WorldWideScience

Sample records for river basin volume

  1. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  2. ROANOKE RIVER BASIN DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data files for the Roanoke River Basin provided for use with the Roanoke River Basin Reservoir Model. Includes data on daily pan evaporation, monthly water usage and daily inflow. (see http://www.dwr.ehnr.state.nc.us/roanoke/index.htm)...

  3. Genesee River Basin study. Volume 1. Main report. Final feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This feasibility report discusses plans considered under the Genesee River Basin Study Authority. Two of these plans--a multi-use reservoir at Stannards and modification to the existing Mt. Morris Dam and reservoir for multi-use including flood control, recreation, hydropower, and irrigation--were found not economically feasible for single-purpose flood control. The Federal Government, therefore, recommended no further Federal actions.

  4. Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    Environmental baseline data for the Snake River Plain known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) are evaluated for geothermal development. The objective is to achieve a sound data base prior to geothermal development. These KGRAs are: Vulcan Hot Springs, Crane Creek, Castle Creek, Bruneau, Mountain Home, Raft River, Island Park, and Yellowstone. Air quality, meteorology, hydrology, water quality, soils, land use, geology, subsidence, seismicity, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, demography, socioeconomics, and heritage resources are analyzed. This program includes a summary of environmental concerns related to geothermal development in each of the KGRAs, an annotated bibliography of reference materials (Volume II), detailed reports on the various program elements for each of the KGRAs, a program plan identifying future research needs, and a comprehensive data file.

  5. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  7. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  8. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  9. Ohio water resources data, water year 2004 : volume 1. Ohio River basin excluding project data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, H.L.; Mangus, J.P.; Frum, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 137 gaging stations and various partial-record sites; water levels at 243 observation wells and 38 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 18 gaging stations, 34 observation wells, and no partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

  10. Ohio Water Resources Data, Water Year 2002, Volume 1. Ohio River Basin Excluding Project Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, H.L.; Mangus, J.P.; Frum, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 137 gaging stations and 20 partial-record sites; water levels at 246 observation wells and 32 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 32 gaging stations, 58 observation wells, and 10 partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

  11. 62 FR 44016 - Availability of the Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Program, Draft Basin Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-18

    ...Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Program, Draft Basin...Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Program for a public...objectives, problems and needs, and potential water...River Basin, Water Enhancement Project, P.O. Box...

  12. Tools for river basin management

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Water resources management can be challenging when confronted with pollution, water shortage, floods, water-related diseases, climate change and variability. In this thesis, it is assessed how the management of a multi-functional river basin can be facilitated through the development and testing of analytical tools in data-poor and data-rich context. A variety of tools and strategies is developed and tested on a variety of stakeholder selected themes, namely: •Cost-effective improvement of ...

  13. Projections of demand for waterborne transportation, Ohio River Basin, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2020, 2040. Volume 13. Group XI. Petroleum products, nec. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    This Corps of Engineers report describes one of three independent but complementary studies of future freight traffic on the Ohio River Basin Navigation System. Each of the studies considers existing waterborne commerce and develops a consistent set of projects of future traffic demands for all of the navigable waterways of the Basin. Each report contains information on past and present waterborne commerce in the Basin and projections by commodity groups and origin-destination areas from 1976 to at least 1990. (Author)

  14. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  15. Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume III - Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colville Confederated Tribes; US Fish and Wildlife Service; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Yakama Indian Nation

    1996-06-01

    Beaver Creek Hatchery is located on the Elochoman River about 10 miles upstream from the river mouth. The Elochoman River is a north bank tributary of the lower Columbia River, just downstream of Cathlamet, Washington. The facility consists of 10 intermediate raceways, 20 raceways, (1) earthen rearing pond, (2) adult holding ponds, and a hatchery building with 60 troughs. It is staffed with 4 FTE`s. Water rights total 16,013 gpm from three sources: Elochoman River, Beaver Creek and a well. Beaver Creek water is gravity flow while the other two sources are pumped. The Elochoman River is used in summer and fall while Beaver Creek water is used from mid-November through mid-May. Filtered well water (1 cfs) is used to incubate eggs and for early rearing of fry. Water use in summer is about 5,800 gpm. Gobar Pond, a 0.93-acre earthen rearing pond located on Gobar Creek (Kalama River tributary), is operated as a satellite facility.

  16. 75 FR 38833 - Walker River Basin Acquisition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Walker River Basin Acquisition Program AGENCY...Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Walker River Basin Acquisition Program (Acquisition...INFORMATION: Since 1882, diversions from the Walker River, primarily for irrigated...

  17. Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Trasmonte, G.; Chavez, R.; Segura, B.; Rosales, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú) current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) tools, using minimum temperature – 1...

  18. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  19. Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995, Volume I - Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Department of Fish and Game; US Fish and Wildlife Service; Nez Perce Tribe

    1996-06-01

    Clearwater Hatchery is located on the north bank of the North Fork of the Clearwater River, downstream from Dworshak Dam. It is approximately 72 miles from Lower Granite Dam, and 504 miles from the mouth of the Columbia River. Site elevation is approximately 994 feet above sea level. The hatchery is staffed with 8 FTE`s. Clearwater Hatchery has two pipelines from Dworshak Reservoir. One is attached to a floating platform and is capable of providing various temperatures at varying depths. The other is a stationary intake about 245 feet below the top of the dam. All water is gravity fed to the hatchery. An 18-inch intake pipe provides an estimated 10 cfs with temperature remaining constant at approximately 40T. The primary 42-inch intake pipe can draw water from 5 to 45 feet in depth with temperatures ranging from 55{degrees} to 60{degrees}F and 70 cfs of flow. This report describes the operations of the hatchery.

  20. Integrated river basin management - the Narew River case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okruszko, Thomas; Gielczewski, Marek [Warsaw Agricultural Univ. Dept. of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Recultivation (Poland)

    2004-09-01

    An integrated approach to river basin management seems to be the most appropriate and promising way to achieve sustainable development of the large river catchment. Such approach is especially essential in the areas where economical activities are occurring together with great needs for nature protection due to its unique values, and, local and global importance for ecological completeness. The Narew River Basin is a perfect example of such area. Therefore, the basin was selected as a pilot watershed for testing the implementation of EU Water Framework Directive issues in Poland. The main water management problems (key pressures and impacts) of the basin were identified. The present state of components of the integrated water management was recognized. Finally, the main directions for achieving integrated management, with their strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities, were elaborated. (orig.)

  1. Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume II, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; US Fish and Wildlife Service

    1996-06-01

    Big Creek Hatchery is located 16 miles east of Astoria, Oregon and is approximately 3 miles upstream from Big Creek`s confluence with the Columbia River. The site elevation is approximately 75 feet above sea level. The facility includes 2 adult holding ponds, 30 raceways, 1 rearing pond, 64 troughs and 8 stacks of egg incubators. The adult collection and holding ponds are in poor condition and are inadequate to meet current program objectives. There are four water sources for the hatchery: Big Creek, Mill Creek and two springs. Current water rights total 36,158 gpm plus an additional 4.2 cfs reservoir water right. All water supplies are delivered by gravity but can be pumped for reuse if required. The facility is staffed with 9.25 FTE`s. Current practices at the hatchery are described.

  2. Wadter Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin and Statewide Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synaptic sites, and partial-record sites; and (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake- and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures ga through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two to three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  3. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems. Hot spot assessment included 100 gauge stations in the river basin with discharge measurement by ADCP, turbidity (T) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), bed load by bed load traps, composition of salt, biochemical oxidation, nitrogen and phosphorous content in water, pH, redox and conductivity values, and also content of heavy metals in water, suspended matter and sediments. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than MPC for water fishery. Most contrast distribution is characteristic for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in the Selenga basin. The most severe pollution of aquatic systems in the basin caused by mining activities is characteristic for a small river Modonkul, which flows into Dzhida River (left tributary of Selenga).

  4. Ohio Water Resources Data, Water Year 2002, Volume 2. St. Lawrence River Basin and Statewide Project Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, H.L.; Mangus, J.P.; Frum, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 137 gaging stations and 20 partial-record sites; water levels at 246 observation wells and 32 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 32 gaging stations, 58 observation wells, and 10 partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

  5. Ohio water resources data, water year 2004 : volume 2. St. Lawrence River basin and statewide project data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, H.L.; Mangus, J.P.; Frum, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 137 gaging stations and various partial-record sites; water levels at 243 observation wells and 38 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 18 gaging stations, 34 observation wells, and no partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

  6. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (?W = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of suspended and dissolved matter transport is indicated along Tuul-Orkhon river system (right tributary of the Selenga river where Mongolia capital Ulaanbaator, gold mine Zaamar and few other mines). The results provide evidence on a connection between increased heavy metal concentrations in water-sediment systems of transboundary rivers and pollutant source zones at industrial and mining centers, both as in-channel erosion and land use.

  7. River basin management in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakali, Maria; Shixwameni, Loise

    The present trend in water resources management is to work on a basin level, the reasons being the need to devolve information sharing, co-ordinating and decision-making level down from a centralised system and the fact that water resources are shared within a basin. In Namibia, the water sector is being reformed, also, to introduce the concept of integrated water resources management on basin level. An important aspect is the establishment of Basin Management Committees to manage water along hydrological boundaries and to involve the local communities more actively in the planning, operation and management of their water supplies and resources. As such it compliments community based management program government is implementing. To this end, basins have been demarcated using several set criteria and piloting of the stressed basin, regarding availability of water and environmental degradation, started. This paper will look at the introduction of basin management concept in Namibia and how the communities in piloted basin are embracing it. So far the communities have shown willingness to manage their own water resources as compared to the past when everything was dictated to them from centrally located decision-makers. The question however is what are the challenges this task will present to them in managing this scarce and vulnerable resource, with regard to the capacity available.

  8. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume I Kootenai River (Overview, Report and Appendices).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  9. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will...review of the implementation of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of the Secretary used...

  10. Social Learning in European River-Basin Management: Barriers and Fostering Mechanisms from 10 River Basins :

    OpenAIRE

    Brad Searle; David Tàbara; Yvonne Rees; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Erik Mostert; Joanne Tippett

    2007-01-01

    We present and analyze 10 case studies of participatory river-basin management that were conducted as part of the European HarmoniCOP project. The main theme was social learning, which emphasizes the importance of collaboration, organization, and learning. The case studies show that social learning in river-basin management is not an unrealistic ideal. Resistance to social learning was encountered, but many instances of social learning were found, and several positive results were identified....

  11. Genesee River watershed study. Volume 4. Special studies. US Geological Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    Volume 4 contains three reports: Report I--Streamflow and Sediment Transport in the Genesee River Basin, New York; Report II -- Hydrogeologic Influences on Sediment-Transport Patterns in the Genesee River Valley, New York; and Report III -- Sources and Movement of Sediment in the Canaseraga Creek Basin near Dansville, New York.

  12. Digital spatial data as support for river basin management: The case of Sotla river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prah Klemen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many real-world spatially related problems, including river-basin planning and management, give rise to geographical information system based decision making, since the performance of spatial policy alternatives were traditionally and are still often represented by thematic maps. Advanced technologies and approaches, such as geographical information systems (GIS, offer a unique opportunity to tackle spatial problems traditionally associated with more efficient and effective data collection, analysis, and alternative evaluation. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of the use of digital spatial data and geographical information systems in river basis management. Spatial data on social, environmental and other spatial conditions for the study area of 451.77 km2, the Slovenian part of the Sotla river basin, are used to study the GIS capabilities of supporting spatial decisions in the framework of river basin management.

  13. Saving the Mekong River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Houba, Harold; Pham Do, Kim Hang; Zhu, Xueqin

    2011-01-01

    The Mekong River (MR) is shared by six countries: China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Over the years there have been both conflict and cooperation on managing the water resources to meet population growth, climate change and the desire for economic development. Currently, the MR Committee (MRC) has weak policy instruments. This paper exploits an axiomatic bargaining approach to examine how China and the MRC might negotiate effective joint management. We investigate what wel...

  14. Mississippi River, Yazoo Basin, Memphis, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This section of the lower Mississippi River (34.0N, 90.0W) known as the Yazoo Basin, is characterized by a wide expanse of rich river bottomland with many oxbow lakes, the remains of the many changes in the riverbed over the course of many thousands of years. This soil is very fertile and productive but the region is prone to flooding. In this view, some of the back areas around the Delta National Forest show the effects of heavy spring rains.

  15. Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

    2014-04-01

    We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs. PMID:24306442

  16. Climate change adaptation in European river basins

    OpenAIRE

    Huntjens, P.; Pahl-wostl, C.; Grin, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains an assessment and standardized comparative analysis of the current water management regimes in four case-studies in three European river basins: the Hungarian part of the Upper Tisza, the Ukrainian part of the Upper Tisza (also called Zacarpathian Tisza), Alentejo Region (including the Alqueva Reservoir) in the Lower Guadiana in Portugal, and Rivierenland in the Netherlands. The analysis comprises several regime elements considered to be important in adaptive and integrate...

  17. Methods for Identifying Ravines and Quantifying Their Contribution to Sediment Loads in the Minnesota River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, D. J.; Nelson, J. F.; Nieber, J. L.; Wilson, B. N.; Hansen, B. J.; Ulrich, J. S.; Magner, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Minnesota River Basin generates a disproportionately high amount of total suspended sediments to the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Many reaches in the Minnesota River Basin have impaired water quality due to turbidity. The primary sources of sediment in the Minnesota River Basin include upland erosion from agricultural land, streambluff slumping, and downcutting of ravines. No research has been conducted to date to quantify sediment contributions to the Minnesota River Basin from ravines. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and terrain analysis were conducted using 3 and 30 m resolution digital elevation models in an attempt to identify the locations and geomorphic characteristics of ravines in the Minnesota River Basin. A combination of the streampower index (SPI) and profile curvature were used to identify the location of ravines. Field verification showed that this method was highly successful. GIS was used to quantify the length, width and volume of each ravine, and these attributes were used to classify ravines according to their sediment loss potential. Field measurements of total suspended sediment and detailed repetitive topographic surveys were made in ravines at several locations to quantify sediment losses from ravines. Field measurements were combined with GIS based ravine attributes to estimate the contribution of ravines to sediment load in the Minnesota River Basin.

  18. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting (national and international laws and agreements), the institutional setting (the formal networks), information management (the information collection and dissemination system), and financing systems (the public and private sources that cover the water management costs). These elements are usually designed for a specific level and are ideally aligned with the other levels. The presentation will go into detail on connecting the different elements of the water management regime between different levels as well as on the overarching governance issues that play a role and will present opportunities and limitations of the linking options.

  19. Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasmonte, G.; Chavez, R.; Segura, B.; Rosales, J. L.

    2008-04-01

    As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú) current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) tools, using minimum temperature - 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April), when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence) were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l.), while the low (or null) probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.). Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke) in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l.), moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

  20. ANOMALOUSLY PRESSURED GAS DISTRIBUTION IN THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    2003-03-31

    Anomalously pressured gas (APG) assets, typically called ''basin-center'' gas accumulations, represent either an underdeveloped or undeveloped energy resource in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB). Historically, the exploitation of these gas resources has proven to be very difficult and costly. In this topical report, an improved exploration strategy is outlined in conjunction with a more detailed description of new diagnostic techniques that more efficiently detect anomalously pressured, gas-charged domains. The ability to delineate gas-charged domains occurring below a regional velocity inversion surface allows operators to significantly reduce risk in the search for APG resources. The Wind River Basin was chosen for this demonstration because of the convergence of public data availability (i.e., thousands of mud logs and DSTs and 2400 mi of 2-D seismic lines); the evolution of new diagnostic techniques; a 175 digital sonic log suite; a regional stratigraphic framework; and corporate interest. In the exploration scheme discussed in this topical report, the basinwide gas distribution is determined in the following steps: (1) A detailed velocity model is established from sonic logs, 2-D seismic lines, and, if available, 3-D seismic data. In constructing the seismic interval velocity field, automatic picking technology using continuous, statistically-derived interval velocity selection, as well as conventional graphical interactive methodologies are utilized. (2) Next, the ideal regional velocity/depth function is removed from the observed sonic or seismic velocity/depth profile. The constructed ideal regional velocity/depth function is the velocity/depth trend resulting from the progressive burial of a rock/fluid system of constant rock/fluid composition, with all other factors remaining constant. (3) The removal of the ideal regional velocity/depth function isolates the anomalously slow velocities and allows the evaluation of (a) the regional velocity inversion surface (i.e., pressure surface boundary); (b) detection and delineation of gas-charged domains beneath the velocity inversion surface (i.e., volumes characterized by anomalously slow velocities); and (c) variations within the internal fabric of the velocity anomaly (i.e., variations in gas charge). Using these procedures, it is possible to construct an anomalous velocity profile for an area, or in the case of the Wind River Basin, an anomalous velocity volume for the whole basin. Such an anomalous velocity volume has been constructed for the Wind River Basin based on 1600 mi of 2-D seismic data and 175 sonic logs, for a total of 132,000 velocity/depth profiles. The technology was tested by constructing six cross sections through the anomalous velocity volume coincident with known gas fields. In each of the cross sections, a strong and intense anomalously slow velocity domain coincided with the gas productive rock/fluid interval; there were no exceptions. To illustrate the applicability of the technology, six target areas were chosen from a series of cross sections through the anomalous velocity volume. The criteria for selection of these undrilled target areas were (1) they were characterized by anomalous velocity domains comparable to known gas fields; (2) they had structural, stratigraphic, and temporal elements analogous to one of the known fields; and (3) they were located at least six sonic miles from the nearest known gas field. The next step in the exploration evolution would be to determine if the detected gas-charged domains are intersected by reservoir intervals characterized by enhanced porosity and permeability. If, in any of these targeted areas, the gas-charged domains are penetrated by reservoir intervals with enhanced storage and deliverability, the gas-charged domains could be elevated to drillable prospects. Hopefully, the work described in this report (the detection and delineation of gas-charged domains) will enable operators in the Wind River Basin and elsewhere to reduce risk significantly and increase the rate an

  1. Markets for Southern Powder River Basin coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, P.J.; Wright, P.W. [Resource Data International Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Powder River Basin (SPRB) now commands 30% of the US utility coal market due to the region`s low mine production costs, competitive rail rates and low sulfur content. Continued growth is expected as the second phase of the US Clean Air Act Amendments approaches. The article discusses characterisation of SPRB coal, gives data on 1997 production by individual SPRB mines, and traces growth in sales and production of coal by major companies since 1989. In 1997, 81% of production in the Basin was dominated by four companies - Peabody, Arco, Kennecott and Cyprus Amax. Combined with declining market prices and the expiration of above-market contracts, companies are maximising profits by increasing production at a small number of mines. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pophare, Anil M.; Balpande, Umesh S.

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order sub-basins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km 2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the sub-surface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the drainage basin. The slope map of Suketi river basin has been classified into three main zones, which delineate the runoff zone in the mountains, recharge zone in the transition zone between mountains and valley plane, and discharge zone in the plane areas of Balh valley.

  3. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  4. Extreme rainfall indexes at Ebro River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Jose Luis; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; María Gascó, Jose

    2013-04-01

    Extreme rainfall events are a serious concern for regional hydrology and agriculture in the Ebro River Basin. Repeated anomalous rainfall in recent decades has had a devastating impact on this region, both socially and economically. Some studies developed in Italy and USA have shown that there is a change in seasonal patterns and an increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, whereas other studies have pointed out that no global behaviour could be observed in monthly trends due to high climatic variability. The aim of this work is to test which of these scenarios is the case for the Ebro River Basin. For this purpose, 14 meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station. First, classical climatic indexes were analysed with an autoregressive test to study possible trends in rainfall. The results can be explained following the evolution of the NAO and WeMO indexes, which indicate that the initial period should be subdivided in two periods (1957-1979 and 1980-2002) to assume stationarity and to analyse the rainfall distribution functions. The general results obtained in this study for both subperiods, through the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) parameters and the maximum expected return values, do not support the results previously obtained by other authors that affirm a positive trend in extreme rainfall indexes and point to a slight reduction indicated by others. Three extreme precipitation indexes show negative statistical significant trends. GPD-scale parameters decrease except for only one rain gauge, although this decrease is only statistically significant for two rain gauges. Another two locations show statistical significance decreased for maximum expected return values.

  5. Updating river basin models with radar altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrological models are widely used by water managers as a decision support tool for both real-time and long-term applications. Some examples of real-time management issues are the optimal management of reservoir releases, flood forecasting or water allocation in drought conditions. Long term-applications include the impact analysis of planned hydraulic structures or land use changes and the predicted impact of climate change on water availability. One of the obstacles hydrologists face in setting up river basin models is data availability, whether because the datasets needed do not exist or because of political unwillingness to share data which is a common problem in particular in transboundary settings. In this context, remote sensing (RS) datasets provide an appealing alternative to traditional in-situ data and much research effort has gone into the use of these datasets for hydrological applications. Many types of RS are now routinely used to set up and drive river basin models. One of the key hydrological state variables is river discharge. It is typically the output of interest for water allocation applications and is also widely used as a source of calibration data as it presents the integrated response of a catchment to meteorological forcing. While river discharge cannot be directly measured from space, radar altimetry (RA) can measure water level variations in rivers at the locations where the satellite ground track and river network intersect called virtual stations or VS. In this PhD study, the potential for the use of RA over rivers for hydrological applications in data sparse environments is investigated. The research focused on discharge estimation from RA as well as the use of RA for data assimilation to routing models with the objective of improving river discharge forecasts. In the first paper included in this PhD study, the potential for using altimetry for level and discharge monitoring in the Zambezi River basin was assessed. Altimetric levels were extracted using a detailed river mask at 31 VS located on rivers down to 80 m wide. Root mean square errors relative to in-situ levels were found to be between 0.32 and 0.72 m. Discharge was estimated from the altimetric levels for three different data availability scenarios: availability of an in-situ rating curve at the VS, availability of one pair of simultaneous measurement of cross-section and discharge and availability of historical discharge data. For the few VS where in-situ data was available for comparison, the discharge estimates were found to be within 4.1 to 13.8% of mean annual gauged amplitude. One of the main obstacles to the use of RA in hydrological applications is the low temporal resolution of the data which has been between 10 and 35 days for altimetry missions until now. The location of the VS is also not necessarily the point at which measurements are needed. On the other hand, one of the main strengths of the dataset is its availability in near-real time. These characteristics make radar altimetry ideally suited for use in data assimilation frameworks which combine the information content from models and current observations to produce improved forecasts and reduce prediction uncertainty. The focus of the second and third papers of this thesis was therefore the use of radar altimetry as update data in a data assimilation framework. The approach chosen was to simulate reach storages using a simple Muskingum routing scheme driven by the output of a rainfall-runoff model and to carry out state updates using the Extended Kalman Filter. The data assimilation approach developed was applied in two case studies: the Brahmaputra and Zambezi River basins. In the Brahmaputra, data from 6 Envisat VS located along the main reach was assimilated. The assimilation improved model performance with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency increasing from 0.78 to 0.84 at the outlet of the basin. In the Zambezi River basin, data from 9 Envisat VS located within 2 distinct watersheds was assimilated. Because of the presence of the large Barotse floodplain in the

  6. Comparing Africa’s Shared River Basins – The Limpopo, Orange, Juba and Shabelle Basins

    OpenAIRE

    Elmi Moamed, Abdullahi

    2014-01-01

    The paper compares the Limpopo and Orange Rivers in Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the Juba and Shabelle Rivers in the Horn of Africa (HoA), which all are internationally shared basins. The aim is to identify differences and similarities between the river basins in the two regions in order to increase our knowledge and understanding of the issue of shared rivers. Relevant data were mainly collected and methods applied include document and literature review, text analysis, ...

  7. Long lasting dynamic disequilibrium in river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Liran; Willett, Sean D.; McCoy, Scott W.; Perron, J. Taylor; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-05-01

    The river basins of ancient landscapes such as the southeastern United States exhibit disequilibrium in the form of migrating divides and stream capture. This observation is surprising in light of the relatively short theoretical fluvial response time, which is controlled by the celerity of the erosional wave that propagates upstream the fluvial channels. The response time is believed to determine the time required for fluvial landscapes to adjust to tectonic, climatic, and base-level perturbations, and its global estimations range between 0.1 Myr and 10s Myr. To address this discrepancy, we develop a framework for mapping continuous dynamic reorganization of natural river basins, and demonstrate the longevity of disequilibrium along the river basins in the southeastern United States that are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The mapping of disequilibrium is based on a proxy for steady-state elevation, ?, that can be easily calculated from digital elevation models. Disequilibrium is inferred from differences in the value of ? across water divides. These differences indicate that with the present day drainage area distribution and river topology the steady-state channels elevation across the divides differs, and therefore divides are expected to migrate in the direction of the higher ? value. We further use the landscape evolution model DAC to explore the source of the longevity of disequilibrium in fluvial landscapes. DAC solves accurately for the location of water divides, using a combination of an analytical solution for hillslopes and low-order channels together with a numerical solution for higher order channels. DAC simulations demonstrate topological, geometrical, and topographical adjustments that persist much longer than the theoretical response time, and consequently, extend the time needed to diminish disequilibrium in the landscape and to reach topological and topographical steady-state. This behavior is interpreted as resulting from a positive feedback between divide migration, which causes topological modifications and area change, on the one hand, and channel slope adjustments, which change the erosion rates on opposing sides of water divides and promote their migration, on the other hand. Furthermore, the constantly shifting drainage area and the changing topology of the drainage network are shown to be a possible source for autogenic sediment flux variations.

  8. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  9. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume IV of V; 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, Larry

    1993-04-01

    Operational plans for Cowlitz, Elokomin, Grays River, Kalama Falls, Lewis River and Speelyai, Lower Kalama, Lyons Ferry, Methow, Priest Rapids, Ringold Springs, Rock Island, Toutle, Washougal, and Wells Salmon Hatcheries are individually described.

  10. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  11. Social Learning in European River-Basin Management: Barriers and Fostering Mechanisms from 10 River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Searle

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We present and analyze 10 case studies of participatory river-basin management that were conducted as part of the European HarmoniCOP project. The main theme was social learning, which emphasizes the importance of collaboration, organization, and learning. The case studies show that social learning in river-basin management is not an unrealistic ideal. Resistance to social learning was encountered, but many instances of social learning were found, and several positive results were identified. Moreover, 71 factors fostering or hindering social learning were identified; these could be grouped into eight themes: the role of stakeholder involvement, politics and institutions, opportunities for interaction, motivation and skills of leaders and facilitators, openness and transparency, representativeness, framing and reframing, and adequate resources. Promising topics for further research include the facilitation of the social learning processes, the role of power, and interactions in political and institutional contexts.

  12. Erosion and sediment budget of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A case study on Mianyuan River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Lijian Qi; ZhaoYin Wang; Xuzhao Wang

    2012-01-01

    The Wenchuan Earthquake caused a large number of avalanches and landslides at different scales. It is extremely significant to evaluate the sediment in the earthquake river basins. Along the 38 km long upper Mianyuan River 196 landslides and avalanches happened during the earthquake, which have formed 25 landslide dams and quake lakes. The total volume of sediment erosion due to earthquake was about 115 million m3, which is 75 times higher than the soil erosion in norma...

  13. Taxonomic revision of the Rineloricaria species (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Paraguay River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-alcaraz, He?ctor S.; Pavanelli, Carla S.; Zawadzki, Cla?udio H.

    2012-01-01

    Species of the genus Rineloricaria from the Paraguay River basin were revised, the following species and geographic distributional patterns were found: R. aurata, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, rio Guaporé in Brazil; R. cacerensis, Paraguay River near Cáceres in Brazil; R. lanceolata, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, Guaporé, Ji-Paraná, Purus, Solimões, and Araguaia rivers in Brazil, Marañón and Madre de Dios rivers in Peru; R. parva, Paraguay River basin in B...

  14. Water planning and river basin management plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Bizjak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2000/60/EC – Water framework directive – is a milestone in history of water policies in Europe. The Directive establishes a common framework for sustainable and integrated management of all European surface and groundwaters, taking into account all anthropogenic impact factors as well as economic implications of the preventive and sanitation measures. The ultimate objective of the Directive is to achieve good status of all waters in the EU member states by the year 2015, with exemptions by 2021 or latest by 2027. The cornerstone of the Directive is the demand for integration and application of integrated water management approach through the river basin management plans as well as public participation and involvement.

  15. The tritium balance of the Ems river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Ems river basin, as a fine example of a Central European lowland basin, an inventory of the tritium distribution is presented for the hydrologic years 1951 to 1983. On the basis of a balance model, the tritium contents in surface waters and groundwater of the Ems river basin are calculated, using known and extrapolated tritium input data and comparing them with the corresponding values measured since 1974. A survey of tritium flows occurring in this basin is presented, taking meteorologic and hydrologic facts into account. (orig.)

  16. Incorporating safety into surface haulage in the Powder River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, W.; Jennings, C.

    1996-12-31

    The Powder River Basin (PRB) coal deposit extends from southeast Montana to northeast Wyoming. This paper describes a number of haulage practices and tools in use at several mines of the southern PRB and the way in which safety has been designed into and implemented for surface haulage of coal and overburden. Experiences described herein focus on the northeastern corner of Wyoming. All the mines in this area rely on safe and efficient movement of enormous volumes of material, and the results achieved in safety underscore the planning and attention to detail present in the PRB. There are currently 12 large surface mines (those greater than 10.0MM tons/year) operating in this area. In 1995, these mines produced over 230.0MM tons of coal.

  17. Water resource management model for a river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Jelisejeviene?, Emilija

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to develop river basin management model that ensures integrated analysis of existing water resource problems and promotes implementation of sustainable development principles in water resources management.

  18. Development of a Systemwide Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.

    1994-06-01

    Results of the second year are reported of a basinwide program to harvest northern squawfish in an effort to reduce mortality due to squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids during their migration from natal streams to the ocean. Six papers are included in this report. They are entitled: feasibility investigation of a commercial longline fishery for northern squawfish in the Columbia River downstream from Bonneville dam; evaluation of the northern squawfish sport-reward fishery in the Columbia and Snake Rivers; controlled angling for northern squawfish at selected dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in 1992; evaluation of harvest technology for squawfish control in Columbia River reservoirs; effectiveness of predator-removal for protecting juvenile fall chinook salmon released from Bonneville Hatchery; and Northern squawfish sport-reward payments.

  19. Knowledge-based approaches for river basin management

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulecky?, P.; Ols?evic?ova?, K.; Ponce, D.

    2007-01-01

    Rare attempts to use knowledge technologies and other relevant approaches are found in the river basin management. Some applications of expert systems as well as utilization of soft computing techniques (as neural networks or genetic algorithms) are known in an experimental level. Knowledge management approaches still have not been used at all. In this paper we discuss knowledge-based approaches in the river basin management as a difficult yet important direction which could be proven to be h...

  20. Glof Study in Tawang River Basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R.; Padhee, S. K.; Dutta, S.

    2014-11-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is one of the major unexpected hazards in the high mountain regions susceptible to climate change. The Tawang river basin in Arunachal Pradesh is an unexplored region in the Eastern Himalayas, which is impending to produce several upcoming hydro-electric projects (HEP). The main source of the river system is the snow melt in the Eastern Himalayas, which is composed of several lakes located at the snout of the glacier dammed by the lateral or end moraine. These lakes might prove as potential threat to the future scenario as they have a tendency to produce flash flood with large quantity of sediment load during outbursts. This study provides a methodology to detect the potential lakes as a danger to the HEP sites in the basin, followed by quantification of volume of discharge from the potential lake and prediction of hydrograph at the lake site. The remote location of present lakes induced the use of remote sensing data, which was fulfilled by Landsat-8 satellite imagery with least cloud coverage. Suitable reflectance bands on the basis of spectral responses were used to produce informational layers (NDWI, Potential snow cover map, supervised classification map) in GIS environment for discriminating different land features. The product obtained from vector overlay operation of these layers; representing possible water area, was further utilized in combination with Google earth to identify the lakes within the watershed. Finally those identified lakes were detected as potentially dangerous lakes based on the criteria of elevation, area, proximity from streamline, slope and volume of water held. HEC-RAS simulation model was used with cross sections from Google Earth and field survey as input to simulate dam break like situation; hydrodynamic channel routing of the outburst hydrograph along river reach was carried out to get the GLOF hydrograph at the project sites. It was concluded from the results that, the assessed GLOF would be a lead for the qualitative approximation of the amount of bed load transported along the river reach and thus hydropower project sites.

  1. Multifractal analysis of streamflow records of the East River basin (Pearl River), China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Chong-Yu; Yu, Zuguo; Liu, Chun-Ling; Chen, Yongqin David

    2009-03-01

    Scaling behaviors of the long daily streamflow series of four hydrological stations (Longchuan (1952-2002), Heyuan (1951-2002), Lingxia (1953-2002) and Boluo (1953-2002)) in the mainstream East River, one of the tributaries of the Pearl River (Zhujiang River) basin, were analyzed using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The research results indicated that streamflow series of the East River basin are characterized by anti-persistence. MF-DFA technique showed similar scaling properties in the streamflow series of the East River basin on shorter time scales, indicating universal scaling properties over the East River basin. Different intercept values of the fitted lines of log-log curve of Fq(s) versus s implied hydrological regulation of water reservoirs. Based on the numerical results, we suggested that regulation activities by water reservoirs could not impact the scaling properties of the streamflow series. The regulation activities by water reservoir only influenced the fluctuation magnitude. Therefore, we concluded that the streamflow variations were mainly the results of climate changes, and precipitation variations in particular. Strong dependence of generalized Hurst exponent h(q) on q demonstrated multifractal behavior of streamflow series of the East River basin, showing ‘universal’ multifractal behavior of river runoffs. The results of this study may provide valuable information for prediction and assessment of water resources under impacts of climatic changes and human activities in the East River basin.

  2. Spatiotemporal variations of precipitation regimes across Yangtze River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Juntai; Xu, Chong-Yu; Singh, Vijay P.

    2014-02-01

    Daily precipitation data during the period of 1960 to 2005 from 147 rain gauging stations over the Yangtze River Basin are analyzed to investigate precipitation variations based on precipitation indices and also consecutive rainfall regimes in both space and time. Results indicate decreasing annual/monthly mean precipitation. Distinct decreases in rainfall days are observed over most parts of the Yangtze River Basin, but precipitation intensity is increasing over most parts of the Yangtze River Basin, particularly the lower Yangtze River Basin. Besides, durations of precipitation regimes are shortening; however, the fractional contribution of short-lasting precipitation regimes to the total precipitation amount is increasing. In this sense, the precipitation processes in the Yangtze River Basin are dominated by precipitation regimes of shorter durations. These results indicate intensified hydrological cycle reflected by shortening precipitation regimes. This finding is different from that in Europe where the intensifying precipitation changes are reflected mainly by lengthening precipitation regimes, implying different regional responses of hydrological cycle to climate changes. The results of this study will be of considerable relevance in basin-scale water resources management, human mitigation of natural hazards, and in understanding regional hydrological responses to changing climate at regional scales.

  3. Regional hydrology of the Dolores River Basin, eastern Paradox Basin, Colorado and Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dolores River Basin, is in the eastern part of the Paradox Basin and includes the eastern slope of the La Sal Mountains, the western slopes of the Rico and La Plata Mountains, and the southwest flank of the Uncompahgre Plateau. The climate of this area is more humid than most of the surrounding Colorado Plateau region. Precipitation ranges from slightly 200 mm/yr to 1000 mm/yr; the estimated volume of water falling on the area is 4000 x 106 cm3/yr. Of this total, about 600 x 106 cm3/yr is runoff; 190 x 106 cm3/yr recharges the upper ground-water system; and an estimated 55 x 106 cm3 returns to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration from stream valleys. The remainder evaporates. Principal hydrogeologic units are permeable sandstone and limestone and nearly impermeable salt (halitic) deposits. Structurally, the area is dominated by northwest-trending salt anticlines and contiguous faults paralleled by synclinal structures. The Uncompahgre Plateau lies along the north and northeast sides of the area. The instrusive masses that form the La Sal Mountains are laccoliths with bysmaliths and other complex intrusive forms comprising, in gross form, moderately faulted omal structures. Intrusive rocks underlie the La Plata and Rico Mountains along the southeastern edge of the area. These geologic structures significantly modify ground-water flow patterns in the upper ground-water system, btterns in the upper ground-water system, but have no conspicuous effect on the flow regime in the lower ground-water system. The water in the upper ground-water system generally is fresh except where it is affected by evaporite dissolution from salt anticlines. The water of the lower ground-water system is slightly saline to briny. Water quality of the Dolores River is slightly saline to fresh, based on dissolved chemical constituents; some of the smaller tributaries of the river have saline water

  4. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2014-07-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  5. Fish, Barra Bonita River, upper Paraná River basin, state of Paraná, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Bifi, A. G.; Grac?a, W. J.; Zawadzki, C. H.; Maier, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Barra Bonita River is an affluent of the left margin of the Ivaí River, upper Paraná River basin. Fishsamples were conduced in November 2006 (spring) and in February 2007 (summer), in three sampling stations alongthe Barra Bonita River, using gill nets, casting nets, and sieves. Thirty one fish species were collected, which belong tofive orders, 14 families, and 25 genera. Among them, five are probably new to science.

  6. Fish, Barra Bonita River, upper Paraná River basin, state of Paraná, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bifi, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Barra Bonita River is an affluent of the left margin of the Ivaí River, upper Paraná River basin. Fishsamples were conduced in November 2006 (spring and in February 2007 (summer, in three sampling stations alongthe Barra Bonita River, using gill nets, casting nets, and sieves. Thirty one fish species were collected, which belong tofive orders, 14 families, and 25 genera. Among them, five are probably new to science.

  7. Powder River Basin Coal: Powering America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Considine

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Powder River Basin (PRB coal in Wyoming and Montana is used to produce 18 percent of the electricity consumed in the United States. Coal production from the PRB more than doubled between 1994 and 2009. PRB coal companies produced greater amounts of coal at declining real prices over much of this period through investment in equipment and production systems that achieved massive economies of scale. The bulk of PRB coal is shipped to the middle part of America from Texas in the south to Michigan in the north and New York in the east. States that consume significant amounts of PRB coal have electricity rates well below the national average. The largest industrial users of electricity are in these regions. Replacing PRB coal would require almost 5.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas per year, representing a 26 percent increase in demand. Such an increase in gas consumption would increase prices for natural gas by roughly 76 percent. In such a world, U.S. energy users would pay $107 billion more each year for electricity and natural gas. Hence, by using PRB coal, the U.S. economy avoids $107 billion per year in higher energy costs. Estimates reported in the literature indicate that the gross environmental damages from PRB coal production are $27 billion. Hence, the net social benefits of PRB coal are $80 billion per year. Given the large size and low cost of these reserves, PRB coal will likely supply societal energy needs well into the future as long as the public and their elected officials are willing to accept the environmental impacts in return for the substantial economic benefits from using PRB coal.

  8. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River basin case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jensen, I. H.; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, C. I.

    2015-03-01

    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically based and distributed modeling schemes employing data assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. The objective of this study is to develop open-source software tools to support hydrologic forecasting and integrated water resources management in Africa. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations. Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0-7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators and the performance is compared to persistence and climatology benchmarks. The forecasting system delivers useful forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days.

  9. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River Basin case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jensen, I. H.; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, C. I.

    2014-10-01

    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically-based and distributed modelling schemes employing data assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. This study is funded by the European Space Agency under the TIGER-NET project. The objective of TIGER-NET is to develop open-source software tools to support integrated water resources management in Africa and to facilitate the use of satellite earth observation data in water management. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations. Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0 to 7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators. The forecasting system delivers competitive forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days.

  10. River Basin Water Assessment and Balance in fast developing areas in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Chin; Ranzi, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Uneven precipitation in space and time together with mismanagement and lack of knowledge about quantity and quality of water resources, have caused water shortages for water supply to large cities and irrigation areas in many regions of Viet Nam in the dry season. The rainy season (from June to October) counts for 80% of the total annual rainfall, while the water volume of dry season (from November to May of the following year) accounts for 20% only. Lack of sufficient water volumes occurs in some areas where the pressure of a fast increasing population (1.3% per year on average in the last decade in Viet Nam), intensive agricultural and industrial uses is one of the major problems facing sustainable development. For those areas an accurate water assessment and balance at the riverbasin scale is needed to manage the exploitation and appropriate use of water resources and plan future development. The paper describes the preliminary phase of the pilot development of the river basin water balance for the Day River Basin in the Red River delta in Viet Nam. The Day river basin includes a 7,897 km² area in the south-western part of the Red River in Viet Nam. The total population in the Day river basin exceeds 8 millions inhabitants, including the Hanoi capital, Nam Dinh and other large towns. Agricultural land covered 390,294 ha in 2000 and this area is going to be increased by 14,000 ha in 2010 due to land reclamation and expansion toward the sea. Agricultural uses exploit about 90% of surface water resources in the Day river basin but have to compete with industrial and civil needs in the recent years. At the background of the brief characterization of the Day River Basin, we concentrate on the application of a water balance model integrated by an assessment of water quality after consumptive uses for civil, agricultural and industrial needs to assist water management in the basin. In addition, future development scenarios are taken into account, considering less water-demanding crops, water treatment and recycling and other ‘best water management' practices.

  11. Continuous flow simulation in the Bârlad river basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbu?, Ciprian; Mic, Rodica Paula; M?trea??, Marius

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the partial results obtained into the project CLIMHYDEX ("Changes in Climate Extremes and associated impact on hydrological events in Romania") project that, among others, have as objectives the development of hydrological models at different spatial and temporal scales and the impact of climate change on extreme runoff in Bârlad catchment. To estimate the impact of climate change and variability on the flow regime in Bârlad catchment CONSUL hydrological model, with lumped parameters, was used. This rainfall-runoff deterministic model simulates the most significant hydrological processes within a hydrographic basin: snow-melting, interception, retention in the depressions, evapotranspiration, infiltration, surface runoff, hypodermic runoff, percolation, base runoff. According to the schematic representation (physiographic modelling) of how water flows and collects in a river basin the model computes the discharge hydrographs on selected simulation points on the river network and then performs their routing and composition on the main river and tributaries. After physiographic modelling resulted for Bârlad river basin: 56 sub-basins and 30 river reaches. CONSUL model was calibrated using historical data in Bârlad river basin by simulating the flow during 1975-2010. Calculation of average precipitation and air temperature (hydrological model input data) for each sub-basin was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from original rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Bârlad river basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. In order to estimate the initial values of CONSUL model parameters the generalization relationships of these parameters based on morphometric characteristics of the river basin or river reach were used. Calibration of model parameters was performed in two stages: (i) individual and (ii) globally. (i) Individual calibration on model structures was made based on the 25 rainfall-runoff events, chosen to cover a wide range of possible situations in the case of floods formation. First step was to determine, by individual basin calibration, the infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters, for the sub-basins controlled by gauging stations in the Bârlad river basin. These parameters allowed then the parameters estimation for the ungauged sub-basins. (ii) Global calibration of rainfall-runoff model parameters was done by simulating the flow on considered calibration period. This second stage allowed the recalibration of infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters at the sub-basins uncontrolled hydrometric as well the calibration of routing equation parameters. CONSUL model simulation results showed that the model gives the best results, in particular in the case of floods generated by precipitation evenly distributed in space. Deviations of flow hydrographs simulated by CONSUL and observed are due to both model errors and insufficient meteorological and hydrological data. The main errors are caused by the uncertainty related to the average precipitation computed values on each basin and its variable spatial and temporal distribution.

