sensing products to identify and investigate water inflows and water temperatures in Federal waterways is evaluated within the research project 'Remote sensing of water surface temperature'. The research area for a case study is the Upper and Middle Rhine River from the barrage in Iffezheim to Koblenz. Satellite products (e. g. Landsat and ASTER imagery) can only be used for rivers at least twice as wide as the spatial resolution of the satellite images. They can help to identify different water bodies only at tributaries with larger inflow volume (Main and Mosel) or larger temperature differences between the inflow (e. g. from power plants working with high capacity) and the river water. To identify and investigate also smaller water inflows and temperature differences, thermal data with better ground and thermal resolution is required. An aerial survey of the research area was conducted in late October 2013. Data of the surface was acquired with two camera systems, a digital camera with R, G, B, and Near-IR channels, and a thermal imaging camera measuring the brightness temperature in the 8-12 m wavelength region (TIR). The resolution of the TIR camera allowed for a ground resolution of 4 m, covering the whole width of the main stream and larger branches. The RGB and NIR data allowed to eliminate land surface temperatures from the analysis and to identify clouds and shadows present during the data acquisition. By degrading the spatial resolution and adding sensor noise, artificial Landsat ETM+ and TIRS datasets were created to evaluate whether the methods applied to the aerial survey data are also applicable for satellite datasets. In situ measurements were obtained from water quality measurement stations and specifically deployed temperature loggers. Two alternative methods to correct for atmospheric influences were evaluated: calibration based on in situ water temperature measurements and atmospheric correction based on atmospheric parameters modelled with MODTRAN R5. Both methods rely on input data, the former on in situ measurements of the water temperature, the latter on data from climate stations. The results are validated by the dataset of independent in situ measurements. The remaining difference of the corrected aerial survey to the in situ measurements could be reduced to 0.0±0.2 C for the calibration and 0.1±0.3 C for the atmospheric correction. The variance of the atmospheric correction proved to be larger than of the in situ calibration method, but still smaller than the variance of atmospherically corrected, real LANDSAT ETM+ data. Inflows with differing water temperatures could be identified successfully with the change point analysis method even for smaller dischargers and the mixing processes of water bodies with different temperatures could be traced into great detail. With decreasing spatial resolution and increasing sensor noise, the ability to detect inflows remained the same, but at the cost of a higher number of 'false positive' change points.

  3. Modeling metal bioaccumulation in the invasive mussels Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis in the rivers Rhine and Meuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T T Yen; Leuven, Rob S E W; Hendriks, A Jan

    2011-12-01

    The metal-specific covalent index and the species-specific size-based filtration rate were integrated into a biokinetic model estimating metal bioaccumulation in mussels from the dissolved phase and phytoplankton. The model was validated for zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the rivers Rhine and Meuse, the Netherlands. The model performed well in predicting tissue concentrations in different-sized zebra mussels from various sampling sites for (55) Mn, (56) Fe, (59) Co, (60) Ni, (82) Se, (111) Cd, (118) Sn, and (208) Pb (r(2) =0.71-0.99). Performance for (52) Cr, (63) Cu, (66) Zn, (68) Zn, and (112) Cd was moderate (r(2) quagga mussels, approximately 73 to 94% of the variability in concentrations of (82) Se, (111) Cd, (112) Cd, and (208) Pb was explained by the model (r(2) =0.73-0.94), followed by (52) Cr, (55) Mn, (56) Fe, (60) Ni, and (63) Cu (r(2) =0.48-0.61). Additionally, in both zebra and quagga mussels, average modeled concentrations were within approximately one order of magnitude of the measured values. In particular, in zebra mussels, estimations of (60) Ni and (82) Se concentrations were equal to 51 and 76% of the measurements, respectively. Higher deviations were observed for (52) Cr, (59) Co, (55) Mn, (56) Fe, (111) Cd, (63) Cu, and (112) Cd (underestimation), and (66) Zn, (68) Zn, (208) Pb, and (118) Sn (overestimation). For quagga mussels, modeled concentrations of (66) Zn and (68) Zn differed approximately 14% from the measured levels. Differences between predictions and measurements were higher for other metals. PMID:21953991

  4. Modelling kinetically controlled water-rock interactions during geothermal stimulation in typical poly-mineralic reservoir rocks from the Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuesters, Tim; Mueller, Thomas; Renner, Joerg

    2015-04-01

    A quantitative understanding of geochemically controlled reaction rates and their operating reaction mechanisms is crucial for the efficient exploration and exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. For example, the volume changes associated with dissolution and precipitation reactions potentially may affect the hydraulic properties of a reservoir during the production phase. The reactivity depends on a complex interaction of various parameters such as temperature, fluid flux and chemistry, mineral composition, reactive surface areas, etc. Most shallow geothermal reservoirs are constituted by highly permeable sedimentary rocks saturated by a fluid phase. The abundance of impermeable crystalline basement rocks (magmatic and metamorphic) increases with depth. Typically, hydraulic stimulation is necessary to create fluid pathways, i.e. the permeability of the rock is increased by the generation of new fractures and the reactivation of old fractures (Enhanced Geothermal Systems, EGS). Fresh, high energy surfaces are created by this treatment, constituting potential sites for intensive water-rock interactions. An increasing number of reactive transport models using equilibrium thermodynamic data shed considerable light on water-rock interactions. However, most models simplify the involved rocks to mono-mineralic phases and/or use rate data based on powder experiments with unnatural high reactive surface areas. In this study we present a new numerical model approach to quantify the geochemical evolution and its mechanical feedback during geothermal stimulation of typical poly-mineralic reservoir rocks at elevated temperatures (150-200 °C). Rock samples representative for geothermal energy producing sites (limestone, sandstone, volcanic tuff and granite) were collected at the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) in southern Germany, i.e. one of the high potential locations for geothermal energy production in Germany. Samples have been characterized petrographically with regard to phase assemblage, grain size and textures to constrain input parameters for the model. The model geometry approximates a fluid continuously circulating along the injection hole (3500 m), the reservoir rock (500 m) and production hole (3500 m) with a spatial discretization of 1 m per unit cell. Initial distribution of temperature and stratigraphy along the circuit reflect drill logs. Advective and diffusive transport of the fluid phase is solved using a finite volume scheme. The numerical code is written in FORTRAN and coupled to the IPhreeqc-application library that is used for the thermodynamic calculation of element speciation in the fluid phase and mineral solubility, respectively. Rates of occurring mineral reactions are linked to the mineralogy including the grain size. Time-dependent changes in fluid composition and mineral modes due to dissolution and precipitation processes are monitored for each cell. Our modelling approach is able to spatially resolve the temporal geochemical evolution of the fluid chemistry as well as mineralogical changes by local mineral reactions including the formation of secondary alteration products.

  5. Changes in toxicity and Ah receptor agonist activity of suspended particulate matter during flood events at the rivers Neckar and Rhine - a mass balance approach using in vitro methods and chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölz J; Engwall M; Maletz S; Olsman Takner H; van Bavel B; Kammann U; Klempt M; Weber R; Braunbeck T; Hollert H

    2008-10-01

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: As a consequence of flood events, runoff and remobilized sediments may cause an increase of ecotoxicologically relevant effects from contaminant reservoirs. Aquatic and terrestrial organisms as well as cattle and areas of settlement are exposed to dislocated contaminants during and after flood events. In this study, the impacts of two flood events triggered by intense rain at the rivers Neckar and Rhine (Southern Germany) were studied. Effects in correlation to flood flow were assessed at the river Neckar using samples collected at frequent intervals. River Rhine suspended particulate matter (SPM) was sampled over a longer period at normal flow and during a flood event. Three cell lines (H4L1.1c4, GPC.2D.Luc, RTL-W1) were used to compare Ah receptor agonist activity in different biotest systems. Multilayer fractionation was performed to identify causative compounds, focusing on persistent organic contaminants.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Native water and SPM of flood events were collected at the river Neckar and at the monitoring station (Rheinguetestation, Worms, Germany) of the river Rhine. Water samples were XAD-extracted. SPM were freeze-dried and Soxhlet-extracted using acetone and finally dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Resulting crude extracts were analyzed for cytotoxicity with the neutral red assay. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity was measured in a set of biological test systems (DR-CALUX, GPC.2D, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay) and different cell lines. In addition, crude extracts were fractionated using a combined method of multilayer (sequence of acidified silica layers) and carbon fractionation. Fractions from the multilayer fractionation contained persistent organic compounds (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)); fractions from the carbon fractionation were separated into a PCDD/F and a PCB fraction. Dioxin-like activity of multilayer and carbon fractions was determined in the EROD assay and expressed as biological toxicity equivalency concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (bio-TEQs). The calculation of chemical equivalency concentrations (chem-TEQs) and comparison to bio-TEQ values allowed the determination of the contribution of the analyzed persistent compounds to the total biological effects measured.RESULTS: Soluble compounds in native and extracted water samples resulted in no or minor activity in the toxicity tests, respectively. Filter residues of native water caused increased AhR-mediated activity at the peak of the flood. Activities of SPM of the river Neckar correlated well with the flow rate indicating a flood-dependent increase of toxicity culminating at the peak of flow. River Rhine SPM showed a decrease of activity regarding an SPM sample of the flood event compared to a long-term sample. Excellent correlations with AhR agonistic activity were determined for DR-CALUX and EROD assay, while the GPC.2D assay did not correlate with both other biotests. The activity of persistent dioxin-like acting compounds in multilayer and carbon fractionated PCDD/F and PCB fractions was low if compared to corresponding crude extracts. The congener pattern of PCDD/F revealed that the contaminations mainly originated from products and productions of the chlorine and organochlorine industries.DISCUSSION: Native and extracted water samples could be shown to contain little or no cytotoxic or AhR agonistic compounds. In contrast, particle-bound compounds were shown to be the relevant effect-causing fraction, as indicated by the activities of filter residues of native water and SPM. Compounds other than fractionated persistent PCBs and PCDD/Fs were more relevant to explain AhR-mediated activities of crude flood SPM at both rivers assessed. Biologically detected activities could at least in part be traced back to chemically analyzed and quantified compounds.CONCLUSIONS: The calculation of the portion of persistent PCBs and PCDD/Fs in multil

  6. The Pliocene and Quaternary fluvial archives of the Rhine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenigk, Wolfgang; Frechen, Manfred

    2006-03-01

    The River Rhine is one of the few major fluvial systems that connect the areas of the Alpine glaciers and Scandinavian ice sheet and so provides a key for correlating the two glacial areas in northern and middle Europe. The fluvial sequences of the Rhine Valley include at least 11 Pleistocene terraces in the Lower Rhine area, 2 Pliocene and 12 Pleistocene terraces in the Middle Rhine area resulting in 15 different Pliocene and Pleistocene terraces based on the correlation between Lower and Middle Rhine. The formation of fluvial terraces is significantly influenced by climatic and tectonic processes. The terrace staircases are a result of uplift in the Middle Rhine area and the southern part of the Lower Rhine area, whereas subsidence in the northern part of the Lower Rhine area resulted in buried stacked sequences. Magnetostratigraphic data provide chronological constraints for the terrace deposits in the Lower Rhine embayment and Middle Rhine region. The Matuyama/Brunhes boundary is a reliable marker horizon for the Upper Terrace fluvial deposits exposed in the Kärlich clay pit in the Middle Rhine area. The first appearance of volcanic heavy mineral grains in the terrace sediments, in loess and soils can be correlated from the Middle Rhine area through the Lower Rhine embayment to the Netherlands. The first occurrence of Nordic components in terrace sediments of the Lower Rhine area is known from gravel on top of the Kempen-Krefeld beds and so are younger than the Holsteinian but older than the penultimate glaciation. In the lower Middle Rhine area, 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of tephra layers intercalated in the aeolian and fluvial sediments provide age constraints. The Upper Pleistocene aeolian sediments overlying the terrace deposits have been dated by luminescence methods, and the tephra from the Laacher See eruption (12,860 BP) is present in the Younger Lower Terrace deposits.

  7. Holocene transgression of the Rhine river mouth area, The Netherlands/Southern North Sea: palaeogeography and sequence stratigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, K.M.; Hijma, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed reconstruction of the palaeogeography of the Rhine valley (western Netherlands) during the Holocene transgression with systems tracts placed in a precise sea-level context. A high level of detail could be reached because of 1) favourable antecedent topography and subsidence setting; 2) long history of coring, mapping, dating, establishing facies models; 3) New 3D-techniques of dealing with the wealth of data and 4) key papers produced in recent years. The reconstruction ...

  8. Numerical tables. Physical and chemical analyses of Rhine water 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tables present the methods of analysis and the data obtained on inorganic, organic, and radioactive impurities in Rhine water. The measuring stations were located in Switzerland, France, West Germany, and the Netherlands. (HP)

  9. The "WFD-effect" on upstream-downstream relations in international river basins - insights from the Rhine and the Elbe basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moellenkamp, S.

    2007-06-01

    The upstream-downstream relationship in international river basins is a traditional challenge in water management. Water use in upstream countries often has a negative impact on water use in downstream countries. This is most evident in the classical example of industrial pollution in upstream countries hindering drinking water production downstream. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) gives new impetus to the river basin approach and to international co-operation in European catchments. It aims at transforming a mainly water quality oriented management into a more integrated approach of ecosystem management. After discussing the traditional upstream-downstream relationship, this article shows that the WFD has a balancing effect on upstream-downstream problems and that it enhances river basin solidarity in international basins. While it lifts the downstream countries to the same level as the upstream countries, it also leads to new duties for the downstream states. Following the ecosystem approach, measures taken by downstream countries become increasingly more important. For example, downstream countries need to take measures to allow for migrating fish species to reach upstream stretches of river systems. With the WFD, fish populations receive increased attention, as they are an important indicator for the ecological status. The European Commission acquires a new role of inspection and control in river basin management, which finally also leads to enhanced cooperation and solidarity among the states in a basin. In order to achieve better water quality and to mitigate upstream-downstream problems, also economic instruments can be applied and the WFD does not exclude the possibility of making use of financial compensations, if at the same time the polluter pays principle is taken into account. The results presented in this article originate from a broader study on integrated water resources management conducted at Bonn University and refer to the Rhine and Elbe basins (Moellenkamp, 2006).

  10. Long-term development and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures: an analysis for the German part of the river Rhine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bubeck

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood mitigation measures implemented by private households have become an important component of contemporary integrated flood risk management in Germany and many other countries. Despite the growing responsibility of private households to contribute to flood damage reduction by means of private flood mitigation measures, knowledge on the long-term development of such measures, which indicates changes in vulnerability over time, and their effectiveness, is still scarce. To gain further insights into the long-term development, current implementation level and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures, empirical data from 752 flood-prone households along the German part of the Rhine are presented. It is found that four types of flood mitigation measures developed gradually over time among flood-prone households, with severe floods being important triggers for an accelerated implementation. At present, still a large share of respondents has not implemented a single flood mitigation measure, despite the high exposure of the surveyed households to floods. The records of household's flood damage to contents and structure during two consecutive flood events with similar hazard characteristics in 1993 and 1995 show that an improved preparedness of the population led to substantially reduced damage during the latter event. Regarding the efficiency of contemporary integrated flood risk management, it is concluded that additional policies are required in order to further increase the level of preparedness of the flood-prone population. This especially concerns households in areas that are less frequently affected by flood events.

  11. Integrated Assessment Methodologies For Land Use Changes and Flood Plain Restoration As Alternative Flood Protection Strategies In The River Basins of Rhine and Meuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Roy; van Ek, Remco; Bouma, Jetske

    Water policy and management decisions become increasingly better informed. Often a large number of studies is carried out before a decision is taken. In the Netherlands, some of these studies, such as environmental impact assessment, are obligatory by law if serious environmental impacts are expected. However, an integrated assessment based on these separate studies is lacking. In this study, an attempt was made to combine and where possible integrate procedures and methods from environmental, social and economic impact assessment. The main objective of the study is to assess, separately and in combination, the ecological, social and economic consequences of land use changes and floodplain restoration as alternative flood protection strategies in the river basins of the rivers Rhine and Meuse in the Netherlands. Based on scenarios of climate change, land subsidence and sea level rise over the next fifty years the associated hy drological changes are translated into the corresponding ecological, economic and social impacts, using a combination of expert judgement and advanced modelling techniques. These impacts are assessed and evaluated with the help of integrated assessment methods such as cost-benefit and multi-criteria analysis in order to support decision-making towards the implementation of new policy regarding flood protection. The outcome of the integrated assessment is related to other water policy objectives, including restoration of the resilience of water systems and nature conservation.

  12. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI):

    OpenAIRE

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are negotiating the border between the river and the urban realm. This produces complex spatial constellations between the river system and the urban realm with a diverse set of interdependencies, where program...

  13. The origin of high and low flows in the river Rhine: particle tracing and water quality calculations in a distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Jaap; van Gils, Jos; Christophe, Christophe; Sperna-Weiland, Frederiek; Winsemius, Hessel

    2013-04-01

    The ability to quickly link a complete water quality model to any distributed hydrological model can be of great value. It provides the hydrological modeller with more information on the performance of the model by being able to add particle tracing and independent mass balance calculations to an existing distributed hydrological model. It also allows for full catchment water quality calculations forced by emissions to different hydrological compartments, taking into account the relevant processes in the different compartments of the hydrological model. A combined distributed hydrological model and hydrochemical model (Delwaq) have been combined within the modeling framework OpenStreams to model large scale hydrological processes in the Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch border at Lobith. Several models have been setup to evaluate (1) the origin of high and low flows in the Rhine basin based on subcatchment contribution and (2) the contribution of different land covers to the total flow with special reference to urban land cover. In addition (3) the relative share of fast and slow runoff components in the total river discharge has been quantified, as well as the age of these two fractions, both as a function of time. Finally (4) the transmission of a pollutant released in infiltrating water and undergoing sorption has been simulated, as a first test for implementing full water quality modelling. The results of a thirty-five year run using daily time steps for 1975 to 2010 were analysed for monthly average contribution to the total flow of each subcatchment and the different land cover types both for average flow conditions and for the top ten and bottom ten flow percentiles. Furthermore, a number of high and low flow events have been analysed in detail. They reveal the large contribution of the basin area upstream of Basel to the dry season flow, especially during the driest summers. Flood conditions in the basin have a more varied origin with the Moselle being the main contributor. The amount of urban land cover (6.7%) generated a fairly large amount of (quick) runoff. In times up to 21 % of the flow at Lobith is generated in urban areas. The location of urban areas (in general close to the river) in combination with the associated impermeable surfaces most probably cause the relatively large contribution of urban areas. The fast runoff fraction at Lobith has an average age between 5 and 25 days, depending on the hydrology within the year, while the slow runoff fraction shows an average age between 300 and 600 days, again depending on the hydrology within the year. The time needed to flush out 90% of the total volume of water from the basin is about 20 years.

  14. Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonon, Ivo; Klok, Chris

    2007-01-01

    River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbers. Populations recover from cocoons that survive floods. If the period between two floods is too short such that cocoons cannot develop into reproductive adults, populations cannot sustain themselves. Both climate change and floodplain rehabilitation change the flooding frequency affecting earthworm populations. The present paper estimates the influence of climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on the viability of earthworm populations in a Dutch floodplain; the Afferdensche and Deestsche Waarden along the River Waal. This floodplain will be part of major river rehabilitation plans of the Dutch government. In those plans, the floodplain will experience the construction of a secondary channel and the removal of part of its minor embankment. To estimate the impact of these plans and climate change, we used a dataset of daily discharges for 1900-2003 for the River Rhine at the Dutch-German border. We perturbed this dataset to obtain two new datasets under climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2100. From the original and two projected datasets we derived the frequency distributions for the annual periods without inundations for the studied floodplain. We subsequently compared the duration of these inundation-free (dry) periods with the maturation age distribution for L. rubellus as derived from a Dynamic Energy Budget model. This comparison yielded in which parts of our study area and under which climate conditions the populations would still be viable, be able to adapt or become extinct. The results show that climate change has almost no adverse effect on earthworm viability. This is because climate change reduces the flooding frequency during the earthworms growing season. Floodplain rehabilitation, on the other hand, reduces the part of the floodplain area where populations can sustain themselves. Before rehabilitation, only 12% of the floodplain area cannot sustain a viable earthworm population. After rehabilitation, this increases to 59%, 28% of which is due to more frequent flooding. Enhanced exposure to soil contaminants may further suppress earthworm viability. This could frustrate further nature development and the viability of earthworm-dependent species such as the badger (Meles meles) or little owl (Athene noctua vidalli species), which is an objective of the river rehabilitation plans in the Netherlands. PMID:17140641

  15. The climate protection legislation in Germany. The example North Rhine-Westphalia; Das Klimaschutzrecht in Deutschland. Das Beispiel Nordrhein-Westfalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaskuehler, Christina [Europa Univ. Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oeffentliches Recht, Verwaltungs-, Europa-, Umwelt-, Agrar- und Ernaehrungswirtschaftsrecht

    2014-07-01

    The contribution on the climate protection legislation in Germany deals with the example Nordrhein-Westfalen. The covered topics include the legislative competence, climate protection targets, the climate protection plan, climate protection concepts and the climate commission and monitoring. The climate protection law is discusses in the view of sustainability and in respect with the consequences for the rural region in Nordrhein-Westfalen.

  16. Luminescence dating of river terrace formation - methodological challenges and complexity of result interpretation: a case study from the headwaters of the River Main, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Thomas; Fuchs, Markus; Zöller, Ludwig

    2015-04-01

    River terraces are widespread geomorphic features of Quaternary landscapes. Besides tectonics, their formation is predominantly controlled by climatic conditions. Changes in either conditions cause changes in fluvial discharge and sediment load. Therefore, fluvial terraces are widely used as important non-continuous sedimentary archives for paleotectonic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The informative value of fluvial archives and their significance for paleoenvironmental research, however, strongly depend on a precise dating of the terrace formation. Over the last decades, various luminescence dating techniques have successfully been applied on fluvial deposits and were able to provide reliable age information. In contrast to radiocarbon dating, modern luminescence dating techniques provide an extended dating range, which enables the determination of age information for fluvial and other terrestrial archives far beyond the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Due to the general abundance of quartz and feldspar minerals, there is almost no limitation of dateable material, so that luminescence dating methods can be applied on a wide variety of deposits. When using luminescence dating techniques, however, some methodological difficulties have to be considered. Due to the mechanism of fluvial transport, this is especially true for fluvial sediments, for which two major problems have been identified to be the main reasons of incorrect age estimations: (1) incomplete resetting of the luminescence signal during transport and (2) dosimetric inaccuracies as a result of the heterogeneity of terrace gravels. Thus, luminescence dating techniques are still far from being standard methods for dating fluvial archives and the calculated sedimentation ages always demand a careful interpretation. This contribution reveals some of the difficulties that may occur when luminescence dating techniques are applied on river terraces and illustrates several strategies used for overcoming these problems and for determining correct sedimentation ages. The presented results are based on a case study, located in the headwaters of the River Main, the longest right bank tributary of the Rhine drainage system. Here, within an oversized dry valley in Northern Bavaria (Germany), five Pleistocene terraces are distinguished. The terraces are interpreted as the result of a complex landscape evolution, which is characterized by multiple river deflections. The need for a careful interpretation of luminescence results is illustrated by some optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages calculated for the youngest of these five Pleistocene terraces. These results show different sedimentation ages of samples originating from the same morphological unit. Thus, these ages may be interpreted as evidence for a diachronic character of river incision and, hence, point to the complexity of fluvial systems' response to climatically and/or tectonically forced changes in local and regional paleoenvironmental conditions.

  17. Interaction surface water - groundwater: Investigation in the Rhine Valley using environmental isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation area is located in the Rhine Valley, a floodplain composed of Upper Quaternary sediments near Karlsruhe, Germany. The upper two gravel layers build highly permeable and productive aquifers which are used by many drinking water supplies. These two layers are partial hydraulically divided by an impermeable interlayer which does not exist everywhere. On the other hand many gravel extraction sites are dug out, which form small artificial lakes. To overcome the conflict between both, water supply and gravel industry, a precise knowledge of the interaction of surface water - groundwater is absolutely necessary. The hydraulic relationship between the groundwater storey, the gravel pit lakes, and the rivers could not be adequately explained using only water level measurements. Only with the aid of the results from the hydro-chemical and isotope-hydrological investigations (?18O, ?2H, 3H), the components of the regional groundwater recharge, Rhine bank infiltration, lake bank filtration, as well as local specifically marked water types could be identified, classified and quantified in surface - and groundwater. Utilizing these methods it was shown that the deep pumping wells of the water supply have over 90% Rhine riverbank filtration water and have no inflow from any of the investigated gravel pit lakes. The groundwater in the two investigated upper aquifers differ mainly isotope-hydrological and respectively in age, less pronounced in their hydro-chemical properties. In both aquifers there is a zone of ca. 1 to 3 km wide, in parts reaching to the gravel quarry lakes, which generally follows the Rhine with a flow of depleted isotopic Rhine filtration water with varying ages. From the east-southeast there is an inflow from the lower terrace of relatively young and identifiably anthropogenic influenced as well as almost totally reduced in nitrate, In the aquifer below, the water is usually tritium-free, i.e., older than 50 years, not anthropogenic influenced and reduced in sulphate. Modeling tritium data the local recharge rate could be estimated. In all investigated gravel pit lakes, a high percentage of Rhine bank filtration was proven. The inflow of groundwater to the lakes and the outflow of the lake water are identifiable because of isotope-fractionation due to evaporation. The environmental isotopes build together with the hydro-geological and hydro-chemical investigations the basis for a detailed understanding of this complex flow system. (author)

  18. Clay mineral formation and fluid-rock interaction in fractured crystalline rocks of the Rhine rift system : case studies from the Soultz-sous-Forêts granite (France) and the Schauenburg Fault (Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Schleicher, Anja

    2005-01-01

    The following study deals with the fluid-alteration history of fractured and faulted crystalline granitic basement in the Rhine rift system, based on the analytical investigation of clay mineral assemblages. It evaluates the argillite mineralizations along faults and fracture zones at key tectonic positions in relation to the upper Rhine graben rift structure and assesses the timing and episodic nature of clay mineral formation that occurred within both the buried basement rocks and similar e...

  19. Rol' reki Rejn v formirovanii prostranstvennoj struktury jekonomiki stran Evropy (I vek do nashej jery — XIX vek [The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazhdankin Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.

  20. Differential subsidence within a coastal prism : late-Glacial - Holocene tectonics In The Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Rhine-Meuse river system has been studied extensively over the past few decades. The Netherlands' coastal prism formed in response to Holocene sea level rise and buried the Weichselian (OIS-2) Rhine-Meuse valley. Although the geological-geomorphological evolution of the Rhine-Meuse system since the Last Glacial Maximum (ca. 22 kyr cal BP) is known in great detail, the effects of neotectonics in the Rhine-Meuse delta have only been recognised recently. In this thesis the Rhine-Meuse record...

  1. Interdisciplinary and transboundary approach of geohistorical reconstruction of the floods in the Rhine Graben (1400 - 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brice; Ansel, Romain; Guerrouah, Ouarda; With, Lauriane; -Chenel, Karine Dietrich; Vitoux, Marie-Claire; Glaser, Rudiger; Drescher, Axel; Himmelsbach, Iso

    2010-05-01

    Because of its turbulent history, Alsace is one of French regions where the historic floods are the most underestimated. The damages connected to the wars (on 1870, 1914 - 1918, 1939 - 1945), the particular classification of archives and, especially, their writing in German during several periods of the recent history, is rebuffing numerous specialists Located in the same geographical area (the Rhine Graben), but by the other side of the the border constituted by the Rhine, the land of Bade is, him too, confronted with the problem of the misunderstanding of the historic floods, because of the destructions of the war also, but especially because of the harmful absence, for archives production, of a strong centralized state until the German unification after 1870. Hence the idea to set up a interdisciplinary French - German research program, to establish compared floods chronologies over several centuries in the Rhine Graben, both in France and in Germany, by associating historians, geographers, anthropologists and specialists of the languages from the universities of Mulhouse (France) and Freiburg in Breisgau (Germany). This program (called "TRANSRISK" 2008 - 2010), financed by the « Agence Nationale de la Recherche » and the « Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft , has multiple objectives: - filling the gaps in the knowledge of the floods in France and in Germany - building a common geohistory of the floods - optimizing the prevention and the information about the floods, thanks to the classification, the reconstruction and the mapping of the extreme phenomena - understanding the role of rivers developments responsible for an different floods evolution on both sides of the Rhine - contributing to the implementation of flood risk observatories on a French - German basis - contributing to define a common interdisciplinary vocabulary on risks (and a french - german - english glossary ). These works join the logic of the "European Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks" come into effects in november 2009 and will allow both regions, previously late, to take place in the forefront of innovation in knowledge on flood risks, including for small streams, and in mapping, two objectives were fixed for 2011 and 2013 by the European Directive. The first results are already spectacular because they are not less than 600 floods in Alsace and 400 in Bade who were able to be counted during the last 5 centuries, bringing to light, on one hand, totally forgotten extreme phenomena, and on the other hand significant breaks in compared floods chronologies, giving evidence of the essential role of the anthropological developments in the decrease or increase of flood risk... and in the production of archives.

  2. Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation: Review of River Basin Management Planning in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMIDT Catrin; Wendler, Wiebke; STRATMANN Lars; ALBRECHT Juliane; Hofmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    By the end of 2009, programmes of measures and river basin management plans under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) had for the first time been set up for all 10 river basin districts inGermany. They provide the water management planning tools for achieving good status of surface and groundwater by 2015. Since a good ecological status for many water bodies cannot be attained by this deadline, the Directive provides for two supplementary planning cycles running to 2021 and 2027 resp...

  3. Historical floods in the Dutch Rhine Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Glaser

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical records provide direct information about the climatic impact on society. Especially great natural disasters such as river floods have been for long attracting the attention of humankind. Time series for flood development on the Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn/Lek and IJssel in the Dutch Rhine Delta are presented in this paper. In the case of the Waal it is even possible to compare historical flood frequencies based on documentary data with the recent development reconstructed from standardized instrumental measurements. In brief, we will also discuss various parameters concerning the structure of the flood series and the "human dimension" of natural disaster, i.e. the vulnerability of society when facing natural disasters.

  4. A review of Gobiid expansion along the Danube-Rhine corridor – geopolitical change as a driver for invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roche K.F.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Gobiid fish species have recently increased their ranges along the Danube/Rhine river corridor. Studies to date, however, have tended to be local, site specific and reactive, examining just one or few species. As such, overall range has tended to be assumed based on a summary of patchy, and sometimes contradictory, data. This study provides an up-to-date literature review of first records of occurrence for all five species along their expansion route. In addition, available shipping data are examined to identify possible proximal causes of introduction. Three main discontinuous population centres were identified; all at or near important container ports: Vienna, Duisburg and Rotterdam. Shipping is confirmed as an important factor in the rapid national and international expansion of Ponto-Caspian Gobiids, with downstream drift, rip-rap and heavy boat traffic contributing to rapid spread on the Rhine. Geopolitical factors, however, such as the fall of communism and the Balkan conflict, have been key in influencing where, when, and by which route gobies first appear. Rapid expansion of Gobiids in the Rhine raises the possibility of establishment throughout mainland Europe via two new potential invasion corridors across Germany/Poland and France.

  5. Ecological restoration and dike relocation on the river Elbe, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Damm, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Floodplain restoration has been successfully initiated on a 420 hectare area on the Middle Elbe River in the German Federal State of Brandenburg. Within a federally funded “Large Scale Conservation Project”, grassland dominated agricultural landscape was converted into a natural floodplain area between 2002 and 2011. The relocation of a dike was essential to re-establish natural flooding conditions as a prerequisite for the rehabilitation of floodplain specific animal and plant communities...

  6. Ecological restoration and dike relocation on the river Elbe, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMM Christian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Floodplain restoration has been successfully initiated on a 420 hectare area on the Middle Elbe River in the German Federal State of Brandenburg. Within a federally funded “Large Scale Conservation Project”, grassland dominated agricultural landscape was converted into a natural floodplain area between 2002 and 2011. The relocation of a dike was essential to re-establish natural flooding conditions as a prerequisite for the rehabilitation of floodplain specific animal and plant communities. At the same time the dike relocation proved to be of great benefit to flood protection, restoring retention capacity, broadening a narrow of dikes and eliminating a hydraulic bottleneck situation in a dangerous river bent. Alluvial forest was initiated by scattered plantations of autochthonous woody species leaving much of the area subject to spontaneous succession. Excavation of alluvial water bodies and maintenance of a extensively grazed horse pasture area add to a diversity of landscape elements with the aim to restore a broad range of floodplain habitats with a high level of biodiversity. The initiated landscape change quickly set off successional processes, mostly related to the altered hydrological conditions among which extended periods of inundation are of major importance. Severe changes in vegetation communities, birdlife and fish communities could be assessed by evaluation investigations and prove the success of the restoration project. Research activities and public environmental education continue to play an important role in the management of the project.

  7. Calculation of emissions into rivers in Germany using the MONERIS model: Nutrients, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, S; Scherer, U.; Wander, R.; Behrendt, H.; Venohr, M.; Opitz, D; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Götz, T.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of both projects was a methodological development of the MONERIS model to quantify emissions from point and diffuse sources into Germany's surface waters. Both projects are based on consistent sub-basins and the according basic data as well as homogenous calculation algorithms that are adapted to the specifications of each substance group. The research encompasses Germany's large river basins as well as their catchment areas outside Germany and in total covers an area of 650,000 km². ...

  8. The harmonization of large-scale energy projects on the river Rhine with France and Switzerland in the interest of civil and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author gives a detailed survey of existing energy plants and plans, joint planning procedures or transfrontier harmonization of national planning, of fields and objectives of harmonization and of the state of harmonization. In doing so, he separately discusses the participation in site selection, preventive measures taken against the heating of waters, measures for keeping the air clean, radiation protection, the minimizing of nuclear risks, avoidance of large-scale climatic effects. A table shows the transfrontier bodies existing in the region of the upper Rhine, and their competencies as regards problems of energy and environment. The author comes to the following conclusion: This harmonization works, even if a few points still remain to be settled. The information provided has to be improved in order to convince the population that the problems involved have been realized and are about to be solved. (HSCH)

  9. Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000, all R and D activities in the nuclear sector were evaluated by a high-ranking commission under the direction of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). The responsible Ministries of Education and Research (BMBF) and of the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) as well as the research institutions active in nuclear R and D took part in this evaluation. In accordance with the recommendations made by this commission, the Alliance for Competence in Nuclear Technology was founded in April 2000 with the following members: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit. The neighboring universities that are active in the nuclear field and cooperate with the research centers are invited as permanent guests. In addition, representatives of the ministries are also present as guests. The Alliance for Competence meets every six months. The strategic goals of the Alliance for Competence are: - Presentation of the trends of job development and training capacities in the nuclear technology sector; - Enhanced cooperation with universities and support of international initiatives (e.g. ENEN, WNU); - Coordination and bundling of the activities in publicly funded nuclear safety and repository research; - Support of qualified young scientists - also by third-party funds; - Participation in the further development of international safety standards (EU, IAEA, OECD-NEA) In the scope of intensifying the cooperation with universities, four 'sub-alliances' of the Alliance of Competence in Nuclear Engineering came into existence, mainly on a regional level: -The Competence Centre East (2004), consisting of the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD-R), the Verein fuer Kernverfahrungstechnik und Analytik (Association for Nuclear Process Technology and Analysis) Rossendorf (VKTA), the Technical University (TU) of Dresden, and the University of Applied Sciences (FH) Zittau/Goerlitz; -The Association for Research and Lecturing in Nuclear Engineering in Southwest Germany (2007), consisting of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), the Materials Testing Laboratory (MPA) Stuttgart, and the Universities of Karlsruhe, Stuttgart and Heidelberg as well as the Universities of Applied Sciences in Ulm and Furtwangen; -The Nuclear Engineering Forum West (2009), consisting of the Juelich Research Centre (FZJ), the RWTH Aachen University, and the Aachen/Juelich University of Applied Sciences; - The subject-oriented Final Disposal Research Group, consisting of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the Technical University of Berlin, and the University of Clausthal-Zellerfeld; - The interregional Alliance of Competence in Radiation Research (2007), consisting of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in Salzgitter (BfS), the Centre for Radiation Protection and Radioecology (ZSR) in Hanover, the German Research Centre for Environmental Health (GSF) in Munich, the Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) Leipzig-Halle, the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, the Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt, and the research centres in Juelich, Dresden/Rossendorf, and Karlsruhe. International activities were geared to two initiatives for the promotion of young nuclear scientists, in particular to the: - ENEN (European Nuclear Engineering Network); -WNU (World Nucl ear University). In both organizations, the Technical University of Munich is involved as the German representative of the Alliance of Competence. By the end of January 2010, the ENELA (European Nuclear Energy Leadership Academy) with its headquarters in Munich also joined

  10. Quantitative target and systematic non-target analysis of polar organic micro-pollutants along the river Rhine using high-resolution mass-spectrometry - Identification of unknown sources and compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Matthias; Mueller, Miriam S; Loos, Martin; Singer, Heinz P

    2015-12-15

    In this study, the contamination by polar organic pollutants was investigated along the Rhine River, an important source of drinking water for 22 million people in central Europe. Following the flow of the river, a traveling water mass was sampled using weekly flow-proportional composite samples at ten different downstream sites, including main tributaries. Using a broad analytical method based on solid phase extraction and high-resolution mass spectrometry, the water was analyzed for more than 300 target substances. While the water in Lake Constance contained only 83 substances in often low concentrations, the number of detects found in the water phase increased to 143 substances and a weekly load of more than 7 tons at the last sampling site, the Dutch-German border. Mostly present were chemicals originating from wastewater treatment plants, especially the artificial sweetener Acesulfam and two pharmaceuticals, Metformin and Gabapentin, which dominate the weekly load up to 58%. Although the sample campaign was performed in a dry period in early spring, a large variety of pesticides and biocides were detected. Several industrial point sources were identified along the waterway's 900 km journey, resulting in high concentrations in the tributaries and loads of up to 160 kg. Additionally, an unbiased non-target analysis was performed following two different strategies for the prioritization of hundreds of potentially relevant unknown masses. While for the first prioritization strategy, only chlorinated compounds were extracted from the mass spectrometer datasets, the second prioritization strategy was performed using a systematic reduction approach between the different sampling sites. Among others, two substances that never had been detected before in this river, namely, the muscle relaxant Tizanidine and the solvent 1,3-Dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI), were identified and confirmed, and their loads were roughly estimated along the river. PMID:26402878

  11. Probability of drought occurrence in the Rhine drainage basin during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülow, K.; Jacob, D.

    2010-09-01

    Germany was struck by a recent hot spell and drought in 2003, which had a devastating effect on the environment and the society. Substantial interest has emerged in the probability of the occurrence of extreme events. Therefore the results of different regional climate models are analysed, which describe today's and future climate and the occurrence of extreme events. To determine the size of uncertainty within regional climate model simulations, temperature and precipitation results of eight regional climate models from 1961 till 2000, with a horizontal resolution of 25 km are examined (RCM model data from the EU-Project ENSEMBLES). Their area means of three subregions in the Rhine drainage basin are compared to observation data sets. In order to describe future climate changes in the Rhine catchment area, numerous regional climate projections for the 21st century will be studied. These different regional climate projections were calculated with a large number of regional climate models embedded in information from various global models. The range of the regional climate projections will be evaluated using a value catalogue which has been specially designed for low water situations of the Rhine. Furthermore a generalized time series decomposition technique was applied, which shows that the temperature time series can be described by a realization of the Gauss distributed random variable with time dependent mean and variance. The precipitation is represented by a Gumbel distributed random variable with time dependent location and scale parameters. The two parameters, which describe the distribution, are each linear combinations of several orthogonal functions: a constant, four trend functions, three functions describing the annual cycle and three functions describing the seasonal cycle. Besides fixed annual and seasonal cycle, changes in amplitude and phase are allowed. For the amplitude linear and quadratic time dependencies are considered. The superposition of several functions makes the detection of linear, progressively and regressively shaped changes in phase and amplitude of the annual and seasonal cycle possible. This technique makes it possible to determine the probability density function for each time step of the time series. It is important to have a good understanding of the uncertainty of the regional climate model results, since their results are further used as forcing for hydrological models. These validation results are the first steps within the KLIWAS Project (German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs), who's final goal it is to describe the consequences of climate change for navigable waterways, which affects the role of the River Rhine as a major inland waterway.

  12. Holocene sediment budgets of the Rhine Delta (The Netherlands): a record of changing sediment delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Erkens, Gijsbert; Cohen, K.M.; Gouw, M.J.P.; Middelkoop, H.; Hoek, W.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Holocene sedimentation in the Rhine-Meuse Delta is facilitated by sea-level rise and tectonics, but most important is the result of the sediment flux received through rivers from the hinterland. The majority of Rhine and Meuse sediment entering the delta was trapped between the apex and coastal barrier, at least during the Middle and Late Holocene. It is not known how much sediment was delivered to the delta over longer periods of time (>100 years), or how delivery rates var...

  13. Validation of a social vulnerability index in context to river-floods in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fekete

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Social vulnerability indices are a means for generating information about people potentially affected by disasters that are e.g. triggered by river-floods. The purpose behind such an index is in this study the development and the validation of a social vulnerability map of population characteristics towards river-floods covering all counties in Germany. This map is based on a composite index of three main indicators for social vulnerability in Germany – fragility, socio-economic conditions and region. These indicators have been identified by a factor analysis of selected demographic variables obtained from federal statistical offices. Therefore, these indicators can be updated annually based on a reliable data source. The vulnerability patterns detected by the factor analysis are verified by using an independent second data set. The interpretation of the second data set shows that vulnerability is revealed by a real extreme flood event and demonstrates that the patterns of the presumed vulnerability match the observations of a real event. It comprises a survey of flood-affected households in three federal states. By using logistic regression, it is demonstrated that the theoretically presumed indications of vulnerability are correct and that the indicators are valid. It is shown that indeed certain social groups like the elderly, the financially weak or the urban residents are higher risk groups.

  14. Trace metal storage in recent floodplain sediments along the Dill River, central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles W.

    2015-04-01

    Trace metals are stored in near-channel floodplain sediments along many rivers in industrial and mined watersheds of western European countries such as Germany. In this paper, I document the distribution of Cu, Pb, and Zn in 13 cores collected from near-channel floodplain sediments along a 25-km reach of the Dill River in central Germany. Mean concentrations of the three trace metals exceed background concentrations, an indication of anthropogenic enrichment along the study reach; many individual samples have concentrations several times the background levels and exceed standards for trace metals contained in the German Federal Soil Protection Act. Metal concentrations generally peak at depths of 0.2 to 0.7 m below the floodplain surface and are assumed to represent the period of maximum metal releases to the environment through upstream industrial activity, ore mining, or both. In eight of the cores, radiocarbon ages obtained below the depth of peak metal concentrations provide maximum dates for sediment accumulation of between 90 and 1700 years ago, with most ages clustering in the period of 90 to 300 years ago. The ages and depth to peak metal concentrations indicate 0.6 to 1.0 m of floodplain sedimentation over the last 150 to 300 years (0.3-0.4 cm y- 1), which exceed sedimentation amounts and rates found in surrounding watersheds. Surface sediments contain lower metal concentrations, suggesting deposition recently of cleaner sediments. Trace metals stored along the Dill River serve as a reminder that stores of contaminants exist in geomorphically sensitive locations of the fluvial system. These legacy sediments bear the chemical imprint of industrial or mining activities that no longer occur in the watershed.

  15. How extreme where the Floods of River Rhine in the pre-instrumental Period? A novel interdisciplinary approach to reconstruct and quantify pre-instrumental floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, O.; Pfister, C.; Weingarnter, R.; Röser, I.

    2009-04-01

    History of natural disasters has become a key topic during the last decade, not least because of the widespread impression that the world in our days is being hit by such events at more frequent intervals. The still very young scientific field of Historical Hydrology mainly concentrates on reconstructing flood events of the pre instrumental period, usually by specifying damages caused or occasionally by addressing the issue to inundation heights or meteorological reasons. This paper in contrast is going to shed light on discharge quantities of several pre instrumental floods in such a way that comparisons between instrumental measured and unmeasured pre instrumental floods can be drawn for the first time. Why Rhine floods at Basel? The evidence for this town from the Middle Ages up to the present days is well preserved, because Basel was never destroyed since the disastrous earthquake in 1356 which nearly annihilated the town. Narrative reports of several trustworthy contemporary town chroniclers are still at hand more or less without gaps from the thirteenth to the late seventeenth century. Most major events are so well documented that the maximum height of the flood as well as the size and location of inundated areas could be assessed. More recent events are documented with flood marks or with reports referring to flood-marks which were later destroyed. In 1808 a gauge was established near the (only) bridge. Daily readings are preserved up to the present overlapping with streamflow measurements after 1867. The traditional scheme of flood reporting documented in nineteenth century newspapers was compared with flood-marks and gauge readings especially from the example of the extreme flood in 18th September 1852. The intercomparison of narrative with instrumental evidence allowed calibrating flood information from the Medieval Period. Based on this calibration hydrologists attempted discharge calculations based upon software Flux/Floris2000. Moreover Base?s body of source material also implies the chance to reconstruct all floods of a certain height in as much the authorities - whenever a major flood took place - summoned up a bridge guard who had to protect the bridge from driftwood and similar jeopardies. The expenses for this guard, as was demonstrated by Gerhard Fouquet, have left their footprint in the weekly led books of account of Basel. A well fail-safe series of flood occurrences as well as an extension of extreme flood series into the pre instrumental period therefore could be obtained in this way. Both series will help to augment knowledge of coherencies between climatic variation, precipitation and flood events.

  16. Upper Bound Deformation In The Upper Rhine Graben From GPS Data - Results From GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, F.; Lehujeur, M.; Doubre, C.; Ulrich, P.; Knoepfler, A.; Mayer, M.; Heck, B.

    2012-12-01

    In September 2008, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, EOST) and the Geodetic Institute (GIK) of Karlsruhe University (TH) established a transnational cooperation called GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative these institutions are cooperating in order to establish a highly precise and highly sensitive network of permanently operating GNSS sites for the detection of crustal movements in the Upper Rhine Graben region. The Rhine Graben is the central, most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system (ECRIS) of Oligocene age which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100km. It is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges mountains and to the east by the Black Forest. Culminating in ~1500m in elevation, these two massifs represent the Eocene- Oligocene rift shoulders, but a large part of the differential uplift is much younger. The graben is bounded to the north by the uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette and Vendlincourt folds represent the northernmost structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. The presentation will discuss the first results concerning the upper bound deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben région, which is smaller than 0.1 or 0.2 mm/yr while the seismicity is significant. A large focus will be given about the processing of the time series and the correction of the offsets.

  17. Impact of former uranium mining activities on the floodplains of the Mulde River, Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bister, S; Birkhan, J; Lüllau, T; Bunka, M; Solle, A; Stieghorst, C; Riebe, B; Michel, R; Walther, C

    2015-06-01

    The Mulde River drains the former uranium mining areas in Saxony (Germany), which has led to a large-scale contamination of the river and the adjacent floodplain soils with radionuclides of the uranium decay series. The objective of the investigation is to quantify the long-term effect of former uranium mining activities on a river system. All of the investigated environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil) still reveal an impact from the former uranium mining and milling activities. The contamination of water has decreased considerably during the last 20 years due to the operation of water treatment facilities. The uranium content of the sediments decreased as well (on average by a factor of 5.6), most likely caused by displacement of contaminated material during flood events. Currently, the impact of the mining activities is most obvious in soils. For some of the plots activity concentrations of >200 Bq/kg of soil were detected for uranium-238. Alluvial soils used as grassland were found to be contaminated to a higher degree than those used as cropland. PMID:25791900

  18. Photolysis and biodegradation of selected resin acids in River Saale water, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Dena W; Headley, John V; Neu, Thomas R; Friesen, Duane A

    2003-01-01

    The River Saale is the Elbe's major tributary flowing through the state of Thuringia, Germany and receives organics inputs from several industrial facilities including pulp and paper mills. Resin acids constitute a major class of polar organics and environmental toxins derived primarily from pulp and paper processing of softwoods. Since wastewater treatment methods at pulp and paper mills are not always capable of removing the persistent resin acids prior to effluent discharge, alternative or complementary degradation methods may be required. Here, the facile photodegradation of four resin acids--abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and pimaric--was observed with pseudo-first-order kinetics when exposed to broad band and UV254-radiation. Further experimentation in rotating annular biofilm reactors with UV-exposed and unexposed River Saale water spiked with abietic and dehydroabietic acids indicated that photolysis is an effective pretreatment method for resin acid biodegradation. The bacterial toxicity of the aqueous resin acids solutions as measured with Microtox luminescence assays decreased with exposure time. Consequently, photo- and biodegradation of the resin acids did not generate any notable amounts of toxic intermediates and/or the intermediates formed were further degraded into compounds of lower toxicity than the parents. With tandem photo- and biological treatment at pulp and paper mills, as well as in-situ degradation by solar radiation and natural biofilms within the River Saale, resin acid inputs can be reduced in both concentration and toxicity to near undetectable levels with little or no ecological significance. PMID:14672312

  19. Isotopic study of a deep groundwater system near the Danube-river/South Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The groundwater flow regime in the jurassic karst and tertiary terrain near the Danube-river in the area of Ingolstadt/South Germany has been well discussed and investigated for years. However, a stringent explanation of the complex deep groundwater system at the meeting-point of young, karstic groundwater from the north (open karst) and old deep groundwater in the south (covered karst) is still lacking. Today, because of the increasing water use for drinking water supply in the high industrialized area of Ingolstadt, reliable hydrogeological answers and a future sustainable groundwater management system are needed. First symptoms of overexploitation are visible by hydrochemical and isotopic measurements. Coming from the actual state of hydrogeological knowledge, the use of isotope techniques provide distinct explanation for the complex genesis of the occurring groundwaters

  20. Heavy metal content of soils and sediments of the river Elbe in selected parts of East Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The former German Democratic Republic (GDR), now the five eastern states of Germany, had an intensive livestock and crop production characterized by wide application of agrochemicals and organic manure. This contributed to the contamination of the river Elbe which is known as one of the most polluted rivers in Europe. Consequently, it was assumed that the flood plains of the river Elbe which are used as grassland (nearly 85.680 hectares in the eastern states) are also polluted. First results of our research on heavy metal pollution of arable soils, high flood sediments, and flood plains will be presented and discussed. (orig.)