  12. Scenarios of changes of selected components of hydrosphere and biosphere in catchment basin of Hron River and Vah River as consequence of climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text-book consist of the following parts: (1) Hydrologic and climatic relationship of catchment basins; (2) Space interpretation of outputs of climatic scenarios in catchment basins of Hron River and Vah River by geostatistical methods; (3) Teleconnection of annual overflows with SO, NAO, AO and QBO phenomenons; (4) Snow; (5) Mathematical model for modelling of influence of climatic changes on runoff processes; (6) Multi-linear model of transformation of runoff in river-basins; (7) Influence of climatic change on capacity utilization of reserve volume of water reservoir Orava River; (8) Quality of surface waters; (9) Influence of climatic changes on biological factors and soil hydrology; (10) Proposal of framing adaptation arrangements.

  13. Transboundary water issues: The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharing of water of transboundary rivers among riparian nations has become a cause of major concern in different parts of the globe for quite sometime. The issue in the recent decades has been transformed into a source of international tensions and disputes resulting in strained relationships between riparian nations. Conflicts over sharing of water of the international rivers, like the Tigris, Euphrates and Jordan in the Middle East, the Nile in Northern Africa, the Mekong in South-East Asia, the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna in the Indian subcontinent are widely known. The present paper discusses the water sharing -issue in the Ganga- Brahmaputra-Meghna basin located in the Indian sub continent covering five sovereign countries (namely India, Nepal, China, Bhutan and Bangladesh). Rapidly growing population, expanding agricultural and industrial activities besides the impacts of climate change have resulted in stressed condition in the arena of fresh water availability in the basin. Again occurrence of arsenic in sub-surface water in the lower reaches of the basin in India and Bangladesh has also added a new dimension to the problem. All the rivers of the GBM system exhibit wide variations between peak and lean flows as major part of the basin belongs to the monsoon region, where 80%-90 % of annual rainfall is concentrated in 4-5 months of South -West monsoon in the subcontinent. Over and above, the rivers in GBM system carry huge loads of sediments along with the floodwa loads of sediments along with the floodwater and receive huge quantum of different kinds of wastes contaminating the water of the rivers. Again high rate of sedimentation of the major rivers and their tributaries have been affecting not only the carrying capacity of the rivers but also drastically reduced their retention capacity. Almost every year during monsoon about 27% and nearly 60% of the GBM basin lying in India and Bangladesh respectively experience flood. The year round navigation in many rivers has also been affected. All these have serious impacts on the economy of this geo politically sensitive region. It was found that the total water resource of the GBM river system would be unable to meet the prevailing water requirements of the basin, not to speak of the rise in demand of water in the future. It was established that the judicious water demand management and effective control of the over-use, misuse and abuse of water in the respective river basins in each country should get preference over competition for access to additional supply of water to meet the requirements and also adoption of technology which helps that goal to achieve should be made.(Author)

  14. Drought in the Klamath River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 100 years groups in the western United States have fought over water. During the 1880s, sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers argued over drinking water for their livestock on the high plains. In 1913, the city of Los Angeles began to draw water away from small agricultural communities in the Owen Valley, leaving a dusty dry lake bed. In the late 1950s, construction of the Glen Canyon Dam catalyzed the American environmental movement. Today, farmers are fighting fishermen, environmentalists, and Native American tribes over the water in the Upper Klamath River Basin. A below-average winter snowpack and low rainfall throughout the year have caused an extreme drought in the area along the California/Oregon border. In April 2001 a U.S. District Court stopped water deliveries to farms in the Klamath Irrigation District to preserve adequate water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect two endangered species of Mullet fish (called suckers). Water was also reserved for the threatened Coho Salmon which need enough water to swim downstream from their spawning grounds to the ocean. In addition, several Native American tribes have rights to Klamath River water. Further complicating the situation are a handful of wildlife refuges which usually receive enough irrigation wastewater to support upwards of a million migratory birds and 900 Bald Eagles. This year, however, several of the refuges may not have enough water for the birds which begin arriving in early fall. The severity of this year's drought is underscored by the town of Bonanza, Oregon. Famous for its natural springs, and entirely dependent on wells for drinking water, the town's water supply is now contaminated with pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. The water quality is so bad it's not even safe to bathe in, much less drink. The problem stems from a very low water table. The drop in underground water levels is caused directly by the drought, and indirectly from the increased irrigation from underground aquifers to compensate for the lack of water from Upper Klamath Lake. As the water table drops, clean water stops flowing from the springs and wells, and dirty water from fields flows into the water beneath Bonanza. Area farmers, many of them entirely dependent on irrigation, immediately launched protests when the court's decision to stop irrigation flows was announced, leading to national media coverage. On July 24 the Department of the Interior approved the release of some irrigation water from Upper Klamath Lake, but the flow lasted only until August 23. The water was enough to save some fields growing winter feed for livestock, but some other crops were unsalvageable, and water didn't reach every farmer who needed it. The Klamath Project dates back to 1903, when the Reclamation Service (now the Bureau of Reclamation, a branch of the U.S. Department of the Interior) investigated the possibility of converting rangeland, wetlands, and natural lakes into irrigated farmland. Construction began in 1906, the first water deliveries were made in 1907, and the project was completed in 1924. The Bureau of Reclamation supplies water to the farmers at the cost of delivery, without charging for the water. Fodder, barley, oats, potatoes, and wheat are the principal crops on the 225,000 acres of irrigated land. In addition, the irrigation dams control floodwaters, and the Link River Dam supplies hydroelectric power. The images above show the northeast portion of the Klamath Basin in 2000 (top) and 2001 (lower). These true-color images were acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus sensor aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, launched by NASA and operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Upper Klamath Lake, with its endangered sucker fish, is at the upper left, with the town of Klamath falls immediately below it. Bonanza is to the right of Klamath Falls. Tule Lake, which has been partially converted to farmland, is at the lower right and is surrounded by the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge. To the left of Tule Lake are the remains of Lower Klamath Lake and the marshes of the

  15. Uncertainties in river basin data at various support scales – Example from Odense Pilot River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Refsgaard

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In environmental modelling studies field data usually have a spatial and temporal scale of support that is different from the one at which models operate. This calls for a methodology for rescaling data uncertainty from one support scale to another. In this paper data uncertainty is assessed for various environmental data types collected for monitoring purposes from the Odense river basin in Denmark by use of literature information, expert judgement and simple data analyses. It is demonstrated how such methodologies can be applied to data that vary in space or time such as precipitation, climate variables, discharge, surface water quality, soil parameters, groundwater abstraction, heads and groundwater quality variables. Data uncertainty is categorised and assessed in terms of probability density functions and temporal or spatial autocorrelation functions. The autocorrelation length scales are crucial when support scale is changing and it is demonstrated how the assumption used when estimating the autocorrelation parameters may limit the applicability of these autocorrelation functions.

  16. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  17. Constructal view of scaling laws of river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A. Heitor

    2006-08-01

    River basins are examples of naturally organized flow architectures whose scaling properties have been noticed long ago. Based on data of geometric characteristics, Horton [Horton, R.E., 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. EOS Trans. AGU 13, 350-361.], Hack [Hack, J.T., 1957. Studies of longitudinal profiles in Virginia and Maryland. USGS Professional Papers 294-B, Washington DC, pp. 46-97.], and Melton [Melton, M.A, 1958. Correlation structure of morphometric properties of drainage systems and their controlling agents. J. of Geology 66, 35-56.] proposed scaling laws that are considered to describe rather accurately the actual river basins. What we show here is that these scaling laws can be anticipated based on Constructal Theory, which views the pathways by which drainage networks develop in a basin not as the result of chance but as flow architectures that originate naturally as the result of minimization of the overall resistance to flow (Constructal Law).

  18. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Michigan 48106; New England River Basins Commission, 55 Court Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02108; Ohio River Basin...Inter-Agency Committee, 402 New Walton Building, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. [40 FR 7253, Feb. 19, 1975, as amended at...

  19. 60 FR 27327 - Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-23

    ...legislation authorizing the Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project (Enhancement Project). The purpose of the Enhancement Project is to meet the competing needs of the Yakima River basin through improved water conservation and...

  20. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  1. Optimal water allocation in the Mekong river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Ringler, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    The Mekong River is the dominant geo-hydrological structure in mainland Southeast Asia, originating in China and flowing through or bordering Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Whereas water resources in the wet season are more than adequate to fulfill basin needs, there are regional water shortages during the dry season, when only 1-2% of the annual flow reaches the Delta. Recent rapid agricultural and economic development in the basin has led to increasing competition among the...

  2. Helminth parasites of freshwater fishes, Nazas River basin, northern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leo?n, G. Pe?rez-ponce; Rosas-valdez, R.; Aguilar-aguilar, R.; Mendoza-garfias, B.; Mendoza-palmero, C.; Garci?a-prieto, L.; Rojas-sa?nchez, A.; Briosio-aguilar, R.; Pe?rez-rodri?guez, R.; Domi?nguez-domi?nguez, O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of the helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from the Nazas River basinin northern Mexico. Between July 2005 and December 2008, 906 individual fish were collected and examined for helminthparasites in 23 localities along the river basin. Twenty-three species of fish were examined as a part of this inventory work.In total, 41 helminth species were identified: 19 monogeneans, 10 digeneans, seven cestodes, one acanthocephalan, andfour nematodes. The biogeo...

  3. Break-up characteristics of Chena River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. F. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results from snowmelt model were obtained showing the decreasing changes in snow depth for four elevational ranges in the Chena River Basin. This model is based on the energy balance of the snowpack and the results are shown on attached figures. Also, the measured hydrographs for two stations on the Chena River are shown. The next phase of the study will be to analyze the model using both ERTS-1 imagery and measured field values.

  4. Morphometric Characters of a Himalayan River Basin-Pindari river of Pindari Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, L. K.; Pillai, J.

    2011-12-01

    Himalayan region consist many glaciers and glacier-fed rivers. About 17% of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is under permanent cover of Ice and snow and have more than 9000 glaciers and high altitude fresh water lakes. Stream runoff originating from the glaciers has direct implication in geomorphology of the region. Present study is an attempt to find out the stages in the geomorphic development of a higher altitudinal river basin, Pindari river basin. Development of a landscape is equal to the some total of the development of each individual drainage basin of which it is composed. Morphometric parameters of the river basin had been identified viz. linear, areal and relief aspect and examined. Pindari river basin is a 5th order high altitudinal, sub-dendratic, parallel and perennial tributary of Alaknanda River, formed by three main tributaries (Sunderdhunga, Pindari and Kafini). It has the catchment area above 557.63 Km2. This river originates from combined action of rain and snow fall from Pindari glacier which is part of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (a world heritage site). Pindari river basin is located between 1600 m to 6880 m elevation ,and 300 03' 23" -300 19' 04" N Latitude and 790 45' 59" - 80 0 04' 13"E Longitude. Due to microclimatic conditions Pindari river basin generally dry with low annual precipitation. There is heavy rainfall during monsoon season. The approximate variation in the precipitation is from 750 mm to 2000 mm. For estimating the Morphometric parameter SOI toposheet on 1:50000 scale and Landsat data (ETM+) having 15m resolution were georectified in RS and GIS environment. SRTM data was used in analysis of elevation and slope range of the study area. Extensive field study was held on during the year 2010. Morphometric parameters (linear, aerial and relief) of the study area had been estimated. It is observed that Pindari river basin is a sub-dendratic, higher relief, youth, fine texture; elongated basin has peak flow, high discharge, and mature topography with high homogenous erosion. Hydrological system of the study region is complex. Analysis of the Morphometric parameter provides adequate information of both terrain characteristics and hydrological behavior of the catchment and also it is observed that the drainage density of the river is very low which indicates the basin is highly permeable subsoil with dense vegetation cover. Analysis based on circularity ratio, form factor and elongation ratio showed that basin shape of the river is close to circular. The study have significant role to understand landform processes and erosional characteristics of a high altitudinal landform. Present study infers that the integration of morphometrical analysis along with the conventional watershed assessment methods would have a beneficial effect on judicious watershed management of the river Basin. It also included the decrease land resources, soil erosion, and shift runoff of the river basin. Attempt had been made to understand the impact of the river ecosystem of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve especially the upper region of river.

  5. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  6. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  7. Floodplain water storage in the Negro River basin estimated from microwave remote sensing of inundation area and water levels

    OpenAIRE

    Frappart, Fre?de?ric; Seyler, Fre?de?rique; Martinez, Jean-michel; Leon, Juan Gabriel; Cazenave, A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine spatio-temporal variations of water volume over inundated areas located in large river basins using combined observations from the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1), the Topex/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry satellite, and in-situ hydrographic stations. Ultimately, the goal is to quantify the role of floodplains for partitioning water and sediment fluxes over the great fluvial basins of the world. SAR im...

  8. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15 Danube monitoring sites in Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia and Serbia. Most of these sites have continuous stable isotope and tritium records of over 10 years. The longest and most complete record of isotopes in precipitation and the Danube is from Vienna, which contains continuous tritium and stable isotope records since the 1960s. Previous estimates of residence time using tritium in the upper Danube are about 3-5 years (Rank et al., 1998, Yurtsever, 1999). However, these estimates were based on a tritium record up to 1995 and some of the parts of the observed time series were not represented well by the models. We are now re-evaluating the upper Danube residence time using a complete record covering the entire tritium transient created by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (1964-2005). Several combinations of lumped parameter models are being tested using MULTIS and LUMPY. The models assume two main water components in parallel; a "fast" component that represents water with a short residence time (less than one year), resulting from recent precipitation and fast runoff, and a "slow" or "old" component representing discharge of older groundwaters to the river. Preliminary results obtained during this exercise, as well as those determined using other environmental tracers, are providing new insights into the age distribution of water in the upper Danube. Initial calculations with the complete tritium record for Vienna suggest that the mean residence time is substantially older than previous estimates. This study also demonstrates the value of the GNIP/GNIR/WISER dataset for examining dynamics of surface water systems.

  9. Detection of Hydrologic Response at the River Basin Scale Caused by Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, B. C.; Eshleman, K. N.; Griffith, J. L.; Townsend, P. A.

    2008-05-01

    The 187.5 km2 Georges Creek watershed, located on the Appalachian Plateau in western Maryland (USA), has experienced significant land use change due to surface mining of bituminous coal. We estimate that over 17% of the Georges Creek watershed is being actively surface-mined or was mined and reclaimed previously. The adjacent Savage River watershed (127.2 km2) is completely unaffected by surface mining. Both watersheds have long (>60 year) streamflow records maintained by USGS that were analyzed as part of this project, using Savage River as a control. Temporal analysis of the moments of the flood frequency distributions using a moving-window technique indicated that climatic variability affected both watersheds equally. Normalizing annual maximum flows by antecedent streamflow and causative precipitation allowed trends in the Georges Creek watershed flooding response to become more evident. An analysis of sixteen contemporary warm season storm events based on hourly streamflow and NEXRAD Stage III derived precipitation data provided clear evidence of differences in watershed response to rainfall. Georges Creek events (normalized by basin area and precipitation) are, on average, characterized by slightly greater (7%) peak runoff and shorter (3 hr) centroid lags than Savage River, even though the opposite was expected considering relative basin areas. These differences in stormflow response are most likely attributable to differences in current land use in the basins, particularly the large area of reclaimed minelands in Georges Creek. Interestingly, we found that Georges Creek events produce, on average, only 2/3 of the stormflow volume as Savage River, apparently due to infiltration of water into abandoned deep mine workings and an associated trans-basin drainage system that dates to the early 20th century. Long-term trend analysis at the river basin scale using empirical hydrologic methods is thus complicated by climatic variability and the legacy of deep mining in this system.

  10. Impacts of urbanization on river system structure: a case study on Qinhuai River Basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaomin; Xu, Youpeng; Han, Longfei; Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Stream structure is usually dominated by various human activities over a short term. An analysis of variation in stream structure from 1979 to 2009 in the Qinhuai River Basin, China, was performed based on remote sensing images and topographic maps by using ArcGIS. A series of river parameters derived from river geomorphology are listed to describe the status of river structure in the past and present. Results showed that urbanization caused a huge increase in the impervious area. The number of rivers in the study area has decreased and length of rivers has shortened. Over the 30 years, there was a 41.03% decrease in river length. Complexity and stability of streams have also changed and consequently the storage capacities of river channels in intensively urbanized areas are much lower than in moderately urbanized areas, indicating a greater risk of floods. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the urban disturbance to rivers. PMID:25116497

  11. FISH ASSEMBLAGE GROUPS IN THE UPPER TENNESSEE RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hierarchical clustering technique was used to classify sites in the upper Tennessee River basin based on relative abundance of fish species. Five site groups were identified. These groups differed mainly by the occurrence of minnow and darter species. Drainage area and ecore...

  12. COLUMBIA BASIN SALMON POPULATIONS AND RIVER ENVIRONMENT DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Access in Real Time (DART) provides an interactive data resource designed for research and management purposes relating to the Columbia Basin salmon populations and river environment. Currently, daily data plus historic information dating back to 1962 is accessible online. D...

  13. RUNOFF POTENTIAL OF MURE? RIVER UPPER BASIN TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. SOROCOVSCHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mure? River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mure? River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  14. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  15. Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanovi? Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and floods and torrents (especially in Kragujevac valley by other cite. Particular problem is water quality and pollution in river basin. In this paper will be analyzed water quality of Lepenica river and artificial lakes, built in its river basin, according to the data of Republic Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia. Also, it will be present polluter cadastre in river basin.

  16. Development of a System-Wide Program, Volume II : Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife); Willis, Charles F. (S.P. Cramer and Associates., Gresham, OR)

    1994-06-01

    The authors report their results of studies to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Three papers are included in this report. They are entitled: (1) Development of a Systemwide Predator Control Program: Indexing and Fisheries Evaluation; (2) Economic, Social and Legal Feasibility of Commercial Sport, and Bounty Fisheries on Northern Squawfish; (3) Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM): Modeling Approach for Evaluation of Control of Northern Squawfish Populations using Fisheries Exploitation.

  17. A Review of Integrated River Basin Management for Sarawak River

    OpenAIRE

    Kuok, Kuok K.; Sobri Harun; Po-Chan Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Sarawak River was a life-sustaining water source for the residents in Kuching City and surrounding areas. Raw water is treated at Batu Kitang Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP) that supplies more than 98% of the total water production in Kuching City. The raw water supply to BKWTP is not adequate to meet the ever increasing water demand. In order to overcome this problem, four projects had been implemented along Sarawak River for managing and securing water&#...

  18. Hydrochemistry of the Densu River Basin of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planned hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality have been carried out to understand the sources of dissolved ions in the aquifers supporting groundwater systems in the Densu River basin. The basin is underlain mainly by the proterozoic basin type granitoids with associated gnesis, with dominant mineral such as plagioclase feldspars. The groundwater is Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 facies, due to weathering and ion-exchange of minerals underlying the aquifers. The enrichment of the cation and anions are Na>Ca>Mg>K and HCO3>Cl>SO4>NO3 respectively. Some of the elevated values of both cations and anions may be due to seawater intrusions, ion-exchange, oxidation and anthropogenic activities. Based on these studies, proper management would be recommended to address groundwater quality in the basin. (au)

  19. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the

  20. Vegetation communities in estuarine tidal flats in the different river and basin environments of the four major rivers of Ise Bay (Suzuka, Tanaka, Kushida, Mie Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korehisa Kaneko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared and analysed vegetation communities in the estuarine tidal flats of the four major rivers of Ise Bay (Suzuka River, Tanaka River, Kushida River and Miya River in Mie Prefecture, Japan. Along the Suzuka River, Eragrostis curvula of the exotic plant accounted for 60.0% or more of the entire surface area, and the plant volume was high. Along the Tanaka River, Suaeda maritima community occupied the sand-mud zone in the vicinity of the shoreline on gravel bars, while Phragmites australis community was distributed along a shallow lake upstream. In the Kushida River, a salt marsh plant community (a community type found in areas flooded at high tide of Suaeda maritima, Phragmites australis and Artemisia scoparia was distributed on the sand-mud surface along the main river. A salt marsh plant community (a community type found in areas that do not flood at high tide of Phacelurus latifolius accounted for least 50.0% of the entire surface area. Along the Miya River, the area covered by the annual salt marsh plant community type was larger than the area occupied by this community type along the other rivers. The flow volume of the Miya River was high in April, June and August-October of 2006, July and September of 2007 and April-June of 2008. The flow volume was especially high in July 2007, when it reached levels above 1500.0 m3/s; change in flow volume was also large. We suggest that a large-scale disturbance occurred in the estuary, resulting in the formation of a gravelly sandy surface where an annual salt marsh plant community of Suaeda maritime and Artemisia scoparia has been established and grown as the annual precipitation and catchment volume of the basin have increased.

  1. Is fish passage technology saving fish resources in the lower La Plata River basin?

    OpenAIRE

    Norberto Oscar Oldani; Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún; John Michael Nestler; Richard Andrew Goodwin

    2007-01-01

    Over 450 dams have been constructed in the upper Paraná River basin in Brazil during the past 40 years. River regulation by these dams is considered a primary factor in the reduction of fish diversity and depletion of migratory species. In contrast to the upper Paraná Basin, only two large dams (both with upstream fish passage) have been constructed in the lower La Plata River basin. Fishery managers in the lower basin are concerned that existing and planned dams will further deplete popula...

  2. Forecasting Severe Floods for the Meghna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, V. E.; Jian, J.; Hopson, T. M.; Webster, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate prediction of extreme floods in Bangladesh is vital for the agricultural practices and planning in the region, and to provide warnings for evacuation in case of flooding. Hopson and Webster (2010) developed and implemented a short-term flood forecasting scheme in Bangladesh for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins that performs significantly better than the climatological and persistence forecasts at all lead times. Probabilistic forecast of river discharge at two entry points into Bangladesh of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers was developed using a hydrologic multimodel initialized by NASA and NOAA rainfall products, whose fluxes were forecasted forward using calibrated ECMWF ensemble prediction system products. We investigate whether extreme floods in the Bangladesh for the Meghna river basin are equally predictable on a 1-15 day time scale. The Hopson and Webster meteorological-hydrological forecast model developed for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins is calibrated and adapted for the Meghna basin at Bhairab Bazar. It is found that, on 1-15 day time scales, the floods for the summers of 2007-2010 are well predicted.

  3. Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

  4. Evolving water management institutions in the Red River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Robert R

    2007-12-01

    Institutions are the rules and norms that guide societal behavior. As societies evolve-with more diverse economies, increased populations and incomes, and more water scarcity-new and more complex water management institutions need to be developed. This evolution of water management institutions may also be observed across different constituencies, with different societal needs, in the same time period. The Red River of the North basin is particularly well suited for research on water management issues. A key feature of water management in the Red River Basin is the presence of three completely different sets of water law. Minnesota's water law is based upon riparian rights. North Dakota's water law is based upon prior appropriation. Manitoba has a system of water allocation that features provincial control. Because the basin is fairly homogeneous in terms of land use and geographic features, its institutional diversity makes this an excellent case study for the analysis of local water institutions. This article reviews the local water management institutions in the Red River Basin and assesses the ongoing institutional evolution of local water management. PMID:17912585

  5. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

  6. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE`s commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path.

  7. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and by the year 2000. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier CBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. These research and education projects are particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy's programs aimed at addressing aquatic pollution problems associated with DOE National Laboratories. First year funding supported seven collaborative cluster projects and twelve initiation projects. This report summarizes research results for period December 1992--December 1993

  8. Paleofloods in the Red River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site describes flooding of the Red River, which crosses the United States/Canadian Border at the Minnesota-North Dakota Boundary. It has sections on dendrochronology, past floods, climate change and related publications. The site also links to many other geologic sites.

  9. Hydrological study of La Paz river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to determine the hydrological parameters for the La Paz river, by using tracer techniques and also the determination of the water quality parameters for the study of the behavior along the stream. This study intends the prediction and control of the water contamination by using mathematical modelling

  10. Integrated Watershed Assessment: The Northern River Basins Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, F. J.; Gummer, W. D.

    2001-05-01

    Begun in 1991 and completed in 1996, the Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) was a \\$12 M initiative established by the governments of Canada, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories to assess the cumulative impacts of development, particularly pulp mill related effluent discharges, on the health of the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. The NRBS was launched in response to concerns expressed by northern residents following the 1991 approval of the Alberta Pacific Pulp Mill in Athabasca. Although initiated by governments, the NRBS was set-up to be `arms-length' and was managed by a 25 member Study Board that represented the many interests in the basins, including industry, environmental groups, aboriginal peoples, health, agriculture, education, municipalities, and the federal, territorial and provincial governments. Overseen by an independent Science Advisory Committee, an integrated research program was designed covering eight scientific components: fate and distribution of contaminants, food chain impacts, nutrients, hydrology/hydraulics and sediment transport, uses of the water resources, drinking water quality, traditional knowledge, and synthesis/modeling. Using a 'weight of evidence' approach with a range of ecological and sociological indicators, cumulative impacts from pulp and paper-related discharges and other point and non-point sources of pollution were determined in relation to the health and contaminant levels of aquatic biota, nutrient and dissolved oxygen-related stress, hydrology and climate related changes, and human health and use of the river basins. Based on this assessment and Study Board deliberations, site-specific and basin-wide scientific and management-related recommendations were made to Ministers regarding regulatory and policy changes, basin management and monitoring options, and future research. The Study reinforces the importance of conducting ecosystem-based , interdisciplinary science and the need for public involvement in science program design and implementation for effective environmental decision-making.

  11. Tritium in surface water of the Yenisei river Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001-2003 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4±1 Bq/L. It has been found that there are surface waters containing enhanced tritium, up to 168 Bq/L, as compared with the background values for the Yenisei River. There are two possible sources of tritium input. First, the last operating reactor of the MCC, which still uses the Yenisei water as coolant. Second, tritium may come from the deep aquifers at the Severny testing site. For the first time tritium has been found in two aquatic plant species of the Yenisei River with maximal tritium concentration 304 Bq/Kg wet weight. Concentration factors of tritium for aquatic plants are much higher than 1

  12. Transforming River Basin Management In South Africa: Lessons from the Lower Komati River

    OpenAIRE

    Waalewijn, P.; Wester, P.; Straaten, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the transformation of river basin management in South Africa by focusing on the political processes involved in the creation of new water management bodies and irrigation infrastructure in the Lower Komati sub-basin. Institutional reform is described and analyzed in terms of the collaboration theory of Gray (1985). Attention is paid to the absence of mutual collaboration in the water domain through the analysis of three phases that are characteristic of collaborative manag...

  13. Multireservoir operations for flood management in Tanshui River basin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, X.; van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Sloff, C. J.; Prinsen, G.; Vrijling, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of the reservoir system under different design flood events based on SOBEK-RIVER modeling package. The balanced water level index is introduced to deal with the optimal approach for joint reservoir operations. The simulation results suggest that SOBEK-RIVER significantly facilitates the model establishment for studying the propagation of floods through different flood events. It is also found in this study that the joint operation policy performs better during flood emergencies by minimizing flood damage for downstream area. The approach is applied to the Tanshui River which is located in the north of Taiwan and consists of three major tributaries: Tahan River, Hsintien River and Keelung River. Two reservoirs (Shihmen and Festui) are located in the upstream (Tahan and Hsintien) for regulating water release to protect downstream areas from floods during typhoon strikes. To simulate the flood process, the river mouth is selected as the downstream boundary while the inflow into the river basin is controlled by the precipitation. The frequency-duration relationships derived from recorded intense bursts of rainfall of various durations are used to design the precipitation hydrographs. The storm tide distribution in the river mouth is analyzed with Monte Carlo simulations of the tide and storm surge distribution at river mouth to determine the occurrence probabilities of the extreme storm tides. All the scenario designs are based on the available data from typhoon Nari of the year 2001. The study models the flood behavior by the SOBEK-RIVER modeling system which was developed by DELTARES. The proposed procedure in this study involves three modules which are a rainfall runoff model, a reservoir operation model and a channel routing model respectively.

  14. Incentive compatibility and conflict resolution in international river basins: A case study of the Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xun; Whittington, Dale

    2006-02-01

    Nation-states rarely go to war over water, but it is equally rare that water conflicts in an international river basin are resolved through cooperation among the riparian countries that use the shared resources. Gains from cooperation will mean little to individual riparians unless the required cooperative behaviors are incentive compatible. Cooperative game theory offers useful insights for assessing cooperative solutions for water conflicts in international river basins. Applying cooperative game theory concepts such as core, nucleolus, and Shapley value to Nile water conflicts, we examine the incentive structure of both cooperative and noncooperative strategies for different riparian countries and establish some baseline conditions for incentive-compatible cooperation in the Nile basin.

  15. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at reducing system vulnerabilities and the improving the resiliency of the Basin to vulnerable conditions. The Study is the most comprehensive long-term assessment to date of the Basin and it confirmed that without action, the Colorado River system will become increasingly challenged to sustain the communities and resources that rely on its water supply. The Study was conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation and its consultant team (CH2M Hill, Black & Veatch, and the RAND Corporation) and the seven Colorado River Basin States, in collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders throughout the Basin. The Study's strong technical foundation forms a basis from which important discussions can begin regarding possible actions to resolve future supply and demand imbalances in order to help ensure the sustainability of the Colorado River system. This talk will provide an overview of the Study's approach and findings, with a focus on the Study's assessment and characterization of vulnerability under uncertainty.

  16. A Review of Integrated River Basin Management for Sarawak River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuok K. Kuok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sarawak River was a life-sustaining water source for the residents in Kuching City and surrounding areas. Raw water is treated at Batu Kitang Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP that supplies more than 98% of the total water production in Kuching City. The raw water supply to BKWTP is not adequate to meet the ever increasing water demand. In order to overcome this problem, four projects had been implemented along Sarawak River for managing and securing water supply to BKWTP. Approach: These four projects are construction of 1.5m height storage weir across Sungai Sarawak Kiri river channel, Kuching Barrage and Shiplock, Bengoh Dam and Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS. In 2005, 1.5 m height submersible weir was constructed across Sungai Sarawak Kiri channel for increasing the safe yield that can last until year 2010. Kuching Barrage and Shiplock were commissioned in 2000 as barrier to avoid the saline intrusion reaching upper catchment. 24 telemetry stations were installed along Sarawak River for monitoring and regulating the water level. This will preserve high quality water storage at upper catchment of Sarawak River. In year 2010, Bengoh Dam was constructed to ensure adequate raw water will be supplied to BKWTP for meeting the increasing water demand from 2010-2030. This reservoir will store 144 million m3 of fresh water covering reservoir area of 8.77km2. Beyond 2030, the water supply shall not depend solely on fresh water. Results: Black and grey water in Sarawak Catchment was treated through Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS and recycled for daily used. Conclusion: The treated water that comply Standard A water quality, can distribute for domestic, industrial and irrigation used in nearest future. This will reduce the water demand solely on raw water and create a sustainable living in Kuching City. Beyond 2030, a few alternatives are also proposed for conserving and securing water supply for Kuching city.

  17. RESEARCHES REGARDING ICHTHYOFAUNA FROM NADRAG RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B?N??EAN-DUNEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On this research is showing the present situation of the fish genostock in the Nadrag River, an important confluent of the Timis river, being part of the Banat hydrographical area. The fish species caught in the investigated area are part of Cyprinidae family. The dominant species is Barbus meridionalis petenyi, followed by Alburnoides bipunctatus, incorporating the investigated area in the European grayling (Thymallus thymallus or the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis petenyi zone of the running waters. At present the Barbus meridionalis petentyi population from the area investigated founds itself in a regression, fact that can be connected both with the poaching and with unauthorized hydrotechnic buildings build-up in the last decade.

  18. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights-a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions-a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m3-enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geogry supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  19. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Clayton, Mary E.; Webber, Michael E.

    2011-07-01

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights—a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions—a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m3—enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  20. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and geospatial data to understand the basement and sub-basement structures in the study area. Major tectonic features including the Ouachita thrust-fold belt, Lampasas arch, Llano uplift, and Bend arch surround the southeast Fort Worth Basin. The effects of these tectonic units in the basement were imaged in form of faulted and folded basement and sub-basement layers. Euler deconvolution and integrated forward gravity modeling were employed to extend the interpretations beyond the 3D seismic survey into a regional context. The Harney Basin is a relatively flat lying depression in the northeast portion of the enigmatic High Lava Plains volcanic province in eastern Oregon. In addition to the High Lava Plains active source seismic data, I also employed gravity, magnetic, digital elevation, geologic maps, and other geospatial data in this integrated study. I generated an upper crustal 3D seismic tomographic model of the Harney Basin and surrounding area using the active source seismic data. I then integrated it with gravity, magnetic, and geologic data to produce a geophysical model of the upper crustal structure, which reveals that the basin reaches as deep as 6 km in the central areas. I observed two major caldera shaped features within the basin. These calderas reveal seismic low velocity areas along with low gravity and magnetic anomalies. I interpreted the extent of these calderas with the help of integrated geophysical results. I propose a nested caldera complex in the northern Harney Basin and another caldera in the southern part. The Snake River Plain is an arcuate-shaped topographic low that lies in southern Idaho. This rifted valley is filled by large volume of mafic magma with numerous exposures of silicic volcanic centers. The scientific discussion on the structural complexities and evolution of the Snake River Plain and the role of extension in its formation has been going on for decades. Similarly, high gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with the Snake River Plains, and their possible causes are still the subject of many studies. Numerous recent

  1. The biogeochemistry of lipids in rivers of the Orinoco Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, R. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Wolff, G.A. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cabrera, A.C. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Water samples from rivers in the Orinoco Basin were examined in order to assess the biogeochemistry of particle-associated and dissolved lipids. Lipid fractions were characterized so as to determine their origin, speciation, variability in individual rivers, and their flux to the lower Orinoco River. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, triterpenoids, and fatty acids were ubiquitous in the rivers, and a large proportion of these compounds were found to be autochthonous in origin. The relative loadings of particle-associated and dissolved lipids were of the same order of magnitude in most of the rivers, indicating the importance of the dissolved phase. Apparently, true equilibria between water and particulate phases were not reached, probably as a result of the high amounts of colloidal and humic materials associated with the dissolved phase in most of the rivers. Preliminary data indicate that there were considerable seasonal variabilities in the distributions and concentrations of lipids in some of the rivers, but that each of these showed different behavior. 76 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Water resources: the prerequisite for ecological restoration of rivers in the Hai River Basin, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenzhong; Mao, Zhanpo; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui

    2015-01-01

    The competition for water resources between humans and river ecosystems is becoming ever more intense worldwide, especially in developing countries. In China, with rapid socioeconomic development, water resources to maintain river ecosystems are progressively decreasing, especially in the Hai River Basin (HRB), which has attracted much attention from the Chinese government. In the past 56 years, water resources have continuously decreased in the basin, such that there is 54.2 % less surface water now compared with then. Water shortages, mainly due to local anthropogenic activities, have emerged as the main limiting factor to river ecological restoration in the HRB. However, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest such project in the world, presents a good opportunity for ecological restoration of rivers in this basin. Water diverted from the Danjiangkou Reservoir will restore surface water resources in the HRB to levels of 30 years ago and will amount to more than 20 billion m(3). Our findings highlight the fact that water resources are crucial for river ecological restoration. PMID:25142344

  3. Spatial heterogeneity study of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijuan; Zhong, Bo; Guo, Liyu; Zhao, Xiangwei

    2014-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the animal-landscape system has three major components: heterogeneity of resource distributions in the physical environment, heterogeneity of plant tissue chemistry, heterogeneity of movement modes by the animal. Furthermore, all three different types of heterogeneity interact each other and can either reinforce or offset one another, thereby affecting system stability and dynamics. In previous studies, the study areas are investigated by field sampling, which costs a large amount of manpower. In addition, uncertain in sampling affects the quality of field data, which leads to unsatisfactory results during the entire study. In this study, remote sensing data is used to guide the sampling for research on heterogeneity of vegetation coverage to avoid errors caused by randomness of field sampling. Semi-variance and fractal dimension analysis are used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin. The spherical model with nugget is used to fit the semivariogram of vegetation coverage. Based on the experiment above, it is found, (1)there is a strong correlation between vegetation coverage and distance of vegetation populations within the range of 0?28051.3188m at Heihe River Basin, but the correlation loses suddenly when the distance greater than 28051.3188m. (2)The degree of spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium. (3)Spatial distribution variability of vegetation occurs mainly on small scales. (4)The degree of spatial autocorrelation is 72.29% between 25% and 75%, which means that spatial correlation of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium high.

  4. Carbon stocks in the Alaska Yukon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, B. K.; Pastick, N.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Zhu, Z.; Ji, L.; Rigge, M. B.; Johnson, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    Boreal forest systems in Alaska maybe vulnerable to long-term ecological changes related to climate change and shifting fire regimes. Future projections of boreal forest carbon stocks are improved with more accurate quantification of current baseline soil carbon stocks. Above ground biomass (R2 = 0.66) and soil organic layer thickness (R2 = 0.67, p < 0.01) were quantified using field plots parameters estimated with regression tree techniques using 30 m resolution Landsat and ancillary data as inputs within the Yukon Flats ecoregion of Alaska. Soil organic layer thickness was converted to soil carbon stocks with a regression (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.01). We extended these Landsat-based regression tree mapping techniques with Fish and Wildlife and Natural Resources Conservation Service collaborators and additional collected field observations, airborne electromagnetic surveys, Landsat Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD), and ancillary data to map carbon stocks at a 30 m spatial resolution for the Alaskan portion of the Yukon River basin. The carbon stocks in non-disturbed and previously burned fire scar areas within the boreal forests of this region were then assessed. Future boreal forest above ground biomass for boreal forests through the entire Yukon River basin was mapped for 2070 using the ecosystem performance modeling approach. Undisturbed boreal forest biomass was expected to increase in the south central areas of the Yukon River basin and decline in portions of the eastern extents. Current to 2070 precent difference in biomass for boreal forest in the Yukon River Basin.

  5. The VERSEAU - TRACKSED Project: origin of Loire River basin sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Vandromme, Rosalie; Cerdan, Olivier; Gay, Aurore; Foucher, Anthony; Salvador-blanes, Se?bastien; Lendemaine, Valentin; Desmet, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In France, since the beginning of 20th century, rural landscapes have been completely modified by human activities. These practices have resulted in profound sedimentary and morphological alterations (channel bed incision, deposition of fine sediment, bank erosion, etc.), detrimental to the achievement of good water status. Several research efforts have already investigated either global budgets at the river basin or continental scale or local detailed budget at the plot to the field scale. H...

  6. REGIONAL GROUNDWATER FLOW MODELLING OF GASH RIVER BASIN, SUDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Abdalla E.; ADIL BALLA ELKRAIL

    2008-01-01

    The three-dimensional groundwater flow model was performed to evaluate the groundwater potentiality and assess the effect of groundwater withdrawal to the regional water level and flow direction in the Gash River basin of Sudan. Data used include periodic water level measurements, meteorological data, digital elevation data and well logs from scientific test wells and domestic water wells drilled in the study area. Transient visual MODFLOW model code was calibrated. Numerical simulation indic...

  7. An indicator system for surface water quality in river basins

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, R. E. S.; Lima, M. M. C. L.; Vieira, J. M. Pereira

    2005-01-01

    Public utilities, agricultural and industrial economical sectors and ecosystems depend on the water supplied by the natura environment. These water needs, the European Water Framework Directive requirements and the key surface water pollution problems identified at a River Basin scale, lead to the development of a water quality indicator system for surface waters. This is an environmental tool, which allows the assessment of the pressure-stateimpact of human activities on surface water...

  8. Mississippi River Basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency

    This EPA site provides links to introductory information about the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. It offers answers to questions such as: what is the hypoxic zone, how did it form, what strategies are being implemented to remedy it, and what is the government doing. It also features links to various regions within the Mississippi River Basin, allowing users to explore issues in their own area.

  9. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/gdryweight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7ng/gd.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23ng/gd.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04-0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. PMID:25777957

  10. Integrated landscape management of the Ipel river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Izakovic?ova?, Zita; Oszla?nyi, Ju?lius

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the Ipel river basin, examining its sustainable development. It  devises methodology for integrated landscape management as a basic tool for the implementation of its sustainable development in actual practice. The main objective of this case study is to define the socio-economic and environmental problems, to design measures to eliminate these problems and/or to prevent new problems arising. The ultimate goal is to achieve management practices which are ...

  11. Estimating resource costs of compliance with EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels, Niels; Jensen, Roar

    2011-01-01

    Resource costs of meeting EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale are estimated by comparing net benefits of water use given ecological status constraints to baseline water use values. Resource costs are interpreted as opportunity costs of water use arising from water scarcity. An optimization approach is used to identify economically efficient ways to meet WFD requirements. The approach is implemented using a river basin simulation model coupled to an economic post-processor; the simulation model and post-processor are run from a central controller that iterates until an allocation is found that maximizes net benefits given WFD requirements. Water use values are estimated for urban/domestic, agricultural, industrial, livestock, and tourism water users. Ecological status is estimated using metrics that relate average monthly river flow volumes to the natural hydrologic regime. Ecological status is only estimated with respect to hydrologic regime; other indicators are ignored in this analysis. The decision variable in the optimization is the price of water, which is used to vary demands using consumer and producer water demand functions. The price-based optimization approach minimizes the number of decision variables in the optimization problem and provides guidance for pricing policies that meet WFD objectives. Results from a real-world application in northern Greece show the suitability of the approach for use in complex, water-stressed basins. The impact of uncertain input values on model outcomes is estimated using the Info-Gap decision analysis framework. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Erosion and sediment budget of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A case study on Mianyuan River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Qi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Wenchuan Earthquake caused a large number of avalanches and landslides at different scales. It is extremely significant to evaluate the sediment in the earthquake river basins. Along the 38 km long upper Mianyuan River 196 landslides and avalanches happened during the earthquake, which have formed 25 landslide dams and quake lakes. The total volume of sediment erosion due to earthquake was about 115 million m3, which is 75 times higher than the soil erosion in normal years. Only a part of the solid material could be transported by the river water flow as suspended load and bed load. The total volume of bed load deposit in the river and the quake lakes was 1.43 million m3. Moreover the quake lakes had also trapped 0.12 million m3 suspended load. Only 0.18 million m3 of fine sediment had been drifted through the quake lakes and transported into the lower reaches of the Mianyuan River. The wide range of size distributions of sediment from earthquake erosion caused the extreme difference in the amounts of sediment erosion and transportation. Most of the sediment from earthquake erosion can be only transported for a short distance by landslides and debris flows. Less than 0.2% of the total volume of sediment from earthquake erosion may be transported into large rivers. Therefore, earthquake erosion has little effect on the sediment transportation and fluvial processes in the large rivers.

  13. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabos, S. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Groundwater quality assessment/corrective action feasibility plan. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.F.

    1989-11-15

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Seepage Basins are located in the northeastern section of the 700 Area at the Savannah River Site. Currently the four basins are out of service and are awaiting closure in accordance with the Consent Decree settled under Civil Act No. 1:85-2583. Groundwater monitoring data from the detection monitoring network around the SRL Basins was recently analyzed using South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.92 methods to determine if groundwater in the immediate vicinity of the SRL Basins had been impacted. Results from the data analysis indicate that the groundwater has been impacted by both volatile organic constituents (VOCs) and inorganic constituents. The VOCs, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, are currently being addressed under the auspices of the SRS Hazardous Waste Permit Application (Volume III, Section J.6.3). The impacts resulting from elevated levels of inorganic constituent, such as barium, calcium, and zinc in the water table, do not pose a threat to human health and the environment. In order to determine if vertical migration of the inorganic constituents has occurred three detection monitoring wells are proposed for installation in the upper portion of the Congaree Aquifer.

  15. Towards improving river discharge estimation in ungauged basins: calibration of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river flow width at basin outlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Sun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff models are common tools for river discharge estimation in the field of hydrology. In ungauged basins, the dependence on observed river discharge data for calibration restricts applications of rainfall-runoff models. The strong correlation between quantities of river cross-sectional water surface width obtained from remote sensing and corresponding in situ gauged river discharge has been verified by many researchers. In this study, a calibration scheme of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river width at basin outlet is illustrated. One distinct advantage is that this calibration is independent of river discharge information. The at-a-station hydraulic geometry is implemented to facilitate shifting the calibration objective from river discharge to river width. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE is applied to model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The calibration scheme is demonstrated through a case study for simulating river discharge at Pakse in the Mekong Basin. The effectiveness of the calibration scheme and uncertainties associated with utilization of river width observations from space are examined from model input-state-output behaviour, capability of reproducing river discharge and posterior parameter distribution. The results indicate that the satellite observation of the river width is a competent surrogate of observed discharge for the calibration of rainfall-runoff model at Pakse and the proposed method has the potential for improving reliability of river discharge estimation in basins without any discharge gauging.

  16. Towards improving river discharge estimation in ungauged basins: calibration of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river flow width at basin outlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Sun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff models are common tools for river discharge estimation in the field of hydrology. In ungauged basins, the dependence on observed river discharge data for calibration restricts applications of rainfall-runoff models. The strong correlation between quantities of river cross-sectional water surface width obtained from remote sensing and corresponding in situ gauged river discharge has been verified by many researchers. In this study, a calibration scheme of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river width at basin outlet is illustrated. One distinct advantage is that this calibration is independent of river discharge information. The at-a-station hydraulic geometry is implemented to facilitate shifting calibration objective from river discharge to river width. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation methodology is applied to model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The calibration scheme is demonstrated through a case study for simulating river discharge at Pakse in the Mekong Basin. The effectiveness of calibration scheme and uncertainties associated with utilization of river width observations from space are examined from model input-state-output behaviour, capability of reproducing river discharge, and posterior parameter distribution. The results indicate that the satellite observation of river width is a competent surrogate of observed discharge for the calibration of rainfall-runoff model at Pakse and the proposed method has the potential for improving reliability of river discharge estimation in basins without any discharge gauging.

  17. Selected hydrologic data, Yampa River basin and parts of the White River basin, northwestern Colorado and south-central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, T.F.; Brogden, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data are presented from four energy-related projects conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Yampa River basin and parts of the White River basin in northwestern Colorado and south-central Wyoming. Water-quality data during 1974 and 1975 and parts of 1976 for 129 ground-water sites and 119 surface-water sites are tabulated. For most samples, major cations, anions, and trace metals were analyzed. For the same time period, field measurements of specific conductance, temperature, and pH were made on 252 springs and wells. These samplings sites, as well as the locations of 20 climatological stations, 18 snow-course sites, and 43 surface-water gaging stations, are shown on maps. Geologic units that contain coal deposits or supply much of the water used for stock and domestic purposes in the area also are shown on a map. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Environmental Isotope Ratios of River Water in the Danube Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the Danube study were documentation of existing data and completion of long term data sets (2H, 3H, 18O), continuation of monthly sampling of river water, investigation of short term influences, and preliminary interpretation of long term isotope records of river water with respect to hydrological processes, meteorological conditions and environmental changes. Furthermore, this report includes the complete 3H and 18O data set for the Danube at Vienna (1963-2005) and a summary of the results from the Joint Danube Survey 2 (2007). ?18O values of JDS2 river water samples ranged from -13.1 per mille (Inn, alpine river) up to -6.4 per mille (River Sio, evap oration influence). The ?18O value of the Danube increased from -10.8 per mille after the confluence of the Inn River with the upper Danube up to -9.6 per mille at the mouth, with a major change after the inflow of Tisa and Sava. The isotopic composition of river water in the Danube Basin is mainly governed by the isotopic composition of precipitation in the catchment area, while evaporation effects play only a minor role. Short term and long term isotope signals from precipitation are thus transmitted through the whole catchment. Tritium concentrations in most parts of the Danube river system lay around 10 TU during the JDS2 period and reflected the actual 3H content of precipitation in Central Europe, but 3H valcipitation in Central Europe, but 3H values up to 40 TU in the Danube and up to 250 TU in some tributaries are clear evi dence for discontinuous releases of 3H from local sources (nuclear power plants) into the rivers. (author)

  19. THE CONFLUENCE RATIO OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN BASIN RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RO?IAN GH.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many possibilities to assess the hydrological and geomorphological evolution of a territory. Among them, one remarks the confluence ratio of the rivers belonging to different catchment areas. The values of this indicator may provide information regarding the stage of evolution of the fluvial landforms in the Transylvanian Basin. Also, the values may serve for the calculation of other parameters of catchment areas like: the degree of finishing of the drainage basin for its corresponding order, the density of river segments within a catchment area etc. To calculate the confluence ratio, 35 catchment areas of different orders have been selected. The confluence ratio varies between 3.04 and 6.07. The large range of values demonstrates the existence of a heterogeneous lithology and of morphological and hydrographical contrasts from one catchment area to the other. The existence of values above 5, correlated also with observations in the field, reveals an accelerated dynamics of the geomorphological processes in those catchment areas. This dynamic is mainly supported by the high landform fragmentation due to the first order rivers. In contrast, the catchment areas that have a confluence ratio below 5 are in a more advanced stage of evolution with stable slopes, unable to initiate new first order river segments.

  20. Future hydrology in Lanjiang River Basin, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue-Ping; Zhang, Xujie; Tian, Ye

    2013-04-01

    The hydrological cycle has been substantially influenced by climate change and human activities. Therefore, it is important to investigate the potential impact of future climate change on regional water resources or local hydrology. In this paper, the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is used as a tool to analyze the impact of climate change on future hydrology in Lanjiang River Basin, one tributary of Qiantang River Basin, East China for the future period 2011-2100. Precipitation, potential evapotranspiraton and runoff are the three main components concerned. Reliability ensemble averaging method is used to obtain ensemble projections of 16 GCMs under three emission scenarios A1B, A2 and B1. The SWAT model calibration and validation outcome show reasonable performance. The final results show that annual river runoff will likely decrease almost under all emission scenarios. Particularly, at Jinhua Station, significant decreases of annual river runoff can be observed, indicating less water resources possibly available for the region in future. Simulated seasonal patterns show that the largest decrease will likely occur in winter while the largest increase will occur in summer, implying possible more floods or droughts in this region in future. However, it is also noticed that the changes are quite different under various emission scenarios and different stages of the future period, indicating large uncertainty involved in the impact analysis.

  1. Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water resources are redistributed by very developed and extensive irrigation system. Irrigation water balance is complex because of strong interactions among surface, ground, river and irrigation water. Lower reaches is an extremely arid environment. Water availability in lower reaches has a great impact on the evolution of natural ecosystem and vice versa the landscape change reshapes the hydrological cycle. After the water resource reallocation project implemented in 2000, the water delivered to lower reaches has increased by 36%. Of all the available water resource, about 10% is used to sustain a terminal lake and other water bodies, 20% is used for irrigation to support very rapidly increased farmlands, 40-50% is used to nurture the natural oasis, and other water is lost due to evaporation. The features of hydrological cycle in the HRB is very typical for inland river basins in China's arid region. In this region, air temperature is rising and precipitation is most likely to increase. Accelerating glacier retreat will also produce more water. However, water demand increases more rapidly due to quickly developing economy and growing population. Therefore, how to turn our understanding of hydrological cycle in this environmental fragile region into more rational water resource management is a grand challenge.

  2. Morphotectonic Analysis in the Ghezel Ozan River Basin, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Hosseini Toudeshki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphotectonic analysis by the use of geomorphic indices serves as a tool of recognition in regions with active tectonic deformation. Landforms in active deformation area are created from interaction of tectonic and surficial processes. One of the most important landforms in ground are rivers that are very sensitive to tectonic movements especially uplift and tilting. Thus based on analysis of the rivers and related drainage networks by the use of geomorphic indices we will be able to attain valuable information about tectonic history of the area. In this article, determine of tectonic movements bye the use of geomorphic indices is surveyed in the Ghezel Ozan River basin between 2007 and 2010. After segmentation of the Ghezel Ozan River and preparation of digital elevation model (DEM amounts of geomorphic indices per segments is separately attained. The attained amounts show that different segments of the Ghezel Ozan River vary from each other regarding the amount of tectonic activity and tectonic movements increase from west to east and also, the amount of tectonic tilting is negligible in a lot of the Ghezel Ozan River segments. This situation is completely in agreement with the trend of the seismicity of the area.

  3. Sediment budget in the Ucayali River basin, an Andean tributary of the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, W.; Martinez, J.-M.; Espinoza-Villar, R.; Cochonneau, G.; Vauchel, P.; Moquet, J.-S.; Baby, P.; Espinoza, J.-C.; Lavado, W.; Carranza, J.; Guyot, J.-L.

    2015-03-01

    Formation of mountain ranges results from complex coupling between lithospheric deformation, mechanisms linked to subduction and surface processes: weathering, erosion, and climate. Today, erosion of the eastern Andean cordillera and sub-Andean foothills supplies over 99% of the sediment load passing through the Amazon Basin. Denudation rates in the upper Ucayali basin are rapid, favoured by a marked seasonality in this region and extreme precipitation cells above sedimentary strata, uplifted during Neogene times by a still active sub-Andean tectonic thrust. Around 40% of those sediments are trapped in the Ucayali retro-foreland basin system. Recent advances in remote sensing for Amazonian large rivers now allow us to complete the ground hydrological data. In this work, we propose a first estimation of the erosion and sedimentation budget of the Ucayali River catchment, based on spatial and conventional HYBAM Observatory network.

  4. XXI Century Climatology of Snow Cover for the Western River Basins of the Indus River System

    CERN Document Server

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Under changing climate, freshwater resources of Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) region can be affected by changes in temperature and in amount, type and distribution of precipitation. This can have serious implications for the water supply and in turn threaten the food security and economic wellbeing of Indus basin. Using MODIS daily snow products (Terra & Aqua), this study focuses on the assessment of the 2000-2010 snow cover dynamics on seasonal/annual basis against geophysical parameters (aspect, elevation and slope) for the so called western river basins of Indus River System (IRS), namely Indus, Kabul, Jhelum, Astore, Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Shigar and Shyok basins. Results show that inputs from MODIS instrument provide unprecedented better opportunity to study by using GIS techniques the snow cover dynamics in the remote areas like HKH region at such hyper-temporal and finer planar resolution. Adapted non-spectral cloud filtering techniques have significantly reduced cloud coverage and improved sno...

  5. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and indicators to use in the analytical evaluation. A software template guides users through this process. For demonstration, the RBAF-C template has been applied to address competing irrigation demand-anadromous fish flow requirements in the Lemhi Basin, Idaho, and the increase in municipal and industrial demand in the Upper Bhima River Basin, India, which affects water supply to downstream irrigation command areas. The RBAF-A is for quantitatively evaluating the current conditions of water resources in a river basin and testing potential scenarios with respect to the sustainability criterion. The primary foundation for quantifying water movement is a river basin model. Upon this, the RBAF-A Interface organizes input data, collects output data from each discipline, and reports the HWB. Within the RBAF-A Interface, the EGS-HWB Calculator collects output time series data, processes the data with respect to space and time, and computes the ecologic, economic, and social well-being. The Reporting Tool presents the scenario output as values and trends in well-being. To demonstrate the technology, the RBAF-A was applied to the Lemhi Basin, Idaho. The RBAF supports the IWRM process by providing a structured and transparent means to understand the water related issues, analyses to conduct, and indicators to select in assessing the sustainability of water programs and policies in river basins.

  6. Going with the flow: River basins as the natural units for water management?

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, J. F.; Wester, P.; Bolding, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    This article engages with the currently hegemonic status of a triad of water policy prescriptions: multi-stakeholder platforms, integrated water resources management, and river basin management. A more reflective approach that opens up the choices underlying these concepts, and their limits, is needed. The choice to manage water on the basis of river basins is a political choice, and thus river basins are as much political units as they are natural units. The article concludes that the deline...

  7. The Challenges of Integrated Management of Mekong River Basin in Terms of People’s Livelihood

    OpenAIRE

    Arafat, Badandi; Haq, Shah Md Atiqul; Belay, Alebel Abebe; Chien, Vuong Quoc

    2010-01-01

    Mekong River Basin is a life for many people in six south East Asian countries. The river basin is very productive and has crucial activities like: fishing, agriculture, hydroelectric power, transportation, biodiversity and so on. However, due to mismanagement, political intentions and one way interest only for development, the river basin has already started experiencing complications. The major challenges found out were, huge hydroelectric dam constructions and other projects, high populati...

  8. Energy development and water options in the Yellowstone River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, R.; MacIntyre, D.D.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-08-01

    Using a mixed-integer programming model, the impacts of institutional constraints on the marginal capacity for energy development in the Yellowstone River Basin and consequent hydrologic changes were examined. Under average annual flow conditions, energy outputs in the Yellowstone Basin can increase roughly nine times by 1985 and 12 to 18 times by 2000. In contrast, water availability is limiting energy development in the Tongue and Powder River Basins in Wyoming. Variability in hydrologic regime causes model solutions to change drastically. If flows decrease to 80 and 60% of average annual levels, the energy production is decreased by 17 and 95%, respectively. If development strategies in the basin are followed on the basis of 80% average annual flows, the Buffalo Bill enlargement (271,300 acre-ft), Tongue River Modification (58,000 acre-ft), and the two reservoirs at Sweetgrass Creek (each 27,000 acre-ft) will be necessary, in addition to several small storage facilities, to best meet the instream flow needs in Montana and to deliver the waters apportioned by compact between Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, the results indicate that relaxing the instream flow requirements from recommended levels by 10% could increase regional energy output by 19% in 1985 and 35% in 2000. This model illustrates that modifications in institutional restrictions to achieve greater water mobility between users in a given state, as well as flexible practices for transferring water between states, can assist economic growth. Thus, the probability for restricted energy development at this juncture appears to be affected to a greater degree by institutional constraints than by water availability constraints.

  9. Identification of Flood Source Areas in Pahang River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    The roles of upland watersheds in flood source contribution towards downstream areas in a river basin system are generally neglected in the inclusion of management strategy related to downstream flood management. In this study an assessment on the flood source area of Pahang river basin was attempted. The concept of unit flood response as an index of hydrologic response was used in identifying the flood source areas for the basin. The results indicated that among the 16 sub-basins of Pahang r...

  10. Resilience in Transboundary Water Governance: the Okavango River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia O. Green

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When the availability of a vital resource varies between times of overabundance and extreme scarcity, management regimes must manifest flexibility and authority to adapt while maintaining legitimacy. Unfortunately, the need for adaptability often conflicts with the desire for certainty in legal and regulatory regimes, and laws that fail to account for variability often result in conflict when the inevitable disturbance occurs. Additional keys to resilience are collaboration among physical scientists, political actors, local leaders, and other stakeholders, and, when the commons is shared among sovereign states, collaboration between and among institutions with authority to act at different scales or with respect to different aspects of an ecological system. At the scale of transboundary river basins, where treaties govern water utilization, particular treaty mechanisms can reduce conflict potential by fostering collaboration and accounting for change. One necessary element is a mechanism for coordination and collaboration at the scale of the basin. This could be satisfied by mechanisms ranging from informal networks to the establishment of an international commission to jointly manage water, but a mechanism for collaboration at the basin scale alone does not ensure sound water management. To better guide resource management, study of applied resilience theory has revealed a number of management practices that are integral for adaptive governance. Here, we describe key resilience principles for treaty design and adaptive governance and then apply the principles to a case study of one transboundary basin where the need and willingness to manage collaboratively and iteratively is high--the Okavango River Basin of southwest Africa. This descriptive and applied approach should be particularly instructive for treaty negotiators, transboundary resource managers, and should aid program developers.

  11. Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on stream flow and sediment discharge in the Wei River basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.; -m Mu, X.; Wang, F.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced stream flow and increased sediment discharge are a major concern in the Yellow River basin of China which supplies water for agriculture, industry and the growing populations located along the river. Similar concerns exist in the Wei River basin which is the largest tributary of the Yellow River basin and comprises the highly eroded Loess Plateau. Better understanding of the drivers of stream flow and sediment discharge dynamics in the Wei River basin is needed for development of effe...

  12. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks in the northern Green River Basin and Hoback Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was undertaken to evaluate the favorability for uranium of Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the northern Green River Basin and in the Hoback Basin in western Wyoming. Surface and subsurface investigations were conducted, and areas of favorable lithology for uranium host rocks were delineated. The only known uranium deposits within the project boundaries are in the vicinity of the Pard mine. Only one of the assayed surface samples outside the area of the Pard mine contained an anomalous quantity of uranium (38 ppM). No obvious alteration, other than surface weathering, was recognized at any of the outcrops examined or sampled. On the basis of drill-hole data, the distribution of pyrite in the subsurface indicates a reducing environment over most of the project area. Organic carbon is not common in outcrops or in the subsurface. Gamma-ray spectrometer analyses of the probable granitic source of arkosic conglomerates and sandstones in the Green River Basin suggest that both the granites and the arkosic sediments derived from them should be considered as possible sources of uranium in the northern Green River Basin. The analyses have shown that the uranium content of these granites is within the range of uranium contents of granitic rocks of the Granite and Seminoe Mountains, which are possible sources of uranium for the Gas Hills, Crooks Gap, and Shirley Basin uranium deposits. The present low uranium values in samples of the tuffaceous middle Eocene Bridger Foof the tuffaceous middle Eocene Bridger Formation suggest a low favorability of the Bridger as a source of uranium. An area of boulder conglomerates extending northward from the Pard mine along the flanks of Prospect Mountain and Little Prospect Mountain is considered favorable because of its similarity to the Pard mind lithology

  13. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R. W. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  14. On the geographic range of freshwater fish in river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Lynch, H. J.; Fagan, W. F.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2009-11-01

    We study the observed geographic distribution of freshwater fish species in the Mississippi-Missouri river system, focusing on the size and spatial distribution of geographic ranges. We use a particular metric of geographic distribution known as environmental resistance, a biogeographic index that quantifies the pointwise average spatial loss of community similarity to identify biogeographic regions of the river basin. Empirical patterns are compared with the results of a neutral metacommunity model in which local fish communities are interconnected through the ecological corridors provided by the river networks. Because neutral theory assumes that all individuals across all the species are functionally equivalent, the comparison is aimed to quantify how much of the geographic range patterns are the result of species' similarity rather than species differences, thus searching for an ecological null model for the analysis of biogeographic range. We also analyze how river network topology affects the spatial arrangement of species. Our results suggest that broad patterns of geographic range of freshwater fish in the Mississippi-Missouri can be explained simply by neutral dynamics engaged in river topology and competition for resources among species without invoking mechanisms that involve asymmetric interspecific interactions.

  15. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zeng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB, a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr?1 in the HRB over 2004–2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production. The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" component of WF was 811 million m3 yr?1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than green WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

  16. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zeng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB, a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr?1 in the HRB over 2004–2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production. The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" (surface- and groundwater component of WF was 811 million m3 yr?1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than "green" (soil water WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

  17. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, F. M. S.; Gomiero, L. M.

    2006-01-01

    Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira) subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and a...

  18. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, F. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed.

  19. Impact of subsurface drainage on streamflows in the Red River of the North basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammed M.; Lin, Zhulu; Jia, Xinhua; Steele, Dean D.; DeSutter, Thomas M.

    2014-04-01

    The debate about subsurface drainage effects on streamflows has been reignited in the Red River of the North basin in North America, after a decades-long abnormally wet weather pattern in the region. Our study evaluated the applicability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in modeling subsurface drainage in a cold environment; we then employed streamflow response analyses to assess the potential impacts of the extensive subsurface drainage development in the Red River Valley (RRV) on streamflows in the Red River. The results showed that extensive subsurface drainage in the RRV would likely increase the magnitude of smaller peak flows while decreasing the magnitude of larger peak flows. Discharge reduction of large peak flows was mainly caused by reducing the flow volumes rather than increasing the time-to-peak of the hydrograph. Our analysis also suggested that extensive subsurface drainage could move more water from the watershed to the rivers in the fall season, creating more storage capacity in the soils. However, such increase in storage capacity in soils would have a negligible effect in reducing the monthly flow volumes in the following spring. The proposed method of coupling a watershed model with streamflow response analysis can be readily adopted by other researchers to evaluate the streamflow impact of land-use and climate changes around the world.

  20. A study of the break-up characteristics of Chena River Basin using ERTS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. F. (principal investigator); Kane, D. L.; Wendler, G.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Chena River Basin was selected because of the availability of ground truth data for comparison. Very good agreement for snow distribution and rates of ablation was found between the ERTS-1 imagery, the snowmelt model, and field measurements. Monitoring snowmelt rates for relatively small basins appears to be practical. The main limitation of the ERTS-1 imagery is the interval of coverage. More frequent overflights providing coverage are needed for the study of transient hydrologic events. ERTS-1 data is most useful when used in conjunction with snowmelt prediction models and existing snow course data. These results should prove very useful in preliminary assessment of hydrologic conditions in ungaged watersheds and will provide a tool for month-to-month volume forecasting.

  1. Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormodsgard, June M.

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

  2. 210Po in meteoric and surface waters at Corumbatai River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the presence of 222Rn and 210Po in wet (rainwater) deposition occurring at a very important sedimentary basin located in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, i.e. the Corumbatai River Basin. It is a sub-basin of the giant Parana sedimentary basin (Paleozoic-Cenozoic) that extends over an area of 1,700,000 km2. The Corumbatai River is the major river draining the area, and its water is extensively used by water supply systems in the basin. Since rainwater deposition has been recognized as a major source of dissolved species in rivers, surface waters from Corumbatai River were also collected at two sampling points, upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, the principal municipality within the basin

  3. [Runoff process in forested basin of Hun River-Taizi River, Northeast China: a simulation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan-Cong; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xini; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Based on the hydrological data from the Beikouqian and Nandianyu stations in the upstream of Hun River and Taizi River as well as the meteorological data from the Qingyuan, Xinbin, and Benxi County stations, Northeast China in 1998-2007, a distributed hydrological model (DHS-VM) was applied to simulate the hydrological process in Hun-Tai basin. The scientific applicability of the model was validated, and the reference values of the most sensitive model parameters were provided. The simulated monthly runoff Nash-Suttclife coefficient (E value) for the source region of Hun River in calibration period (1998-2002) and validation period (2003-2007) was 0.9675 and 0. 8957, respectively, which could better reappear the monthly runoff process in this source region. The simulated monthly and annual runoff E values for the upstream of Taizi River were greater than 0.6, indicating that this model had good applicability in Hun-Tai basin, and the calibrated parameter scheme had a good reliability. This paper established a solid framework for the hydrological study over ungauged basin, and constructed a reasonable parameter scheme. PMID:24483070

  4. Collaboration in River Basin Management: The Great Rivers Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, S.; Vridhachalam, M.; Tomala-Reyes, A.; Guerra, A.; Chu, H.; Eckman, B.

    2008-12-01

    The health of the world's freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to the health of people, plants and animals around the world. The sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges facing society today. An estimated 1.3 billion people currently lack access to safe drinking water, an issue the United Nations specifically includes in its recently published Millennium Development Goals. IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Collaboration Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish and wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration efforts. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the collaboration aspects of the DSS. The DSS is an open environment tool that allows scientists, policy makers, politicians, land owners, and anyone who desires to take ownership of their actions in support of the environment to work together to that end. The DSS supports a range of features that empower such a community to collaboratively work together. Supported collaboration mediums include peer reviews, live chat, static comments, and Web 2.0 functionality such as tagging. In addition, we are building a 3-D virtual world component which will allow users to experience and share system results, first-hand. Models and simulation results may be annotated with free-text comments and tags, whether unique or chosen from a predefined tag taxonomy. These comments and tag clouds may be used by the community to filter results and identify models or simulations of interest, e.g, by region, modeling approach, spatiotemporal resolution, etc. Users may discuss methods or results in real-time with a built-in chat feature. Separate user groups may be defined for logical groups of collaboration partners, e.g., expert modelers, land managers, policy makers, school children, or the general public, to optimize the collaboration signal-to-noise ratio for all.

  5. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    River ice is a very important component of the cryosphere, and is especially sensitive to climatic variability. Historical records of appearance or disappearance and timing of ice phenomena are useful indicators for past climatic variations (Williams, 1970). Long-term observations of river ice freeze-up and break-up dates are available for many rivers in the temperate or cold region to detect and analyze the effects of climate change on river ice regime. The ice regime of natural rivers is influenced by climatic, hydrological and morphological factors. Regular ice phenomena observation mostly dates back to the 19th century. During this long-term observation period, the human interventions affecting the hydrological and morphological factors have become more and more intensive (Beltaos and Prowse, 2009). The anthropogenic effects, such as river regulation, hydropower use or water pollution causes different changes in river ice regime (Ashton, 1986). To decrease the occurrence of floods and control the water discharge, nowadays most of the rivers are regulated. River regulation changes the morphological parameters of the river bed: the aim is to create solid and equable bed size and stream gradient to prevent river ice congestion. For the satisfaction of increasing water demands hydropower is also used. River damming results a condition like a lake upstream to the barrage; the flow velocity and the turbulence are low, so this might be favourable for river ice appearance and freeze-up (Starosolsky, 1990). Water pollution affects ice regime in two ways; certain water contaminants change the physical characteristics of the water, e.g. lessens the freezing point of the water. Moreover the thermal stress effect of industrial cooling water and communal wastewater is also important; in winter these water sources are usually warmer, than the water body of the river. These interventions result different changes in the characteristic features of river ice regime. Selected examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime. Climate change and river ice regime research should also take into account these anthropogenic imp

  6. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R-REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING -10499

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.

    2010-01-04

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the 105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate it from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,384 cubic meters or 31,894 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were designed and tested for the reactor ISD project, and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and material flow considerations, maximum lift heights and differential height requirements were determined. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and approximately 3,900 cubic yards (2,989 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over about an eighteen month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  7. PHAHs in 14 principal river sediments from Hai River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gaofeng; Zhou, Huaidong; Liu, Xiaoru; Li, Kun; Zhang, Panwei; Wen, Wu; Yu, Yang

    2012-06-15

    This study was undertaken to investigate the current contamination status of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) in sediments from 14 principal rivers of the Hai River basin. The concentrations of 22 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) congeners, 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and 27 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in sediments were measured using GC-MS/MS technique. The highest PBB levels were detected in sediments from River Daqing: PBB3, 10, 4, 15, 26, 31, and 49 were observed in the sediments. The highest concentrations of PBDEs were in River Tuhe (G.M.=2.10 ng g(-1) dw), and PBDE15 was the most predominant congener in the sediments from all of the rivers of this study, except for River Tuhe, which accounted for >13.5% of the total PBDEs in sediments. PBDE209 was detected in sediments from the Beijingpaiwu, Nanyun, Majia and Tuhe rivers, with observed values ranging from 0.06 to 0.13 ng g(-1) dw. PCBs had the highest concentrations in sediment samples collected from River Luan and River Daqing, with levels of 18.13 and 25.62 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. The most predominant PCB congener in these samples was PCB138, which accounted for about 24% of the sum of the seven indicator PCB congeners (PCB28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) measured in the two rivers. The measured levels of PHAHs were compared with recent results, reported in the literature, and the respective sediment quality guidelines recommended by USEPA. The levels of PHAHs in the present study were generally lower than respective threshold-effect levels, or were comparable to those reported in relatively uncontaminated freshwaters from other regions. This suggests that, in these rivers, toxic biological effects on aquatic biota-due to PHAH contamination of sediments-can be expected to be negligible. Thus, in terms of PHAHs, the sediments can be regarded as relatively uncontaminated. PMID:22560245

  8. Change of extreme rainfall indexes at Ebro River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, J. L.; Tarquis, A. M.; Saá-Requejo, A.; Gascó, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    Extreme rainfall events are a serious concern for regional hydrology and agriculture in the Ebro River Basin. Repeated anomalous rainfall in recent decades has had a devastating impact on this region, both socially and economically. Some studies developed in Italy and USA have shown that there is a change in seasonal patterns and an increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, whereas other studies have pointed out that no global behaviour could be observed in monthly trends due to high climatic variability. The aim of this work is to test which of these scenarios is the case for the Ebro River Basin. For this purpose, 14 meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station. First, classical climatic indexes were analysed with an autoregressive test to study possible trends in rainfall. The results can be explained following the evolution of the NAO and WeMO indexes, which indicate that the initial period should be subdivided in two periods (1957-1979 and 1980-2002) to assume stationarity and to analyse the rainfall distribution functions. The general results obtained in this study for both sub-periods, through the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) parameters and the maximum expected return values, do not support the results previously obtained by other authors that affirm a positive trend in extreme rainfall indexes and point to a slight reduction indicated by others. Three extreme precipitation indexes show negative statistical significant trends. GPD-scale parameters decrease except for only one rain gauge, although this decrease is only statistically significant for two rain gauges. Another two locations show statistical significance decreased for maximum expected return values.

  9. The cost of noncooperation in international river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest for water supply enhancement strategies in order to deal with the exploding demand for water in some regions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Within such strategies, reservoirs, especially multipurpose ones, are expected to play a key role in enhancing water security. This renewed impetus for the traditional supply-side approach to water management may indeed contribute to socioeconomic development and poverty reduction if the planning process considers the lessons learned from the past, which led to the recommendations by the World Commission on Dams and other relevant policy initiatives. More specifically, the issues dealing with benefit sharing within an efficient and equitable utilization of water resources are key elements toward the successful development of those river basins. Hence, there is a need for improved coordination and cooperation among water users, sectors, and riparian countries. However, few studies have explicitly tried to quantify, in monetary terms, the economic costs of noncooperation, which we believe to be important information for water managers and policy makers, especially at a time when major developments are planned. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the economic costs of noncooperation when managing large-scale water resources systems involving multiple reservoirs, and where the dominant uses are hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. An analysis of the Zambezi River basin, one of the largest river basins in Africa that is likely to see major developments in the coming decades, is carried out. This valuation exercise reveals that the yearly average cost of noncooperation would reach 350 million US$/a, which is 10% of the annual benefits derived from the system.

  10. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to a lesser extent Zn. Plant species which are the most important for the biomonitoring were identified: Phragmites australis, Ceratophyllum demersum, different pondweeds (Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton friesii), Myriophyllum spicatum, Batrachium trichophyllum. Among them some species are characterized by a group concentration of heavy metals: pondweeds (Mn, Fe, Cu), Myriophyllum spicatum (Fe, Mn, Cu), Batrachium trichophyllum (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn). Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum) is a concentrator of Mn.

  11. A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

  12. Flowing of Polonium from the river-basin of Vistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented studies are a part of the more general programme dealing with investigations of the 210Po environmental circulation and its interaction with living organisms. River water samples were collected in numerous places in the Vistula river basin as well as in its main effluents to the Baltic sea. Laboratory determinations consisted on the ?-radiation spectrometry following the 210Po co-precipitation with the MnO2 matrix and electrodeposition on the silver foil. Samples collected in the different year-seasons between the November 2004 and November 2004 were analysed and the results tabularised. Numerous geographic regions and time-periods of the increased 210Po concentration in the water are pointed. It has been postulated that these increased values are caused by the fertilization process using the phosphorus-reach fertilizers, water dropping by the coal-mine industry and the increased snow melting

  13. Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

  14. Application of a flood hazard model in the Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaheil, Yasir; Begnudelli, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    The flood hazard model presented here includes TOPNET, a modified version of TOPMODEL, for hydrologic modeling, and a 2D finite volume model to simulate flood propagation efficient for large scale flood modeling. TOPNET expands on TOPMODEL through the addition of a soil zone component that provides infiltration excess runoff generation capability through a Green-Ampt like parameterization. Further added representations of other hydrologic processes include a potential evapotranspiration component, and a canopy storage component to model interception. Moreover, the model includes a snow melt component, as well as a water management module for a more realistic streamflow computation. The model is implemented with parallel computing to increase the speed of computation. The model is automatically calibrated for its parameters against nine streamflow gauges within the 1000-catchment Susquehanna River basin. Extreme-value distributions are fit to modeled streamflow to obtain Q100 for each reach in the river basin. Hydraulic computations are performed using a computationally-efficient 2D finite-volume, first-order, Godunov-type model. Flood propagation is simulated by forcing the hydraulic model with the Q100 to generate a 100-year return period flood elevations and extent.

  15. Wetlands Response to Climate Change across Susquehanna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, C.; Yu, X.; Bhatt, G.; Kumar, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) lies in the northeastern United States and contains a mosaic of wetlands that range from permanently wet to temporary embedded in a landscape matrix of natural deciduous forest and agriculture. This study explores the prospects for SRB wetlands under modified hydrologic processes induced due to climatic change. Five mesoscale watersheds: Little Juniata River (560 sq. km.), Mahantango Creek (420 sq. km.), Young Womans Creek (120 sq. km.), Muddy Creek (344 sq. km.), and Lackawanna River (860 sq. km.) were selected as representative watersheds to include variability in climate, topography, soil, geomorphology, and land cover across SRB. We explored the broad spatial and temporal patterns across these watersheds between climate and wetland health using groundwater predictions from Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Modeling System (PIHM) -- a spatially distributed fully-coupled physics-based model. Near present (2004-2010) hourly climate data (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, vapor pressure, wind velocity and solar radiation) were obtained from Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2), climate reanalysis product. The predicted wetland locations were validated against the National Wetland Inventory. We analyzed the effect of spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic states such as streams, groundwater, and evaporative and hydrologic fluxes on the wetland hydrology. To predict the impacts of climate change on the health of the wetland, meteorological data for two 20 year climate periods (History: 1979-1998 and Scenario: 2046-2065) from Meteorological Research Institute's GCM were used as model forcing. The scenarios output showed different responses across the wetlands in the river basin. The key to this study is that a high resolution spatial and temporal model can resolve the coupled effects of wetlands in the context of complete mesoscale watershed simulations.

  16. Identification of Flood Source Areas in Pahang River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of upland watersheds in flood source contribution towards downstream areas in a river basin system are generally neglected in the inclusion of management strategy related to downstream flood management. In this study an assessment on the flood source area of Pahang river basin was attempted. The concept of unit flood response as an index of hydrologic response was used in identifying the flood source areas for the basin. The results indicated that among the 16 sub-basins of Pahang river basin, sub-basin of Sungai Pahang is ranked first in production of flood discharge while Sungai Perting sub-basin is ranked last in term of production of flood discharge. Comparison between maximum daily discharge of upper and lower segments of Pahang river basin indicated that up-stream watershed contributes significantly high and more flood (94.78% than down-stream (5.22%. In addition, the upland watersheds were found to more efficient in producing surface runoff and send the floodwater to the lower receiving basin of Sungai Pahang. Considering that basin flood response is generally a nonlinear function of many factors, the sub-basins that are located nearest to and most distance from the basin outlet do not necessarily generate the highest and lowest contribution to the flood peak at the outlet. Similarly, sub-basins producing the highest or lowest absolute or specific discharge at their own outlet may not necessarily ranked first and last in flood index.

  17. 64 FR 3714 - Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA, INT-FES 99-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-25

    ...provisions of Phase 2 of the Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project (Enhancement Project). The purpose of the Enhancement Project is to meet the competing water needs of the Yakima River basin, including the protection, mitigation,...

  18. 63 FR 19944 - Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA, INT-DES 98-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-22

    ...provisions of Phase 2 of the Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project (Enhancement Project). The purpose of the Enhancement Project is to meet the competing needs of the Yakima River basin through improved water conservation and...

  19. Iron cycling in the Amazon River Basin: the isotopic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    With the global climate change and increasing anthropic pressure on nature, it is important to find new indicators of the response of complex systems like the Amazon River Basin. In particular, new tracers like iron isotopes may tell us much on processes such as the chemical exchanges between rivers, soils and the biosphere. Pioneering studies revealed that for some river waters, large ?57Fe fractionations are observed between the suspended and dissolved load (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006), and isotopic variations were also recognized on the suspended matter along the hydrological cycle (Ingri et al., 2006). On land, soil studies from various locations have shown that ?57Fe signatures depend mostly on the weathering regime (Fantle and DePaolo, 2004; Emmanuel et al., 2005; Wiederhold et al., 2007; Poitrasson et al., 2008). It thus seems that Fe isotopes could become an interesting new tracer of the exchanges between soils, rivers and the biosphere. We therefore conducted Fe isotope surveys through multidisciplinary field missions on rivers from the Amazon Basin. It was confirmed that acidic, organic-rich black waters show strong Fe isotope fractionation between particulate and dissolved loads. Furthermore, this isotopic fractionation varies along the hydrological cycle, like previously uncovered in boreal waters suspended matter. In contrast, unfiltered waters show very little variation with time. It was also found that Fe isotopes remain a conservative tracer even in the case of massive iron loss during the mixing of chemically contrasted waters such as the Negro and Solimões tributaries of the Amazon River. Given that >95% of the Fe from the Amazon River is carried as detrital materials, our results lead to the conclusion that the Fe isotope signature delivered to the Atlantic Ocean is undistinguishable from the continental crust value, in contrast to previous inferences. The results indicate that Fe isotopes in rivers represent a promising indicator of the interaction between organic matter and iron in rivers, and ultimately the nature of their source in soils. As such, they may become a powerfull tracer of changes occurring on the continents in response to both weathering context and human activities. References: Bergquist, B.A., Boyle, E.A., 2006. Iron isotopes in the Amazon River system: Weathering and transport signatures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248: 54-68. Emmanuel, S., Erel, Y., Matthews, A., Teutsch, N., 2005. A preliminary mixing model for Fe isotopes in soils. Chemical Geology, 222: 23-34. Fantle, M.S., DePaolo, D.J., 2004. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 228: 547-562. Ingri, J., Malinovsky, D., Rodushkin, I., Baxter, D.C., Widerlund, A., Andersson, P., Gustafsson, O., Forsling, W., Ohlander, B., 2006. Iron isotope fractionation in river colloidal matter. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245: 792-798. Poitrasson, F., Viers, J., Martin, F., Braun, J.J., 2008. Limited iron isotope variations in recent lateritic soils from Nsimi, Cameroon: Implications for the global Fe geochemical cycle. Chemical Geology, 253: 54-63. Wiederhold, J.G., Teutsch, N., Kraemer, S.M., Halliday, A.N., Kretzchmar, R., 2007. Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71: 5821-5833.

  20. Development of a systemwide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predation index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 -- Evaluation: 1993 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Modeling simulations based on work in the John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that if northern squawfish larger than 250 mm fork length were exploited, at a rate of 10--20%, reductions in their numbers and restructuring of their populations could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50% or more. The authors evaluated the success of three test fisheries conducted in 1993--a sport-reward fishery, a dam-angling fishery, and a trap-net fishery, to achieve a 10--20% exploitation rate on northern squawfish. The authors also began evaluating the response of northern squawfish populations to sustained fisheries. In addition, the authors gathered information regarding the economic, social, and legal feasibility of sustaining each fishery, and report on the structure and function of the fish collection and distribution system

  1. Development of a system wide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predation index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 - Evaluation: 1993 Annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Modeling simulations based on work in the John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that if northern squawfish larger than 250 mm fork length were exploited, at a rate of 10-20%, reductions in their numbers and restructuring of their populations could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50% or more. The authors evaluated the success of three test fisheries conducted in 1993-a sport-reward fishery, a dam-angling fishery, and a trap-net fishery, to achieve a 10-20% exploitation rate on northern squawfish . The authors also began evaluating the response of northern squawfish populations to sustained fisheries. In addition, the authors gathered information regarding the economic, social, and legal feasibility of sustaining each fishery, and report on the structure and function of the fish collection and distribution system

  2. An overview of river-basin assessment techniques in an energy-impacted region: Yampa River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, T.D.

    1979-01-01

    Economic projections of direct and indirect effects of coal resource development were used to anticipate the types and forms of waste residuals that need to be assimilated into the environment in the energy-impacted Yampa River basin in Colorado and Wyoming. Based on these projections, several physical modeling techniques and assessment methods were used to evaluate the effects of these changes on the environment. Projected increased water uses were examined, and methods of meeting increased needs within existing use patterns and other institutional constraints were determined. Possible benefits of combining economic projections with a range of hydrologic studies were demonstrated. (1 diagram, 6 graphs, 6 maps, 29 references, 2 tables)

  3. FUTURE WATER ALLOCATION AND IN-STREAM VALUES IN THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN: A BASIN-WIDE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research investigated the impact on surface water resources of three different scenarios for the future development of the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (USA). Water rights in the basin, and in the western United States in general, are based on a system of law that binds ...

  4. ??Copula??????????????? Hydrological Droughts Analysis Based on Copulas Function in the East River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Copula????????????????4????1975~2009???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Variations of hydrological droughts largely decide the variability and availability of water resources of a river basin. The EastRiver basinbears the heavy responsibility for water supply for the megacities within the Pearl River Delta region and those in the vicinity of the Pearl River Delta such as Shenzhen andHong Kong. About 80% of the water consumption of Hong Kong has to be satisfied by the water supply from theEast River. In this case, the sustainable water supply from theEastRiver basinwill be greatly significant for the regional social stability. In this study, statistical behaviors and risks of the hydrological droughts of the East River basin are evaluated using copula functions and the secondary return periods based on the daily streamflow data covering the period of 1975-2009. The research results indicate that the hydrological droughts of high drought severity and long duration are subjected to the decreasing risks from the upper to the lower East River basin. However, the droughts of higher severity or long duration are subjected to the lower risk in the upperEastRiver basinwhen compared to those in the lowerEastRiver basin. Water resources management of theEastRiver basinshould be integrated by taking theEastRiver basinas a whole. And the results of this study will provide theoretical and scientific grounds for the basin-scale water resources management.

  5. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sluis, T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is discussed and parameters are selected which are descriptive for biodiversity at both the landscape and stand level. Based on these parameters the biodiversity is assessed to describe or quantify imp...

  6. Evaluation of satellite rainfall estimates over Ethiopian river basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Romilly

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of high resolution satellite-based rainfall estimates (SREs across six river basins within Ethiopia during the major (Kiremt and minor (Belg rainy seasons for the years 2003 to 2007. The six regions, the Awash, Baro Akobo, Blue Nile, Genale Dawa, Rift Valley and Wabi Shebele River Basins surround the Ethiopian Highlands, which produces different topographical features, as well as spatial and temporal rainfall patterns. Precipitation estimates for the six regions were taken from three widely used high resolution SREs: the Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Neural Networks (PERSIANN and the real-time version of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42RT. All three SREs show the natural northwest-southeast precipitation gradient, but exhibit different spatial (mean annual total and number of rainy days and temporal (monthly totals. When compared to ground based rain gauges throughout the six regions, and for the years of interest, the performance of the three SREs were found to be season independent. The results varied for lower elevations, with CMORPH and TMPA 3B42RT performing better than PERSIANN in the southeast, while PERSIANN provided more accurate results in the northwest. At higher elevations, PERSIANN consistently underestimated while the performance of CMORPH and TMPA 3B42RT varied.