  1. Alternative and Legacy Perfluoroalkyl Substances: Differences between European and Chinese River/Estuary Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydebreck, Franziska; Tang, Jianhui; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-07-21

    The production and use of long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) must comply with national and international regulations. Driven by increasingly stringent regulations, their production has been outsourced to less regulated countries in Asia. In addition, the fluoropolymer industry started to use fluorinated alternatives, such as 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(1,1,2,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropoxy)propanoic acid (HFPO-DA). Between August 2013 and September 2014, we investigated the occurrence and distribution of HFPO-DA and legacy PFASs in surface waters of the following river/estuary systems: the Elbe and Rhine Rivers in Germany, the Rhine-Meuse delta in The Netherlands, and the Xiaoqing River in China. Distinct differences were revealed among the study areas; notably, the Chinese samples were highly polluted by an industrial point source discharging mainly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This particular point source resulted in concentrations more than 6000 times higher than an industrial point source observed in the Scheur River, where HFPO-DA was the dominant compound with a concentration of 73.1 ng/L. Moreover, HFPO-DA was detected in all samples along the coastline of the North Sea, indicating that the compound may be transported from the Rhine-Meuse delta into the German Bight via the water current. To the best of our knowledge, the fluorinated alternative, HFPO-DA, was detected for the first time in surface waters of Germany and China. PMID:26106903

  2. Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine using 3HHO as a tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine river under natural conditions are determined by use of single emissions of tritiated waste water from nuclear power plants during normal operation. The influence of the discharge of the Rhine on the most relevant parameters is investigated thoroughly. In a case of accidental release of radioactive material, these data would be the basis of a prognosis by which the behaviour of the contaminated river section along the course can be described and the radiological consequences within the so-called critical impact area estimated. (orig.)

  3. Interactions between channel dynamics and vegetation encroachment following damming. Example of the Old Rhine downstream of Kembs (1949-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, F.; Béraud, C.; Piégay, H.; Schmitt, L.; Rollet, A.J.; Johnstone, K; Hoenen, D.; Béal, D.

    2010-01-01

    The 45 km-long reach of the Rhine River from Kembs to Breisach has been heavily impacted by engineering works during the last two centuries. The Kembs dam and the lateral Grand Canal d'Alsace achieved in 1959 induced significant decrease in sediment transport and diversion of most of the flow in the lateral canal so that the by-passed Old Rhine runs now a minimum flow (3% of the mean annual discharge during 300 days per year). A space-time study was conducted to understand the Old Rhine morph...

  4. Serological survey of Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Leptospira spp., Echinococcus, Hanta-, TBE- and XMR-virus infection in employees of two forestry enterprises in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurke, Annette; Bannert, N; Brehm, K; Fingerle, V; Kempf, V A J; Kömpf, D; Lunemann, M; Mayer-Scholl, A; Niedrig, M; Nöckler, K; Scholz, H; Splettstoesser, W; Tappe, D; Fischer, Silke F

    2015-10-01

    We initiated a survey to collect basic data on the frequency and regional distribution of various zoonoses in 722 employees of forestry enterprises in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) from 2011 to 2013. Exposures associated with seropositivity were identified to give insight into the possible risk factors for infection with each pathogen. 41.2% of participants were found to be seropositive for anti-Bartonella IgG, 30.6% for anti-Borrelia burgdorferi IgG, 14.2% for anti-Leptospira IgG, 6.5% for anti-Coxiella burnetii IgG, 6.0% for anti-Hantavirus IgG, 4.0% for anti-Francisella tularensis IgG, 3.4% for anti-TBE-virus IgG, 1.7% for anti-Echinococcus IgG, 0.0% for anti-Brucella IgG and anti-XMRV IgG. Participants seropositive for B. burgdorferi were 3.96 times more likely to be professional forestry workers (univariable analysis: OR 3.96; 95% CI 2.60-6.04; p<0.001); and participants seropositive for Hantavirus 3.72 times more likely (univariable analysis: OR 3.72; 95% CI 1.44-9.57; p=0.007). This study found a surprisingly high percentage of participants seropositive for anti-B. henselae IgG and for anti-F. tularensis IgG. The relatively high seroprevalence for anti-Leptospira IgG seen in this study could be related to living conditions rather than to exposure at work. No specific risk for exposure to C. burnetii and Echinococcus was identified, indicating that neither forestry workers nor office workers represent a risk population and that NRW is not a typical endemic area. Forestry workers appear to have higher risk for contact with B. burgdorferi-infected ticks and a regionally diverse risk for acquiring Hantavirus-infection. The regional epidemiology of zoonoses is without question of great importance for public health. Knowledge of the regional risk factors facilitates the development of efficient prevention strategies and the implementation of such prevention measures in a sustainable manner. PMID:26422407

  5. Desk-study on habitat quality for the European Sturgeon in the Dutch Rhine and southern North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, H. V.; Teal, L.R.; Wolfshaar, K.E., van de; Griffioen, A.B.; Houben, B.; Breve, N.W.P.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most endangered fish species worldwide is the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio. The River Rhine was home to an important sturgeon population that went locally extinct in the first half of the 20th century. In recent decades, many improvements of the ecological quality of the Rhine have taken place. Because the last remaining wild population of European sturgeon in the Gironde basin is very small and at considerable distance, it appears unlikely that rapid recolonization will take...

  6. A preliminary telemetry study of the migration of silver European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) in the River Mosel, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Eckmann, Reiner

    2003-01-01

    To study the behaviour of silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) during their downstream migration, particularly near a hydroelectric power dam, we tagged nine eels with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked their paths in the River Mosel, Germany. The onset of migration coincided with the first flood event that followed the full moon but was independent of daytime, because migration and turbine passage occurred during both day and night. During migration eels swam actively downstream with a veloci...

  7. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of subcatchments of the River Spree, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, I.; Koch, H.; Grünewald, U.

    2012-12-01

    Lusatia is considered one of the driest regions of Germany. The climatic water balance is negative even under current climate conditions. Due to global climate change, increased temperatures and a shift of precipitation from summer to winter are expected. Therefore, it is of major interest whether the excess water in winter can be stored and to which extent it is used up on increasing evapotranspiration. Thus, this study focuses on estimating potential climate change impacts on the water balance of two subcatchments of the River Spree using the Soil and Water Integrated Model (SWIM). Climate input was taken from 100 realisations each of two scenarios of the STatistical Analogue Resampling scheme STAR assuming a further temperature increase of 0 K (scenario A) and 2 K by the year 2055 (scenario B) respectively. Resulting from increased temperatures and a shift in precipitation from summer to winter actual evapotranspiration is supposed to increase in winter and early spring, but to decrease in later spring and early summer. This is less pronounced for scenario A than for scenario B. Consequently, also the decrease in discharge and groundwater recharge in late spring is lower for scenario A than for scenario B. The highest differences of runoff generation and groundwater recharge between the two scenarios but also the highest ranges within the scenarios occur in summer and early autumn. It is planned to estimate potential climate change for the catchments of Spree, Schwarze Elster and Lusatian Neisse.

  8. A Lower Rhine flood chronology based on the sedimentary record of an abandoned channel fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, W. H. J.; Winkels, T. G.; Prins, M. A.; de Groot, L. V.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Cohen, K. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Bienener Altrhein is an abandoned channel of the Lower Rhine (Germany). Following a late 16th century abandonment event, the channel was disconnected from the main stream and the oxbow lake gradually filled with 8 meters of flood deposits. This process still continues today. During annual floods, a limited proportion of overbank discharge is routed across the oxbow lake. Large floods produce individual flood layers, which are visually recognized in the sedimentary sequence. Based on the sedimentary characteristics of these event layers, we created a ~450-year flood chronology for the Lower Rhine. Laser-diffraction grain size measurements were used to assess relative flood magnitudes for individual flood event layers. Continuous sampling at a ~2 cm interval provided a high-resolution record, resolving the record at an annual scale. Standard descriptive techniques (e.g., mean grain size, 95th percentile, % sand) and the more advanced 'end member modelling' were applied to zoom in on the coarse particle bins in the grain size distributions, which are indicative of higher flow velocities. The most recent part of the record was equated to modern discharge measurements. This allows to establish relations between deposited grain size characteristics in the abandoned channel and flood magnitudes in the main river. This relation can also be applied on flood event layers from previous centuries, for which only water level measurements and historical descriptions exist. This makes this method relevant to expand data series used in flood frequency analysis from 100 years to more than 400 years. To date event-layers in the rapidly accumulated sequence, we created an age-depth model that uses organic content variations to tune sedimentation rates between the known basal and top ages. No suitable identifiable organic material for radiocarbon dating was found in the cores. Instead, palynological results (introduction of agricultural species) and palaeomagnetic secular variation measurements did allow to verify the initial age-depth model. Furthermore, initially modelled ages attributed to the five biggest floods were compared to hazardous events described in historical records. As these reproduce their dates within a decade, the dated flooding events are used as additional age tie-points for further improvement of the age-depth model. The refined model was in turn used to date floods of a medium magnitude, which are more common and thus more difficult to individually relate to a specific historical peak discharge. This case study demonstrates the suitability of channel fill sediment records for (palaeo)flood characterisation. Based on a network of sites (work in progress), it should be possible to provide an accurate (internally cross-validated) flood chronology for the Lower Rhine and delta. Moreover, given the preservation of filled oxbows from all periods along the Lower Rhine, it is possible to extend relative flood chronologies back to the Early Holocene using channel fill sedimentary data.

  9. The cadastre of waste heat in the Upper Rhine Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cadastre of waste heat provides the distribution in space and time of anthropogeneous waste heat emissions on a 2 x 2 km2 grid. In the case of the Upper Rhine Valley it serves as a basis for the numerical evaluations of climatic changes caused by man. Such a cadastre also allows to analyse the distribution of pollutant emissions and the heat or energy supply, respectively, of the region. In a close approximation the distribution of waste heat is equal to the distribution of energy consumption. As there are generally difficulties in obtaining data about the consumption of the types of energy on the grid level, methods were developed which allow to determine the local energy consumption by using the relevant structural data. The methods used for the Federal Republic of Germany and neighbouring countries and the results for the Upper Rhine Valley, obtained by these methods, are presented. The cadastre of waste heat is based on data of the year 1973 which was a time of great energy consumption. Only in 1978 this energy consumption was exceeded. To be able to estimate the change in the influence of the anthropogeneous waste heat during the next 20 years, the cadastre was extrapolated until the year 2000. (orig.)

  10. Modeling the fate of organic micropollutants during river bank filtration (Berlin, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzler, Aline F.; Greskowiak, Janek; Massmann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are frequently detected in urban surface water and the adjacent groundwater and are therefore an increasing problem for potable water quality. River bank filtration (RBF) is a beneficial pretreatment step to improve surface water quality for potable use. Removal is mainly caused by microbial degradation of micropollutants, while sorption retards the transport. The quantification of biodegradation and adsorption parameters for EOCs at field scale is still scarce. In this study, the fate and behavior of a range of organic compounds during RBF were investigated using a two dimensional numerical flow- and transport model. The data base used emanated from a project conducted in Berlin, Germany (NASRI: Natural and Artificial Systems for Recharge and Infiltration). Oxygen isotope signatures and hydraulic head data were used for model calibration. Afterwards, twelve organic micropollutants were simulated with a reactive transport model. Three compounds (primidone, EDTA, and AMDOPH) showed conservative behavior (no biodegradation or sorption). For the nine remaining compounds (1.5 NDSA, AOX, AOI, MTBE, carbamazepine, clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole), degradation and/or sorption was observed. 1.5 NDSA and AOX were not sorbed, but slightly degraded with model results for ? = 2.25e- 3 1/d and 2.4e- 3 1/d. For AOI a ? = 0.0106 1/d and R = 1 were identified. MTBE could be characterized well assuming R = 1 and a low 1st order degradation rate constant (? = 0.0085 1/d). Carbamazepine degraded with a half life time of about 66 days after a threshold value of 0.2-0.3 ?g/L was exceeded and retarded slightly (R = 1.7). Breakthrough curves of clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole could be fitted less well, probably due to the dependency of degradation on temperature and redox conditions, which are highly transient at the RBF site. Conditions range from oxic to anoxic (up to iron-reducing), with the oxic and denitrifying zones moving spatially back and forth over time.

  11. Determination of 3D surface displacement rates in the Upper Rhine Graben based on GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.; Knöpfler, A.; Masson, F.; Ulrich, P.; Heck, B.

    2012-04-01

    In September 2008, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre) and the Geodetic Institute of Karlsruhe University (now: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) established the transnational cooperation GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative, these institutions are cooperating in order to carry out geo-scientific research in the framework of the transnational project TOPO-WECEP (Western and Central European Platform; link: http://www.topo-wecep.eu/), which succeeded the former project URGENT (Upper Rhine Graben Evolution and NeoTectonics; link: http://comp1.geol.unibas.ch) of the EUCOR universities (European Confederation of Upper Rhine Universities). The Rhine Graben is the central segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100 km. GURN focusses on the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). The URG is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges Mountains and to the east by the Black Forest Mountains, culminating in elevations of approx. 1500 m. The uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif bounds the URG to the north. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette, and Vendlincourt folds represent the northernmost structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. Present-day distribution of the seismicity in the URG area is classified as moderate but not null. Expected velocities and strain rates are very low (relative velocities lower than 0.1mm/yr). The research is actually based on data of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems). A highly precise and highly sensitive geodetic network of permanently operating GNSS sites region has been established in the URG region in order to detect recent short-term (data base starting in year 2002) crustal movements based on displacements of GNSS sites. The regional network GURN actually consists of approx. 80 permanently operating GNSS sites of different data providers in Germany, France and Switzerland. The first work steps in the context of GURN were dominated by a detailed analysis of the GNSS data base (e.g., instrumental change artefacts). This analysis included a comparison of the working group related results (EOST, GIK), where different software packages and data handling strategies were used to derive 3D coordinate time series as basis for the determination of a 3D surface displacement field. Due to very small expected velocities in the URG region, the recent GURN focus is on the reliable derivation of site velocities, therefore effects of datum realisation have to be handled with care. The presentation gives an insight into the joint venture GURN focussing on recent results (e.g., 3D surface velocity field).

  12. Tracing the Anthropocene in the Rhine-Meuse delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelkoop, Hans; van der Perk, Marcel; Cohen, Kim M.; Stouthamer, Esther; Hoek, Wim Z.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Erkens, Gilles; Jansma, Esther

    2014-05-01

    The Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta developed during the past ~8000 yr under a first rapid and later decreasing sea level rise in a back-barrier area along the North Sea. After about 3500 yr BP, natural delta evolution became increasingly influenced by humans, with different types of imprints: increased discharge and sediment load associated with deforestation in the hinterland affecting channel geometry and deposition; artificial avulsion; large-scale peat excavation; reclamation and drainage of flood basins resulting in compaction and oxidation of peat; river embankment preventing delta-wide overbank deposition and finalizing avulsion; channelization, changing channel belt geometry and causing shifts in sediment deposition within the delta. After the onset of the industrial revolution, contaminants have been deposited along with the river sediment on the embanked floodplains and in the estuary. The extremely well-documented human-affected evolution of the delta provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate how the Anthropocene can manifest itself in such an environment. We give an overview of human-affected processes in the Rhine-Meuse delta and discuss their effect on fluvial architecture, morphology and sediment composition, and how these may remain preserved within the delta sedimentary record.

  13. Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the upper Rhine using 3HHO as a tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine river under natural conditions are determined by use of single emissions of tritiated waste water from nuclear power plants within normal operation. The influence of the discharge of the Rhine on the most relevant parameters is investigated thoroughly. In a case of accidental release of radioactive material, these data would be the basis of a prognosis by which the behaviour of the contaminated river section along the course can be described and the radiological consequences within the so-called critical impact area estimated. (orig.)

  14. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for a NPP in the Upper Rhine Graben, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Christophe; Chartier, Thomas; Jomard, Hervé; Baize, Stéphane; Scotti, Oona; Cushing, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) straddling the border between eastern France and western Germany, presents a relatively important seismic activity for an intraplate area. A magnitude 5 or greater shakes the URG every 25 years and in 1356 a magnitude greater than 6.5 struck the city of Basel. Several potentially active faults have been identified in the area and documented in the French Active Fault Database (web site in construction). These faults are located along the Graben boundaries and also inside the Graben itself, beneath heavily populated areas and critical facilities (including the Fessenheim Nuclear Power Plant). These faults are prone to produce earthquakes with magnitude 6 and above. Published regional models and preliminary geomorphological investigations provided provisional assessment of slip rates for the individual faults (0.1-0.001 mm/a) resulting in recurrence time of 10 000 years or greater for magnitude 6+ earthquakes. Using a fault model, ground motion response spectra are calculated for annual frequencies of exceedance (AFE) ranging from 10-4 to 10-8 per year, typical for design basis and probabilistic safety analyses of NPPs. A logic tree is implemented to evaluate uncertainties in seismic hazard assessment. The choice of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and range of slip rate uncertainty are the main sources of seismic hazard variability at the NPP site. In fact, the hazard for AFE lower than 10-4 is mostly controlled by the potentially active nearby Rhine River fault. Compared with areal source zone models, a fault model localizes the hazard around the active faults and changes the shape of the Uniform Hazard Spectrum at the site. Seismic hazard deaggregations are performed to identify the earthquake scenarios (including magnitude, distance and the number of standard deviations from the median ground motion as predicted by GMPEs) that contribute to the exceedance of spectral acceleration for the different AFE levels. These scenarios are finally examined with respect to the seismicity data available in paleoseismic, historic and instrumental catalogues.

  15. Ecological Status of Rivers and Streams in Saxony (Germany According to the Water Framework Directive and Prospects of Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Müller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Federal State of Saxony (Germany transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD. Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements were used to identify significant anthropogenic pressures, which surface water bodies are susceptible to, and to assess the effect of these pressures on the status of surface water bodies. In 2009, the data for classification of the ecological status and the main pressures and impacts on water bodies were published in the river basin management plans (RBMP of the Elbe and Oder rivers. To that date, only 23 (4% streams achieved an ecological status of “good”, while the rest failed to achieve the environmental objective. The two main reasons for the failure were significant alterations to the stream morphology (81% of all streams and nutrient enrichment (62% caused by point (industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants and non-point (surface run-off from arable fields, discharges from urban drainages and decentralized waste water treatment plants sources. It was anticipated that a further 55 streams would achieve the environmental objective by 2015, but the remaining 539 need extended deadlines.

  16. Human impacts on sediment dynamics within the Rhine delta, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Noortje; Middelkoop, Hans; Makaske, Bart

    2015-04-01

    The Rhine delta in the Netherlands has a long history of human impacts, of which large-scale land reclamation, drainage, embankment and river channelization have been the most prominent. On-going plans for river and floodplain restoration will lead to renewed - but yet unknown - sediment dynamics along the lower Rhine branches in the coming century. Here we address the consequences of human impacts for the sediment dynamics in the Rhine delta during three major phases in the past: 1) the pristine high-stand delta before land reclamation and embankment (~4000 BP - 1300 AD, 2) the period of embanked rivers (~1350-1850 AD), and 3) the period after the river channels were normalized to a fixed standard width by arrays of groynes and riprap (~1870 AD-present). For each of these periods we quantitatively reconstructed the amounts of sediment deposited within the delta, internal sediment reworking, and associated sediment residence times. The results show that sediment trapping varied across the delta during the pre-embankment period, and demonstrate how avulsions caused small sediment pulses within the system. Estimated average residence times of overbank fines were in the order of 10 ka. Embankment has dramatically reduced the spatial extent where sediment deposition occurred, while internal sediment reworking along the embanked rivers remained locally very active. Channel normalization not only ceased re-erosion of previously deposited floodplain sediment along the channel banks, but implied an ultimate shift of the depo-centre of both overbank and channel sediments from the floodplain to the lower river channels and the estuary. To date, the Rhine sediment has to be dredged from its lower reaches, while the old floodplain surface presently protected by embankments suffers from increasing soil subsidence.

  17. Reconstruction of flood events based on documentary data and transnational flood risk analysis of the Upper Rhine and its French and German tributaries since AD 1480

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelsbach, I.; Glaser, R.; Schoenbein, J.; Riemann, D.; Martin, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the long-term analysis of flood occurrence along the southern part of the Upper Rhine River system and of 14 of its tributaries in France and Germany covering the period starting from 1480 BC. Special focus is given on the temporal and spatial variations of flood events and their underlying meteorological causes over time. Examples are presented of how long-term information about flood events and knowledge about the historical aspect of flood protection in a given area can help to improve the understanding of risk analysis and therefor transnational risk management. Within this context, special focus is given to flood vulnerability while comparing selected historical and modern extreme events, establishing a common evaluation scheme. The transnational aspect becomes especially evident analyzing the tributaries: on this scale, flood protection developed impressively different on the French and German sides. We argue that comparing high technological standards of flood protection, which were initiated by the dukes of Baden on the German side starting in the early 19th century, misled people to the common belief that the mechanical means of flood protection like dams and barrages can guarantee the security from floods and their impacts. This lead to widespread settlements and the establishment of infrastructure as well as modern industries in potentially unsafe areas until today. The legal status in Alsace on the French side of the Rhine did not allow for continuous flood protection measurements, leading to a constant - and probably at last annoying - reminder that the floodplains are a potentially unsafe place to be. From a modern perspective of flood risk management, this leads to a significant lower aggregation of value in the floodplains of the small rivers in Alsace compared to those on the Baden side - an interesting fact - especially if the modern European Flood directive is taken into account.

  18. Late Quaternary evolution of rivers, lakes and peatlands in northeast Germany reflecting past climatic and human impact – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Kaiser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of regional palaeohydrology is essential for understanding current environmental issues, such as the causes of recent hydrologic changes, impacts of land use strategies and effectiveness of wetland restoration measures. Even the interpretation of model results on future impacts of climatic and land-cover changes may be improved using (pre-historic analogies. An overview of palaeohydrologic findings of the last c. 20,000 years is given for northeast Germany with its glacial landscapes of different age. River development is examined with a focus on valley(-floor formation and depositional changes, river course and channel changes, and palaeodischarge/-floods. Major genetic differences exist among ‘old morainic’ (Elsterian, Saalian and ‘young morainic’ (Weichselian areas, and among topographically high- and low-lying valleys, the latter of which are strongly influenced by water-level changes in the North and Baltic Seas. Lake development was analysed with respect to lake formation, which was predominantly driven by late Pleistocene to early Holocene dead-ice dynamics, and with respect to depositional changes. Furthermore, lake-level changes have been in the focus, showing highly variable local records with some conformity. The overview on peatland development concentrated on phases of mire formation and on long-term groundwater dynamics. Close relationships between the development of rivers, lakes and peatlands existed particularly during the late Holocene by complex paludification processes in large river valleys. Until the late Holocene, regional hydrology was predominantly driven by climatic, geomorphic and nonanthropogenic biotic factors. Since the late Medieval times, human activities have strongly influenced the drainage pattern and the water cycle, for instance, by damming of rivers and lakes, construction of channels and dikes, and peatland cultivation. Indeed, the natural changes caused by long-term climatic and geomorphic processes have been exceeded by impacts resulting from short-term human actions in the last c. 50 years as discharge regulation, hydromelioration and formation of artificial lakes.

  19. Coupling of primary production and diel nitrate dynamics in a eutrophic lowland river system in central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Michael; Halbebel, Susanne; Rehan Anis, Muhammad; Weitere, Markus

    2014-05-01

    River ecosystem nutrient cycling and export are closely tied to the metabolic activity of primary producers. Although general patterns of diel variation in nutrient concentrations are known, recently developed in situ nutrient sensors allow description of fine-scale patterns of variation for extended durations, and they can potentially be used to quantify autotrophic assimilation. We used high frequency in situ measurements of nitrate (NO3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Bode River system of the TERENO hydrological Observatory of the Helmholtz-Association in central Germany to i) evaluate seasonal variation and river scale dependency of GPP and to ii) generate independent estimates of assimilatory nitrogen demand. We analyzed two year continues data (15 min interval) from four measurement stations ranging from the Selke third order forested stream in the lower mountain range to the sixth order lowland Bode River. We are able to show that GPP follows a clear seasonal variation with highest values of up to 3 gO2m-2d-1 in spring and an additional second peak during litter fall in autumn in the small forested stream. The lowland river shows a similar but less pronounced pattern with distinct higher GPP values of up to 6 gO2m-2d-1. Surprisingly this two modal behavior was not found for the mid sized fourth order arable Selke stream with higher light availability. GPP strongly corresponded to the day length in the growing season showing the highest GPP of up to 8 gO2 m-2d-1 in summer. This may be caused by high periphyton growth due to low dense riparian vegetation. A clear relationship of GPP and diel amplitudes of nitrate concentration could be observed in all streams and rivers but these relationships could only be identified for periods with highest GPP of each individual streams. In addition corresponding correlations (r) ranged between 0.5 and 0.6. The results show that high frequency in situ measurements potentially allow quantifying GPP and assimilatory nutrient uptake and may help to better calculate nutrient retention in rivers.

  20. Evaluating a 1D and 2D water quality modeling framework: A case study of the lower Bode River, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumit; Rode, Michael; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2014-05-01

    The Bode River catchment in the Harz Mountain area of central Germany is heavily influenced by anthropogenic factors. 70% of the catchment is dominated by agriculture, 23 % by forest and the rest 7% is urban in nature. The area of the catchment is approximately 3300 km2 and is characterized by sharp gradients in temperature, precipitation and land use. In order to acquire better understanding of the hydrological nature of the catchment and biogeochemical characteristics of the Bode River various monitoring stations have been deployed as a part of the larger earth observation network initiative named Terrestrial Environmental Observatories. One of the major issues with the catchment is the problem of eutrophication due to solute inputs from agriculture. The research presented here evaluated the application and development of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models in the downstream area of the Bode River. A stretch of 30 kms between Hadmersleeben and Stassfurt in the downstream area of the Bode River was modeled using 1D model HEC-RAS, the focus of the water quality modeling was transport and uptake of nitrate in the aforementioned modeled stretch. Flood events of varying peak magnitude at different times of the year were modeled. As regards to 2D modeling, TELEMAC-2D model was applied for the same reach. The hydrodynamic simulation results were validated with the help of free surface elevation at Athensleben, 8 kms upstream from the downstream end at Stassfurt. Water quality modeling, focusing on the Nitrate removal for the aforementioned stretch, is applied and developed for both 1D and 2D modeling framework. Results from hydrodynamic and water quality modeling were validated with RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) value of 0.074 and 0.36 for the modeled state variables across various events simulated. For the nutrient-rich reach modeled in this research it was found that the nutrient removal capacity of the stream is directly proportional to the incoming nitrate concentration.

  1. Transparency of floodplain lakes; a study of plankton and suspended matter along the lower Rhine

    OpenAIRE

    Roozen, F.C.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis starts with an analysis of factors that determine turbidity of a large set of lakes (Chapter 2). In August 1999, 93 floodplain lakes situated in the floodplains of the Lower River Rhine have been sampled in search for morphometric and other factors that explain their contribution to clarity. The results showed that lakes with a drop in summer water level were less turbid at the time of sampling, mainly due to a lower inorganic suspended solids concentration. Older lakes were more ...

  2. Comparison of Cross-bordering River Systems: A Case Study From the Country Triangle of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemel, H.; Nilson, E.; Moennig, C.; Lehmkuhl, F.

    2004-05-01

    Two exemplary mesoscale river catchments at the northern slope of the High Venn mountains in the country triangle of Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany are compared. Here, an analysis of the fluctuations and temporal-spatial dispersal patterns of concentrations of inorganic nutrient compounds in relation to a satellite-derived land use classification has been carried out. The three countries are showing distinct discrepancies in land use patterns, water management and the evolution of the cultural landscape. Therefore, the ecological conditions of the fluvial systems vary considerably and are controlled by high nutrient influx from agriculture and settlements via point and non-point sources. In addition, seasonal effects and complex transport mechanisms have an impact. Our results emphasize the need to improve the water quality with the aid of an integrated catchment management, as it is provided by the European water framework directive. The reduction of nutrient inputs from non-point sources plays a major role in this task. Furthermore, the ecological classification of river systems in frontier areas should involve country-specific characteristics as the form of land use, the settlement structures, or the people's perception of the natural and cultural landscape. Such catchment parameters are apparently of significance for the water quality, their emphasis has to be specified in future investigations.

  3. Population ecology of endangered white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes s. str. in a small rhithral river in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendler F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound knowledge on distribution and ecology of imperiled species is an essential prerequisite for effective conservation planning. Here, we report the distribution and autecological traits of a newly discovered population of critically-endangered white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes s. str. in a small river in southwestern Germany. Using an established crayfish survey protocol, we detected white-clawed crayfish in a river stretch of 4.5 km, with an estimated abundance of 1.4 ± 0.2 indiv.·m-2. The sex ratio was even and sexual maturity was attained at approximately 25 mm carapace length (CL. Life-history traits, as assessed using Von Bertalanffy’s growth function, indicate a life history most similar to populations in France, with longevity, asymptotic size, and growth performance index being higher in males than in females (11 y, 46 mm CL, and 2.8 and 9 y, 41 mm CL, and 2.7, for males and females, respectively. Estimated fecundity ranged from 9 to 135 eggs·female-1 (mean: 90 ± 28. White-clawed crayfish were also found in lower reaches of small tributary streams, of which one also featured endangered stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium. A syntopic occurrence of both species was recorded for the first time within a short stretch. Implications for species conservation are discussed.

  4. Rare earth elements in the aragonitic shell of freshwater mussel Corbicula fluminea and the bioavailability of anthropogenic lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael

    2015-11-15

    High-technology metals - such as the rare earth elements (REE) - have become emerging contaminants in the hydrosphere, yet little is known about their bioavailability. The Rhine River and the Weser River in Germany are two prime examples of rivers that are subjected to anthropogenic REE input. While both rivers carry significant loads of anthropogenic Gd, originating from contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging, the Rhine River also carries large amounts of anthropogenic La and lately Sm which are discharged into the river from an industrial point source. Here, we assess the bioavailability of these anthropogenic microcontaminants in these rivers by analyzing the aragonitic shells of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Concentrations of purely geogenic REE in shells of comparable size cover a wide range of about one order of magnitude between different sampling sites. At a given sampling site, geogenic REE concentrations depend on shell size, i.e. mussel age. Although both rivers show large positive Gd anomalies in their dissolved loads, no anomalous enrichment of Gd relative to the geogenic REE can be observed in any of the analyzed shells. This indicates that the speciations of geogenic and anthropogenic Gd in the river water differ from each other and that the geogenic, but not the anthropogenic Gd is incorporated into the shells. In contrast, all shells sampled at sites downstream of the industrial point source of anthropogenic La and Sm in the Rhine River show positive La and Sm anomalies, revealing that these anthropogenic REE are bioavailable. Only little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to dissolved REE and their general ecotoxicity, but considering that anthropogenic Gd and even La have already been identified in German tap water and that anthropogenic La and Sm are bioavailable, this should be monitored and investigated further. PMID:26151653

  5. Structural control of geothermal reservoirs in extensional tectonic settings: An example from the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, Jörg; Schill, Eva; Grimmer, Jens C.; Gaucher, Emmanuel; Kohl, Thomas; Klingler, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In extensional tectonic settings major structural elements such as graben boundary faults are typically oriented subparallel to the maximum horizontal stress component SHmax. They are often structurally accompanied by transfer zones that trend subparallel to the extension direction. In the Upper Rhine Graben, such transfer faults are typically characterized by strike-slip or oblique-slip kinematics. A major re-orientation of the regional stress field by up to 90° of the Upper Rhine Graben in the Early Miocene led to the present-day normal and strike-slip faulting regimes in the North and South of the Upper Rhine Graben, respectively, and a transition zone in-between. Consequently, conditions for fault frictional failure changed significantly. Moreover, it has been observed during tracer and stimulation experiments that such transfer faults may be of major importance for the hydraulic field of geothermal reservoirs under the present stress condition, especially, when located between production and injection well. In this context we have investigated slip and dilation tendencies (TS and TD) of major structural elements at reservoir scale for two representative geothermal sites, Bruchsal (Germany) and Riehen (Switzerland), located close to the Eastern Main Boundary Fault of the Upper Rhine Graben. We have evaluated the quality and uncertainty range of both tendencies with respect to potential variation in SHmax orientation. Despite significant differences in orientation of the structures and the stress regimes, the resulting variation of TS and TD reveal major similarities concerning the reactivation potential of both, the graben-parallel structures and the transfer faults. The conditions of criticality for tensile failure and non-criticality for shear failure suggest that transfer faults are most likely naturally permeable structures with low stimulation potential. This is in agreement with the absence of both immediate tracer recovery and seismicity in the studied geothermal sites.

  6. Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH4NO3-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. - Soils in the Elbe river floodplains are highly polluted with metals and arsenic and a critical enrichment in the grassland herbage seems to be most likely in flood channels or within special plant species

  7. Cytotoxicity of settling particulate matter and sediments of the Neckar River (Germany) during a winter flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollert, H.; Duerr, M.; Erdinger, L.; Braunbeck, T.

    2000-03-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of settling particulate matter (SPM) carried by the Neckar River, a well-studied model for a lock-regulated river in central Europe, during a flood, acute cytotoxicity was investigated using the fibroblast-like fish cell line RTG-2 with the neutral red retention, the succinic acid dehydrogenase (MTT), and the lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) release assays as well as microscopic inspection as endpoints. Genotoxicity of water, pore water, sediments, and SPM were assessed using the Ames test. Different extraction methods (Soxhlet extraction with solvents of variable polarity as well as a fluid/fluid extraction according to pH) in addition to a supplementation of biotests with 59 fractions from the liver of {beta}-naphthoflavone/phenobarbital-induced rats allowed a further characterization of the biological damage. Both sediments and SPM extracts caused cytotoxic effects in RTG-2 cells. Cytotoxicity was found to increase significantly with polarity of extracting solvents. Following extraction according to pH, cytotoxicity could be attributed mainly to neutral substances, whereas the slightly acid and basic fractions already showed little or no cytotoxicity. Samples taken during the period of flood rise showed the highest cytotoxic activities. Cytotoxicity was significantly enhanced by the addition of S9 preparations. In contrast, no genotoxic activity was found in native surface waters, pore waters, and SPM.

  8. Nuclear energy controversy in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How can the fact be explained that there are twice as many nuclear power plants operating in France as in the F.R. of Germany in 1983. The book defeats the common thesis that there are hardly any adversaries of nuclear energy on the other side of the Rhine River while the wide protest morement in the F.R. of Germany has prevented the expansion of nuclear energy. The majority of people in the F.R. of Germany and France show a similar reaction to nuclear energy and its risks. But the manifestations and effects of the protests are different. On the other hand, other historically grown political cultures and governmental-administrative structures are responsible. For years the expansion of nuclear energy had been shielded from the population of France. The unsettled conflict between the supporters and adressaries of nuclear energy contains more explosive power there than in the F.R. of Germany, particularly in the long term. (orig.)

  9. Hydroclimatic signal and LBK cultural activity in the Upper and Lower Rhine, inferred from abandoned channel fill deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely populated Upper Rhine Graben with those from the more peripheral Lower Rhine valley to decipher anthropogenic impacts from natural environmental circumstances. Moreover, we try to discriminate the local to the regional signals recorded in the fluvial archives, by comparing the proxy data with the pedo-sedimentary context. The ultimate goal is to model socio-environmental interactions during the LBK culture progression to Western Europe with MMA.

  10. Contribution of different land-cover types to CO2 emissions from streams and rivers, in South-Western Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai, Celia; Schaefer, Ralf B.; Lorke, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Recent findings indicate that freshwater ecosystems are significant sources of atmospheric greenhouse gases. While most quantitative estimates of CO2 emissions were obtained for lakes, reservoirs, and rivers, only few studies considered smaller streams and headwater systems. Here, we present estimates of the CO2 emissions from the 16 * 106 km long stream network in South-Western Germany (22272 km2) including streams of Strahler order 1-7. We calculated equilibrium dissolved inorganic carbon speciation and partial pressure of dissolved CO2from governmental water quality monitoring data (pH, temperature and alkalinity) available for 37 years. CO2 partial pressure estimated for 1780 sampled stream segments were linearly extrapolated along the entire stream network consisting of 7890 segments. The mean partial pressure of dissolved CO2 was 2286 ppm with a high spatial variation (SD 2735 ppm). Moreover, the gas exchange velocity for each stream segment was estimated using flow velocity and slope. Our calculations based on dissolved CO2 concentration, gas exchange velocity and water surface area yield a total emission rate of 86 Gg C per year with mean 1240 mg C m-2 d-1arealflux. Stream segments with a Strahler order between 1 and 4 contributed to 48% of the total emissions, highlighting the importance of smaller streams and headwater systems for regional-scale carbon fluxes. Finally, we investigated the contribution of land-cover types to CO2 emissions. Our study area was divided into 6 different land-cover types, forested, cultivated, grassland, urbanized, vineyard and tree nursery. Areal normalized emissions of urbanized, vineyard, tree nursery, grassland, forested and cultivated were 17, 16, 12, 9, 8, 7 mg C m-2 d-1, respectively. The results of our study show clearly, that small streams play a non-negligible role in the carbon emissions from freshwaters. In addition, land cover further impacts the carbon emissions, e.g. urbanized areas showed the highest flux rates.

  11. Hierarchical Bayesian clustering for nonstationary flood frequency analysis: Application to trends of annual maximum flow in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun; Lall, Upmanu; Merz, Bruno; Dung, Nguyen Viet

    2015-08-01

    Especially for extreme precipitation or floods, there is considerable spatial and temporal variability in long term trends or in the response of station time series to large-scale climate indices. Consequently, identifying trends or sensitivity of these extremes to climate parameters can be marked by high uncertainty. When one develops a nonstationary frequency analysis model, a key step is the identification of potential trends or effects of climate indices on the station series. An automatic clustering procedure that effectively pools stations where there are similar responses is desirable to reduce the estimation variance, thus improving the identification of trends or responses, and accounting for spatial dependence. This paper presents a new hierarchical Bayesian approach for exploring homogeneity of response in large area data sets, through a multicomponent mixture model. The approach allows the reduction of uncertainties through both full pooling and partial pooling of stations across automatically chosen subsets of the data. We apply the model to study the trends in annual maximum daily stream flow at 68 gauges over Germany. The effects of changing the number of clusters and the parameters used for clustering are demonstrated. The results show that there are large, mainly upward trends in the gauges of the River Rhine Basin in Western Germany and along the main stream of the Danube River in the south, while there are also some small upward trends at gauges in Central and Northern Germany.

  12. Quantification of the impact of pre-historic land use on suspended sediment accumulation in the Rhine delta

    OpenAIRE

    Erkens, G.; Cohen, K.M.; Middelkoop, H.

    2011-01-01

    Deltaic sedimentation is facilitated by sea-level rise and tectonics, but most importantly is the result of the sediment input by the rivers. The architecture of the Holocene Rhine delta in the Netherlands ( 3000 km2) is well documented and the provision of accommodation space by sea level rise and tectonics well quantified. Using budget analysis, we have now also independently quantified the amounts of sediment input and storage in the delta. This provides much wanted quantitati...

  13. From Sandoz to Salmon: Conceptualizing resource and institutional dynamics in the Rhine watershed through the SES framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Villamayor-Tomas; Forrest D Fleischman; Irene Perez Ibarra; Andreas Thiel; Frank van Laerhoven

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we use a case study of the Rhine River to examine the relevance of Common Pool Resource (CPR) Theory for two conditions in which it has not been extensively tested: large scale international water management and pollution problems. For that purpose, we link variation in pollution abatement to a set of explanatory variables proposed by CPR theory. Causal inference is established through process tracing and a series of within-case comparison across actor groups (i.e. riparian nati...

  14. Understanding and managing the morphology of Rhine Delta branches incising into sand-clay deposits:

    OpenAIRE

    Sloff, C.J.; Van Spijk, A.; Stouthamer, E.; Sieben, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the Rhine-Meuse delta in the south-western part of the Netherlands, the morphology of the river branches is highly dependent on the erodibility of the subsoil. Erosion processes that were initiated after closure of the Haringvliet estuary branch by a dam (in 1970), caused a strong incision of several connecting branches. Due to the geological evolution of this area the lithology of the subsoil shows large variations in highly erodible sand and poorly erodible peat and clay layers. In this ...

  15. Image processing of HCMM-satellite thermal images for superposition with other satellite imagery and topographic and thematic maps. [Upper Rhine River Valley and surrounding highlands Switzerland, Germany, and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossmann, H.; Haberaecker, P. (principal investigators)

    1980-01-01

    The southwestern part of Central Europe between Basal and Frankfurt was used in a study to determine the accuracy with which a regionally bounded HCMM scene could be rectified with respect to a preassigned coordinate system. The scale to which excerpts from HCMM data can be sensibly enlarged and the question of how large natural structures must be in order to be identified in a satellite thermal image with the given resolution were also examined. Relief and forest and population distribution maps and a land use map derived from LANDSAT data were digitalized and adapted to a common reference system and then combined in a single multichannel data system. The control points for geometrical rectification were determined using the coordinates of the reference system. The multichannel scene was evaluated in several different manners such as the correlation of surface temperature and relief, surface temperature and land use, or surface temperature and built up areas.

  16. The simultaneous occurrence of surge and discharge extremes for the Rhine delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, S. F.; Selten, F. M.; Lenderink, G.; Hazeleger, W.

    2013-08-01

    The low-lying Netherlands is at risk from multiple threats of sea level rise, storm surges and extreme river discharges. Should these occur simultaneously, a catastrophe will be at hand. Knowledge about the likelihood of simultaneous occurrence or the so-called "compound effect" of such threats is essential to provide guidance on legislation for dike heights, flood barrier design and water management in general. In this study, we explore the simultaneous threats of North Sea storm surges and extreme Rhine river discharge for the current and future climate in a large 17-member global climate model ensemble. We use a simple approach, taking proxies of north-northwesterly winds over the North Sea and multiple~day precipitation averaged over the Rhine basin for storm surge and discharge respectively, so that a sensitivity analysis is straightforward to apply. By investigating soft extremes, we circumvent the need to extrapolate the data and thereby permit the model's synoptic development of the extreme events to be inspected. Our principle finding based on the climate model data is that, for the current climate, the probability of extreme surge conditions following extreme 20-day precipitation sums is around 3 times higher than that estimated from treating extreme surge and discharge probabilities as independent, as previously assumed. For the future climate (2070-2100), the assumption of independence cannot be rejected, at least not for precipitation sums exceeding 7 days.

  17. The simultaneous occurrence of surge and discharge extremes for the Rhine delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Kew

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The low-lying Netherlands is at risk from multiple threats of sea level rise, storm surges and extreme river discharges. Should these occur simultaneously, a catastrophe will be at hand. Knowledge about the likelihood of simultaneous occurrence or the so-called "compound effect" of such threats is essential to provide guidance on legislation for dike heights, flood barrier design and water management in general. In this study, we explore the simultaneous threats of North Sea storm surges and extreme Rhine river discharge for the current and future climate in a large 17-member global climate model ensemble. We use a simple approach, taking proxies of north-northwesterly winds over the North Sea and multiple~day precipitation averaged over the Rhine basin for storm surge and discharge respectively, so that a sensitivity analysis is straightforward to apply. By investigating soft extremes, we circumvent the need to extrapolate the data and thereby permit the model's synoptic development of the extreme events to be inspected. Our principle finding based on the climate model data is that, for the current climate, the probability of extreme surge conditions following extreme 20-day precipitation sums is around 3 times higher than that estimated from treating extreme surge and discharge probabilities as independent, as previously assumed. For the future climate (2070–2100, the assumption of independence cannot be rejected, at least not for precipitation sums exceeding 7 days.

  18. Climatic change and the effect on hydrology and water management in the Rhine basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahe, P; Buiteveld, H; Pfister, L; Ritz, Ch; Sprokkereef, E

    2005-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in recent years in the resources dedicated to investigating the problems arising from climate change with respect to hydrology and to some extent to water resource management. Many of these studies are concentrated on the river Rhine basin. In order to review the actual state of scientific findings a workshop, organised by the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine (CHR), was held on 24 and 25 June 2003. The invited experts discussed the following topics: observed variability in climatic and hydrological data, the development and interpretation of climate scenarios, and assessment of changes in the discharge regimes and the occurrence of hydrological extremes. Based on the workshop the question of whether or not current knowledge and procedural strategies can be used as a basis for future water management was evaluated by an expert group of the CHR. In this paper the process of decision-making with regard to flood management is analysed. Hints are given to convince the decision-makers to take into account the impacts of climate change in water resources management. The special challenges arising in international river basins are discussed. PMID:15918355

  19. Impact of wastewater on fish health: a case study at the Neckar River (Southern Germany) using biomarkers in caged brown trout as assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Krisztina; Scheil, Volker; Kuch, Bertram; Köhler, Heinz R; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-08-01

    The present work describes a field survey aiming at assessing the impact of a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent on fish health by means of biomarkers. Indigenous fish were absent downstream of the STP. To elucidate the reason behind this, brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) were exposed in floating steel cages up- and downstream of a STP located at the Neckar River near Tübingen (Southern Germany), for 10 and 30 days. A combination of biomarker methods (histopathological investigations, analysis of the stress protein Hsp70, micronucleus test, B-esterase assays) offered the possibility to investigate endocrine, geno-, proteo- and neurotoxic effects in fish organs. Biological results were complemented with chemical analyses on 20 accumulative substances in fish tissue. Even after short-term exposure, biomarkers revealed clear evidence of water contamination at both Neckar River sites; however, physiological responses of caged brown trout were more severe downstream of the STP. According to this, similar bioaccumulation levels (low ?g/kg range) of DDE and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at both sampling sites, while up to fourfold higher concentrations of four PAHs, methyl-triclosan and two synthetic musks occurred in the tissues of downstream-exposed fish. The results obtained in this study suggest a constitutive background pollution at both sites investigated at the Neckar River and provided evidence for the additional negative impact of the STP Tübingen on water quality and the health condition of fish. PMID:25860546

  20. Hospitalizations during the last months of life of nursing home residents: a retrospective cohort study from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Specht-Leible Norbert; Ramroth Heribert; König Hans-Helmut; Brenner Hermann

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background To describe hospitalisations of nursing home (NH) residents in Germany during their last months of life. Methods Retrospective cohort study on 792 NH residents in the Rhine-Neckar region in South-West Germany, newly institutionalized in the year 2000, who died until the study end (December 2001). Baseline variables were derived from a standardized medical examination routinely conducted by the medical service of the health care insurance plans in Germany. Information on ho...

  1. Late Quaternary evolution of rivers, lakes and peatlands in northeast Germany reflecting past climatic and human impact – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Knut Kaiser; Sebastian Lorenz; Sonja Germer; Olaf Juschus; Mathias Küster; Judy Libra; Oliver Bens; Reinhard F. Hüttl

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of regional palaeohydrology is essential for understanding current environmental issues, such as the causes of recent hydrologic changes, impacts of land use strategies and effectiveness of wetland restoration measures. Even the interpretation of model results on future impacts of climatic and land-cover changes may be improved using (pre-)historic analogies. An overview of palaeohydrologic findings of the last c. 20,000 years is given for northeast Germany with its glacial landscap...

  2. Cohabiting unions in France and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the non-marital birth pattern in France and West Germany. Since the beginning of the eighties, France witnessed a steady increase in non-marital birth rates, while in West Germany non-marital birth rates have remained at a relatively low level. We attribute these differences to the institutional and legal constraints from both sides of the Rhine which hamper or foster childbearing in cohabiting unions. Using data from the French and German Family and Fertility Survey, we apply event history modeling to the transition to marriage and first birth. Our results indicate a polarization of family forms in both countries. In West Germany, we find a polarization in a "family sector" and a "non-family sector" while in France there is a polarization in a "marriage sector" and a "cohabiting sector".