  7. Water-quality investigation, Upper Santa Clara River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, James C.; Irwin, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Water-quality data are summarized for the upper Santa Clara River basin, California from studies beginning August 1974 through June 1976 and during past monitoring programs. Data were collected for nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, trace elements, detergents, and pesticide compounds. Because of the limited number of samples, the data are only an estimate of conditions that existed in the basin. Sampling was designed so that samples from each site would represent seasonal variations in discharge. Most constituents were fairly low in concentration near the headwaters at Ravenna and higher below the urban and agricultural area near Saugus. Mean specific conductance in the river ranged from 745 micromhos per centimeter at 25 deg C below the headwaters near Lang to 2,640 micromhos at the Los Angeles-Ventura County line. Results also indicate that discharge was not the single factor controlling the concentration variance for most constituents. Regression analyses indicated a high correlation between specific conductance and most major inorganic chemical constituents, and between specific conductance and discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. The Amazon. Bio-geochemistry applied to river basin management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardy, Yves [Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INPT), Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique (ENSAT), 40 Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, BP 107, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex (France) and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR 6532 Hydrasa, Universite de Poitiers, 40, Avenue du Recteur Pineau, F-86022 Poitiers Cedex (France)]. E-mail: roquin@illite.u-strasbg.fr; Bustillo, Vincent [Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INPT), Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique (ENSAT), 40 Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, BP 107, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex (France); Domaine experimental Olivier de Serres, Lycee Agricole d' Aubenas, le Pradel, F-07170 Mirabel (France); Roquin, Claude [Centre de Geochimie de la Surface, EOST, UMR 7517, 1 rue Blessig, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Mortatti, Jefferson [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, CP: 96, CEP 13400 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Victoria, Reynaldo [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, CP: 96, CEP 13400 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2005-09-15

    A hydrochemical model, using hydrograph separation, developed for the Niger basin, has been proposed as a strategic tool for studying the watershed dynamics at any time and space scales. The model is applied to the Amazon basin, including the main channel and its major tributaries. The database corresponds to a sampling and analytical program developed over 8 cruises at 9 stations (about 70 samples), collected in the framework of the CAMREX Project (1982-1984). The model, based on a hydrograph separation of 3 reservoirs, is successful in extrapolating and predicting the geochemical and environmental behaviour of such large basins, naturally submitted to large secular or annual, regular or even catastrophic climatic oscillations. Several topics have been considered. (1) Coherence among the physico-chemical analyses: dissolved species (pH, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, DOC{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SiO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}), and inorganic or organic suspended load (fine and coarse fractions FSS, CSS, POCF, POCC). (2) Hydrograph separation in 3 reservoir contributions: R{sub S}, the superficial or rapid runoff, R{sub I}, the hypodermic or intermediate runoff, including the flood plain contributions, and R{sub B} the ground water or base flow. (3) Estimation of the isotopic and physico-chemical features of each of the 3 flow components: R{sub S}, R{sub I}, and R{sub B}. (4) Determination of the 3 hydrological parameters (size of the reservoir, drying up coefficient, and residence time of water), characterizing each of the 3 flow components (R{sub S}, R{sub I}, and R{sub B}), in each of the 9 basins considered. (5) Hydrological and geochemical balances for all the parameters analysed either (a) cruise by cruise for all tributaries and the Amazon River at Obidos, or (b) among each of the 3 river flow components. (6) Isotopic data set of {delta}{sup 18}O in waters, tests of coherence of the hydrograph separation model. (7) Relationships between isotopic signatures and morphological or hydroclimatical parameters characterizing the river-soil-vegetation systems. The developed procedure presents a new tool in environmental predictions, emphasizing the potentiality of geochemical interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  9. Characteristics of water isotopes and hydrograph separation during the spring flood period in Yushugou River basin, Eastern Tianshans, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhongqin; Ross, Edwards; Tayier, Ruozihan; Zhou, Ping

    2015-02-01

    Many of the river basins in northwest China receive water from melting glaciers and snow in addition to groundwater. This region has experienced a significant change in glacier and snowpack volume over the past decade altering hydrology. Quantifying changes in water resources is vital for developing sustainable strategies in the region. During 2013, a water-isotope source apportionment study was conducted during the spring flood in the Yushugou River basin, northwestern China. The study found significant differences in water isotopes between river water, snowmelt water, and groundwater. During the study period, the isotopic composition of groundwater remained relatively stable. This stability suggests that the groundwater recharge rate has not been significantly impacted by recent hydro-climatic variability. The river water flow rate and water ? 18O displayed an inverse relationship. This relationship is indicative of snowmelt water injection. The relative contribution of the two sources was estimated using a two-component isotope hydrograph separation. The contribution of snowmelt water and groundwater to Yushugou River were ˜63% and ˜37%, respectively. From the study, we conclude that snowmelt water is the dominant water source to the basin during the spring melt period.

  10. Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanovi? Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin. The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out until now. Some of the potential solutions, aiming to achieve the effective flood control, are suggested as well.

  11. Hydrometeorology Testbed in the American River Basin of Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsmill, D.; Lundquist, J.; Jorgensen, D.; McGinley, J.; Werner, K.

    2006-12-01

    In California, most precipitation occurs in the winter, as a mixture of rain at lower elevations and snow in the higher mountains. Storms from the Pacific carry large amounts of moisture, and put people and property at risk from flooding because of the vast urban development and infrastructure in low-lying areas of the central valley of California. Improved flood prediction at finer spatial and temporal resolutions can help minimize these risks. The first step is to accurately measure and predict spatially-distributed precipitation. This is particularly true for river basins with complex orography where the processes that lead to the development of precipitation and determine its distribution and fate on the ground are not well understood. To make progress in this important area, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is leading a Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) effort designed to accelerate the testing and infusion of new technologies, models, and scientific results from the research community into daily forecasting operations. HMT is a national effort (http://hmt.noaa.gov) that will be implemented in different regions of the U.S. over the next decade. In each region, the focus will be on individual experimental test basins. The first full-scale implementation of HMT, called HMT-West, targets northern California's flood-vulnerable American River Basin (4740 km2) on the west slopes of the Sierra Nevada between Sacramento and Lake Tahoe. The deployment strategy is focused on the North Fork of the basin (875 km2), which is the least- controlled portion of the entire catchment. This basin was selected as a test basin because it has reliable streamflow records dating back to 1941 and has been well characterized by prior field studies (e.g. the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project) and modeling efforts, focusing on both short-term operations and long-term climate scenarios. Intensive field activities in the North Fork of the American River started in 2005 and will occur over the next 2-3 winter seasons, with less intensive long-term monitoring continuing thereafter. This paper focuses on activities that occurred during the 2005-2006 winter season (http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2006/hmt/). Several research observing systems from NOAA were deployed to the region to focus on spatially-distributed precipitation. Transportable and mobile scanning precipitation radars (polarimetric and Doppler) were deployed to complement and fill gaps in the operational radar network. Additional remote sensors that were deployed include wind-profiling radars, precipitation-profiling radars, and GPS sensors for measuring precipitable water vapor. Also, radiosondes were released serially upwind of the area during storm episodes. Precipitation gauges, raindrop disdrometers, surface meteorological stations, soil moisture/temperature probes and stream level loggers were operating within the coverage areas of the scanning radars. These will help determine the fate of the precipitation on the ground and through the river network.

  12. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices.

  13. Operational Hydrologic Forecasts in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K. Y.; Curry, J. A.; Webster, P. J.; Toma, V. E.; Jelinek, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) covers an area of ~670,000 km2 and stretches across parts of seven U.S. states and one Canadian province. The basin is subject to a variable climate, and moisture stored in snowpack during the winter is typically released in spring and early summer. These releases contribute to rapid increases in flow. A number of impoundments have been constructed on the Columbia River main stem and its tributaries for the purposes of flood control, navigation, irrigation, recreation, and hydropower. Storage reservoirs allow water managers to adjust natural flow patterns to benefit water and energy demands. In the past decade, the complexity of water resource management issues in the basin has amplified the importance of streamflow forecasting. Medium-range (1-10 day) numerical weather forecasts of precipitation and temperature can be used to drive hydrological models. In this work, probabilistic meteorological variables from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) are used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Soil textures were obtained from FAO data; vegetation types / land cover information from UMD land cover data; stream networks from USGS HYDRO1k; and elevations from CGIAR version 4 SRTM data. The surface energy balance in 0.25° (~25 km) cells is closed through an iterative process operating at a 6 hour timestep. Output fluxes from a number of cells in the basin are combined through one-dimensional flow routing predicated on assumptions of linearity and time invariance. These combinations lead to daily mean streamflow estimates at key locations throughout the basin. This framework is suitable for ingesting daily numerical weather prediction data, and was calibrated using USGS mean daily streamflow data at the Dalles Dam (TDA). Operational streamflow forecasts in the CRB have been active since October 2012. These are 'naturalized' or unregulated forecasts. In 2013, increases of ~2600 m3/s (~48% of average discharge for water years 1879-2012) or greater were observed at TDA during the following periods: 29 March to 12 April, 5 May to 11 May, and 19 June to 29 June. Precipitation and temperature forecasts during these periods are shown along with changes in the model simulated snowpack. We evaluate the performance of the ensemble mean 10 days in advance of each of these three events, and comment on how the distribution of ensemble members affected forecast confidence in each situation.

  14. Mapping and assessment of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, arid northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Yumin Cai; Shanzhong Qi

    2007-01-01

    Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the arid inland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects of environmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resource utilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, such as its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based on field observations and TM images from the year 2003, this st...

  15. Groundwater quality in the Genesee River Basin, New York, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from eight production wells and eight private residential wells in the Genesee River Basin from September through December 2010 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in the basin. Eight of the wells were completed in sand and gravel aquifers, and eight were finished in bedrock aquifers. Three of the 16 wells were sampled in the first Genesee River Basin study during 2005-2006. Water samples from the 2010 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although concentrations of the following constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards at each of the 16 wells sampled: color (one sample), sodium (three samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (four samples), aluminum (one sample), arsenic (two samples), copper (one sample), iron (nine samples), manganese (eight samples), radon-222 (nine samples), and total coliform bacteria (six samples). Existing drinking-water standards for pH, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides and VOCs analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  16. Hydrochemistry of the Parauari-Maues Acu river basin (Amazon region, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition of the Parauari-Maues Acu basin is studied through the determination of pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, chloride, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper and manganese. Four expeditions were made and samples were collected in 16 different points of the main course. Chemical analysis of the rivers waters shows seasonal flutuations of the concentrations of the elements in the main river as well as in the main afluents like Nambi river, Amana river and Urupadi river. (Author)

  17. Trends in suspended-sediment loads and concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin, 1950–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Sprague, Lori A.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in loads and concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended sand generally were downward for stations within the Mississippi River Basin during the 60-, 34-, and 12-year periods analyzed. Sediment transport in the lower Mississippi River has historically been, and continues to be, most closely correlative to sediment contributions from the Missouri River, which generally carried the largest annual suspended-sediment load of the major Mississippi River subbasins. The closure of Fort Randall Dam in the upper Missouri River in 1952 was the single largest event in the recorded historical decline of suspended-sediment loads in the Mississippi River Basin. Impoundments on tributaries and sediment reductions as a result of implementation of agricultural conservation practices throughout the basin likely account for much of the remaining Mississippi River sediment transport decline. Scour of the main-stem channel downstream from the upper Missouri River impoundments is likely the largest source of suspended sand in the lower Missouri River. The Ohio River was second to the Missouri River in terms of sediment contributions, followed by the upper Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers. Declines in sediment loads and concentrations continued through the most recent analysis period (1998–2009) at available Mississippi River Basin stations. Analyses of flow-adjusted concentrations of suspended sediment indicate the recent downward temporal changes generally can be explained by corresponding decreases in streamflows.

  18. Soil-landscape relationships in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nettleton, W.D. (USDA-SCS, Lincoln, NE (United States)); Chadwick, O.A. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (United States))

    Seven soils were sampled and analyzed as part of the Soil Survey of the Riverton area of the Wind River Basin. The Lava Creek ash was used to divide the surfaces on which the soils were sampled into two sets: (1) surfaces older than the lower Sacagawea Ridge glaciation, and (2) surfaces of Bull Lake glacial age and younger. Surfaces of set two were further divided into either Pinedale and Holocene, those that either flood in today's environment or grade to the floodplains of the Wind River system, or into Bull Lake, those that are intermediate in position between the pre-lower Sacagawea Ridge and the Pinedale and Holocene surfaces. Griffy soils, Haplargids with greater than 18% clay in horizons of clay accumulation are on the pre-lower Sacagawea Ridge surface. Enos soils, Haplargids with less than 18% clay in horizons of clay accumulation, and Ethete soils, Haplargids formed in finer textured alluvium, are on the Bull Lake surface. Apron and Glenton soils, Torriorthents formed in calcareous alluvium with less than 18% clay are on the Pinedale and Holocene surfaces. Smectites have formed in the soils on Pleistocene surfaces whereas moderate amounts of allogenic kaolinite occur in Holocene soils. Carbonate has accumulated at or near the base of the argillic horizon in the soils on the Pleistocene surfaces. The soils on the lower Sacagawea Ridge surface, in contrast to the others, accumulate silt (desert loess) in upper horizons. These observations suggest that effective moisture during the Pleistocene in the lower part of the Wind River Basin was not appreciably different from that at present.

  19. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Michailovsky

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

  20. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; McEnnis, S.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

  1. Impact of climate change and agricultural developments in the Taquari River basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Querner, E. P.; Jonker, R. N. J.; Padovani, C.; Soriano, B.; Galdino, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Pantanal wetland is part of the Upper Paraguay River basin. The major driving force of the wetland system is the annual oscillation between dry and wet seasons. This study focussed on the Taquari basin, a tributary of the Paraguay River, where erosion takes place and parts of the river silt up, resulting in an unstable system leading to serious flooding, ecological deterioration and economic losses. These effects could be the result of the increased precipitation since the 1970s, or land-...

  2. Incorporation of GIS Based Program into Hydraulic Model for Water Level Modeling on River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Memarian; Majid Mirzaei; Lee Teang Shui; Ali Haghizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Water resources management usually requires that hydraulic, ecological, and hydrological models be linked. The Hy- drologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) hydraulic model and the Hydrologic Engineering Center Geospatial River Analysis System (HEC-GEORAS), imitates flow and water profiles in the Neka river basin’s downstream flood plain. Hydrograph phases studied during the flood seasons of 1986-1999 and from 2002-2004 were used to calibrate and verify the hydraulic model...

  3. On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Sh Chen, N.; Sh Hu, G.; Deng, W.; Khanal, N.; Zhu, Y. H.; Han, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, soil erosio...

  4. Freshwater fish zoogeography in West Africa : faunal similarities between river basins

    OpenAIRE

    Hugueny, Bernard; Le?ve?que, Christian

    1994-01-01

    Similarities between the freshwater fish faunas of 52 West African rivers have been investigated and three main zoogeographic regions recognized. The Sudanian region includes all rivers from Senegal to the Omo, as well as coastal basins from Ivory Coast to the Cross and the Wouri. The upper Guinean region comprises the coastal basins from Guinea to Liberia and the Lower Guinean one, the coastal rivers of Cameroon and Gaboon. The Sudanian region can be sub-divided into a Sudanian region sensu ...

  5. Global surveys of reservoirs and lakes from satellites and regional application to the Syrdarya river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-François, Crétaux; Sylvain, Biancamaria; Adalbert, Arsen; Muriel, Bergé-Nguyen; Mélanie, Becker

    2015-01-01

    Large reservoirs along rivers regulate downstream flows to generate hydropower but may also store water for irrigation and urban sectors. Reservoir management therefore becomes critical, particularly for transboundary basins, where coordination between riparian countries is needed. Reservoir management is even more important in semiarid regions where downstream water users may be totally reliant on upstream reservoir releases. If the water resources are shared between upstream and downstream countries, potentially opposite interests arise as is the case in the Syrdarya river in Central Asia. In this case study, remote sensing data (radar altimetry and optical imagery) are used to highlight the potential of satellite data to monitor water resources: water height, areal extent and storage variations. New results from 20 years of monitoring using satellites over the Syrdarya basin are presented. The accuracy of satellite data is 0.6 km3 using a combination of MODIS data and satellite altimetry, and only 0.2 km3 with Landsat images representing 2–4% of average annual reservoir volume variations in the reservoirs in the Syrdarya basin. With future missions such as Sentinel-3A (S3A), Sentinel-3B (S3B) and surface water and ocean topography (SWOT), significant improvement is expected. The SWOT mission’s main payload (a radar interferometer in Ka band) will furthermore provide 2D maps of water height, reservoirs, lakes, rivers and floodplains, with a temporal resolution of 21 days. At the global scale, the SWOT mission will cover reservoirs with areal extents greater than 250 × 250 m with 20 cm accuracy.

  6. SWOT data assimilation for reservoir operations in the upper Niger river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Simon; Lettenmaier, Dennis; Polebitski, Austin; Brown, Casey

    2013-04-01

    Our objective is to evaluate the potential for swath altimetry (SWOT) data to improve reservoir operations in the upper Niger river basin where two reservoirs are (or will be) used to sustain water demand, mainly for irrigation. We coupled the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamics model to the VIC hydrology model to compute the "true" state of the system which we used with a SWOT simulator to provide synthetic water levels and surface extent for both the Niger River channel and the two reservoirs. The simulated states were obtained by running the models with perturbed inputs (meteorological forcings to the VIC model, and water level in the two reservoirs). We integrated a reservoir rule model with the river hydrodynamics and hydrology models in order to define dam releases for each reservoir depending on available water in the river reach and downstream water demand. We then assimilated in situ and SWOT data into the coupled models to correct for model and forcing errors. We considered four scenarios: no assimilation, assimilation of in situ data only, assimilation of SWOT data only, and assimilation of both data sources. We computed performance of each scenario from the total volume of released water and the ability of the system to satisfy water demand.

  7. Late quaternary geology in Desaguadero river basin, San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute radiocarbon datings of the sedimentary successions have come to knowledge enabling us to distinguish the Pleistocene deposits from the supra-lying Holocene ones. A palaeo-environmental evolution is proposed considering climatic fluctuations at the time, their relation with the river unloadings of the Andean glaciers and that proposed for the palaeo-lake of Salina del Bebedero. Sediments are described on the basis of a detailed field sampling, textural analysis (sieved and Bouyoucos) and laboratory geo-chemicals. Their interpretation of the geologic evolution is considered to be very important since it is the only river course on this arid-semi-arid region linked to the reduction of glaciers in the Andes. The sedimentary succession is dominated by high percentages of laminated limes and with green-yellowish to greyish-brown-reddish tones deposited in watery environments of low energy such as lacustrine basins and extended plains of flood, which is why the evolution of the deposit is characterized by the contrast of the values of insolubles (clastic sediment and carbonate) versus solubles (insoluble saline). The climatic cycles dominant and proposed for the center-east Argentine region are identified considering the influence of Andean glaciers on the river systems and the water balances in plain semi-arid environments. (author)

  8. Citizenship and participation in the Macaé e das Ostras Rivers Hydrographic Basin’s Committee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Villas Boas Sá Rego

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the implementation process of the Macaé e das Ostras River Basin Committee as an instrument of the Rio de Janeiro State Water Resources Policy. It was found that the performance of the committee presents obstacles arising from the centralization of power by the state government, the uncertainty of legal and,institutional frameworks, and the predominance of more powerful interests in decision making. However, the Committee also presents great potential to constitute a forum for strengthening democracy and the autonomy of citizens.

  9. Isotope composition of iron delivered to the oceans by intertropical rivers: The Amazon River Basin case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitrasson, F.; Vieira, L. C.; Seyler, P.; dos Santos Pinheiro, G. M.; Mulholland, D. S.; Ferreira Lima, B. A.; Bonnet, M.; Martinez, J.; Prunier, J.

    2011-12-01

    Riverborne iron is a notable source for this biogeochemically key element to the oceans. Recent investigations have shown that its isotopic composition may vary significantly in oceanic waters. Hence, a proper understanding of the Fe cycle at the surface of the Earth requires a good characterization of the isotopic composition of its various reservoirs. However, as the database growths, it appears that the isotope composition of the riverborne Fe delivered to the oceans may be more varied than initially thought, in agreement with inferences from soil studies from different climatic contexts. It is therefore important to compare major rivers from different latitudes. We focused our attention on the Amazon River and its tributaries that represent ca. 20% of the freshwater delivered to the oceans by world rivers. Preliminary experiments suggest that water filtration may induce biases in stable Fe isotope composition. Therefore, we worked first on bulk waters, sampled during multidisciplinary field campaigns on the Amazon River and its tributaries, including the Solimoes, Negro, Madeira and Tapajos Rivers. Besides a complete sample physical-chemical characterization, Fe isotope determinations were conduced after water sample mineralization, iron purification and MC-ICP-MS analysis. Our first results reveal that most bulk water samples cluster close to the continental crust value (0.1% ?57FeIRMM-14) with an overall range of 0.2%. This is consistent with the restricted range found in lateritic soils elsewhere that represent 80% of the Amazon basin surface. Only black water rivers flowing over the podzols of the northern portion of the Amazon basin tend to show lighter isotopic compositions, down to -0.18%. However, sediment analyses suggest that this light Fe isotopic is lost through sedimentation on the river bed, thereby leading the waters to have Fe isotope compositions remaining close to that of the continental crust. This constant isotopic signature holds whatever the relative proportion of dissolved Fe in the bulk waters budget, that ranges from 5 to 50% in these waters, whatever the sample depth and whenever the samples were taken in the river cycle. Hence, given that several studies have shown that Fe loss through flocculation in estuaries does not affect Fe isotope signatures, we conclude that the bulk waters from the Amazon River delivered to the ocean should have an isotopic composition close to that of the continental crust.

  10. Isotope hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in Purna river basin, Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Purna river basin, mainly located in Akola and Amaravati districts of Maharashtra in India, is an east-west elongated river valley (20 deg. 10'-21 deg. 25' N latitude and 76 deg. 00'-77 deg. 55' E longitude). About 3000 km2 area out of 7500 km2 area of the inland basin is underlain by saline and brackish groundwater. The Quaternary sediments cover much of the area while the basin margins and the basement is composed mainly of the Deccan Traps. In the alluvial belt, the soil (derived from parent basaltic rock) has dense fabric, fertile but poor hydraulic conductivity with high degree of shrink-swell potential. Na+1 is the dominating cation in the soil and Ca+2, Mg+2 decrease with depth. The electrical conductivity of the groundwaters of the area varies from 400 to over 30000 ?S/cm. Some of the earlier studies in the area regarding the origin of salinity suggested intrusion of ancient seawater through Son-Narmada lineament, digenetic alterations, irrigation practices causing accretion and subsequent dissolution of salts in the soil horizons as well as dissolution of salts through the rock matrix. No conclusive inferences could be drawn from these studies. In this study, the problem is tackled by employing isotope and hydrogeochemical techniques. Two sets of water samples from Purna river (Surface water), Dug wells (Shallow aquifer) and tube wells (Deep aquifer) and six piezometer samples were collected fd six piezometer samples were collected from different parts of the Purna river basin and analysed for environmental isotopes as well as major, minor, and trace ions. The interpretation of the results was carried out in the light of other geological information to decipher cause of salinity and delineating recharge and discharge zones of the fresh groundwater in the area. The Piper trilinear plots for fresh waters and saline waters showed that fresh waters are generally Na-HCO3 type whereas saline samples are predominantly Na-Cl type. The hydrochemical facies in saline waters change from HCO3 to Cl type. No linear trend in salinity and depth were observed. It is observed that wherever groundwater flow is less, flushing is less and salinity is more. Computation of molar ionic ratios of the samples suggested that the salts have been derived as a result of weathering of the basalt present in the vicinity. Contribution of local precipitation to groundwater as a direct recharge is insignificant except in hard rock area. The foothills of the Satpura range, which is situated in the north of the basin, act as a recharge zone for fresh groundwaters in the area. Here the alluvium cover is quite thick and it becomes thinner and thinner as it progresses towards Purna River. Ultimately, the alluvium acts as discharge zone along the depression of Purna. The deep aquifers of the area have saline, brackish and fresh waters. The ?D-?18O plot indicates evaporative enrichment. The fresh waters fall near GMWL with a slope of about 8. Brackish waters, falling between saline and fresh waters seems to be mixture of the two waters. This is further inferred as well by the 3H values of the waters. Purna river water samples showed evaporative enrichment. It also indicates contribution of groundwater to the river at some places. A depleted starting isotopic composition for saline groundwater samples compared to present day river water sample indicated either source of saline waters is different from river water or a different climatic conditions existed at the time of recharge in comparison to the present era. ?18O - Cl-1 plot showed that the salinity in the deep aquifers could be due to leaching of salts from the formation as well. The 3H values of the samples showed that the saline aquifers are isolated and not getting modern recharge. However, the brackish water aquifers do get partial recharge from a distant source. The 14C results of the highly saline groundwater samples suggested their uncorrected ages about 4 - 7 ka BP. The ?34S values of the aqueous sulphate samples indicated their non-marine origin. From the study it was concl

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF PALUDAL VEGETATION FROM THE NEAGRA ?ARULUI RIVER’S BASIN (SUCEAVA COUNTY)

    OpenAIRE

    LOREDANA ASOLTANI

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents three vegetal paludal associations identified in Neagra ?arului river’s basin: Epilobio – Juncetum effusi Oberd. 1957, Scirpetum sylvatici Ralski 1931 and Filipendulo – Geranietum palustris W. Koch 1926., described in a phytocoenological table and analysed from the point of view of bioforms, floristic elements and ecological indices.

  12. Ground-water data, Green River basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Everett Alfred; Collier, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of energy-related projects in the Green River basin of Wyoming are compiled from the files of the Geological Survey and the Wyoming State Engineer as of 1977. The data include well and spring location, well depth, casing diameter, type of lifts, type of power, use of water, rock type of producing zone, owner, and discharge for more than 1,600 sites. Analyses for common chemical constituents, trace elements, and radioactive chemicals are tabulated as well as water temperature and specific conductance measurement data. Lithologic logs of more than 300 wells, test holes, and measured sections constitute much of this report. County maps at a scale of 1:500 ,000 show the locations. (USGS)

  13. Operational water quantity management in a river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenschweis, G; Brudy-Zippelius, T; Ihringer, J

    2003-01-01

    The real-time water quantity management of complex water resources systems can be successfully supported by mathematical models. Since there were no models available for integrated water management on the catchment scale, a generally applicable model system for quantitative water management has been developed and adapted to the watershed of the River Ruhr in Germany. The first results attained with this model system in the Ruhr catchment basin show that it is a powerful tool for operational water quantity management and is able to simulate a differentially structured watershed with high anthropogenic impacts. The use of this model has enabled Ruhrverband to make crucial improvements and increase the objectivity of operational water quantity management. PMID:15137160

  14. SEA of river basin management plans : incorporating climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; KØrnØv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    In, 2000 the European Parliament and the European Council passed the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to be implemented in all Member States. The consequence of the directive is that river basin management plans (RBMPs) shall be prepared which are legally subject to a strategic environmental assessment (SEA). An important environmental factor for the water sector is climate change, especially the changes it causes to the water environment. However, based on an argument of an inadequate knowledge base regarding climate change impacts, the prospect of Danish authorities including climate change in their SEAs of RBMPs is weak. In this paper the connections between climate change and water are reviewed. As a result, it is suggested that climate change needs to be considered in three ways: mitigation, adaptation and baseline adaptation. Udgivelsesdato: December

  15. Evaluation of satellite rainfall estimates over Ethiopian river basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Romilly

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available High resolution satellite-based rainfall estimates (SREs have enormous potential for use in hydrological applications, particularly in the developing world as an alternative to conventional rain gauges which are typically sparse. In this study, three SREs have been evaluated against collocated rain gauge measurements in Ethiopia across six river basins that represent different rainfall regimes and topography. The comparison is made using five-year (2003–2007 averages, and results are stratified by river basin, elevation and season. The SREs considered are: the Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Neural Networks (PERSIANN and the real-time version of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42RT. Overall, the microwave-based products TMPA 3B42RT and CMORPH outperform the infrared-based product PERSIANN: PERSIANN tends to underestimate rainfall by 43 %, while CMORPH tends to underestimate by 11 % and TMPA 3B42RT tends to overestimate by 5 %. The bias in the satellite rainfall estimates depends on the rainfall regime, and, in some regimes, the elevation. In the northwest region, which is characterized mainly by highland topography, a humid climate and a strong Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ effect, elevation has a strong influence on the accuracy of the SREs: TMPA 3B42RT and CMORPH tend to overestimate at low elevations but give reasonably accurate results at high elevations, whereas PERSIANN gives reasonably accurate values at low elevations but underestimates at high elevations. In the southeast region, which is characterized mainly by lowland topography, a semi-arid climate and southerly winds, elevation does not have a significant influence on the accuracy of the SREs, and all the SREs underestimate rainfall across almost all elevations.

  16. Systems-taking Heihe River Basin as a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ruofan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing occurrence of environmental emergencies in China in recent years, risk management has becoming an important subject in environmental management. Past studies on risk assessment and management have focused on chemical risk but rarely on the ecosystem level risk. Based on the theories of landscape ecology and advanced Geographic Information Systems (GIS technologies, this study built a set of index system and constructed a quantitative method suitable for the arid areas in this study. The Eco-Risk Index (ER in time series could be used to monitor changes of eco-risk caused by natural disasters and human activities. This study also conducted a case study on the middle part of Heihe River Basin which is a typical area in Gansu province in western China. The results have shown a decrease Eco-risk Probability (EP due to the fewer and fewer interference from human activities and natural disaster since 2000. The stability of landscape also improved significantly with Landscape Stability Index (LSI decreased from 0.48 to 0.41, signifying worse landscape stability. But the net primary productivity (NPP’ index increased from 0.67 to 0.94 for the area of interest which indicated improved natural light and temperature. The final Eco-risk Indexes (ER have decreased from 0.83 to 0.58 in the past 11 years because of a significant reduction of the eco-risk factor in the studied region. All the above indicators points to the improvement of the eco-system at Heihe River Basin region. The current research also confirmed that the area of study is in the moderate risk level.

  17. Basin Tendency on Flood and Drought Occurrence for Two Major Rivers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, J.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    River basins play a key role in modulating precipitation variability and manifesting the diversified variability response by runoff or soil moisture. These responses are basin-dependent and frequency dependent controlled by many catchment-related characteristics. The fundamental idea of flood/drought tendency evaluation is to examine the basin response in keeping the high-frequency precipitation variability and memorizing the long-term precipitation variability. This study presents the uses of (1) the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and (2) continuous wavelet transform for the tendency evaluation in the sub-basin basis for two major river basins in China, namely the Yangtze River basin and the Pearl River basin. The terrestrial hydrological processes over the two basins are simulated by using the macro-scale hydrological VIC model over the period of 1951-2000. The variability properties of hydrological variable for different sub-basins in time-frequency domain, ranged from 1/6 - 9 years, are revealed by the wavelet transform. With inspection on the wavelet power ratios of runoff and soil moisture to precipitation across different timescales, the flood or drought tendency is then investigated in associated with the effects of basin geomorphologic factors. The results obtained provide valuable information in devising adaptation and mitigation strategies in humid and semi-humid regions, especially in the context of possible climate change.

  18. Assessing interannual water balance of La Plata river basin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. M., KREPPER; V., VENTURINI.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El río Paraná es el más importante de la Cuenca de La Plata, sustentando economías regionales en tres países. Durante las últimas décadas, se han producido cambios significativos en la cuenca del Paraná, debido a la deforestación y sustitución de cultivos. Esto pudo haber modificado la respuesta de [...] la cuenca en términos de caudales del río Paraná. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar la estructura de la serie temporal de evapotranspiración (ET(t)) de la Cuenca Superior del Paraná. En primer lugar se estudió la relación entre las variables en la ecuación del balance hídrico y luego se aplicó un análisis de espectro singular (SSA, por sus siglas en inglés) para determinar las señales presentes en las series de ET(t). El estudio de correlación muestra que ET(t) está correlacionada con las precipitaciones en las subcuencas del norte y no está correlacionada en la más austral. Las series temporales ET(t)1 ET(t)3 y ET(t)4 muestran una señal de baja frecuencia mientras que las señales dentro del rango ENSO son estadísticamente significativas en ET(t)1, y ET(t)4 , aunque están presentes en las otras subcuencas (ET(t)2, y ET(t)3)como señales débiles. En la Cuenca de La Plata ET(t) estaría afectada tanto por los cambios en las propiedades físicas de la cuenca como por la presencia de la señal en el rango ENSO de las precipitaciones. Abstract in english The Paraná river is the most important component of the La Plata basin, sustaining regional economies in three countries. In the last decades, significant regional changes such as deforestation and crop substitution have been taken place in the Paraná basin. This fact could have modified the basin r [...] esponse in terms of the Paraná streamflow. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the structure of the evapotranspiration (ET(t)) time series of the upper Paraná basin. We analyzed the relationship between the variables in the water balance equation, then we applied a singular spectral analysis (SSA) to learn more about the temporal structure of the ET(t) time series. The correlation study shows that ET(t) is correlated with precipitations in the northern sub-basins but it is not correlated at all in the southern basin. The time structure of ET(t)1 ET(t)3 and ET(t)4 exhibit low-frequency signals while the ENSO-range signals are statistically significant in ET(t)1 and ET(t)4 although it also appears in ET(t)2 and ET(t)3 as a weak signals. Looking at the whole basin, ET(t) would be affected either by changes in the basin physical properties or by the ENSO-range signals present in precipitation.

  19. Data for Ashley River to test channel network and river basin heterogeneity concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerchar, A. I.; Ibbitt, R. P.; Brown, S. L. R.; Duncan, M. J.

    To provide data to investigate hypotheses about the evolution of channel networks, specifically the optimal channel network concept, discharge and channel properties were measured at 336 sites in a 121km2 basin over a 5-day period of reasonably steady flows. The data are also suitable for investigating how discharge increases down river channels. The data collection was a major logistical exercise which involved 80 person-days in remote field locations. In the expectation that the data will be of use to other researchers, this paper describes how the data were measured, checked and archived. The archive is available at http://www.niwa.cri.nz/hydrology/ashpage.htm and includes the associated time series of streamflow at the basin outlet and the channel network as plotted on 1:50,000 scale maps.

  20. THE FLOOD RISK IN THE IALOMITA RIVER BASIN CASE STUDY: THE JULY 1975 FLASH FLOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Retegan, M.; MIHAELA BORCAN

    2014-01-01

    Te flood risk in the Ialomita river basin case study: the july 1975 flash flood. Since over the last four decades the Ialomita River Basin has been affected by several catastrophic hydrological events, of which the most important were the ones in 1975, 2001 and 2005, for a better management of the extreme situations generated by such episodes we propose a new methodology regarding the estimation of the flash-flood appearance potential in this particular river basin, as well as an analysis of ...

  1. A hydrochemical reconnaissance study of the Walker River basin, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.; Spencer, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    During 1975 and 1976, a large number of water and sediment samples were collected from the Walker River Basin. Additional surface water samples were collected during 1980 and 1981. Data are given herein for chemical analyses of snowmelt, tributary, river, spring, well, lake, reservoir, lake sediment pore fluid, tufa, lake and river sediment samples. These data provide the basis for consideration of processes which govern the chemical evolution of large closed basin hydrologic systems in the Basin and Range Province of the Southwestern United States.

  2. Enhanced Drought Monitoring in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesken, N.; Smith, R.; Ryan, W.; Schwalbe, Z.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    As a part of the National Integrated Drought Information System's Upper Colorado River Basin pilot project, an aggressive collaborative drought monitoring and communication process was initiated in 2010. Weekly climate, drought and water supply assessments were begun which included webinars during critical times of the year -- primarily late January through mid summer. A diverse set of stakeholders ranging from ski area operators, river commissioners, state and federal agency representatives, public land managers, municipal water providers, agricultural interests and media from a 3-state area were invited to participate along with National Weather Service forecast office personal, state climate office representatives and other information providers. The process evolved to become a weekly drought monitoring "committee" providing detailed input to the U.S. Drought Monitor national author. In 2012 this new system was put to the test as dry winter conditions exploded into extreme and widespread drought as the normal spring storms failed to materialize and instead long-duration above average temperatures added evaporative stress to the already limited water supplies. This presentation examines this effort with an emphasis on stakeholder engagement. The overall impact of the 2012 drought appears, so far, to be less than what was experienced in 2002 although measured stream flow appears tp be similar. To what extent this could be attributed to the enhanced drought monitoring and communication will be discussed. The sustainability of this aggressive monitoring effort will also be assessed.

  3. Herbicide and degradate flux in the Yazoo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, R.H.; Welch, H.L.; Pell, A.B.; Thurman, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    During 1996-1997, water samples were collected from five sites in the Yazoo River Basin and analysed for 14 herbicides and nine degradates. These included acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, metribuzin, molinate, norflurazon, prometryn, propanil, propazine, simazine, trifluralin, three degradates of fluometuron, two degradates of atrazine, one degradate of cyanazine, norflurazon, prometryn, and propanil. Fluxes generally were higher in 1997 than in 1996 due to a greater rainfall in 1997 than 1996. Fluxes were much larger from streams in the alluvial plain (an area of very productive farmland) than from the Skuna River in the bluff hills (an area of small farms, pasture, and forest). Adding the flux of the atrazine degradates to the atrazine flux increased the total atrazine flux by an average of 14.5%. The fluometuron degradates added about 10% to the total fluometuron flux, and adding the norflurazon degradate flux to the norflurazon flux increased the flux by 82% in 1996 and by 171% in 1997. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  4. Economic Peculiarities of the Romanian Tisa River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-MARIA POP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A possible answer to the current challenges of the Tisa catchment area, correlated with water management, social and economic development, environmental conservation, is the transnational initiative of the five countries drained by the tributaries of the Tisa River. In this context, the spatial development has a major impact on the Romanian Tisa catchment area by providing the economic cohesion. The purpose of the present paper is to define the current status of economy in the Romanian Tisa River Basin, through the filter of achieving the level of competitiveness claimed by the national, European, or global authorities. By setting several quantitative indicators, analyzed for a standard territorial level (NUTS 3, for a definite time interval (2002-2007, those more or less competitive economic branches, activities or aspects of the analyzed territory were identified, and, at the same time, the elements that “hinder” development, the traditional remnants, or the existing entrepreneurial initiatives. On the basis of relevant indicators, the calculation of an index of competitiveness was proposed at territorial level, the results certifying a certain level of competitiveness for the region under consideration.

  5. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

  6. Flood forecasting and early warning system for Dungun River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floods can bring such disasters to the affected dweller due to loss of properties, crops and even deaths. The damages to properties and crops by the severe flooding are occurred due to the increase in the economic value of the properties as well as the extent of the flood. Flood forecasting and warning system is one of the examples of the non-structural measures which can give early warning to the affected people. People who live near the flood-prone areas will be warned so that they can evacuate themselves and their belongings before the arrival of the flood. This can considerably reduce flood loss and damage and above all, the loss of human lives. Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model is a runoff analysis model converting rainfall into runoff for a given river basin. The simulation can be done using either ground or satellite-based rainfall to produce calculated discharge within the river. The calculated discharge is used to generate the flood inundation map within the catchment area for the selected flood event using Infowork RS.

  7. Arsenic Mobility in Sediments from Paracatu River Basin, MG, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Patrícia Sueli; Costa, Letícia Malta; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho

    2015-04-01

    Paracatu River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, houses long areas of irrigated agriculture and gold-, lead-, and zinc-mining activities. This region has a prevalence of sulfide minerals and a natural occurrence of high levels of arsenopyrite. In this work, surface water, groundwater, sediments and local vegetable samples were collected in October 2010 and November 2011 and were analyzed to evaluate arsenic (As) distribution, mobility, and transport in these environmental compartments. All sediment samples (738-2,750 mg kg(-1)) and 37 % of the water samples [less than the limit of detection (LOD) to 110 µg L(-1)] from the rivers and streams of Paracatu had As concentrations greater than the quality standards established by national and international environmental organizations (5.9 mg kg(-1) for sediments and 10 µg L(-1) for water). Most vegetable samples had As concentrations within the normal range for plants (lower than the LOD to 120 mg kg(-1)). A correlation among As concentrations in water, sediment, and vegetable samples was verified. PMID:25672271

  8. Hydrological and geochemical studies on the Sahelo-Sudanian basin of the Niger River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    African drought and rainfall deficits observed during the last twenty years had important repercussions on the runoff of the Niger River (annual deficit of 20 % during the 70's and of 46 % during the 80's). A large reduction of the groundwater storage explains the persistent degradation of the hydrological resource. The inner Delta of the Niger River is a particular system submitted to Sahelian and sub-desertic climatic conditions, and is characterized by large flood plains. Time series of input water volumes in the inner Delta and of the water losses inside it show that the water losses, due to the intense evaporation, vary from 40 km3 to 6 km3. The water losses are maximum during the wettest years, up to 47 %, and minimum during the driest years, only 32 %, due to the reduction of the flooded area. Since 1990 the EQUANIS program associates hydrological and chemical measurements in the study of the dissolved and suspended matter flows in the Niger River's flows to the Sahel. The specific sediment load vary between 7 or 8 t dm2 year-1 for the upper Niger River and 3 t km2 year-1 for the Bani River. The specific dissolved load vary between 10 or 12 t km2 year-1 for the Niger River and 2,5 t km2 year-1 for the Bani River. The annual input in the inner Delta was about 2,2 Mt in 1992-1993. Seasonal variations of the matter fluxes are very different between the upp fluxes are very different between the upper and the lower parts of the inner Delta, due to the breaking of the annual flood and to the more important flood plains in the upper Delta. The preliminary results indicate that both rivers have a low level in dissolved element concentration. The inner Delta is not an old sedimentary basin and the actual deposits of matter should characterize its working during the lasting deficit of the water resources of the Niger River. (author)

  9. Towards a decision support system for flood management in a river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Lu S. Manuel Vasquez; Pinho, Jos L. S.; Schwanenberg, D.; Vieira, B. Rbara

    2014-01-01

    A platform for flood forecasting (FEWS-LIMA) in the Portuguese river Lima basin was implemented applying Delft-FEWS software. This platform integrates SOBEK Sacramento hydrological model, SOBEK rivers hydrodynamic models (working together in predicting river hydrodynamics behaviour), and a comprehensive hydrological database. The calibration of these models was achieved using historical river flow data of different rainfall events for two different periods: after the dams construction and bef...

  10. Exposure assessment of pesticides in German river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, B.; Bach, M.; Frede, H.-G.

    2003-04-01

    To assure the quality of surface water-bodies in integrated catchment management, the input and fate of agriculturally used plant protection products are essential factors to take into consideration. In the context of authorizing pesticides by governmental bodies within the European Union, modeling their environmental fate grew to be the focus of research activity being a rather inexpensive and effective alternative to monitoring campaigns. User-friendly Decision Support Systems (DSS) offer decision makers easy access to these models generally providing powerful tools for regional risk-assessment. DRIPS (Drainage Runoff Input of Pesticides in Surface Water), a GIS-DSS based on model algorithms describing the major pathways of pesticide entry into surface waters, was developed on behalf of the German Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA). The tool estimates the quantity of pesticide input from non-point sources via surface runoff, tile drainage and spraydrift. Furthermore, the resulting predicted environmental concentration (PEC surface water) of active ingredients (a.i.) can be retrieved considering the mean daily input of an a.i. into various types of river-basins characterized by their daily discharge. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was created to enable potential users of the DSS to interact with the model algorithms. Model parameters like dose rate, DT50, Koc of a.i., date of pesticides application et cetera can be modified by the user in order to generate customized scenarios for a choice of 11 field crops, orchards and vineyards. For river basin management purposes the probability of a set quantity of surface water pollution by a selected a.i. passing a defined threshold for selected months can be simulated after setting the parameters in the GUI. In order to calculate PEC spatial information, such as river-morphology, land-use, soil, precipitation et cetera is associated with the estimated input via the known pathways of entry. Daily catchment specific PEC were calculated for the 60 most commonly applied a.i. for approximately 400 catchments covering the territory of Germany. The probability of a certain concentration level to be reached was also determined for all a.i. in every catchment. With DRIPS, decision makers are provided with a probability based risk assessment DSS for predicting regionally differentiated pesticide contamination of surface water on a catchment scale featuring a spatial resolution of 1km(2) per pixel.