  3. Morphometrics and seasonal occurrence of metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Cyclophyllidea: Dilepididae) in the blue bream (Abramis ballerus) from the Oder River (Germany/Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrock, M; Scholz, T

    2000-01-01

    From May 1993 to April 1995, the seasonal occurrence of metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) (Cyclophyllidea: Dilepididae) in its second intermediate host, the blue bream Abramis ballerus (L.) was studied monthly in the Oder River on the borders of Germany and Poland. Based on the parasite specimens found, detailed data on their morphometrics are presented. The metacestodes occurred in the blue bream intestine throughout the year (overall prevalence 27% and intensity 1-56 (mean 4.8) metacestodes per infected fish). Increased prevalences and mean intensities of infection were noted from March to June and November to December indicating that spring, late autumn and early winter are the main periods of new infections. PMID:11104145

  4. Assessment of the structural quality of streams in Germany--basic description and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, Georg; Pottgiesser, Tanja; Euler, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Fifteen years ago, the first mapping guidelines for the recording and evaluation of river physical habitat quality in Germany, closely following the Länder Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser (LAWA) field survey, have been published. In light of this experience, a revised version has now been developed for North Rhine-Westphalia (West Germany). For the assessment, the streams are divided into segments serving as survey units. The survey is performed primarily in the field from the mouth to the source by an on-site recording of data. Defined reference conditions of the relevant morphological stream types serve as basis of the evaluation. Two evaluation procedures are carried out independently to validate the quality of the data. The proven basic concept operates as follows: the local scale habitat variables are grouped into 31 single parameters, which are then aggregated into six main parameters. These can further be aggregated into three zones: streambed, banks and adjacent land. The main modifications of the presented version are the following: (1) a larger differentiation of morphological stream types and (2) a higher level of detail concerning the mapping of relevant habitat characteristics. The last point allows additional evaluation options related to the morphological needs of the instream biota and a differentiated survey of anthropogenic degradation. Despite all modifications, the comparability with previous surveys has been largely maintained. By qualitative comparison of this method with other European mapping guidelines, different concepts of hydromorphological mapping are finally discussed. PMID:24473681

  5. Uncertainty in the future change of extreme precipitation over the Rhine basin: the role of internal climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, S. C.; Beersma, J. J.; Buishand, T. A.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Schellekens, J.

    2015-04-01

    Future changes in extreme multi-day precipitation will influence the probability of floods in the river Rhine basin. In this paper the spread of the changes projected by climate models at the end of this century (2081-2100) is studied for a 17-member ensemble of a single Global Climate Model (GCM) and results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble. All climate models were driven by the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario. An analysis of variance model is formulated to disentangle the contributions from systematic differences between GCMs and internal climate variability. Both the changes in the mean and characteristics of extremes are considered. To estimate variances due to internal climate variability a bootstrap method was used. The changes from the GCM simulations were linked to the local scale using an advanced non-linear delta change approach. This approach uses climate responses of the GCM to transform the daily precipitation of 134 sub-basins of the river Rhine. The transformed precipitation series was used as input for the hydrological Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning model to simulate future river discharges. Internal climate variability accounts for about 30 % of the total variance in the projected climate trends of average winter precipitation in the CMIP3 ensemble and explains a larger fraction of the total variance in the projected climate trends of extreme precipitation in the winter half-year. There is a good correspondence between the direction and spread of the changes in the return levels of extreme river discharges and extreme 10-day precipitation over the Rhine basin. This suggests that also for extreme discharges a large fraction of the total variance can be attributed to internal climate variability.

  6. Fiscal Supervision and the Soft Budget Constraint: Evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Christofzik, Désirée I.; Kessing, Sebastian G.

    2014-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of local borrowing regulations in maintaining fiscal sustainability and the effect of supervision over municipal budgeting on local debt using a panel on municipalities in Germany's most populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia from 2003 to 2011. The identification strategy relies on a differences-in-differences approach and exploits the fact that a reform making it temporarily more likely to prevent financial supervision was implemented gradually across municipalit...

  7. Influence of a Storm Surge Barrier’s Operation on the Flood Frequency in the Rhine Delta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rhine River Delta is crucial to the Dutch economy. The Maeslant barrier was built in 1997 to protect the Rhine estuary, with the city and port of Rotterdam, from storm surges. This research takes a simple approach to quantify the influence of the Maeslant storm surge barrier on design water levels behind the barrier. The dikes in the area are supposed to be able to withstand these levels. Equal Level Curves approach is used to calculate the Rotterdam water levels by using Rhine discharges and sea water levels as input. Their joint probability function generates the occurrence frequency of a certain combination that will lead to a certain high water level in Rotterdam. The results show that the flood frequency in Rotterdam is reduced effectively with the controlled barrier in current and in future scenarios influenced by climate change. In addition, an investigation of the sensitivity of the operational parameters suggests that there is a negligible influence on the high water level frequency when the decision closing water level for the barrier is set higher due to the benefits of navigation (but not exceeding the design safety level 4 m MSL.

  8. Waste heat project for the Upper Rhine region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This third semiannual report gives a picture of the progress made in the work of sub-projects. Interim results are given for the fields treated by sub-projects 1 to 4. Among others, this report for the first time presents the final official survey on thermal pollution in the upper Rhine region for the year of reference 1973. Analyses and evaluations of waste heat effects in the upper Rhine region have not been carried out yet at the present state of the project. (orig.)

  9. The effectiveness of polder systems on peak discharge capping of floods along the middle reaches of the Elbe River in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Huang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In flood modelling, many one-dimensional (1-D hydrodynamic models are too restricted in capturing the spatial differentiation of processes within a polder or system of polders and two-dimensional (2-D models are very demanding in data requirements and computational resources. The latter is an important consideration when uncertainty analyses using the Monte Carlo techniques are to complement the modelling exercises. This paper describes the development of a quasi-2-D modeling approach, which still calculates the dynamic wave in 1-D but the discretisation of the computational units is in 2-D, allowing a better spatial representation of the flow in polders and avoiding large additional expenditure on data pre-processing and computational time. The model DYNHYD (1-D hydrodynamics from the WASP5 modeling package was used as a basis for the simulations and extended to incorporate the quasi-2-D approach. A local sensitive analysis shows the sensitivity of parameters and boundary conditions on the filling volume of polders and capping of the peak discharge in the main river system. Two flood events on the Elbe River, Germany were used to calibrate and test the model. The results show a good capping effect on the flood peak by the proposed systems. The effect of capping reduces as the flood wave propagates downstream from the polders (up to 0.5 cm of capping is lost for each additional kilometer from the polders.

  10. Development of multiple linear regression models as predictive tools for fecal indicator concentrations in a stretch of the lower Lahn River, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrig, Ilona M; Böer, Simone I; Brennholt, Nicole; Manz, Werner

    2015-11-15

    Since rivers are typically subject to rapid changes in microbiological water quality, tools are needed to allow timely water quality assessment. A promising approach is the application of predictive models. In our study, we developed multiple linear regression (MLR) models in order to predict the abundance of the fecal indicator organisms Escherichia coli (EC), intestinal enterococci (IE) and somatic coliphages (SC) in the Lahn River, Germany. The models were developed on the basis of an extensive set of environmental parameters collected during a 12-months monitoring period. Two models were developed for each type of indicator: 1) an extended model including the maximum number of variables significantly explaining variations in indicator abundance and 2) a simplified model reduced to the three most influential explanatory variables, thus obtaining a model which is less resource-intensive with regard to required data. Both approaches have the ability to model multiple sites within one river stretch. The three most important predictive variables in the optimized models for the bacterial indicators were NH4-N, turbidity and global solar irradiance, whereas chlorophyll a content, discharge and NH4-N were reliable model variables for somatic coliphages. Depending on indicator type, the extended mode models also included the additional variables rainfall, O2 content, pH and chlorophyll a. The extended mode models could explain 69% (EC), 74% (IE) and 72% (SC) of the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations. The optimized models explained the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations to 65% (EC), 70% (IE) and 68% (SC). Site-specific efficiencies ranged up to 82% (EC) and 81% (IE, SC). Our results suggest that MLR models are a promising tool for a timely water quality assessment in the Lahn area. PMID:26318647

  11. Seasonal variations of rare earths and yttrium distribution in the lowland Havel River, Germany, by agricultural fertilization and effluents of sewage treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Seasonal variations of REE abundance in surface waters depending on agricultural fertilisation and drainage flux. • Control of Eu in surface water by barite as a component of common NPK fertilisers. • Variation of anthropogenic Gd chelates in surface water due to sewage treatment management. - Abstract: REE and Y (REY) distribution in the lowland Havel River passing the Federal State of Berlin, Germany, depends on contributions of point sources such pharmaceutical and high-tech industries, acid water from the open pit lignite mining, and medical application of very stable organic Gd chelates. Another omnipresent dispersed source of REY are water-soluble Ca-phosphates containing micro-amounts of Eu(II)-bearing barite as components of common agricultural fertilizers. After distribution in the field during the cold season (October through March) these Ca-phosphates dissolve and secondary phosphates and calcite precipitate both being enriched in light REE. Heavy REE are preferably exported by runoff together with part of the micro-contaminant barite leading to high Yb/Nd ratios in the Havel water and REY distribution patterns with only small Eu deficits. During the warm season (April through September) light REE together with phosphate are leached from secondary soil minerals by runoff. The micro-component barite is retained in vegetation-covered soil. Thus, REY patterns of Havel water show significant Eu deficits. The high Gd anomalies result from medical applications of Gd-chelates which after urination pass the sewage treatment plants. The seasonal variations of total Gd in the Havel River are artifacts based on seasonal locally varied discharge of effluents from sewage treatment plants. The natural Gd concentration of 8 pmol/l in the northern Havel is enhanced to 3300 pmol/l, when the Havel River leaves Berlin territory. The elimination of phosphate from Lake Tegel water affects the fractionation of REE but not the concentration of total Gd. Although enhanced in total phosphorus (TP), the REE concentrations in the water from the Spree River and the Teltow Canal are less than in the Havel water before their confluence. Only Yb and Lu do not decrease. The contributors of the Havel River are high in total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to the Havel water before their indicating that REY are preferentially sorbed by settling organic matter. Applying PHREEQC and assuming that only 10% of TP is present as ortho-phosphate yields that only carbonate complexes are essential

  12. Uncertainty in the future change of extreme precipitation over the Rhine basin: the role of internal climate variability

    OpenAIRE

    S. C. van Pelt; Beersma, J.J.; Buishand, T. A.; Hurk, B.J.J.M.; Schellekens, J.

    2014-01-01

    Future changes in extreme multi-day precipitation will influence the probability of floods in the river Rhine basin. In this paper the spread of the changes projected by climate models at the end of this century (2081–2100) is studied for a 17-member ensemble of a single Global Climate Model (GCM) and results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble. All climate models were driven by the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario. An analysis of variance model is formulate...

  13. Passage of native riverine fishes through geometrically different sections of a vertical slot fishway on the Moselle River, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsch, Matthias; Mockenhaupt, Bernd; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study effects of different geometric types of pools or change of the flow direction on the passability of fish, sets of PIT antennas were installed inside a modern vertical slot fishway at the mouth of the River Moselle. Fish of 13 abundant species were caught and tagged with PIT tags in 2013 and released in the tailwater of Koblenz. 16% of the tagged fish were detected entering the fishway a short time after release. These individuals provided data on entry and passage rates for different sections of the fishway. Preliminary results show differences in passage time and passage rates between different sections of the fishway.

  14. Estimating long-term sediment export using a seasonal rainfall-dependent hydrological model in the Glonn River basin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; de Vente, Joris; Bellocchi, Gianni; Guerriero, Luigi; Soriano, Marcella; Fiorillo, Francesco; Revellino, Paola; Guadagno, Francesco M.

    2015-01-01

    In European catchments, rainfall and overland flow trigger erosive processes that could result in soil detachment and transportation. However, estimation of both erosive rainfalls and sediment yields is very challenging, especially in historical times when only precipitations at seasonal or annual scales are available. This motivated us to develop a parsimonious hydroclimatological model (ASCLIM, Annual Sediment CLImatological Model) for predicting catchment scale sediment yield when temporal and spatial high-resolution precipitation data are not available. The model was developed by using the annual data of suspended-sediment yield from Glonn basin (1981-1995, gauge of Hohenkammer, Germany) and seasonal rainfall data from a NOAA data set. The correlation coefficient between predicted and observed sediment yields was 0.94 and the efficiency index was 0.89. Once parameterized, the model was able to capture annual sediment yield variability better than the Langbein-Schumm and the Fournier Index equations, also based on limited sets of inputs. The model holds potential for historical reconstruction of sediment yields in the Glonn catchment (assuming constant land cover) and for simulating sediment fluxes from catchments with similar characteristics. Our application highlights the control of rainfall seasonality on sediment export and demonstrates that our sediment yield proxy could be considered as a good tool for the expectation and planning of soil conservation. Moreover, considering that we used modeled data to reconstruct past sediment loss, we could expect that using projected future rainfall data our proxy could be able to assess future scenarios.

  15. Temperature predictions for geothermal exploration - a lithospheric-scale 3D approach applied to the northern Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymark, Jessica; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Bär, Kristian; Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Kracht, Matthias; Stiller, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben and its prolongation, the Hessian depression, were formed as part of the European Cenozoic Rift System in a complex extensional to transtensional setting. At present-day, the Upper Rhine Graben is one of the regions in Germany that are well suitable for deep geothermal exploitation. In the framework of the EU-funded project "IMAGE" (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration) we aim to contribute to the development of an integrated and multidisciplinary approach for the exploration of geothermal reservoirs by understanding the processes and properties controlling the spatial distribution of key parameters such as the underground temperature. Typically, reservoir-scale numerical models are developed for predictions on the subsurface hydrothermal conditions and for reducing the risk of drilling non-productive geothermal wells. One major problem related to such models is setting appropriate boundary conditions that define, for instance, how much heat enters the reservoir from greater depths. To understand the deep thermal field of the northern Upper Rhine Graben in the federal state of Hessen, we first develop a 3D structural model that differentiates the main geological units of the lithosphere including the shallow sedimentary fill. This model allows to solve the steady-state conductive heat equation and understand the first-order controlling factors of the regional thermal field. We present the database (e.g. seismic reflection data) and the methodological workflow (involving, e.g., 3D gravity modelling) that were used to develop the lithospheric-scale 3D structural model. Furthermore, we show how certain features of the structural model such as thickness variations of the radiogenic-heat-producing crystalline crust control the temperature distribution in the subsurface.

  16. From Sandoz to Salmon: Conceptualizing resource and institutional dynamics in the Rhine watershed through the SES framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Villamayor-Tomas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a case study of the Rhine River to examine the relevance of Common Pool Resource (CPR Theory for two conditions in which it has not been extensively tested: large scale international water management and pollution problems. For that purpose, we link variation in pollution abatement to a set of explanatory variables proposed by CPR theory. Causal inference is established through process tracing and a series of within-case comparison across actor groups (i.e. riparian nations, industry, and agriculture, resource types (i.e. point source, and non-point source pollutants, and time periods (1976–1986, when treaties provided a limited basis for collective action and pollution abatement, and 1987–2001, when the Rhine Action Plan proved more successful. According to our analysis, a number of CPR variables can help understanding cooperation for pollution abatement in the Rhine case. These include physical attributes such as clear hydrological boundaries; governance factors such as the articulation of monitoring and decision-making at different governance levels and the proportional allocation of costs and benefits of abating pollution; and actor factors like the small size, trust and homogeneity of some actor groups and leadership. Other variables proposed by CPR theory proved to be irrelevant or in need of qualification. These include the right to self-organize and to participate in decision-making, communication and resource-dependence. Finally, two variables, not emphasized by CPR theory, proved relevant: the occurrence of external disturbances and the role of interest groups. We conclude that CPR theory is valuable for explaining pollution management in large trans-boundary river basins, but requires qualification and extension.

  17. Biogas in EEG 2012. Regional structural effects and income effects in North Rhine-Westphalia. Financial Report ''Impact analysis of legislative modifications within renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia''; Biogas im EEG 2012. Regionale Struktur- und Einkommenswirkungen in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Abschlussbericht ''Wirkungsanalyse gesetzlicher Aenderungen im Bereich erneuerbarer Energien aus Sicht von Landwirtschaft und laendlichen Raeumen in Nordrhein-Westfalen''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Juergen; Lorleberg, Wolf; Stauss, Wolfgang

    2012-07-01

    The promotion of renewable energies is a main topic of the energy economic policy. The EEG (Renewable Energy Law) should be the main instrument at this point. The contribution of the renewable energy could be increased significantly in the last decade. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an impact analysis of legislative modifications in the area of renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia (Federal Republic of Germany).

  18. Backscatter Analysis Using Multi-Temporal and Multi-Frequency SAR Data in the Context of Flood Mapping at River Saale, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Martinis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analysis of multi-temporal and multi-frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar data is performed to investigate the backscatter behavior of various semantic classes in the context of flood mapping in central Europe. The focus is mainly on partially submerged vegetation such as forests and agricultural fields. The test area is located at River Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, which is covered by a time series of 39 TerraSAR-X data acquired within the time interval December 2009 to June 2013. The data set is supplemented by ALOS PALSAR L-band and RADARSAT-2 C-band data. The time series covers two inundations in January 2011 and June 2013 which allows evaluating backscatter variations between flood periods and normal water level conditions using different radar wavelengths. According to the results, there is potential in detecting flooding beneath vegetation in all microwave wavelengths, even in X-band for sparse vegetation or leaf-off forests.

  19. Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile

  20. Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronimus, Alexander [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: kronimus@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, Jan [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de

    2007-05-15

    Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile.

  1. Analysis of possible impacts of climate change on the hydrological regimes of different regions in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bormann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of climate change scenarios on the hydrological regimes of five different regions in Germany is investigated. These regions (Northwest Germany, Northeast Germany and East German basins, upper and lower Rhine, pre-Alps differ with respect to present climate and projected climate change. The physically based SVAT-model SIMULAT is applied to theoretical soil columns based on combinations of land use, soil texture and groundwater depth to quantify climate change effects on the hydrological regime. Observed climate, measured at climate stations of the German Weather Service (1991–2007, is used for comparison with climate projections (2071–2100 generated by the regional scale climate model WETTREG.

    While all climate scenarios implicate an increase in precipitation in winter, a decrease in precipitation in summer and an increase in temperature, the simulated impacts on the hydrological regime are regionally different. In the Rhine region and in Northwest Germany, an increase in the annual runoff and groundwater recharge is simulated despite the increase in temperature and potential evapotranspiration. In the Eastern part of Germany and the pre-Alps, annual runoff and groundwater recharge will decrease. Due to dry conditions in summer, the soil moisture deficit will increase (in Northeast Germany and the East German basins in particular or remain constant (Rhine region. In all regions the seasonal variability in runoff and soil moisture status will increase. Despite regional warming actual evapotranspiration will decrease in most regions except in areas with shallow groundwater tables and the lower Rhine. Although the study is limited by the fact that only one climate model was used to drive one hydrologic model, the study shows that the hydrological regime will be affected by climate change. The direction of the expected changes seems to be obvious as well as the necessity of the adaptation of future water management strategies.

  2. The N-isotope effect and fractionation of nitrification in the tidal influenced Elbe River estuary, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tina; Dähnke, Kirstin

    2014-05-01

    Estuaries act as a nutrient filter for coastal waters. The eutrophic Elbe River estuary is loaded with fertilizer-derived nitrogen, but management efforts have started to reduce this load effectively. However, an internal nitrate source in turn gained in importance and the estuary changed from a sink to a source of reactive nitrogen. Nitrification plays a key role in this estuarine nutrient regeneration but has to be quantified. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of nitrification on seasonal nitrogen loads and turnover using stable N- isotopes to identify the natural fractionation factor of nitrification. Therefor we measured the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (ammonium, nitrite and nitrate), their stable isotope signatures and the in-situ nitrification rates in the tidal influenced part of the river during 9 cruises from August 2011 to August 2013. The DIN load was higher in winter than in summer, the main compound was nitrate. In summer concentrations of nitrate entering the estuary were between 50 and 100 ?M and ?15N and ?18O were enriched to 15.5 to 21.5 o and 7.5 to 11.5 o respectively. Strong nitrification was found in the Hamburg port region. The nitrate concentrations increased significantly downstream after the port of Hamburg, along with a decrease of isotope values. Ammonium and nitrite peaked in the Hamburg port region with up to 25 ?M and 12 ?M, respectively. In July 2013, ?15N of ammonium has shown a mean value of 16.2±3.3 o and nitrite of -9.8±4.7 ‰The N-fractionation of nitrification in July 2013 was 15?nit -10o the sub-process ammonia oxidation 15?amox-24o and the nitrite oxidation of 15?niox 13o while fractionation was less pronounced during the other cruises Our data show that N-isotope fractionation generally confirmed culture experiments, but that it strongly depended on discharge, availability of substrate, temperature and the coupling of ammonia and nitrite oxidation.

  3. Determination of moderately polar arsenolipids and mercury speciation in freshwater fish of the River Elbe (Saxony, Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Mothes, Sibylle; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Piechotta, Christian; Mattusch, Jürgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic and mercury are frequent contaminants in the environment and care must be taken to limit their entrance into the food chain. The toxicity of both elements strongly depends upon their speciation. Total amounts of As and Hg as well as their species were analyzed in muscle and liver of 26 fishes of seven freshwater fish species caught in the River Elbe. The median concentrations of As were 162 ?g kg(-1) w.w. in liver and 92 ?g kg(-1) w.w. in muscle. The median concentrations of total Hg were 241 ?g kg(-1) w.w. in liver and 256 ?g kg(-1) w.w. in muscle. While this level of Hg contamination of the freshwater fish in the River Elbe is significantly lower than 20 years ago, it exceeds the recommended environmental quality standard of 20 ?g Hg kg(-1) w.w. by a factor of 5-50. However, the European maximum level of 500 ?g Hg kg(-1) for fish for human consumption is rarely exceeded. Arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons were determined and partially identified in methanolic extracts of the fish by HPLC coupled in parallel to ICP-MS (element specific detection) and ESI-Q-TOF-MS (molecular structure detection). While arsenobetaine was the dominant As species in the fish, six arsenolipids were detected and identified in the extracts of liver tissue in common bream (Abramis brama), ide (Leuciscus idus), asp (Aspius aspius) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Four arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFA) and two arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHC) are reported in freshwater fish for the first time. With respect to mercury the more toxic MeHg(+) was the major species in muscle tissue (>90% of total Hg) while in liver Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) were of equal importance. The results show the high relevance of element speciation in addition to the determination of total element concentrations to correctly assess the burden of these two elements in fish. PMID:26552521

  4. Two invasive mosquito species, Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus, trapped in south-west Germany, July to August 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, D.; Kronefeld, M; Schaffner, F.; Kampen, H

    2012-01-01

    Adult females of two invasive species, Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus, were collected for the first time in July and August 2011 in Germany. Previously, only immature stages of these species had been found in the country. Repeated detection of these species reveals the Upper Rhine Valley in south-west Germany to be a particularly sensitive region for the introduction and establishment of exotic mosquito species that needs careful observation.

  5. Colonisation of the Rhine basin by non-native gobiids: an update of the situation in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manné S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Three of the four species of non-native gobiids currently reported in the Rhine basin were recently recorded in France: the Western tubenose goby in 2007, the bighead goby in 2010 and the round goby in 2011. The bighead goby and the round goby displayed a very high rate of range expansion, suggesting a human-assisted colonisation through inland navigation. An assessment of the invasiveness potential by the FISK (Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit reveals a medium risk for the Western tubenose goby, while the bighead goby and the round goby are at high risk of becoming invasive in France. This assessment is consistent with our observations since there has been a steady increase in the range of the Western tubenose goby, although in low numbers, while the relative abundance of bighead goby and round goby, recently arrived in the French part of the Rhine River and Moselle River, can be high. Given their fast expansion, it can be assumed that these species will soon reach other French basins, particularly in the south (Rhône basin and in the west (Seine basin, and the implementation of measures to limit their spread should be considered.

  6. Floodplain lakes as an archive for the metal pollution in the River Elbe (Germany) during the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A floodplain sediment sequence (about 1900–1998) was analyzed on potentially harmful elements. • High sediment contamination by industry restricted to unstable metal binding forms. • After closure of industries (1990) the level of floodplain contamination perpetuates. • Antagonistic binding forms indicate a sensitive equilibrium in sediments. • Floodplain management requires the stabilization of the environmental equilibrium. - Abstract: The German Elbe River floodplains rank under the most polluted areas in Europe. A sudden concentration increase of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is documented in sediment profiles of Elbe bayous. The increase is dated to the mid of the 20th century (137Cs) and indicates industrialization of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) as the source of intense pollution. The collapse of the GDR and the industries in the 1990s is traced by a concentration decrease in young sediments. The contamination is restricted to an increase of unstable binding forms; the hydroxide binding form is predominant. The geogenic concentration portions are of normal level and remain stable throughout the profiles (0–2 m). The equilibrium of contradictory binding forms in the sediments makes it mandatory not to interfere with the thermodynamic conditions and to keep the Elbe floodplain as an undisturbed ecological system

  7. Fluvial deposits as a record for neotectonic activity in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, K.M.; Stouthamer, E.; Berendsen, H.J.A

    2002-01-01

    Neotectonic movements have caused differential subsidence in the Lower Rhine Embayment during the Quaternary. The Late Weichselian and Holocene Rhine-Meuse fluvial archive in the central Netherlands was used to quantify neotectonic movements in a setting that was primarily controlled by sea-level rise and climate change. Evidence for neotectonic activity in the central Netherlands is reviewed. Sedimentary evidence shows that fluvial deposits of Late Weichselian and Holocene Rhine and Meuse (M...

  8. Genetic Analysis of a Population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.)in the Rhine System

    OpenAIRE

    Papa, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The present study was developed under the guidelines of a regional project to support the management of the anadromous salmonids in the Rhine, particularly the reintroduction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) The main aim was to assign the salmons ascending to the Iffezheim lock to salmons used for reintroduction in the Rhine. It was analysed if such an assignment was reasonably possible. Furthermore, we wanted to find out if an established Rhine population already exists. The Ph.D. st...

  9. Effects of flooding on the recruitment, damage and mortality of riparian tree species: A field and simulation study on the Rhine floodplain

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, K.; Vreugdenhil, S.J.; Werf, D.C., van der

    2008-01-01

    The extensive flooding by the river Rhine on May 12 1999 provided an opportunity to investigate the impact of such an extreme event in terms of damage and mortality of adult trees in floodplains. Such data is highly valuable for determining the potential impact of climate change on the zonation of tree species along rivers. We analysed an extensive dataset of the damage and mortality suffered by groups of adult trees of the following species as a consequence of this flood: the hardwoods Acer ...

  10. Tracing the Anthropocene in the Rhine-Meuse delta

    OpenAIRE

    Middelkoop, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152500693; van der Perk, Marcel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074715437; Cohen, Kim M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185633374; Stouthamer, Esther|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189627743; Hoek, Wim Z.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/163819394; Kleinhans, Maarten G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217675123; Erkens, Gilles|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323349382; Jansma, Esther|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074965255

    2014-01-01

    The Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta developed during the past ~8000 yr under a first rapid and later decreasing sea level rise in a back-barrier area along the North Sea. After about 3500 yr BP, natural delta evolution became increasingly influenced by humans, with different types of imprints: increased discharge and sediment load associated with deforestation in the hinterland affecting channel geometry and deposition; artificial avulsion; large-scale peat excavation; reclamation and drainage of ...

  11. Active tectonics of the Lower Rhine Graben (NW Central Europe)

    OpenAIRE

    Kübler, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Identification of active seismogenic faults in low-strain intraplate regions is a major challenge. The understanding of intraplate earthquakes is hampered by the spatiotemporal scattering of large earthquakes and by barely detectable strain accumulation. In populated humid regions, both hillslope and anthropogenic processes are important challenges to the recognition of potentially active faults. The Lower Rhine Graben is the NW segment of the European Cenozoic Rift System. It is a prime e...

  12. CrossWater - Modelling micropollutant loads from different sources in the Rhine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Andreas; Bader, Hans-Peter; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Scheidegger, Ruth; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The contamination of fresh surface waters with micropollutants originating from various sources is a growing environmental issue. The challenges for an effective political regulation are numerous, particularly for international water basins. One prerequisite for effective management is the knowledge of water quality across different parts of a basin. In this study within the Rhine basin, the spatial patterns of micropollutant loads and concentrations from different use classes are investigated with a mass flow analysis and compared to the established territorial jurisdictions on micropollutants and water quality. The source area of micropollutants depends on the specific use of a compound. The focus of this study is on i) herbicides from agricultural landuse, ii) biocides from material protection on buildings and iii) human pharmaceuticals from households. The total mass of micropollutants available for release to the stream network is estimated based on statistical application and consumption data. Based on GIS data of agricultural landuse, vector data of buildings, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) locations, respectively, the available mass of micropollutants is spatially distributed to the catchment areas. The actual release of micropollutants to the stream network is calculated with empirical loss rates related to river discharge for agricultural herbicides and to precipitation for biocides. For the pharmaceuticals the release is coupled to the metabolism rates and elimination rates in WWTP. For a first approximation national sales are downscaled to the catchment level to specify the available mass for selected model compounds (agricultural herbicides: Isoproturon, biocides: Carbendazim, human pharmaceuticals: Carbamazepine and Diclofenac). The available mass of herbicides and biocides is multiplied with empirical loss rates independent from discharge or precipitation to calculate the loads. The release of the pharmaceuticals was calculated by multiplying average consumption numbers with the person equivalent of the WWTP and the elimination rates. The comparison of pollutant loads to 7-day composite samples of all compounds at 15 locations along the Rhine yield plausible results.

  13. Calculation of emissions into rivers in Germany using the MONERIS model. Nutrients, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Berechnung von Stoffeintraegen in die Fliessgewaesser Deutschlands mit dem Modell MONERIS. Naehrstoffe, Schwermetalle und Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Stephan; Scherer, Ulrike; Wander, Ramona [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser und Gewaesserentwicklung; Behrendt, Horst; Venohr, Markus; Optiz, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V., Berlin (Germany); Hillenbrand, Thomas; Marscheider-Weidemann, Frank; Goetz, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of both projects was a methodological development of the MONERIS model to quantify emissions from point and diffuse sources into Germany's surface waters. Both projects are based on consistent sub-basins and the according basic data as well as homogenous calculation algorithms that are adapted to the specifications of each substance group. The research encompasses Germany's large river basins as well as their catchment areas outside Germany and in total covers an area of 650,000 km{sup 2}. This was divided into 3456 analytical units (2759 of those in Germany), the average catchment areas being 190 km{sup 2} (135 km{sup 2} in Germany). All input data was collected and preprocessed with the highest spatial and temporal resolution possible based on the detailed topology. The modelling was performed in individual annual steps for the period between 1983-2005. For the evaluation of the temporal trends the data was aggregated for the periods 1983-1987 (''1985''), 1993-1997 (''1995''), 1998-2002 (''2000'') and 2003-2005 (''2005'') to soften the impact of hydrological influences. The basic data and model results for all sub-basins, years and substance groups of both projects were merged into one database. Additionally, a web-based graphical user interface was developed to visualise the emissions for any area aggregation can be visualised. The completion of both projects delivered for the first time ever homogenous instruments that can identify the most important sources and contamination hotspots for different relevant substance groups in larger river basins which can then serve as a basis for further analyses to achieve efficient measures to reduce pollution. (orig.)

  14. School Assistance in Special Schools in North Rhine-Westphalia: Initial Position, Study Design, and First Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Kißgen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available School assistance, where it is practiced in Germany, appears to be a permanent personnel resource in the daily routine of special schools, as the first initial surveys in the counties ofBavaria and Thuringia show. To clarify the situation in special schools in the counry of North Rhine-Westphalia, a study was designed to examine the topic from the perspective of the school management, class teachers, and school assistants using a questionnaire-based survey. In this article, in addition to the study design, the results of the survey from the school management questionnaire are presented. Among other things, it shows that the utilization of school assistants has increased more than thirtyfold between the school years 2000/2001 and 2010/2011. The consequences of this development are discussed in terms of inclusive education in general schools.

  15. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  16. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...... dissolution of open access and that the political system needs the capacity of efficiently creating legitimacy in order to sustain openness. The failure of Weimar Germany also indicates that the international political system might work as a destabilizing factor of open access and that the nation...

  17. Halogenated organic contaminants in sediments of the Havel and Spree rivers (Germany). Part 5 of organic compounds as contaminants of the Elbe river and its tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, J; Ricking, M; Franke, S; Francke, W

    2001-10-15

    To give a detailed and comprehensive view on the state of pollution of the Havel and Spree rivers nontarget screening as well as quantitative (target) analyses were applied to anoxic sedimentsamples. Based on nontarget GC/MS analysis a significant contribution to the anthropogenic contamination could be attributed to halogenated compounds. Three groups of contaminants corresponding either to diffuse or local contamination could be distinguished. Several commonly observable compounds including pentachloroanisol, polychlorinated biphenyles, 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, and chlorinated benzenes were detected with a distribution reflecting the contribution of nonpoint source emissions. A second group of chlorinated as well as brominated compounds was attributed to a strong point source emission at the Teltow Canal. At the sampling locations influenced by this point source the amount of mono- and dibrominated naphthalenes, chlorinated naphthalenes, and hexachlorocyclohexanes as well as DDT- and methoxychlor-related compounds increased significantly as compared to the background concentrations. A third group of halogen compounds emitted at this site consisted of the pesticides bromopropylate, methoxychlor, and chlorfensone as well as specific brominated aromatics including 2,4,6-tribromoaniline, 4,4'-dibromobenzophenone, and brominated benzenes. In addition, tetrabromochlorotoluenes, tribromodichlorotoluenes, dibromotrichlorotoluenes, and 2,2-bis(4-bromophenyl)acetic acid isopropyl ester were identified and are reported for the first time as environmental contaminants. The amounts of brominated compounds detected in Teltow Canal sediments occurred at a similar concentration level as their chlorinated analogues. Therefore, investigations on the occurrence of such a broad spectrum of brominated compounds as established in this work are presumably required more frequently to assess the environmental impact of this type of emissions. PMID:11686361

  18. Horizontal and Vertical Surface Displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben Derived from GNSS and Precise Levelling Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Knöpfler, A.; Masson, F.; Mayer, M.; Ulrich, P.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2012-04-01

    At the Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) area is investigated using various geodetic techniques. The recent objective is to gain detailed insight in the horizontal and vertical velocity field of the URG from GNSS and levelling data. In addition, it is planned to integrate InSAR data and to rigorously merge the three geodetic measurement techniques into a combined 3D displacement solution. For the GNSS part, a transnational network called GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network) was established in 2008 in close cooperation with the Institute de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (France). GURN actually consist of more than 80 permanently operating GNSS sites of Germany, France and Switzerland. A continuous database is existing since 2002. The analysis strategy for the determination of horizontal and vertical displacement rates and first results from up to 10 years long GNSS time series will be presented. Besides GNSS, the analysis of precise levelling data enables an accurate determination of vertical displacement rates at levelling benchmarks, if repeated measurements at identical benchmarks are available. The levelling measurements in the URG area were carried out by the ordnance survey of Germany, France and Switzerland along levelling lines. These levelling lines were measured up to five times within the last 100 years. Therefore, at discrete benchmarks a detailed assessment of surface displacements could be carried out. The presentation will compare the results of the two geodetic measurement techniques applied within the research activities in the URG area. As levelling and GNSS are point-wise measurement techniques, the spatial resolution of estimated surface displacements is poor. Therefore, InSAR data is used to fill the gap in the future. A short outlook will point out possibilities and limitations on the combination of GNSS, levelling, and InSAR data for an accurate solution aiming for horizontal and vertical surface displacements in the URG.

  19. 18O/16O ratio in groundwater of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 900 groundwater samples of 480 municipal water factories were collected at the area of the Federal Republic of Germany. The 18O/16O-ratio decreases from the north (-7per mill) to south (below -11per mill) due to an increasing distance from the south ('continental effect') and an increasing altitude above sealevel ('altitude effect'). The decrease of the 18O/16O-ratio per 1000 m altitude above sea level is 2.8per mill, per 1000 km distance from the sea 2.4per mill. At the coast an initial value of -7.2per mill results from the multicorrelation analysis. Except of two cases, some samples near to the coast and alongside river Rhine, the groundwater samples represent the mean oxygen isotope ratio of the local precipitation. This oxygen isotope ratio will be found in the conductive tissues of the plants (trees), too. Therefore the knowledge of the natural variation of the oxygen isotope ratio can serve as a tool in studies of plant physiology, water ecology, palaeclimatology and food analysis. (orig.)

  20. The effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the surface waters in West Germany. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was only a very short time delay between the release of radioactivity from the reactor and the washout or fallout in different parts of West Germany, which has led to surface water contamination at different levels, detected and monitored by the WSV water monitoring network. The radioactivity measurements at the various sampling stations are reported and shown in tables, giving levels and time-dependent changes of radioactivity uptake in the various regions. A very extensive measuring programme for water monitoring has been carried out in West Berlin. At a very large number of sampling stations at lakes, rivers and channels, water and sediment samples have been taken at regular intervals in the period between beginning of May and October 1986, and have been analysed for the relevant radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137). The measured data have been reported to the coordinating center in evaluated, tabular form. Comprehensive data of this kind have been sent to the coordinating center by the Lands Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Hesse, covering primarily the period May to July. Some other measuring data reported from Rhineland Palatinate, North-Rhine Westphalia and the Saarland, taken at irregular intervals and over a shorter period of time, are also given in this survey. (orig./DG)

  1. An Intensive Post Event Campaign (IPEC) on the extreme flash flood which affected the Starzel river (Germany) on the 2nd of June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, E.

    2009-04-01

    On the 2nd of June 2008 in the evening, the Zollernabkreis region, located 50 kilometers South from Stuttgart (Germany), was affected by extreme thunderstorms which induced large flash floods. The most severely affected area appeared to be the upper Starzel river catchment (130 km2) where the extraordinary flood caused large damages in two towns (Hechingen and Jungingen) and killed 3 people. The data collected immediately after the flood event are impressive: 75 mm of rainfall accumulated within 1 hour near Hechingen and up to 240 mm within 55 minutes measured on a private gauge in the town of Jungingen. These first elements led to the organization of an intensive post event campaign (IPEC) with two objectives: 1) to validate and complement the existing data on rainfall and runoff, 2) to analyze the dominant rainfall-runoff processes during such an extreme event. The field campaign took place in November 2008 and involved 11 scientists from various European research institutions contributing to the European research project Hydrate as well as hydrologists from the regional administration. 36 river cross-sections were surveyed in the affected watershed to map the discharges; detailed accounts of the flood in Jungingen as well as films and pictures were collected to establish the timing of the flood; and the available radar, rainfall and stream gauge measurements were verified. The main outcomes of this IPEC are the following: • The discharge mapping revealed very high spatial heterogeneities. The flood volumes were essentially produced on a very limited part of the catchment area: a 5 km2 area upstream Jungingen and about 10 km2 area for the whole Starzel watershed. • In this area, very high unit discharges were estimated - between 12 and 15 m3/s/km2. These values imply surprisingly low runoff rates (about 20%) according to the estimated rainfall intensities - which were validated during the field survey. • Such localized intense events do not appear to be rare at a regional scale. A small tributary appeared to have been affected by a similar event in the year 2007. This work is conducted within the European research project HYDRATE (Contract GOCE 037024).

  2. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude and...

  3. Nudging Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed...

  4. Quaternay geological landscape evolution across borders: linking the Scheldt to Rhine-Thames Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kim M.; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Hijma, Marc P.; Gibbard, Phill L.; Busschers, Freek S.; Vandenberghe, Dimitri

    2013-04-01

    This poster presents paleogeographical scenario maps for the southwestern North Sea Basin, where onshore and offshore territories of Belgium, The Netherlands, France and England meet. Originally prepared and published as a backdrop for paleolithical geoarcheological research (Hijma et al. 2012; JQS), we are now expanding this with fieldwork in NW Belgium. NW Belgium is a key area to resolve current debates on the timing and rates of erosion and landscape change in this area over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. With the Thames Estuary, it shares a history of drastic river valley network reconfigurations between successive glacials in the youngest 500,000 years. With the SW Netherlands it shares the sea level rise history in Eemian and Holocene. With NW France and SE England, it shares the river incision history that accelerates and changes in position with the opening of the Strait of Dover in the last 500,000 years. What are regionally separated issues in surrounding countries, comes together and superimposes in the Belgian Quaternary record. Our fieldwork aims at logging and sampling for a long-term landscape erosion studies, progressively over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles, and for generic regional quaternary geological mapping and dating. Reference: Hijma, M.P, K.M. Cohen, W. Roebroeks, W.E. Westerhoff, F.S. Busschers. 2012. Pleistocene Rhine-Thames landscapes: geological background for hominin occupation of the southern North Sea region. Journal of Quaternary Science, Vol 27, 17-32. DOI: 10.1002/jqs.1549

  5. 100 years of mapping the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain: combining research and teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoek, W. Z.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-04-01

    The history of modern soil, geomorphological and shallow geological mapping in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain goes back about 100 years. The delta plain is of very heterogeneous build up, with clayey and peaty flood basins, dissected by sandy fluvial distributary channel belts with fine textured levees grading into tidal-influenced rivers and estuaries. Several generations of precursor rivers occur as alluvial ridges and buried ribbon sands. They form an intricate network originating from repeated avulsions, back to 8000 years ago. Present rivers have been embanked since ca. 1250 AD and the delta plain (~ 3000 km2) has been reclaimed for agriculture. Soils are young and subject to oxidation and compaction. The first detailed field map of channel belts and floodbasins was made in 1926 by Vink, a geography teacher from Amsterdam. Soil mapping and Holocene geology gained interest after WW-II, with Wageningen soil scientists Edelman, Hoeksema and Pons taking lead. Utrecht University started teaching and research on the subject in 1959, launching an undergraduate mapping field course based on hand augering and field observation. An archive of borehole logs and local maps started to build up. Initially focused on soil mapping, from 1973 the course shifted to a geomorphological-geological focus. Berendsen took over supervision, introduced standard description protocols and legends and increased coring depth. This resulted in 1982 in his influential PhD thesis on the Rhine delta's genesis. New coring and sampling methods came and extensive 14C dating campaigns began. With steadily increasing numbers of students, accumulation of data speeded up, and increasingly larger parts of the delta were mapped. The academic mapping ran in parallel with soil survey and geological survey mapping campaigns. The computer was introduced in the field course and digital data archiving began in 1989. A series of PhD studies on thematic aspects of delta evolution and an increasing number of scientific papers since 1990s made the Rhine-Meuse delta mapping internationally known. In 2001, Berendsen and Stouthamer published the first overview on the palaeo-geographical development of the whole delta. In the decade that followed mapping continued as part of staff and PhD research and undergraduate teaching activities, as well as large applied-mapping projects. Since 2008 the activities are synchronised with those at the geological survey in the Netherlands. The database now comprises over 200,000 borehole descriptions of which the majority is digital, a well as different series of digital palaeo-geographical and lithological maps. As time proceeded, methods and approaches have changed. The introduction of high-resolution Lidar elevation data allowed to re-evaluate earlier collected borehole data and to develop more efficient field data collection strategies. While in the 1960-1990s we taught students 'how to map a data-sparse area', we now train students 'to critically evaluate heaps of existing data and maps to improve mapping'. This also raises the awareness of the distinction between observation and interpretation, when different types of information are combined in mapping. This attitude change and maturity also echoes through current research in soil, geomorphology and geology in the delta.

  6. Energy policy of the Government of North Rhine Westphalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this lecture by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Transport for North Rhine Westphalia an energy-policy concept was discussed which above all referred to the contradictions which appear when an energy supply is assured. At the centre of the speech were the hardcoal and atomic energy sources, where on the one hand particular importance was attached to hard-coal on a Laender-level, but on the other the commitment of the Land on nuclear power promises that both energy sources will play an equal role in future energy supply. (UA)

  7. DVR toolbox for sediment management in the Rhine delta:

    OpenAIRE

    Sloff, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The DVR Toolbox is a modeling system developed to be used as an operational model for long-term morphological assessment of the Rhine branches in the Netherlands (10 to 50 years). The Toolbox consists of a 2D computational core (containing the Delft3D modeling system), a shell that controls input- and output, and a system for time/simulation management. The effects of different processes, e.g. helical flow and sediment sorting, on time-dependent bed topography and dredging-operations can be s...

  8. Solvent exposure and malignant lymphoma : a population-based case-control study in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Deeg Evelin; Mester Birte; Berger Jürgen; Möhner Matthias; Seidler Andreas; Elsner Gine; Nieters Alexandra; Becker Nikolaus

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Aims To analyze the relationship between exposure to chlorinated and aromatic organic solvents and malignant lymphoma in a multi-centre, population-based case-control study. Methods Male and female patients with malignant lymphoma (n = 710) between 18 and 80 years of age were prospectively recruited in six study regions in Germany (Ludwigshafen/Upper Palatinate, Heidelberg/Rhine-Neckar-County, Würzburg/Lower Frankonia, Hamburg, Bielefeld/Gütersloh, and Munich). For each newly recruit...

  9. The impact of groundwater-surface water interactions on the water balance of a mesoscale lowland river catchment in northeastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Stefan; Bronstert, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The glacially formed northeastern German lowlands are characterized by extensive floodplains, often interrupted by relatively steep moraine hills. The hydrological cycle of this area is governed by the tight interaction of surface water dynamics and the corresponding directly connected shallow groundwater aquifer. Runoff generation processes, as well as the extent and spatial distribution of the interaction between surface water and groundwater, are controlled by floodplain topography and by surface water dynamics.A modelling approach based on extensive experimental analyses is presented that describes the specific water balance of lowland areas, including the interactions of groundwater and surface water, as well as reflecting the important role of time-variable shallow groundwater stages for runoff generation in floodplains. In the first part, experimental investigations of floodplain hydrological characteristics lead to a qualitative understanding of the water balance processes and to the development of a conceptual model of the water balance and groundwater dynamics of the study area. Thereby model requirements which allow for an adequate simulation of the floodplain hydrology, considering also interactions between groundwater and surface water have been characterized. Based on these analyses, the Integrated Modelling of Water Balance and Nutrient Dynamics (IWAN) approach has been developed. This consists of coupling the surface runoff generation and soil water routines of the deterministic, spatially distributed hydrological model WASIM-ETH-I with the three-dimensional finite-difference-based numerical groundwater model MODFLOW and Processing MODFLOW. The model was applied successfully to a mesoscale subcatchment of the Havel River in northeast Germany. It was calibrated for two small catchments (1.4 and 25 km2), where the importance of the interaction processes between groundwater and surface waters and the sensitivity of several controlling parameters could be quantified. Validation results are satisfying for different years for the entire 198 km2 catchment. The model approach was further successfully tested for specific events. The experimental area is a typical example of a floodplain-dominated landscape. It was demonstrated that the lateral flow processes and the interactions between groundwater and surface water have a major importance for the water balance and periodically superimposed on the vertical runoff generation. Copyright

  10. [Experiences with the North Rhine-Westphalia PsyKG (mental health regulation) exemplified by the city of Münster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollmer, E

    1999-11-01

    The law on assistance and precautionary measures in cases of mental illnesses (PsychKG) for North Rhine Westphalia came into force on 1.1.1970. It replaced the "law on committal" of 1956. Thus the PsychKG of North Rhine Westphalia has been in force for more than twice as long as its predecessor which had been, as in other Federal states of Germany, a special part of the police regulations. The new North Rhine Westphalian provision of 1970 was the first to take the step towards a genuine law for mental patients (Saage/Göppinger 1994). It laid the foundations for a right of mental patients to assistance from their local authority--as a duty (section 3, section 5)--and already spelled out the principle of an assistance planned individually and focussed on the person. This principle is still in use today. While the sections about committal have been replaced by a Federal law ("Law on voluntary jurisdiction", (FGG), section 70), the other parts on precautionary assistance, on care during committal and on after-care for mental patients are still in force. A legal review planned already ten years back was abandoned after two years of discussion, for two reasons: firstly, because the setting of standards of quality and equipment for the ambulant care, which had been called for by the providers of social-psychiatric services seemed impossible to finance. Secondly, it was decided to wait until other new laws would be enforced, such as the "Law on care" (1992) and the new North Rhine-Westphalian law on Public Health care services (1997). In his article, the author examines the practical experience in applying the PsychKG NW from the viewpoint of a socio-psychiatric service provided by the local authority, and of the co-ordination of psychiatric activities between such services. These perspectives survey the remarkable variety of possible courses of action for different local authorities on the basis of a unitary legal norm. The article also presents the basic ideas developed over the last ten years in the Association of Social-Psychiatric Services of North Rhine-Westphalia (of whose executive committee the author is a member) with regard to the reform and implementation of the PsychKG: the legal duty to ensure care for all mental patients according to their needs, to provide for their medical, mental (psychic) and social requirements in the sense of the WHO guidelines, the duty of all parties concerned to co-ordinate and co-operate, and the inclusion of modern principles (which had, however, been developed already 30 years ago) such as the priority of out-patient treatment over inpatient treatment in the further development of care-service structures. PMID:10628083

  11. Geothermal energy - hydrothermal utilisation of geothermal energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this phase of developing and utilisation of geothermal potentials the hydrothermal sector plays a very important role due to its possibilities of supplying heat in the MW-range at any time of day or night or year. The heat is contained in thermal water extracted from depth between 2000 and 2500 m by means of deep drilling. In Germany there are hydrothermal potentials in the South (Rhine Valley) and North. The following article describes the geological, technological and economic aspects of thermal water utilisation for the generation of thermal energy. (orig.)

  12. Measurements of temperature, oxygen concentration and oxygen demand in the Rhine downstream of the cooling water discharge of Biblis nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, K.

    1981-05-01

    On behalf of the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke AG (RWE) profile measurements were carried out in 1978 and 1979 at the inflow of the cooling water from the Biblis nuclear power plants into the Rhine. By referring the measurements to the mean flow-velocity of the stream, findings on the mixing of the cooling water into the river have been obtained. The values obtained for oxygen concentration and oxygen demand, determined simultaneously with the temperature data, confirm the known predictions given in the literature.

  13. Measurements of temperature, oxygen concentration and oxygen demand in the Rhine downstream of the cooling water discharge of Biblis nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke AG (RWE) profile measurements were carried out in 1978 and 1979 at the inflow of the cooling water from the Biblis nuclear power plants into the Rhine. By referring the measurements to the mean flow-velocity of the stream, findings on the mixing of the cooling water into the river have been obtained. The values obtained for oxygen concentration and oxygen demand, determined simultaneously with the temperature data, confirm the known predictions given in the literature. (orig.)

  14. The distribution of anthropogenic REE in the Dutch distributaries of the Rhine: the role of suspended matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Gerlinde; Verheul, Marc; Klaver, Gerard; Bakker, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    In nature rare earth elements (REE) occur in fixed ratios; contamination with a single rare earth element causes a clear deviation from the natural NASC normalized REE-patterns: an anomaly. REE are progressively used in many high technology products and processes. For example, gadolinium-containing chelates have been used since the '80s as contrasting agent in MRI-imaging. The pertaining anomaly is currently used as a tracer for distinguishing waste water from water unaffected by anthropogenic contamination. In the Dutch monitoring program in the Rhine-Meuse distributaries, total (10% HNO3 digested) and dissolved (< 0.45 µm) fractions in surface water are routinely analysed, and with two-week intervals suspended matter samples are collected with a centrifuge. Since 2008, the set of analysed elements was extended with REE, enabling this study. Lobith, the entry point of the River Rhine in The Netherlands, shows an annual oscillation in the magnitude of the lanthanum (La) anomaly. This positive La-anomaly was reported by Kulaksiz and Bau in 2011; they identified the point source as a production plant for catalysts used in petroleum refining in the German city of Worms. Since the spring of 2011, samarium (Sm) is used in the same process, resulting in matching La- and Sm-anomalies. The anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are predominantly present in the total fraction, which suggests that the anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are associated with suspended matter. The anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are lower in the suspended matter samples collected with the centrifuge, suggesting a bias of these La and Sm concentrations in the finer fraction of the suspended matter. The anthropogenic La en Sm concentrations remain relatively constant throughout the rivers, but close to Lake IJsselmeer and the North Sea, sedimentation causes a sharp decrease in the anthropogenic concentrations. Detailed sampling of sediments, suspended matter and water could give a clear insight in the sedimentation rates in the area. The off-set between the introductions of the two anthropogenic contaminants can be used throughout the Rhine catchment downstream of Worms to distinguish new suspended matter and resuspended older sediments and the sedimentation of these two fractions. Although the La- and Sm-anomalies largely disappear towards the North Sea, the La-anomaly in the sediments is still larger in the coastal areas than at the more distant sampling points. In order to gain more insight in the processes that take place at the freshwater-saltwater interface (e.g. desorption and sedimentation), more research is planned.

  15. [Telemedicine in Germany. Status, Barriers, Perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauns, H-J; Loos, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Telemedicine as a subject has reached politics, doctors and patients, but it has still not been able to make the leap from research, development, and testing into real practice. This is generally because of the great barriers to implementation, mainly the lack of telematics infrastructure and of payment regulations in Germany. Telemedicine projects are mainly isolated applications and it has not been possible to integrate them in to nationwide regular health services. Other challenges along the path to standard care include that research-based small-medium enterprise (SME) companies usually face high barriers hindering access to this market, because it is imposible for them to finance all the required evidence-based studies to verify the medical benefits and the econimic efficiency. Additionally, a high market nontransparency is noted. However, the signs of progress are visible, e.g., the E-health initiative of the German government or recent legislative initiatives. However, long processes are observed that do not facilitate the use of telemedicine. Although some federal states, e.g., North Rhine Westphalia, Bavaria, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, and Saxony, show exemplary activities, there are still many white areas on the telemedicine map of Germany. The road to standard care will be long, but is not unattainable. The reasons for supporting telemedicine are still strong. The future development of telemedicine applications will contribute to sustainable and high-quality patient care in Germany. PMID:26324096

  16. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Republic of Germany is situated in Central Europe. It covers an area of 250,000 square kilometres and has a population of 60 millions. The Federal Republic consists of 10 individual states. The capital of the country is Bonn. The northern and northwestern parts of the country are formed of flat lowlands, the Norddeutsche Tiefebene. Towards the south follow hilly and mountainous regions with elevations not exceeding 1000 m. In the southwestern and southeastern regions the elevations may reach 1500m in the Black Forest and Bayerischer Wald. The foreland of the Alps and the northern part of the Alps itself with elevations close to 3000 m make up the southern part of the Federal Republic. The main rivers - Rhine, Weser and Elbe - are directed towards northwest and drain the country to the North Sea. Only the southern part is drained by the southeast running river Danube. The climate is moderate, generally with frequent snow during the winter season and warm periods during the summer. The precipitation is distributed uniformly throughout the year. Due to the high industrialization a dense network of railroads, highways and motorroads exists.According to what is geologically known about the country, the chances for the discovery of large quantities of low-coast uranium resources must be considered to be limited. The potential for new discoveries of those deposits can be estimated to be around 10 000 t U. The potential for very low-grade uranium ore, such as granites, low-grade sedimentary rocks (sandstones, shales) can be estimated to range between 10,000 - 50,000 t U or possibly more taking into account very low-grade concentrations in shales. This material is not mineable under present conditions. Environmental considerations may prevent mining in the future

  17. Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization: the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) / Vers une évaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la privatisation de l'eau de boisson: l'exemple des substances cancérogènes véhiculées par l'eau dans l'Etat de Nord-Rhin-Westphalie (Allemagne) / Hacia la evaluación del impacto sanitario de la privatización del agua potable: ejemplo de los carcinógenos presentes en el agua en Renania del Norte-Westfalia (Alemania)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rainer, Fehr; Odile, Mekel; Martin, Lacombe; Ulrike, Wolf.

    Full Text Available Se observa en todo el mundo una tendencia a la desregulación en muchos sectores de política, lo que incluye por ejemplo la liberalización y privatización de la administración del agua potable. Ahora bien, la preocupación por los efectos perjudiciales que ello pudiera acarrear para la salud humana ob [...] liga a hacer una evaluación prospectiva del impacto sanitario (EIS) de la gestión del agua potable. Basándose en un procedimiento genérico y comprobado de EIS en 10 pasos y en los métodos de evaluación de riesgos, este artículo tiene por objeto aportar estimaciones cuantitativas de los efectos sanitarios del aumento de la exposición a carcinógenos en el agua potable. Utilizando los datos correspondientes a Renania del Norte-Westfalia, Alemania, se presentan estimaciones probabilísticas del exceso de riesgo de cáncer a lo largo de la vida, así como estimaciones de los casos adicionales de cáncer debidos al aumento de la exposición a carcinógenos. Los resultados indican que la exposición a contaminantes que se encuentran de hecho dentro de los límites en vigor podría dar lugar a aumentos sustanciales del riesgo de cáncer y del número de casos. Sobre la base de los actuales análisis, sugerimos que, en un contexto de aumento uniforme de los niveles de contaminantes, un solo producto químico (el arsénico) es responsable de una gran proporción del riesgo adicional previsto. El estudio ilustra también la incertidumbre inherente a la predicción del impacto sanitario de las variaciones de la calidad del agua. Los futuros análisis deberían abarcar otros carcinógenos, riesgos distintos del cáncer, incluidos los asociados a la contaminación microbiana, y las repercusiones de los fallos de los sistemas y de las actividades ilegales, que tienden a ocurrir con mayor frecuencia cuando se instauran nuevos mecanismos de ordenación del agua. Si pese a esos motivos de preocupación el agua se privatiza, es muy importante asegurar una vigilancia adecuada de su calidad. Abstract in english Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA) on t [...] he management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic) is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality.

  18. Cegelec Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

  19. Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part II of this study aims to determine the quality of the process and outcome. The reference standard is the assessment of both radiologists and physicians without board certification in radiology working at a university hospital and in outpatient facilities. Materials and Methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. A file was created for each of the 394 patients with image documentation of at least one examination. Each file, which included medical history, physical findings, imaging documentation and written report, was sequentially forwarded to a board-certified radiologist and to a physician without board certification in radiology working in a university hospital and in an outpatient facility. All physicians were requested to complete a structured questionnaire for each file. Results: The referral diagnoses were rated as medically plausible in 81%, the indications for imaging found correct in 76%, the examination techniques considered appropriate in 69%, the clinical question answered in 63%, the interpretation judged medically correct in 50% and all incidental findings documented in 49%. In retrospect, 32% of the examinations were judged superfluous. The sequence of multiple examinations performed on a particular patient was rated as appropriate in 51%. The interpretation revealed specialty-related differences. The plausibility of the referral diagnoses had a significant impact on the appropriateness of subsequent diagnostic investigations. Marked deficits showed sonography, performance by non-radiologists, self-referrals by GPs, gastroenterologic radiology and the ICD-10 coding (suspicion of cardiovascular disease). (orig.)

  20. Propagation conditions for difficult sites in the Upper Rhine Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive meteorological measurements have been made in the high and upper Rhine Valley in the context of site protection both for the licencing procedure and the meteorological evidence required for this purpose and also for research purposes into the effects of waste heat discharge into the atmosphere. At the Schwoerstadt, Wyhl, Freistett and Philippsburg sites meteorological measurements have been made on towers of between 120 and 160 metres height. At the Wyhl site 10 automatic ground level measurement stations for the meteorological monitoring of the surrounding vicinity in a narrow circumference of the site and close to the 160 metre high measurement tower are being operated. Information about the meteorological relationships in the propagation zone of chimney and cooling tower plumes has been complemented by a number of radiometeographic measurement programmes. (orig.)

  1. Heavy-metal contamination of rivers by mining gallery waters during the flood in 2002 in Saxony/Germany and low-cost rapid analysis of contaminated river sediments by XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucke, D.; Kumann, R.; Mucke, S.

    2012-04-01

    Dieter Mucke, Rolf Kumann, Susanne Mucke GEOMONTAN Gesellschaft für Geologie und Bergbau mbH&Co.KG, Muldentalstrasse 56, 09603 Rothenfurth, Saxony/Germany The Ore Mountains between Bohemia and Saxony are effected by age-long mining for silver mining and winning of other ores. A lot of galleries were driven to keep water away from the mines. Today they still drain off water into the rivers which are used as receiving streams. Sulphide- and sulpharsenide-minerals are unstable. The decomposition of these minerals is caused by the influence of oxygenated drainage water. As a result of this process free cations of iron, copper, lead, zinc, cadmium and residuals of acid (sulphuric acid, acid sulphur, arsenous acid). Already during the transport in the gallery water transformations and precipitations proceed: iron precipitates as sol of iron-(III)-hydroxide-flocks and carries manganese and arsenic, as well as a part of zinc and copper along, on the other hand a bigger part of cadmium keeps in dissolution. From 1844 until 1877 in the silver mining area of Freiberg/Brand-Erbisdorf/Halsbrücke the gallery "Rothschönberger Stolln" was driven with a length of 50 km. In 1995/1996 we determined during four measuring cycles the loads of selected contaminants of five different measuring points in a gallery segment, which takes 29 km. As the annual input into the stream system Triebisch/Elbe with the mudflat of the North Sea as receiving stream we determined: • 19.000 t solid matter (hereof 10.400 t gypsum) • 820 kg cadmium • 420 kg arsenic • 1450 kg lead • 1140 kg copper • 111 t zinc During the flood in August 2002 occurred: • a total sinking of the Münzbach • a partial sinking of the Freiberger Mulde into the Rothschönberger Stolln. Thereby its flow increased from 600 l/sec in average to 10 m3/sec. Over three days during the flood in 2002 water samples were taken and analysed and the discharge was detected. So it was possible to calculate the loads. There was?t a dilution of the loads, in fact the contents and loads increased: mean value daily value increase factor 1995/1996 14.08.2002 mg/l mg/l n-fold content: 0,067 1,340 20 lead 5,080 7,590 1,5 zinc 0,038 0,068 1,8 cadmium 0,019 0,230 12 arsenic load: kg/d kg/d n-fold lead 4,0 626 167 zinc 303,3 3548 12 cadmium 2,3 318 14 arsenic 1,1 108 9,5 Parts of these contaminants do?t arrive the ocean, but deposit on the continuing flow path of the rivers. The maintenance of the water bodies and during construction works stream sediments need to be removed and depolluted. With the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) a very low-cost and - with a measurement period of 30 seconds - a very quick method for the rough calculation of contaminant loads is available. The results of investigations of the sediments of the Freiberger Mulde and the Triebisch in 2011/2012 are presented. High contents of arsenic, cadmium, thallium and lead are identified as waste, which needs to be controlled.

  2. Net employment effects of an extension of renewable-energy systems in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable-energy potential exists in the Federal Republic of Germany to a great extent, but is barely used as yet. A change in the power-supply structure seems to be too risky with regard to finance and the sensitive labour market. Nevertheless, an extension of renewable energy systems in the German state North-Rhine Westphalia would lead to improved employment prospects. (Author)

  3. Fluvial deposits as a record for Late Quaternary neotectonic activity in the Rhine-Meuse delta,The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, K.M.; Stouthamer, E.; Berendsen, H.J.A

    2002-01-01

    Neotectonic movements have caused differential subsidence in the Lower Rhine Embayment during the Quaternary. The Late Weichselian and Holocene Rhine-Meuse fluvial archive in the central Netherlands was used to quantify neotectonic movements in a setting that was primarily controlled by sea-level rise and climate change. Evidence for neotectonic activity in the central Netherlands is reviewed. Sedimentary evidence shows that fluvial deposits of Late Weichselian and Holocene Rhine and Meuse (M...

  4. High-technology metals as emerging contaminants: Strong increase of anthropogenic gadolinium levels in tap water of Berlin, Germany, from 2009 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Monitoring study Berlin-2012 confirms tap water contamination with gadolinium. • Contamination confined to western districts of Berlin. • Strong increase of anthropogenic gadolinium from 2009 to 2012. • Anthropogenic gadolinium is tracer for wastewater-derived substances. - Abstract: The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in tap water sampled in December 2012 in Berlin, Germany, is characterized by anomalously high levels of gadolinium (Gd). While the western districts of the city show strong anthropogenic positive Gd anomalies in REE distribution patterns, the eastern districts are (almost) unaffected. This contamination with anthropogenic Gd results from Gd-based contrast agents used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, that enter rivers, groundwater and eventually tap water via the clear water effluent from wastewater treatment plants. While the spatial distribution of anthropogenic Gd in 2012 confirms results of an earlier study in 2009 (Kulaksiz and Bau, 2011a), anthropogenic Gd concentrations have increased between 1.5- and 11.5-fold in just three years. This confirms predictions based upon the increase of anthropogenic Gd concentrations in the Havel River over the past two decades and the time it takes the water to migrate from the Havel River to the groundwater production wells. Anomalously high levels of anthropogenic Gd in tap water, which are not confined to Berlin but have also been observed in London, U.K., and in German cities in the Ruhr area and along the Rhine River, reveal that high-technology metals have become emerging contaminants. While non-toxic at the observed concentrations, the anthropogenic Gd is a microcontaminant that may be used as a conservative pseudo-natural tracer for wastewater-derived xenobiotics such as pharmaceuticals, food additives and personal care products. Our results suggest that monitoring the concentrations of such substances in Berlin’s drinking water can be restricted to a few central and western districts of the city, demonstrating that implementation of anthropogenic Gd as a tracer in monitoring programs can contribute to significant cost savings

  5. Permeability in fractured rocks from deep geothermal boreholes in the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jeanne; Whitechurch, Hubert; Genter, Albert; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Baujard, Clément

    2015-04-01

    Permeability in fractured rocks from deep geothermal boreholes in the Upper Rhine Graben Vidal J.1, Whitechurch H.1, Genter A.2, Schmittbuhl J.1, Baujard C.2 1 EOST, Université de Strasbourg 2 ES-Géothermie, Strasbourg The thermal regime of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is characterized by a series of geothermal anomalies on its French part near Soultz-sous-Forêts, Rittershoffen and in the surrounding area of Strasbourg. Sedimentary formations of these areas host oil field widely exploited in the past which exhibit exceptionally high temperature gradients. Thus, geothermal anomalies are superimposed to the oil fields which are interpreted as natural brine advection occurring inside a nearly vertical multi-scale fracture system cross-cutting both deep-seated Triassic sediments and Paleozoic crystalline basement. The sediments-basement interface is therefore very challenging for geothermal industry because most of the geothermal resource is trapped there within natural fractures. Several deep geothermal projects exploit local geothermal energy to use the heat or produce electricity and thus target permeable fractured rocks at this interface. In 1980, a geothermal exploration well was drilled close to Strasbourg down to the Permian sediments at 3220 m depth. Bottom hole temperature was estimated to 148°C but the natural flow rate was too low for an economic profitability (geothermal site by drilling five boreholes, three of which extend to 5 km depth. They identified a temperature of 200° C at 5 km depth in the granitic basement but with a variable flow rate. Hydraulic and chemical stimulation operations were applied in order to increase the initial low permeability by reactivating and dissolving sealed fractures in basement. The productivity was considerably improved and allows geothermal exploitation at 165° C and 20 L/s. Recent studies revealed the occurrences of permeable fractures in the limestones of Muschelkalk and the sandstones of Buntsandstein also. For the ongoing project at Rittershoffen, two deep boreholes, drilled down to 2.7 km depth target a reservoir in the sandstones of Buntsandstein and in the granitic basement interface. The thermal, hydraulic and chemical stimulations of the first well lead the project to an economic profitability with a temperature of 170° C and an industrial flow rate of 70 L/s. The deep sedimentary cover and the top of the granitic basement are the main target of the geothermal project in the URG. Permeability of fractured rocks after drilling operations or stimulation operations demonstrates the viability of French industrial deep geothermal projects in the URG was also confirmed by several geothermal projects in Germany that target the similar sediments-basement interface (Landau and Insheim) or the deep Triassic sediments (Bruchsal and Brühl). In France, future geothermal projects are planned in particular in Strasbourg suburb to exploit the permeability of deep-seated fractured sediment-basement interface.

  6. An experimental study on the mixing behavior of Ti, Zr, V and Mo in the Elbe, Rhine and Weser estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alexandre B.; Koschinsky, Andrea; Kiprotich, Joseph; Poehle, Sandra; do Nascimento, Paulo C.

    2016-03-01

    Estuaries are important interfaces between land and ocean, in which the input of trace metals into the ocean via the rivers is often significantly modified along the mixing gradient between freshwater and seawater. In the present study we have carried out mixing experiments using river water from the Rhine, the Elbe and the Weser and seawater from the North Sea with the aim of gaining more insights into the behavior of titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), vanadium (V) and molybdenum (Mo) and their distribution between dissolved and particulate forms during mixing in the estuaries. Little is known about the modification of their concentrations in estuaries and these metals increasingly enter the rivers and the ocean due to their application as so-called high-tech metals in industrial activities. Such laboratory experiments at controlled conditions allow the systematic investigation of chemical changes related to the mixing ratios, independent of further influence factors occurring in natural systems. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry was used for the analytical determination of the four metals. Although our data largely confirmed a strong particle-reactive behavior of Ti and Zr and a mostly conservative behavior of Mo, our mixing experiments revealed partial deviation from this behavior. Vanadium mostly does not follow a strict conservative mixing trend but shows both small ad- and desorption effects along the salinity transect. Also Mo shows some deviations from conservative mixing at mid-salinities. The enrichment of dissolved Ti and Zr at about 50:50 river: seawater mixtures agrees with recently published data of similar field studies and appears to be a systematic effect possibly related to charge transitions on particle surfaces or change of the dissolved metal speciation. The observed effects partly differed in experiments with filtered and non-filtered river water samples, especially for Ti and Zr, highlighting the role of riverine particulate matter for the modification of dissolved trace metal fluxes in estuaries.

  7. Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den Emissionspfaden als auch nach den grossen Flussgebieten Donau, Rhein, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, Nordsee und Ostsee. Zusaetzlich wurden Listen der zehn groessten industriellen Direkteinleiter erstellt. (orig.)

  8. Autecology of Limnomysis benedeni Czerniavsky, 1882 (Crustacea: Mysida) in Lake Constance, Southwestern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gergs, René; Hanselmann, Almut J.; Eisele, Isabelle; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Ponto-Caspian mysid Limnomysis benedeni was first recorded in Lake Constance in summer 2006, and a stable population developed at the site of discovery. Although this mysid is common in the Rhine and Danube rivers, little is known about its ecology and impact in systems of invasion. We investigated the autecology of L. benedeni in habitat-choice and food experiments. In the habitat-choice experiments, highly structured habitats, i.e., stones covered with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorph...

  9. Charles Darwin's Observations on the Behaviour of Earthworms and the Evolutionary History of a Giant Endemic Species from Germany, Lumbricus badensis (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809/1882) began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881). Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae) and the role of these annelids as global ecosystem re workers (concept of bioturbation). In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Bio geographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.

  10. HABITAT USE OF AGE - 0 TWAITE SHAD (ALOSA FALLAX LACÉPÈDE, 1803 IN THE TIDAL FRESHWATER REGION OF THE ELBE RIVER, GERMANY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERKENS M.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Between April and August 1997 the distribution of twaite shad larvae in the lower Elbe River downstream the city of Hamburg was examined by ring net, lift net and pop net sampling. During each haul six environmental parameters - water depth, water temperature, conductivity, oxygen concentration, distance from shore line and distance from river channel - were estimated. Twaite shad larvae were found from 26 May to 10 July. Yolk sac larvae were present from 26 May to 25 June. High abundances of twaite shad larvae were found in the side channels and main channels. A canonical correspondence analysis was calculated to evaluate the importance of measured environmental parameters for the distribution of age - 0 fishes. Water depth, distance from shore line and distance from river channel were identified as main parameters for the distribution of species. Twaite shad larvae preferred maximum water depth and distance from shore line and short distances to the river channel. An upstream displacement of the spawning grounds of twaite shad was observed, following a trend first noticed in the early 90th. Nowadays, the location of spawning grounds corresponds to the situation at the beginning of the 19th century. Reduced water pollution is believed to be the main reason for this phenomenon.

  11. Leukaemia in the vicinity of two tritium-releasing nuclear facilities: a comparison of the Kruemmel Site, Germany, and the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, an increased rate of childhood leukaemia was reported from the small northern German community of Elbmarsch, which is located on the banks of the River Elbe opposite the Kruemmel nuclear power plant. Owing to the fact that the increase occurred six years after the start-up of the plant, radioactive discharges were suspected as being implicated in the development of the cases. Previous investigations have failed to identify any exposure which might be associated with the cluster. Nonetheless, concern regarding the increased tritium burden in the environment remains. To further assess the impact of tritium releases to the environment upon population cancer rates, the releases and leukaemia rates at the Savannah River site, USA, were compared with the Kruemmel site. Based on the data from 1991 to 1995, the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of the Savannah River site was non-significantly less than expected compared with the significantly higher than expected rates close to the German plant. In contrast, tritium releases from the Savannah River site exceed those from the Kruemmel site by several orders of magnitude. The results of this observational study suggest that factors other than environmental tritium releases are associated with the increased number of leukaemia cases near the Kruemmel site. (author)

  12. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  13. Geochemical signatures (C, N, delta13C, delta15N, metals) of suspended matter in the river Weisse Elster (central Germany): their seasonal and flow-related distribution 1997-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Frank W; Hanisch, Christiane; Zerling, Lutz; Gehre, Matthias

    2005-06-01

    Geochemical studies of carbon, nitrogen, delta13C, delta15N as well as Fe, Mn, Cd, Zn, Cr and Hg in suspended matter taken from the river Weisse Elster (central Germany) between 1997 and 2001 reveal significant changes to the composition of the organic sediment load, which correlate with the hydrological period and flow rate. Using C/N ratios and the isotope values of carbon and nitrogen as source indicators, it was found that the organic suspended matter fractions in hydrological winter periods comprise both resuspended mortal plankton material from the riverbed and terrigenous C3 plant material from the clastic input. During the 6 month summer periods, increased bioproductivity results in more dissolved carbon and mineral nitrogen compounds being taken up by the freshly formed aquatic organic substance (freshwater plankton). These compounds stem from bacterial breakdown processes affecting organic components of the river sediment and/or the peripheral soil zone. Increasing fractions of freshwater plankton during the summer period are accompanied by an increase in the nitrogen content and by isotope signatures shifting (delta13C to lower but delta15N to higher values) in the suspended matter. Seasonally opposite correlations between metal contents (e.g. Cd, Zn, Cr, Hg and Fe) and the carbon and nitrogen levels of suspended matter (significantly positive in winter and significantly negative in summer) show that in suspended matter these elements mostly bind to resuspended mortal (rather than the freshly formed living aquatic) organic substance. According to long-term measuring series, between 1993 and 2002 the levels of heavy metals (especially cadmium) in the suspended matter of the river Weisse Elster decreased. Similarly, between 1997 and 2001 the oxygen level in the river Weisse Elster improved. This caused the faster breakdown of organic substance on the riverbed, resulting in the increased uptake of 15N-rich nitrogen compounds into the fresh aquatic organic substance formed every year, and an increase in the conversion of dissolved manganese in the water into insoluble manganese compounds in the river sediment. PMID:16191766

  14. Architecture of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta (the Netherlands) – A result of changing external controls

    OpenAIRE

    Gouw, M.J.P.; Erkens, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    The Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta is formed under the influence of sea-level rise, tectonics, and variations in discharge and sediment supply. This paper aims to determine the relative importance of these external controls to improve our understanding of the evolution of the Rhine-Meuse fluvio-deltaic system. To do this, the geological and lithological composition of the fluvio-deltaic wedge has to be known in detail, both in space and time. This study presents five cross-valley sections in the ...

  15. Remarkable Urban Uplift in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany: Observations from TerraSAR-X InSAR and Leveling from 2008 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann Kaufmann; Hans-Ulrich Wetzel; Christin Lubitz; Mahdi Motagh

    2013-01-01

    As geothermal energy is of increasing importance as a renewable energy source, there is a high demand for comprehensive studies to prevent failure during implementation, as is the case in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany. The drilling of seven wells for the geothermal heating of the city hall in 2007 is thought to have disturbed the existing hydro-geological system in the complex structured transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif. This event has led to uplift, related...

  16. Differences in sensitivity of native and exotic fish species to changes in river temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.E.W. LEUVEN, A.J. HENDRIKS, M.A.J. HUIJBREGTS, H.J.R. LENDERS,J. MATTHEWS, G. VAN DER VELDE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effects that temperature changes in the Rhine river distributaries have on native and exotic fish diversity. Site-specific potentially affected fractions (PAFs of the regional fish species pool were derived using species sensitivity distributions (SSDs for water temperature. The number of fish species in the river distributaries has changed remarkably over the last century. The number of native rheophilous species declined up until 1980 due to anthropogenic disturbances such as commercial fishing, river regulation, migration barriers, habitat deterioration and water pollution. In spite of progress in river rehabilitation, the native rheophilous fish fauna has only partially recovered thus far. The total number of species has strongly increased due to the appearance of more exotic species. After the opening of the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway in 1992, many fish species originating from the Ponto-Caspian area colonized the Rhine basin. The yearly minimum and maximum river temperatures at Lobith have increased by circa 4 0C over the period 1908-2010. Exotic species show lower PAFs than native species at both ends of the temperature range. The interspecific variation in the temperature tolerance of exotic fish species was found to be large. Using temporal trends in river temperature allowed past predictions of PAFs to demonstrate that the increase in maximum river temperature negatively affected a higher percentage of native fish species than exotic species. Our results support the hypothesis that alterations of the river Rhine’s temperature regime caused by thermal pollution and global warming limit the full recovery of native fish fauna and facilitate the establishment of exotic species which thereby increases competition between native and exotic species. Thermal refuges are important for the survival of native fish species under extreme summer or winter temperature conditions [Current Zoology 57 (6: 852–862, 2011].

  17. The city and the river A reconstruction of the strategical position of early 9th century Dorestad, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosian, Menne; Weerts, Henk; Steur, Roeland; Abrahamse, Jaap-Evert

    2013-04-01

    Why was the Early-medieval trade-port of Dorestad located at a relatively inland position in the Rhine delta and not at the coast, as one would expect? We combined palaeogeographical, environmental-archaeological, geomorphological/geological and laser-altimetry data to propose an answer to this question. Local Dorestad data had to be combined with a regional paleogeographical reconstruction of active river branches in the 9th-century Rhine delta to come to a satisfactory answer. The location of Dorestad on a high natural levee along a relatively stable navigable branch of the Rhine in the central Rhine delta was perfect for trade. The high levee gave protection from the annual river floods. Although this branch of the Rhine was fairly stable in the heydays of Dorestad, the meanders near Dorestad slowly migrated. Excavations at Dorestad show that the harbour works of Dorestad were constantly adapted to this migration, thereby following the meander on which they were located. Ships could reach the port from the sea through at least three navigable Rhine branches: the Lek, the Old Rhine and the Vecht rivers. Dorestad was thus easily accessible and yet far enough from the coast to be safe from storm floods - but was it located at its specific location for these reasons alone? We combined existing geomorphological and geological maps with recent nation-wide laser-altimetry (AHN, General Elevation model of the Netherlands') for a regional palaeogeographical reconstruction of 9th-century active Rhine branches in a GIS. This reconstruction revealed that river connections with the Flemish, French and German hinterland were perfect. Other delta branches ensured safe connections to the Zeeland delta and the open Flemish coast, all the way to Dover Straight to the south and to the open Frisian coast all the way to present Southern Denmark in the North. The dangerously closed coast of Holland without any safe shelter places for storms could thus be avoided by ships coming in both from the South and from the North. This interdisciplinary approach not only gave insight in the changing river activity, but also in the reasons why Dorestad could rise to its glory, and the possible reason for its demise as important Rhine branches silted up, while new branches developed into navigable waterways. The demise of Dorestad gave room for later river towns such as Tiel, Dordrecht and the cities along the IJssel.

  18. Contribution from carbon and sulphur isotopes to the evaluation of biogeochemical processes in groundwater systems controlled by river bank filtration: An example from the Torgau aquifer (Saxony, Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphur and carbon isotopes were used to reveal flow processes and chemical reactions within an aquifer system partially controlled by river bed infiltration. The investigation site, located at the Elbe river, is the most important water supply area of Saxony. An arrangement of about 40 groundwater sampling points, screened in five or three depth levels within a section crossing the Elbe, was used to describe the situation in the Quaternary aquifer. Using 34S (SO4) and 13C (DIC) as tracers, an improved understanding of the flow pattern has been obtained, especially regarding the penetration of groundwater into the aquifer zone below the Elbe bed. Furthermore, groundwater and Elbe water show different isotope signatures. Depletion of 34S in the area between the Elbe and the production wells is attributed to the oxidation of pyritic sulphur. The measured radiocarbon concentrations of groundwater fulvic acids suggest that less than 50% of the DOC originates from old sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) sources in the aquifer. 14C decrease along the flow path from the Elbe to the captation facilities has been observed and is proposed as being due to a simultaneous degradation of Elbe DOC and dissolution of old SOC from the penetrated aquifer. The unusual chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater near the edge of the investigated profile is interpreted as a local influence of ascending waters coming from Zechstein formations and penetrating the overlaying Triassic and Tertiary layers via tectonic faults or geological windows. (author)

  19. Modeling the habitat suitability for the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lisa K; Cunze, Sarah; Werblow, Antje; Kochmann, Judith; Dörge, Dorian D; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Climatic changes raise the risk of re-emergence of arthropod-borne virus outbreaks globally. These viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors, often mosquitoes. Due to increasing worldwide trade and tourism, these vector species are often accidentally introduced into many countries beyond their former distribution range. Aedes albopictus, a well-known disease vector, was detected for the first time in Germany in 2007, but seems to have failed establishment until today. However, the species is known to occur in other temperate regions and a risk for establishment in Germany remains, especially in the face of predicted climate change. Thus, the goal of the study was to estimate the potential distribution of Ae. albopictus in Germany. We used ecological niche modeling in order to estimate the potential habitat suitability for this species under current and projected future climatic conditions. According to our model, there are already two areas in western and southern Germany that appear suitable for Ae. albopictus under current climatic conditions. One of these areas lies in Baden-Wuerttemberg, the other in North-Rhine Westphalia in the Ruhr region. Furthermore, projections under future climatic conditions show an increase of the modeled habitat suitability throughout Germany. Ae. albopictus is supposed to be better acclimated to colder temperatures than other tropical vectors and thus, might become, triggered by climate change, a serious threat to public health in Germany. Our modeling results can help optimizing the design of monitoring programs currently in place in Germany. PMID:26634351

  20. Book of tables on the physico-chemical investigation of the Rhine water 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tables of figures on the physico-chemical investigation of the Rhine water comprise the sampling dates, the organic, entrophying and inorganic substances found, the metals and organic micro-pollutions found, and radioactivity. Other tables indicate the location of measuring places, method of sampling, and method of analysis. (DG)

  1. Numerical tables of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical tables of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water contain measurements on separate samples, continuous measurements during 2 weeks, on 14-days mixed samples as well as on 8-weeks mixed samples, and chloride measurements as well as measurements of the total-?-activity and the specific tritium activity. (HK)

  2. Numerical tables on physical and chemical analyses of Rhine water 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical tables contain the measuring results of the physical-chemical studies on the Rhine water for the year 1983. The tables are arranged by general parameters, organic matter, eutrophicating substances, anorganic matter, metals, organic micropollution as well as by radioactivity (total alpha- or beta- and T-activity). (MM)

  3. Radiometric sand mud characterisation in the Rhine-Meuse Estuary. Part B. In situ mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, M.; Venema, L. B.; De Meijer, R. J.

    2002-02-01

    Traditionally, obtaining accurate spatial information about the textural composition of heterogeneous aquatic sediments requires extensive sediment sampling. To avoid a costly and time-consuming operation, a new in situ technique has been investigated. This technique characterises sediment components by the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In situ activity concentrations are continuously measured with the Multi-Detector system for Underwater Sediment Activity (MEDUSA), a detector trailed over the bottom by a towing vessel, containing a highly sensitive gamma-ray BGO-detector, a water-depth sensor and a microphone. From the collected ?-ray spectra, the activity concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th are derived. During two separate field surveys of 5 days each, MEDUSA was applied to the Hollandsch Diep and Haringvliet, two fresh water basins, each approximately 20 km long and 2-3 km wide in the Rhine-Meuse Estuary, the Netherlands. In part A of this paper (this issue), it has been illustrated how the radiometric fingerprint of sand and mud in the area was determined. This fingerprint was then used to calculate the sand-mud ratio from the 238U and 232Th activity concentrations of about 25,000 MEDUSA data points. The interpolated sand-mud distribution of the top layer of the aquatic sediment shows a distinct correlation with bathymetry: the deeper channels are mud-rich, whereas the shallow zones are predominantly sandy. In general, the mud content decreases in the seaward direction. This corroborates well with the morphological development of the area in which the deposition of mud is highest near the rivers' outflow in the east. The absolute total random error in the sand map varies between 6% and 18%, where the largest errors are caused principally by spatial variability of the sediment composition. At present, the radiometric results underestimate the mud content by 10-30% due to a higher water content of sediment with high mud contents (>60%). The simultaneously recorded friction sound levels provide qualitative information with respect to the sediment composition. Sandy areas show a higher sound level than muddy areas; with the sound and sand map showing a striking similarity.

  4. Thermal evolution of igneous rocks of the Upper Rhine Graben area and their relation to tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, K.; Rahn, M.; Keller, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) extends over a distance of 300 km from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany) with an average width of 30--40 km. It is the central segment of the European Cenozoic rift system. The occurrence of Middle Eocene lake deposits is attributed to initial rifting. The main rifting phase started at the end of the Eocene and was followed by prominent uplift in the southern URG area in Miocene time (Schumacher, 2002). The igneous products in the investigated area are mainly primitive, mantle-derived alkaline basaltic rocks, occurring, in most cases, as dikes. The majority of the volcanics are found on the eastern graben shoulder with a concentration in the Freiburg area and the highest frequency in the northern part. No dikes are observed along the main border faults. Previously published K/Ar total rock age data were interpreted as intrusion ages (for review see Keller et al., 2002) and suggest a first activity peak in the Upper Cretaceous, a maximum in Eocene time and a further pronounced peak in the Miocene. This age range doubles the length of the assumed period of graben formation. Apatite fission track dating was applied to selected dikes and nearby country rocks. The temporal relation between volcanic events and the URG shoulder uplift was constrained by comparison of the fission track data of the dikes and country rocks. Important differences in respect to this relation exist among the different rift shoulder segments (Black Forest, Vosges, Palatinate Forest and Odins Forest). References: Keller, J., Kraml, M. &Henjes-Kunst, F. (2002): Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 82, 121-130. Schumacher, M.E. (2002): Tectonics, 21: 1-17.

  5. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. Sutanudjaja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Results are promising despite the fact that we still use an offline procedure to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater models (i.e. the simulations of both models are separately performed. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydro-geological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reasonably well reproduce the observed groundwater head time series. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the offline-coupling technique simplifies the dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

  6. Fluvio-deltaic floodbasin deposits recording differential subsidence within a coastal prism (central Rhine–Meuse delta, The Netherlands)

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, K.M.; Gouw, M.J.P.; Holten, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    In the central Netherlands, the Rhine follows a course imposed by Late Quaternary glaciation, forcing it to cross several tectonic blocks of the Roer Valley Graben system before entering the south-eastern North Sea Basin. Holocene sealevel rise resulted in the formation of a coastal prism (Holocene Rhine–Meuse delta). Across the Peel Boundary Fault-zone (PBF) in the central delta, differences in subsidence between the downstream Roer Valley Graben and its upstream shoulder i...

  7. Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; S?owi?ski, Micha?; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly related to a cold period with permafrost formation. At other positions in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered directly by calcareous and silicate gyttias. These parts may (1) either not have been affected by assumed fluvial activity or (2) peat formation as such only started later here. Finally, an extended lake filled the basin from the later parts of the late-glacial on. Its sedimentation history is well recorded in calcareous and silicate gyttjas, whereas sedimentary units derived from organic and inorganic carbon content as well as grain size distribution allows a stratigraphical comparison of different profiles. Several delta cones in lake sediments give evidence of still considerable fluvial influx. High lake levels are indicated by lake terraces at 51 m and 43 m a.s.l., yet the timing of these high stands is still unclear. A third terrace at 41 m a.s.l. represents lower water level in historic times, during which two smaller lakes ('Dobbiner Plage' and 'Klädener Plage') existed in the basin. Both lakes vanished due to drainage after 1798. The uppermost sediment sequence in the basins is represented by a pattern of strongly decomposed peat and lacustrine sand.

  8. Rehabilitating closed mining sites in North Rhine Westphalia's coal basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ruhr is a German region undergoing a reconversion. In recent years, several thousand jobs have been lost in the coal, iron and steel industries, especially in coal mines. This trend is going to continue. Rehabilitating former industrial sites so that they can welcome new industries and businesses, is decisive for this region. A rapid and financially advantageous reconversion requires coherence and continuity in the rehabilitation measures undertaken by the companies that serve as receivers, by local authorities and by investors who want to launch new projects. All these parties must manage the various phases of this process in a spirit of coordination. Germany can boast of a series of successful reconversions into industrial areas, exhibition facilities, nature reserves, tourist centers and leisure and rest places

  9. Analysis of interactions between channel dynamics and vegetation development following damming: example of the Old Rhine downstream of Kembs (1949-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, F.; Béraud, C.; Piégay, H.; Schmitt, L.; Rollet, A.; Johnstone, K.; Hoenen, D.; Béal, D.

    2010-12-01

    The 45 km-long reach of the Rhine River from Kembs to Breisach has been heavily impacted by engineering works during the last two centuries. The Kembs dam and the lateral “Grand Canal d’Alsace” achieved in 1959 induced significant decrease in sediment transport and diversion of most of the flow in the lateral canal so that the by-passed “Old Rhine” runs now a minimum flow (3% of the mean annual discharge during 300 days per year). Two combined approaches were performed to understand the Old Rhine morphological response to “dewatering”, peak flow reduction and sediment transport disruption in particular the vegetation expansion process and its potential feedback impacts on the channel hydraulics and the sediment transport: i) a space-time approach using series of aerial photographs and historical cross-sections and ii) 1D morphodynamic simulations. Sets of aerial photographs integrated in a GIS environment have been used to map the extent of water bodies, gravel bars, riparian vegetation (grasslands, shrubs, trees identified using differences in colour, texture and structure) and anthropogenic features every 10 years since the 1950s. Results show a strong channel narrowing and associated vegetation expansion until 1982. Tests conducted on the different dates underlined homogeneous segments and downstream progression of the processes through time, demonstrating different patterns of adjustments. Cross-sections of 1950 and 1990 were overlaid with land cover layers, demonstrating that incision and sedimentation areas are spatially linked with the planform changes. From these findings, we hypothesised that vegetation encroachment modified hydraulic conditions, enabling sediment transport, winnowing and deposition processes despite of peak flow reduction and armour layer development due to intense incision following channelization works. In order to test these causality hypothesis, the mean sediment mobility along the homogeneous segments was assessed using 1D hydromorphodynamical simulations. Indeed, numerical modelling is able to calculate the bed shear stress over the critical shear stress ratio for different grain sizes according to the type of vegetation observed and the magnitude and duration of floods occurred. Finally, both GIS study and 1D modelling are complementary revealing the channel and vegetation evolution and underlined the significant impact of vegetation development on the bed dynamics over decades.

  10. Brain Drain or Brain Gain? Graduate Migration in Old Industrial Regions - Analysis of the Central Lower Rhine Area, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, Angelika; Kreutzer, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The influence of tertiary education on the economic development of a region is a topic of special interest and prevalent object of studies and discussions of regional economists. Universities are frequently referred to as 'creative hubs'. Researching universities are generally expected to be one of the key institutions around which growth occurs, determining the direction of regional economic development. Especially the large number of highly-educated graduates is of eminent importance in ter...

  11. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Sand-Containing Basin Fills in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, I.J.; Stouthamer, E.

    2011-01-01

    The quantitative significance of coarse-grained deposits in the overbank realm, such as crevasse-splay deposits, has not been studied at the delta scale or at the Holocene timescale. Such knowledge would be beneficial for understanding and explaining sediment distribution in delta plains. This study addresses delta-scale distribution of sand-containing basin fills and their sand-body proportion variability, based on eight valleywide cross sections in the Holocene Rhine- Meuse delt...

  12. Measuring perspectives on future flood management on the Rhine: application and discussion of Q methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Raadgever, G.T.; Mostert, E.; van de Giesen, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of stakeholder perspectives promises to be useful in the agenda setting phase of water management policy processes. This paper compares different methods to measure perspectives, and identifies Q methodology as a structured method that allows for unbiased analysis. It is one of the first water management papers about Q methodology, and it presents a detailed discussion of the practical possibilities and limitations of the method, using future flood management in the Rhine basin as...

  13. Semi-autonomous blended learning for Intercultural Communication in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine.

    OpenAIRE

    Verjans, M.; Gelan, A.

    2012-01-01

    INTERcCOM (Intercultural communication in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine) is an Interreg project co-ordinated by the Center of Applied Linguistics - Hasselt University. The projects' aims are to improve mutual communication and to simplify studying and working in the EMR, composed of 3 different languages and 5 different cultures. To achieve this goal, a scientific research consisting of a language and a culture part was undertaken, in which we sought an answer to the following main questions: - Wha...

  14. Reallocation of Purchasing Power due to Demographic Change - The Case of North Rhine-Westphalia

    OpenAIRE

    Stöver, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The ageing process of populations due to demographic change affects the economy in various ways. The study at hand focuses on the reallocation of income and changes in consumption expenses caused by demographic change. Local disparities on NUTS 3 level are of special interest as the demographic effects can vary considerably between regions depending on their initial position such as population density, age structure, and economic condition. By means of data for the regions of North-Rhine-West...

  15. Fish population genetic structure shaped by hydroelectric power plants in the upper Rhine catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouskov, Alexandre; Reyes, Marta; Wirthner-Bitterlin, Lisa; Vorburger, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    The Rhine catchment in Switzerland has been transformed by a chain of hydroelectric power stations. We addressed the impact of fragmentation on the genetic structure of fish populations by focusing on the European chub (Squalius cephalus). This fish species is not stocked and copes well with altered habitats, enabling an assessment of the effects of fragmentation per se. Using microsatellites, we genotyped 2133 chub from 47 sites within the catchment fragmented by 37 hydroelectric power stations, two weirs and the Rhine Falls. The shallow genetic population structure reflected drainage topology and was affected significantly by barriers to migration. The effect of power stations equipped with fishpasses on genetic differentiation was detectable, albeit weaker than that of man-made barriers without fishpasses. The Rhine Falls as the only long-standing natural obstacle (formed 14 000 to 17 000 years ago) also had a strong effect. Man-made barriers also exacerbated the upstream decrease in allelic diversity in the catchment, particularly when lacking fishpasses. Thus, existing fishpasses do have the desired effect of mitigating fragmentation, but barriers still reduce population connectivity in a fish that traverses fishpasses better than many other species. Less mobile species are likely to be affected more severely. PMID:26834832

  16. Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, E. [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

    1995-12-31

    In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

  17. Free primary school choice: How are ethnic groups affected by the new school law in NRW, Germany?

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Kerstin; Schuchart, Claudia; Weishaupt, Horst; Riedel, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, school districts were abolished in North-Rhine Westphalia, the most populous German state. Critics have argued that free school choice will lead to increasing segregation and educational disparities. The data used is from Wuppertal, one major city in NRW. Since the Turkish population is the largest, but also the least integrated, minority in Germany, the focus is on the effect of the new school law on choice of Turkish (Muslim) versus non-Turkish (non-Muslim) families. Free school ch...

  18. Cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across large river basins in Europe, Africa and Asia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krysanova, V.; Dickens, C.; Timmerman, J.; Varela-Ortega, C.; Schlüter, M.; Roest, K.; Huntjens, P.; Jaspers, F.; Buiteveld, H.; Moreno, E.; de Pedraza Carrera, J.; Slámová, Romana; Martínková, M.; Blanco, I.; Esteve, P.; Pringle, K.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Kabat, P.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 24, ?. 14 (2010), s. 4121-4160. ISSN 0920-4741 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 511179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : adaptation to climate change * water management * questionnaire * barrier * driver * climate change * river basin * Amudarya * Elbe * Guadiana * Nile equatorial lakes region * Orange * Rhine Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2010

  19. Predictions of river flow in NW Europe using a coupled hydrological and regional climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Dadson, Simon; Bell, Victoria; JONES, R.

    2007-01-01

    Regional Climate Models (RCMs) offer significant improvements over Global Cli- mate Models in terms of their representation of rainfall at the spatial and temporal scales required for hydrological modelling. Here we test a new implementation of a grid-based hydrological model embedded in a model of land-surface climatology (the Joint UK Land Exchange Scheme; JULES) against observed river flows in several ma- jor NW European rivers, including the Rhine, Maas, Elbe, Danube, Loire, and Seine. ...