  11. Cross-Comparison of Climate Change adaptation Strategies Across Large River Basins in Europe, Africa and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Krysanova, Valentina; Dickens, Chris; Timmerman, Jos; Varela Ortega, Consuelo; Schlu?ter, Maja; Roest, Koen; Huntjens, Patrick; Jaspers, Fons; Buiteveld, Hendrik; Moreno, Edinson; Pedraza Carrera, Javier; Sla?mova, Romana; Marti?nkova?, Marta; Blanco Gutie?rrez, Irene; Esteve Bengoechea, Paloma

    2010-01-01

    A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and the Amudarya basin is in Central Asia. The evaluation was based mainly on the opinions of policy makers and water management experts in the river basins. The adaptation strategies were evaluated co...

  12. Li-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A.; Widory, D.; Bourrain, X.

    2013-12-01

    The Loire River in France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117 800 km2. Upstream, the Loire River flows following a south to north direction from the Massif Central down to the city of Orléans, 650 km from its source. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic Ocean. Over time, its basin has been exposed to numerous sources of anthropogenic metal pollutions, such as metal mining, industry, agriculture and domestic inputs. The Loire River basin is thus an excellent study site to develop new isotope systematics for tracking anthropogenic sources of metal pollutions (Zn and Pb) and also to investigate Li isotope tracing that can provide key information on the nature of weathering processes at the Loire River Basin scale. Preliminary data show that Li-Zn-Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions span a wide range in river waters of the Loire River main stream and the main tributaries. There is a clear contrast between the headwaters upstream and rivers located downstream in the lowlands. In addition, one of the major tributaries within the Massif Central (the Allier River) is clearly influenced by inputs resulting from mineralizations and thermomineral waters. The results showed that, on their own, each of these isotope systematics reveals important information about the geogenic or anthropogenic origin Li-Zn-Pb. Considered together, they are however providing a more integrated understanding of the overall budgets of these elements at the scale of the Loire River Basin.

  13. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Michailovsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. In this study, retracked Envisat altimetry data was extracted over the Zambezi River Basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 5.5 to 7.4 % terms of high flow estimation relative to in situ gauge measurements. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 8.2 and 25.8 % of the high flow estimates.

  14. SWOT data assimilation for operational reservoir management on the upper Niger River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, S.; Polebistki, A.; Brown, C.; Belaud, G.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will provide two-dimensional maps of water elevation for rivers with width greater than 100 m globally. We describe a modeling framework and an automatic control algorithm that prescribe optimal releases from the Selingue dam in the Upper Niger River Basin, with the objective of understanding how SWOT data might be used to the benefit of operational water management. The modeling framework was used in a twin experiment to simulate the "true" system state and an ensemble of corrupted model states. Virtual SWOT observations of reservoir and river levels were assimilated into the model with a repeat cycle of 21 days. The updated state was used to initialize a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm that computed the optimal reservoir release that meets a minimum flow requirement 300 km downstream of the dam. The data assimilation results indicate that the model updates had a positive effect on estimates of both water level and discharge. The "persistence," which describes the duration of the assimilation effect, was clearly improved (greater than 21 days) by integrating a smoother into the assimilation procedure. We compared performances of the MPC with SWOT data assimilation to an open-loop MPC simulation. Results show that the data assimilation resulted in substantial improvements in the performances of the Selingue dam management with a greater ability to meet environmental requirements (the number of days the target is missed falls to zero) and a minimum volume of water released from the dam.

  15. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Feng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005–2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  16. Rainfall-runoff modeling and preliminary regional flood characteristics of small rural watersheds in the Arkansas River basin in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Russell K.

    1981-01-01

    Both recorded and synthetic rainfall-runoff and annual peak-discharge data for 17 rural watersheds were analyzed to evaluate the magnitude, frequency, and volume of floods in the plains region of the Arkansas River basin in Colorado. Flood-frequency relations from analysis of recorded data were weighted or combined with flood-frequency relations from analysis of synthetic data to provide improved estimates of selected flood characteristics for 15 of these watersheds. The 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year peak discharges were regionalized using multiple-regression and station-year methods. Regression relations were developed to determine peak discharge from effective drainage area (standard error of estimate 30 to 50 percent) and flood volume from peak discharge (standard error of estimate 62 percent) for ungaged basins between 0.5 and 15 square miles in size. Using these two flood characteristics, a dimensionless hydrograph method provides synthetic hydrographs very similar in shape to recorded flood hydrographs. (USGS)

  17. Chemical weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption in a tropical river basin (Swarna River), Southwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguli, T.; Gurumurthy, G. P.; Balakrishna, K.; Audry, S.; Riotte, J.; Braun, J.; Chadaga, M.; Shankar HN, U.

    2013-12-01

    Chemical weathering in river basins forms the key process to study the global climate change on a long term scale due to its association with the carbon sequestration. Water samples from a west flowing tropical river (Swarna River) of Southern India were collected for a period of two years to study the chemical weathering process and to quantify the weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption rates in the river basin. In addition, the major ion chemistry of Swarna River is studied for the first time on a spatial and temporal (monthly) scale to decipher the factors (lithology, precipitation/ discharge, temperature, slope and physical weathering) controlling the chemical weathering process. Swarna River originates in Western Ghats at an altitude of 1100 m above mean sea level and flows westwards draining Peninsular Gneiss and Dharwar Schist to join the Arabian Sea near Udupi. The river basin receives annual rainfall of 4500 mm and experiences warm climate with average temperature of 30°C. Major ion composition and radiogenic strontium isotopic composition measured in the Swarna river water reflects the influence of silicate rocks in the basin. The river water chemistry is found to be least affected by anthropogenic impact; however, the effect of evaporation is observed on few samples during the peak dry season. The atmospheric inputs and carbonate contributions to the river water are corrected to estimate the silicate weathering rate (SWR) and the associated carbon-dioxide consumption rate (CCR) using local rainwater and bed rock composition respectively. The SWR and CCR in the Swarna river basin are estimated to be 46 tons/km2/yr and 4.4 x 10^5 mol/km2/yr respectively. This estimation is observed to be relatively higher than the recently reported SWR and CCR in the adjacent larger Nethravati river basin (Gurumurthy et al., 2012). The increased rate could be attributed to the relatively higher precipitation in the Swarna river basin than the lithological variation between the two basins. The weathering process is largely controlled by the higher run-off accompanied by warm temperature in the Swarna river basin. The intense silicate weathering is also supported by the highly radiogenic strontium isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr) ranging between 0.7195 and 0.7304 in the Swarna river water. The average 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7249 in the river water is found to be higher than the global river average. Keywords: Major ion, Radiogenic strontium isotope, Silicate weathering rate, Carbon-dioxide consumption rate, Tropical river, Southwestern India. Reference: Gurumurthy GP, Balakrishna K, Riotte J, Braun J-J, Audry S, Udayashankar HN, Manjunatha BR (2012), Controls on intense silicate weathering in a tropical river, southwestern India. Chemical Geology, 300-301, 61-69.

  18. Temporal & Spatial Variation and Benefit Analysis of Farmers Fertilizer at Tarim River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang SU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Along with the continuous development of the fertilizer industry, it provides a large extent of impetus to cultivation. This paper analyzes based on the temporal & spatial variation and planting efficiency of farmers fertilizer at Tarim River Basin, it finds that farmers fertilizer provides a large extent of impetus to cultivation. Therefore, using cointegration method to analyze influence of planting efficiency with farmers fertilizer at Tarim River Basin, the model results show that farmers fertilization amount with planting efficiency at Tarim River Basin and prefectures exists a positive correlation, and the influence of the order is same as the fertilization amount with planting efficiency growth. On this basis, it proposes suggestions on farmers reasonable fertilization.Key words: Tarim River Basin; Fertilization; Plant production value

  19. Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

  20. THE WATER BALANCE OF THE SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN AND ITS RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE. (R824995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Historical precipitation, temperature and streamflow data for the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) are analyzed with the objective of developing simple statistical and water balance models of streamflow at the watershed's outlet. Annual streamflow is highly corre...

  1. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  2. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  3. Transport and Retention of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon in North America’s Largest River Swamp Basin, the Atchafalaya River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jun Xu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004 river discharge and water quality records from an upriver and a downriver location of the Atchafalaya River to quantify the inflow, outflow, and inflow–outflow mass balance of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN = organic nitrogen + ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (NO3 + NO2, total phosphorous (TP, and total organic carbon (TOC through the largest river swamp basin in North America. The study found that, over the past 27 years, the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB acted as a significant sink for TKN (annual retention: 24%, TP (41%, and TOC (12%, but a source for NO3 + NO2 nitrogen (6%. On an annual basis, ARB retained 48,500 t TKN, 16,900 t TP, and 167,100 t TOC from the river water. The retention rates were closely and positively related to the river discharge with highs during the winter and spring and lows in the late summer. The higher NO3 + NO2 mass outflow occurred throughout spring and summer, indicating an active role of biological processes on nitrogen as water and air temperatures in the basin rise.

  4. Air-Photograph Based Estimates of Channel Widening within the Minnesota River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterling, C.; Conway, J.; Graves, J.; Lauer, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Minnesota River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River that has experienced a roughly two-fold increase in mean April-November discharge over the past century. Because the Minnesota River supplies the majority of sediment to the Mississippi at the confluence, sediment sources within the basin, and in particular within the Le Sueur River sub-basin, have recently been the subject of several detailed sediment budget studies. One of the potential sediment sources is associated with channel widening. In the present study, we focus on channel widening as a potential source of sediment in the Minnesota, Little Cobb, Maple, Blue Earth, Le Sueur, Redwood, Cottonwood, and Watonwan Rivers, Minnesota. Using aerial photographs, changes in channel bankfull width were measured over the period from 1937 to 2009. Historic photographs were georeferenced to recent high-resolution imagery using a minimum of ten ground control points and a second order polynomial transformation in ArcGIS 9.3. Water surface width and the width between vegetation lines (which we take to be equivalent to the bankfull width) were determined by hand for representative reaches of a minimum of ten meander bends along each river. We chose to digitize by hand to avoid computer misclassification associated with the highly variable color spectra in the historic photographs and because this allowed us to visually interpolate the bank line where scattered overhanging vegetation partially obscured the banks. In general, bankfull width has increased steadily by between 20 and 50 percent over the period of photographic record. However, because our basic method focuses only on the vegetation line, it is possible in principle that the observed changes in width are primarily related to ecological change (i.e. to a change in the elevation at which vegetation colonizes the banks) and not directly to an increase in channel volume (and hence to a net export of sediment from these reaches). To determine whether the increase in width is associated with actual geomorphic change, we developed local at-a-station hydraulic geometry relationships between average water surface width and mean daily discharge for all reaches with sufficiently long discharge records. At some sites, discharge was approximated using nearby gages. At each location, the local at-a-station hydraulic geometry was developed independently for three time periods (1930s-1960s, 1960s-1990s, and 1990s-2000s) and shows a clear shift over time, implying that changes in bank-full width are the result of a geometric change within the channel. While it is not clear how far upstream the widening extends, if our widening rates are extrapolated to all river reaches with drainage areas of at least 100 km2 within the Le Sueur basin (i.e. neglecting small and often highly modified 1st and 2nd order channels), and if the widening rate is assumed equivalent to the rate of expansion of channel cross-sectional area, the total widening-related production rate for silt/clay sediment is on the order of 4X104 Mg/yr. This is roughly 20 percent of an eight-year average TSS load for the Le Sueur basin estimate developed by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.

  5. Use of narrative scenarios for evaluating drought management responses in the Upper Colorado River Basin (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, R. L.; Miller, K.; Yates, D. N.; Kaatz, L.

    2013-12-01

    Drought and water scarcity are already recurrent features of the Upper Colorado River Basin. Climate model projections (such as CMIP3 and CMIP5) show large uncertainty in future precipitation and river flow for the region. However, there is consensus amongst the models that air temperatures will rise, implying earlier and shorter melt seasons, increased risk of wildfire, outbreak of mountain pine beetle die back, and changing in-stream habitat over coming decades. Hence, future water supply and demand planning must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate multiple, uncertain, and interacting stressors on the water system. This paper describes a decision-centered approach for evaluating drought management options under changed climate conditions, taking into account other co-stressors. The framework comprises three main elements: 1) a model of the water collection and rights system; 2) adaptation options for maintaining overall water for supply; and 3) plausible narratives of future conditions for stress-testing the system/option set configuration. We demonstrate our approach using the Colorado River to Glenwood Springs as a case study. The Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model was selected as a parsimonious tool for rapid appraisal of the Shoshone Call Relaxation Agreement (SCRA) under various narrative scenarios. The SCRA allows relaxation of a senior water right at Shoshone power plant when upstream reservoir storage is forecast to be below 80% and April-July flow in the Colorado is expected to be less than 85% of average. An extended call relaxation may be triggered when a domestic lawn water ban has been invoked by the Denver Board of Water Commissioners. These measures are designed to enable capture of more spring melt to maintain overall volumetric water entitlements regardless of climate variability and change. The SCRA was assessed in terms of frequency of trigger conditions, volume of water stored, and amount of water that is potentially harvested by varying the window of the call relaxation period. Stress tests were applied using combinations of higher air temperatures, single and multi-season precipitation anomalies, partial burn or die back of forest areas in headwater basins, and dust on snowpack events. Temperature and precipitation scenarios were informed by evidence from palaeoclimatic reconstructions, climate model experiments, and regional downscaling. WEAP parameters were adjusted in transparent and physically plausible ways to represent the effects of indirect climate stressors. Overall, the Shoshone case study shows the extent to which increased ';rule flexibility' could yield greater water supply certainty despite climate variability and change. More generally, we demonstrate how decision-centered and narrative approaches can strengthen water planning and adaptation despite large uncertainty about future stressors on river basin properties.

  6. Large-scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic modelling of the Amazon River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Rodrigo; Buarque, Diogo; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-paule; Frappart, Fre?de?ric; Calmant, Ste?phane; Mendes, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a hydrologic/hydrodynamic modeling of the Amazon River basin iscpresented using the MGB-IPH model with a validation using remotely sensed observations. Moreover, the sources of model errors by means of the validation and sensitivity tests are investigated, and the physical functioning of the Amazon basin is also explored. The MGBIPH is a physically based model resolving all land hydrological processes and here using a full 1-D river hydrodynamic module with a simple floodplain ...

  7. Hydrological impact of rainwater harvesting in the Modder river basin of central South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Welderufael, W. A.; Woyessa, Y. E.; Edossa, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Along the path of water flowing in a river basin are many water-related human interventions that modify the natural systems. Rainwater harvesting is one such intervention that involves harnessing of water in the upstream catchment. Increased water usage at upstream level is an issue of concern for downstream water availability to sustain ecosystem services. The upstream Modder River basin, located in a semi arid region in the central South Africa, is experiencing intermittent meteorological d...

  8. Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir Mirzaev; Jusipbek Kazbekov; Andrew Noble; Oyture Anarbekov; Kahramon Jumabaev; Murat Yakubov; Akmal Karimov; Ahmad Alimdjanov

    2010-01-01

    Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was...

  9. Tritium balance of the Ems river basin (1951-1983). Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Ems river basin an inventory of the tritium distribution is presented for the hydrologic years 1951-1983. On the basis of a balance model the tritium contents in surface and groundwater of the Ems river basin are calculated using known and extrapolated tritium input data and compared with the corresponding values measured since 1974. A survey of the tritium flows occurring in this area is presented, taking meteorologic and hydrologic facts into account. (orig.)

  10. Effects of climate variability on water storage in the Colorado river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Troch, P. A. A.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Durcik, M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the long-term (interannual–decadal) variability of water availability in river basins is paramount for water resources management. Here, the authors analyze time series of simulated terrestrial water storage components, observed precipitation, and discharge spanning 74 yr in the Colorado River basin and relate them to climate indices that describe variability of sea surface temperature and sea level pressure in the tropical and extratropical Pacific. El Niño–Southern Oscill...

  11. Water Accounting Plus for Water Resources Reporting and River Basin Planning:

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, P.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. WA+ is a simple, yet comprehensive and understandable water accounting framework that provides a standardized way of data collection and a presentation system that describes the overall land and water management situation in complex river basins. WA+ tracks water depletions rather than withdrawals...

  12. Effects of climate change and human activities on runoff in the Nenjiang River Basin, Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, L. Q.; Zhang, G. X.; Xu, Y. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Nenjiang River Basin (NRB) is an important grain-production region with abundant wetlands in Northeast China. Climate change and anthropogenic activities have dramatically altered the spatial and temporal distribution of regional stream discharge and water resources, which poses a serious threat to wetland ecosystems and sustainable agriculture. In this study, we analyzed 55-yr (1956–2010) rainfall and runoff patterns in the river basin to quantitatively evaluate the impact of huma...

  13. Impact of energy development in the Tongue River basin, Southeastern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickcox, D.H.

    1982-12-01

    Southeastern Montana's Tongue River basin is experiencing rapid development of its extensive coal deposits. This development has a significant impact on the basin's hydrologic systems. Ground water flow is disrupted by mining and its quality degraded. Mine mouth conversion of the coal involves consumption of large amounts of water at the expense of downstream users, creating several water conflicts. Allocation of Tongue River water has favoured agricultural users, and reallocation is difficult.

  14. The impact of energy development in the Tongue River Basin, southeastern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickcox, D.H.

    1982-12-01

    Southeastern Montana's Tongue River basin is experiencing rapid development of its extensive coal deposits. This development has a significant impact on the basin's hydrologic systems. Ground water flow is disrupted by mining and its quality degraded. Mine mouth conversion of the coal involves consumption of large amounts of water at the expense of downstream users, creating several water conflicts. Allocation of Tongue River water has favored agricultural users, and reallocation is difficult.

  15. Evaluation of Groundwater Chemistry of a Central Kerala River Basin, India using Multivariate Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Gopinath; Resmi T. R.

    2011-01-01

    Statistical processing of data was necessary to arrive at a reasonable conclusion regarding the chemical behavior of groundwater in a river basin. Multivariate analysis was done to elucidate the groundwater chemistry of a Central Kerala River basin. Hydrochemical parameters like EC, pH, TDS, TH, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, F, HCO 3 +CO 3 , SO 4 , total Fe were estimated in the pre- monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Factor and cluster analysis differentiated two distinct contributing components to the ...

  16. Assessing the Resilience of a River Management Regime: Informal Learning in a Shadow Network in the Tisza River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Molnar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Global sources of change offer unprecedented challenges to conventional river management strategies, which no longer appear capable of credibly addressing a trap: the failure of conventional river defense engineering to manage rising trends of disordering extreme events, including frequency and intensity of floods, droughts, and water stagnation in the Hungarian reaches of the Tisza River Basin. Extreme events punctuate trends of stagnation or decline in the ecosystems, economies, and societies of this river basin that extend back decades, and perhaps, centuries. These trends may be the long-term results of defensive strategies of the historical river management regime that reflect a paradigm dating back to the Industrial Revolution: "Protect the Landscape from the River." Since then all policies have defaulted to the imperatives of this paradigm such that it became the convention underlying the current river management regime. As an exponent of this convention the current river management regimes' methods, concepts, infrastructure, and paradigms that reinforce one another in setting the basin's development trajectory, have proven resilient to change from wars, political, and social upheaval for centuries. Failure to address the trap makes the current river management regime's resilience appear detrimental to the region's future development prospects and prompts demand for transformation to a more adaptive river management regime. Starting before transition to democracy, a shadow network has generated multiple dialogues in Hungary, informally exploring the roots of this trap as part of a search for ideas and methods to revitalize the region. We report on how international scientists joined one dialogue, applying system dynamics modeling tools to explore barriers and bridges to transformation of the current river management regime and develop the capacity for participatory science to expand the range of perspectives that inform, monitor, and revise learning, policy, and the practice of river management.

  17. Predicting historic riparian vegetation in the Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaki, H.; Beechie, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    We developed a GIS data set that depicts pre-settlement riparian vegetation in the Columbia River basin to guide stream restoration for endangered salmon. To do this, we first created a data layer of historic riparian vegetation information from survey notes that were taken mid 19th to early 20th century during the Public Land Survey System (PLSS) conducted by General Land Office (GLO). Our reconstructed riparian vegetation data include randomly sampled basin-wide data (drainage area >200,000 km2), as well as intensively reconstructed watershed-level data (>3,000 km2). Second, based on the reconstructed riparian vegetation points, which are arrayed along a 1-mile (1600 m) grid, we are developing statistical models to estimate potential historic riparian vegetation types (conifer, hardwood, willow-shrub, grass, sage) as well as the probability of occurrence of individual species at stream reach level (~ 200 m) in the basin. We examined environmental variables, such as mean annual precipitation, average minimum and maximum temperature, channel gradient, channel bankfull width, floodplain width, and fine sediment supply potential, against five vegetation types and found that precipitation and temperature discriminate vegetation groups. We also developed vegetation response curves against each variable using kernel density estimates to describe the probability of each vegetation type occurring across the range of each environmental variable. Using a decision tree, we found that reaches greater than 8 m bankfull width (bfw) tended to develop riparian vegetation that is distinctly different from upland vegetation, whereas in small streams the riparian and upland vegetation were similar. Therefore, we analyzed the two channel size classes separately. It is notable that this 8-m threshold is identical to the threshold of channel migration in the study area, which was identified in a previous study (Hall et al. 2007). We adopted linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) to predict riparian vegetation types. Overall accuracy of models for large reaches was 68.3% (LDA), 73.0% (SVM), 71.4 (RF), and 68.3% (KNN), and 59.3%, 66.3%, 51.2%, and 47.7% for small reaches. We tested each model against data points outside of the training set, and found that overall accuracies were 47% to 48% for the large streams and 43% (all models) for small reaches. Even though overall accuracies were relatively low, we recognized that structure of error matrices reflected vegetation responses against environment variables. We are currently developing species occurrence models. We believe that, using the predicted vegetation group and species occurrence map along with vegetation response curves, we can reasonably estimate reference riparian condition in the Columbia River basin and our approach can be applicable to other areas in the US.

  18. Uranium isotopic investigations and radiocarbon measurements of river-groundwater systems, Sabarmati basin, Gujarat, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of uranium concentrations, 234U/238U activity ratios along the Sabarmati river and adjacent phreatic aquifers and radiocarbon in confined aquifers in the Watrak-Shedi sub-basin, part of Sabarmati basin, have been carried out. The uranium isotope distributions show marked seasonal variations in river waters, whereas they are within experimental uncertainties in the groundwaters adjacent to the river bed. The observed seasonal variations indicate the presence of a groundwater component in Sabarmati river, and its contribution to the total river flow appears to be maximum during summer. Apparent radiocarbon ages of confined aquifers in Watrak-Shedi sub-basin show that the groundwater flow is in the NE-SW direction with a velocity of 6-7 m/a. (orig.)

  19. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY: THE YAMPA AND WHITE RIVER BASINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Yampa and White River Basins are key areas in the Nation's search for untaped resources to supplement increasing energy demands. The basins contain vast beds of low-sulfur, strippable coal that potentially will support a large number of coal-fired powerplants as well as some ...

  20. Fish fauna in Iberian mediterranean river basins : biodiversity, introduced species and damming impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Clavero Pineda, Miguel; Blanco Garrido, Francisco; Prenda Mari?n, Jose?

    2004-01-01

    We used a basin approximation to analyse distribution patterns of different components of biodiversity (taxonomic richness, endemicity, taxonomic singularity, rarity) and conservation status of freshwater fish fauna in 27 Mediterranean Iberian rivers. Basin area alone explained more than 80% of variation in native species richness. Larger basins featured not only a higher number of native species, but also more endemic and rare species and less diversified genera than smaller ones. In...

  1. Fish fauna in Iberian Mediterranean river basins: biodiversity, introduced species and damming impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Clavero, Miguel; Blanco-garrido, F.; Prenda, J.

    2004-01-01

    1. A basin approximation was used to analyse distribution patterns of di?erent components of biodiversity (taxonomic richness, endemicity, taxonomic singularity, rarity) and conservation status of freshwater ?sh fauna in 27 Mediterranean Iberian rivers. 2. Basin area alone explained more than 80% of variation in native species richness. Larger basins featured not only a higher number of native species, but also more endemic and rare species and fewer diversi?ed genera than smaller ba...

  2. Medieval Drought in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meko, D. M.; Woodhouse, C. A.

    2007-05-01

    Paleoclimatic records have consistently identified the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), approximately A.D. 900- 1300, as unusual for the incidence of multi-decadal drought in the western United States. Four newly developed tree-ring chronologies derived from living trees, standing dead trees and logs are examined for evidence of a MCA drought signature in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). The four chronologies extend to before A.D. 1000, and each has a statistically significant significant linear relationship with annual flow of the Colorado River from 1906 to present (23-48 percent of the flow variance explained). A flow reconstruction based on three chronologies with acceptably high sample depth in the MCA begins in A.D. 762, accounts for 60 percent of the flow variance in the 1906-2003 calibration period, and identifies a drought in the mid-1100s as the most severe multi-decadal drought in the long-term record. Highlights of this inferred drought are 13 consecutive years of below normal flow (A. D. 1143-1155) and a broad window of 62 years (A. D. 1118-1179) with no years of much-above-normal flow. The individual chronologies reveal a spatial pattern of heightened intensity of drought toward the western part of the UCRB, although the drought was also present in the Colorado Rockies. Comparison with other regional paleoclimatic reconstructions from the western United States shows the results are consistent with dry, and probably warm, conditions over the intermountain region. Differences are noted in timing of the mid-1100s drought in the UCRB and epic MCA droughts in the Sierra Nevada of California inferred from tree-ring data and other paleoclimatic evidence. The results emphasize the importance of striving for greater spatial resolution in the paleoclimatic record of drought in western North America.

  3. THIRTY-FIVE YEARS OF UPPER MISSOURI RIVER BASIN PALEOPATHOLOGY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John B., Gregg.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El proyecto Huesos Mojados consistía en las evaluaciones de hablar/escuchar a y con los nativos de Norteamérica. El proyecto Huesos Secos consistía en estudios conducidos en los huesos recuperados de la región. Durante 35 años, examinamos los restos esqueletales que representan varias culturas difer [...] entes que vivían en el Territorio Dakota durante 2000 años. Un factor que mejora la paleopatología en esta región eran los proyectos arqueológicos de rescate conducidos antes de cerrar las represas que cruzan el Río Missouri en Dakota del Sur. Las condiciones climáticas no eran favorables para momificación, así que el estudio fue limitado a los huesos. En 1966, participamos en y recibimos mucho estímulo del simposio de paleopatología en la Fundación Nacional de Ciencia. En 1977, T.A. Cockburn cuestionó si la mastoiditis y sus complicaciones existían en los Estados Unidos, y eso estimuló nuestro entusiasmo. Los resultados del proyecto Huesos Secos son el tema de este trabajo Abstract in english Wet Bones project consisted of speech/hearing evaluations performed on the Native Americans. The Dry Bones project were studies conducted on bones recovered from the region. During 35 years we examined skeletal remnants representing several cultures who existed in Dakota Territory during two millenn [...] ia. The study of paleopathology was enhanced by salvage archaeology projects conducted before closure of dams across the River in the Upper Missouri River Basin (UMRB). Climatic conditions were unfavorable to mummification, limiting the study to bones. We were stimulated by a symposium on paleopathology at National Science Foundation, chaired by S. Jarcho (Yale University) (1966). There emphasis was placed on demography and epidemiology. Additional motivation by T.A. Cockburn (Detroit) (1977), who questioned whether ear disease, mastoiditis, and its complications, existed in proto United States, focused our attention on the Dry Bones study. The results of the Dry Bones project are presented here

  4. River basin flood potential inferred using GRACE gravity observations at several months lead time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-08-01

    The wetness of a watershed determines its response to precipitation, leading to variability in flood generation. The importance of total water storage--which includes snow, surface water, soil moisture and groundwater--for the predisposition of a region to flooding is less clear, in part because such comprehensive observations are rarely available. Here we demonstrate that basin-scale estimates of water storage derived from satellite observations of time-variable gravity can be used to characterize regional flood potential and may ultimately result in longer lead times in flood warnings. We use a case study of the catastrophic 2011 Missouri River floods to establish a relationship between river discharge, as measured by gauge stations, and basin-wide water storage, as measured remotely by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Applying a time-lagged autoregressive model of river discharge, we show that the inclusion of GRACE-based total water storage information allows us to assess the predisposition of a river basin to flooding as much as 5-11 months in advance. Additional case studies of flood events in the Columbia River and Indus River basins further illustrate that longer lead-time flood prediction requires accurate information on the complete hydrologic state of a river basin.

  5. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations of the Han River basin, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jong-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Chang, Ho-Wan

    2007-10-01

    SummaryThe Han River, the largest river in South Korea draining approximately 26,000 km 2, comprises two major tributaries: the North and the South Han Rivers. Seasonal and spatial variations in the major ion chemistry and isotope compositions of the Han River were monitored for one year at 14-23 locations, covering about 80% of the entire drainage basin. Compared to the South Han River (SHR), the North Han River (NHR) was much lower in total dissolved solids (TDS), Sr, and major ion concentrations, but higher in Si concentration, ? 34S SO 4 values, and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios. These observations suggest strong influence of prevailing rock types in the drainage basins on the chemical and isotopic compositions of the river waters. These are silicate rocks in the NHR basin and carbonate rocks in the SHR basin. The headwaters of the NHR basin, where several flood control dams have been constructed, show enrichment in deuterium and oxygen-18, indicating evaporative loss. The ? 34S SO 4 data suggest dissolved sulfates in the NHR and SHR are mostly derived from atmospheric deposition, and variable mixtures of atmospheric deposition and sulfide oxidation, respectively. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios are much higher in the NHR (0.71793-0.72722) than in the SHR (0.71495-0.71785) with one exception, indicating weathering of Precambrian and Mesozoic granitic rocks and marine carbonates, respectively.

  6. Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

  7. Streamflow Reconstructions and Periods of Drought in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, A.; Watson, T.; Gray, S. T.; Tootle, G.

    2007-12-01

    The upper Green River represents a vital water supply region for southwestern Wyoming and Upper / Lower Colorado River Compact states. Rapid development in the southwestern U.S. (e.g., Las Vegas, Phoenix) combined with the recent drought has greatly stressed the water supply system of the Colorado River. This has resulted in increased interest in the Colorado River Compact and related "Law of the River." The current research developed proxy records (streamflow) derived from tree ring chronologies. These streamflow reconstructions provide an effective way to analyze patterns of drought over a period of time extending beyond any instrumental record in the upper Green River Basin (GRB). Six new tree ring chronologies were developed in the foothills of the Wind River Mountain Range, along the eastern boundary of the upper GRB. The six new chronologies consisted of three Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and three limber pine (Pinus flexilis) sites. The newly developed tree ring chronologies and existing chronologies around the region were used in developing the streamflow reconstructions. Nine streamflow reconstructions were developed for both headwater stations (utilizing unimpaired streamflow records) and stations lower in the basin (utilizing naturalized streamflow records). Traditionally, streamflow reconstructions have been limited to large rivers, but reconstructing headwater stream records provides information to water users high in the basin as well as providing spatial variations in streamflow variability across the river basin. All upper basin reconstructions extended back to the year 1615. The most downstream station in the upper GRB (Green River, near Greendale, UT) was extended to 1439. The coefficient of variance (R2) for this reconstruction is 0.65. Different modes of drought were identified for the Green River, near Greendale, UT reconstruction. Annual extremes (wet and dry) and persistent wet and dry (drought) periods were identified. The wet and dry periods identified were analyzed and compared with long term trends in the reconstructed streamflow record.

  8. Data-based scale-extrapolation: estimating regional water resources using data from small river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lebing

    2013-04-01

    Estimation of world water resources under a changing climate is a key scientific issue for many environmental research areas with profound socio-economic significance. A new data-based scale-extrapolation method (Gong 2012) is proposed to estimate continental and regional water resources. The new method builds upon the assumption (Gong 2012) that, the dynamic interaction between climate and hydrology of a large river basin can be equally well resembled by multiple small regions, each characterized by a number of small river basins, which are typically two-orders-of-magnitude smaller than the large basin. Those small river basins contain sufficient information, not only on climate and land surface, but also on hydrological characteristics of the large region. Therefore, those multiple small regions can provide an ensemble of water recourse estimations for the large basin. The new method makes it possible for regional water resource estimations to benefit from a multitude of readily available measurements from small river basins. The scale-extrapolation methods also made it possible to study the interaction between climate and hydrology, and the climate change impact in un-gauged or partially gauged large river basins from data alone. The method offers ensemble predictions that bracket the estimation uncertainty. Because the scale-extrapolation uses different data and method compared to the modelling approach, it provides a unique opportunity to be compared with modelling results. Gong L., 2012. Data-based discharge extrapolation: estimating annual discharge for a partially gauged large river basin from its small sub-basins. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 9, 6829-6856, 2012. doi:10.5194/hessd-9-6829-2012.

  9. Sustainable Agricultural Paradigm Of mountain-Oasis-Ecotone-Desert System in Inland Manasi River Basin, Xinjiang Province, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiming; Chen, Weiming; Dong, Xiaobin; Zhang, Xinshi

    Manasi River basin is located in the north foot of Tianshan Mountain, south edge of Zhunger Basin, central-north Xinjiang province, with typical aridfeatures of northern China. As the pressure on water resources in Manasi river basin is mounting because of rapid economic development, its conservation becomes ever more important. Climate change is another major threat to the future of water resources of Manasi river basin. How the water resourcechanges in Manasi river basin caused by glacial ablation, will affect the typical mountain-basin terrestrial ecosystems and agricultural production in Manasi river basin? What can we cope with the ecological issues caused by glacial ablation? In this paper we show how the water-saving stratagem such asconstructing reservoir in the mountainous region, building water pipes and be used in combination with the potential of water-saving resources, and build up sustainable agricultural paradigm of mountain-oasis-ecotone-desert system to coping with the glacier retreat and ablation. The potential of water-saving instudy area were calculated which presumed that if mountainous reservoirs and water pipes were built and water-saving technology were adopted, optimized eco-productive paradigm for mountain-basin system in Manasi river basin is proposed in desertification controlling, constructing artificial grassland in the oasis is the measure to protect vegetation in the downstream desert in Manasi river basin, and stopping grazing or forbidding grazing in the downstream of serious degradation in Manasi river basin.

  10. Elements for an integrated resource planning in the framework of river basins: a study for the Cuiaba River Basin; Elementos para um planejamento integrado de recursos no ambito de bacias hidrograficas: um estudo para a bacia do rio Cuiaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: ildorileo@sigmanet.com.br, e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    A new approach in energy planning in Brazil, IRP - Integrated Resources Planning for River Basins, gathers three main determinants of development: water, electricity and piped gas. This paper argues, briefly, the need of this planning, of indicative character, integrated with the River Basin Plans, and it presents a retrospective analysis concerning water, electricity and LPG demands of the economy sectors from Cuiaba River Basin region, priority elements to aid the prospective studies and to carry out process related to the IRP. (author)

  11. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, S.L.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1999-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River.

  12. REGIONAL GROUNDWATER FLOW MODELLING OF GASH RIVER BASIN, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDALLA E. IBRAHIM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional groundwater flow model was performed to evaluate the groundwater potentiality and assess the effect of groundwater withdrawal to the regional water level and flow direction in the Gash River basin of Sudan. Data used include periodic water level measurements, meteorological data, digital elevation data and well logs from scientific test wells and domestic water wells drilled in the study area. Transient visual MODFLOW model code was calibrated. Numerical simulation indicated that, a sharp drop of hydraulic head can be observed at the center of the model area, generated cone of depressions and a continuous decline of head with respect to the time as a result of heavy groundwater abstraction. The central part of the area, represent relatively high permeability zone and the model confirmed it to be the most productive region in the area and can be used for storing additional groundwater. Observation wells elaborate the reasonable match between the observed and calculated heads through the entire simulation period.

  13. Environmental arsenic epidemiology in the Mekong river basin of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kongkea; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-11-01

    We investigated relationship of arsenicosis symptoms with total blood arsenic (BAs) and serum albumin (SAlb) of residents in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. We found that arsenicosis patients had significantly higher BAs and lower SAlb than asymptomatic villagers (Mann-Whitney U test, p76.4% (1.764 times) more likely to develop among individuals having an SAlb?44.3gL(-1) than among those who had an SAlb>44.3gL(-1) (OR=1.764, 95% CI=0.999-3.114) and 117.6% (2.176 times) as likely to occur among those with BAs>5.73µgL(-1) than for those having BAs?5.73µgL(-1) (OR=2.176, 95% CI=1.223-3.872). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was also found between BAs and SAlb (rs (199)=-0.354, p<0.0001). As such, this study suggests that people with low SAlb and/or high BAs are likely to rapidly develop arsenicosis symptoms. PMID:25262072

  14. Boreal forest anomalies in the Yukon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, B. K.; Rover, J. A.; Murnahan, K.; Long, J.; Tieszen, L. L.; Brisco, B.

    2010-12-01

    Boreal forests are being impacted by climate change though productivity declines (browning), increased fire extents, frequencies, and intensities, more abundant insects, a thickening active layer, and projected increases in deciduous forest components. Quantification of the regional boreal forest impacts in the Yukon River Basin was achieved though remote sensing and productivity modeling which separated weather and non-weather interannual variations in boreal forest productivity. This “ecosystem performance anomaly” approach uses weather data and coarse resolution (250m) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series information from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Regression tree models developed from 2000-2005 data were robust when applied to 2006-08 data and predicted interannual growing season NDVI with good accuracy (R2=0.84) Confidence intervals of 90 percent were used to determine anomalous vegetation responses to weather conditions. Boreal forest areas which underperformed relative to weather conditions were often associated with fire events, likely reflecting early stages of succession. Areas which overperformed, relative to weather conditions, were associated with Aspen and Birch establishment after older fires and in mesic areas. Time series analysis of performance anomalies tracked non-linear temporal responses which corresponded well with fire burn dates and fire perimeters. Stressed and changing boreal systems can be identified with this approach and boreal forest productivity projections can be made from future climate projections. These data sets can focus field studies and remediation. Potential climate change refugia can be assessed relative to current stressed systems and future expected boreal forest productivity.

  15. Biodegradation of carbofuran in soils within Nzoia River Basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onunga, Daniel O; Kowino, Isaac O; Ngigi, Anastasiah N; Osogo, Aggrey; Orata, Francis; Getenga, Zachary M; Were, Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) has been used within the Nzoia River Basin (NRB), especially in Bunyala Rice Irrigation Schemes, in Kenya for the control of pests. In this study, the capacity of native bacteria to degrade carbofuran in soils from NRB was investigated. A gram positive, rod-shaped bacteria capable of degrading carbofuran was isolated through liquid cultures with carbofuran as the only carbon and nitrogen source. The isolate degraded 98% of 100-?g mL(-1) carbofuran within 10 days with the formation of carbofuran phenol as the only detectable metabolite. The degradation of carbofuran was followed by measuring its residues in liquid cultures using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Physical and morphological characteristics as well as molecular characterization confirmed the bacterial isolate to be a member of Bacillus species. The results indicate that this strain of Bacillus sp. could be considered as Bacillus cereus or Bacillus thuringiensis with a bootstrap value of 100% similar to the 16S rRNA gene sequences. The biodegradation capability of the native strains in this study indicates that they have great potential for application in bioremediation of carbofuran-contaminated soil sites. PMID:25844859

  16. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites

  17. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2004-05-01

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  18. SWAT Model of Etowah River Basin Phosphorus Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, D. E.; Lin, Z.

    2005-12-01

    The Etowah River Basin forms the watershed of Lake Allatoona in North Georgia. Lake Allatoona is classified as in transition to eutrophic and the state has placed a cap on annual phosphorus (P) loads to the lake. Our objective was to develop a watershed-scale model of P transport to Lake Allatoona using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We used the Parameter Estimator (PEST) software for auto-calibration of daily water flow and manual calibration for SS and P concentrations. We also used PEST to conduct a sensitivity analysis. PEST did an excellent job of calibrating flow, although there was a tendency to under-predict peak flow during storms. There was a tendency to under-predict base-flow concentrations of SS and P and it was difficult to judge how well the model was calibrated for storm SS and P predictions due to the sparse observed data set. The most sensitive parameters for predicting P yield were two hydrologic parameters (one of which was curve number) followed by 3 parameters related to P in soil. Sediment-related parameters were also among the 10 most sensitive parameters.

  19. Pyomyositis in the upper Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Faragher, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Pyomyositis remains poorly documented in tropical Latin America. We therefore performed a retrospective review of cases admitted to a hospital in the upper Negro river basin during 2002-2006. Seasonality was assessed by the cosinor model and independent predictors of outcome were identified by logistic regression. Determinants of time-to-fever resolution were analysed using Cox regression. No seasonal trend was observed (p=0.284) among 82 hospitalised patients. The disease predominated in young males and the most commonly affected part of the body was the lower limb (68 [63.5%] out of 107 lesions). Staphylococcus aureus was the only identified infecting organism (18 of 20 culture results, 90%). Complications occurred in 17 patients (20.7%) and the case fatality rate was 2.4%. Children were more likely to present with eosinophilia than adults (OR= 4.20, 95% CI 1.08-16.32, p=0.048), but no other significant differences regarding clinical presentation and outcomes were observed. The time-to-fever resolution was the only independent determinant of poor outcome (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.92, p

  20. Geologic Storage at the Basin Scale: Region-Based Basin Modeling, Powder River Basin (PRB), NE Wyoming and SE Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melick, J. J.; Gardner, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage from the over 2000 power plants is estimated at 3-5 GT/yr, which requires large- scale geologic storage of greenhouse gasses in sedimentary basins. Unfortunately, determination of basin scale storage capacity is currently based on oversimplified geologic models that are difficult to validate. Simplification involves reducing the number of geologic parameters incorporated into the model, modeling with large grid cells, and treatment of subsurface reservoirs as homogeneous media. The latter problem reflects the focus of current models on fluid and/or fluid-rock interactions rather than fluid movement and migration pathways. For example, homogeneous models over emphasize fluid behavior, like the buoyancy of super-critical CO2, and hence overestimate leakage rates. Fluid mixing and fluid-rock interactions cannot be assessed with models that only investigate these reactions at a human time scale. Preliminary and conservative estimates of the total pore volume for the PRB suggest 200 GT of supercritical CO2 can be stored in this typical onshore sedimentary basin. The connected pore volume (CPV) however is not included in this estimate. Geological characterization of the CPV relates subsurface storage units to the most prolific reservoir classes (RCs). The CPV, number of well penetrations, supercritical storage area, and potential leakage pathways characterize each RC. Within each RC, a hierarchy of stratigraphic cycles is populated with stationary sedimentation regions that control rock property distributions by correlating environment of deposition (EOD) to CPV. The degree to which CPV varies between RCs depends on the geology and attendant heterogeneity retained in the fluid flow model. Region-based modeling of the PRB incorporates 28000 wells correlated across a 70,000 Km2 area, 2 km thick on average. Within this basin, five of the most productive RCs were identified from production history and placed in a fourfold stratigraphic framework (second- through fourth-order cycles). Within the small- scale 4th-order sequences (30-150-m thick, 16 total), sedimentation regions, each corresponding to an EOD, are defined by thickness, lithology and core-calibrated well-log patterns. This talk illustrates the workflow by focusing on one of the 16 layers in the basin-scale model. Isopach maps from this sample layer conform to depositional patterns confirmed through definition of five core-calibrated, well-log defined sedimentation regions. Lithology distributions also conform to thickness trends in nearshore deltas, but not in offshore regions, where sand-rich and sheet-like, but thin-bedded sandstones are flanked by mud-rich intervals of equivalent thickness. These maps represent sedimentation patterns confined by basal erosional sequence boundary and basin-wide bentonite, yet containing up to seven high-frequency sequence boundaries. To illustrate over simplification problems in this same layer, a 14000 km2 sample area is 600 km3 and using standard averaging methods, which are considered to be geologic in origin, the CPV is 16 km3. However, averaging increases connectivity with high CPV more uniformly distributed; significantly, the key mud belt region separating nearshore from offshore sandstones is not represented. Region-based modeling of this layer yields 13 km3 (110 Bbl). Furthermore, significant vertical leakage may exist from the 20000 well penetrations and faults and fractures along the western basin margin. This example illustrates the importance of accurately characterizing heterogeneity and distributing CPV using sedimentation regions.