  20. Results of the Rhine-Ruhr international materials conference and award 2005. Materials for energy technology in the 21st century - Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains the origin wording of 16 lectures (speech) and discussions, which were held on the first Rhine-Ruhr International Materials Conference in Essen, Germany, on October 23 and 24, 2005. The focus of the gathering was on materials research, development and production in the field of energy engineering. The following topics are dealt with: Energy Concepts for Closing the Gap between Demand and Environmental Protection (Klaus Toepfer); Materials Science: The Competitive Factor in the Global Energy Technology Development (Roland Schenkel); The Necessity for Innovation in the EU as Seen by a New Member State (K.J. Kurzydlowski); New Pathways for Cooperation between Materials Science and Industry (Paul M. Siffert); Energy Demand and Environmental Protection - how to get both in line (Mark Radka); Chinese Energy Efficiency Policy leading to cleaner Production in China (Ming Yang); The Global Significance of Solar Energy Supply (Adolf Goetzberger); The Vision of Sustainable Development of Nuclear Energy (Patrick Ledermann); Improving the Efficiency of Energy Technology with Novel Materials (Johannes Teyssen); New Material Concepts for High Efficiency and Low Risk Exploitation of Energy (Koichi Yagi); Materials Systems for Tomorrow's Gas Turbines (Wilfried Kurz); Science and Technological Advances in Fusion Energy Research, ITER and beyond (Bernard Saoutic); Materials, Systems and Milestones for Economically and Environmentally Attractive Fusion Power Plants (Ian Cook); Fuel Cells - The State of the Art: Applications, Feasibility, Technology and Outlook for the Next Decade (Roland Diethelm); Wind Energy - Significance and Challenges for Tomorrow (Christian Nath); Solar Energy - Time Scale for the Full Application (Volker Wittwer)

  1. Human Impacts on Tides Overwhelm the Effect of Sea Level Risee on Extreme Water Levels in the Rhine-Meuse Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, T.; Vellinga, N.; Hoekstra, P.; Van Der Vegt, M.; Zhang, W.

    2014-12-01

    Mean sea level rise receives ample attention in the literature. However, peak water levels, which are most important for flood vulnerability and salinity intrusion in tidal river networks, may not be linearly related with mean surface levels. To quantify tidal and subtidal water level changes and to link these changes to human intervention, 70 years of water level data for the Rhine-Meuse tidal river network is analysed using a variety of statistical methods. Using a novel parameterization of probability density functions, mean high and low water levels are examined, and extreme water levels are investigated by applying the combined Mann-Kendall and Pettitt tests to find trends and trend changes. Tidal water levels are studied based on harmonic analysis. Results show that the mean water levels throughout the system rise with the same pace as the mean sea level. However, high and low water levels do not show the same increase, and the spatial variability in decadal trends in high- and low water levels is high. High water and low water extremes generally decrease. Both the extreme water level analysis and the harmonic analysis display significant trend breaks in 1970, 1981 and 1997. These breaks can be attributed to the closure of the Haringvliet estuary, the removal of sluices and the removal of a dam, respectively, which radically alter the tidal motion. These results demonstrate that the direct human influence on the tidal motion can overwhelm the effect of mean sea level rise on water level extremes.

  2. Report on the 1992 study trip on the Weser aboard the laboratory ship 'Max-Pruess' of the Land North-Rhine-Westfalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As agreed by the standing committee of the Weser task force ('Arge Weser'), regular trips on the river for taking measurements have been made since 1965. The ninth trip, from May 8th to 14th, 1992 aboard the ''Max Pruess'', a ship equipped with measuring instruments and a laboratory and owned by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia, was concerned with three areas of investigation: A) the Fulda and Werra estuaries, B) the upper and middle Weser (Hann.-Muenden (km 0.0) to Bremen (km 361.1)), C) the lower Weser (Bremen (km 0.0) to Kolumbuskai (km 67.8)). A uniform water quality longitudinal profile of the Weser was established during this trip by means of chemico-physical and biological tests. While investigations by measuring stations cover a longer period of time, the measurements taken during a voyage reflect a transient condition and complement long-term trend investigations. The voyage also permits to gain an overview of relative changes in the condition of the river at various points of its course. The evaluation of the results of this trip is facilitated by investigations of Arge Weser already carried through for the duration of several years and information obtained by previous trips. (orig./EF)

  3. Germany, Russia, and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article first recalls and comments the objectives defined in March 2007 by the European Council in terms of energy to struggle against climate change. These objectives relate to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to renewable energies, to energy saving, and to the share of biofuels. It outlines that Germany worries about the political situation in Russia and the capacities of this country to supply Europe with hydrocarbons. Figures related to consumption of primary energy and to sources of production of electricity in Germany show that Germany is facing an increased energy dependency. The issues related to the relationship between the EU and Russia in the field of energy are further discussed, notably from the German point of view, but also from a European point of view as the EU expects a stronger reaction of Germany in front of the Russian situation

  4. The freshwater fish fauna history between Rhine and Ebro: general considerations and comments from on-going developments in fish taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Persat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of its position between Central Europe and the Iberian Peninsula, French territory is an obligatory expansion route for their respective continental faunas, freshwater ones included. The twin Rhine-Rhone river drainage basins make an obvious link between both Central and Northern Europe and the South-Western Europe. But how fish might have dispersed along the series of rivers of the Western side of France (Seine, Loire, Charente, Garonne and Adour is less evident, as the ice ages have had a large impact on the pre-existing faunas, before human intervention blurred phylogeographic patterns, either indirectly with trans-watershed canals, or directly with purposeful translocations. What might have survived during the last glacial times is a key question in terms of management and conservation of the local fish biodiversity. Unfortunately, this diversity had been neglected or underappreciated in France until modern phylogeographic and population genetic research provided new and enlightening insights into interspecific and intraspecific variation. Thus, after one century of scientific starvation, French territory recently "gained" a series of novel species in various genera, such as Gobio, Cottus, Squalius, Leuciscus, Phoxinus, and Esox, waiting for more on going "acquisitions" in a near future. These novelties trace a quite different biogeographic landscape of what was formerly supposed to be uniform. Each major river basin retains traces of a more or less recent evolutionary history to put back into the succession of hydrographic and climatic events since the first major invasion, the entrance of cyprinids in Europe during the Oligocene era initiated by the coalescence of what was formerly only an archipelago. The timing of dispersion and on-site speciation will be discussed from the examples provided by the presently investigated genera according to evidence or hypotheses on river connections, sea-level fluctuations and climatic events.

  5. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  6. Nuclear energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Status od nuclear energy in Germany was characterised by the following facts. Controversy between Conservatives and Socialists/Greens is not resolved. There were considerable difficulties concerning Castor transport od spent fuel. Existing nuclear power plants were operated in a most satisfactory mode. They produced 160 TWh of electricity, which was about 35% of total power produced. Planing of the European Power Reactor continued. Future of nuclear energy in Germany will be strongly influenced by outcome of Federal Elections in September 1998

  7. Germany's fiscal policy stance

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes Germany?s fiscal policy position. Half of GDP passes through the hands of government, a high debt to GDP ratio limits the maneuvering, and the revenue sharing mechanism prevents a competitive federalism. Most importantly for the future, the federal finance minister has to pick up the deficits that the social security systems leave behind. Transfers from the public budget to the social security systems are large, and since 1998 the elasticity of transfers to nominal GDP is ...

  8. Disaggregation of silver nanoparticle homoaggregates in a river water matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metreveli, George; Philippe, Allan; Schaumann, Gabriele E

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) could be found in aquatic systems in the near future. Although the interplay between aggregate formation and disaggregation is an important factor for mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of Ag NPs in surface waters, the factors controlling disaggregation of Ag NP homoaggregates are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the reversibility of homoaggregation of citrate coated Ag NPs in a Rhine River water matrix. We characterized the disaggregation of Ag NP homoaggregates by ionic strength reduction and addition of Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) in the presence of strong and weak shear forces. In order to understand the disaggregation processes, we also studied the nature of homoaggregates and their formation dynamics under the influence of SRHA, Ca(2+) concentration and nanoparticle concentration. Even in the presence of SRHA and at low particle concentrations (10 ?g L(-1)), aggregates formed rapidly in filtered Rhine water. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) of Ca(2+) in reconstituted Rhine water was 1.5 mmol L(-1) and was shifted towards higher values in the presence of SRHA. Analysis of the attachment efficiency as a function of Ca(2+) concentration showed that SRHA induces electrosteric stabilization at low Ca(2+) concentrations and cation-bridging flocculation at high Ca(2+) concentrations. Shear forces in the form of mechanical shaking or ultrasound were necessary for breaking the aggregates. Without ultrasound, SRHA also induced disaggregation, but it required several days to reach a stable size of dense aggregates still larger than the primary particles. Citrate stabilized Ag NPs may be in the form of reaction limited aggregates in aquatic systems similar to the Rhine River. The size and the structure of these aggregates will be dynamic and be determined by the solution conditions. Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of natural waters can result in a sedimentation-release cycle of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:25433382

  9. New insights for the hydrology of the Rhine based on the new generation climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Beersma, Jules; Buiteveld, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    Decision makers base their choices of adaptation strategies on climate change projections and their associated hydrological consequences. New insights of climate change gained under the new generation of climate models belonging to the IPCC 5th assessment report may influence (the planning of) adaption measures and/or future expectations. In this study, hydrological impacts of climate change as projected under the new generation of climate models for the Rhine were assessed. Hereto we downscaled 31 General Circulation Models (GCMs), which were developed as part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), using an advanced Delta Change Method for the Rhine basin. Changes in mean monthly, maximum and minimum flows at Lobith were derived with the semi-distributed hydrological model HBV of the Rhine. The projected changes were compared to changes that were previously obtained in the trans-boundary project Rheinblick using eight CMIP3 GCMs and Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for emission scenario A1B. All eight selected CMIP3 models (scenario A1B) predicted for 2071-2100 a decrease in mean monthly flows between June and October. Similar decreases were found for some of the 31 CMIP5 models for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5. However, under each RCP, there were also models that projected an increase in mean flows between June and October and on average the decrease was smaller than for the eight CMIP3 models. For 2071-2100, also the mean annual minimum 7-days discharge decreased less in the CMIP5 model simulations than was projected in CMIP3. When assessing the response of mean monthly flows of the CMIP5 simulation with the CSIRO-Mk3-6-0 and HadGEM2-ES models with respect to initial conditions and RCPs, it was found that natural variability plays a dominant role in the near future (2021-2050), while changes in mean monthly flows are dominated by the radiative forcing in the far future (2071-2100). According to RCP 8.5 model simulations, the change in mean monthly flow from May to November may be half the change in mean monthly flow projected by RCP 4.5. From January to March, RCP 8.5 simulations projected higher changes in mean monthly flows than RCP 4.5 simulations. These new insights based on the CMIP5 simulations imply that for the Rhine, the mean and low flow extremes might not decrease as much in summer as was expected under CMIP3. Stresses on water availability during summer are therefore also less than expected from CMIP3.

  10. Radioactivity distribution in the soil and needles of two spruce stands in North-Rhine Westphalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to permit quantification of radioecological stress in spruce forests in North-Rhine Westphalia following the Chernobyl reactor accident and the associated fallout, the 'Landesanstalt fuer Oekologie, Landschaftsentwicklung und Forstplanung' (State Authority for Ecology, Land Development and Forestry Planning) in 1987 instituted a programme of investigation whose first results are presented in this work. Investigated were spruce needles and forest soils. The results lead to the hypothesis that liming creates conditions resulting in higher speed of migration of ions, inter alia cesium 137, in the soil. As a result, they are more rapidly available to vegetation and penetrate via the roots into the plants and, thereby, the needles. (vhe)

  11. Advanced dispersion calculations used in nuclear-reactor remote monitoring in North-Rhine Westphalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of the total of advanced calculation models developed in recent years, which are based on meteorological measurement data (like altitude profile of wind vector) and are aimed at an improvement of the description of dispersion processes achievable by the Gauss plume model, the Lagrange dispersion models are best suited for the purposes of the supervisory authority and procedure. The North-Rhine Westphalia RM system and the Lagrange dispersion model of IABG are used to exemplify the technical prerequisites for the calculation of current activity concentrations and soil contaminations for radiation exposure assessment while using available measurement instrumentation and data processing installations (e.g. computer networks, data remote transmission). (orig.)

  12. Studying the Rhine basin with SIMGRO : impact of climate and land use changes on discharge and hydrological droughts

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsma, T.; Querner, E. P.; Lanen, H.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we applied the hydrological model SIMGRO to the Rhine basin. After the input data of the model was improved, the simulated discharges at Lobith were very close to the measured discharges. The model was then used to study droughts and the impact of climate and land use changes on discharges in the Rhine basin. We used the KNMI’06 climate scenarios to examine the changes in discharge and droughts. Furthermore extreme changes in land use were analysed, e.g. all cropland to grass an...

  13. Ten Years of Patient Surveys in Accredited Breast Centers in North Rhine-Westphalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, L.; Kowalski, C.; Pfaff, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient surveys are an established tool for quality control in healthcare organizations. This report looks at the design and development of the annual patient surveys carried out among breast cancer patients treated in the Breast Centers of North Rhine-Westphalia and discusses selected findings from 10 consecutive years. Material and Methods: Since 2006 the Institute for Medical Sociology, Health Services Research and Rehabilitation Science (IMVR) of the University of Cologne has carried out an annual survey of breast cancer patients using the Cologne Patient Questionnaire for Breast Cancer. The patients included in the survey have been diagnosed with primary breast cancer and undergo surgery between February and July in one of the Breast Centers in North Rhine-Westphalia accredited by the medical association of Westphalia-Lippe. The questionnaire and the type of feedback given to the Breast Centers were comprehensively revised in 2014. Selected results collected over the survey period were analyzed descriptively. Results: The survey period of 10 years provides information on the actual medical care delivered in the Breast Centers based on the data obtained in this period from around 40?000 patients. Some areas showed positive developments over time. Conclusion: The approach used to survey patients, the Cologne Patient Questionnaire for Breast Cancer 2.0 and the benchmark-focused feedback provide an impetus for organizational learning in Breast Centers. The concept could also be used in other healthcare organizations to stimulate learning and improve healthcare services. PMID:26855439

  14. Numerical investigations on the optimum use of variable cooling systems of a power plant chain taking the example of the upper Rhine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Where there are several power plants with variable cooling systems on one river or river section, the question is raised as to the optimum use of cooling systems depending on discharge and weather (cooling control). The Upper Rhine is taken as example where in future cooling control is necessary due to high thermal loading and will be possible due to the presence of six power plant blocks with variable cooling systems. By means of dynamic optimization, the cooling variant giving rise to the largest electrical net total power maintaining the same temperature limiting values is determined for given discharge and weather conditions. The decision is based on a one-dimensional temperature model of the river, as well as calculation methods to determine net power and heat supply to the waters depending on cooling variants and weather conditions. The flow model make many approximations to compare with nature. One may neglect the lengthwise dispersion. Starting from the maximum switching frequency of the cooling plants of 1/d, cooling control in daily sequence over a period of one year is simulated with historical data. The optimum electricity generated is about 2.2% below the net generation achievable by 100% throughflow cooling and by 0.3% above that achievable at maximum exhaustion. Each practical means must match this result. A true-time control of the cooling plants according to the above principle seems possible, necessitates however, the discharge and weather forcast over 2-4 days. Finally, it is shown that the complicated optimization can be approximated by using simple decisive rules which require no discharge and weather forcast. (orig./GL)

  15. Germany after Federal elections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety

  16. Meteorological field measurements in the context of the research project on 'waste heat in the Upper Rhine area'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The description of the climatic conditions of the Upper Rhine area between Frankfurt on Main and Basle in connection with the anthropogeneous waste heat, working out a regional weather classification related to the application, working on small aerological rises and preparing meteorological data are all part of the project for climatological and small aerological investigations. (DG)

  17. A review of Gobiid expansion along the Danube-Rhine corridor – geopolitical change as a driver for invasion.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roche, Kevin Francis; Janá?, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 411, 01 (2013), 01. ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gobiidae * Danube * Rhine * range expansion * drivers Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.622, year: 2013

  18. Environmental radioactivity and water supply. Pt. 3. The contamination of surface waters in Germany after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident, german surface waters have been monitored in numerous positions over a long period of time. The highest concentrations of iodine 131 occurred in the lower german region of the Danube river with more than 200 Bg/l whereas the Rhine river had the lowest concentrations. The sudden rise of the radioactivity of the river water have been followed by a slower decrease but nevertheless much faster than the radioactive decay. Probably this is caused by the interaction with river sediments. For the german lakes and reservoirs it was very important whether the water masses have been stratified or not when the radioactive cloud arrived. Where this was the case, the radioactive contaminants remained predominantly in the upper layer, the epilimnion for a long period of time

  19. Non-target screening analyses of organic contaminants in river systems as a base for monitoring measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Organic contaminants discharged to the aquatic environment exhibit a high diversity with respect to their molecular structures and the resulting physico-chemical properties. The chemical analysis of anthropogenic contamination in river systems is still an important feature, especially with respect to (i) the identification and structure elucidation of novel contaminants, (ii) to the characterisation of their environmental behaviour and (iii) to their risk for natural systems. A huge proportion of riverine contamination is caused by low-molecular weight organic compounds, like pesticides plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, technical additives etc. Some of them, like PCB or PAH have already been investigated thoroughly and, consequently, their behaviour in aqueous systems is very well described. Although analyses on organic substances in river water traditionally focused on selected pollutants, in particular on common priority pollutants which are monitored routinely, the occurrence of further contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products or chelating agents has received increasing attention within the last decade. Accompanied, screening analyses revealing an enormous diversity of low-molecular weight organic contaminants in waste water effluents and river water become more and more noticed. Since many of these substances have been rarely noticed so far, it will be an important task for the future to study their occurrence and fate in natural environments. Further on, it should be a main issue of environmental studies to provide a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of river water, in particular with respect to lipophilic low molecular weight organic contaminants. However, such non-target-screening analyses has been performed only rarely in the past. Hence, we applied extended non-target screening analyses on longitudinal sections of the rivers Rhine, Rur and Lippe (Germany) on the base of GC/MS analyses. The investigations revealed complex pattern of anthropogenic contaminants comprising a lot of still unnoticed pollutants (e.g. specific sulfones, trifluoromethyl substituted substances, nitrogen heterocycles etc.) or still unidentified compounds (such as selected brominated aromatics) of obviously high environmental relevance. In this presentation, a selection of several different contaminants will be discussed in detail comprising their emission sources, their emission behaviour, their fate within the river water bodies and in particular their structural properties. Generally. this investigation demonstrated the need to expand our analytical focus on a broader spectrum of organic contaminants, in particular to build up an adapted base for advanced monitoring studies.

  20. Phytomedicine research in Germany.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, H.

    1999-01-01

    In Germany since 1980, more than 300 clinical studies have been carried out with standardized phytopharmaceuticals, including Crataegus, Silybum, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Sabal, Urtica, Kava-Kava, Allium sativum, Valeriana, Aesculus, Echinacea, and Viscum drugs. These studies assessed the efficacy of phytopharmaceuticals for the treatment of moderate or moderately severe diseases and prevention. Several comparative clinical trials showed that these phytopharmaceuticals had full therapeutic equivale...

  1. Health care transition in Germany – standardization of procedures and improvement actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieper C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Pieper, Izabela KolankowskaInstitute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, GermanyAbstract: Previous studies have assessed an increase in the number of people in need and emphasized the advantages of structured discharge management and health care transition. Therefore, our study evaluated the status quo of transition in a major German city after standardization of procedures and implementation of standard forms. Satisfaction with handling of standard forms and improvement of procedures was evaluated. Additionally, patients who had recently been hospitalized were asked about the hospital discharge process. The results show that the recent efforts of standardization helped to improve interface management for health care workers and patients and showed further improvement options.Keywords: hospital discharge process, standard forms, long-term care, aftercare

  2. Where are the Sunday babies? Observations on a marked decline in weekend births in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    2005-12-01

    In 5-year intervals, data from 722,306 individuals born between 1988 and 2003 in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany's largest state, were analyzed for the weekday of birth. In contrast to data from 1900 to 1950 ( n=149,267), serving as historical controls, a very marked nonrandom distribution was discovered, with decreasing numbers of births on weekends, especially on Sundays, reaching deviations from the expected distribution of -17.8% in 2003, while births on weekdays are more frequent than expected (Fridays: +8.1% in 2003). The increasing avoidance of births during weekends by elective labor induction on weekdays is discussed as a consequence of practical and increasing financial constraints of hospitals.

  3. Tornadoes in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzek, Nikolai

    A climatology of tornadoes in Germany using the TorDACH database up to the year 2000 is presented. The total number of tornadoes is 517 and the number of reports has increased substantially after 1870. Tornado activity is at maximum in July, and at minimum from November to February. The daily distribution peaks in the afternoon and early evening with a weak secondary morning maximum due to waterspout outbreaks. In general, both daily and seasonal trends follow the variation of thunderstorm activity. The highest F-scale rating so far is F4 and in the range from F1 to F4 a nearly lin-log distribution of tornado intensity is found. The low number of reported F0 tornadoes indicates that perhaps only every third tornado in Germany is reported. Also, the geographical distribution shows that many cases from east Germany are missing. However, three different regions of typical tornado activity can be inferred: the northern coastal region, the hilly terrain of mid and southern Germany, and a zone influenced by Mediterranean air in summer and an orogenic low-level wind shear in the south-west. For the latter, an example of a tornado alley is given. From a conservative estimate of tornadic activity in Germany, a number of four to seven tornadoes per year and a recurrence density of about 0.1 to 0.2 a -1 10 -4 km -2 is deduced, in accordance with earlier work. However, both extrapolation based on statistical arguments and the more detailed records of recent years suggest values a factor of three to four higher.

  4. Germany: Europe’s China

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Dobrescu; Mălina Ciocea

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses Germany's ascent not only as Europe's most important economic power, but also as its leader. Figures show that Germany overcame the crisis; in fact the crisis legitimized its development model. Which would be Germany's main strategic choices, confirmed by the historic evolution of the recent years? First, its option for manufacturing, which allowed Germany to turn into Europe's factory. Second, the option for reform. "Agenda 2010", initiated by Gerhard Schroeder in 2003, is...

  5. Quantifying erosion over timescales of one million years: A photogrammetric approach on the amount of Rhenish erosion in southwestern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Annette; Strasser, Marcel; Seyfried, Hartmut

    2010-10-01

    The Lein valley in southwestern Germany possesses well-preserved Pliocene to mid Pleistocene land surfaces featuring a gentle relief and sediments accumulated by former tributaries of the Danube. This ancient Danubian land surface was captured and incised by mid Pleistocene to Holocene tributaries of the River Rhine. In a photogrammetric approach we calculated the volume of material extracted by Rhenish erosion providing a first quantification of the effects of stream piracy on timescales of about 1 Ma. Using stereoscopic surface modelling software a DEM was generated with a resolution of 5 m. From borehole data, literature, geological maps, and own field observations we determined the morphometric parameters of the ancient Danubian Ur-Lein valley. The gradient was imported as a 3D-breakline into the model where it controls the reinterpolation of surrounding data points. The result is a high-resolution DEM of the valley of the Ur-Lein. Subtraction of the DEM of the actual landscape from the DEM of the ancient Ur-Lein valley yields a model representing the rock volume eroded by the Rhenish Lein which totals 1.39 km 3 and converts into a rate of erosion between 63 and 74 mm/ka over a period of 700 to 600 ka, respectively, in accordance with figures obtained elsewhere in Central Europe through cosmogenic nuclides. It reflects the dominance of frequent fluctuations in climate and is considered to be mainly a product of strong changes in temperature and related processes during the transitional times between mid to late Pleistocene warm and cold states. A filtering procedure applied to cold and transitional state erosion rates of the Middle and Late Pleistocene yielded peak values between 66 and 77 mm/ka, up to three times higher than the modern rate or the rate of warm-state episodes. An assessment of the contribution of Rhenish stream piracy on long-term mid Pleistocene denudation under changing climate conditions resulted in a maximum 4.9-fold acceleration.

  6. Simulating low-probability peak discharges for the Rhine basin using resampled climate modeling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Linde, A. H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Bakker, A. M. R.; Kwadijk, J. C. J.

    2010-03-01

    Climate change will increase winter precipitation, and in combination with earlier snowmelt it will cause a shift in peak discharge in the Rhine basin from spring to winter. This will probably lead to an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme floods. In this paper we aim to enhance the simulation of future low-probability flood peak events in the Rhine basin using different climate change scenarios, and downscaling methods. We use the output of a regional climate model (RCM) and a weather generator to create long, resampled time series (1000 years) of climate change scenarios as input for hydrological (daily) and hydrodynamic (hourly) modeling. We applied this approach to three parallel modeling chains, where the transformation method from different resampled RCM outputs to the hydrological model varied (delta change approach, direct output, and bias-corrected output). On the basis of numerous 1000 year model simulations, the results indicate a basin-wide increase in peak discharge in 2050 of 8%-17% for probabilities between 1/10 and 1/1250 years. Furthermore, the results show that increasing the length of the climate data series using a weather generator reduced the statistical uncertainty when estimating low-probability flood peak events from 13% to 3%. We further conclude that bias-corrected direct RCM output is to be preferred over the delta change approach because it provides insight into geographical differences in discharge projections under climate change. Also, bias-corrected RCM output can simulate changes in the variance of temperature and rainfall and in the number of precipitation days, as changes in temporal structure are expected under climate change. These added values are of major importance when identifying future problem areas due to climate change and when planning potential adaptation measures.

  7. Modelling physical processes of haline stratification in ROFIs with application to the Rhine outflow region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick J.

    1997-08-01

    A physical and numerical study is made of the processes governing the stratification and circulation in ROFIs (Regions of Freshwater Influence) where there is an important impact of wind and tides. Observations in the Rhine ROFI showed that the salinity field consists of a mean and a tidally oscillating part. The physical processes are first analysed using the analytical solutions from a one-dimensional two-layer model. A justification is given for the neglection of non-linear advective terms in the equations of momentum and salinity. The dimensionless forms of the solutions can be expressed in terms of a series of dimensionless numbers. It is shown in particular that stratification and cross-shore circulation largely depend on the balance between rotation and turbulent diffusion, which depends in turn on parameters such as the Ekman number, the bottom friction coefficient, the eddy viscosity ratio and the depth of the layer interface. Surface winds either enhance or destroy stratification depending on the wind angle. The response to wind forcing is discussed using classical Ekman theory. To verify the analytical theory numerical tests are performed with a point model including an advanced turbulence closure scheme. Differences arise due to the non-linear interaction between turbulence on the one hand and current shear and stratification on the other hand. It is shown in particular that the amplitude of the tidal forcing and the off-shore horizontal salinity gradient strongly affect the semi-diurnal and semi-monthly variation of stratification. The effect of the wind is found to be in good agreement with the analysis of the two-layer model. Finally, the numerical model is compared with existing observational data in the Rhine ROFI for October 1990.

  8. Radiometric sand-mud characterisation in the Rhine-Meuse estuary. Part A. Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, M.; Venema, L. B.; De Meijer, R. J.; Zwolsman, J. J. G.; Van Os, B.; Gieske, J. M. J.

    2002-02-01

    The composition of the underwater sediment bed is often defined in terms of the mud (63 and radionuclides. Radionuclide concentrations are highest in the clay minerals that form a significant part of the mud fraction. A study was initiated in the Hollandsch Diep and Haringvliet, two semi-stagnant fresh water basins in the southwestern part of Rhine-Meuse Estuary (The Netherlands), to investigate whether radionuclides can be utilised to determine the sand and mud content of aquatic sediments. The radiometric fingerprint was assessed based on sediment samples with different composition, provenance and age. Differences in provenance (Rhine versus Meuse) could be discriminated by the 40K content of the sediment. Differences in age or composition, in terms of mineralogy, organic matter or carbonate content, only slightly affected the radiometric characteristics based on 232Th and 238U. On the other hand, no reliable correlation between 40K and the mud content was obtained; therefore, 40K is excluded from the fingerprint. The fingerprints based on the 232Th and 238U contents characterise mud (63 ?m) as: 46.2±1.9 Bq/kg 238U and 9.3±0.9 Bq/kg 238U and 45.6±1.9 Bq/kg 232Th and 9.7±0.9 Bq/kg 232Th, respectively. The assessed radiometric fingerprint allows a quantitative interpretation of the mud and sand content through the total 238U+ 232Th activity. This interpretation is confirmed by the high correlation ( R2=0.96) for the mud percentages obtained from radiometric analysis and those by laser diffraction in the laboratory. It can be concluded that radiometric sedimentology provides a tool for reliable sediment characterisation. New perspectives are opened when radiometric fingerprints are combined with in situ radiometric characterisation of sediments, which will be presented in part B of this paper (this issue).

  9. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  10. Living in highly dynamic polluted river floodplaines, do contaminants contribute to population and community effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Klok, C.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to collect evidence for the effects of contaminants on biota in a highly dynamic river Rhine floodplain. To this purpose we reviewed the results of circa 10 studies performed in this floodplain. The floodplain was contaminated with elevated levels of cadmium, copper, PAHs, and PCBs and high levels of zinc which were at some sites above legislative values. The results showed that the present contaminants were accumulated by the floodplain inhabiting organisms, but mea...

  11. Experimental and theoretical studies on heat exchange of a river to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes above the river Rhine as well as other meteorologic parameters carried out at the Rheinhausen measuring station were evaluated according to the following viewpoints: Agreement of the measured transfer coefficients with theory and with experimental results (ocean measurements). Recommendation of averaged heat transfer coefficients for use in practical calculations. Experimental test of the Bowen ratio concept. Studies on the influence of topographic environment on exchange conditions. (orig.)

  12. Report: "Health in Germany"

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Life expectancy is rising and the general health situation is good, but the number of people who smoke, are too fat, take too little exercise and/or drink too much alcohol is still too high. These are the main conclusions of the health report entitled "Health in Germany", which has just been published as part of Federal Health Reporting (GBE) by the Robert Koch Institute on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health.

  13. Germany: Administration Meets Community

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, A. R.; van der Meer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In Germany the role of the citizen is a topical issue. Following the reunification of the country, there have been several indications of political dissatisfaction. In connection with this, local democracy may be of particular relevance for closing the growing gap between citizens and government. Two cities have been studied, namely Nuertingen and Leipzig. In both cities, the emphasis lies on co-operation between citizens and the local administration. The strengthening of ...

  14. The influence of tidal straining and wind on suspended matter and phytoplankton distribution in the Rhine outflow region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joordens, J.C.A.; Souza, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    To study the short-term effects of the physical environment on phytoplankton dynamics in the Rhine outflow area. changes in salinity, beam attenuation and phytoplankton distribution were observed in a series of high resolution measurements. During periods of weak wind and neap tide (low turbulent kinetic energy, TKE), the system was dominated by tidal straining that resulted in semi-diurnal oscillations in stratification. Phytoplankton was kept in resuspension at about 10-15 m depth. Subsequent strong wind and tidal mixing (high TKE) broke down stratification, enhanced horizontal gradients and suppressed estuarine transport. It is hypothesised that during low TKE, tidal straining and frontal circulation determined the phytoplankton distribution; and at high TKE, input by wind and tide enhanced conditions for growth, which resulted in a bloom in the surface layer of the Rhine Plume, where light and nutrients were available. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fishbones, shells, human bones or food crusts on pottery from sites next to rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in rivers containing considerable amounts of dissolved 14C-free carbonates can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. For accurate radiocarbon dating of freshwater-based samples, the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect as well as the degree of variability has to be known. The initial problem in this case was the accurate dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude and variability that can also be expected for the past. Water DIC from different seasons, and from the same season in different years, has been dated because it is the carbon source in photosynthesis and thus at the basis of the rivers’ food webs. The radiocarbon ages of underwater plants and different parts (underwater or floating) of emerging water plants are compared, as it might be expected that the reservoir age is higher for plants that assimilate DIC as for plants or parts of plants that assimilate atmospheric CO2. Mollusc shells as well as flesh and bone collagen of fish are dated as well. Radiocarbon datings of archaeological samples from the two Mesolithic sites will be analysed, considering the insights provided by the study of modern material.

  16. The Chernobyl accident and its direct and late effects an surface bodies of water in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects on the tritium content (monthly composite samples) of German surface waters could not be detected. After the nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl, however, the increased radioactive content in the Rhine and the Moselle could easily be detected in the samples of May 1986 by means of the residual ? determination. The Sr-90 contents of up to 0.010 Bq/l measured in the Rhine and the Moselle were only slightly higher than the values measured in 1985. For the nuclide ratio Sr-89/Sr-90, measured in rainwater samples, a value of 18.7 ±8.7 (n=10) was determined. An extraordinary high nuclide content was observed in the solids contained in water (suspended matters, sediments). Cs-137 contents of up to 6000 Bq/kg TM were measured in suspended matter samples from the Moselle (monthly composite samples). A careful analysis of the activity quotient, adjusted to decay, measured in different German river areas on samples of suspended matters, sediments, and - with restrictions - of rainwater, showed a distinct increase in South-North direction. This regional fractionation can obviously be set in correlation with the local conditions of the place of release. (orig./DG)

  17. Evaluation of bioassays versus contaminant concentrations in explaining the macroinvertebrate community structure in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; DeWitte, A.; Koelmans, A.A.; Velden, J.A. van der; Besten, P.J., den

    2001-01-01

    It is often assumed that bioassays are better descriptors of sediment toxicity than toxicant concentrations and that ecological factors are more important than toxicants in structuring macroinvertebrate communities. In the period 1992 to 1995, data were collected in the enclosed Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands, on macroinvertebrates, sediment toxicity, sediment contaminant concentrations, and ecological factors. The effect of various groups of pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ...

  18. Assessing the cost of groundwater pollution: The case of diffuse agricultural polluion in the Upper Rhine valley aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaudo, J.D.; Arnal, C.; Blanchin, R.; Elsass, P.; Meilhac, A.; S. Loubier

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the costs of diffuse groundwater pollution by nitrates and pesticides for the industrial and the drinking water sectors in the Upper Rhine valley, France. Pollution costs which occurred between 1988 and 2002 are described and assessed using the avoidance cost method. Geo-statistical methods (kriging) are then used to construct three scenarios of nitrate concentration evolution. The economic consequences of each scenario are then assessed. The estimates obt...

  19. Emission Factors for Aqueous Industrial Cadmium Discharges to the Rhine Basin. A Historical Reconstruction of the Period 1970-1988

    OpenAIRE

    Elgersma, F.; Anderberg, S.; Stigliani, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    The report, by reviewing the relevant literature and synthesizing data on economic technologies, trade, and environmental monitoring, provides an analysis of the aqueous emissions of cadmium from industrial point sources in the Rhine Basin from 1970-1988. The report not only provides valuable input to our study of the Basin, but also demonstrates a methodology by which historical reconstructions of aqueous pollution can be attained and utilized in assessing long-term environmental trends. ...

  20. A review of the past and present status of anadromous fish species in the Netherlands: is restocking the Rhine feasible?

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, S.J., de

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the past, present and future of eight anadromous fish species inhabiting the Lower Rhine (The Netherlands), viz. -sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), whitefish and houting (Coregonus lavaretus, C. oxyrinchus), smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), allis and twaite shad (Alosa alosa, A. fallax), sea trout (Salmo trutta) and salmon (Salmo salar). All species are under threat or became extinct (e.g. sturgeon, allis shad). It is not possible to single out a specific factor for the decline or disa...

  1. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

  2. Rewriting Germany's nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, the private use of nuclear energy for peaceful uses is strictly regulated by a Nuclear Energy Act. Since its enactment back in 1959, this legislation has been overhauled five times - most recently in 1985. Now Klaus Toepfer, Germany's Federal Minister for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Nuclear Safety, has set out to revise the Act for the sixth time. The present draft bill is intended to reorganise the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle; eliminate public promotion of nuclear power; clarify points of legal dispute. Of the draft bill's three aims, the last two are more parochial. The real novelty lies in the changes to the rules for the back end of the fuel cycle. First, the Federal Government proposes to abandon the priority given to spent fuel recycling. In future, direct disposal will be an equivalent option, and waste avoidance will have top priority. Intimately linked to the back end proposal is the Government's plan to load on the shoulders of nuclear operators the full responsibility for building and operating repositories for the final disposal of nuclear waste. The third aspect of Government's back end plans concerns decommissioning. At present, operators accumulate provisions over the plant lifetime, which for that purpose is estimated at 19 years. The provisions vary from plant to plant but are generally around DM1 billion and are tax free. Under the proposed regulations, this sum must be available from the first day of operation to cover the case of an early shutdown. In practice, this will increase the initial investment for a nuclear power plant in Germany by 10-20% and so make nuclear power less competitive. (author)

  3. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large......-scale terrorism, and the new US emphasis on pre-emptive strikes. Based on an analysis of Germany's strategic culture, it portrays Germany as a security actor and indicates the conditions and limits of the new German willingness to participate in international military crisis management that developed over the...... 1990s. The book debates the implications of Germany's transformation for Germany's partners and neighbours, and explains why Germany said ‘yes’ to the war in Afghanistan, but ‘no’ to the Iraq War. Based on a comprehensive study of the debates of the German Bundestag and actual German policy responses...

  4. Occupational cancer in Germany.

    OpenAIRE

    Brüske-Hohlfeld, I

    1999-01-01

    As in probably mostly all other European countries, the incidence of occupational cancer in Germany increased steadily after World War II. In 1994 about 1,600 cases of occupational cancer were compensated--more than ever before. More than half of these cases were lung cancer, most caused either by asbestos (n=545) or by ionizing radiation ((italic)n(/italic)=306). Other frequent target organs of asbestos were the pleura and the peritoneum with 495 cases of mesotheliomas. Asbestos was the sing...

  5. Country report for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the nuclear energy in Germany can be summarised as follows: 19 operating NPPs (22 GWe); electricity production in 200 amounted to 170 TWh (one third of the total production); average availability 91%; goal of the Federal Government is to phase out nuclear energy without paying to the utilities. Fast reactor activities involve participation of FZK in the European Project 'Burning of Pu and MAs in Critical Fast Reactors'; shifting to burning of actinides in subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS). This includes neutronics, safety analysis, Pb-Bi technology, development of spallation target, corrosion in Pb and Pb-Bi

  6. Environmental policy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous forms, emergence, and development of German environ-politics from 1900 to the present day are looked into by means of so far disregarded sources. The main lines of ecological and technological environ-politics are described and the difficulties in formulating and getting through adequate state measures of environment protection are shown quoting cases. The influence of structural pre-conditions, of the constitutional state, political culture and global development of Germany is examined as to its influence on environ-politics. The work must be understood as a historical argument in favor of a more conscious, reasonable political formation of environment in the sense of an ecological concept. (orig.)

  7. The Case of (East-) Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Sibylle Reinhardt

    2008-01-01

    There has been a long tradition of thinking on Civic Education in Western Germany, mainly after World War II. Aims and means have been discussed thoroughly, experiences in teaching politics (the most common name for the school subject) have been reported on. After the (re-)union of the two Germanies in 1990, Western concepts were brought to and adopted by Eastern Germany. Transformation of civic education (politische Bildung) faces the problem that the democratic system is open to conflicts a...

  8. Molecular confirmation of the occurrence in Germany of Anopheles daciae (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronefeld Mandy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles daciae, a newly described member of the Maculipennis group, was recently reported from western, southern and eastern Europe. Before its recognition, it had commonly been listed under the name of An. messeae, due to its extreme morphological and genetic similarities. As the sibling species of the Maculipennis group are known to differ in their vector competences for malaria parasites and other pathogens, the occurrence of An. daciae in a given region might have an impact on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquito collections from different localities in Germany were therefore screened for An. daciae. Methods Adult and immature Maculipennis group mosquitoes were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 at 23 different sites in eight federal states of Germany. A standard PCR assay was used to differentiate the previously known sibling species while the ITS2 rDNA of specimens preliminarily identified as An. messeae/daciae was sequenced and analysed for species-specific nucleotide differences. Results Four hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles specimens were successively identified to Maculipennis group level by morphology and to species level by DNA-based methods. Four species of the Maculipennis group were registered: An. messeae (n?=?384, An. maculipennis (n?=?82, An. daciae (n?=?10 and An. atroparvus (n?=?1. Anopheles daciae occurred at four sites in three federal states of Germany, three of the sites being located in north-eastern Germany (federal states of Brandenburg and Saxony while one collection site was situated in the northern Upper Rhine Valley in the federal state of Hesse, south-western Germany. Conclusions The detection of An. daciae represents the first recognition of this species in Germany where it was found to occur in sympatry with An. messeae and An. maculipennis. As the collection sites were in both north-eastern and south-western parts of Germany, the species is probably even more widely distributed in Germany than demonstrated, albeit apparently with low population densities. Research is needed that confirms the species status of An. daciae and elucidates its vector competence as compared to An. messeae and the other species of the Maculipennis group, in order to optimize management of possible future outbreaks of diseases caused by pathogen transmission through Maculipennis group mosquitoes.

  9. Reworked planktonic Foraminifera from the Late Rupelian of the southern Upper Rhine Graben and their palaeogeographic and biostratigraphic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkenseer, C.; Spezzaferri, S.; Berger, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    During the Late Rupelian the widespread second transgression (corresponding to international Ru2-3 transgressions; BERGER et al. 2005) affected the whole Upper Rhine Graben basin and led to the deposition of the several hundred meters thick marine "Série grise". An abrupt transition (erosion surface) between the uppermost "Série grise" and Niederroedern Formation indicates the change to fluviatile and lacustrine conditions throughout the basin close to the Late Rupelian / Early Chattian boundary. Abundant reworked Middle to Late Cretaceous (e.g., Marginotruncana pseudolinneiana) and Late Paleocene to Late Eocene (e.g., Acarinina bullbrooki, Morozovella subbotinae, Turborotalia cocoaensis) ranging planktonic Foraminifera occur in the "Série Grise" and equivalent lithological units of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Mainz Basin (e.g., FISCHER 1965, PIRKENSEER 2007, SCHÄFER & KUHN 2004). At least Late Cretaceous, Ypresian, Lutetian and Priabonian ages of source sediments are indicated by the overlapping biostratigraphic ranges of the reworked specimens. Abundant reworked material first appears in the lower "Couches à Mélettes" and reaches its acme in the increasingly "Marnes à Cyrènes" (terminal "Série grise"). Only sparse records are documented from the subsequent terrestrial Niederroedern Formation. These reworking events are linked to intervals of increased clastic input throughout the "Série grise". The planktonic Foraminifera are proposed to be reworked from related alpine deposits (later Helvetikum?) via a northwards trending fluviatile system, as no autochthonous Cretaceous and Early to Middle Eocene marine sediments were deposited within the graben basin. Furthermore other possible source areas (e.g., Paris Basin) were either not connected to the Upper Rhine Graben or were not subject to erosion in the Late Rupelian. This accords with the proposition (ROUSSÉ 2006) of a vast northwards prograding delta-system that was located close to the southern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben. Reworked Mesozoic and Paleogene calcareous nannoplankton from the Upper Rhine Graben and the Mainz Basin confirms the data derived from planktonic Foraminifera. The existence of reworked planktonic Foraminifera influences the biostratigraphic interpretation of the assemblage ranges attributed to "Série grise" samples. Facultatively reworked planktonic Foraminifera as Subbotina utilisindex and Pseudohastigerina micra ranging from the Lutetian to the Late Rupelian should not be included in the biostratigraphic analyses, as the occurrences of these facultatively reworked species are always linked to those of exclusively Cretaceous and Eocene age. Therefore the age of the "Série grise" deposits at Allschwil-2 is most likely to be placed within the "Chiloguembelina cubensis - Globigerinella obesa / Globorotaloides variabilis"-assemblage range of Mid P20 to Final P21a, lasting considerably longer than the very short Mid P20 range based on the presence of Pseudohastigerina micra as "last occurrence"-marker (PIRKENSEER 2007). This study was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation projects 109457 and 118025. References: BERGER, J.-P., REICHENBACHER, B., BECKER, D., et al. (2005): Eocene-Pliocene time scale and stratigraphy of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB). - International Journal of Earth Sciences, 94, 4: 711-731. FISCHER, H. (1965): Geologie des Gebietes zwischen Blauen und Pfirter Jura. - Beiträge zur geologischen Karte der Schweiz, NF 122: 106p. PIRKENSEER, C. (2007): Foraminifera, Ostracoda and other microfossils of the Southern Upper Rhine Graben - Palaeoecology, biostratigraphy, palaeogeography and geodynamic implications. - PhD thesis: 340p, Fribourg. ROUSSÉ, S. (2006): Architecture et dynamique des séries marines et continentales de ?Oligocène Moyen et Supérieur du Sud du Fossé Rhénan: Evolution des milieux de dépôt en contexte de rift en marge de ?avant-pays alpin.

  10. Do high levels of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in sediments of Rhine and Meuse floodplains affect structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozema, Jelte [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Notten, Martje J.M.; Aerts, Rien [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Hobbelen, Peter H.F. [Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hamers, Timo H.M. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-12-01

    This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded.

  11. Do high levels of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in sediments of Rhine and Meuse floodplains affect structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded

  12. Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in the Rhine Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Speil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.

  13. Temperature-derived potential for the establishment of phlebotomine sandflies and visceral leishmaniasis in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Fischer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to manifest in the shift of organisms to regions where they were not present in the past, potentially entailing previously unseen biological risks. However, studies evaluating these future trends are scarce. Here, an important group of vectors (sandflies and the pathogen transmitted (Leishmania infantum complex causing the infectious disease visceral leishmaniasis is investigated, focussing on potential establishment in Germany during the 21st century. As the most important habitat factor, temperature requirements of pathogen and vector were derived from the literature and compared with recent climate records - provided by worldclim - and climate change scenarios. Climate data from the Regional Climate Model REMO were obtained and averaged over the time periods 2011- 2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. Projected temperature changes (based on the A1B and A2 scenarios were correlated with the constraints of vector and pathogen. Simulated potentially suitable habitat areas for vector and pathogen were merged to generate a temperature-derived risk map of visceral leishmaniasis. Temperature conditions seem to become suitable for the vector across large swaths of Germany. Nevertheless, temperature constraints for the pathogen may defer the establishment of the parasitic disease, particularly during the first half of the 21st century. Long-lasting epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis are therefore not expected in Germany during the next few decades, although during extremely warm years an increase in autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis may occur. The southwest (Upper Rhine Valley and west (Cologne Bight of Germany are identified as risk areas. The time of potential establishment and corresponding rise in biological risk varies between scenarios, due to differences in the predicted rate of temperature increase.

  14. Reply to Rhines and Huybers: Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Summer Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto

    2013-01-01

    Rhines and Huybers are correct that the decreasing number of measurement stations in recent years contributed slightly to our calculated increase of extreme summer mean temperature anomalies. However, the increased frequency of extreme heat anomalies is accounted for mainly by (i) higher mean temperature of recent decades relative to the base period 1951-1980, and (ii) the continuing upward temperature trend during recent decades. The effect of decreasing stations is shown by comparing our prior analysis with results using only stations with data records in both the base period and recent years (Fig. 1). The distribution is noisier, and the area with temperature anomaly exceeding three SDs during 2001-2011 decreases from 9.6 to 9.3% for the reduced number of stations (1,886 rather than 6,147), but our conclusions are not changed qualitatively. The temperature anomaly distribution shifts to the right and broadens because it is defined relative to a fixed (1951-1980) base period, during which global temperatures were within the Holocene range. We argue on the basis of accelerating ice loss from Greenland and Antarctica and rapidly rising sea level (now exceeding 3 mm/y or 3 m per millennium) that temperatures in the early 21st century are already above the Holocene range, and thus use of a base period preceding the rapid warming of the past three decades has merit.

  15. Simulation of air pollution with nested models in North Rhine-Westphalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution modeling of air pollution events requires nested models. CARLOS is a combination of two comprehensive air quality simulation models that calculate chemistry and transport on regional and local scales. Both models apply nesting techniques to describe the influx of tracers into the inner highly resolved modeling domain. High resolution emission inventories are available for the innermost nest on the large scale, which allow the separate treatment of traffic and point sources. Results of a simulation for North Rhine-Westphalia in August 1997 are presented for two nesting levels, increasing the resolution from 27km in Central Europe to 3km in the domain of the second nest. One result is also presented for the local scale employing two nesting levels with a resolution of 1km and 333m, respectively. Statistical indices are used to indicate the quality of the predictions of ozone. Comparison of observations at the stations Koeln-Chorweiler and Wuppertal with modeled concentrations shows good agreement of ozone and reasonable reproduction of NO2 concentrations. (Author)

  16. Evaluation of modeled changes in extreme precipitation in Europe and the Rhine basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigate the change in multi-day precipitation extremes in late winter in Europe using observations and climate models. The objectives of the analysis are to determine whether climate models can accurately reproduce observed trends and, if not, to find the causes of the difference in trends. Similarly to an earlier finding for mean precipitation trends, and despite a lower signal to noise ratio, climate models fail to reproduce the increase in extremes in much of northern Europe: the model simulations do not cover the observed trend in large parts of this area. A dipole in the sea-level pressure trend over continental Europe causes positive trends in extremes in northern Europe and negative trends in the Iberian Peninsula. Climate models have a much weaker pressure trend dipole and as a result a much weaker (extreme) precipitation response. The inability of climate models to correctly simulate observed changes in atmospheric circulation is also primarily responsible for the underestimation of trends in the Rhine basin. When it has been adjusted for the circulation trend mismatch, the observed trend is well within the spread of the climate model simulations. Therefore, it is important that we improve our understanding of circulation changes, in particular related to the cause of the apparent mismatch between observed and modeled circulation trends over the past century. (letter)

  17. CHP expansion strategy in North Rhine-Westphalia. A blueprint for other regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Rhine-Westphalian state government intends to increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) generation to at least 25 % by 2020. Since 2013, the campaign ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'' (''KWK.NRW - Strom trifft Waerme'') of the EnergyAgency.NRW, is has been running on behalf of the NRW Climate Protection Ministry, to publicise this technology and to promote its expansion. The campaign accompanies the State Government's CHP Stimulus Programme. The EnergyAgency.NRW has organised companies and research institutions, associations and interest groups under the umbrella of ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'', aiming at co-ordinated and intensified activities in the field of combined heat and power generation. The target of the initial-project ''roadmap/CHP.NRW'' of the ''Virtual Institute / CHP.NRW'' is to develop a guideline for the application and optimisation of CHP-systems.

  18. [Infection surveillance in North Rhine-Westphalia--standard reports, barometer and early warning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissland, J; van Treeck, U; Taeger, D; Baumeister, H-G

    2003-12-01

    The increasing significance of communicable diseases requires new surveillance tools. Modern electronic instruments in analysis and communication replace the former "handbased" statistics and allow the development of early warning systems. In North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) the Institute of Public Health started an approach to develop a modular surveillance system prior to the the implementation of the new German infectious disease protection act. The first module called "Automated infectious disease notifications and information system (AIM+)" generates various standard hypertext reports which are published as "Infectious disease reports NRW" on the internet (www.loegd.nrw.de). In addition the infectious disease information is linked with a geographical information system (GIS) giving spatial and temporal patterns. The second module called "Infectious disease barometer NRW" offers a quick actual overview highlighting several selected diseases. It can be electronically sent out to any interested person. The third module "Early warning system" realizes an effective early detection system by combining six statistical procedures with a total of 11 separate methods. In case of detecting clusters and outbreaks it automatically generates warning reports to the responsible parties. All three modules together improve the epidemiological surveillance of the population in NRW, support the translation of information to prevention and control measures, and therefore strengthen epidemiological policy-making. PMID:14685925

  19. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  20. LOFAR in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Reich

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The LOw Frequency ARray – LOFAR – is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz centered in the Netherlands. In May 2006 ten German institutes formed the German LOng Wavelength consortium – GLOW – to coordinate its contributions and scientific interests to the LOFAR project. The first LOFAR station CS1 was installed in summer 2006 near Exloo/Netherlands. The second station IS-G1 is presently been placed in the immediate vicinity of the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope near Bad Münstereifel/Germany. This contribution briefly describes the basic properties and aims of LOFAR, the aims of the GLOW consortium and the actual activities to install a LOFAR station at the Effelsberg site.

  1. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  2. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  3. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  4. Mining in Germany 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers were presented on the following subjects: Mining in the new German states; Development of knowledge-based consulting systems for waste disposal and mine savitation operations; Advantages and drawbacks of underground leaching of uranium ores - proposals for environmentally compatible termination of mining operations; Backfilling of open shafts; The final operation plan -legal fundamentals of mine abandonment; stability assessment of subsurface workings of the Ehrenfriedersdorf tin mine and conclusions for safety measures; Experience and problems of landscaping measures for abandoved mines in densely populated areas; Performance of pipeless shaft drilling machines in hard and extremely hard rock; subsurface tunnelling in subsidence areas; Selective cutters in potassium mining in Alsace-Rock salt mining at Bernburg; Problems of stabilisation of abandoned shafts in potassium mines in central Germany. Six of the papers have been recorded as separate entries in this database. (orig./HS)

  5. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Measuring Station Rheinhausen for heat exchange between atmosphere and rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this project are clarified and the resulting tasks for the measuring station sited in the river Rhine are listed. A description of the site and of the facilities is given as well as of those technical details being significant to the applied measurement techniques. A survey of instrumentation and data processing, both being strongly affected by the chosen methods are discussed. Typical preliminary data of the station and their further processing are shown. It is reported about data handling, first results and further planned evaluations. (orig.)

  7. Combined influence of river discharge and wind on littoral nematode communities of a river mouth area of Lake Constance

    OpenAIRE

    Witthöft-Mühlmann, André; Traunspurger, Walter; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto

    2007-01-01

    The littoral nematode community adjacent to a river mouth (River Schussen) on Lake Constance (Germany) was studied from February 1999 to January 2000 in order to determine the influence of stress resulting from fluctuations in river discharge on local nematode assemblages. Additionally, the influence of wind as a second important stress factor was considered. Six sample sites were chosen, reflecting a gradient of river influence within the broader river mouth area. Nematode communities, varyi...

  8. Regional and temporal variability of the isotope composition (O, S) of atmospheric sulphate in the region of Freiberg, Germany, and consequences for dissolved sulphate in groundwater and river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichomirowa, Marion; Heidel, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The isotope composition of dissolved sulphate and strontium in atmospheric deposition, groundwater, mine water and river water in the region of Freiberg was investigated to better understand the fate of these components in the regional and global water cycle. Most of the isotope variations of dissolved sulphates in atmospheric deposition from three locations sampled bi- or tri-monthly can be explained by fractionation processes leading to lower [Formula: see text] (of about 2-3‰) and higher [Formula: see text] (of about 8-10‰) values in summer compared with the winter period. These samples showed a negative correlation between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] values and a weak positive correlation between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] values. They reflect the sulphate formed by aqueous oxidation from long-range transport in clouds. However, these isotope variations were superimposed by changes of the dominating atmospheric sulphate source. At two of the sampling points, large variations of mean annual [Formula: see text] values from atmospheric bulk deposition were recorded. From 2008 to 2009, the mean annual [Formula: see text] value increased by about 5‰; and decreased by about 4‰ from 2009 to 2010. A change in the dominating sulphate source or oxidation pathways of SO(2) in the atmosphere is proposed to cause these shifts. No changes were found in corresponding [Formula: see text] values. Groundwater, river water and some mine waters (where groundwater was the dominating sulphate source) also showed temporal shifts in their [Formula: see text] values corresponding to those of bulk atmospheric deposition, albeit to a lower degree. The mean transit time of atmospheric sulphur through the soil into the groundwater and river water was less than a year and therefore much shorter than previously suggested. Mining activities of about 800 years in the Freiberg region may have led to large subsurface areas with an enhanced groundwater flow along fractures and mined-refilled ore lodes which may shorten transit times of sulphate from precipitation through groundwater into river water. PMID:22092070

  9. Status and prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany; Stand und Aussichten der Tiefengeothermie in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, R. [GGA-Inst., Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The article summarizes the geothermal potential, the status and the prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany and arrives at the following conclusions: Even in a country like Germany with no active vulcanism the resources for geothermal power production and direct use are very high and exceed those of conventional energy sources by far. Geothermal use in Germany however is still in its initial stage. The installed capacity in 2005 amounted to 135 MW{sub th} for direct use and to only 230 kW{sub el} for power production. The uprating of the allowance for geothermal power from 0.09 Euro/kWh to 0.15 Euro/kWh in 2004 and the R and D-programme for renewable energy of the Ministry of Environment has initiated a great number of new projects especially in the Upper Rhine Valley and in the Fore Alp Region near Munich. The success of these projects will be critical for the development of geothermal power production in Germany in the near future. Geothermal energy use in Germany is so far restricted to deep seated hot water aquifers. One of the major barriers for a wider application of this resource is our poor knowledge about the hydraulic properties of these aquifers leading to a great and in many cases unacceptable risk for potential investors. For this reason a geothermal information system is under development at the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics in Hannover which will help to supply investors with the best information available and to quantify the risk for insurance companies and geothermal funds. Though hot water aquifers suitable for geothermal power production are rare in Germany the size of this resource is comparable to the German oil and gas resources. Nevertheless their contribution to the national power production will remain small and will hardly exceed a few hundred MW{sub el}. Their potential for direct use is much higher. But since heat has to be produced very close to the consumer to prevent excessive costs for transportation this huge resource can only be used in regions where a suitable aquifer is situated in an industrialized and densely populated area. A much wider application of geothermal energy in Germany can be expected when techniques for geothermal energy production from tight sediments or igneous rock are available. This resource is by at least two orders of magnitude larger than that of the aquifers and is available at almost any location.

  10. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  11. Prescriptions for adaptive comanagement: the case of flood management in the German Rhine basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Becker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Centrally administered bureaucracies are ill suited to managing the environmental resources of complex social-ecological systems. Therefore management approaches are required that can better deal with its complexity and uncertainty, which are further exacerbated by developments such as climate change. Adaptive comanagement (ACM has emerged as a relatively novel governance approach and potential solution to the challenges arising. Adaptive comanagement hinges on certain institutional prescriptions intended to enhance the adaptability of management by improving the comprehension of and response to the complex context and surprises of social-ecological systems. The ACM literature describes that for enhanced adaptability, institutional arrangements should be polycentric, aligned with the scale of ecosystems (the bioregional approach, feature open and participatory governance, and involve much experimentation. The case of flood management in the German part of the Rhine basin is used to provide an assessment of these ideas. We analyze whether and to what degree the prescriptions have been implemented and whether or not certain fundamental changes seen in German flood management can be traced back to the application of the prescriptions. Our study demonstrates a transition from the traditional engineering and "flood control" approach to a more holistic management concept based on a risk perspective. In this process, the four ACM prescriptions have made an important contribution in preparing or facilitating policy changes. The findings suggest that the application of the prescriptions requires the right supporting context before they can be applied to the fullest extent possible, such as a high problem pressure, new discourses, or leading actors. A major constraint arises in the misalignment of political power and of the different interests of the actors, which contribute to reactive management and inadequate interplay. To address this, we recommend further analysis of the role of coordinated and long term planning. This might reveal evidence to overcome institutional coordination failures, improve knowledge transfer and communication, and increase adoption of the ACM prescriptions, with the aim to enhance adaptability of the system.

  12. Heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta in Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedictus, L; Koets, A P; Kuijpers, F H J; Joosten, I; van Eldik, P; Heuven, H C M

    2013-02-01

    Failure of the timely expulsion of the fetal membranes, called retained placenta, leads to reduced fertility, increased veterinary costs and reduced milk yields. The objectives of this study were to concurrently look at the heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta and test the hypothesis that a greater coefficient of relationship between dam and calf increases the risk of retained placenta in the dam. The average incidence of retained placenta in 43,661 calvings of Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cattle was 4.5%, ranging from 0% to 29.6% among half-sib groups. The average pedigree based relationship between the sire and the maternal grandsire was 0.05 and ranged from 0 to 1.04. Using a sire-maternal grandsire model the heritability was estimated at 0.22 (SEM=0.07) which is comparable with estimates for other dual purpose breeds. The coefficient of relationship between the sire and the maternal grandsire had an effect on retained placenta. The coefficient of relationship between the sire and the maternal grandsire was used as a proxy for the coefficient of relationship between dam and calf, which is correlated with the probability of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I compatibility between dam and calf. MHC class I compatibility is an important risk factor for retained placenta. Although the MHC class I haplotype is genetically determined, MHC class I compatibility is not heritable. This study shows that selection against retained placenta is possible and indicates that preventing the mating of related parents may play a role in the prevention of retained placenta. PMID:23317848

  13. Spatial variations of earthquake occurrence and coseismic deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Wenzel, F.

    2015-05-01

    Seismic activity in the densely populated Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is an aspect in the public, political, and industrial decision making process. The spatial analysis of magnitude-frequency distributions provides valuable information about local seismicity patterns and regional seismic hazard assessment and can be used also as a proxy for coseismic deformation to explore the seismo-tectonic setting of the URG. We combine five instrumental and one historic earthquake bulletins to obtain for the first time a consistent database for events with local magnitudes ML ? 2.0 in the whole URG and use it for the determination of magnitude frequencies. The data processing results in a dataset with 274 Poisson distributed instrumentally recorded earthquakes within the URG between 01/1971 and 02/2012 and 34 historic events since the year 1250. Our analysis reveals significant b-value variations along the URG that allow us to differentiate four distinct sections (I-IV) with significant differences in earthquake magnitude distributions: I: Basel region in the Swiss-France-German border region (b = 0.83), II: region between Mulhouse and Freiburg in the southern URG (b = 1.42), III: central URG (b = 0.93), and IV: northern URG (b = 1.06). High b-values and thus a relatively low amount of high magnitude events in the Freiburg section are possibly a consequence of strongly segmented, small-scale structures that are not able to accumulate high stresses. We use the obtained magnitude-frequency distributions and representative source mechanisms for each section to determine coseismic displacement rates. A maximum horizontal displacement rate of 41 ?m/a around Basel is found whereas only 8 ?m/a are derived for the central and northern URG. A comparison with geodetic and geological constraints implies that the coseismic displacement rates cover less than 10% of the overall displacement rates, suggesting a high amount of aseismic deformation in the URG.

  14. Towards a balanced 3D kinematic model of a faulted domain – the Bergheim open pit mine, Lower Rhine Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, A.; Siehl, A.

    2002-01-01

    In the context of the investigation of the sedimentary and structural evolution of the Cenozoic Lower Rhine Basin, the construction of a volume-balanced kinematic model of a small faulted domain with detailed spatial information on strata and fault geometry from a set of parallel geological sections is under development. A 3D geometry model is built that allows for relative movements of blocks at fault surfaces. Rouby’s method of restoration in the map plane is used to determine horizontal di...

  15. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    OpenAIRE

    Sutanudjaja, E. H.; Beek, L.P.H., van; Jong, S.M. de; Geer, F.C., van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale groundwater models involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries are still rare due to a lack of hydrogeological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land ...

  16. Wind energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

  17. The influence of environmental factors and dredging on chironomid larval diversity in urban drainage systems in polders strongly influenced by seepage from large rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Jacobsen, Dean; Kleef, H. van; Velde, G. ven der; Leuven, R.S.E.W.

    2011-01-01

    urban waters strongly influenced by seepage of large rivers. Chironomid assemblages were studied in urban surface-water systems (man-made drainage ditches) in polder areas along lowland reaches of the rivers Rhine-Meuse in The Netherlands. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the key environmental...... factors. Taxon richness, Shannon index (H'), rareness of species, and life-history strategies at urban locations were compared with available data from similar man-made water bodies in rural areas, and the effectiveness of dredging for restoring chironomid diversity in urban waters was tested. Three...... diversity of chironomid communities in urban waters affected by nutrient-rich seepage or inlet of river water...

  18. Migrations from Yugoslavia to Germany: Migrants, emigrants, refugees and asylum-seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlica Branko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrations from Yugoslavia to Germany have a long tradition. There have been various economic and social causes, and in some periods even political ones for that phenomenon. Taking into consideration the historical aspect and also the contemporary migration flows, the dynamics of migrations of the Yugoslav population to Germany has the following stages in its development. The first stage had begun in late XIX century and ended with the World War I. Although the overseas migration flows prevailed, yet the German agriculture and its mine industry attracted a part of the Yugoslav population. Between the two world wars mostly "Westfahl Slovenes" and Croats and Serbs from Bosnia-Herzegovina got "temporary employed" in the Rhine-Westfahl industrial area, along with several thousand Serb-Croat-Slovene agricultural seasonal workers per year. The second stage began immediately after the Second World War when most of about 200,000 citizens from the former Yugoslavia, being mostly refugees, moved from the West European to overseas countries, but some of them stayed in Germany. Involuntary migrants and refugees, however, returned in great number from Germany to Yugoslavia. At that stage non-extradition of war criminals on the part of the West occupying powers on German territory, then disregard of West German Governments of the anti-Yugoslav activities of the part of extreme Yugoslav emigration, and different interpretation of the bilateral agreement on extradition, became the essential problem in relations between SFR Yugoslavia and FR Germany. The third stage in development of migrations commenced in early 1960s. At that time, Germany and other Western countries became prominently immigrational, while since mid-1960s till 1973 economic emigrants from Yugoslavia became more and more important in the German economic space. From 1954 to 1967 migration of Yugoslav citizens had not yet been intensive and their intention was mostly to work abroad. Illegal employment was, however, prominent at that time. Due to the normalisation of political relations, re-establishment of diplomatic relations and conclusion of bilateral agreements that legally defined employment of foreign workers, since 1968 till 1973 a great number of Yugoslavs got employed in FR Germany. The contemporary migrations from FR Yugoslavia to Germany resulted from the economic and political crisis in the former SFRY as well as from the civil wars that were waged in the Yugoslav territory. FR Germany became the most important destination country of Yugoslav migrants - workers, refugees, false asylum-seekers and political emigrants. Different categories of migrants from Yugoslavia to Germany enjoy the treatment that is in accordance with the immigration policies of the German governments as well as with the degree of development of the German-Yugoslav political and economic relations, and the degree of the established co-operation in the field of legal assistance and social welfare. Migrant workers, who have legally regulated their employment and residence status, could in the future expect to gain assistance from their mother country in getting efficient protection of their rights and interests in all stages of the migration process. Numerous migrants asylum-seekers, in spite of the proclaimed international protection, share, however, the fate resulting from the politically motivated measures and actions taken by the German authorities within the arbitrary decision-making of the right and/or abuse of the right to asylum. This is the reason why as early as in late 1994 the Government of FRG announced that it would expel foreigners from the country. The remaining refugees, or actually the so-called false asylum-seekers in FR Germany, share the fate of forced repatriation. Within this category special emphasis should be placed on the attitude of the German government to the Albanians and Roma from Kosovo. At first, the Germans treated the Albanians from Kosovo as politically persecuted persons, offering them refuge. Then they declared them (and Roma also to

  19. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and/or hospitals, provide annual reports and publish scientific articles and/or presentations. The effects of the arthroplasty registers on clinical practice and on health political decisions in the time after the introduction of these registers are documented in some countries. The influence on cost savings for health services is also reported. Discussion: The most important legal and ethical aspect is the patient’s data protection and, therefore, the requirement of patient’s consent. The involvement of the physicians in the data collection process is a further organisational and legal challenge. The 100% data collection, which is the aim of the registers due to their definition, should not cause disadvantages for certain groups of patients.ConclusionThe arthroplasty registers have a large medical and health-economic potential. Aspects of the patient’s data protection and the guaranteed financial support of the registers should be clarified before the introduction of a register.

  20. Valley evolution of the Lower Rhine in LGM, Lateglacial and Early Holocene.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, K. M.; W.Z. Hoek; Stouthamer, E.; Geurts, A.H.; M. Janssens; Kasse, C.; Busschers, F.S.; Hijma, M.P.; Erkens, G.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of transient climate change, for example at glacial-interglacial transitions, on the alluvial valley of the lower reaches of larger river systems has become a classic topic of fluvial geomorphology and quaternary geological study. The process of contraction of Holocene river activity into a narrower channel belt than in LGM counterparts of the last cycle, links to terrace flight formation over multiple glacial cycles in inland reaches. Not only were valley reaches affected by the p...

  1. Deriving the extent of Chernozems and Phaeozems in Central Germany during the Neolithic period from sediments buried in Neolithic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Tinapp, Christian; Lauer, Tobias; Stäuble, Harald; Glaser, Bruno; Zielhofer, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Material found in Neolithic pits, ditches or postholes was often buried quite fast, and since that time it was largely cut off from input of younger sediments and from subsequent transformation processes. Thus, this kind of material can be used as a discontinuous sedimentary archive that can give valuable information about the former palaeoenvironment such as the Neolithic soil type distribution. The largest region of Germany that is recently covered by black-coloured Chernozems and Phaeozems is located in the rain-shadow of the Harz Mountains in Central Germany. However, similar to other regions of Germany the former occurrence of Chernozems and Phaeozems in areas of Central Germany that are covered by other soil types today is suggested by black-coloured colluvia and by black fillings of Neolithic pits, ditches and postholes, as well as by dark-coloured clay coatings in the Bt-horizons of Luvisols (Luvic Phaeozems). Whereas for some German regions as the Lower Rhine Basin or Central Bavaria it could be demonstrated that buried black material does not originate from former Chernozems or Phaeozems but is of anthropogenic origin, similar investigations were not carried out in Central Germany yet. Thus, in this study we investigated whether Chermozems and Phaeozems had a larger distribution in Central Germany during the Neolithic period. This is achieved by comparatively analyzing sedimentologic and micromorphological properties of black-coloured material taken from Neolithic structures in the recent Luvisol area with Neolithic and Medieval material derived from the recent Chernozem/Phaeozem-region. Furthermore, carbonate contents from individual sites are compared with each other. Doing so it could be shown that the Neolithic distribution of Chernozems and Chernozems in Central Germany was not significantly larger than today. Instead, most black material buried in Neolithic structures obviously has an anthropogenic origin or is derived from former Ah-horizons of humus-rich Luvisols. Apart from a sub-continental climate, the main factor determining the recent and former distribution of Chernozems and Phaeozems in Central Germany was obviously the carbonate content of the parent material of pedogenesis.

  2. Integrated assessment of sustainable cereal straw potential and different straw-based energy applications in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sustainable straw potentials can be determined with the help of humus balance tools. • A sustainable straw potential of 8–13 Tg is estimated to be available in Germany. • Energetic use of this straw could lead to GHG emission reduction of 73.3–92.3% compared to fossil references. • Lowest GHG emissions occur for straw-based heat production. • Highest reduction potential can be achieved with combined heat and power production. - Abstract: The energetic use of residues from agriculture can foster the transition towards a more renewable energy supply. However, sustainability issues have to be considered along the entire provision chain as they affect the resource and energy potential as well as the achievable contribution to climate mitigation. Straw is one of the most important agricultural residues in Germany. It is not yet used for energy purposes extensively and compared to other agricultural feedstock it shows low competition with food, feed or fiber. This paper analyses on the one hand the sustainable potential of cereal straw for energy application in Germany considering the actual agricultural conditions, and on the other hand the global warming potential from different energy provision chains based on straw. Different humus-balance tools that are able to assess the organic matter (OM) demand to presume soil fertility. The analysis of straw potentials was applied at NUTS 3 level for Germany, based on statistical data. The results of this analysis were used as input data for the modeling of concepts for straw provision and use. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were calculated for each concept in order to compare the global warming potential of various energy applications, to investigate the relative contribution of different production steps and to compare them with fossil energy applications. In total, 29.8 Tg of straw (fresh matter) are produced annually in Germany (1999–2007). Approximately 4.8 Tg of the total straw occurrence are annually required by animal husbandry. Between 7.97 and 13.25 Tg straw can be classified as sustainable straw. Highest straw potential (3.99 Mg ha?1) can be found in parts of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg–West Pomerania, North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. But there are also regions that show a net deficit. The cumulated GHG emissions for the resulting concepts are between 8 and 35 g CO2-eq. MJ?1. In comparison to fossil energy applications, the highest reduction potential occurs for concepts for combined heat and power (CHP) provision, i.e. 223gCO2-eq.MJel-1. This study highlights the possible contribution of straw as renewable energy carrier, but also demonstrates that there are regional restrictions for straw use

  3. Lise Meitner's escape from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1990-03-01

    Lise Meitner (1878-1968) achieved prominence as a nuclear physicist in Germany; although of Jewish origin, her Austrian citizenship exempted her from Nazi racial laws until the annexation of Austria in 1938 precipitated her dismissal. Forbidden to emigrate, she narrowly escaped to the Netherlands with the help of concerned friends in the international physics community.

  4. Germany as We Saw It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    Close-up studies of German life in the Stuttgart area are reported by participants of Stanford University's 1961 National Defense Education Act second-level institute for secondary school teachers of German, held at Bad Boll, Germany. Topics covered include: (1) religious life, (2) political life, (3) problems of settlement, (4) occupational…

  5. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang; Imkamp, Heiner

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...... reunification. Implications for marketing management are drawn by proposing nine bipolar constructs....

  6. Restructuring power supply in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to recent calculations of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Office), all German nuclear power plants can be decommissioned from 2017. This will result neither in supply shortages nor in higher electricity rates, and Germany's climate protection goals will not be in danger either. There will be no need to import nuclear power from other countries. (orig.)

  7. Germany: reunification brings new markets for gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential new markets and sources of supply promised by the unification of Germany are reviewed. Domestic production, sources of foreign supply, construction of pipelines and energy demand in the united Germany are examined. (UK)

  8. Natural fracture permeability in Triassic sediments of the Upper Rhine Graben from deep geothermal boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jeanne; Genter, Albert; Duringer, Philippe; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal anomalies (Soultz-sous-Forêts, Rittershoffen, Landau, ...) in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), are mainly interpreted as the effect of natural brine advection inside a nearly vertical fracture network extending from the deep-seated Triassic sediments to the crystalline basement. At Soultz, within the first kilometer of sediments, where the temperature reaches up to 110° C, the dominating thermal regime remains conductive. Accordingly the fracture system in this region, made of normal faults, does not have a significant impact on temperature profiles. Deeper, in the clastic sediments and in the crystalline basement, a convective regime is evidenced by a reduction of the effective geothermal gradient (~10° /km) and localized negative thermal anomalies that match with the occurrence of natural fractures. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the top of the convective cell structure based on a combined analysis of borehole geothermal logs recorded around the sediment/basement interface. The first part consists in analyzing geological and geophysical data available from the Soultz wells which characterize the natural permeability: partial or total drilling mud losses, natural outflow, occurrences of Helium gas and drilling mud temperature variations. A series of eleven permeable fracture zones has been outlined in GPK-2, GPK-3 and GPK-4 wells. Within the Muschelkalk limestones, 3 fracture zones are located in GPK-2, 2 in GPK-3 and 3 in GPK-4 respectively. In the Buntsandstein sandstones, a total of 8 zones were detected in GPK-2, GPK-3 and GPK-4. In GPK-2, less than 50% of the detected zones are permeable, in GPK-3, more than 80% and in GPK-4, 100% but the thermal impact of those fracture zones is not clearly visible on temperature profiles. To support those results, geophysical logs and mud logging data of the sedimentary part of GPK-1 were spatially correlated. Two fracture zones have been located in the Keuper and Lettenkohle, two in the Muschelkalk and nine in the Buntsandstein. All the thirteen zones present permeability indicators. In the EPS-1 well, partial mud losses recorded at a depth of 1205m, match with the occurrence of a fracture zone within the Buntsandstein. BHTV images show that the fracture is N-S oriented and dipping westward. Core samples of this zone show that it is partly filled with barite and galena. In the 4550 well, total losses were recorded at a depth of 1280m in Buntsandstein which fits in depth with a fracture zone. BHTV images clearly exhibit the westward dipping of the conjugate small-scale fracture system. Interestingly it corresponds to a sharp negative thermal anomaly on the temperature profile. In the Soultz and Rittershoffen areas, the uppermost sedimentary domain extending from late Trias to Tertiary is rather impermeable and governed by a conductive thermal regime. The uppermost structure of the convective cell corresponds to hydrothermal circulations percolating within the vertical fracture network from the top of the Paleozoic granite basement, to the Muschelkalk through the fractured Buntsandstein. The Keuper is assumed to be a horizontal barrier to the vertical per ascensum convective flow and behaves as a geothermal cap rock.

  9. Epidemiological investigation and case-control study: a Legionnaires' disease outbreak associated with cooling towers in Warstein, Germany, August-September 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisa, Anna; Brockmann, Ansgar; Renken, Frank; Lück, Christian; Pleischl, Stefan; Exner, Martin; Daniels-Haardt, Inka; Jurke, Annette

    2015-11-19

    Between 1 August and 6 September 2013, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) with 159 suspected cases occurred in Warstein, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The outbreak consisted of 78 laboratory-confirmed cases of LD, including one fatality, with a case fatality rate of 1%. Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1, subtype Knoxville, sequence type 345, was identified as the epidemic strain. A case-control study was conducted to identify possible sources of infection. In univariable analysis, cases were almost five times more likely to smoke than controls (odds ratio (OR): 4.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.33-9.93; p cooling towers. Quick epidemiological assessment, source tracing and shutting down of potential sources as well as rapid laboratory testing and early treatment are necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality. Maintenance of cooling towers must be carried out according to specification to prevent similar LD outbreaks in the future. PMID:26607018

  10. Scope and perspectives of industrial hydrogen production and infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles in North Rhine-Westphalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising candidate that may follow conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines combines hydrogen from regenerative sources of energy, fuel cells and an electric drive train. For early fleets introduced the refuelling infrastructure needs to be in place at least to the extent of the vehicles operational reach. The question arises which strategies may help to keep initial hydrogen and infrastructure cost low? Industrial production, distribution and use of hydrogen is well-established and the volumes handled are substantial. Even though today's industrial hydrogen is not in tune with the long-term sustainable vision, hydrogen production and infrastructure already in place might serve as a nucleus for putting that vision into practice. This contribution takes stock of industrial production and use of hydrogen in North Rhine-Westphalia based on a recently finalized project. It demonstrates to which extent industrial hydrogen could be used for a growing number of vehicles and at which time additional capacity might need to be installed.

  11. Late Pleistocene evolution of the Rhine-Meuse system in the southern North Sea basin: imprints of climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschers, F. S.; Kasse, C.; van Balen, R. T.; Vandenberghe, J.; Cohen, K. M.; Weerts, H. J. T.; Wallinga, J.; Johns, C.; Cleveringa, P.; Bunnik, F. P. M.

    2007-12-01

    High-resolution continuous core material, geophysical measurements, and hundreds of archived core descriptions enabled to identify 13 Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse sedimentary units in the infill of the southern part of the North Sea basin (the Netherlands, northwestern Europe). This sediment record and a large set of Optical Stimulated Luminescence dates, 14C dates and biostratigraphical data, allowed to establish detailed relationships between climate change, sea-level oscillation, glaciation history and the sedimentary development of the Rhine fluvial system during the last glacial cycle (Marine Isotope Stages 5e-2, Eemian-Weichselian). A well-preserved Eemian sediment record was encountered as the infill of a Late Saalian (MIS6) subglacial basin. Part of this record reflects groundwater rise controlled (fine-grained) sedimentation as a result of postglacial (early) Eemian sea-level rise. It shows strong analogy to developments known from the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. Outside of the glacial depressions near coastal deposits are only fragmentarily preserved. The Early Glacial Rhine sediment record is dominated by organic debris and peat layers, marking landscape stability and low fluvial activity. Part of this record may have been formed under near coastal conditions. Significant amounts of reworked marine biomarkers in the lag-deposits of Early Pleniglacial (MIS4) fluvial systems indicate that this period is characterized by extensive reworking of older (MIS5) near-coastal sediments. Despite the marked Early Pleniglacial climatic cooling, input of new sediment from the drainage basin was relatively low, a feature that is related to the presence of regolith protective relic soil complexes in the basin. During the early Middle Pleniglacial, a major Rhine avulsion indicates the system was in an aggrading mode and that sediment supply into the lower reaches of the Rhine had strongly increased. This increase in sediment supply coincided with the timing of major climate cooling that occurred from ?50 to 45 ka onwards. The increase in sediment supply is related to final breakup of the soil complexes in the drainage basin. After ?24 ka, a strong input of coarse-grained gravelly sediments was observed which indicates a strong increase in physical weathering processes and periglacial-controlled supply of bedload sediment in the catchment. A time delay between climate change (?30 ka) and channel belt aggradation (<24 ka), is explained as a result of transport path length between source and sink and/or effects of higher continental runoff rates after 22 ka. The Late Middle Pleniglacial, Late Pleniglacial and Lateglacial Rhine-Meuse record testifies for strong influence of glacio-isostatic-controlled differential upwarping of the study area. Glacio-isostatic-controlled forebulge upwarping and lateral valley tilting is shown to have deflected Rhine-Meuse channel belts after 35 ka. Glacio-isostatic upwarping is seen as the main cause for strong incision during the first phase of the Late Pleniglacial (30-24 ka). At later stage glacio-isostatic-controlled incision was overruled due to high climate-controlled sediment input from the catchment and probably initial glacio-isostatic subsidence. Migration of channel belts towards the direction of the former centre of glacio-isostatic uplift indicates that glacio-isostacy influenced Rhine-Meuse paleogeography until far into the Lateglacial.

  12. Holocene landscape and land-use change under human impact. Examples from Central Europe (Lower Rhine Embayment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Protze, Jens; Gerlach, Renate

    2015-04-01

    In the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), as in other parts of Central Europe, several main periods of colluvial deposition (mainly Metal Ages, Roman time, Medieval time) and four main periods of alluvial and overbank deposition in the floodplains (Early Holocene, Metal Ages, partially Roman time, Medieval, Early Modern time) can be divided. The summary of colluvial sedimentation can be shown by using interdisciplinary methods, consisting of sedimentological, geochemical and archaeological methods. This allowed reconstructing a detailed land-use history. To clarify the origin of the colluvial deposits loess-sequences also have been studied geochemically and were compared to loess- and loess-like deposits from adjacent areas, such as the Northern Eifel Mountains or the Middle Rhine. The results clearly show that only the combination of methods of natural sciences and the humanities allow optimal processing of these complex findings. To sum up these results the following cycles cause by human activities can be found in the LRE: 8 periods with soil formation (P = pedogenesis), followed by a phase with mainly stable land surfaces but some rill / gully erosion (R) and succeeded by intensive erosion and colluviation (E) caused by mainly sheet floods in an more open landscape. Especially during the Metal Ages and High Middle Ages erosion is clearly detectable. In the woodlands strong deforestation took place especially due to the production of charcoal and firewood as well as grazing activities. In addition, the development of mining and related industries in the 15th to 16th centuries and further increase in 19th century produced a strong contamination of floodplain deposits. Different periods of an increasing grassland since Medieval time cause by socio-economic effects that results in a reduction of soil erosion can be distinguished.

  13. Laboratory shake flask batch tests can predict field biodegradation of aniline in the Rhine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toräng, Lars; Reuschenbach, P.; Müller, B.; Nyholm, Niels

    2001-01-01

    Ludwigshafen temporarily higher than normal, made it possible to monitor aniline at trace concentrations in the river water downstream the wastewater outlet by means of a sensitive GC headspace analytical method. Aniline was analyzed along a downstream gradient and the dilution along the gradient was...

  14. The situation of the cooling water in the Federal Republic of Germany 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 75% of the water demand in the Federal Republic of Germany are being used for cooling purposes. In spite of this important share, the topic of the discharge of waste heat was slumbering in nothingness until the end of the sixties. The principle according to which power plants were only designed for fresh water cooling had only been broken in a few areas (such as the Rhenish brown coal district or in the Ruhr pit coal area). After the Rhine had been included in the power plant design, the public interest changed lastingly. A problem which remains to be settled is that one of the limits to the extraction of water for cooling purposes. Often people fail to see that in addition to the other uses, the waters also fulfil the important function of supplying make-up water for cooling purposes. In some regions, this supply can only be secured by means of lare-area economics of water supply and distribution (artificial measures). All questions pertaining to the cooling water requirements and how they are to be met should soon be settled in fruitful discussions with the representatives of the Laender. (orig.)

  15. The situation of cooling water in the Federal Republic of Germany 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 75% of the water demand in the Federal Republic of Germany are being used for cooling purposes. In spite of this important share, the topic of the discharge of waste heat was slumbering in nothingness until the end of the 'sixties. The principle according to which power plants were only designed for fresh water cooling had only been broken in a few areas (such as the Rhenish brown coal district or in the Ruhr pit coal area). After the Rhine had been included in the power plant design, the public interest changed lastingly. A problem which remains to be settled is that one of the limits ot the extraction of water for cooling purposes. Often people fail to see that in addition to the other uses, the waters also fulfil the important function of supplying make-up water for cooling purposes. In some regions, this supply can only be secured by means of large-area economics of water supply and distribution (artificial measures). All questions pertaining to the cooling water requirements and how they are to be met should soon be settled in fruitful discussions with the representatives of the Laender. (orig.)

  16. Program status of the high temperature reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the HTR development program in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1984 is characterized by the beginning of a transition phase from a national program to a commercial program. In the last 20 years the HTR technology program was strongly, nearly completely supported by the Federal Government and the State Government of North-Rhine-Westfalia. Funding of the program up to now exceeded 5 billion DM. Within this framework it was possible to establish competent-reactor-system companies, to enable industries to supply HTR- specific components including fuel elements and nuclear graphites, to maintain the strong engagement of the national centre KFA Juelich in general R and D activities, to build and operate the AVR-plant for more than 16 years, to erect the demonstration plant THTR-300 now approaching completion and to build and operate many efficient test facilities. Thereby the HTR technology development achieved a stage of maturity which is not only considered to be most advanced, but is also ready now for commerical deployment. The assessment report which comprised both the fast breeder and the HTR development included all major impacts, such as history, status, prospects, benefits, industrial aspects and international developments of the technology. The program description is facilitated by distinguishing the five major program elements: AVR, THTR-300, THTR follow-up plant, nuclear process heat program, fuel cycle activities

  17. Paleoecological and climatic implications of stable isotope results from late Pleistocene bone collagen, Ziegeleigrube Coenen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wißing, Christoph; Matzerath, Simon; Turner, Elaine; Bocherens, Hervé

    2015-07-01

    Climatic and ecological conditions during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 are complex and the impact of cold spells on the ecosystems in Central Europe still needs to be investigated thoroughly. Ziegeleigrube Coenen (ZC) is a late Pleistocene MIS 3 locality in the Lower Rhine Embayment of Germany, radiocarbon-dated to > 34 14C ka BP. The site yielded a broad spectrum of mammal species. We investigated the carbon (?13C), nitrogen (?15N) and sulfur (?34S) isotope signatures of bone collagen, since these are valuable tools in characterizing ecological niches, environmental conditions and aspects of climate and mobility. By comparison with pre- and post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) sites in Central Europe we show that ZC belongs in a cold event of MIS 3 and was climatically more similar to post-LGM sites than to pre-LGM sites. However, the trophic structure resembled that of typical pre-LGM sites in Belgium. This cold event in MIS 3 changed the bottom of the foodweb, but do not seem to have had a direct impact on the occurrence of the mammalian species and their ecological distribution. Apparently the (mega-) faunal community could adapt also to harsher environmental conditions during MIS 3.

  18. Germany?s Continued Productivity Slump: An Industry Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eicher, Theo S.; Strobel, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    US productivity growth surged twice post 1995 and post 2000. In contrast Germany registered two successive productivity reductions during that same period of time. Previous analysis of the post-2000 decline has been limited, however, by the short time series of the available data. In this paper we extend the Ifo Industry Growth Accounting Database that provides detailed industry-level investment information up to 2004. While much attention has focused on the reduction in German labor hours, o...

  19. Modelling flood damages under climate change conditions - a case study for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Huang, S.; Burghoff, O.; Willems, W.; Österle, H.; Büchner, M.; Kundzewicz, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze and discuss possible climate change impacts on flood damages in Germany. The study was initiated and supported by the German insurance sector whereby the main goal was to identify general climate-related trends in flood hazard and damages and to explore sensitivity of results to climate scenario uncertainty. The study makes use of climate scenarios regionalized for the main river basins in Germany. A hydrological model (SWIM) that had been calibrated and validated for the main river gauges, was applied to transform these scenarios into discharge for more than 5000 river reaches. Extreme value distribution has been fitted to the time series of river discharge to derive the flood frequency statistics. The hydrological results for each river reach have been linked using the flood statistics to related damage functions provided by the German Insurance Association, considering damages on buildings and small enterprises. The result is that, under the specific scenario conditions, a considerable increase in flood related losses can be expected in Germany in future, warmer, climate.

  20. U-Pb Geochronology of Hydrous Silica (Siebengebirge, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaschek, Frank; Nemchin, Alexander; Geisler, Thorsten; Heuser, Alexander; Merle, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Low-temperature, hydrous weathering eventually leads to characteristic products such as silica indurations. Elevated U concentrations and the ability of silica to maintain a closed system permits silica to be dated by the U-Pb method, which, in turn, will potentially allow constraining the timing of near-surface processes. To test the feasibility of silica U-Pb geochronology, we sampled opal and chalcedony from the Siebengebirge, Germany. This study area is situated at the terminus of the Cenozoic Lower Rhine Basin on the Rhenish Massif. The investigated samples include silicified gravels from the Mittelbachtal locality, renowned for the embedded wood opal. Structural characterization of the silica phases (Raman spectroscopy) was combined with in situ isotopic analyses, using ion microprobe and LA-ICPMS techniques. In the Siebengebirge area fluviatile sediments of Upper Oligocene age were covered by an extended trachyte tuff at around 25 Ma. Silica is known to indurate some domains within the tuff and, in particular, certain horizons within the subjacent fluviatile sediments ('Tertiärquarzite'). Cementation of the gravels occurred during at least three successive growth stages: early paracrystalline silica (opal-CT), fibrous chalcedony, and late microcrystalline quartz. It has traditionally been assumed that this silica induration reflects intense weathering, more or less synchronous with the deposition of the volcanic ashes. Results from U-Pb geochronology returned a range of discrete 206Pb-238U ages, recording a protracted silicification history. For instance, we obtained 22 ± 1 Ma for opal-CT cement from a silicified tuff, 16.6 ± 0.5 Ma for silicified wood and opal-CT cement in the fluviatile gravels, as well as 11 ± 1 Ma for texturally late chalcedony. While silicification of the sampled tuff might be contemporaneous with late-stage basalts, opaline silicification of the subjacent sediments and their wood in the Mittelbachtal clearly postdates active Siebengebirge volcanism, and the clastic sedimentation by about 8 Myr. To account for the age discrepancies, opal-CT formation might be a local and episodic phenomenon, reflecting progressive denudation of the trachyte tuff cover. Alternatively, the dominant silicification event of the Mittelbachtal silcretes could be of regional significance (Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum). Our relatively fast approach by LA-ICPMS analysis will be used to further expand the database.

  1. Investigation of the heat exchange river/atmosphere at the Rhine River downstream of the Philippsburg nuclear power station. A contribution of heat loss models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All probes and interfaces with exception of those for oxygen solution in water, water surface flow, roughness of surface, water level and fog density have been installed and are under operation. Automatic data processing is accomplished either by computer or by a 12 channel analog printer. Presently the final calibration of the signal transmission lines is being completed. The data processing software is in a preliminary configuration yet. Another 8 k memory extension box has been installed in order to allow the addition of modules such as powerfail-restart routines, I/O subroutines for magnetic cassettes and tapes and storage capacity for windspeed direction values. The present output is restricted to 10 mins. teletype messages, comprehending the most essential data. Data collection difficulties have generally been overcome. A survey on the water surface temperature distribution in the surrounding of the station has been performed and revealed no inhomogenities in the vicinity of the mast within a accuracy of about 0.20C. (orig.)

  2. Germany: energy transition or revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany has decided to phase out nuclear power by 2022 but it wants also to get rid of fossil energies by 2050. Those ambitious goals imply to be able to cut by half the demand for primary energy by 2050 which will be only possible if the need for building heating is cut by 80%, the constraint on transport is less important: one million of electrical vehicles will have to be on the road by 2020 and 3 millions 10 years later. In 2012 the production of electricity was made mainly from coal (44.7%), renewable energies (21.9%), nuclear energy (16%), natural gas (11.3%) and other energies (fuel...) (6.1%). Today the renewable energy sector is a major industrial sector in Germany, it represents about 382000 jobs directly or indirectly, it means more than the sector of conventional energies. (A.C.)

  3. Nuclear power perspectives for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 300 experts from the power industries, of research and politics, from Germany and abroad followed the invitation of the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) to meet at the traditional winter meeting held in Bonn on January 28 and 29, 1992, in order to discuss topical political issues, not only relating to nuclear power, but to primary energy supply in general. Bonn having been chosen as the place for the 1992 meeting, there were unusually many members of Parliament and members of the Federal German Government attending the conference. The four sessions of the conference were devoted to the following aspects: Perspectives, the world energy market, current issues of energy policy in Germany, and preventive risk management. (orig.)

  4. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  5. Company law reform in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Baums, Theodor

    2002-01-01

    The paper was submitted to the conference on company law reform at the University of Cambridge, July 4th, 2002. Since the introduction of corporation laws in the individual German states during the first half of the 19th century, Germany has repeatedly amended and reformed its company law. Such reforms and amendments were prompted in part by stock exchange fraud and the collapse of large corporations, but also by a routine adjustment of law to changing commercial and societal conditions. Duri...

  6. Urban Shrinkage in Eastern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomae, Florian W.; Nam, Chang Woon; Schoenberg, Alina

    2015-01-01

    This paper questions the widely applied parallelism of demographic and economic development in characterizing urban shrinkage in Germany, and argues that the usage of population change as a single indicator leads to incorrect policy recommendations for combating urban shrinkage. As the cases of several Ruhr cities (Essen, Gelsenkirchen and Dortmund) and East German cities (Erfurt, Rostock and Magdeburg) prove, urban economic growth can also be achieved thanks to the substantial presence of mo...

  7. Horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawe? Kowalik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional inequalities are currently a challenge for the majority of the countries, in particular the large ones. The problem of public income redistribution emerges due to possible differentiation of the economic development level of territorial units. The most often considered problem is the vertical distribution. The horizontal division of income is far less frequently considered. Horizontal fiscal imbalance or regional tax inequalities seem to be graver than the vertical imbalance, particularly in developing countries. The public finance system, in particular in federations, is often very complex. Public finance of federations and federated states are not often based on the same assumptions. This leads to differences among regions, both vertical and horizontal. The use of the presented measures helps identify those differences and permits developing mechanisms equalising those inequalities. It should be remembered that those measures may have certain drawbacks, and they mainly focus on certain specific values of income redistribution. Thereby several measures should be applied in measurements and the obtained results should be compared. There are no up-to-date measurements and comparisons of horizontal fiscal imbalance among countries.. The aim of this paper is to measure horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany, especially after reunification, which represents one of two models of federalism. At the beginning it shows the static and dynamic measurements presented in the literature that can be used to measure the horizontal fiscal imbalance. And then it is followed by the results of calculations for Germany in the period 1970-2013. As expected, horizontal imbalance was much lower before than after the reunification of Germany. After the reunification there were large disparities between "old" and "new" länder. This imbalance is gradually reduced. In comparison with the results obtained for the USA [Kowalik 2014, pp. 144-148] it can be said that in Germany the disparities are much smaller between länder than in the United States between the individual states.

  8. Law And Economics In Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kirstein, Roland

    1997-01-01

    Law and economics in Germany was dominated by regulation, competition, and ?German Ordnungspolitik? until the early 1970s. Since then, German scholars have published a broad body of work in German and in the English language, covering fields like contract law, environmental law, labor law, public law, bankruptcy law, constitutional economics and legal procedure. Also in the 1970s, teaching activities were started at German universities. In addition to this, several (bi)annual conferences on l...

  9. RIO Country Report Germany 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Sofka, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The report offers an analysis of the R&I system in Germany for 2014, including relevant policies and funding, with particular focus on topics critical for two EU policies: the European Research Area and the Innovation Union. The report was prepared according to a set of guidelines for collecting and analysing a range of materials, including policy documents, statistics, evaluation reports, websites etc. The report identifies the structural challenges of the German research and innovation syst...

  10. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  11. Toward a better understanding of the fluid circulation in the Rhine Graben for a better geothermal exploration of the deep basins.

    OpenAIRE

    Dezayes, Chrystel; LEROUGE, Catherine; Sanjuan, Bernard,; Ramboz, Claire; Brach, Michel

    2015-01-01

    In the Upper Rhine Graben, geothermal projects are strongly under development, particularly for the exploitation of fluid in the deeper part of the basin. This type of reservoirs constitutes a fractured dominated system. However, the hydraulic behaviour of the fracture netwo rk is poorly known and its knowledge constitutes an important way to better target the exploration works. Combining data from structural analysis, mineralogical analysis of fracture filling from outcrops and drilling core...

  12. Persistent traditions : a long-term perspective on communities in the process of Neolithisation in the Lower Rhine Area (5500-2500 cal BC)

    OpenAIRE

    Amkreutz, Luc Winand Sophia Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of agriculture is one of the major developments in human history. Archaeological studies have demonstrated that the trajectories of Neolithisation in Northwest Europe were diverse. This book presents a study into the archaeology of the indigenous communities involved in the process of Neolithisation in the Lower Rhine Area (5500-2500 cal BC). It elucidates the role played by these in relation to their environmental context. This work brings together a comprehensive array of e...

  13. Structure of hydrothermal convection in the Upper Rhine Graben as inferred from corrected temperature data and basin-scale numerical models

    OpenAIRE

    Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Carré, Clément; Bourgine, Bernard; Bouchot, Vincent; Genter, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal anomalies in sedimentary basins are strongly controlled by fluid circulation within permeable zones. This study presents a new compilation of newly corrected bottom-hole temperature data in the French part of the Upper Rhine Graben, where the Soultz-sous-Forêts temperature anomaly is locked beneath a local horst structure. After a geostatistically constrained interpolation procedure, maps and cross-sections are extracted from the 3D thermal block, together with the associated stand...

  14. Impact of decreasing water demand on bank filtration in Saxony, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Grischek, T.; D. Schoenheinz; Syhre, C.; K. Saupe

    2010-01-01

    Bank filtration has been of main importance for the drinking water supply in Germany for many decades. The water quality of pumped raw water from bank filtration sites depends to a high degree on the water quality of the infiltrating surface water and the landside groundwater, the mixing portion of both as well as the flow and transport conditions in the aquifer. Since the improvement of river water quality and a drastic decrease in water demand during the last 15 years in Germany, the influe...