  1. Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Barraqué

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

  2. The Role of Cooperation and Information Exchange in Transnational River Basins: the Zambezi River case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of multiple, institutionally independent but physically interconnected decision-makers is a distinctive features of many water resources systems, especially of transnational river basins. The adoption of a centralized approach to study the optimal operation of these systems, as mostly done in the water resources literature, is conceptually interesting to quantify the best achievable performance, but of little practical impact given the real political and institutional setting. Centralized management indeed assumes a cooperative attitude and full information exchange by the involved parties. However, when decision-makers belong to different countries or institutions, it is very likely that they act considering only their local objectives, producing global externalities that negatively impact on other objectives. In this work we adopt a Multi-Agent Systems framework, which naturally allows to represent a set of self-interested agents (decision-makers and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision-making process. According to this agent-based approach, each agent represents a decision-maker, whose decisions are defined by an explicit optimization problem considering only the agent's local interests. In particular, this work assesses the role of information exchange and increasing level of cooperation among originally non-cooperative agents. The Zambezi River basin is used to illustrate the methodology: the four largest reservoirs in the basin (Ithezhithezhi, Kafue-Gorge, Kariba and Cahora Bassa) are mainly operated for maximizing the economic revenue from hydropower energy production with considerably negative effects on the aquatic ecosystem in the Zambezi delta due to the alteration of the natural flow regime. We comparatively analyse the ideal centralized solution and the current situation where all the decision-makers act independently and non-cooperatively. Indeed, although a new basin-level institution called Zambezi Watercourse Commission (ZAMCON) should be established in the next future, Zambia recently refused to sign and ratify the ZAMCON Protocol and the road toward a fully cooperative framework is still long. Results show that increasing levels of information exchange can help in mitigating the conflict generated by a non-cooperative setting as it allows the downstream agents, i.e. Mozambique country, to better adapt to the upstream management strategies. Furthermore, the role of information exchange depends on the considered objectives and it is particularly relevant for environmental interests.

  3. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Methods were developed to assess the effects of dams on streamflow and water temperature in the Willamette River and its major tributaries. These methods were used to estimate the flows and temperatures that would occur at 14 dam sites in the absence of upstream dams, and river models were applied to simulate downstream flows and temperatures under a no-dams scenario. The dams selected for this study include 13 dams built and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as part of the Willamette Project, and 1 dam on the Clackamas River owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Streamflows in the absence of upstream dams for 2001-02 were estimated for USACE sites on the basis of measured releases, changes in reservoir storage, a correction for evaporative losses, and an accounting of flow effects from upstream dams. For the PGE dam, no-project streamflows were derived from a previous modeling effort that was part of a dam-relicensing process. Without-dam streamflows were characterized by higher peak flows in winter and spring and much lower flows in late summer, as compared to with-dam measured flows. Without-dam water temperatures were estimated from measured temperatures upstream of the reservoirs (the USACE sites) or derived from no-project model results (the PGE site). When using upstream data to estimate without-dam temperatures at dam sites, a typical downstream warming rate based on historical data and downstream river models was applied over the distance from the measurement point to the dam site, but only for conditions when the temperature data indicated that warming might be expected. Regressions with measured temperatures from nearby or similar sites were used to extend the without-dam temperature estimates to the entire 2001-02 time period. Without-dam temperature estimates were characterized by a more natural seasonal pattern, with a maximum in July or August, in contrast to the measured patterns at many of the tall dam sites where the annual maximum temperature typically occurred in September or October. Without-dam temperatures also tended to have more daily variation than with-dam temperatures. Examination of the without-dam temperature estimates indicated that dam sites could be grouped according to the amount of streamflow derived from high-elevation, spring-fed, and snowmelt-driven areas high in the Cascade Mountains (Cougar, Big Cliff/Detroit, River Mill, and Hills Creek Dams: Group A), as opposed to flow primarily derived from lower-elevation rainfall-driven drainages (Group B). Annual maximum temperatures for Group A ranged from 15 to 20 degree(s)C, expressed as the 7-day average of the daily maximum (7dADM), whereas annual maximum 7dADM temperatures for Group B ranged from 21 to 25 degrees C. Because summertime stream temperature is at least somewhat dependent on the upstream water source, it was important when estimating without-dam temperatures to use correlations to sites with similar upstream characteristics. For that reason, it also is important to maintain long-term, year-round temperature measurement stations at representative sites in each of the Willamette River basin's physiographic regions. Streamflow and temperature estimates downstream of the major dam sites and throughout the Willamette River were generated using existing CE-QUAL-W2 flow and temperature models. These models, originally developed for the Willamette River water-temperature Total Maximum Daily Load process, required only a few modifications to allow them to run under the greatly reduced without-dam flow conditions. Model scenarios both with and without upstream dams were run. Results showed that Willamette River streamflow without upstream dams was reduced to levels much closer to historical pre-dam conditions, with annual minimum streamflows approximately one-half or less of dam-augmented levels. Thermal effects of the dams varied according to the time of year, from cooling in mid-summer to warm

  4. KOHONEN NEURAL NETWORKS FOR RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODELING: CASE STUDY OF PIANCÓ RIVER BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Camilo A. S.; Celso Augusto Guimarães Santos; Lourenc?o, Artur M. G.; Carneiro, Tatiane C.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of long and reliable streamflow data records is essential to establishing strategies for the operation of water resources systems. In areas where streamflow data records are limited or present missing values, rainfall-runoff models are typically used for reconstruction and/or extension of river flow series. The main objective of this paper is to verify the application of Kohonen Neural Networks (KNN) for estimating streamflows in Piancó River. The Piancó River basin is located...

  5. Population subdivision in Siamese mud carp Henicorhynchus siamensis in the Mekong River basin: implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, E A S; Hurwood, D A; Baker, A M; Mather, P B

    2009-10-01

    A molecular approach was employed to investigate stock structure in Siamese mud carp Henicorhynchus siamensis populations collected from 14 sites across mainland south-east Asia, with the major focus being the lower Mekong River basin. Spatial analysis of a mitochondrial DNA fragment (ATPase 6 and 8) identified four stocks in the Mekong River basin that were all significantly differentiated from a population in the nearby Khlong River, Thailand. In the Mekong River basin, populations in northern Lao People's Democratic Republic and northern Thailand represent two independent stocks, and samples from Thai tributaries group with those from adjacent Mekong sites above the Khone Falls to form a third stock. All sites below the Khone Falls constituted a single vast stock that includes Cambodia and the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. While H. siamensis is considered currently to undertake extensive annual migrations across the Mekong River basin, the data presented here suggest that natural gene flow may occur over much more restricted geographical scales within the basin, and hence populations may need to be managed at finer spatial scales than at the whole-of-drainage-basin level. PMID:20738620

  6. Assessing Management Regimes in Transboundary River Basins: Do They Support Adaptive Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Interwies

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper presents such an overview, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management.

  7. Hydrological Impacts of Flood Storage and Management on Irrigation Water Abstraction in Upper Ewaso Ng’iro River Basin, Kenya :

    OpenAIRE

    Ngigi, S. N.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Gichuki, F. N.

    2008-01-01

    The upper Ewaso Ng’iro basin, which starts from the central highlands of Kenya and stretches northwards transcending different climatic zones, has experienced decreasing river flows for the last two decades. The Naro Moru sub-basin is used to demonstrate the looming water crisis in this water scarce river basin. The objective of the study was to show the extent of dry seasons’ irrigation water abstractions on river flows, and to assess the hydrological impact of flood storage on temporal ...

  8. Cross-Border organisations as an adaptive water management response to clmate change: the case of the Guadiana river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Cots, F.; Tabara, J. D.; Mcevoy, D.; Werners, S. E.; Roca, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role played by cross-border organisations in the Guadiana river basin in Iberia, and the extent to which new emerging institutional arrangements carry on adaptive management practice as a response to mounting climate change risks in the river basin. Particular attention is paid to the new transboundary agencies, as promoted by the EU INTERREG programmes, and their potential for mainstreaming climate change considerations into Guadiana river basin development strat...

  9. A water quality model for shallow river-lake systems and its application in river basin management

    OpenAIRE

    Kneis, David

    2007-01-01

    This work documents the development and application of a new model for simulating mass transport and turnover in rivers and shallow lakes. The simulation tool called 'TRAM' is intended to complement mesoscale eco-hydrological catchment models in studies on river basin management. TRAM aims at describing the water quality of individual water bodies, using problem- and scale-adequate approaches for representing their hydrological and ecological characteristics. The need for such flexible water ...

  10. Modelling native fish richness to evaluate the effects of hydromorphological changes and river restoration (Júcar River Basin, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Olaya Mari?n, Esther Julia; Martinez-capel, Francisco; Soares Costa, Rui Manuel; Alcaraz-herna?ndez, Juan Diego

    2012-01-01

    The richness of native fish is considered to be an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, and improving richness is a key goal in the management of river ecosystems. An artificial neural network (ANN) model based on field data from 90 sample sites distributed throughout the Júcar River Basin District was developed to predict the native fish species richness (NFSR). The Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm was used for model training. When constructing the model, we tried different numbers ...

  11. Hydrochemistry and weathering rates on Corumbataí River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Lima, Jorge Luis Nepomuceno de

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThis work was held at the Corumbataí River basin that is inserted within the giant Paraná sedimentary basin (Paleozoic-Cenozoic) in South America. The Corumbataí River is the major river draining the area and its water is extensively used by water supply systems in the basin. Its surface waters were collected at two sampling points, upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, the principal municipality within the basin. We report chemical and radionuclides ( 222Rn and 210Po) analyses for rainwater and river water samples in order to estimate chemical weathering fluxes. All major chemical data indicated poorer conditions of the water quality in Corumbataí River after reaching Rio Claro city. However, one very important finding was that the weighted mean of the 210Po activity concentration is the same (0.21 dpm/L) upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, indicating that 210Po is a conservative nuclide. The net output flux in Corumbataí River basin estimated from the difference between the total discharge flux and the input flux based on wet precipitation yielded a negative value for polonium as it is a very particle-reactive radionuclide, tending to accumulate into fluvial sediments. The chemical weathering rate (removed material quantity) corresponded to 76.5 t/km 2 yr when Po data in sediments and rocks were utilized in the calculations. This rate is compatible with others determined elsewhere, indicating the usefulness of Po in studies of weathering processes, even in areas characterized by anthropogenic inputs.

  12. Regional Cooperation Efforts in the Mekong River Basin: Mitigating river-related security threats and promoting regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of international rivers is often perceived as leading to conflicts or even water wars. However, as the development of the Mekong River shows, cooperation has not only prevailed in the last decades, but River Basin Organizations (RBOs, established to mitigate river-related conflicts and/or develop the river basin, have also contributed to the emergence of more general cooperation structures, mainly by creating spill-over effects in other issue-areas, bringing cooperation to policy fields beyond the river itself. This article assesses the contribution of the Mekong River Commission (MRC and the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS to the sustainable development of the Mekong Region as well as to the promotion of regional cooperation in mainland South-East Asia in general. --- Die Entwicklung grenzu?berschreitender Flu?sse wird oft mit Konflikten oder gar Kriegen um Wasser assoziiert. Wie jedoch die Entwicklung im Mekong-Becken zeigt, waren die vergangenen Jahrzehnte nicht nur von Kooperation gezeichnet, sondern Flussbeckenorganisationen konnten außerdem dazu beitragen, weitreichendere Kooperationsstrukturen zu entwickeln, die sich auf andere Politikfelder ausdehnen. Dieser Artikel bescha?ftigt sich mit dem Beitrag der Mekong River Commission (MRC und der Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung in der Mekong Region sowie zur Fo?rderung allgemeiner regionaler Kooperation im Festla?ndischen Su?dostasien.

  13. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerud, Terje Andre

    1997-12-31

    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Impact of deforestation on local precipitation patterns over the Da River basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Spartà, Daniele; Castelletti, Andrea; Boschetti, Mirco

    2014-05-01

    Change in land cover, e.g. from forest to bare soil, might severely impact the hydrological cycle at the river basin scale by altering the balance between rainfall and evaporation, ultimately affecting streamflow dynamics. These changes generally occur over decades, but they might be much more rapid in developing countries, where economic growth and growing population may cause abrupt changes in landscape and ecosystem. Detecting, analysing and modelling these changes is an essential step to design mitigation strategies and adaptation plans, balancing economic development and ecosystem protection. In this work we investigate the impact of land cover changes on the water cycle in the Da River basin, Vietnam. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate the interlink between deforestation and precipitation. The case study is particularly interesting because Vietnam is one of the world fastest growing economies and natural resources have been considerably exploited to support after-war development. Vietnam has the second highest rate of deforestation of primary forests in the world, second to only Nigeria (FAO 2005), with associated problems like abrupt change in run-off, erosion, sediment transport and flash floods. We performed land cover evaluation by combining literature information and Remote Sensing techniques, using Landsat images. We then analysed time series of precipitation observed on the period 1960-2011 in several stations located in the catchment area. We used multiple trend detection techniques, both state-of-the-art (e.g., Linear regression and Mann-Kendall) and novel trend detection techniques (Moving Average on Shifting Horizon), to investigate trends in seasonal pattern of precipitation. Results suggest that deforestation may induce a negative trend in the precipitation volume. The effect is mainly recognizable at the beginning and at the end of the monsoon season, when the local mechanisms of precipitation formation prevail over the large scale ones.

  15. Using Collaborative Modeling to Inform Policy Decisions in the Bow River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheer, A. S.; Sheer, D. P.; Hill, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Bow River in Alberta, Canada serves a wide range of municipal, agricultural, recreational, and industrial purposes in the province. In 2006, the basin was deemed over-allocation and closed to new licenses. The Calgary region, however, continues to expand. In the next 60 to 70 years, population levels are expected to reach 2.8 million (more than double the current 1.2 million) with 800,000 new jobs. This increasing pressure led several stakeholders to work together in the development of a new management model to improve the management of the system as an integrated watershed. The major previous model of the system allowed only limited flexibility in management, focusing instead on strict license based operations. Over a 6 month period, with numerous multi-party meetings, the group developed the Bow River Operations Model (BROM). Based in OASIS software, this model integrated input from the major water users in the region to emulate the real-life decisions that are actually made on a daily bases, even when technically in violation of the strict license agreements (e.x. junior licensees receiving water despite senior priority due to exceedingly low volume requirements). Using historical records as forecasts, and performance measures developed with the best available science through expert opinion, participants jointly developed a new reservoir operation strategy. Even with such a short timeframe, the BROM exercise showed that there was substantial room for improvement. Utilizing a "Water Bank" of purchased storage, downstream flows could be significantly improved without affecting quality. Additional benefits included fishery improvement, new recreation opportunities, dissolved oxygen improvement during critical periods, and the ability to accommodate long-term demand forecasts for surrounding municipalities. This strategy has been presented to, and favorably received by, the Alberta Minister of Environment for guidance during negotiations with the local hydropower utility. Work continues on implementation and new areas of the basin are being considered for similar processes.

  16. THE FLOOD RISK IN THE IALOMITA RIVER BASIN CASE STUDY: THE JULY 1975 FLASH FLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RETEGAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Te flood risk in the Ialomita river basin case study: the july 1975 flash flood. Since over the last four decades the Ialomita River Basin has been affected by several catastrophic hydrological events, of which the most important were the ones in 1975, 2001 and 2005, for a better management of the extreme situations generated by such episodes we propose a new methodology regarding the estimation of the flash-flood appearance potential in this particular river basin, as well as an analysis of such an event that occurred in July 1975 and affected large swaths of the geographic area we have taken into consideration. In order to identify the regions which are vulnerable to the processes caused by slope run-off we have used the Flash Flood Potential Transmission Index (FFPTI, first proposed and used by Smith (2003 in the “Western Region Flash Flood Project” (WRFFP and then by several researchers from Romania, such as G. Minea (2011, M. M?trea?? (2011 and M. Borcan (2011. The main purpose of this method is the estimation of an index that would synthetically express the flashflood potential for both a major river basin (such as Ialomita River Basin as well as for a minor river basin (usually sub-components of major river basins. The quantification of the impact that the major physical-geographic factors (slope, soil texture and land use and the main run-off causing factor, rainfall, have gives the magnitude of this flash-flood potential transmission index.

  17. BASIN MORPHOLOGY AND LAND USEWITH SPECIAL REFFERENCE TO PANCHANOI RIVER BASIN, A MICRO WATERSHED OF MAHANANDA RIVER SYSTEM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUBHADIP GUPTA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro watershed is defined as a small watershed, in which a certain number of families live, make use and manage the resources of the area, mainly the soil, water, vegetation,including crops and native vegetation, and fauna, including domestic and wild animals. From the operational point of view, the micro watershed has an area that may be planned by a technician counting on local resources and/or a number of families that may be treated as a social nucleus that shares some common interests and here the use of land is very much associated with the local physiography and that is why the study about land use should give emphasis on the relief characteristics. The present paper is based on a small river basin and its changing land use. So here it is very important to study about the drainage morphology as a whole or especially on that particular area where the changing tendency of land use has already been recognized. At the same time it is also to be noticed that the land use pattern may also be affected by the anthropogenic effect. So it is also very

  18. Geologic study of the Wind River Basin, Fremont and Natrona Counties, central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refolo, P. J.

    1982-12-01

    A geologic overview of Wind River Basin stratigraphy is presented with special emphasis placed on gas-bearing units having low permeability. In addition, information is provided on the interrelation of technologic and economic factors governing development of the tight gas sands resource within the basin. The Wind River Basin contains numerous low permeability, gas bearing lenticular and blanket sands that are believed to represent significant resource potential. The geologic section from Late Cretaceous to Eocene is of primary interest here and includes rocks of the Frontier, Mesaverde, Meeteetse, Lance, Fort Union, and Muddy stratigraphic units. Depths of the formations vary from surface exposure on the west, south, and east fringes of the basin to 25,000 feet in the northern portion where the basin is structurally deeper.

  19. Spatial-temporal changes of precipitation structure across the Pearl River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Peng, Juntai; Chen, Yongqin David; Li, Jianfeng

    2012-05-01

    SummaryUsing daily precipitation data covering 1960-2005 from 42 stations across the Pearl River basin, precipitation indices, defined by annual total precipitation amount, annual total rainy days, annual precipitation intensity and annual mean rainy days, are analyzed using the modified Mann-Kendall trend test method. Results indicate that: (1) decreasing precipitation is found mainly in the middle and upper Pearl River basin. However, a decreasing number of rainy days is detected almost over the entire basin. Thus, the Pearl River basin is characterized by increasing precipitation intensity, particularly in the middle and the eastern parts of the basin; (2) the occurrence and fractional contribution of wet periods (WPs) with longer durations are decreasing in recent decades and WPs with shorter durations, e.g., 2-5 days are tending to be predominant in recent decades with increasing total precipitation amount. Frequencies of shorter WPs with increased total precipitation amount can be expected, which can easily trigger occurrence of floods and droughts; (3) heavy precipitation is easy to occur in WPs with shorter durations which may further corroborate the intensified precipitation process in the Pearl River basin, particularly in the lower part. Reduction of water supply from the upper Pearl River basin due to decreased precipitation and higher risk of floods and droughts in the lower basin will increase uncertainty of water supply in the lower basin and hence pose new challenges for water supply and water resources management under the influence of climate change and human activities, such as increasing water demand as a result of booming socio-economy and fast population growth.

  20. Hydrological long-term dry and wet periods in the Xijiang River basin, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hydrological long-term dry and wet periods are analyzed for the Xijiang River basin in South China. Daily precipitation data of 118 stations and data on daily discharge at Gaoyao hydrological station at the mouth of the Xijiang River for the period 1961–2007 are used. At a 24-month timescale, the standardized precipitation index (SPI-24 for the six sub-basins of the Xijiang River and the standardized discharge index (SDI-24 for Gaoyao station are applied. The monthly values of the SPI-24 averaged for the Xijiang River basin correlate highly with the monthly values of the SDI-24. Distinct long-term dry and wet sequences can be detected.

    The principal component analysis is applied and shows spatial disparities in dry and wet periods for the six sub-basins. The correlation between the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins and the first principal component score shows that 67% of the variability within the sub-basins can be explained by dry and wet periods in the east of the Xijiang River basin. The spatial dipole conditions (second and third principal component explain spatiotemporal disparities in the variability of dry and wet periods. All sub-basins contribute to hydrological dry periods, while mainly the northeastern sub-basins cause wet periods in the Xijiang River. We can also conclude that long-term dry events are larger in spatial extent and cover all sub-basins while long-term wet events are regional phenomena.

    A spectral analysis is applied for the SPI-24 and the SDI-24. The results show significant peaks in periodicities of 11–14.7 yr, 2.8 yr, 3.4–3.7 yr, and 6.3–7.3 yr. The same periodic cycles can be found in the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins but with some variability in the mean magnitude. A wavelet analysis shows that significant periodicities have been stable over time since the 1980s. Extrapolations of the reconstructed SPI-24 and SDI-24 represent the continuation of observed significant periodicities at given magnitudes until 2030. The projected hydrological long-term dry and wet periods can be used for planning purposes in water resources management. The applied methodologies prove to be able to identify spatial disparities, and to detect significant periodicities in hydrological long-term dry and wet periods in the Xijiang River basin.

  1. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kabir

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different surface grids and river nodes are modeled using one-dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R-squared value indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the model including descriptions of the various components and the results of its application on case study areas.

  2. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kabir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R–squared value indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the model including descriptions of the various components and the results of its application on two case study areas.

  3. Flathead River Basin Hydrologic Observatory, Northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, W. W.; Running, S. W.; Potts, D. F.; Kimball, J. S.; Deluca, T. H.; Fagre, D. B.; Makepeace, S.; Hendrix, M. S.; Lorang, M. S.; Ellis, B. K.; Lafave, J.; Harper, J.

    2004-12-01

    We are proposing the 22, 515 km2 glacially-sculpted Flathead River Basin located in Montana and British Columbia as a Hydrologic Observatory. This hydrologic landscape is diverse and includes large pristine watersheds, rapidly developing intermountain valleys, and a 95 km2 regulated reservoir and 510 km2 lake. The basin has a topographic gradient of over 2,339 m, and spans high alpine to arid climatic zones and a range of biomes. Stream flows are snow-melt dominated and underpinned by groundwater baseflow. The site headwaters contain 37 glaciers and thousands of square kilometers of watersheds in which fire and disease are the only disturbances. In contrast, the HO also contains watersheds at multiple scales that were dominated by glaciers within the last 100 years but are now glacier free, impacted by timber harvests and fires of varying ages to varying degrees, modified by water management practices including irrigation diversion and dams, and altered by development for homes, cities and agriculture. This Observatory provides a sensitive monitor of historic and future climatic shifts, air shed influences and impacts, and the consequences of land and water management practices on the hydrologic system. The HO watersheds are some of the only pristine watersheds left in the contiguous U.S.. They provide critical habitat for key species including the native threaten bull trout and lynx, and the listed western cutthroat trout, bald eagle, gray wolf and the grizzly bear. For the last several thousand years this system has been dominated by snow-melt runoff and moderated by large quantities of water stored in glacial ice. However, the timing and magnitude of droughts and summer flows have changed dramatically. With the information that can be gleaned from sediment cores and landscape records at different scales, this HO provides scientists with opportunities to establish baseline watershed conditions and data on natural hydrologic variability within the system. Such a context frames the current and further observations and assists with translating measured changes into links with the varied HO ecosystems.

  4. Analysis of future precipitation in the Koshi river basin, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anshul; Babel, Mukand S.; Maskey, Shreedhar

    2014-05-01

    We analyzed precipitation projections for the Koshi river basin in Nepal using outputs from 10 General Circulation Models (GCMs) under three emission scenarios (B1, A1B and A2). The low resolution future precipitation data obtained from the GCMs was downscaled using the statistical downscaling model LARS-WG. The data was downscaled for 48 stations located in the six physiographic regions in the Koshi basin. The precipitation projections for three future periods, i.e. 2020s, 2055s and 2090s, are presented using empirical Probability Density Functions (PDFs) for each physiographic region. The differences between the mean values of individual GCM projections and the mean value of the multi-model for the three scenarios allow for the estimation of uncertainty in the projections. We also analyzed the precipitation of the baseline and future periods using six indices that are recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDMI). Results indicate that not all GCMs agree on weather changes in precipitation will be positive or negative. A majority of the GCMs and the average values of all the GCMs for each scenario, indicate a positive change in summer, autumn and annual precipitation but a negative change in spring precipitation. Differences in the GCM projections exist for all the three future periods and the differences increase with time. The estimated uncertainty is higher for scenario A1B compared to B1 and A2. Differences among scenarios are small during the 2020s, which become significant during the 2055s and 2090s. The length of the wet spell is expected to increase, whereas the length of the dry spell is expected to decrease in all three future periods. There is a large scatter in the values of the indices: number of days with precipitation above 20 mm, 1-day maximum precipitation, 5-day maximum precipitation, and amount of precipitation on the days with precipitation above 95th percentile, both in direction and magnitude of the change.

  5. Quantitative predictions of streamflow variability in the Susquehanna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R.; Boyer, E. W.; Leonard, L. N.; Duffy, C.; Schwarz, G. E.; Smith, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrologic researchers and water managers have increasingly sought an improved understanding of the major processes that control fluxes of water and solutes across diverse environmental settings and large spatial scales. Regional analyses of observed streamflow data have led to advances in our knowledge of relations among land use, climate, and streamflow, with methodologies ranging from statistical assessments of multiple monitoring sites to the regionalization of the parameters of catchment-scale mechanistic simulation models. However, gaps remain in our understanding of the best ways to transfer the knowledge of hydrologic response and governing processes among locations, including methods for regionalizing streamflow measurements and model predictions. We developed an approach to predict variations in streamflow using the SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) modeling infrastructure, with mechanistic functions, mass conservation constraints, and statistical estimation of regional and sub-regional parameters. We used the model to predict discharge in the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) under varying hydrological regimes that are representative of contemporary flow conditions. The resulting basin-scale water balance describes mean monthly flows in stream reaches throughout the entire SRB (represented at a 1:100,000 scale using the National Hydrologic Data network), with water supply and demand components that are inclusive of a range of hydrologic, climatic, and cultural properties (e.g., precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil and groundwater storage, runoff, baseflow, water use). We compare alternative models of varying complexity that reflect differences in the number and types of explanatory variables and functional expressions as well as spatial and temporal variability in the model parameters. Statistical estimation of the models reveals the levels of complexity that can be uniquely identified, subject to the information content and uncertainties of the hydrologic and climate measurements. Assessment of spatial variations in the model parameters and predictions provides an improved understanding of how much of the hydrologic response to land use, climate, and other properties is unique to specific locations versus more universally observed across catchments of the SRB. This approach advances understanding of water cycle variability at any location throughout the stream network, as a function of both landscape characteristics (e.g., soils, vegetation, land use) and external forcings (e.g., precipitation quantity and frequency). These improvements in predictions of streamflow dynamics will advance the ability to predict spatial and temporal variability in key solutes, such as nutrients, and their delivery to the Chesapeake Bay.

  6. Physical Structure of Northern Colorado River Basin Cloud Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, Robert M.

    This paper describes the physical structure and temporal evolution of wintertime cloud systems over the Yampa River Basin, one of the eight major subbasins supplying water to the Colorado River. The primary purpose of this work was to provide a firm foundation for the evaluation of precipitation augmentation potential of these cloud systems. Information presented in this paper is based on data collected during two wintertime field programs conducted near Colorado's Park Range. Data from a wide variety of cloud systems were analyzed to determine the temporal variation, physical distribution, and microphysical structure of supercooled liquid water. Ice phase characteristics were studied including crystal concentrations and habits, nucleation, secondary ice particle production, and growth by deposition, accretion and aggregation. The following are the major conclusions of this analysis: (1) The shallow orographic cloud system with cloud top temperature warmer than about -20(DEGREES)C was identified as the system with the largest potential for precipitation augmentation. This type of cloud system was found to have persistent and significant liquid water contents in three regions: (1) near cloud top, (2) between cloud base and approximately the -12(DEGREES)C level, and (3) in regions of strong orographic forcing. Nucleation observed near cloud top occurred by the condensation-freezing mechanism. The primary habits of crystals produced by these cloud systems were dendritic. Aggregation, fragmentation and accretion were all active processes in these cloud systems. (2) Deep cloud systems with tops colder than -20(DEGREES)C generally were found to have less potential for precipitation augmentation based on their reduced liquid water contents and frequent larger precipitation rates. Liquid water contents in deep stratiform cloud systems were generally limited to the region near the mountain crest. (3) Radiometric data suggested that organized convective regions initially contained significant supercooled water, but in a short time, convert to the ice phase. Particles falling from such clouds were frequently rimed and aggregated, suggesting complex growth processes. Three hypotheses for precipitation augmentation are formulated based on the physical distribution of liquid water and evolution of precipitation processes observed in Park Range clouds. Field experiments to test each of the individual hypotheses are described.

  7. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows in inland river basins in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Zang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management in these has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.09 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and large areas of glaciers in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 88.0% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80–90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 95% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficient in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficient were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. glaciers in upstream and desert in downstream and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation in upstream and low precipitation in downstream. There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments for the entire Heihe river basin at sub-basin level. The results are helpful for formulating reasonable water policies to improve water resources management in the inland river basins of China.

  8. Streamflow simulation in a snow affected basin: a case study of the Susquehanna River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. L.; Beighley, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    This study presents daily streamflow simulation at snow affected Susquehanna River Basin (71,000 sq km) for the period 2000-2009. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC-3L) model was used to generate surface runoff and the vertical flux of water through the root zone at a scale of 0.025 degrees (2.7 km). The VIC-3L outputs are used as inputs to the Hillslope River Routing (HRR model) that operates on an irregular grid with a mean model unit length scale of approximately 4.7 km. The HRR model simulates surface, subsurface, channel and floodplain hydraulics based on a combination of kinematic and diffusion wave methodologies. The VIC-3L model estimates surface runoff and the supply of water to the subsurface zone based on water and energy balance. The snow extent predicted by the model was compared with the MODIS snow cover products. The results show a reasonable agreement between the model snow prediction and MODIS snow measurements. The predicted streamflow flow is validated with U.S. Geologic Survey daily streamflow data. Results from the coupled hydrologic-hydraulic model (VIC-3L: HRR) provide reasonable estimates of daily and annual runoff, flood peaks, and seasonal distributions at sub-watersheds and watershed scales. During the 9 years of study period, no annual peak flow/flood was observed when snow was present on the ground. Every year flood was observed after the snow melt followed by the rainfall. Water storage in the winter as snow and melting during the spring/rainy season turn average streamflow into peak flow/flood.

  9. Multi-model comparison of a major flood in the groundwater-fed basin of the Somme River (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Habets, F.; Gascoin, S.; Korkmaz, S.; Thie?ry, D.; Zribi, M.; Amraoui, N.; Carli, M.; Ducharne, A.; Leblois, E.; Ledoux, E.; Martin, E.; Noilhan, J.; Ottle?, C.; Viennot, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Somme River Basin is located above a chalk aquifer and the discharge of the somme River is highly influenced by groundwater inflow (90% of river discharge is baseflow). In 2001, the Somme River Basin suffered from a major flood causing damages estimated to 100 million Euro (Deneux and Martin, 2001). The purpose of the present research is to evaluate the ability of four hydrologic models to reproduce flood events in the Somme River Basin over an 18-year period, by comparison with observed ...

  10. Characterizing, Monitoring and Forecasting of Drought in Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Shatanawi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jordan is very vulnerable to drought because of its location in the arid to semi-arid part of the Middle East. Droughts coupled with water scarcity are becoming a serious threat to the economic growth, social cohesion and political stability. Rainfall time series from four rain stations covering the Jordan River Basin were analyzed for drought characterization and forecasting using standardized precipitation index (SPI, Markov chain and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model. The 7-year moving average of Amman data showed a decreasing trend while data from the other three stations were stable or showed an increasing trend. The frequency analysis indicated 2-year return period for near zero SPI values while the return period for moderate drought was 7 years. Successive droughts had occurred at least three times during the past 40 years. Severe droughts are expected once every 20 - 25 year period at all rain stations. The extreme droughts were rare events with return periods between 80 and 115 years. There are equal occurrence probabilities for drought and wet conditions in any given year, irrespective, of the condition in the previous year. The results showed that ARIMA model was successful in predicting the overall statistics with a given period at annual scales. The overall number of predicted/observed droughts during the validation periods were 2/2 severe droughts for Amman station and, 0/1, 1/1, 0/1 extreme droughts for Amman, Irbid and Mafraq stations, respectively. In addition, the ARIMA model also predicted 3 out of 4 actual moderate droughts for Amman and Mafraq stations. It was concluded that early warning of developing droughts can be deduced form the monthly Markov transitional probabilities. ARIMA models can be used as a forecasting tool of the future drought trends. Using the first and second order Markov probabilities can complement the ARIMA predictions.

  11. SURVEY OF COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN STREAMS FOR COLUMBIA PEBBLESNAIL Fluminicola columbiana AND SHORTFACE LANX Fisherola nuttalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D. A.; Frest, T. J.

    1993-05-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; the lower Salmon River and middle Snake River, Idaho; and possibly in Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon; and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historical range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde, Washington and Oregon; Imnaha and John Day rivers, Oregon; Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River: Columbia pebblesnail to a population in the Hanford Reach plus six other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major mbutaries shortface lanx to two populations (in the Hanford Reach and near Bonneville Dam) plus nine other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  12. Prospects for Learning in River Management: Exploring the Initial Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Swedish River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundmark, Carina; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    This case study explores the initial implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Lule River basin, Sweden, examining how and to what extent administrative procedures enable learning through dialogue and stakeholder collaboration. Theorising on adaptive co-management and social learning is used to structure what is to be learnt,…

  13. Allozyme comparison of two populations of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from the Ivaí River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Limeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two allopatric morphotypes of the genus Rinelocaria were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique: one morphotype, R. pentamaculata, from the Keller River in the middle stretch of the Ivaí River basin and the other, R. aff. pentamaculata, from the São João River in the upper portion of the Ivaí River basin. The morphotype from the São João River was collected upstream from the São João waterfall, which is about 80 m deep. Twelve enzymatic systems (AAT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD were analyzed, which allowed to score 22 loci. Only loci Aat-2, Est-3 and Mdh-C showed polymorphism. The two samples differed in allele frequencies at the three polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity for all loci was 0.0806 ± 0.0447 in the Keller River sample. For the São João River morphotype, this value was 0.0489 ± 0.0350. Nei' s genetic identity and distance between the two populations were respectively 0.9789 and 0.0213. Wright's F IS, F IT and F STover all loci were estimated as 0.3121, 0.4021 and 0.1309, respectively. We consider that the two morphotypes represent species in statu nascendi.

  14. Inorganic arsenic speciation at river basin scales: The Tinto and Odiel Rivers in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers are heavily affected by acid mine drainage from mining areas in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. In this work we have conducted a study along these rivers where surface water samples have been collected. Field measurements, total dissolved metals and Fe and inorganic As speciation analysis were performed. The average total concentration of As in the Tinto river (1975 ?g L-1) is larger than in the Odiel river (441 ?g L-1); however, the mean concentration of As(III) is almost four times higher in the Odiel. In wet seasons the mean pH levels of both rivers (2.4 and 3.2 for the Tinto and Odiel, respectively) increase slightly and the amount of dissolved total arsenic tend to decrease, while the As(III)/(V) ratio strongly increase. Besides, the concentration of the reduced As species increase along the water course. As a result, As(III)/(V) ratio can be up to 100 times higher in the lower part of the basins. An estimation of the As(III) load transported by both rivers into the Atlantic Ocean has been performed, resulting in about 60 kg yr-1 and 2.7 t yr-1 by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, respectively. - Total arsenic concentration decreases along the water basins, however the As(III)/(V) ratio increases

  15. Tracing nutrient sources in the Mississippi River Basin, United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide information for the development of management strategies to reduce N loads and enhance N attenuation mechanisms, isotopic techniques have been used to investigate the sources and cycling of nutrients at a number of sites in the Mississippi Basin (which includes the Ohio and Missouri River Basins). About half of the POM in the Mississippi (and other big rivers in the USA) is composed of plankton and/or heterotrophic bacteria. This suggests that in-situ productivity may be a significant source of bioavailable organic matter contributing to the hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Monthly samples from 19 river sites in the Basin sampled over 5 years showed that ? 15N and ? 13C were quite useful in discriminating among four major categories of POM: terrestrial soil, fresh terrestrial vegetation, aquatic macrophytes, and plankton/bacteria The isotopic data, along with ancillary chemical and hydrologic measurements, were also useful for documenting seasonal changes in in-situ processes. A pilot study in 2000-2001, designed to investigate the usefulness of isotopic techniques for determining nutrient sources in 24 medium and large watersheds in the Basin, found that nitrate and POM from basins with different land uses (e.g., row crops, animal farming, urban development, and undeveloped) had moderately distinctive isotopic compositions. The nitrate ? 18O and ? 15N values of the large rivers sites resembled the compositions vers sites resembled the compositions seen in sites dominated by row crops. Sites with livestock tended to have high ? 15N values characteristic of manure, and urban and undeveloped sites tended to have higher ? 18O values characteristic of a significant fraction of atmospheric nitrate. The ? 18O data were critical in showing abrupt changes in nitrate sources with discharge. A more thorough study of nutrient sources in the Ohio River Basin was initiated in 2002. For this study, nitrate, POM, and water were collected 15-20 times each year at 6 small NAWQA-program watersheds in the White River- Miami River basins, and at the 7 large river NASQAN-program sites in the Ohio River Basin. Nitrate samples were analyzed for ? 15N and ? 18O, POM for ? 15N and ? 13C, and water for ? 18O and ? 2H. The ? 15N and ? 13C of fish were used as indicators of nutrient sources. Other studies have indicated that POM consists primarily of phytoplankton and is transported in the water column, particularly size fractions < 1-mm diameter, were the primary food source for food webs in the Ohio and Upper Mississippi Rivers

  16. Nutrients dynamics in the main river basins of the centre-southern region of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Jaime; Vergara, Pablo M; Rodríguez, José A; Sanhueza, Pedro A; Castro, Sergio A

    2010-03-15

    Chilean basins have long been exposed to nutrient discharges from human activities and land use changes. A historical seasonal NO(3)(-)-N and PO(4)(3-)-P database of the last 23 years of the main nine rivers of central-southern region of Chile was analysed. Generalized additive models indicated that annual trends in NO(3)(-)-N and PO(4)(3-)-P are nonlinear. River basins such as Bío-Bío, Bueno, Imperial, Maule, Rapel and Valdivia showed a clear increase in NO(3)(-)-N, while PO(4)(3-)-P increased only in the Rapel and Maule basins. Although no seasonal difference in NO(3)(-)-N and PO(4)(3-)-P was found in the analysed basins, there was a negative relation between these nutrients and water flow. Sampling stations with high NO(3)(-)-N concentration were found mostly in sub-basins located in the "central valley" of central Chile, while several PO(4)(3-)-P "over-concentrated" sampling stations were located mostly upstream. If NO(3)(-)-N emissions into Chilean river basins continue at current rates it is probable that the concentration of this nutrient will tend to match that of the most "polluted" rivers around the world. PMID:19926214

  17. Estimating annual precipitation for the Colorado River Basin using oceanic-atmospheric oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Ajay; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2012-06-01

    Estimating long-lead time precipitation under the stress of increased climatic variability is a challenging task in the field of hydrology. A modified Support Vector Machine (SVM) based framework is proposed to estimate annual precipitation using oceanic-atmospheric oscillations. Oceanic-atmospheric oscillations, consisting of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) for a period of 1900-2008, are used to generate annual precipitation estimates with a 1 year lead time. The SVM model is applied to 17 climate divisions encompassing the Colorado River Basin in the western United States. The overall results revealed that the annual precipitation in the Colorado River Basin is significantly influenced by oceanic-atmospheric oscillations. The long-term precipitation predictions for the Upper Colorado River Basin can be successfully obtained using a combination of PDO, NAO, and AMO indices, whereas coupling AMO and ENSO results in improved precipitation predictions for the Lower Colorado River Basin. The results also show that the SVM model provides better precipitation estimates compared to the Artificial Neural Network and Multivariate Linear Regression models. The annual precipitation estimates obtained using the modified SVM modeling framework may assist water managers in statistically understanding the hydrologic response in relation to large scale climate patterns within the Colorado River Basin.

  18. Sediment supply as a driver of river meandering and floodplain evolution in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, José Antonio; Dunne, Thomas; Ahmed, Joshua; Legleiter, Carl; Lazarus, Eli D.

    2014-12-01

    The role of externally imposed sediment supplies on the evolution of meandering rivers and their floodplains is poorly understood, despite analytical advances in our physical understanding of river meandering. The Amazon river basin hosts tributaries that are largely unaffected by engineering controls and hold a range of sediment loads, allowing us to explore the influence that sediment supply has on river evolution. Here we calculate average annual rates of meander migration within 20 reaches in the Amazon Basin from Landsat imagery spanning 1985-2013. We find that rivers with high sediment loads experience annual migration rates that are higher than those of rivers with lower sediment loads. Meander cutoff also occurs more frequently along rivers with higher sediment loads. Differences in meander migration and cutoff rates between the study reaches are not explained by differences in channel slope or river discharge. Because faster meander migration and higher cutoff rates lead to increased sediment-storage space in the resulting oxbows, we suggest that sediment supply modulates the reshaping of floodplain environments by meandering rivers. We conclude that imposed sediment loads influence planform changes in lowland rivers across the Amazon.