  15. Country report for Germany [Fast reactors in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The primary energy consumption in Germany in 2005 was about 492.6 MtSKE in total. The distribution on the main energy sources is: mineral oil: 36.4%, natural gas 22.4%, black coal 13.5%, brown coal 11.4%, nuclear energy 12.6%, water and wind 1.2%, others 2.5%. The net electricity production in Germany in 2005 was about 495.9 billion kWh. The distribution is: nuclear energy 32%, lignite coal 28.9%, black coal 23.1%, oil 0.2%, natural gas 9.1%, water 4.7%, others (being biomass, photovoltaics, wind) 2.0%. In 2005, 18 nuclear power plants were in operation in Germany. In May 2005 the KWO Obrigheim was closed due to the new Atomic law which fixes the phase out of nuclear power production. The net installed nuclear power was 20.7GWel, the net nuclear electricity production was 163TWh, the time availability was 88%. Nuclear makes up for about 50% of the base-load electricity production in Germany. In absolute numbers, Germany is number 5 in nuclear electricity production. Among the top ten nuclear power plants world-wide, in 2005 there were 7 German plants including the plant with the highest amount of electricity produced, being NPP Brokdorf with 1440MWel and 11.98TWhel. The net electricity output of the nuclear power plants is constantly increasing due to power upgrading and higher time availabilities. As for the renewable energies, there is no significant absolute increase except for wind. About 50% of the government support for renewable energies from the Environmental Ministry goes to photovoltaics. The Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (HGF), summarising 15 national research centres, 24.000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2,1 billion Euro is the largest research organisation in Germany. The HGF identifies and works on complex and urgent questions of society, science and economy, especially concentrating on systems of high complexity. There are six research areas, being energy, earth and environment, health, key technologies, structure of matter, traffic and space. Within energy, there are four programmes: efficient energy conversion, fusion technology, nuclear safety research, renewable energies. - In 2005/2006, there was an evaluation of the research programme and long-term future of FZK by an internationally composed Perspective Commission set up by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The Commission supports the concentration of FZK on 3 columns: energy (?50%), including the effects of energy use on the atmosphere and climate, nano- and microtechnology (33%) and astroparticle physics (17%). Becoming the preeminent energy laboratory for Germany, it should take the lead in developing an energy R and D strategy for Germany including the aspect of societal understanding and acceptance of new energy sources. It is recommended that FZK should be the German liaison to the international R and D effort on Generation IV fission reactors. However, this recommendation still needs the approval of the German government. As for nuclear energy research, the Alliance for Competence in Nuclear Technology set up a consistent and efficiency nuclear R and D programme including all nuclear stake holders in Germany. In this context, some seven heads of nuclear institutes (e.g. nuclear technology, reactor physics, actinide chemistry, repository research) are presently being replaced. This is in line with a survey of 2004 which set the need for about 6300 academic nuclear personnel in 2010, out of which about 2000 have to be newly positioned. Having the decision for an EPR in Finland this number of required academics is even increasing. German nuclear institutions are involved in all major international programmes and projects in the areas of reactor safety, partitioning and transmutation, and waste disposal. Due to the research-political conditions, a German contribution to the Generation IV Initiative using government budget is not yet possible. (author)

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of river nitrogen exports from major basins in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Chaopu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2013-09-01

    Provincial-level data for population, livestock, land use, economic growth, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment rates were used to construct a river nitrogen (N) export model in this paper. Despite uncertainties, our results indicated that river N export to coastal waters increased from 531 to 1,244 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Changjiang River basin, 107 to 223 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Huanghe River basin, and 412 to 1,219 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Zhujiang River basin from 1980 to 2010 as a result of rapid population and economic growth. Significant temporal changes in water N sources showed that as the percentage of runoff from croplands increased, contributions of natural system runoff and rural human and livestock excreta decreased in the three basins from 1980 to 2010. Moreover, the nonpoint source N decreased from 72 to 58 % in the Changjiang River basin, 80 to 67 % in the Huanghe River basin, and 69 to 51 % in the Zhujiang River basin, while the contributions of point sources increased greatly during the same period. Estimated results indicated that the N concentrations in the Changjiang, Huanghe, and Zhujiang rivers during 1980-2004 were higher than those in the St. Lawrence River in Canada and lower than those in the Thames, Donau, Rhine, Seine, and Han rivers during the same period. River N export will reduce by 58, 54, and 57 % for the Changjiang River, Huanghe River, and Zhujiang River in the control scenario in 2050 compared with the basic scenario. PMID:23608986

  17. Hospitalizations during the last months of life of nursing home residents: a retrospective cohort study from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Specht-Leible Norbert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe hospitalisations of nursing home (NH residents in Germany during their last months of life. Methods Retrospective cohort study on 792 NH residents in the Rhine-Neckar region in South-West Germany, newly institutionalized in the year 2000, who died until the study end (December 2001. Baseline variables were derived from a standardized medical examination routinely conducted by the medical service of the health care insurance plans in Germany. Information on hospitalisations and deaths was extracted form records of the pertinent health insurance plans. Results NH residents who died after NH stay of more than 1 year spent 5.8% of their last year of life in hospitals. Relative time spent in hospitals increased from 5.2% twelve months before death (N = 139 persons to 24.1% in their last week of life (N = 769 persons. No major differences could be observed concerning age, gender or duration of stay in NH. Overall, 229 persons (28.9% died in hospital. Among these, the last hospital stay lasted less than 3 days for 76 persons (31.9%. Another 25 persons (3.2% died within three days after hospital discharge. Conclusion Our study indicates that proximity of death is the most important driver of health care utilization among NH residents. The relation of age or gender to health care expenditures seem to be weak once time to death is controlled for. Duration of NH stay does not markedly change rates of hospitalisation during the last months of life.

  18. Latent resonance in tidal rivers, with applications to River Elbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Jan O.

    2015-11-01

    We describe a systematic investigation of resonance in tidal rivers, and of river oscillations influenced by resonance. That is, we explore the grey-zone between absent and fully developed resonance. Data from this study are the results of a one-dimensional numerical channel model applied to a four-dimensional parameter space comprising geometry, i.e. length and depths of rivers, and varying dissipation and forcing. Similarity of real rivers and channels from parameter space is obtained with the help of a 'run-time depth'. We present a model-channel, which reproduces tidal oscillations of River Elbe in Hamburg, Germany with accuracy of a few centimetres. The parameter space contains resonant regions and regions with 'latent resonance'. The latter defines tidal oscillations that are elevated yet not in full but juvenile resonance. Dissipation reduces amplitudes of resonance while creating latent resonance. That is, energy of resonance radiates into areas in parameter space where periods of Eigen-oscillations are well separated from the period of the forcing tide. Increased forcing enhances the re-distribution of resonance in parameter space. The River Elbe is diagnosed as being in a state of anthropogenic latent resonance as a consequence of ongoing deepening by dredging. Deepening the river, in conjunction with the expected sea level rise, will inevitably cause increasing tidal ranges. As a rule of thumb, we found that 1 m deepening would cause 0.5 m increase in tidal range.

  19. Seismic risk mapping for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagunov, S.; Grünthal, G.; Wahlström, R.; L. Stempniewski; Zschau, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and map the seismic risk for Germany, restricted to the expected losses of damage to residential buildings. There are several earthquake prone regions in the country which have produced Mw magnitudes above 6 and up to 6.7 corresponding to observed ground shaking intensity up to VIII–IX (EMS-98). Combined with the fact that some of the earthquake prone areas are densely populated and highly industrialized and where therefore the hazard coincides with hi...

  20. Seismic risk mapping for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagunov, S.; Grünthal, G.; Wahlström, R.; L. Stempniewski; Zschau, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and map the seismic risk for Germany, restricted to the expected losses of damage to residential buildings. There are several earthquake prone regions in the country which have produced Mw magnitudes above 6 and up to 6.7 corresponding to observed ground shaking intensity up to VIII?IX (EMS-98). Combined with the fact that some of the earthquake prone areas are densely populated and highly industrialized and where therefore the hazard coincides with high con...

  1. A consistent magnetic polarity stratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene fluvial sediments from the Heidelberg Basin (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Stephanie; Hambach, Ulrich; Rolf, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Deep drillings in the Heidelberg Basins provide access to one of the thickest and most complete successions of Quaternary and Upper Pliocene continental sediments in Central-Europe [1]. In absence of any comprehensive chronostratigraphic model, these sediments are so far classified by lithological and hydrogeological criteria. Therefore the age of this sequence is still controversially discussed ([1], [2]). In spite of the fact that fluvial sediments are a fundamental challenge for the application of magnetic polarity stratigraphy we performed a thorough study on four drilling cores (from Heidelberg, Ludwigshafen and nearby Viernheim). Here, we present the results from the analyses of these cores, which yield to a consistent chronostratigraphic framework. The components of natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) were separated by alternating field and thermal demagnetisation techniques and the characteristic remanent magnetisations (ChRM) were isolated by principle component analysis [3]. Due to the coring technique solely inclination data of the ChRM is used for the determination of the magnetic polarity stratigraphy. Rock magnetic proxies were applied to identify the carriers of the remanent magnetisation. The investigations prove the NRM as a stable, largely primary magnetisation acquired shortly after deposition (PDRM). The Matuyama-Gauss boundary is clearly defined by a polarity change in each core, as suggested in previous work [4]. These findings are in good agreement with the biostratigraphic definition of the base of the Quaternary ([5], [6], [7]). The Brunhes-Matuyama boundary could be identified in core Heidelberg UniNord 1 and 2 only. Consequently, the position of the Jaramillo and Olduvai subchron can be inferred from the lithostratigraphy and the development of fluvial facies architecture in the Rhine system. The continuation of the magnetic polarity stratigraphy into the Gilbert chron (Upper Pliocene) allows alternative correlation schemes for the cores Viernheim and Heidelberg. All things considered, the application of magnetic polarity stratigraphy on Pliocene and Pleistocene fluvial sediments from the Heidelberg Basin provides a consistent and independent chronology and opens the perspective for global correlations where other approaches hardly come to results. [1] GABRIEL, G., ELLWANGER, D., HOSELMANN, C. & WEIDENFELLER, M. 2008. Preface: The HeidelbergBasin Drilling Project. E & G (Quaternary Science Journal), 57, 253-260. [2] ELLWANGER, D. & WIELAND-SCHUSTER, U. 2012. Fotodokumentation und Schichtenverzeichnis der Forschungsbohrungen Heidelberg UniNord I und II. LGRB-Informationen, 26, 25-86. [3] KIRSCHVINK, J. L. 1980. The least-squares line and plane and the analysis of palaeomagnetic data. Geophysical Journal, Royal Astronomical Society, 62, 699-718. [4] ROLF, C., HAMBACH, U. & WEIDENFELLER, M. 2008. Rock and palaeomagnetic evidence for the Plio-/Pleistocene palaeoclimatic change recorded in Upper Rhine Graben sediments (Core Ludwigshafen-Parkinsel), Neth. J. Geosci., 87 (1), 41-50. [5] KNIPPING, M. 2008. Early and Middle Pleistocene pollen assemblages of deep core drillings in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany, Neth. J. Geosci., 87(1), 51-65. [6] HEUMANN, G., pers. Comm. [7] HAHNE, J., pers. Comm.

  2. Wage Mobility in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    RIPHAHN, Regina T.; Schnitzlein, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the long run patterns and explanations of wage mobility as a characteristic of regional labor markets. Using German administrative data we describe wage mobility since 1975 in West and since 1992 in East Germany. Wage mobility declined substantially in East Germany in the 1990s and moderately in East and West Germany since the late 1990s. Therefore, wage mobility does not balance recent increases in cross-sectional wage inequality. We apply RIF (recentered influence funct...

  3. SEMINATURAL SILVICULTURE IN SOUTHWEST GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spathelf

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A brief historical overview shows the mainstream development pattern in German silviculture and outlines the adjacent role of seminatural (naturally-oriented silviculture. The rationale for seminatural silviculture is discussed with reference to its ecological and economical aspects. Elements of seminatural silviculture of the Baden-Württemberg-concept are introduced. This concept is not purely a preservation strategy, but recognizes the importance of timber production. Some aspects of selection forest, which is a special case of uneven-aged forest with a long tradition in Southwest Germany, are discussed. As there are still a lot of even-aged (pure forests in Southwest Germany, transformation strategies towards uneven-aged mixed forests are shown with the aid of some examples. Criteria and indicators for seminatural silviculture which have to be developed on a regional or local scale, can be used as a basis for establishing a certification process for Southwest German forests. Seminatural silviculture is suited as a rational and  intergrating  silvicultural     system      to     fulfill     future     requirements     on     forests     in    a    dynamically changing world.

  4. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO2, representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  5. Seismic risk mapping for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tyagunov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess and map the seismic risk for Germany, restricted to the expected losses of damage to residential buildings. There are several earthquake prone regions in the country which have produced Mw magnitudes above 6 and up to 6.7 corresponding to observed ground shaking intensity up to VIII–IX (EMS-98. Combined with the fact that some of the earthquake prone areas are densely populated and highly industrialized and where therefore the hazard coincides with high concentration of exposed assets, the damaging implications from earthquakes must be taken seriously. In this study a methodology is presented and pursued to calculate the seismic risk from (1 intensity based probabilistic seismic hazard, (2 vulnerability composition models, which are based on the distribution of residential buildings of various structural types in representative communities and (3 the distribution of assets in terms of replacement costs for residential buildings. The estimates of the risk are treated as primary economic losses due to structural damage to residential buildings. The obtained results are presented as maps of the damage and risk distributions. For a probability level of 90% non-exceedence in 50 years (corresponding to a mean return period of 475 years the mean damage ratio is up to 20% and the risk up to hundreds of millions of euro in the most endangered communities. The developed models have been calibrated with observed data from several damaging earthquakes in Germany and the nearby area in the past 30 years.

  6. Seismic risk mapping for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagunov, S.; Grünthal, G.; Wahlström, R.; Stempniewski, L.; Zschau, J.

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and map the seismic risk for Germany, restricted to the expected losses of damage to residential buildings. There are several earthquake prone regions in the country which have produced Mw magnitudes above 6 and up to 6.7 corresponding to observed ground shaking intensity up to VIII-IX (EMS-98). Combined with the fact that some of the earthquake prone areas are densely populated and highly industrialized and where therefore the hazard coincides with high concentration of exposed assets, the damaging implications from earthquakes must be taken seriously. In this study a methodology is presented and pursued to calculate the seismic risk from (1) intensity based probabilistic seismic hazard, (2) vulnerability composition models, which are based on the distribution of residential buildings of various structural types in representative communities and (3) the distribution of assets in terms of replacement costs for residential buildings. The estimates of the risk are treated as primary economic losses due to structural damage to residential buildings. The obtained results are presented as maps of the damage and risk distributions. For a probability level of 90% non-exceedence in 50 years (corresponding to a mean return period of 475 years) the mean damage ratio is up to 20% and the risk up to hundreds of millions of euro in the most endangered communities. The developed models have been calibrated with observed data from several damaging earthquakes in Germany and the nearby area in the past 30 years.

  7. Chronic Traffic-Induced PM Exposure and Self-Reported Respiratory and Cardiovascular Health in the RHINE Tartu Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Orru

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between exposure to traffic induced particles, respiratory health and cardiac diseases was studied in the RHINE Tartu cohort. A postal questionnaire with commonly used questions regarding respiratory symptoms, cardiac disease, lifestyle issues such as smoking habits, indoor environment, occupation, early life exposure and sleep disorders was sent to 2,460 adults. The annual concentrations of local traffic induced particles were modelled with an atmospheric dispersion model with traffic flow data, and obtained PMexhaust concentrations in 40 × 40 m grids were linked with home addresses with GIS. The relationship between the level of exhaust particles outside home and self-reported health problems were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression model. We found a significant relation between fine exhaust particles and cardiac disease, OR = 1.64 (95% CI 1.12–2.43 for increase in PMexhaust corresponding to the fifth to the 95th percentile range. The associations also were positive but non-significant for hypertension OR = 1.42 (95% CI 0.94–2.13, shortness of breath OR = 1.27 (95% CI 0.84–1.94 and other respiratory symptoms.

  8. Future changes in extreme precipitation in the Rhine basin based on global and regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, S. C.; Beersma, J. J.; Buishand, T. A.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Kabat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Probability estimates of the future change of extreme precipitation events are usually based on a limited number of available global climate model (GCM) or regional climate model (RCM) simulations. Since floods are related to heavy precipitation events, this restricts the assessment of flood risks. In this study a relatively simple method has been developed to get a better description of the range of changes in extreme precipitation events. Five bias-corrected RCM simulations of the 1961-2100 climate for a single greenhouse gas emission scenario (A1B SRES) were available for the Rhine basin. To increase the size of this five-member RCM ensemble, 13 additional GCM simulations were analysed. The climate responses of the GCMs are used to modify an observed (1961-1995) precipitation time series with an advanced delta change approach. Changes in the temporal means and variability are taken into account. It is found that the range of future change of extreme precipitation across the five-member RCM ensemble is similar to results from the 13-member GCM ensemble. For the RCM ensemble, the time series modification procedure also results in a similar climate response compared to the signal deduced from the direct model simulations. The changes from the individual RCM simulations, however, systematically differ from those of the driving GCMs, especially for long return periods.

  9. Passenger comfort on the new Cologne Rhine/Main high-speed line; Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecke Koeln-Rhein/Main

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, J.; Lay, E.; Beck, A. [DB Netz AG, Produktmanagement Technik, Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The new high-speed Cologne-Rhine/Main railway line was integrated in Deutsche Bahn's network when it entered service in June 2002. No other line in the world equals it in terms of the 'toughness' of its layout parameters. Now there is documented confirmation that the ride comfort is as good as expected, even at speeds of up to 300 km/h, with tight curves, maximum cants and maximum gradients. It seemed an obvious thing to do to combine the line's entry into service with the launch of a project at DB Netz aimed at analyzing and appraising the new line. After four years of operation, the salient values measured in practice are now available. All these confirm the fundamental correctness of the decision to equip the new line with slab track. Despite the tough layout parameters, ride comfort is very good at a speed of 300 km/h. The forces and accelerations measured in vehicle bodies and wheels are relatively low and document a low overall load situation. (orig.)

  10. [Gender mainstreaming in health policies and health services. Preconditions, structures and requirements for success: the example North Rhine Westphalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M

    2008-01-01

    By building up an integrated framework of political initiatives, distribution of specific knowledge, consulting, networking and tools for gender mainstreaming, the state of North Rhine Westphalia was successful in integrating a gender perspective into the health system from 2001 to 2006. The process developed in concentric circles--starting with women's rights initiatives, then reaching health politics--and has meanwhile reached health services. Important determinants for success were (1) statewide campaigns and offers of gender-specific consulting that distributed the topic to the city level and health services, (2) the linking of gender mainstreaming and the debate about quality in health services, (3) referring to specific health requirements or health problems of women or men and (4) a precise definition of 'sex' and 'gender'. A difficulty in implementing gender-sensitive approaches in the health system is seen in connecting specific medical or public health knowledge with the more general gender competence. To further promote gender sensibility, gender knowledge and gender-specific approaches to health and illness, an integration of gender mainstreaming tools into strategies and tools of project or quality management is proposed. PMID:18185971

  11. Future changes in extreme precipitation in the Rhine basin based on global and regional climate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. van Pelt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Probability estimates of the future change of extreme precipitation events are usually based on a limited number of available global climate model (GCM or regional climate model (RCM simulations. Since floods are related to heavy precipitation events, this restricts the assessment of flood risks. In this study a relatively simple method has been developed to get a better description of the range of changes in extreme precipitation events. Five bias-corrected RCM simulations of the 1961–2100 climate for a single greenhouse gas emission scenario (A1B SRES were available for the Rhine basin. To increase the size of this five-member RCM ensemble, 13 additional GCM simulations were analysed. The climate responses of the GCMs are used to modify an observed (1961–1995 precipitation time series with an advanced delta change approach. Changes in the temporal means and variability are taken into account. It is found that the range of future change of extreme precipitation across the five-member RCM ensemble is similar to results from the 13-member GCM ensemble. For the RCM ensemble, the time series modification procedure also results in a similar climate response compared to the signal deduced from the direct model simulations. The changes from the individual RCM simulations, however, systematically differ from those of the driving GCMs, especially for long return periods.

  12. The environmental agency of North-Rhine-Westphalia. Annual report 1995; Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen. Jahresbericht `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The annual reports of the environmental agency of North-Rhine-Westphalia periodically inform on topics, developments and events. In its choice of technical topics, the agency was guided by the following aspects: topicality, significance for workers in this technical field and, especially, general technical interest. Consequently, this volume is not a report of activities but provides insight into the work of the agency, stimulates cooperation and helps to establish and intensify connections. The short papers fall into the subject categories water, soil, atmosphere, technical systems and information systems, permitting rapid survey. The subjects of the longer contributions were chosen right across the entire range of activities of the environmental agency. Aspects relating to several media of course had an influence on this choice. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Jahresberichte des Landesumweltamtes NRW geben periodisch eine Uebersicht ueber Themen, Entwicklungen und Ereignisse. Bei der Auswahl der Fachthemen laesst sich das Landesumweltamt von der Aktualitaet, der Bedeutung fuer die Fachwelt und auch von dem allgemeinen Fachinteresse leiten. Dieser Jahresbericht `95 ist somit kein Rechenschaftsbericht, sondern gibt Einblick in die Arbeit, soll zur Zusammenarbeit anregen, vielfaeltige fachliche Verbindungen knuepfen und festigen. Zur besseren Uebersichtlichkeit sind die Kurzbeitraege gegliedert in: Wasser, Boden, Luft, Technik und Informationssysteme. Die Hauptbeitraege setzen Schwerpunkte `quer durch das Landesumweltamt`, bei denen natuerlich medienuebergreifende Gesichtspunkte eine Rolle gespielt haben. (orig./SR)

  13. Space-time variability of floods across Germany: Gradual trends, step changes and fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Bruno; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Schröter, Kai

    2015-04-01

    The space-time variability of flood magnitude and frequency across Germany at the interannual and decadal time scale is analyzed and interpreted. The analyses are based on flood time series of 68 catchments for a joint period of 74 years. The catchments are distributed across Germany and show different flood regimes. Different statistical tests are applied to investigate different types of flood changes: gradual trends, step changes and fluctuations. In addition, changes in the mean behavior and in the variability are studied. A focus is placed on the spatial stability of changes, i.e. answering the question to which extent flood changes are coherent across Germany. The joint analysis of changes for a large number of catchments allows interpreting the causes of the observed changes. For instance, climate-related flood changes are expected to show a different behavior than changes caused by river training or land-use change.

  14. The severe hailstorm in Germany on 28 July 2013: Characteristics and meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Michael; Blahak, Ulrich; Handwerker, Jan; Schmidberger, Manuel; Mohr, Susanna; Jürgen Punge, Heinz; Fluck, Elody; Mühr, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    At the end of July 2013, a series of violent thunderstorms with large hail, severe gusts and heavy rain affected several parts of Germany. These storms were triggered by pre-frontal convergence zones that formed within unstable air masses ahead of a low pressure system named Andreas. They marked the end of a short, but intense heat wave with temperatures up to 38°C. On 28 July, two supercell thunderstorms formed in the Rhine valley upstream of the Black Forest Mountains and moved almost parallel over the Swabian Jura and Bavaria. While the northern cell was weaker, the southern cell substantially intensified in the first hours and created hailstones with diameters of up to 8 cm. The hail fell mainly over a heavily populated region between the cities of Reutlingen and Tübingen with a high concentration of exposed assets. The track of that supercell ended in the north of Czech Republic and had a length of 500 km. Approximately 80,000 buildings were severely damaged by this major hailstorm. In total, insured loss was estimated to amount around 2 bn EURO, which is even higher than that related to the June flood in Germany in the same year. In this paper we investigate the temporal evolution and the characteristics of the most damaging supercell on 28 July by combining different data from remote sensing instruments such as radar, satellite, and lightning detection systems with ground-based observations and reports from eye-witnesses and a crop insurance company. Additional simulations with the Consortium for Small Scale Modelling COSMO-DE model with different setups reveal the important role of the cold pool for the triggering of the most severe hail cell. It will be shown that a major problem for simulating the storm was its initiation, while, once triggered artificially by 'warm bubbles', its track could be simulated rather well over several hours. Moreover, the operational COSMO version has some problems to simulate the observed reflectivity structure of the hailstorm, while a two-moment microphysical scheme yields results in very good agreement to the observations. Finally, a historical context is provided by comparing that event with other severe hailstorms that occurred over recent decades in Germany.

  15. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km2. Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km2, tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km2). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The implementation of the measures will cover a period of 15 to 20 years depending on the site. The necessary expenses are carried by the Federal Government and estimated to amount to about EUR 6.5 billion. In addition the Federal Republic of Germany inherited 6 operating NPPs of soviet design from the former GDR. Comprehensive safety analyses after the German reunification arrived at the conclusion that they did not correspond to Western German safety standards. They had to be shut down in 1990. As the power industry was not prepared to carry the financial risks of backfitting and re-licensing the reactors, the Federal Republic of Germany took over the liabilities. The aim is to finish the decommissioning activities around the year 2012. The total costs for dismantling the plants and storing the resulting waste are estimated to amount to about EUR 3.1 billion

  16. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  17. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R; Heredia Montesinos, A; Aichberger, M C; Kleiber, D; Schouler-Ocak, M; Heinz, A; Kastrup, M C; Rapp, M A

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  18. The Corporate University Landscape in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  19. Waste management strategy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Republic of Germany intends to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The Federal Government made a pronounced change in energy policy since 1998, the most important feature of which is phasing out of nuclear energy, finally set in force by the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. According to the new approach to waste management and disposal, further sites in various host rocks shall be investigated for their suitability based on repository site selection criteria and respective procedures developed by a special expert group. The objective of the site selection procedure is to identify with public participation potential disposal sites in a comprehensible and reliable way. (author)

  20. Climate of Germany. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The series of publications ''Climate in Germany'' provides readers with tables, maps and a detailed narrative on the most important elements of climate in one issue each. It is because of the scope of the entire work that separate issues are produced. Parts already published are nos. 1 and 2 (23) (11), which deal with the element of precipitation, and part 3 (14), which describes the element of air temperature. The spatial distribution of fog frequency described in this volume gives an excellent overview on differences in the mesoscale climate with its seasonal variations in relation to small areas. In order to assess them properly, the publication deals first of all with the observations carried through by the German Weather Service with the problems they pose, as well as the further editing work they required. (orig./KW)

  1. Children's "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Susan; Shields, Linda; O'Donnell, Alison J

    2009-12-01

    Children with disabilities were killed during the Nazi era, often by nurses. Some nurses killed children, saying that they were under orders. Propaganda about the need for "racial purity" was all pervasive and influenced much of the population, including nurses. The German people accepted the "mercy" killing of children with disabilities. We describe the children's "euthanasia" program, explore the influence of propaganda, ask why it was acceptable to kill children, and provide historical context demonstrating "slippery slopes" which can lead to abrogation of ethical principles. Discussion of such history is essential as the ethical principles which were breached are still the cornerstone of nursing practice today. Only by openly discussing past wrongs can we attempt to ensure that they do not happen again. Archival documents from Germany and Israel, including trial depositions and transcripts, provided material, supplemented by secondary classic sources. PMID:19931148

  2. Analysis and management of low flows in small catchments of Brandenburg, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Water management and environmental protection is vulnerable to extreme low flows during streamflow droughts. During the last decades, in most rivers of Central Europe summer runoff and low flows have decreased. Discharge projections agree that future decrease in runoff is likely for catchments in Brandenburg, Germany. Depending on the first-order controls on low flows, different adaption measures are expected to be appropriate. Small catchments were analyzed because they are expected to be m...

  3. Dam break during the flood in Saxony/Germany in August 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Bornschein, Antje; Pohl, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The heavy rainfall event in August 2002 in Saxony/Germany caused the break of a flood retaining basin in a valley of the Erzgebirge Mountains. The rainfall event with ists hyrologic characteristics and dam break event were analysed and an outflow hydrograph was determing. The propagation of the dam break flood wave in the valleyas of the Briesnitz and Müglitz Rivers has been simulated. Calculated values were compared with some observed data.

  4. Management of Chamois in Bavaria (Germany): The Importance of Game Activities in Scabies Control

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas König; Andreas Grauer

    2009-01-01

    In Bavaria (Germany), scabies was registered for the first time in the year 1824 among the chamois population of the Berchtesgaden region, and disappeared 6 years later. For the next 119 years, the chamois populations in the Bavarian Alps seemed not to be infected by scabies. But in 1949 scabies occurred again in the Bavarian chamois populations east of the River Inn, with origin in the Berchtesgaden region. Scabies has been recorded repeatedly since then. Whereas between 1949 and the early 1...

  5. The loess-paleosol profile Datthausen, on the penultimate-glacial terrace of the upper Danube River: Luminescence dating and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadereit, Annette; Sauer, Daniela; Kühn, Peter; Herrmann, Ludger; Kösel, Michael; Miller, Christopher; Shinonaga, Taeko; Kreutzer, Sebastian; Starkovich, Britt

    2015-04-01

    The loess-paleosol profile Datthausen is situated on the penultimate-glacial (Würmian) terrace of the upper Danube River in southern Germany. The sequence of reworked, mostly sandy loess deposits exhibits brownish, loamy paleosols in its lower part and slightly de-carbonated and hydromorphic horizons in its upper part. The stratigraphic bisection is interpreted as the transition from the terrestrial Middle Pleniglacial (Middle Würmian) to the Upper Pleniglacial (Upper Würmian). This interpretation is supported by the observation that the upper two of the loamy paleosols show an olive tint and features of sediment reworking at the top (see Sauer et al. in this session). A similar stratigraphic pattern was observed in other central European loess-paleosol sections (Schönhals et al. 1964, E&G 15: 199-206) and was recently corroborated for, e.g., Nussloch on the Upper Rhine and Schwalbenberg II on the Middle Rhine (Antoine et al. 2009, QSR 28: 2955-2973; Schirmer 2012, E&G 61: 32-47). However, the chronometric position of the terrestrial Middle Pleniglacial to Upper Pleniglacial (MPG/UPG) transition is still under debate, as are the palaeoclimatic triggers controlling loess and soil formation. Valuable information hereon may be gained by matching the terrestrial chronologies with the marine and Greenland ice-core records. The chronometry of the Datthausen section is based on blue-light stimulated luminescence (BLSL) dating of small aliquots (ca. 200-500 grains) of quartz coarse grains (125-212 µm), using a single-aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol (Murray & Wintle 2000, Rad. Meas. 32: 57-73) and a minimum-age model (Galbraith et al. 1999, Archaeometry 41: 339-364). Formation of the paleosols was likely promoted during the warmer Greenland Interstadials (GIS). Luminescence dating on samples taken from these paleosols determines the time of sediment deposition that preceded the soil formation in the respective sediment. We sampled two horizons below and three horizons above the MPG/UPG-boundary. A BLSL-age around ca. 37-35 ka for the lowermost sampled paleosol (6Bg5) suggests soil formation during a period matching GIS7 to GIS5. Therefore, the paleosol could conform to the Lohne Soil at Nussloch and Schwalbenberg II. A BLSL-age around ca. 29 ka for the uppermost MPG-palaeosol (5Bg4) may indicate soil formation during GIS4 or GIS3. Fragments of snail shells in the lowermost dated UPG-horizon (3Bw1) point to a reworked soil sediment. BLSL-dating yielded an age around ca. 26-27 ka. Therefore, at Datthausen the MPG/UPG transition appears to conform to the transition from marine/oxygen isotope stage (MIS/OIS) 3 to 2. De-carbonated horizon 2Bg1 (around ca. 23 ka) may possibly match GIS2. Hydromorphic horizon Cg2 (around ca. 22 ka) fits in a later period of the last glacial maximum (LGM). Correlations between the loess-paleosol sequence and ice-core records are challenging as the luminescence ages have uncertainties of ca. 10 % (1-sigma). Further, the sediments appear partially bleached and, partly affected by bio- or cryturbation. Overall, the chronometry fits to the field observations and the results of the pedological analyses, but the MPG/UPG transition appears to start slightly later than at Nussloch and Schwalbenberg II, where it precedes the MIS3/MIS2 boundary.

  6. Future changes in extreme precipitation in the Rhine basin based on global and regional climate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. van Pelt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Probability estimates of the future change of extreme precipitation events are usually based on a limited number of available Global Climate Model (GCM or Regional Climate Model (RCM simulations. Since floods are related to heavy precipitation events, this restricts the assessment of flood risks. In this study a relatively simple method has been developed to get a better picture of the range of changes in extreme precipitation events. Five bias corrected RCM simulations of the 1971–2100 climate for a single greenhouse gas emission scenario (A1B SRES were available for the Rhine basin. To increase the size of this five-member RCM ensemble, 13 additional GCM simulations were analysed. The climate responses of the GCMs are used to modify an observed (1961–1995 precipitation/temperature time series with an advanced delta change approach. Changes in the temporal means and variability are taken into account. Time series resampling was applied to extend 35-yr GCM and RCM time-slices to 3000-yr series to estimate extreme precipitation with return periods up to 1000 yr. It is found that the range of future change of extreme precipitation across the five-member RCM ensemble is similar to results from the 13-member GCM ensemble. For the RCM ensemble, the time series modification procedure also resulted in a similar climate response compared to the signal deduced from the direct model simulations. The changes from the individual RCM simulations, however, systematically differ from those of the driving GCMs, especially for long return periods.

  7. 3D fracture zon network in the crystalline geothermal reservoir of Soultz-sous-Forêts (Upper Rhine Graben, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezayes, C.; Sausse, J.; Genter, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Soultz experimental geothermal site is located in the French part of the Upper Rhine Graben, nearby its western regional boundary fault. The structure of the granite reservoir is constituted by both a nearly vertical major fracture zone network, connected to a dense network of small-scale fractures. Fracture zones are complex brecciated and fractured zones having irregular shape. The permeability of these fracture zones could be enhanced by hydraulic/chemical stimulations. They constitute the major pathways and their characterization is of prime importance for the reservoir knowledge. Based on borehole data of the Soultz geothermal site, 39 fracture zones have been characterized in six wells between 1400 and 5000m depth. The direction of the major set of fracture zone is N160°E±10° with high dip westward and eastward. These fracture zones are spatially concentrated in three clusters with depth. The upper cluster at 1800-2000m TVD (True Vertical Depth) is highly naturally permeable and mainly dipping to the East. At 3000-3400m TVD, the intermediate cluster constitutes a dense network developed in an altered matrix and constituted the upper reservoir. In the lower part of the wells, the deeper cluster appears as a fractured reservoir corresponding to isolated discrete faults developed within a low permeable matrix at about 4500-5000m TVD. In the two deep clusters, fracture zones are mainly dipping to the West. The geometry of these fracture zones has been integrated in a 3D model, in addition with the location of induced microseismicity as well as structures derived from vertical seismic profile (VSP) data interpretation. This 3D representation allows correlating geophysical and geological data in order to illustrate the complexity of 3D fracture network in crystalline rocks characterized at borehole scale (meter) and extended in 3D at reservoir scale (kilometer).

  8. Analysis of GIS data to investigate natural resource impacts of high-voltage overhead lines in the examples in Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe shortly Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia as study areas and the legal framework, both in the context of natural resource impacts of high-voltage overhead lines. We then conduct the buffer analysis of a GIS dataset in order to investigate natural resource impacts of existing high-voltage overhead lines in the two mentioned study areas. The paper is based upon the first results of the interdisciplinary research and development project ''Power Network Planning'' funded as part of the 6th Energy research program ''Research for an environmentally friendly, reliable and affordable energy supply'' by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). (orig.)

  9. Risk management of the mining authority of North Rhine-Westphalia for left daily openings of the mining; Risikomanagement der Bergbehoerde NRW fuer verlassene Tagesoeffnungen des Bergbaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Heinz Roland [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Dortmund (Germany). Abt. Bergbau und Energie in NRW

    2010-02-15

    A perpetual danger proceeds from the unsecured daily openings of the mining industry. Many pits only are filled with bulk materials. Regarding to the use of budgetary means at preventive investigation measures and protection measures, the mining industry authority North-Rhine Westphalia operates a risk management for abandoned daily openings for which no mine companies or mine owner are at hand. For this, daily openings are classified and evaluated according to certain factors. From this, a list of priority results for preventive investigation measures and safety measurements being processed by the mining industry authority in the next years.

  10. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill: A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H. A.; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Middelkoop, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented here.

  11. Mid-Holocene water-level changes in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta (western Netherlands): implications for the reconstruction of relative mean sea-level rise, palaeoriver-gradients and coastal evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Plassche, O. van de; Makaske, B.; Hoek, W.Z.; Konert, M.; Plicht, J. van der

    2010-01-01

    We present a revised relative mean sea-level (MSL) curve for the Rhine-Meuse delta, western Netherlands, for the period 7900-5300 cal yr BP. The revision is based on a series of new and previously unpublished local groundwater-level index data from buried Late Glacial aeolian dunes in the lower Rhine-Meuse delta, and reinterpretation of existing data. The new index data consist of (AMS and conventional) radiocarbon dates of samples, collected from the base of peat formed on dune slopes, near ...

  12. Observed shift towards earlier spring discharge in the main Alpine rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Matteo; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Gualdi, Silvio; Navarra, Antonio

    2015-01-15

    In this study, we analyse the observed long-term discharge time-series of the Rhine, the Danube, the Rhone and the Po rivers. These rivers are characterised by different seasonal cycles reflecting the diverse climates and morphologies of the Alpine basins. However, despite the intensive and varied water management adopted in the four basins, we found common features in the trend and low-frequency variability of the spring discharge timings. All the discharge time-series display a tendency towards earlier spring peaks of more than two weeks per century. These results can be explained in terms of snowmelt, total precipitation (i.e. the sum of snowfall and rainfall) and rainfall variability. The relative importance of these factors might be different in each basin. However, we show that the change of seasonality of total precipitation plays a major role in the earlier spring runoff over most of the Alps. PMID:25005239

  13. Perspectives of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only if Germany continues to use nuclear power, and develops it further, we will have a chance to make German safety standards accepted internationally. It would be irresponsible to keep German safety know-how from other countries. It is important for Germany to preserve and advance its nuclear competence, which was acquired at great industrial expense. After all, nuclear power means almost 40,000 highly qualified jobs. These people must have a perspective for their future. They will get it only if the political courage is mustered again to build an advanced nuclear reactor with improved safety features in Germany. (orig.)

  14. Electricity prices differences between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High electricity prices in Germany especially as compared to France have played an important role in the electricity liberalization debate in Germany. The price differences can largely be explained by cost differences in electricity generation, the electricity grids, personnel cost and local taxes. Further analysis suggests that efficiency improvements upon market liberalization will only partly remove these price and cost differentials. Parts of the cost differentials are attributable to politically-motivated regulations and the (future) regulation of network functions. This implies that Germany can only expect to arrive at internationally comparable electricity prices if it advances with a reform of political and monopoly regulations alongside liberalizing electricity generation and trade. (author)

  15. Climate index for Germany - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Germany. (J.S.)

  16. Routine outcome measures in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Bernd; Becker, Thomas; Bauer, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    The German healthcare system offers comprehensive coverage for people with mental illness including inpatient, day hospital and outpatient services. These services are primarily financed through the statutory health and pension insurances. According to legal regulations, providers are required to base their services on current scientific evidence and to continuously assure the quality of their services. This paper gives an overview of recent initiatives to develop, evaluate and disseminate routine outcome measurement (ROM) in service settings in Germany. A large number of projects have shown outcome monitoring to be feasible, and that feedback of outcome may enhance routine care through an improved allocation of treatment resources. However, none of these initiatives have been integrated into routine care on a nationwide or trans-sectoral level, and their sustainability has been limited. This is due to various barriers in a fragmented mental health service system and to the lack of coordinated national or state-level service planning. The time is ripe for a concerted effort including policy-makers to pick up on these initiatives and move them towards wide-spread implementation in routine care accompanied by practice-oriented research including service user involvement. PMID:25800080

  17. Management of plasmapheresis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N

    1996-05-01

    In Germany, plasmapheresis is carried out for many years in a "mixed" system by private and non-profit organisation. Most of the institutions and blood transfusion service, active in the field of plasmapheresis are members of the "Association for the Establishment, Co-ordination and Working Methods of the Plasmapheresis Centres". All centres are authorized by governmental bodies for manufacturing of pharmaceutical products with regulatory controls regarding licensing and accreditation of blood collection establishment. All parties concerned agree that self-sufficiency of plasma has to be achieved. For this purpose there is a shortage of about 400,000 1 of plasma. In 1994, about 240,000 1 of plasma were collected by plasmapheresis, 91% for fractionation and 8.7% for direct clinical uses. In addition about 970,000 1 of plasma were derived from whole blood donations. The dualism of non-profit making and commercial organisations should be regarded as a chance for diversification in the collection and processing of plasma. A long term increase in plasmapheresis plasma can be achieved by initiating plasmapheresis programmes and co-operation using the existing infrastructures and supports the aim for self-sufficiency. PMID:8933143

  18. Germany and the European economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany has traditionally been the powerhouse of the European economy and integration. In this article, an attempt is made to put its economic development in a European context by comparing it with the achievements of the total group of more developed members of the European Union, the EU-15, prior to the current global crisis. The author applies both the methods of statistical analysis and models of mathematical economics to show the combined influence of growth mechanism regularities, economic policy and international economic relations on the long-term development of the German and European economy. Viewing economic growth as the central problem, he investigates the factors of its deviations from the equilibrium state, as well as the regularities affecting productivity and technical progress. His main conclusion is that the current economic crisis can be surmounted with the help of a growthoriented economic policy based on the intensification of technical progress and, first of all, of its creative component, which would create favorable conditions for improving competitiveness.

  19. Riverine input of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the coastal pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Everaarts, J.M.

    of various chlorinated hydrocarbons. It deals with an in-depth analysis of pollution of the coastal ecosystem around the Netherlands, U.K. and Germany due to inputs of contaminants from the rivers namely, Elbe, Weser, Ems Ijssel, Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Thames...

  20. Hmong of Germany: Preliminary Report on the Resettlement of Lao Hmong Refugees in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Tou T. Yang

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the resettlement of Lao Hmong refugees in Germany since the fall of Laos in 1975. Data for this paper were collected during my two visits to the Hmong community of Gammertingen in southern Germany. Although, it has been known that there are Lao Hmong refugees living in Germany, literature about their resettlement in academic journals and the western media has been nonexistent. Therefore, information about their population, social, educational and economic status h...

  1. Management of Spent Fuel in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation gives an overview on the inventory of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Germany, the state of commissioning of the on-site storages for spent fuel and the balance of reprocessing of spent fuel. (author)

  2. Germany facing the odds in international competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear electricity production is not on its way to a global exodus because fossil fuels are running low. The phase-out scenarios developed by politicians put Germany at a disadvantage in terms of international competition. (HP)

  3. West Germany gears up for licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West Germany's concept of salt mine waste disposal is discussed with special reference to experience gained at its small reprocessing plant (WAK) in Karlsruhe, and the Asse salt mine near Wolfenbuttel. (author)

  4. Opportunities for smart meters in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles.

  5. Germany: decentralised structures, renewable energy drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getting the general public to participate directly in energy production is the mainstay of the policies implemented to promote the development of renewable energies. In Germany, almost half of all renewable energy installations are local initiatives. (author)

  6. Regional labor markets and aging in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Ochsen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the aging labor force aþects the unemployment rate at the regional level in Germany. A theoretical model of equilibrium unemployment with spatial labor market interactions is used to study the eþects of age-related changes in job creation and job destruction. Using data for 343 districts, we then examine empirically the consequences of an aging labor force for the local labor markets in Germany. We apply diþerent estimation techniques to a spatial and time dynamic pane...

  7. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach Ralf; Stöver Heino; Michels Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs pr...

  8. Contamination measurements in Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on cumulative Cs-137 and Sr-90 depositions both from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident in Austria, Germany, UK and USA are given as well as the time dependence of Cs-137 concentrations from 1986 to 1992 in nutrients and drinking water in Austria and Germany. Finally the dose-to-population from the Chernobyl accident is compared to the natural radiation and even to that resulting from energy-saving sealing measures in living rooms. (Quittner)

  9. Positioning Strategies of Polish Entrepreneurs in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    My contribution studies in-depth how Polish entrepreneurs in Munich, Germany, make use of their economic, social, and cultural capital acquired in Poland and in Germany to position themselves transnationally. I study these migrants’ life courses and draw attention to cross-border intersections between their cultural, social, and economic capital with roots in different places. I also throw light on the subjective evaluation of economic capital of migrants in a transnational frame. I discern t...

  10. Has Atypical Work Become Typical in Germany?

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorst, Werner; Tobsch, Verena

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the transformation of the German labor market since the mid-1990s with a special focus on the changing patterns of labor market segmentation or 'dualization' of employment in Germany. While labor market duality in Germany can partially be attributed to labor market reforms promoting in particular non-standard forms of employment and allowing for an expansion of low pay, structural changes in the economy as well as strategic choices by employers and social partn...

  11. Immigration, Trade and Wages in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Yaya, Mehmet-Erdem

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of several macroeconomic variables such as GDP, imports, unemployment, immigration and emigration on the real wages and salaries of German laborers. Annual data for 49 years has been used to estimate twelve different regressions, trying to capture the effect of these variables on the real wages and salaries in Germany while considering the unification of West-East Germany with a dummy variable. The results are intriguing, and contradicting with most of the e...

  12. Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Wind power in Germany - a success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful introduction of wind power to the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany is described using graphic representations to illustrate the industry's growth over the last twenty years. The history of the wind market is discussed, together with the importance of stakeholders as a way of funding the industry. The author concludes that public support for environmentally sensitive power generation was the key factor leading to the success of the wind power industry in Germany. (UK)

  14. Macroeconomic policies, wage developments, and Germany's stagnation

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Eckhard; Truger, Achim

    2005-01-01

    The paper fundamentally challenges the institutional sclerosis explanation of the present German economic stagnation. Instead we present a macroeconomic explanation focusing on the combined effects of too restrictive monetary policies, too restrictive and sometimes pro-cyclical fiscal policies and overly moderate wage policies in Germany since the mid 1990s. This view is broadly consistent with modern macroeconomics and with empirical data. From this perspective we finally argue that Germany ...

  15. Financial inclusion, regulation, and education in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Neuberger, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Germany's bank-based financial system provides a high level of financial inclusion, measured by bank outreach and use of financial services. However, the most vulnerable individuals and small enterprises in Germany tend to be excluded or credit constrained. The quality of financial inclusion is impaired by a low level of financial literacy, which is also concentrated among specific population subgroups. The high level of financial inclusion can be attributed to relationship lending by public ...

  16. Emission scenarios for air quality management and applications at local and regional scales including the effects of the future European emission regulation (2015 for the upper Rhine valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Ponche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Air quality modeling associated with emission scenarios has become an important tool for air quality management. The set-up of realistic emission scenarios requires accurate emission inventories including the whole methodology used to calculate the emissions. This means a good description of the source characteristics including a detailed composition of the emitted fluxes. Two main approaches are used. The so-called bottom-up approach that relies on the modification of the characteristics of the sources and the top-down approach whose goal is generally to reach standard pollutant concentration levels. This paper is aimed at providing a general methodology for the elaboration of such emission scenarios and giving examples of applications at local and regional scales for air quality management. The first example concerns the impact of the installation of the urban tramway in place of the road traffic in the old centre of Strasbourg. The second example deals with the use of oxygenated and reformulated car fuels on local (Strasbourg urban area and regional (upper Rhine valley scales. Finally, we analyze in detail the impacts of the incoming European emission regulation for 2015 on the air quality of the upper Rhine valley.

  17. Emission scenarios for air quality management and applications at local and regional scales including the effects of the future European emission regulation (2015) for the upper Rhine valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponche, J.-L.; Vinuesa, J.-F.

    2005-03-01

    Air quality modeling associated with emission scenarios has become an important tool for air quality management. The set-up of realistic emission scenarios requires accurate emission inventories including the whole methodology used to calculate the emissions. This means a good description of the source characteristics including a detailed composition of the emitted fluxes. Two main approaches are used. The so-called bottom-up approach that relies on the modification of the characteristics of the sources and the top-down approach whose goal is generally to reach standard pollutant concentration levels. This paper is aimed at providing a general methodology for the elaboration of such emission scenarios and giving examples of applications at local and regional scales for air quality management. The first example concerns the impact of the installation of the urban tramway in place of the road traffic in the old centre of Strasbourg. The second example deals with the use of oxygenated and reformulated car fuels on local (Strasbourg urban area) and regional (upper Rhine valley) scales. Finally, we analyze in detail the impacts of the incoming European emission regulation for 2015 on the air quality of the upper Rhine valley.

  18. Emission scenarios for air quality management and applications at local and regional scales including the effects of the future European emission regulation (2015 for the upper Rhine valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Ponche

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Air quality modeling associated with emission scenarios has become an important tool for air quality management. The set-up of realistic emission scenarios requires accurate emission inventories including the whole methodology used to calculate the emissions. This means a good description of the source characteristics including a detailed composition of the emitted fluxes. Two main approaches are used. The so-called bottom-up approach that relies on the modification of the characteristics of the sources and the top-down approach whose goal is generally to reach standard pollutant concentration levels. This paper is aimed at providing a general methodology for the elaboration of such emission scenarios and giving examples of applications at local and regional scales for air quality management. The first example concerns the impact of the installation of the urban tramway in place of the road traffic in the old centre of Strasbourg. The second example deals with the use of oxygenated and reformulated car fuels on local (Strasbourg urban area and regional (upper Rhine valley scales. Finally, we analyze in detail the impacts of the incoming European emission regulation for 2015 on the air quality of the upper Rhine valley.

  19. Geothermal energy utilized in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the geothermal resources and reserves that have been estimated for selected aquifers in the Northwest German Basin, the Upper Rhine Graben and the South German Molasse Basin. The highest reserves (31 · 1018 J) are located in the Malm aquifer in the Molasse Basin. Geothermal energy is utilized in 15 localities using low enthalpy water. The total installed capacity is about 8 MWt. Two small new installations (Waldsee, Weiden) have been realized in the last years. In another project (Bruchsal) the doublet, which is necessary because of the high saline water, is now in a working order. A prefeasibility study for a Hot Dry Rock system has been performed by a German-French group. The HDR test site is located in the Upper Rhine Graben

  20. Germany, high-tech country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national ar in the Netherlands, combining national and European aspects and emphasizing, in particular, the important function of ENS. Uranium enrichment as an European project was subject of the report by Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. The General Manager of Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman of Belgatom, Guy Frederic, examined the economic viability of nuclear power, appealing to the audience to reduce capital costs by innovation without detracting from safety. (orig./DG)The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national

  1. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  2. Atomic energy laws in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulations of German atomic energy laws are based in large on the fundamental law of the Federal Republic of Germany-the constitution. Atomgesetz of 1959, as amended on October 31, 1976, constitutes the core of atomic energy laws (Atomrecht), and is supplemented by orders (Verordnungen). The Federal Republic has the right to legislate Atomrecht, and the enforcement of such laws and orders is entrusted to each province. The peaceful uses of radioactive materials are stipulated by Atomgesetz and orders. Atomgesetz seeks two objects, first it is to enable the handling of radioactive substances for the acquisition of energy, medical treatment, food treatment and the harmless examination of things by radioactive materials, and secondly to ensure the protection from danger in the handling of such materials. The control of radioactive materials by the state including imports and exports, storage and possession, disposal and processing, etc., is established by the law to secure the protection from danger of atomic energy. The particular indemnification responsibility for the harm due to radiation is defined in Atomgesetz, and only the owners (Inhaber) of atomic energy facilities are liable for damage. The violation of the regulations on the transaction of radioactive materials is punished by fines up to 100,000 German marks of imprisonment of less than five years. Orders are established on roentgen ray, the protection from radiation, the treatment of foods by electron beam, gamma ray, roentgen ray or ultraviolet ray and the permission of medicines. The regulations of the EURATOM treaty have legality as Atomrecht. (Okada, K.)

  3. Exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in Germany in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents an overview of oil and gas exploration and production in Germany in 2012. The report is based on data gathered on a regular basis by the State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) from the oil and gas companies and the other state mining offices. Due to the granting of new licences in the last years, a significant increase of geophysical prospecting of the subsurface for oil and gas deposits was observed. Six 3D seismic surveys were conducted. Five surveys were located in the Upper Rhine Valley and one in the lowlands of Northwest Germany. 2D seismic data were acquired in Lusatia (Brandenburg) and at the coast of the Baltic Sea. The number of exploration wells decreased once again. In 2012 nine exploration wells were drilled, compared to ten in the previous year. In addition to that number, another seven exploration wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. None of the ten new field wildcats were completed by result. Three exploration wells (appraisal wells) were completed successfully. Two of these wells confirmed the presence of gas and one the presence of oil. The number of development wells decreased significantly. In 2012 31 wells were drilled, compared to 46 in the prominent year 2011. Another 13 wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. 31 wells were completed successfully. 30 of these wells encountered oil or gas pay zones. In 2011 drilling meterage has reached its highest value since 1998. In contrast the total drilling meterage decreased slightly by less than 2000 m to 71,424 min 2012. The natural gas production continued its downward trend. Due to the depletion of gas fields, the annual natural gas production dropped by 9.1% compared to the previous year and amounted to 11.7 billion m3 (field quality). After the increase in 2011, the annual crude oil production decreased by 2.1% to 2.6 million t, primarily due to the decrease in production from some of the most productive oil fields. As in the last years, the total remaining proven and probable natural gas reserves dropped. Compared to the previous year the reserves decreased by almost 9 billion m3 to 123 billion m3 (field quality). A minor portion of the total annual gas production could thus be replaced by new reserves. The total remaining proven and probable oil reserves fell by 2.8 million tons to 32.5 million tons. This decline was more than the annual production. (orig.)

  4. River morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

  5. Geochemical tracing and hydrogeochemical modelling of water-rock interactions during salinization of alluvial groundwater (Upper Rhine Valley, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Y., E-mail: yann.lucas@eost.u-strasbg.fr [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Schmitt, A.D., E-mail: anne-desiree.schmitt@univ-fcomte.fr [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France)] [Universite de Franche-Comte et CNRS-UMR 6249, Chrono-Environnement, 16, Route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Chabaux, F., E-mail: francois.chabaux@eost.u-strasbg.fr [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Clement, A.; Fritz, B. [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Elsass, Ph. [BRGM, GEODERIS, 1, rue Claude Chappe, 57070 Metz (France); Durand, S. [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Major and trace elements along with strontium and uranium isotopic ratios show that groundwater geochemical characteristics along the saline plumes cannot reflect a conservative mixing. {yields} A coupled hydrogeochemical model demonstrates that cationic exchange between alkalis from polluted waters and alkaline-earth elements from montmorillonite present in the host rock of the aquifer is the primary process. {yields} The model requires only a small amount of montmorillonite. {yields} It is necessary to consider the pollution history to explain the important chloride, sodium and calcium concentration modifications. {yields} The model shows that the rapidity of the cationic exchange reactions insures a reversibility of the cation fixation on clays in the aquifer. - Abstract: In the southern Upper Rhine Valley, groundwater has undergone intensive saline pollution caused by the infiltration of mining brines, a consequence of potash extraction carried out during the 20th century. Major and trace elements along with Sr and U isotopic ratios show that groundwater geochemical characteristics along the saline plumes cannot reflect conservative mixing between saline waters resulting from the dissolution of waste heaps and one or more unpolluted end-members. The results imply the occurrence of interactions between host rocks and polluted waters, and they suggest that cationic exchange mechanisms are the primary controlling process. A coupled hydrogeochemical model has been developed with the numerical code KIRMAT, which demonstrates that cationic exchange between alkalis from polluted waters and alkaline-earth elements from montmorillonite present in the host rock of the aquifer is the primary process controlling the geochemical evolution of the groundwater. The model requires only a small amount of montmorillonite (between 0.75% and 2.25%), which is in agreement with the observed mineralogical composition of the aquifer. The model also proves that a small contribution of calcite precipitation/dissolution takes places whereas other secondary mineral precipitation or host rock mineral dissolution do not play a significant role in the geochemical signature of the studied groundwater samples. Application of the model demonstrates that it is necessary to consider the pollution history to explain the important Cl, Na and Ca concentration modifications in groundwater samples taken over 2 km downstream of waste heaps. Additionally, the model shows that the rapidity of the cationic exchange reactions insures a reversibility of the cation fixation on clays in the aquifer.

  6. Geochemical tracing and hydrogeochemical modelling of water-rock interactions during salinization of alluvial groundwater (Upper Rhine Valley, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Major and trace elements along with strontium and uranium isotopic ratios show that groundwater geochemical characteristics along the saline plumes cannot reflect a conservative mixing. ? A coupled hydrogeochemical model demonstrates that cationic exchange between alkalis from polluted waters and alkaline-earth elements from montmorillonite present in the host rock of the aquifer is the primary process. ? The model requires only a small amount of montmorillonite. ? It is necessary to consider the pollution history to explain the important chloride, sodium and calcium concentration modifications. ? The model shows that the rapidity of the cationic exchange reactions insures a reversibility of the cation fixation on clays in the aquifer. - Abstract: In the southern Upper Rhine Valley, groundwater has undergone intensive saline pollution caused by the infiltration of mining brines, a consequence of potash extraction carried out during the 20th century. Major and trace elements along with Sr and U isotopic ratios show that groundwater geochemical characteristics along the saline plumes cannot reflect conservative mixing between saline waters resulting from the dissolution of waste heaps and one or more unpolluted end-members. The results imply the occurrence of interactions between host rocks and polluted waters, and they suggest that cationic exchange mechanisms are the primary controlling process. A coupled hydrogeochemical model has been developed with the numerical code KIRMAT, which demonstrates that cationic exchange between alkalis from polluted waters and alkaline-earth elements from montmorillonite present in the host rock of the aquifer is the primary process controlling the geochemical evolution of the groundwater. The model requires only a small amount of montmorillonite (between 0.75% and 2.25%), which is in agreement with the observed mineralogical composition of the aquifer. The model also proves that a small contribution of calcite precipitation/dissolution takes places whereas other secondary mineral precipitation or host rock mineral dissolution do not play a significant role in the geochemical signature of the studied groundwater samples. Application of the model demonstrates that it is necessary to consider the pollution history to explain the important Cl, Na and Ca concentration modifications in groundwater samples taken over 2 km downstream of waste heaps. Additionally, the model shows that the rapidity of the cationic exchange reactions insures a reversibility of the cation fixation on clays in the aquifer.

  7. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends are straightened and the flow is regulated by groins; - large-stem orchards on the river banks are replaced by low-stem orchards; - big trees still grow on the river banks on the oldest paintings; - 19th century dikes align the river and are low compared to modern dikes; - transport of trade goods always has been an important river function; - the 19th century small-scale shipyards have disappeared from the banks; - ferry crossings remained a popular painting object, while bridges are seldom depicted - building bridges started in the mid-19th century; - commercial fishery on migrating salmon has disappeared since; - skating scenes indicate the rivers froze more often in this period. References Jungerius, van den Ancker & Wevers, 2012. The contribution of Dutch landscape painters to the conservation of geoheritage. Geology Today 28,3. Hanneke van den Ancker & Pieter Dirk Jungerius, 2012. Landscape paintings, a tool for research, planning and management of the coastal zone. EGU-SSS, Vienna. Hanneke van den Ancker & Pieter Dirk Jungerius, 2013. Geodiversity changes in Dutch peatlands illustrated by 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings. EGU-SSS, Vienna. Hanneke van den Ancker & Pieter Dirk Jungerius, 2014. Geodiversity-Biodiversity relationships in Dutch Sand Landscapes illustrated by 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings. EGU-SSS, Vienna.

  8. Economic Factors of Development of Tourism in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina K. Zhigalina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Germany has a negative balance for tourism. The article deals with attempts for creating the Germany’s positive image for tourists. Germans themselves travel a lot domestically, and for the first time since 2011 Germany has enjoyed a positive balance in tourism industry – tourists spent 20,4 bl. Euros inside against 15,5 bl. Euros spent outside of the country. According to YUNVTO Germany entered the list of top 10 tourist destinations.

  9. Germany's slump explaining the unemployment crisis of the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Lindlar, Ludger; Scheremet, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    According to a widespread view, Germany's unemployment crisis is caused by rigid labour markets, low profitability and increasing international competition. We argue that this view does not provide a convincing explanation for the dramatic rise in Germany's unemployment rate since 1989, first because no distinction is drawn between the situation in the Eastern part of Germany and that in the Western part of Germany, and second because supply-side conditions in the Western part of Germany have...

  10. Multi-model climate impact assessment and intercomparison for three large-scale river basins on three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, T.; Huang, S.; Aich, V.; Yang, T.; Wang, X.; Krysanova, V.; Hattermann, F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change impacts on hydrological processes should be simulated for river basins using validated models and multiple climate scenarios in order to provide reliable results for stakeholders. In the last 10-15 years, climate impact assessment has been performed for many river basins worldwide using different climate scenarios and models. However, their results are hardly comparable, and do not allow one to create a full picture of impacts and uncertainties. Therefore, a systematic intercomparison of impacts is suggested, which should be done for representative regions using state-of-the-art models. Only a few such studies have been available until now with the global-scale hydrological models, and our study is intended as a step in this direction by applying the regional-scale models. The impact assessment presented here was performed for three river basins on three continents: the Rhine in Europe, the Upper Niger in Africa and the Upper Yellow in Asia. For that, climate scenarios from five general circulation models (GCMs) and three hydrological models, HBV, SWIM and VIC, were used. Four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) covering a range of emissions and land-use change projections were included. The objectives were to analyze and compare climate impacts on future river discharge and to evaluate uncertainties from different sources. The results allow one to draw some robust conclusions, but uncertainties are large and shared differently between sources in the studied basins. Robust results in terms of trend direction and slope and changes in seasonal dynamics could be found for the Rhine basin regardless of which hydrological model or forcing GCM is used. For the Niger River, scenarios from climate models are the largest uncertainty source, providing large discrepancies in precipitation, and therefore clear projections are difficult to do. For the Upper Yellow basin, both the hydrological models and climate models contribute to uncertainty in the impacts, though an increase in high flows in the future is a robust outcome ensured by all three hydrological models.

  11. Geothermal reservoir properties of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) sediments in the Saar Nahe Basin (South-West Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, A.; Bär, K.; Sass, I.

    2012-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) in the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the Saar-Nahe-Basin (Germany) has been shown in large scale regional studies. To further assess the geothermal potential of the different lithostratigraphical units and facies types within this Variscan intramontane basin, knowledge of their thermophysical and hydraulic properties is indispensable. Where the Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous molasse basin, the top of the up to two kilometers thick Permocarboniferous deposits is located at a depth of one to three kilometers and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. Therefore, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150°C, making it suitable for geothermal power production. Lithologically the Permocarboniferous deposits consist of different formations and facies types including fine, middle and coarse grained sandstones, arcosic sandstones, siltstones, volcanics and carbonates. Within the framework of the study presented here, outcrop analogue studies west of the Graben in the Saar-Nahe-Basin, and east of the Graben in the Wetterau and the Wetterau-Fulda-Basin are conducted. Each lithostratigraphic formation and lithofacies type is sampled in various outcrops to generate a statistically sufficient amount of samples of the different sedimentary rocks in order to determine their petrophysical, sedimentological and geochemical characteristics. The petrophysical parameters measured include the porosity, permeability, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and uniaxial compressive strength. So far, the petrophysical properties of samples of more than 70 locations have been measured in our lab facilities, showing a clear correlation with the facies type. Excluding the coarse grained sandstones of the Donnersberg formation at the beginning of the Nahe-subgroup of the Upper Rotliegend, the geothermal reservoir properties are more suitable in the Glan-subgroup of the Lower Rotliegend due to the increasing fraction of fluviatil facies with low sinuosity meander belts, that transported coarse grained and feldspar-rich sediments from along the basin axis. The next steps will include geochemical as well as petrographic-sedimentological analysis of each sample to study the mineral composition, the intergranular volume and diagenesis. Furthermore, the rock mass permeability is evaluated using hydraulic test data of wells intersecting the Permocarboniferous in the Saar Nahe Basin and other analogue areas, already showing a link between hydraulic conductivity and fault structures within the basin. Based on drilling and seismic data as well as geological maps together with the compiled petrophysical and hydraulic data, it is planned to establish a 3D reservoir model of the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the western Saar-Nahe-Basin. Due to the importance of fault zones, lithostratigraphical units and facies types, detailed modelling will allow a more reliable assessment of the geothermal potential. This model could be used for a better prediction of reservoir temperatures and production rates and will decrease the exploration risk.

  12. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic Carbonates from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtadse, V.; Settles, E. K.; Soffel, H.

    2014-12-01

    Although the distribution of paleomagnetic data for the Jurassic of stable Europe is notorious for its wide spread and lack of any recognizable age control of pole positions it was only recently that the Jurassic has moved closer to the focus of paleomagnetic research (Kent and Irving, 2010; Muttoni et al. 2013). Here we present paleomagnetic data for carbonate rocks of early and late Jurassic age from southern (Franconia and Swabia) and northern Germany. A total of 406 samples from 37 localities in northern Germany and 180 samples from 19 localities in southern Germany were collected and subjected to detailed demagnetization experiments. All localities are dated biostratigraphically covering the Oxfordian to Tithonian (northern Germany) and the Pliensbachian (southern Germany) in time. After removal of a component of magnetization of secondary origin, stable magnetizations could be identified in 176 samples from 17 sites in northern Germany (D=003.2°, I=53.2°, k=79.4, ?95=4.5°). Similar directions (D=001.2°, I=43.3°, k=18.6, ?95=13.2°) were isolated in 108 sampled from 8 sites of coeval rocks from southern Germany. Positive fold and reversal tests support our interpretation that the resulting mean direction of is of primary origin e.g. late Jurassic in age. Unfortunately, however, the situation for the early Jurassic of southern Germany is less favourable. Here, only 15 samples from 2 sites yielded magnetizations which were interpreted to be of primary origin (D=025.3°, I=59.4°, k=51.0, ?95=11.2°) . The resulting paleo north pole positions for the Lower and Upper Jurassic of Germany plot at comparable latitudes (70°N) but are separated in longitude by roughly 60°. This is compatible with the apparent polar wander path proposed by Kent and Irving (2010). Taking into consideration that the only reliable paleopole for the middle Jurassic of stable Europe is indistinguishable from the late Jurassic paleopole lends additional support to the proposed late Jurassic jump connecting the connecting the early/mid Jurassic standstill to the Jurassic/Cretaceous hook of the Kent and Irving (2010) apparent polar wander path.

  13. Deep Geothermal Energy for Lower Saxony (North Germany) - Combined Investigations of Geothermal Reservoir Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Barbara; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, successful deep geothermal projects are mainly situated in Southern Germany in the Molassebecken, furthermore in the Upper Rhine Graben and, to a minor extend, in the North German Basin. Mostly they are hydrothermal projects with the aim of heat production. In a few cases, they are also constructed for the generation of electricity. In the North German Basin temperature gradients are moderate. Therefore, deep drilling of several thousand meters is necessary to reach temperatures high enough for electricity production. However, the porosity of the sedimentary rocks is not sufficient for hydrothermal projects, so that natural fracture zones have to be used or the rocks must be hydraulically stimulated. In order to make deep geothermal projects in Lower Saxony (Northern Germany) economically more attractive, the interdisciplinary research program "Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling" (gebo) was initiated in 2009. It comprises four focus areas: Geosystem, Drilling Technology, Materials and Technical System and aims at improving exploration of the geothermal reservoir, reducing costs of drilling and optimizing exploitation. Here we want to give an overview of results of the focus area "Geosystem" which investigates geological, geophysical, geochemical and modeling aspects of the geothermal reservoir. Geological and rock mechanical investigations in quarrys and core samples give a comprehensive overview on rock properties and fracture zone characteristics in sandstones and carbonates. We also show that it is possible to transfer results of rock property measurements from quarry samples to core samples or to in situ conditions by use of empirical relations. Geophysical prospecting methods were tested near the surface in a North German Graben system. We aim at transferring the results to the prospection of deep situated fracture zones. The comparison of P- and S-wave measurements shows that we can get hints on a possible fluid content of the fracture zone. The assumed elastic rock properties can be evaluated by FD modeling. Geoelectric and electromagnetic investigations of the fracture zone were carried out to investigate their potential to give hints on minerals, brines or hydrothermal fluids within the fracture zone. Measurements of the Spectral Induced Polarization show that anisotropy of phase angles may not be neglected, because otherwise data may be misinterpreted and structural models become unnecessarily complicated. A crucial aspect for the performance of a Geothermal plant is the mineral contents of the formation water. Scalings and corrosion can severely disturb the operation and the properties of the reservoir. Therefore, North German formation waters were analysed and categorized and a thermodynamic database was developed. It allows hydrogeochemical modeling of geothermally used waters and of hydrogeochemically and technically induced processes under North German conditions. Hydromechanical modeling showed that differences of elastic rock properties between neighboring layers does not strongly influence propagation paths of fractures, whereas they significantly influence fracture aperture. On the other hand, differences of mechanical rock properties significantly influence propagation paths of fractures. Existing fractures are also affected by the induced fracture - after stimulation, they propagate further in the direction of maximum shear stress. Furthermore, rock deformation during the production phase depends strongly on the contrast of hydraulic conductivity between highly permeable fracture core and low permeable rock matrix. The projects within gebo-Geosystem are well interconnected. Both the focus area "Geosystem" as well as the whole collaborative research program "gebo" offer different approaches that lead to an improvement of geothermal exploration and exploitation as well as a better understanding of the processes within geothermal reservoirs. Acknowledgement: The gebo project is funded by the "Niedersächsisches Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Kultur" and the industry partner Baker Hughes, Celle, Germany.

  14. Features of global hydrological processes using the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model simulation: focusing on five major river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Niu, J.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    This study adopts a semi-distributed hydrological model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), to simulate the global terrestrial hydrological processes and analyze the variation of main processes, including precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture. To run the VIC model, we use the daily gridded precipitation product at a higher resolution (1°×1°) from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Besides, other daily meteorological data (including maximum and minimum daily temperatures) are derived from the NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis data. VIC model is run at a daily temporal step and 1° latitude-longitude spatial resolution for the period 1997-2008. The streamflow observations from five major continental river basins in the world (the Amazon River basin, the Mississippi River basin, the Yangtze River basin, the Rhine River basin and the Nile River basin) are used to verify the VIC simulation results. Then, this study quantifies the contributions of precipitation to soil moisture change, evapotranspiration and runoff over these five major river basins. This study also detects the response of those hydrological processes to the increase of temperature, which will benefit the regional environment and water management.

  15. Habitat-specific adaptation of immune responses of stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) lake and river ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Scharsack, Jörn P.; Kalbe, Martin; Harrod, Chris; Rauch, Gisep

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater populations of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in northern Germany are found as distinct lake and river ecotypes. Adaptation to habitat-specific parasites might influence immune capabilities of stickleback ecotypes. Here, naive laboratory-bred sticklebacks from lake and river populations were exposed reciprocally to parasite environments in a lake and a river habitat. Sticklebacks exposed to lake conditions were infected with higher numbers of parasite species wh...

  16. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Metal accumulation risks in regularly flooded and non-flooded parts of floodplains of the River Rhine: Extractability and exposure through the food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnhoven, S.; Velde, G. van der; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Smits, A. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Ecotoxicological risks of sediment contamination in floodplains are supposed to be highest in the regularly flooded parts. Therefore, in risk assessments, the non-flooded parts are neglected or considered to be reference areas. We investigated the metal extractability and levels in important food sources for vertebrates, viz. grass shoots and earthworms, in flooded as well as non-flooded parts and compared these with total metal concentrations. A comparison of these areas in the moderately po...

  19. Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.

  20. The DFG Viewer for Interoperability in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Goebel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the DFG Viewer for Interoperability, a free and open source web-based viewer for digitised books, and assesses its relevance for interoperability in Germany. First the specific situation in Germany is described, including the important role of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation. The article then moves on to the overall concept of the viewer and its technical background. It introduces the data formats and standards used, it briefly illustrates how the viewer works and includes a few examples.

  1. [Migration in Germany: 1945-1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, R; Ulrich, R

    1998-01-01

    "The authors examine how the immigrant population of Germany has risen despite the fact that the German government has sought to restrict it. They analyze six major streams of migration: refugees and expellees who came immediately after World War II, German resettlers from Eastern Europe (¿Aussiedler'), emigration of (West) Germans, migration between East- and West Germany, foreign labor migrants and asylum seekers. The dynamics of immigration, the chances on the labor market, and the opportunities for social integration were remarkably different for each of these groups. As far as absorption and integration are concerned the authors argue that different groups of immigrants should be treated more equally." (EXCERPT) PMID:12348943

  2. [Work-site health promotion in Germany. Results of the IAB--establishment panel 2002 and 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, A

    2007-02-01

    According to the answers of employers to the representative IAB establishment panel 2004, one-fifth of the companies in Germany voluntarily carried out or financially supported measures for the protection or promotion of the health and well-being of their work force. The proportion of health-promoting companies was above average in all East German federal states as well as in Bavaria, in Saarland and in Lower Saxony. North Rhine-Westphalia was precisely average. In East Germany, almost one-fourth and in West Germany just under one-fifth of all companies surveyed carry out health-promoting measures.Work-site health promotion varies considerably depending on the corresponding federal states, industrial branches and company sizes. Work-site health promotion has ,up to now, been concentrated in big companies and groups. An under-representation of work-site health promotion is observed above all in small and very small companies and particularly in the catering trade. Work-site health promotion was principally determined by analyses of sickness leaves and surveys on health protection in the work place which were mentioned in about 9% and 8% of the companies interviewed. 6% of the companies provided courses on health-relevant ways of behaviour. About 4% of the companies maintain health circles and 5% realised other health promoting measures. Further correlation analyses reveal that in companies with a workers council/staff council, work-site health promotion was significantly much more common. This correlation is especially strong in small and medium-size companies. The longitudinal analysis of the IAB establishment panel 2002 and 2004 reveals much dynamism in work-site health promotion. On the one hand, half of the companies involved in work-site health promotion in 2002 had stopped their commitment to work-site health promotion by 2004. Sustainability remains one of the biggest challenges in work-site health promotion. On the other hand, a bit more than one tenth of the repeatedly interviewed companies started health-promoting activities in 2004. According to the longitudinal data set, altogether 29% of the companies were reached by work-site health promotion measures (for the years 2002 and 2004). PMID:17405078

  3. The hydrological and economic importance of the Rhine, from its sources to its entry into the Rhenish Slate Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using example of Europe's most important river, investigations are carried out on the conditions and problems occurring where water- and energy economy are interacting, as well as on the different characteristics they assume in the various sections of the river. The influence of the hydroelectric power plants, the conventional thermal power plants and the nuclear power plants upon the water economy is reviewed. Moreover, the importance of these power plants within the total energy economy of the individual adjacent countries as well as the economic effects they cause to their site areas are considered. (HSCH)

  4. Analysis of GIS data to investigate natural resource impacts of high-voltage overhead lines in the examples in Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thinh, Nguyen Xuan; Sander, Leon; Kopec, Jakob; Muehlnickel, Kai [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Spatial Information Management and Modelling

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we describe shortly Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia as study areas and the legal framework, both in the context of natural resource impacts of high-voltage overhead lines. We then conduct the buffer analysis of a GIS dataset in order to investigate natural resource impacts of existing high-voltage overhead lines in the two mentioned study areas. The paper is based upon the first results of the interdisciplinary research and development project ''Power Network Planning'' funded as part of the 6th Energy research program ''Research for an environmentally friendly, reliable and affordable energy supply'' by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). (orig.)

  5. Topography and recent winter rainfall regime change in temperate Western European areas: a case study in the Rhine-Meuse basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Drogue; Christian, Wagner; Nicole, Mahr; Lucien, Hoffmann; Laurent, Pfister

    2006-05-01

    Earlier trend analyses on rainfall series have clearly shown that the winter rainfall regime has changed since World War II over Northwestern Europe as a consequence of an enhanced westerly atmospheric circulation. However, few studies have been conducted on the potential link between the spatial variability of winter rainfall regime change and the topography. In the present study, a time series analysis of winter rainfall due to atmospheric westerly fluxes is performed and related to the topography of the middle Rhine-Meuse area. The resulting geographical patterns show a zonal anisotropism of the winter rainfall regime change implying an intensification of horizontal rainfall gradients. More contrasted westerly winter rainfall amounts are observed in mountainous areas during the post-1979 period following the changing-point year of atmospheric circulation over Northwestern Europe.

  6. [The conflict between work and private life and its relationship with burnout - results of a physician survey in breast cancer centers in North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, A; Driller, E; Kowalski, C; Ansmann, L; Pfaff, H

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the conflict between work and private life (work-life conflict and life-work conflict) and its relationship with burnout among physicians in breast cancer centers in North Rhine-Westphalia (n=378). With regard to the construct burnout, we differentiated between the 3 subscales emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment of the Maslach burnout inventory. In a structural equation model it was seen that above all the work-life conflict is positively associated with emotional exhaustion whereas the life-work conflict has a stronger positive correlation with depersonalisation and a negative relationship with personal accomplishment. Altogether, the results emphasise the importance of a successful interaction between professional work and private life ("work-life balance") for the health of medical personnel. PMID:23589136

  7. Climate change tendencies observable in the rainfall measurements since 1950 in the federal land of North Rhine-Westphalia and their consequences for urban hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfalt, T; Quirmbach, M; Langstädtler, G; Mehlig, B

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is present in climatological models - but did we already observe changes in the past measurement data? For the state of North Rhine Westphalia, the rainfall measurements since 1950 have been systematically analysed in order to find out whether there have already been trends and whether the behaviour of rainfall has changed in time. More than 600 station series have been screened for use in the project and quality controlled. Implausible data were discarded. For the analysis, standard values such as yearly sums, half-yearly sums, monthly sums, number of dry days, number of days with precipitation above a threshold, partial time series and extreme values statistics have been calculated and evaluated. Results show that also in the past 50 years, changes in precipitation regime could be observed. These changes have been regionally different. Consequences for urban hydrology include a development of more flexible design approaches. PMID:22049759

  8. Understanding the Generation Process of High Impact Floods in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L. E.; Zink, M.; Thober, S.; Kumar, R.

    2013-12-01

    Floods in Germany are the costliest natural disasters. The 2002 and the 2013 floods in the Danube and the Elbe river basins caused a havoc, with economic losses surpassing in each event the mark of 11 billion Euros. Considering the high impact of these events and the hydrometeorological records reached in both cases, it is worth trying to disentangle the impact of contributing factors of the flood generation process that lead to the development of these extreme events. Both summer events were caused by heavy rainfall triggered by low pressure systems over middle Europe (Vb and Tm circulation patterns respectively) that carry moist air from the Adriatic northeastward. Rainfall was intensified even further by orographic effects in mountainous regions. Preliminary evidence indicates that antecedent soil moisture conditions might have played a crucial role in the flood generating processes, specifically in the case of the 2013 event. To test this hypothesis, the process based hydrologic model mHM was used to estimate the top soil moisture and the surface runoff over whole Germany at a spatial resolution of 4x4 km2. mHM was forced with gridded daily precipitation and temperature, further disaggregated into hourly values. The gridded daily forcings were obtained with external drift Kriging from a dense network of meteorological stations operated by the German Weather Service. Resampling techniques were used to test the null hypothesis that the runoff generation of these two flood events is independent from antecedent soil moisture conditions. Results indicated that the soil moisture antecedent conditions, up to five days before the peak have had a statistically significant impact (p-value less than 5%) on flood generation processes. Moreover, the elasticity of the surface runoff to antecedent soil moisture exhibited a marked difference between events and basins. These differences are more pronounced in wet conditions rather than on dry ones, which in turn highlights that soil moisture is a key factor in the generation process. Soil moisture antecedent conditions before two high impact floods in Germany.

  9. Multi-model climate impact assessment and intercomparison for three large-scale river basins on three continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vetter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on hydrological processes should be simulated for river basins using validated models and multiple climate scenarios in order to provide reliable results for stakeholders. In the last 10–15 years climate impact assessment was performed for many river basins worldwide using different climate scenarios and models. Nevertheless, the results are hardly comparable and do not allow to create a full picture of impacts and uncertainties. Therefore, a systematic intercomparison of impacts is suggested, which should be done for representative regions using state-of-the-art models. Our study is intended as a step in this direction. The impact assessment presented here was performed for three river basins on three continents: Rhine in Europe, Upper Niger in Africa and Upper Yellow in Asia. For that, climate scenarios from five GCMs and three hydrological models: HBV, SWIM and VIC, were used. Four "Representative Concentration Pathways" (RCPs covering a range of emissions and land-use change projections were included. The objectives were to analyze and compare climate impacts on future trends considering three runoff quantiles: Q90, Q50 and Q10 and on seasonal water discharge, and to evaluate uncertainties from different sources. The results allow drawing some robust conclusions, but uncertainties are large and shared differently between sources in the studied basins. The robust results in terms of trend direction and slope and changes in seasonal dynamics could be found for the Rhine basin regardless which hydrological model or forcing GCM is used. For the Niger River scenarios from climate models are the largest uncertainty source, providing large discrepancies in precipitation, and therefore clear projections are difficult to do. For the Upper Yellow basin, both the hydrological models and climate models contribute to uncertainty in the impacts, though an increase in high flows in future is a robust outcome assured by all three hydrological models.

  10. Villes et infrastructures de transport du Rhin supérieur : des grands équipements structurants ? Cities and transport infrastructures in the Upper Rhine area: major structuring facilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Forthoffer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available L’espace franco-germano-suisse du Rhin supérieur dispose d’un maillage de villes performantes : métropole de Mannheim, Eurodistrict de Strasbourg, agglomération trinationale de Bâle... De par sa situation géographique, le sillon rhénan est aussi un couloir de transit d’importance européenne. Une coopération fonctionnelle dans différents domaines du transport comme les aéroports, les gares ou les ports, peut hisser cette région au plan européen et mondial.Cette étude analyse les interactions entre les projets d’équipements transport et les villes et s’articule autour des points suivants : les métropoles en tant que plates-formes intermodales, les corridors : réalités, projets, enjeux ; les agglomérations et les jeux transfrontaliers. Elle s’efforce de présenter les évolutions d’infrastructures des différents modes de transport en corrélation avec les projets de villes.The French-German-Swiss area of the upper Rhine offers a meshing of successful cities: metropolis of Mannheim, Eurodistrict of Strasbourg, Basel trinational agglomeration... Because of its geographical situation, the Rhine valley is also a transit corridor of European importance. A functional cooperation in various transport fields such as airports, railway stations or ports, may advance this area to European and worldwide level.This study analyzes the interactions between cities and transport facilities projects.?It is based on the following points: metropolises as intermodal platforms; corridors: realities, projects, stakes; towns and cross-border games, and it tries to present the infrastructure developments of various modes in conjunction with the towns’ projects.

  11. Baseline determination of the atmospheric Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in the Rhine valley, Vosges mountains (France) and the Central Swiss Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of biomonitors (lichen, moss, bark) and soil litter from different regions in the Rhine valley, as well as of 206Pb/207Pb and 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios are positively correlated. Most polluted samples from traffic-rich urban environments have the least radiogenic Pb and Sr isotopic compositions with 206Pb/207Pb and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 1.11 and 0.7094, respectively. These ratios are very different from those of the atmospheric baseline for the Vosges mountains and the Rhine valley (206Pb/207Pb: 1.158-1.167; 87Sr/86Sr: 0.719-0.725; ?Nd: -7.5 to -10.1). However, this study indicates that the baseline of the atmospheric natural Pb and Sr isotopic compositions is affected by anthropogenic (traffic, industrial and urban) emissions even in remote areas. Lichen samples from below the Rhone and Oberaar glaciers reflect the baseline composition close to the Grimsel pass in the Central Swiss Alps (87Sr/86Sr: 0.714 - 0.716; ?Nd: -3.6 to -8.1). The 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios are highly variable (8? units) and it is suggested that the variation of the 143Nd/144Nd is controlled by wet deposition and aerosols originating from the regional natural and industrial urban environments and from more distant regions like the Sahara in North Africa. The least anthropogenetically affected samples collected in remote areas have isotopic compositions closest to those of the corresponding granitoid basement rocks

  12. The politics of problem solving: A co-evolutionary perspective on the recent scalar reorganisation of water governance in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Thiel, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The European Union's Water Framework Directive advocates, among other things, River Basin Management and is often considered the principal driver of scalar organisation of gov-ernance in Europe. However, since more detailed comparative analysis seems necessary, this paper aims to enhance understanding of processes of scalar reorganisation of natural resource governance in the EU. A framework is developed for analysing the reconfiguration of water governance in Germany, relying on the illustra...

  13. Herbal medicine takes root in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    P. Harrison

    1998-01-01

    The sale of Herbal Medicine is a growth industry in Germany, where physicians routinely prescribe these products and annual sales have surpassed $ 2 billion. Pam Harrison says the rising popularity has been driven by German patients, who began demanding herbal alternatives to synthetic drugs. Medical schools responded by reintroducing lessons on a topic that had been phased out of the medical curriculum.

  14. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  15. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    1998-01-01

    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  16. Agro-environmental policies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural activities always have impacts on the environment. Whereas soil erosion is a minor problem in Germany water pollution due to modern and intensive agriculture is of major concern. At first the paper discusses to what extent agriculture contributes to environmental pollution in Germany, in particular to the pollution of surface waters (as well as hydroelectric power constructions on the Danube) and groundwater by nutrients and pesticides. Agro-environmental policy in Germany is dominated by command-and-control-measures. Hence, in the second section, recent developments of the most important legal and institutional settings concerning water conservation policies are surveyed with special emphasis on the Federal Water Act and the Implementation of the Nitrate Directive into German legislation by the Fertilizer Ordinance. Thirdly, impacts of alternative water conservation policies are investigated using a regionalized agricultural sector model. Information obtained by this model analysis cover the development of N-balances, potential nitrate concentrations in the recharged groundwater, costs potentially effected by this and resulting agricultural incomes on the country level of the former Federal Republic Germany. The last section focuses on programs promoting environmentally sound farming practices, which gained increasing importance in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in the last years. It is argued that this development will also continue in the future. (author)

  17. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...

  18. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.; Teiser, B.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent of the...

  19. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  20. The future of nuclear energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VEBA's and RWE's nuclear energy initiative on the 23rd November 1992 brings up the question whether Germany's politicians can assure the safe supply of electricity if they decide to give up nuclear energy. It is this question that the following article attempts to answer. (orig.)

  1. Americans for Germany in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Blair R.

    The pro-German American newspaper "The Fatherland," published shortly before the United States entered the First World War (1914-1917), displayed a failure of public relations in terms of defining and offering themes likely to convince a target audience to side with Germany. By looking at a public relations campaign undertaken by the paper, a…

  2. Status of fast reactor research in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a short survey of fast reactor activities in Germany. The fast reactor activities of FZK are part of the Nuclear Safety Projects. The R and D program include neutron physical and safety calculated, and post-irradiated examination of structural materials. The key issues and tasks of the program concerned safety and transmission of minor activities and fission products. (author)

  3. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  4. Thuringia (Germany): uranium makes Cat radiant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In eastern Germany, near Chemnitz, the closure in 1991 of the huge surface and underground uranium mines has left important contaminated surfaces which have to be rehabilitated. This paper gives a general overview of the remedial action in progress in this region and of the equipments required. (J.S.)

  5. France, Germany drop out of ITER race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The list of countries willing to host a multi-billion dollar fusion facility got much shorter when France and Germany effectively took themselves out of the competition, making Japan the odd-on favorite as the site for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) if it is built. This article describes the history and the possible future for the ITER

  6. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  7. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate concentration that was 1000 fold higher than the measured natural levels. The pure culture Nitrosomonas europaea (Nm 50) was more sensitive and was already inhibited by concentrations 10 to 100 fold above the in-situ concentrations. Overall, we find that glyphosate is apparently not as easily degradable as expected, as it can be detected in the water column and sediment of the Elbe estuary in spring and summer. Our results indicate that especially during bacterial growth, the natural nitrifying community can be affected if glyphosate concentrations in the water column increase.

  8. The outlook for natural gas in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a generally stagnant energy market, gas will be the energy with the highest growth rate in Germany, especially because of its steadily rising shares in the residential and commercial sector. In western Germany there is to be accepted that the demand forecasts, which were raised from one conference to the next, have passed their zenith. Great uncertainty exists as regards the future use of gas for power generation. In the absence of any significant expansion of this market sector, which is considered rather improbable in western Germany, it can be stated that anticipated gas demand up to the year 2005 is already covered by existing import contracts and scheduled domestic production. The picture is completely different in eastern Germany, where a doubling of consumption is quite feasible. To achieve the requisite diversification of supplies, substantial additional imports from western sources will have to be contracted. Russia can and should remain eastern Germany's main supplier in the long run, but Russian deliveries must be placed on a reliable, long-term contractual basis. As far as new gas projects are concerned, deliveries from Norway, to a limited extent from the United Kingdom and above all as part of the new Russian export initiative are under discussion. Generally speaking, transit will be an increasingly significant issue, especially for additional supplies from Russia. The efficiency and reliability of gas marketing companies will become far more important in an environment characterised by growing uncertainties. The reliable customer offering a dependable market outlet will be increasingly sought. With energy prices likely to increase only slightly, the management of uncertainties and the safeguarding of economic driving forces will be the main challenge facing our supply projects. 15 figs

  9. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-01-01

    Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010) were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an in...

  10. Hmong of Germany: Preliminary Report on the Resettlement of Lao Hmong Refugees in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tou T. Yang

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes the resettlement of Lao Hmong refugees in Germany since the fall of Laos in 1975. Data for this paper were collected during my two visits to the Hmong community of Gammertingen in southern Germany. Although, it has been known that there are Lao Hmong refugees living in Germany, literature about their resettlement in academic journals and the western media has been nonexistent. Therefore, information about their population, social, educational and economic status has not been available. While serving in the U.S. Army, I was fortunate to be stationed in Germany and had several opportunities to visits and interact with this isolate Hmong community. Therefore, I would like to share what little information I have gathered about this forgotten Hmong community. This paper provides a preliminary report on the resettlement process, population, social, educational and economic status of this community. Data were collected primarily through informal direct interviews with the head of household from four families of the original five families that resettled in Germany. As of the writing of this paper, there is no other known Hmong community in Germany other than this Gammertingen Hmong community.

  11. Gino Germani: socialismo liberal y sociología científica / Gino Germani: liberal socialism and scientific sociology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela, Rawicz.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda los primeros tramos de la trayectoria de Germani en Argentina, con el fin de identificar el marco de experiencias y debates dentro de los cuales se configura su perspectiva intelectual sobre la sociología y el cambio social. Se sostiene la existencia en Germani de una matriz ideol [...] ógica vinculada al socialismo liberal europeo de la época, que coloca la oposición autoritarismo vs. libertad como eje articulador de su discurso sobre las sociedades modernas. A lo largo de toda su trayectoria Germani mantiene, con adecuaciones, esta perspectiva para comprender los procesos sociales más relevantes de las sociedades latinoamericanas. Un primer ejemplo paradigmático lo constituye su análisis del fenómeno peronista en Argentina. Abstract in english This article deals with the beginning of Gino Germani's career in Argentina and tries to identify the framework of experiences and debates among which his intellectual perspective on sociology and social change take place. This article posits that there is an ideological matrix in Germani linked to [...] the European liberal socialism of his time, which puts the opposition between authoritarism and liberty as the central theme of its speech on modern societies. Along his career Germani maintains -with some modifications- this perspective to understand the most relevant social processes in Latin-American societies. A first paradigmatic example is his analysis of Peronism in Argentina.

  12. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  13. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252.229-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  14. Remarkable Urban Uplift in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany: Observations from TerraSAR-X InSAR and Leveling from 2008 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Kaufmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As geothermal energy is of increasing importance as a renewable energy source, there is a high demand for comprehensive studies to prevent failure during implementation, as is the case in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany. The drilling of seven wells for the geothermal heating of the city hall in 2007 is thought to have disturbed the existing hydro-geological system in the complex structured transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif. This event has led to uplift, related to the transformation of anhydrite to gypsum, which affects the infrastructure of the city centre via the generation of large cracks. This study focuses on the application of the InSAR Small Baseline Subset (SBAS approach using 50 X-band radar images from the German TerraSAR-X satellite (TSX to map the spatial and temporal patterns of the deformation field in detail. X-band InSAR time series analysis for the three-year time period from July 2008 through May 2011 indicates maximum velocities of ~12 cm/yr in the line of sight (LOS direction, from the ground to the satellite, approximately 50 m northeast of the drilling field. In comparison with leveling data for the same time period, TSX data analysis better delineates the border of the deformation area, and it is able to map the amount of deformation associated with different parts of the city. Moreover, this comparison indicates contributions of horizontal motion, as is expected for uplift patterns.

  15. A comparative analysis of restoration measures and their effects on hydromorphology and benthic invertebrates in 26 central and southern European rivers.

    OpenAIRE

    Jähnig, S.C.; Brabec, K.; Buffagni, A.; Erba, S.; Lorenz, A.; Ofenböck, T.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Hering, D.

    2010-01-01

    1.?Hydromorphological river restoration usually leads to habitat diversification, but the effects on benthic invertebrates, which are frequently used to assess river ecological status, are minor. We compared the effects of river restoration on morphology and benthic invertebrates by investigating 26 pairs of non-restored and restored sections of rivers in Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. 2.? Sites were grouped according to (1) region: central Europe vs. southern Eu...

  16. Electric rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Bay II, the projected Canadian hydroelectric power plant of gigantic dimensions, is to deliver its electricity to Europe: in the USA, opposition to power imports from James Bay is growing. Its realization means the flooding of an area as big as the Federal Republic of Germany; the native territory and hunting grounds of the Cree indians would be inundated. The interests of the European power industry in the James Bay project and the consequences for Europe are described in an appendix (EQHHPP project, project management Hydro-Quebec and Ludwig Boelkow Foundation, hydrogen production through electrolysis, methods for transporting hydrogen to Hamburg). (orig./HP)

  17. Radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe (1982-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982 and 1983 the Laboratory for Radio-ecology of water bodies of the Federal Institute for Fishery performed radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe, on the Datteln-Hamm-Canal and on one section of the Rhine near the city of Wesel in order to enable expert examination of the population's exposure to radiation originating from effluents of the planned Hamm Nuclear Power Plant (HNP). The present-day distribution of artificial and natural radionuclides in water, fish, seston, sediment and in drill cores from the Lippe and the pastures lying within the flood area was examined using radio-chemical methods and the nuclear-radiation measurement technique. The contents of the stable elements of antimony, nickel, cobalt, zinc, manganese, iron, silver and phosphorus in water and fish were determined to obtain some suggestions concerning the behaviour of radionuclides which are expected in the waste water of the HNP but which cannot be found in the environment at present. Concerning uptake and incorporation of radioactive nuclides in the bodies of fish from the Lippe and the Rhine section studied, mean concentration factors could be calculated from the measured values for the state of equilibrium. One single-time emission with the cooling water of the Westfalen nuclear power plant was examined using the inactive tracer of Dysprosium in order to study the behaviour of the emission cloud when running off with the river water. With this examination, complete cross-mixing at 800 m downstream from the cooling-water re-entry building was found at a Lippe downstream flow rate of 22 cbm/s which corresponds to its annual mean. The down-stream flow graph could be described by a dispersion graph showing a marked trailing effect. The cloud-fail values which were higher compared with those of the graph, could possibly be explained by recirculation obtaining with cooling water influx. (orig.)

  18. Mineral magnetic characterization of the Upper Pleniglacial Nussloch loess sequence (Germany): an insight into local environmental processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel N.; Lagroix, France; Rousseau, Denis-Didier; Antoine, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Presently, most loess/palaeosol magnetic susceptibility records are interpreted as following either the wind-vigour model or the pedogenic enhancement model. However redoxomorphic processes induced by waterlogging, often referred to gleying in the loess literature, are also known to alter loess deposits but their impact on loess/palaeosol magnetic susceptibility records has received little attention. The reported rock magnetic study aims to characterize the mineral magnetic response of loess to waterlogging-induced redoxomorphic processes, thus improving our understanding of mineral magnetic changes within loess deposits with respect to environmental and climate conditions. The Nussloch loess-palaeosol deposit (Rhine Valley, Germany) was targeted because it is one of the best-studied Pleniglacial deposits for Western Europe in which numerous tundra gley intervals have been identified. Moreover, a comprehensive high-resolution environmental magnetism study has never been undertaken for this site. Various rock magnetism experiments were conducted at both room and low temperatures to characterise the composition, concentration and relative magnetic grain size of the mineral magnetic assemblage. The relative changes in magnetic parameters within the investigated loess interval are primarily controlled by (1) varying concentrations of coarse-grained ferrimagnetic particles of detrital (aeolian) origin and (2) dissolution of fine-grained ferrimagnetic particles related to in situ post-depositional alteration promoted by waterlogging-induced redoxomorphic processes. Goethite is found to be ubiquitous throughout the studied interval and is argued to have both a primary (aeolian) and secondary (in situ) origin. We conclude, that redoxomorphic processes induced by waterlogging, if present, will hinder the interpretation of magnetic susceptibility variations within loess and palaeosol deposits following the expected relationships dictated by the wind-vigour and the pedogenic enhancement magnetism models.

  19. Mobile measurements of particle composition in the Rhine Valley and Zurich. Winter 2007/2008; Mobile Messungen der Partikelzusammensetzung im Rheintal und in der Stadt Zuerich. Winter 2007/2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, C.; Weimer, S.; Good, C.; Richter, R.; Prevot, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2009-07-15

    This report issued by the General Energy Research Department and its Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results obtained from the measurement of fine-dust quantities and composition in the cantons of eastern Switzerland and the upper Rhine valley during the winter. The PSI analysed the samples on behalf of the Swiss cantons, Vorarlberg (Austria) and the Principality of Liechtenstein. The mobile equipment used and the measurements made in the Rhine Valley between Lake Constance and Chur as well as in the City of Zurich are presented and discussed. The results of the measurements are presented in graphical form and the chemical composition of the pollutants at the different locations are discussed. Details of the instruments used and the routes taken are noted in an appendix.

  20. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michael, Dauderstädt.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010) were introduced which many consider as the key [...] of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mi