  19. Soil productive potential of the river basins located in European part of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Shoba, Sergei; Trifonova, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The search for integral monitoring indicators of natural ecosystems biosphere functions assessment is becoming really urgent nowadays. From the point of view of ecologic and economic indicators, characterizing ecosystems structure and functioning, soil fertility and vegetation productivity parameters, which have been studied for a long time as biosphere and environment forming functions rank first priority. For integrated characteristic of ecosystems soil and vegetation condition we have suggested to apply the index of "soil-productive potential" (SPP), characterizing the ability of nature and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems for sustained product (phytomass) reproduction under specific soil-bioclimatic conditions. It characterizes ecosystem reserve via the index expressed in numbers and averages the following parameters: • specific phytomass reserve (all living elevated and underground parts of plants in terms of total dry mass t/ hectare are considered); • specific productivity (phytomass augmentation for a year per unit area); • natural soil fertility (humus content, % as a characteristic); • crop-producing power (grain crop-producing power is considered, centner/hectare); • bioclimatic parameters (integrated index, including the sum of biologically active temperatures and moistening coefficient); • soil-ecologic index (SEI). Soil-productive potential allows the assessment of average perennial area resource for phytomass production by natural and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems. For more convenient comparative estimation, characteristics are ranked by dividing them into equal intervals according to 5-number scale with consequent numbers summation to overall index. As a result both soil-productive potential of natural eco-systems and total soil-productive potential of the whole area with a glance to the condition of available agrocenosis are calculated. Soil-productive potential of 12 first-rank major river basins of the European part of Russia have been assessed. Within the largest basin in terms of watershed area of the Volga, the Oka and the Kama (2-nd rank river basins) have been singled out and characterized separately. The method of river basins boundaries overlapping (in digital map scaled 1:1000000) on zonal spaces in «Arc GIS» has been applied. The biggest phytomass reserve is concentrated in the Neva and the Oka river basins, in the southern direction phytomass reserve is gradually declining due to the decrease of forest area. The most productive areas are the Don, the Ural, the Kuban basins. Productivity of the Volga basin ecosystems as a whole is medial (the highest values are typical for the Oka basin). The highest humus content is registered in the Kuban river basin, the lowest - in the North Dvina basin. The most favourable bioclimatic conditions are observed in the Dnieper basin. As a result high values of soil-productive potential are typical for the ecosystems of the Dnieper, the Kuban and the Volga basins where this value is high only due to the Oka basin area. The received values of soil-productive potential were correlated to hydraulogic characteristics of these basins, peculiarities of land use and arable land condition (according to SEI and crop capacity). High discharge module is stated to be typical for the northern rivers basins of little soil-productive potential (the Pechora, the Mezen); river basins of high soil-productive potential are characterized by low or average values of discharge module (the Dnieper, the Oka, the Kuban). The most agriculturally developed area is the Don basin, as here agricultural load reaches the highest limit, about 60% of the area is ploughed up though natural ecosystems and agricultural systems potential is not the highest, that may threaten the proper functioning of the basin. Ecosystem high soil-productive potential in the Kuban basin corresponds to good condition of arable lands, high crop capacity and great agricultural development of the area.

  20. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  1. Heavy metal transport in the hindon river basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, C K; Sharma, M K

    2006-01-01

    Total mass transfers of heavy metal in dissolved and particulate form has been determined in the downstream section of river Hindon, an important tributary of river Yamuna (India). The contribution of different point sources to the river Hindon has also been assessed. The river Kali has the largest contribution to the river Hindon. The highest metal loads were related to the highest flow of the river and thereby increased both by surface runoff and sediment resuspension. The contribution of monsoon months to the total transported load was also calculated and it was observed that monsoon months contributes more than 40% of total loading annually for all the metals. The metal fluxes from the river Hindon were compared with other rivers of Indian sub-continent. PMID:16404544

  2. Spatial Patterns of Suspended Sediment Yield in the Upper Indus River Basin, Northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, K.; de Boer, D. H.; Martz, L. W.

    2004-05-01

    The Indus River is one of the world`s largest rivers in term of water discharge and sediment loads, and the backbone of Pakistan`s economy for agriculture and hydropower. Much of its flow originates in the mountains of the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush. The suspended sediment load, which constitutes the main portion of the total load in mountain rivers, creates major water resources management problems such as siltation of reservoirs, damage to turbines, and a reduction in water quality. An understanding of the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the upper Indus River basin is, therefore, essential for effective water resources development in northern Pakistan. Discharge and suspended sediment concentration records are available for 17 active and discontinued hydrological stations (with drainage areas ranging from 600 to 166,000 km2) operated by the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority. The objective of this study is to delineate the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the basin by analyzing the available hydrological database. Sediment yields have been calculated by constructing sediment rating curves. Physiographic characteristics, hydrologic regimes and climatic patterns of the basin have also been investigated. The results show that the upper Indus River basin can be subdivided into three regions based on suspended sediments yield. This division reflects the contrasting hydrological regimes of the basin. Region 1 comprises the high elevation, glacierized areas of the Karakoram Mountains in the northernmost part of the basin. This region extends downstream to Partab Bridge on the Indus River, and excludes areas around Nanga Parbat, which acts as a barrier to the monsoon. The sediments are mainly derived from the Shyok, Shigar, Hunza and Gilgit sub-basins during the period of increasing summer runoff in June. This runoff is caused by the melt of glaciers and permanent snow pack, and peaks in July and August, when almost the entire annual sediment load is transported. The mean annual sediment yield is greatest in the 28% glaciated Hunza River basin which accounts for more than 2800 t km-2 year-1. Region 2 is characterized by the sediment yields that result from an interaction of monsoon rains and glacier-melt. This region extends from Partab Bridge to Besham Qila. The Astore River produces the highest specific discharges in the basin, which are from southwest flanks of Nanga Parbat. Region 3 includes the area between Besham Qila and Tarbela Dam with the Gorband, Siran and Brandu tributaries. This part of the basin is mainly rain fed with little snow, and experience two types of rainfall: summer monsoon rains, and late winter and early spring rainfall produced by disturbances coming from the west that derive sediment on the hill slopes. This results in two separate peaks in the sediment loads, in March and July, respectively. This study can be further extended to construct a sediment budget for the upper Indus River. A sediment budget would result in a better understanding of the sediment dynamics by providing an accounting of the fluxes and fate of sediment in the drainage basin. The upper Indus exists in natural basin conditions without significant human impacts. As the sparse gauging network in this large basin is rapidly decreasing in density, the upper Indus basin represents a good case study for investigating the sediment dynamics in a data-sparse river as a contribution to the Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) program.

  3. Application of YHyM/BTOPMC to evaluate hydrological response of Kali Gandaki River Basin (KGRB) in Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, S.; Pandey, V. P.; Ishidaira, H.; Kazama, F.

    2011-12-01

    Snowmelt runoff is an important source of water resources in the mountainous basins of Nepal. Modeling snowmelt runoff is challenging especially when snow observations are unavailable. In order to overcome the data shortage, YHyM/BTOPMC, a physically-based distributed hydrological model integrated with a simple degree-day based snow accumulation/melt sub-model was applied to evaluate hydrological response of Kali Gandaki River Basin (KGRB) in Western Nepal. It is apparent that temperature in Nepal is increasing, progressively higher for high elevations and precipitation is becoming more erratic. Hence, the snowmelt process, river runoff and water availability in KGRB is sensitive to the increasing climate change. The objective of this study is to assess the hydrological response of the basin to different climatic perturbation. Assessing the runoff pattern/water availability situation is very important in flood risk management, water use planning and in overall management of water resources. Public domain global data along with daily measured temperature and rainfall data were used in this study. The model was calibrated and validated using daily observed discharges and the stream flow in KGRB can be predicted with an acceptable degree of accuracy. The model performance was tested through the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency objective function and by the volume ratio of simulated to observed discharge. Annual temporal variability of stream-flow was also plotted to ensure the response of KGRB to temperature and precipitation changes.

  4. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.C.; Mercier, T.J.; Brownfield, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently (2011) completed an assessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of grade, in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Greater Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah. Green River Formation oil shale also is present in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado, and the results of these assessments are published separately. No attempt was made to estimate the amount of oil that is economically recoverable because there has not yet been an economic method developed to recover the oil from Green River Formation oil shale.

  5. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Frest, T.J. [Deixis Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species` historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river`s major tributaries.

  6. Isotope characterization of major rivers of Indus Basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan lies between latitudes 24 deg. and 37 deg. North and longitudes 61 deg. to 76 deg. east. It possesses quite complicated and attractive physiographical features. There are very often a series of mountain ranges possessing deep broad valleys in-between. It includes the famous valley of the Indus having Indus River, which is one of the longest rivers in the World. It has five major tributaries: Bias, Satlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum joining from the eastern side, while a number of small rivers join the Indus on the right side. All these main rivers are perennial. They originate from the mountains. Physiography and climate of the catchments of these rivers vary widely. Going from the catchment of the River Satlej to the catchment of Indus River, altitude increases and temperature decreases. In Northern Areas, mountains are covered with glaciers and some of the peaks are higher than 8000m, which get snowfall even in summer season. The basic sources of these rivers are snowmelt, rainfall and under certain conditions seepage from the formations. From the middle of March to the breaking of monsoon, in mid July, river water is drawn from the melting of snow. During monsoon, rainfall run-off is added to the rivers over and above of snowmelt, so their discharge increases manifold. During 1980-84, samples were collected on monthly basis from the river Satlej at Sulimanki, the river Ravi at Baloki (upstream including Qadirabad-Baloki Link Canal originating from the river Cki Link Canal originating from the river Chenab) and Sidnai including two link canals originating from Trimu Headworks (just after the confluence of the rivers Chenab and Jhelum), Panjnad (combination of five eastern tributaries) and the river Indus at Tarbela and Taunsa. The samples were analyzed for 18O,2H and 3H isotopes. The isotopic data (ranges, mean values) and ?18O-?2H correlations are tabulated

  7. Snow cover, snowmelt and runoff in the Himalayan River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, B.; Sharma, V. K.; Goswami, D. C.; Rao, P. Subba

    1988-01-01

    Not withstanding the seasonal vagaries of both rainfall amount and snowcover extent, the Himalayan rivers retain their basic perennial character. However, it is the component of snowmelt yield that accounts for some 60 to 70 percent of the total annual flow volumes from Hamilayan watersheds. On this large hydropotential predominantly depends the temporal performance of hydropower generation and major irrigation projects. The large scale effects of Himalayan snowcover on the hydrologic responses of a few selected catchments in western Himalayas was studied. The antecedent effects of snowcover area on long and short term meltwater yields can best be analyzed by developing appropriate hydrologic models forecasting the pattern of snowmelt as a function of variations in snowcover area. It is hoped that these models would be of practical value in the management of water resources. The predictability of meltwater for the entire snowmelt season was studied, as was the concurrent flow variation in adjacent watersheds, and their hydrologic significance. And the applicability of the Snowmelt-Runoff Model for real time forecast of daily discharges during the major part of the snowmelt season is examined.

  8. ASSESSING THE AVERAGE MULTI-ANNUAL RUNOFF IN THE TUR RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana POP

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the average multi-annual runoff in the Tur River Basin. The rivers multiannual runoff is the mean parameter for evaluating the rivers water resources and represents an important characteristic in the rivers water utilization research. The inventory methods to asses the average multi-annual runoffs are various, depending mostly from the available database. In this study we used data from eight hydrometrical stations representing data between the years 1979 and 2007. We present in this study a base method of assessing the average multiannual runoff resolved with traditional and modern GIS methods.

  9. Free-living and particle-associated bacterioplankton in large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin demonstrate biogeographic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Colin R; Millar, Justin J; Payne, Jason T; Ochs, Clifford A

    2014-09-12

    The different drainage basins of large rivers such as the Mississippi River represent interesting systems in which to study patterns in freshwater microbial biogeography. Spatial variability in bacterioplankton communities in six major rivers (the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, Tennessee, and Arkansas) of the Mississippi River Basin was characterized using Ion Torrent 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. When all systems were combined, particle-associated (>3 micron) bacterial assemblages were different from free-living bacterioplankton in terms of overall community structure, partly because of differences in the proportional abundance of sequences affiliated with major bacterial lineages (Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes). Both particle-associated and free-living communities ordinated by river system, a pattern that was apparent even after rare sequences or those affiliated with Cyanobacteria were removed from the analyses. Ordination of samples by river system correlated with environmental characteristics of each river, such as nutrient status and turbidity. Communities in the Upper Mississippi and the Missouri, and the Ohio and the Tennessee, pairs of rivers that join each other, contained similar taxa in terms of presence/absence data, but differed in the proportional abundance of major lineages. The most common sequence types detected in particle-associated communities were picocyanobacteria in the Syn/Pro clade, while free-living communities also contained a high proportion of LD12 (SAR11/Pelagibacter)-like Alphaproteobacteria. This research shows that while different tributaries of large river systems such as the Mississippi River harbor distinct bacterioplankton communities, there is also microhabitat variation such as that between free-living and particle-associated assemblages. PMID:25217018

  10. Export of Nitrogen From the Yukon River Basin to the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornblaser, M. M.; Striegl, R. G.

    2005-12-01

    The US Geological Survey measured nitrogen export from the 831,400 km2 Yukon River basin during 2001-04 as part of a five year water quality study of the Yukon River and its major tributaries. Concentrations of NO2+NO3, NH4+DON, and particulate N were measured ~6 times annually during open water and once under ice cover at three locations on the Yukon River, and on the Porcupine and Tanana Rivers. Concentration and continuous flow data were used to generate daily and annual loads of N species. NH4 concentration was generally negligible when compared to DON concentration, allowing for comparison of the relative importance of DIN vs. DON export at various watershed scales. NO2 concentration was also small compared to NO3. At Pilot Station, the last site on the Yukon before it flows into the Yukon Delta and the Bering Sea, DIN, DON, and particulate N loads averaged 19.3 × 106 kg/yr, 52.6 × 106 kg/yr, and 39.1 × 106 kg/yr, respectively. Normalized for the watershed area at Pilot Station, corresponding N yields were 1.65, 4.52, and 3.35 mmol/m2/yr. DIN yield for the Yukon at Pilot Station is substantially less than the NO3 flux reported for tropical/temperate rivers such as the Amazon, the Yangtze, and the Mississippi. DIN yield in the upper Yukon River basin is similar to that of the Mackenzie and other arctic rivers, but increases substantially downstream. This is likely due to development around Fairbanks in the Tanana River basin. When compared to other headwater basins in the upper Yukon, the Tanana basin yields about four times more DIN and two times more particulate N, while DON yields are only slightly elevated.

  11. Sr and Nd isotopes of suspended sediments from rivers of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatting, Karina; Santos, Roberto V.; Sondag, Francis

    2014-05-01

    The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems are important tools to constrain the provenance of sediment load in river systems. This study presents the isotopic composition of Sr and Nd isotopes and major and minor elements in suspended sediments from the Marañón-Solimões, Amazonas and Beni-Madeira rivers. The data were used to constrain the source region of the sediments and to better understand the main seasonal and spatial transport processes within the basin based on the variations of the chemical and isotopic signals. They also allow establishing a relationship between sediment concentrations and flow rate values. The study presents data collected during a hydrological year between 2009 and 2010. The Marañón-Solimões River presents low Sr isotopic values (0.7090-0.7186), broad EpslonNd(0) range (-15.17 to -8.09) and Nd model (TDM) ages varying from 0.99 to 1.81 Ga. Sources of sediments to the Marañón-Solimões River include recent volcanic rocks in northern Peru and Ecuador, as well as rocks with long crustal residence time and carbonates from the Marañón Basin, Peru. The Beni-Madeira River has more radiogenic Sr isotope values (0.7255-0.7403), more negative EpslonNd(0) values (-20.46 to -10.47), and older Nd isotope model ages (from 1.40 to 2.35 Ga) when compared to the Marañón-Solimões River. These isotope data were related to the erosion of Paleozoic and Cenozoic foreland basins that are filled with Precambrian sediments derived from the Amazonian Craton. These basins are located in Bolivian Subandina Zone. The Amazon River presents intermediate isotopic values when compared to those found in the Marañón-Solimões and Beni-Madeira rivers. Its Sr isotope ratios range between 0.7193 and 0.7290, and its EpslonNd(0) values varies between -11.09 and -9.51. The Nd isotope model ages of the suspended sediments vary between 1.28 and 1.77 Ga. Concentrations of soluble and insoluble elements indicate a more intense weathering activity in sediments of the Beni-Madeira River. This river has a larger difference in the Sr isotopic composition between the diluted and solid phases, which has been assigned to the high level of weathering of its sediment source area. In the Beni-Madeira River sub-basin dominates weathering of silicate rocks, while in the Marañón-Solimões River sub-basin there also weathering of carbonate and evaporitic rocks.

  12. Upper and Middle Tiete River Basin dam-hydraulic system, travel time and temperature modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Bishnu; Imberger, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    SummaryTiete River System in the State of Sao Paolo, Brazil is characterized by complex hydraulics and operational problems due to series of dams and point and diffuse inflows along the river. A one dimension Lagrangian river model was developed and applied to the 313 km reach of the Upper and Middle Tiete River Basin from the Penha Dam to the head water of Bara Bonita Reservoir, a stretch of river that includes six small to medium size dams (3.4-22 m high) including the Pirapora Reservoir and 26 inflows into the river (11 tributaries, 9 diffuse source areas, and discharges of 4 cities stormwater and 2 wastewater treatment plants. The conservative tracer transport and temperature model that accounts for the short and long wave radiation and heat transfers at the free surface was included and solved using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The time variable catchment input to the model was the simulated output of the external hydrological model called Runoff Load Model which results were provided by CETESB. The numerical treatment of series of dams and spillway (that included uncontrolled overflow spillway, gate-controlled ogee spillway; and underflow gates and tunnels) and parameterisation of hydraulic jumps are described. Special attention was focused on the high spatial and temporal variation of flows in Tiete River Basin, a result of the large variation in catchment inflows and channel geometry due to dams and reservoirs along the river. Predicted and measured spatial and seasonal variation of flow and temperature profiles along the river show good agreement. The simulated travel time of conservative tracer is compared against the CETESB's 1982 and 1984 field study data in a 254 km reach of the Middle Tiete River that again shows good agreement. Being Lagrangian in construction, this new model is computationally efficient making it an ideal tool for long term simulation for water resource planning, management and operation decision making in a large and complex river basin system.

  13. Emergence and Evolution of Endogenous Water Institutions in an African River Basin: Local Water Governance and State Intervention in the Pangani River Basin, Tanzania:

    OpenAIRE

    Komakech, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    Water management challenges in basins of Sub-Saharan Africa and in other parts of the world are increasing due to rapid urbanisation, poverty and food insecurity, energy demands, and climate change. Nearly half of the world population live in cities, and this is estimated to reach two-thirds of the world's population by the year 2050. The need to improve water services in cities poses new challenges to river basin management. Water transfer from other sectors to cities is an obvious way of re...

  14. Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation: Review of River Basin Management Planning in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHMIDT Catrin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2009, programmes of measures and river basin management plans under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD had for the first time been set up for all 10 river basin districts inGermany. They provide the water management planning tools for achieving good status of surface and groundwater by 2015. Since a good ecological status for many water bodies cannot be attained by this deadline, the Directive provides for two supplementary planning cycles running to 2021 and 2027 respectively. Owing to its ecological approach, the WFD has much in common with nature conservation. The project “Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation” sought to discover how the aims of the WFD and nature conservation are linked in the practice of river basin management planning and what possibilities there are for optimisation from a nature conservation point of view. On this basis, proposals were made for updating and implementing plans.

  15. Herbicide concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin - The importance of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebich, R.A.; Coupe, R.H.; Thurman, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    The proportion of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradates, specifically the ethane sulfonic (ESA) and oxanilic (OA) acids, averaged 70% of the total herbicide concentration in samples from the Upper Mississippi River. In samples from the Missouri River and the Ohio River, the proportion of chloroacetanilide degradates in the total herbicide concentration was much less, 24% and 41%, respectively. The amount of tile drainage throughout the Mississippi River Basin appeared to be related to the occurrence and distribution of chloroacetanilide degradates in water samples. Pesticide concentrations in streams of the Mississippi River Basin have been well characterized. However, recent research demonstrates that in order to more fully understand the fate and transport of pesticides, the major pesticide degradates need to be included in the analysis. From March 1999 through May 2001, water samples from four major junctures of the Mississippi River Basin were collected and analyzed for a suite of herbicides and their degradate compounds. Each sampling site was selected to represent a major part of the Mississippi River: upper and lower Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio Rivers. Each basin has unique landscape variables, geology, hydrology, precipitation, and land use, which is reflected in the pesticide content at the most downstream sample site near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Atrazine was the most frequently detected herbicide (detected in 97% of the samples), followed by metolachlor (60%), and acetochlor (31%). The most frequently detected degradates were metolachlor ESA (69%), followed by deethylatrazine (62%), metolachlor OA (37%), and alachlor ESA (37%). Metolachlor ESA was detected more frequently than its parent compound (69 vs. 60%), as was alachlor ESA (37 vs. 9%). After an improvement was made in the analytical method, metolachlor ESA was detected in every sample, metolachlor OA in 89% of the samples, alachlor ESA in 84%, acetochlor ESA in 71%, and acetochlor OA in 66%. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ?????????????? Analysis of Runoff Evolution Law of Tarim River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Kp???Morlet?????????(kendall?????????????????????(1958~2007???????????????????????????????????????????26%??????????????17????????????????????????????? The uncertainty of runoff rules of Tarim River’s headwaters leads to the great change of composi-tion of Tarim River’s main stream. To analyze the runoff rules of Tarim River’s headwaters and trunk stream, and provide the basis for sustainable development of water resources, this study selects modulus coefficient Kp method, Morlet wavelet analysis method and Kendall rank test model to analyze the abundance, cycle and trends annual runoff rules of headwaters and Alar hydrological station (1958-2007 at main stream of Tarim River. The results show that, the frequency synchronization of abundance of headwaters and main stream is 26%. The existing cycles is 17-year cycle, the runoff trend of headwaters are increasing or decreasing, while decreasing at main stream.

  17. Reconnaissance of contaminants in selected wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and stormwater runoff entering the Columbia River, Columbia River Basin, Washington and Oregon, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic contamination is a significant concern in the Columbia River Basin in Washington and Oregon. To help water managers and policy makers in decision making about future sampling efforts and toxic-reduction activities, a reconnaissance was done to assess contaminant concentrations directly contributed to the Columbia River through wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent and stormwater runoff from adjacent urban environments and to evaluate instantaneous loadings to the Columbia River Basin from these inputs.

  18. Modeling discharge and water quality in a temporary river basin using SWAT model: A case-study on the Ardila river

    OpenAIRE

    Dura?o, Anabela; Serafim, Anto?nio; Brito, David; Morais, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Temporary rivers have a hydrologic variability, which are characterized by long drought periods and short floods events, that influences water quality. Analysis of river flow generated in the Ardila river basin (temporary regime) using precipitation data (from 1931 to 2003) from a weather station, located within the basin, at the Portuguese side (which represents only 22% of the study area) showed a discrepancy between the modeled and observed runoff since 1981. It was also revealed a satisfa...

  19. Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The high demand for water, the recent multiyear drought (1999-2007), and projections of global warming have raised questions about the long-term sustainability of water supply in the southwestern United States. In this study, the potential effects of specific levels of atmospheric warming on water-year streamflow in the Colorado River basin are evaluated using a water-balance model, and the results are analyzed within the context of a multi-century tree-ring reconstruction (1490-1998) of streamflow for the basin. The results indicate that if future warming occurs in the basin and is not accompanied by increased precipitation, then the basin is likely to experience periods of water supply shortages more severe than those inferred from the longterm historical tree-ring reconstruction. Furthermore, the modeling results suggest that future warming would increase the likelihood of failure to meet the water allocation requirements of the Colorado River Compact.

  20. Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2007-11-01

    The high demand for water, the recent multiyear drought (1999-2007), and projections of global warming have raised questions about the long-term sustainability of water supply in the southwestern United States. In this study, the potential effects of specific levels of atmospheric warming on water-year streamflow in the Colorado River basin are evaluated using a water-balance model, and the results are analyzed within the context of a multi-century tree-ring reconstruction (1490-1998) of streamflow for the basin. The results indicate that if future warming occurs in the basin and is not accompanied by increased precipitation, then the basin is likely to experience periods of water supply shortages more severe than those inferred from the long-term historical tree-ring reconstruction. Furthermore, the modeling results suggest that future warming would increase the likelihood of failure to meet the water allocation requirements of the Colorado River Compact.

  1. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Frest, T.J. (Deixis Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  2. Large-scale hydrodynamic modeling of the middle Yangtze River Basin with complex river-lake interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xijun; Jiang, Jiahu; Liang, Qiuhua; Huang, Qun

    2013-06-01

    The flow regime in the middle Yangtze River Basin is experiencing rapid changes due to intensive human activities and ongoing climate change. The middle reach of Yangtze River and the associated water system are extremely difficult to be reliably modeled due to highly complex interactions between the main stream and many tributaries and lakes. This paper presents a new Coupled Hydrodynamic Analysis Model (CHAM) designed for simulating the large-scale water system in the middle Yangtze River Basin, featured with complex river-lake interactions. CHAM dynamically couples a one-dimensional (1-D) unsteady flow model and a two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic model using a new coupling algorithm that is particularly suitable for large-scale water systems. Numerical simulations are carried out to reproduce the flow regime in the region in 1998 when a severe flood event occurred and in 2006 when it experienced an extremely dry year. The model is able to reproduce satisfactorily the major physical processes featured with seasonal wetting and drying controlled by strong river-lake interactions. This indicates that the present model provides a promising tool for predicting complex flow regimes with remarkable seasonal changes and strong river-lake interactions.

  3. Highlights of the Mackenzie River Basin Board's state of the aquatic ecosystem report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Mackenzie River Basin Board was created to implement the Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement signed by participating governments in 1997. Its purpose is to promote the ecological health of the Mackenzie River Basin. It consists of thirteen members who represent the governments of Canada, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories and Yukon as well as Aboriginal people throughout the basin. The purpose of this report is to assist local residents and decision makers in understanding the present state of aquatic ecosystems in the Mackenzie River Basin; identify knowledge and management gaps and recommend improvements; and highlight the importance of traditional ecological knowledge as a necessary component in ecological assessment. The summary report contains information on drainage basins; the Mackenzie River Basin, the goals and guiding principles of the Mackenzie River Basin Board; key Issues and information gaps in the basin in terms of improved knowledge; traditional ecological knowledge; external sources of pollution; climate change; water quality; and industrial wastes. The summary report also discusses issues in the region such as source water protection; country food safety; protection of aquatic ecosystem biodiversity; the Peace-Athabasca, Slave and Mackenzie Deltas; fish in the basin; bilateral agreements; and watershed approach. tabs., figs.

  4. Estimating Total Discharge in the Yangtze River Basin Using Satellite-Based Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Andam?akorful, Samuel A.; Yonglei Zhang; Xiufeng He; Zheng Gong; Ferreira, Vagner G.

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of total basin discharge along coastal regions is necessary for understanding the hydrological and oceanographic issues related to the water and energy cycles. However, only the observed streamflow (gauge-based observation) is used to estimate the total fluxes from the river basin to the ocean, neglecting the portion of discharge that infiltrates to underground and directly discharges into the ocean. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the total discharge of the Yangtze ...

  5. The Narew River Basin: A model for the sustainable management of agriculture, nature and water supply

    OpenAIRE

    Gielczewski, Marek

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is a search for a method of environmental management that may lead to sustainable development in North-eastern Poland and the Warsaw region. The methods studied in this thesis provide the components of a decision support system for managing the water quality of the Narew River Basin. The basin is characterised by high quality environmental, biological and cultural conditions. It has also the potential to solve the problems concerning the drinking water supply for Warsaw. The Na...

  6. FACTORS THAT INCREASE DRYNESS PHENOMENON ON SMALL RIVERS IN PRUT BASIN (ANALYSIS OF CONDITIONALITIES)

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Vartolomei

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze factors causing increased of dryness phenomenon on small rivers in Prut basin. Are analyzed, the non-climate components of the landscape (relief, geology, soil,vegetation) and climatic factors on corresponding area(rainfalls). In reporting the number of years that has occurred dryness to number of years of observations showed that the frequency of the dryness phenomenon is over 90 % for basins with areas less than 5km 2. The maximum period recorded without flow for ...

  7. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Senteio Smith

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpioSe realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y Synbranchiformes por una especie. Entre estas, se encontró 2 especies exóticas. Las especies más abundantes fueron Astyanax fasciatus y Hypostomus ancistroides. En relación con el peso total, la especie más representativas fueron Hoplias malabaricus y Hypostomus ancistroides. En tanto que, Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus y Hoplias malabaricus fueron las más representativas en relación al preso promedio. Las longitudes estandar más grandes fue encontradas en Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens y Cyprinus carpio

  8. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Welber, Senteio Smith; Miguel, Petrere; Walter, Barrella.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determin [...] ada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y Synbranchiformes por una especie. Entre estas, se encontró 2 especies exóticas. Las especies más abundantes fueron Astyanax fasciatus y Hypostomus ancistroides. En relación con el peso total, la especie más representativas fueron Hoplias malabaricus y Hypostomus ancistroides. En tanto que, Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus y Hoplias malabaricus fueron las más representativas en relación al preso promedio. Las longitudes estandar más grandes fue encontradas en Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens y Cyprinus carpio Abstract in english A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standa [...] rd length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpio

  9. Quantifying the contribution of glacier runoff to streamflow in the upper Columbia River Basin, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jost

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glacier melt provides important contributions to streamflow in many mountainous regions. Hydrologic model calibration in glacier-fed catchments is difficult because errors in modelling snow accumulation can be offset by compensating errors in glacier melt. This problem is particularly severe in catchments with modest glacier cover, where goodness-of-fit statistics such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency may not be highly sensitive to the streamflow variance associated with glacier melt. While glacier mass balance measurements can be used to aid model calibration, they are absent for most catchments. We introduce the use of glacier volume change determined from repeated glacier mapping in a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation procedure to calibrate a hydrologic model. This approach is applied to the Mica basin in the Canadian portion of the Columbia River Basin using the HBV-EC hydrologic model. Use of glacier volume change in the calibration procedure effectively reduced parameter uncertainty and helped to ensure that the model was accurately predicting glacier mass balance as well as streamflow. The seasonal and interannual variations in glacier melt contributions were assessed by running the calibrated model with historic glacier cover and also after converting all glacierized areas to alpine land cover in the model setup. Sensitivity of modelled streamflow to historic changes in glacier cover and to projected glacier changes for a climate warming scenario was assessed by comparing simulations using static glacier cover to simulations that accommodated dynamic changes in glacier area. Although glaciers in the Mica basin only cover 5% of the watershed, glacier ice melt contributes up to 25% and 35% of streamflow in August and September, respectively. The mean annual contribution of ice melt to total streamflow varied between 3 and 9% and averaged 6%. Glacier ice melt is particularly important during warm, dry summers following winters with low snow accumulation and early snowpack depletion. Although the sensitivity of streamflow to historic glacier area changes is small and within parameter uncertainties, our results suggest that glacier area changes have to be accounted for in future projections of late summer streamflow. Our approach provides an effective and widely applicable method to calibrate hydrologic models in glacier fed catchments, as well as to quantify the magnitude and timing of glacier melt contributions to streamflow.

  10. Water management elements and detailed management program for Dravinja river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Hrastelj, Anja

    2007-01-01

    The present work focuses on the risk sources for the Dravinja river basin. This work is divided into three parts. In the first part of composition there are presented theoretical and legal elements, the second part more exactly describes the Dravinja river basin and the third part is about how to use all gathered information. The first part introduces legal, environmental and water management point of view, the use of ArcGIS software, with which all graphic inserts were made, and in the end y...

  11. Tritium balance of the Ems river basin (1951-1983). Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Ems river basin an inventory of the tritium distribution is presented for the hydrologic years 1951-1983. On the basis of a balance model the tritium contents in surface and groundwater of the Ems river basin are calculated using known and extrapolated tritium input data and compared with the corresponding values measured since 1974. A survey of the tritium flows occurring in this area is presented, taking meteorologic and hydrologic facts into account. A water balance serves as a basis for determining the tritium balance. (orig.)

  12. Late Pleistocene and early Holocene rivers and wetlands in the Bonneville basin of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Schmitt, Dave N.

    2003-09-01

    Field investigations at Dugway Proving Ground in western Utah have produced new data on the chronology and human occupation of late Pleistocene and early Holocene lakes, rivers, and wetlands in the Lake Bonneville basin. We have classified paleo-river channels of these ages as "gravel channels" and "sand channels." Gravel channels are straight to curved, digitate, and have abrupt bulbous ends. They are composed of fine gravel and coarse sand, and are topographically inverted (i.e., they stand higher than the surrounding mudflats). Sand channels are younger and sand filled, with well-developed meander-scroll morphology that is truncated by deflated mudflat surfaces. Gravel channels were formed by a river that originated as overflow from the Sevier basin along the Old River Bed during the late regressive phases of Lake Bonneville (after 12,500 and prior to 11,000 14C yr B.P.). Dated samples from sand channels and associated fluvial overbank and wetland deposits range in age from 11,000 to 8800 14C yr B.P., and are probably related to continued Sevier-basin overflow and to groundwater discharge. Paleoarchaic foragers occupied numerous sites on gravel-channel landforms and adjacent to sand channels in the extensive early Holocene wetland habitats. Reworking of tools and limited toolstone diversity is consistent with theoretical models suggesting Paleoarchaic foragers in the Old River Bed delta were less mobile than elsewhere in the Great Basin.

  13. Development of a Systemwide Predator Control Program, Volume I : Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, 1993 annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, Charles F.; Ward, David L.

    1995-06-01

    Modified Merwin trap nets were tested by an experimental fishery in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam to determine their effectiveness in selectively harvesting northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) over 11 inches in total length. The fishery was evaluated for its potential to supplement exploitation rates of the sportreward and dam-angling fisheries to achieve the objectives of the northern squawfish management program. Special consideration was given to the potential for, and impact on, incidental catches of adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) listed as threatened and endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preseason site and data surveys identified suitable fishing locations where physical parameters are favorable to trap-net deployment and northern squawfish habitat was present. A total of 16 floating trap nets were operated from June 2 through August 4, 1993. We made 1,392 sets with a mean soak time of 2.9 hours. The total catch was 45,803 fishes including 10,440 (23% of the total catch) northern squawfish of which 1,688 (4% of the total catch) were large (greater than 11 inches in total length). Mean catch rate was 0.3 large northern squawfish per hour of soak time. Nearly all incidentally captured fishes were released alive and in good condition. Bycatch of adult salmonids totaled 1,036 fishes (2% of the total catch). Operational criteria, designed to limit incidental take of salmonids, restricted the fishing time, dates, and locations. In addition, lack of prior operating experience with the gear type and limited gear effectiveness in high velocities found in the free-flowing river below Bonneville Dam contributed to the low harvest rate for northern squawfish. We determined that a large scale floating trap-net fishery outside the boat restricted zones (BRZs) of hydropower projects would not significantly improve the exploitation rate of northern squawfish either above or below Bonneville Dam.

  14. Reconstructing the Santa Tecla flash flood in the Ondara River (Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch, J. C.; Tuset, J.; Ramos, M. C.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    The Santa Tecla flood may be considered the most catastrophic rainfall event in the modern history of Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula), and one of the most important in the Western Mediterranean Basin. This event took place during the night between 22nd and 23rd September 1874, in which torrential convective rainfalls generated significant flash floods in most of the small streams in the southern half of Catalonia (i.e. Ondara, Corb, Francolí and Siurana catchments). More than 570 people died, 150 of which in the town of Tàrrega, by the Ondara River. Despite being one of the last huge floods of the pre-instrumental era and, consequently, without any precipitation or flow data, the event was reconstructed both hydraulically and hydrologically for the Ondara River at Tàrrega (150 km2). Thus, the maximum water level and the temporal evolution of the flood were obtained, respectively, from several epigraphic limnimarks found in Tàrrega and from the event description recorded in historical documents. Additionally, the information from local archaeological sites allowed the reconstruction of the fluvial section at Tàrrega at the end of the 19th century. Finally, some old cellars flooded during the event provided information about sediment concentration at the peak flow. The methodology put into practice for the event reconstruction had two stages. The first stage was the hydraulic modelling, which estimated the peak flow. The input data used were the maximum water level given by the limnimetric marks, a digital terrain model of the river bed shape, and the stream and floodplain roughness and channel slope (which were considered similar to the present ones, according to archaeological data). The hydraulic model used was the unidimensional HEC-RAS (USACE), applied in several cross sections of the Ondara River at Tàrrega. The second stage was the hydrological modelling. The objective of this stage was to derive the event hyetograph from the above calculated peak flow and the hydrologic response of the basin. This hydrologic behaviour, that is the relation between the hyetograph and the hydrograph, was estimated taking into account rainfall duration (6-8 hours according to historical documents), basin characteristics, soil type, soil land use and cover and the antecedent soil moisture, using SCS Curve Number method. After that, a transfer Synthetic Unitary Hydrograph function and a wave propagation method (Muskingum) were applied to describe the discharge evolution and the water routing into the stream channel. The software used in this stage was the HEC-HMS (USACE). The results of the hydraulic simulation at the Sant Agustí street cross section were the following: a) a maximum water depth of 6.16 m above the original river bed, b) a mean water velocity of about 2 m•s-1, c) a peak flow of 996 m3•s-1 (increased by 480 m3•s-1 from the Cercavins River downstream Tàrrega), and d) a specific peak discharge of the event of 6.6 m3•s-1•km-2, which exceeds the values of the 500-year return period floods compiled from the Ebro drainage basin systematic database. From the information obtained in the flooded cellars, the sediment concentration during the peak flow was estimated in 11.2% (in volume), characteristic of a hyperconcentrated flow. The water level reached in the abovepresented cross section is partly explained by the recently discovered Sant Agustí Bridge, buried until now in the river bed. The results of the hydrologic modelling were: a) a surface runoff total volume of 12 hm3, b) a runoff coefficient of about 35.5%, c) a lagtime of 2.5-3 hours, and d) if the previous soil humidity for the Curve Number method was low (situation I), a total rainfall of 225 mm with a peak intensity higher than 100 mm•h-1 is needed; if the previous soil humidity for the Curve Number method was medium (situation II), a total rainfall of 156 mm with a peak intensity of about 70 mm•h-1 occurs. Rainfall values for medium previous moisture condition (II) represent a 1000-year return period according to the regional systematic data.

  15. Geochemical behaviour of dissolved trace elements in a monsoon-dominated tropical river basin, Southwestern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K; Tripti, M; Audry, Stéphane; Riotte, Jean; Braun, J J; Udaya Shankar, H N

    2014-04-01

    The study presents a 3-year time series data on dissolved trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) in a monsoon-dominated river basin, the Nethravati River in tropical Southwestern India. The river basin lies on the metamorphic transition boundary which separates the Peninsular Gneiss and Southern Granulitic province belonging to Archean and Tertiary-Quaternary period (Western Dharwar Craton). The basin lithology is mainly composed of granite gneiss, charnockite and metasediment. This study highlights the importance of time series data for better estimation of metal fluxes and to understand the geochemical behaviour of metals in a river basin. The dissolved trace elements show seasonality in the river water metal concentrations forming two distinct groups of metals. First group is composed of heavy metals and minor elements that show higher concentrations during dry season and lesser concentrations during the monsoon season. Second group is composed of metals belonging to lanthanides and actinides with higher concentration in the monsoon and lower concentrations during the dry season. Although the metal concentration of both the groups appears to be controlled by the discharge, there are important biogeochemical processes affecting their concentration. This includes redox reactions (for Fe, Mn, As, Mo, Ba and Ce) and pH-mediated adsorption/desorption reactions (for Ni, Co, Cr, Cu and REEs). The abundance of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides as a result of redox processes could be driving the geochemical redistribution of metals in the river water. There is a Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) at different time periods, both negative and positive, in case of dissolved phase, whereas there is positive anomaly in the particulate and bed sediments. The Ce anomaly correlates with the variations in the dissolved oxygen indicating the redistribution of Ce between particulate and dissolved phase under acidic to neutral pH and lower concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Unlike other tropical and major world rivers, the effect of organic complexation on metal variability is negligible in the Nethravati River water. PMID:24374620

  16. Cytogenetic analysis in Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner, 1858) (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae) from Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Edson Lourenc?o; Borba, Rafael Splendore; Centofante, Liano; Miyazawa, Carlos Suetoshi; Parise-maltempi, Patri?cia Pasquali

    2012-01-01

    Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae) is a small Neotropical species of fish, widely distributed in several rivers of South America. Evidence for karyotype heteromorphysm in populations from different geographical regions has been reported for this species. In this way, populations of Thoracocharax stellatus from the Paraguay River basin were cytogenetically characterized and the results were compared with other studies performed in the same species but from different basi...

  17. Abiotic Typology of Surface Water Bodies in the Hydrographic Basin of the Arie? River

    OpenAIRE

    GHEORGHE ?ERBAN; R?ZVAN-HORA?IU B?TINA?

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring according to the Water Frame Directive (2000/60/E.C.) guidelines demands the identification of river water bodies, typology, and investigation of reference conditions within each river basin. The identification of “water bodies” based on geographical and hydromorphological determinants is to enable the status to be accurately described and compared to environmental objectives of the Directive. A surface water body has to be a discrete element of surface water, which is not to o...

  18. Rusumo dam-social challenge in Kagera River Basin : Participation of the affected people

    OpenAIRE

    Nzeyimana, Lazare

    2003-01-01

    From long ago, rivers have always sustained livelihoods of the peoples through the utilisation of different natural resources available in the basin. All over the world, many rivers have been dammed in the spirit of performing various purposes: agricultural irrigation, domestic water supply and power generation or flood control. By the year 2001, the World Commission on Dams brought into focus the debate on damrelated impacts on local economies, societal cultures, livelihoods security and env...

  19. Fishes from the Itapecuru River basin, state of Maranhão, northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, M C; Fraga, E C; Birindelli, J L O

    2011-05-01

    The Itapecuru is a relatively large river in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. During several expeditions to this basin, we collected 69 fish species belonging to 65 genera, 29 families and 10 orders. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the orders with the largest number of species and Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae were the richest families. About 30% of the fish fauna of the Itapecuru basin is endemic or restricted to northeastern Brazil. Just over a fifth (22%) of the species is also known to occur in the Amazon basin and only a few are more widely distributed in South American. PMID:21755154

  20. Study on Law of Groundwater Evolution under Natural and Artificial Forcing with Case study of Haihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinjun; Gan, Hong; Wang, Lin; Bi, Xue; Du, Sisi

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of groundwater is one of the key problems of water cycle study. It is a result of joint effect of natural condition and human activities, but until now the driving forces of groundwater system evolution were not fully understood due to the complexity of groundwater system structures and the uncertainty of affecting factors. Geology, precipitation and human activity are the main factors affecting the groundwater system evolution and interact each other, but the influence of such three factors on groundwater system are not clarified clearly on a macroscopic scale. The precipitation changes the volume of water recharge and the groundwater pumping effect the discharge of groundwater. Another important factor influencing balance of groundwater storage is the underlaying that affects the renewablility of groundwater. The underlaying is decided mainly by geological attributes but also influenced by human activited. The macroscopic environment of groundwater evolves under the natural and anthropic factors. This paper study the general law of groundwater evolution among the factors based on the case study in Haihe River Basin, a typical area with dramatic groundwater change under natural precipitation attenuation and gradually increase of water suuply. Haihe River Basin is located in north-China, covers an area of 320,041 km2 with over 40% plain areas. The plain area of Haihe Basin is densely populated with many large and medium-sized cities, including metropolis of Beijing and Tianjin, and concentrated irrigated areas, playing important roles in China's economy and food production. It is the unique basin where groundwater occupies majority of total water supply in China. Long-term groundwater over-exploitation causes a series of ecological and environmental problems that threats the sustainable development. In this paper, the historical process of groundwater balance in Haihe Basin is divided into three phases by decrease of rainfall and increase of water pumping. The different problems caused by groundwater shrinkage are summarized. The volume of recharge from natural precipitation and artificial water cycle, natural evaporation and groundwater exploitation are analyzed based on water balance. Through the historical data analysis the changing trend of coefficients of groundwater balance discovers the evolution of groundwater. The general law is concluded with deeper analysis displays the contribution of natural and artificial factors causing deterioration of groundwater balance. A general law of groundwater evolution is put forward to describe the affection of both natural and anthropogenic factors with a relation curve. Considering the water demand of future socio-economic development in Haihe River Basin, the prospective of future vision of groundwater cycle is analyzed by the law of groundwater evolution. Iterated scenario analysis based on comparison of ameliorative function on groundwater balance to point out reasonable control on groundwater exploitation and rational water allocation under the condition of completion of South-to-North Water Transfer Project that could bring more than 7 billion m3 into Haihe River Basin from Yantze River. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages are concluded through the case study and the farther research in this field is pointed out.

  1. Changes in water quality during flood waves in small mountainous river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symader, W. [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    As a flood response is a reaction of the total basin to a rain impulse, the controlling factors are the characteristics of the basin, the size of the event and the pre-event conditions. This presentation focuses on summer events in small mountainous basins. Since 1988 flood response is investigated in two small basins in the Eifel and the Hunsrueck mountains. In both basins flood waves were sampled and analysed for major ions, and heavy metals in dissolved and particulate conditions, and for suspended sediment concentration and particle characteristics. In several projects the behaviour of PAHs, PCBs and pesticides in high floods were investigated as well. These investigations were accompanied by analyses of major ions and heavy metals in daily water samples and weekly samples of the river bottom sediments. (orig.)

  2. Cytogenetic and morphological diversity in populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae from Brazilian northeastern river basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Souza Medrado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, morphometric and cytogenetic analyses were carried out in populations of the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae from Contas and Recôncavo Sul River basins (State of Bahia, Brazil, providing new data on the genetic structure of this species along the region. Based on morphologic measurements, we observed that populations from the same hydrographic basin were more similar to each other (Contas and Preto do Costa Rivers, and remarkably divergent from Recôncavo Sul (Mineiro Stream, as indicated by clustering analysis. Cytogenetic data revealed a same diploid number for all populations (2n = 48, but distinct karyotype formulae (8M+24SM+12ST+4A, FN = 92 in Contas River, 8M+24SM+10ST+6A, FN = 90 in Preto do Costa River, and 8M+18SM+16ST+6A, FN = 90 in Mineiro Stream. Ag-NORs were identified at telomeres on a subtelocentric chromosome pair, although multiple ribosomal sites have been detected in some specimens from Contas River. These results show that A. fasciatus populations from northeastern river basins are well differentiated and present peculiar cytogenetic features when compared to populations from other regions. Therefore, the apparent chromosomal plasticity of this species, likely to represent a complex of cryptic forms, is corroborated. Finally, we demonstrated that morphological features can be successfully used to support other sources of genetic information.

  3. Cytogenetic and morphological diversity in populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) from Brazilian northeastern river basins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Souza, Medrado; Alba Vivian Amaral, Figueiredo; Ana Maria, Waldschmidt; Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello, Affonso; Paulo Luiz Souza, Carneiro.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present work, morphometric and cytogenetic analyses were carried out in populations of the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae) from Contas and Recôncavo Sul River basins (State of Bahia, Brazil), providing new data on the genetic structure of this species along the region. Based on morpholog [...] ic measurements, we observed that populations from the same hydrographic basin were more similar to each other (Contas and Preto do Costa Rivers), and remarkably divergent from Recôncavo Sul (Mineiro Stream), as indicated by clustering analysis. Cytogenetic data revealed a same diploid number for all populations (2n = 48), but distinct karyotype formulae (8M+24SM+12ST+4A, FN = 92 in Contas River, 8M+24SM+10ST+6A, FN = 90 in Preto do Costa River, and 8M+18SM+16ST+6A, FN = 90 in Mineiro Stream). Ag-NORs were identified at telomeres on a subtelocentric chromosome pair, although multiple ribosomal sites have been detected in some specimens from Contas River. These results show that A. fasciatus populations from northeastern river basins are well differentiated and present peculiar cytogenetic features when compared to populations from other regions. Therefore, the apparent chromosomal plasticity of this species, likely to represent a complex of cryptic forms, is corroborated. Finally, we demonstrated that morphological features can be successfully used to support other sources of genetic information.

  4. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Zuo, D.

    2014-09-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program) based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB). Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit) scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain), one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  5. Using radar altimetry to update a large-scale hydrological model of the Brahmaputra river basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, F.; Milzow, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of river and lake water levels from space-borne radar altimeters (past missions include ERS, Envisat, Jason, Topex) are useful for calibration and validation of large-scale hydrological models in poorly gauged river basins. Altimetry data availability over the downstream reaches of the Brahmaputra is excellent (17 high-quality virtual stations from ERS-2, 6 from Topex and 10 from Envisat are available for the Brahmaputra). In this study, altimetry data are used to update a large-scale Budyko-type hydrological model of the Brahmaputra river basin in real time. Altimetry measurements are converted to discharge using rating curves of simulated discharge versus observed altimetry. This approach makes it possible to use altimetry data from river cross sections where both in-situ rating curves and accurate river cross section geometry are not available. Model updating based on radar altimetry improved model performance considerably. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency increased from 0.77 to 0.83. Real-time river basin modelling using radar altimetry has the potential to improve the predictive capability of large-scale hydrological models elsewhere on the planet.

  6. Change and persistence in land surface phenologies of the Don and Dnieper river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991 produced major socio-economic and institutional dislocations across the agricultural sector. The picture of broad scale patterns produced by these transformations continues to be discovered. We examine here the patterns of land surface phenology (LSP) within two key river basins-Don and Dnieper-using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 1982 to 2000 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data from 2001 to 2007. We report on the temporal persistence and change of LSPs as summarized by seasonal integration of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series using accumulated growing degree-days (GDDI NDVI). Three land cover super-classes-forest lands, agricultural lands, and shrub lands-constitute 96% of the land area within the basins. All three in both basins exhibit unidirectional increases in AVHRR GDDI NDVI between the Soviet and post-Soviet epochs. During the MODIS era (2001-2007), different socio-economic trajectories in Ukraine and Russia appear to have led to divergences in the LSPs of the agricultural lands in the two basins. Interannual variation in the shrub lands of the Don river basin has increased since 2000. This is due in part to the better signal-to-noise ratio of the MODIS sensor, but may also be due to a regional drought affecting the Don basin more than the Dnieper basin.

  7. Soil loss prediction in Guaraíra river experimental basin, Paraíba, Brazil based on two erosion simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Flávio Cazé B. da Costa Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two hydrological models to estimate soil losses and sediment yield due to sheet and channel erosion, at the basin outlet, are applied to Guaraíra River Experimental Basin, located in Paraíba State, northeastern Brazil. The soil erosion models are (a the classical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, which is used to simulate annual and monthly soil losses; and (b Kineros model, which is used to simulate the sediment yield within the basin. Kineros model is a physically-based distributed model that uses a cascade of planes and channels to represent the basin and to describe the processes of interception, infiltration, surface runoff and erosion within the basin. The USLE is computed using land use, soil erodibility, topographic digital maps, as well as observed rainfall data. It was found that Guaraíra river experimental basin has a low potential for soil losses; however, specific areas which are susceptible to the erosion process in the basin could be detected by the modeling techniques coupled to a GIS (Geographic Information System.

  8. A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Praveen Kumar; Mohan, Kshitij; Mishra, Sameer; Ahmad, Aariz; Mishra, Varun Narayan

    2014-11-01

    The study indicates that analysis of morphometric parameters with the help of geographic information system (GIS) would prove a viable method of characterizing the hydrological response behaviour of the watershed. It is also well observed that remote sensing satellite data is emerging as the most effective, time saving and accurate technique for morphometric analysis of a basin. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its stream networks through ASTER (DEM) in conjunction with remote sensing satellite data (Landsat etm+, 2013 and georeferenced survey of Indian toposheet, 1972). In this study, Kanhar basin a tributaries of Son River has been selected for detailed morphometric analysis. Seven sub-watersheds are also delineated within this basin to calculate the selected morphometric parameters. Morphometric parameters viz; stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, form factor, circulatory ratio, etc., are calculated. The drainage area of the basin is 5,654 km2 and shows sub-dendritic to dendritic drainage pattern. The stream order of the basin is mainly controlled by physiographic and lithological conditions of the area. The study area is designated as seventh-order basin with the drainage density value being as 1.72 km/km2. The increase in stream length ratio from lower to higher order shows that the study area has reached a mature geomorphic stage.

  9. An Assessment of Soil Properties under Different Landuse Types of the Kallada River Basin, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Suma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A thin layer of soil covers most of the earth's land surface. This layer varying from a few centimeters to 2 or 3 meters in thickness might appear insignificant relative to the bulk of the earth. On the basis of morphological features and physico chemical properties, the soils of the Kallada basin can be classified into broad six groups (1 Coastal alluviam 2 Riverine alluviam 3 Brown hydromorphic 4 Greyish Onattukara soil 5 Laterite soil and 6Forest loam (GSI Map. Twenty four soil profiles were collected from the Kallada river basin for analysis, whose 12 profiles are in one cluster distributed adjoining the Western Ghats crest. As many as 12 profiles were under forest, three under grasslands, three under teak plantations, two under mixed tree crops, two under tea plantation and one each from eucalyptus and rubber plantations. Soil is a rich but fragile ecosystem. It is a three-phase system, composed of solid, liquid and gaseous phases.  In most soils, the solid phase makes up the vast majority of the soil mass, and over half of its volume.  It consists of mineral matter derived from the weathering of rocks and organic matter from the decomposition of plants and animals.  The liquid phase is composed predominantly of water, enriched with dissolved solids, the gaseous phase of air, enriched with carbon dioxide from the respiration of soil animals and plant roots. Physical properties of the soil are determined by the character of solid particles and the way in which they are packed together.

  10. Impact of climate change on vegetation dynamics in a West African river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Y.; Koike, T.

    2012-12-01

    Future changes in terrestrial biomass distribution under climate change will have a tremendous impact on water availability and land productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. Assessment of future change of biomass distribution in the regional or the river basin scale is strongly needed. An eco-hydrological model that fully couples a dynamic vegetation model (DVM) with a distributed biosphere hydrological model is applied to multi-model assessment of climate change impact on vegetation dynamics in a West African river basin. In addition, a distributed and auto optimization system of parameters in DVM is developed to make it possible to model a diversity of phonologies of plants by using different parameters in the different model grids. The simple carbon cycle modeling in a distributed hydrological model shows reliable accuracy in simulating the seasonal cycle of vegetation on the river basin scale. Model outputs indicate that generally, an extension of dry season duration and surface air temperature rising caused by climate change may cause a dieback of vegetation in West Africa. However, we get different seasonal and spatial changes of leaf area index and different mechanisms of the degradation when we used different general circulation models' outputs as meteorological forcing of the eco-hydrological model. Therefore, multi-model analysis like this study is important to deliver meaningful information to the society because we can discuss the uncertainties of our prediction by this methodology. This study makes it possible to discuss the impact of future change of terrestrial biomass on climate and water resources in the regional or the river basin scale although we need further sophistications of the system. Performance of the eco-hydrological model (WEB-DHM+DVM) in Volta River Basin, with basin-averaged leaf area index from model (blue solid line) and AVHRR satellite-derived product (red rectangles).

  11. Hydrological mofelling of large river basins using the ECOMAG software complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motovilov, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    According to some hydrologists, the characteristic scale of river basins when using traditional physically based models of runoff formation is limited to the size of a small (elementary) river basin. Within its limits, these models can describe hydrological processes on the different parts of the slopes and in the river network in great detail. For hydrological simulation of large river basins, it is reasonable to use greater calculated cells of hundreds and even thousands square kilometers. The problem is to find a new (compared to the point) computational elements of a certain scale, generalization (filtering) of micro-scale fluctuations of the characteristics that are of secondary importance at this level of consideration and parameterization of hydrological processes models at the meso- and macroscale levels. In this case, such a spatial refinement as in detailed physically based models is not longer needed to describe hydrological processes, since aggregate models operate with flows averaged over the elementary catchments. In particular, such an ideology is adopted in a hydrological semi-distributed model ECOMAG, where a major river basin is covered with a grid of elementary catchments, for each of which a physically based model with lumped parameters is described by a system of ordinary differential equations, most of which obtained by integrating the basic equations of detailed physically based models over space. For solving practical and research tasks with the help of up-to-date informational and technological background, a software complex (SC) was developed on the basis of the ECOMAG model with a daily time step resolution, which included a specialized geographical information system (GIS), databases of archival and operational data on hydrological, meteorological and water management monitoring for the whole Russia, watershed characteristics, as well as the command shell. An ability of hydrological simulation of large river basins using SC ECOMAG is illustrated by examples of simulated dynamics of spatial patterns of the terrestrial water cycle components (soil moisture, snow water equivalent, runoff characteristics) and their comparison with the patterns of the respective observed components obtained from the monitoring datasets for the Volga River basin (area 1 380 000 km2) and the Lena River basin (area 2 488 000 km2) for multi-year periods. The results of using SC ECOMAG for application in operational practice of the Russian Federal Water Resources Agency for management of the Volga-Kama and the Angara-Yenisei cascade reservoirs are shown also. * The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant 13-05-00791)

  12. Estimating Sediment Transport Conditions in the Cosumnes River Drainage Basin From Suspended Sediment Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.; Cornwell, K.

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor and assess the variability of suspended load with respect to discharge and stream dynamics within the Cosumnes River drainage basin. Examination of suspended loads in river systems helps to characterize both the erosion and deposition mechanisms acting within the sediment delivery system. The suspended sediment load is dominated by material eroded from a variety of sources within the upstream basin, and the nature and location of the source influences the character and behavior of the load. Over a ten-month period, water samples were collected from sites along the Cosumnes River in the Sierra Nevada foothills and in Rancho Murieta, California. Samples were processed for suspended sediments and correlated with discharge at the Michigan Bar gaging station. In the foothills east of Sacramento, precipitation usually occurs from late fall through the spring. The amount of water in the channel is affected by infiltration capacity of the ground, and runoff related to frequent precipitation events. Suspended load varies with respect to stream discharge dynamics and sediment supply within the Cosumnes River drainage basin. Histograms show the modal average annual discharge for the Cosumnes River at the Michigan Bar gaging station to be 200-400 cfs, moving 1-3 tons of suspended sediment per day. Discharges of 200-400 cfs produce a modern denudation rate of .01-.03 cm/1000 years for the Cosumnes River drainage basin. Based on slip rates of faults along the Frontal Fault System, the present uplift rate of the Sierra Nevada mountain range is 0.5-3 mm/year. Historical records show that the discharge during the sampling period was significantly lower than average. Suspended sediment yields increase with increased discharge, yet remain quite variable. High discharge events are responsible for most of the erosion and transport of suspended sediments within the Cosumnes drainage basin.

  13. Flood Management in a Complex River Basin with a Real-Time Decision Support System Based on Hydrological Forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Garci?a Herna?ndez, Javier

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, the Upper Rhone River basin has been hit by several flood events causing significant damages in excess of 500 million Swiss Francs. From this situation, the 3rd Rhône river training project was planned in order to improve the flood protection in the Upper Rhone River basin in Vaud and Valais Cantons. In this framework, the MINERVE forecast system aims to contribute to a better flow control during flood events in this catchmen...

  14. 210Po in meteoric and surface waters at Corumbatai River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    210Po is an intermediary member of the natural mass number (4n+2) 238U decay series that finishes at the stable 206Pb, according to the sequence: 238U (4.49 Ga, ?) ? 234Th (24.1 d, ?-) ? 234Pa (1.18 min, ?- ) ? 234U (0.248 Ma, ?) ? 230Th (75.2 ka, ?) 226Ra (1622 a, ?) ? 222Rn (3.83 d, ?) ? 218Po (3.05 min, ?) ? 214Pb (26.8 min, ?-) ? 214Bi (19.7 min, ?-) ? 214Po (0.16 ms, ?) ? 210Pb (22.26 a, ?-) ? 210Bi (5 d, ?-) ? 210Po (138 d, ?) ? 206Pb. Because some of the 222Rn escape from the rocks and minerals to the surrounding fluid phase, such as air, 222Rn emanating from land surfaces is responsible for 210Pb and 210Po present in the atmosphere. The average 222Rn escape rates measured and calculated in the northern high latitudes are 0.18-0.53 atom cm-2 s-1. The oceans are not considered important sources of atmospheric 222Rn, since the oceanic flux is about 1% of the continental one. 210Pb produced by 222Rn is removed from the atmosphere by precipitation, being its concentration in rain of about 2 pCiL-1. The atmospheric 210Pb returning to the e earth's surface has been commonly referred to as unsupported (excess) 210Pb, and neither 210Po nor 210Pb have been significantly investigated in atmospheric studies performed at South America. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the presence of 222Rn and 210Po in wet (rainwater) deposition occurring at a very important sedimentary basin located in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, i.e. the Corumbatai river basin. It is a sub-basin of the giant Parana sedimentary basin (Paleozoic - Cenozoic) that extends over an area of 1,700,000 km2. The Corumbatai river is the major river draining the area, and its water is extensively used by water supply systems in the basin. Since rainwater deposition has been recognized as a major source of dissolved species in rivers, surface waters from Corumbatai river were also collected at two sampling points, upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, the principal municipality within the basin. Surface waters and rainwater samples for 210Po and 222Rn analyses were collected between January 1998 and January 1999. Volumes between 10 and 21 L were utilized for 210Po analysis, whereas 1 L was used for evaluating 222Rn in rainwater. A known amount (7.68 dpm/mL) of 209Po spike was added to each sample for 210Po analysis, and polonium coprecipitated with Fe(OH)3. The recovered Po was plated onto a copper disc suspended in a 20% hydroxylamine hydrochloride + 25% sodium citrate solution heated to 85-90 deg. C, and stirred during 75-90 min. Conventional alpha spectroscopy with Si(Au) surface barrier detectors coupled to EG and G Ortec multichannel buffer was used to acquire the 210Po activity concentration data. 222Rn in rainwater was extracted by circulating a stream of Rn-free air through the sample container to purge the water phase of its dissolved/accumulated 222Rn. The emanation procedure consisting on its removal from the sample, its transfer to a scintillation flask, and its detection by alpha-scintillation counting was used to acquire the 222Rn activity concentration data. 210Po activity concentration in rainwater ranged between 0.04 and 1.19 dpm/L (average = 0.35 dpm/L) and between 0.07 and 0.46 dpm/L (average = 0.20 dpm/L) at the two investigated sampling points, whereas the 222Rn activity concentration ranged between 40 and 479 dpm/L (average = 182 dpm/L). Thus, low 210Po/222Rn activity ratios corresponding to 0.0002-0.004 were determined, implying on the non-existence of secular radioactive equilibrium between these nuclides. This is, in fact, expected since the 210Pb half life is much higher than that of its parent 222Rn. 210Po activity concentration in surface waters collected upstream from Rio Claro city ranged between 0.06 and 0.75 dpm/L (average = 0.23 dpm/L), whereas in surface waters collected downstream from Rio Claro city ranged between 0.07 and 0.65 dpm/L (average 0.26 dpm/L). A trend of decreasing 210Po activity concentration in accordance with increasing rainfall was identified at both samp

  15. The problem of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) in the Besos basin. A technical and economic method for correction such discharges in a Mediterranean river basin; El problema de las descargas de los sistemas unitarios (DSU) en la cuenca del Besos. Una metodologia tecnico-economica para su correccion en una cuenca mediterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.; Navarro, J.; Serra Prat, P.; Castillo Omedas, F.; Menendez Ocina, S.; Escorihuela Chueca, M.

    2006-07-01

    the problem related to CSOs are well known and have been corrected in many countries, but so far there have few relevant studies on this in Spain. These problems are more acute in river basins with small flows running through towns, such as the river Besos. The basin which was studies is the Granollers drainage system with 84 spillways, 40 of which produce spills during episodes of weak rainfall and pollute the river bed. As a result of applying the economic analysis to the modelling of the Granollers System, a proposal was made to reduce the CSO volumes by half and their frequency to a third. It was proposed to do this by putting in place nine retention tanks of different volumes at specific sites. The results obtained in this study suggest that this methodology is applicable to other urban basins. (Author)

  16. Snow cover dynamics and hydrological regime of the Hunza River basin, Karakoram Range, Northern Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, A. A.; Chevallier, P.; Arnaud, Y.; Ahmad, B.

    2011-01-01

    A major proportion of flow in the Indus River is contributed by its snow- and glacier-fed river catchments situated in the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindukush ranges. It is therefore essential to understand the cryosphere dynamics in this area for water resource management. The MODIS MOD10A2 remote-sensing database of snow cover products from March 2000 to December 2009 was selected to analyse the snow cover changes in the Hunza River basin (the snow- and glacier-fed sub-catchment of the Indus ...

  17. Adaptive multi-level governance through social learning: River basin management in the Netherlands:

    OpenAIRE

    Herk, S.; Rijke, J. S.; Zevenbergen, C.; Ashley, R.; Besseling, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a new adaptive, multi-level governance approach for river basin management designed to stimulate social learning and to be adjusted based on lessons learnt and changing political and economical context. The floods of 1993 and 1995 in the Netherlands and climate change triggered a paradigm shift in flood management. The 2.3 billion Euro flood safety programme Room for the River was launched to increase flood safety by giving the rivers more room instead of m...

  18. Transition in governance of river basin management in The Netherlands through multi-level social learning:

    OpenAIRE

    Herk, S.; Rijke, J. S.; Zevenbergen, C.; Ashley, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a new adaptive, multi-level governance approach that supported a transition in river basin management in the Netherlands. The floods of 1993 and 1995 in the Netherlands triggered a paradigm shift in flood management. The 2.3 billion Euro flood safety programme Room for the River (RftR) was launched to increase flood safety by giving the rivers more room instead of merely enforcing the defence systems. This programme has been studied as a major stepping sto...

  19. Lidar-based biomass assessment for the Yukon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B.; Wylie, B. K.; Stoker, J.; Nossov, D.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on high-latitude forests in terms of their ability to sequester carbon as expressed as pools of standing total biomass and soil organic matter. Above ground biomass is an important driver in ecosystem process models used to assess, predict, and understand climate change impacts. Therefore, it is of compelling interest to acquire accurate assessments of current biomass levels for these high-latitude forests, a particular challenge because of their vastness and remoteness. At this time, remote sensing is the only feasible method through which to acquire such assessments. In this study, the use of lidar data for estimating shrub and tree biomass for the Yukon Flats region of Alaska’s Yukon River Basin (YRB) is demonstrated. The lidar data were acquired in the late summer and fall of 2009 as were an initial set of field sampling data collected for training and validation purposes. The 2009 field campaigns were located near Canvasback Lake and Boot Lake in the YRB. Various tallies of biomass were calculated from the field data using allometric equations (Bond-Lamberty et al. 2002, Yarie et al. 2007, Mack et al. 2008). Additional field data were also collected during two 2010 field campaigns at different locations in the Yukon Flats. Linear regressions have been developed based on field-based shrub and tree biomass and various lidar metrics of canopy height calculated for the plots (900 m^2). A multiple linear regression performed at the plot level resulted in a strong relationship (R^2=0.88) between observed and predicted biomass at the plot level. The coefficients for this regression were used to generate a shrub and tree biomass map for the entire Yukon Flats study area covered by lidar. This biomass map will be evaluated using additional field data collected in 2010 as well as other remote sensing data sources. Furthermore, additional lidar metrics (e.g. height of median energy) are being derived from the raw lidar data set and are expected to result in improved biomass products for the YRB as they have been shown to be highly predictive of biomass in other biomes. The results of this project represent the first step in a larger effort to collect lidar and field data for various study sites across the YRB for biomass estimations to train large-scale mapping efforts using Landsat imagery and radar data. Bond-Lamberty, B., C. Wang, and S.T. Gower. 2002. Aboveground and belowground biomass and sapwood area allometric equations for six boreal tree species of northern Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32: 1441-1450. Mack, M., K. Treseder, K. Manies, J. Harden, E. Schuur, J. Vogel, J. Randerson, and F.S. Chapin III. 2008. Recovery of Aboveground Plant Biomass and Productivity After Fire in Mesic and Dry Black Spruce Forests of Interior Alaska, Ecosystems v.11:209-225. Yarie, J., E. Kane, and M. Mack. 2007. Aboveground Biomass Equations for the Trees of Interior Alaska. AFES Bulletin 115.

  20. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter snow cover and value of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn.

  1. Transfer of fine sediments and particulate heavy metals in large river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Ulrike; Reid, Lucas; Fuchs, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    For heavy metals and other particulate contaminants erosion is an important emission pathway into surface waters. Emissions via erosion can strongly vary depending on land use, morphology, erodibility of the soils and the heavy metal content in the topsoil layer of the source areas. A high spatial resolution of input data is thus necessary to identify hotspots of heavy metal emissions via erosion in large river basins. In addition a part of the suspended solid load which is emitted to surface waters from the catchment areas can be deposited in the river system during transportation. The retention of sediments mainly takes place in lakes, reservoirs and river barrages. Former modelling studies in large river basins of Germany revealed, that the observed suspended sediment loads at monitoring stations were strongly overestimated, if retention processes in the river system were neglected. The objective of this study was therefore to test whether the consideration of sedimentation rates in lakes, reservoirs and river barrages can improve the prediction of observed suspended sediment loads in large river basins. We choose the German/Austrian part of the Danube basin until Passau (77 156 km²) for this analysis, as the alpine tributaries in the South of the Danube basin deliver high annual sediment rates (i.e. Inn and Isar) which are not fully recovered at the monitoring stations located further upstream of the Danube due to retention processes. The sediment input was quantified for all tributaries and added up along the flow path of the river system. Due to the large scale, sediment production within the catchments was calculated using the USLE for cultivated land and naturally covered areas and specific erosion rates for alpine areas without vegetation cover. Sediment delivery was estimated using an approach based on the location of the sediment source areas in the catchments and the morphology on the way to the surface waters. The location of the lakes, reservoirs and river barrages were mapped along the flow path in the river system and specific sedimentation rates were calibrated. First results show, that the observed suspended sediment loads at monitoring stations were represented realistically if local sedimentation rates were considered.

  2. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1999-03-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  3. Integrated Hatchery Operations : Existing Policy Affecting Hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-05-01

    Collected together in this document is relevant laws and policy of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington State Department of Wildlife, Oregon State, Washington Department of Fisheries, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game as they affect hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  4. Survey on the photovoltaic potential of the Piracicaba and Capivari rivers hydrographic basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the experiment developed at the Energy Department of the Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica of UNICAMP, Brazil, aiming the surveillance of the Piracicaba and Capivari, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, basin rivers photovoltaic potential. The paper also presents the first results obtained

  5. Contamination of Piracicaba river basin source by Zn, Cr and Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of the industrialization, urbanization and modernization of the agricultural practices in the last decades, has been causing a great impact in the basin of the Piracicaba river, the second economic pole of the country, area that shelters important urban centers like Campinas and Piracicaba. there are 45 headquarters of municipal districts in area of 12.400 km2 with more than 3,5 million inhabitants. The present work studies one of the source of the basin, the sub-basin of the high Atibaia river, one of the former of the river Piracicaba, in low impacted area due to low demographic density, absence of load industries and non significant agriculture. The objective is to establish parameters for comparison with other areas of the basin, intensely modified. Samples of bottom sediments on the former rivers and of soils of the area they were analyzed by neutronic activation for the identification of about 20 elements line. The results showed that the area already presents signs of preoccupying anthropic pollution because the contaminations with Zn, Cr and Co are already significant, probably due to the agricultural activity and to the urban sewer. (author)

  6. HYDROLOGIC SENSITIVITIES OF THE SACRAMENTO-SAN JOAQUIN RIVER BASIN, CA TO GLOBAL WARMING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydrologic sensitivities of four medium-sized mountainous catchments in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins to long-term global warming were analyzed. he hydrologic response of these catchments, all of which are dominated by spring snowmelt runoff, were simulated by t...

  7. Application of Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) for Dungun River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northeast monsoon happening during the months of October until January is the major rainy season found in the eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The Dungun river basin (1,858 km2) is exposed to this season thus experiencing characteristically regular flooding due to the prolong rainfall events. The annual rainfall over the river basins are 2,880 mm with great proportion falling in the months of December (19.4%). This study is to apply the Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model which Dungun river basin has been chosen for this study as the catchments have range of flood and relevant data that can be used to develop the model. The satellite data used in this study is provided by JAXA Global Rainfall Watch. The main feature of this real-time flood analysis model is the satellite-based rainfall data input employed during the model creation phase. The performance of the model for the river basins from satellite and ground-based rainfall data are compared using three error analysis methods.

  8. An economic analysis of the electric utility sector in the Ohio River Basin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P. C.; Witt, T. S.

    1981-04-01

    The potential effects of different pricing mechanisms on capacity requirements, load factors, and fuel costs are discussed, with particular attention paid to their implications for the Ohio River Basin Region. Two sets of estimates for various elasticities of demands are presented. Regulatory policy and its effect upon electricity demand and pricing are studied.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY: THE TONGUE AND POWDER RIVER BASINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this report is to evaluate the existing water quality monitoring network in the Tongue and Powder River Basins and to recommend needed modifications to the present sampling program. As a basis for these recommendations, known developments, both present an...

  10. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY: THE SAN JUAN RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of surface water quality in the San Juan River Basin and discusses the impact of energy development upon water quality and water availabilty. The water quality data collected and presented in this report may be considered baseline in nature and ...

  11. ASSOCIATIONS OF THE MOLINIO –ARRHENATHERETEA R. TX. 1937 CLASS IN VASLUI RIVER BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Irimia, Irina Blaj –.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents 4 vegetal associations belonging to the Molinio – Arrhenatheretea R. Tx. 1937 class, associations found on the territory of Vaslui river basin. Each association is accompanied by a phytosociological table and an analysis of the bioforms, floristic elements and ecological indices.

  12. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF AQUATIC VEGETATION IN THE VASLUI RIVER BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Irimia, Irina Blaj –.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents two associations from the Lemnetea minoris de Bolós et Masclans 1955 class and one from the Potametea pectinati Klika in Klika et Novák 1941 class identified in Vaslui river basin, described in a phytocoenological table and analysed from the point of view of bioforms, floristic elements, and ecological indices

  13. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF MEADOWS VEGETATION FROM THE SUPERIOR BASIN OF PUTNA RIVER (VRANCEA COUNTY)

    OpenAIRE

    Chifu, T.; RAMONA ROTARU

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents two vegetal associations identified on moderately inclined slopes of the superior basin of Putna river: Festuco rubrae – Agrostietum capillaris Horvat 1951, Festucetum rupicolae Burduja et al. 1956. Each association is described in a phytocoenological table and analysed from the point of view of bioforms, floristic elements and ecological indices.

  14. A MODEL OF MIGRATION IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. It examines the impact of regional energy development scenarios and policies on the internal movements of population and industry within the project study re...

  15. AN ECOLOGICAL AND HABITAT VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE WHITE RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study is an important first step toward a determination of how such landscape alterations are correlated with changes in the hydrologic, chemical, and biological characteristics of the White River Basin and how the influences of potential alterations may affect change in the...

  16. AN ECOLOGICAL AND HABITAT VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF ARKANSAS WHITE RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study is an important first step toward a determination of how such landscape alterations are correlated with changes in the hydrologic, chemical, and biological characteristics of the White River Basin and how the influences of potential alterations may affect change in the...

  17. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN TRAJECTORIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHANGE: A PLANNING ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pacific Northwest Ecosystem Research Consortium, consisting of scientists at EPA-WED, Oregon State University, and the University of Oregon, completed a planning atlas for the Willamette River Basin in western Oregon. The atlas describes ecological conditions and human activ...

  19. ASSOCIATION OF LANDSCAPE METRICS TO SURFACE WATER BIOLOGY IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface water quality for the Savannah River basin was assessed using water biology and landscape metrics. Two multivariate analyses, partial least square and cannonical correlation, were used to describe how the structural variation in landscape variable(s) that contribute the ...

  20. Application of Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) for Dungun River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, I.; Nor, N. D. M.; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; K, F.; Hanapi, M. N.; L, Livia

    2013-06-01

    The Northeast monsoon happening during the months of October until January is the major rainy season found in the eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The Dungun river basin (1,858 km2) is exposed to this season thus experiencing characteristically regular flooding due to the prolong rainfall events. The annual rainfall over the river basins are 2,880 mm with great proportion falling in the months of December (19.4%). This study is to apply the Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model which Dungun river basin has been chosen for this study as the catchments have range of flood and relevant data that can be used to develop the model. The satellite data used in this study is provided by JAXA Global Rainfall Watch. The main feature of this real-time flood analysis model is the satellite-based rainfall data input employed during the model creation phase. The performance of the model for the river basins from satellite and ground-based rainfall data are compared using three error analysis methods.

  1. AN ENERGY AND FUEL DEMAND MODEL FOR THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report was prepared in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. An energy and fuel demand model was developed for the ORBES study region, which includes all of Kentucky, most of ...

  2. Evolution of tertiary intermontane fluvial system of Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration and development of economic coal and uranium deposits of the Tertiary Fort Union and Wasatch Formations provided data related to the evolution of depositional systems in the Powder River Basin. In ascending order, the Paleocene Fort Union Formation consists of the Tullock, Lebo, and Tongue River Members. The overlying Eocene Wasatch Formation consists of the conglomeratic Kingsbury and Moncrief Members and laterally equivalent finer grained deposits. Evolution of fluvial deposition in the basin was determined from sandstone percent maps. A high proportion of sandstones in the Tullock Member and combined Tongue River Member and Wasatch Formation formed in interconnected east-west and north-south belts. The east-west belts represent alluvial fans, as well as braided and meandering tributary streams. The north-south belts reflect meandering and anastomosing trunk streams fed by basin margin tributaries. The sandstones of the Lebo Shale show east-west trends and represent deposits of fluvio-deltaic systems that filled a western, closed-lacustrine basin. The lake in this basin may have formed during localized subsidence along the Buffalo deep fault. These contrasting styles of fluvial deposition were largely controlled by extrabasinal and intrabasinal tectonics associated with Laramide orogeny

  3. Landwater variation in four major river basins of the Indochina peninsula as revealed by GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Nakaegawa, T.; Nishijima, J.

    2007-04-01

    We estimated mass variations in four major river basins the Mekong, Irrawaddy, Salween and Chao Phraya river basins of the Indochina Peninsula using the newly released GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) monthly gravity field solutions of UTCSR RL02 (University of Texas at Austin, Center for Space Research Release 02), JPL RL02 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory Release 02) and GFZ RL03 (GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam Release 03). The estimated variations were compared with that calculated from a numerical model. The results show that there is a good agreement between the GRACE estimations and the model calculation for the Mekong and Irrawaddy basins, while the aggreement for the Salween and Chao Phraya basins is poor, mainly due to the spatial scale of the areas concerned. The comparison over the combined area of the four river basins shows fairly good agreement, although there are small quantitative discrepancies. The amplitudes of the annual signals of the GRACE solutions are 0.9- to 1.4-fold larger than that of the hydrological model, and the phases are delayed about 1 month compared with the model signal. The phase differences are probably due to improper treatments of the groundwater storage process in the hydrological model, suggesting that the GRACE data possibly provide constraints to the model parameters.

  4. Enhancing stakeholder participation in river basin management using mental mapping and causality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, D.

    2009-04-01

    Participation processes play a crucial role in implementing adaptive management in river basins. A range of different participative methods is being applied, however, little is known on their effectiveness in addressing the specific question or policy process at stake and their performance in different socio-economic and cultural settings. To shed light on the role of cultural settings on the outcomes of a participative process we carried out a comparative study of participation processes using group model building (GMB) in a European, a Central Asian, and an African river basin. We use an analytical framework which covers the goals, the role of science and stakeholders, the initiation and methods of the processes framed by very different cultural, socio-economic and biophysical conditions. Across all three basins, the GMB processes produced a shared understanding among all participants of the major water management issues in the respective river basin and common approaches to address them. The "ownership of the ideas" by the stakeholders, i.e. the topic to be addressed in a GMB process, is important for their willingness to contribute to such a participatory process. Differences, however, exist in so far that cultural and contextual constraints of the basin drive the way the GMB processes have been designed and how their results contribute to policy development.

  5. Generalized hydrogeology and ground-water budget for the C Aquifer, Little Colorado River Basin and parts of the Verde and Salt River Basins, Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Ward, John J.; Bills, Donald J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2002-01-01

    The C aquifer underlies the Little Colorado River Basin and parts of the Verde and Salt River Basins and is named for the primary water-bearing rock unit of the aquifer, the Coconino Sandstone. The areal extent of this aquifer is more than 27,000 square miles. More than 1,000 well and spring sites were identified in the U.S. Geological Survey database for the C aquifer in Arizona and New Mexico. The C aquifer is the most productive aquifer in the Little Colorado River Basin. The Little Colorado River is the primary surface-water feature in the area, and it has a direct hydraulic connection with the C aquifer in some areas. Spring discharge as base flow from the C aquifer occurs predominantly in the lower 13 miles of the Little Colorado River subsequent to downward leakage into the deeper Redwall-Muav Limestone aquifer. Ground-water mounds or divides exist along the southern and northeastern boundaries of the Little Colorado River Basin. The ground-water divides are significant boundaries of the C aquifer; however, the location and persistence of the divides potentially can be affected by ground-water withdrawals. Ground-water development in the C aquifer has increased steadily since the 1940s because population growth has produced an increased need for agricultural, industrial, and public water supply. Ground-water pumpage from the C aquifer during 1995 was about 140,000 acre-feet. Ground-water budget components for the C aquifer were evaluated using measured or estimated discharge values. The system was assumed to be in a steady-state condition with respect to natural recharge and discharge, and the stability of discharge from major springs during the past several decades supported the steady-state assumption. Downward leakage to the Redwall-Muav Limestone aquifer is a major discharge component for the ground-water budget. Discharge from the C aquifer is estimated to be 319,000 acre-feet per year.

  6. A hydrogeomorphic river network model predicts where and why hyporheic exchange is important in large basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, Jesus D.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2014-09-01

    Hyporheic exchange has been hypothesized to have basin-scale consequences; however, predictions throughout river networks are limited by available geomorphic and hydrogeologic data and by models that can analyze and aggregate hyporheic exchange flows across large spatial scales. We developed a parsimonious but physically based model of hyporheic flow for application in large river basins: Networks with EXchange and Subsurface Storage (NEXSS). We applied NEXSS across a broad range of geomorphic diversity in river reaches and synthetic river networks. NEXSS demonstrates that vertical exchange beneath submerged bed forms rather than lateral exchange through meanders dominates hyporheic fluxes and turnover rates along river corridors. Per kilometer, low-order streams have a biogeochemical potential at least 2 orders of magnitude larger than higher-order streams. However, when biogeochemical potential is examined per average length of each stream order, low- and high-order streams were often found to be comparable. As a result, the hyporheic zone's intrinsic potential for biogeochemical transformations is comparable across different stream orders, but the greater river miles and larger total streambed area of lower order streams result in the highest cumulative impact from low-order streams. Lateral exchange through meander banks may be important in some cases but generally only in large rivers.

  7. Hydrological recurrence as a measure for large river basin classification and process understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, R.; Sayama, T.

    2014-07-01

    Hydrologic functions of river basins are summarized as water collection, storage and discharge, which can be characterized by the dynamics of hydrological variables including precipitation, evaporation, storage and runoff. In some situations these four variables behave more in a recurrent manner by repeating in a similar range year after year or in other situations they exhibit more randomness with higher variations year by year. The degree of recurrence in runoff is important not only for water resources management but also for hydrologic process understandings, especially in terms of how the other three variables determine the degree of recurrence in runoff. The main objective of this paper is to propose a simple hydrologic classification framework applicable to global scale and large basins based on the combinations of recurrence in the four variables. We evaluate it by Lagged Autocorrelation, Fast Fourier Transforms and Colwell's Indices of variables obtained from EU-WATCH dataset composed by eight hydrologic and land surface model outputs. By setting a threshold to define high or low recurrence in the four variables, we classify each river basin into 16 possible classes. The overview of recurrence patterns at global scale suggested that precipitation is recurrent mainly in the humid tropics, Asian Monsoon area and part of higher latitudes with oceanic influence. Recurrence in evaporation was mainly dependent on the seasonality of energy availability, typically high in the tropics, temperate and subarctic regions. Recurrence in storage at higher latitudes depends on energy/water balances and snow, while that in runoff is mostly affected by the different combinations of these three variables. According to the river basin classification 10 out of the 16 possible classes were present in the 35 largest river basins in the world. In humid tropic region, the basins belong to a class with high recurrence in all the variables, while in subtropical region many of the river basins have low recurrence. In temperate region, the energy limited or water limited in summer characterizes the recurrence in storage, but runoff exhibits generally low recurrence due to the low recurrence in precipitation. In the subarctic and arctic region, the amount of snow also influences the classes; more snow yields higher recurrence in storage and runoff. Our proposed framework follows a simple methodology that can aid in grouping river basins with similar characteristics of water, energy and storage cycles. The framework is applicable at different scales with different datasets to provide useful insights into the understanding of hydrologic regimes based on the classification.

  8. Controls on surface water chemistry in the upper Merced River basin, Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.; Campbell, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Surface water draining granitic bedrock in Yosemite National Park exhibits considerable variability in chemical composition, despite the relative homogeneity of bedrock chemistry. Other geological factors, including the jointing and distribution of glacial till, appear to exert strong controls on water composition. Chemical data from three surface water surveys in the upper Merced River basin conducted in August 1981, June 1988 and August 1991 were analysed and compared with mapped geological, hydrological and topographic features to identify the solute sources and processes that control water chemistry within the basin during baseflow. Water at most of the sampling sites was dilute, with alkalinities ranging from 26 to 77 ??equiv. 1-1. Alkalinity was much higher in two subcatchments, however, ranging from 51 to 302 ??equiv. 1-1. Base cations and silica were also significantly higher in these two catchments than in the rest of the watershed. Concentrations of weathering products in surface water were correlated to the fraction of each subcatchment underlain by surficial material, which is mostly glacial till. Silicate mineral weathering is the dominant control on concentrations of alkalinity, silica and base cations, and ratios of these constituents in surface water reflect the composition of local bedrock, Chloride concentrations in surface water samples varied widely, ranging from <1 to 96 ??equiv. 1-1. The annual volume-weighted mean chloride concentration in the Merced River at the Happy Isles gauge from 1968 to 1990 was 26 ??equiv. 1-1, which was five times higher than in atmospheric deposition (4-5 ??equiv. 1-1), suggesting that a source of chloride exists within the watershed. Saline groundwater springs, whose locations are probably controlled by vertical jointing in the bedrock, are the most likely source of the chloride. Sulphate concentrations varied much less than most other solutes, ranging from 3 to 14 ??equiv. 1-1. Concentrations of sulphate in quarterly samples collected at the watershed outlet also showed relatively little variation, suggesting that sulphate may be regulated to some extent by a within-watershed process, such as sulphate adsorption.

  9. Isotope characterization of major rivers of Indus Basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan lies between latitudes 24 deg. and 37 deg. North and longitudes 61 deg. to 76 deg. East. It possesses quite complicated and attractive physiographical features. There are very often a series of mountain ranges possessing deep broad valleys in-between. It includes the famous valley of the Indus that has been the cradle of ancient civilization like those of the delta area of Nile and the valley of the Tigris Euphrates. Indus River is one of the longest rivers in the World. It has five major tributaries viz. Bias, Satlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum joining from eastern side, while a number of small rivers join the Indus on the right side. All these main rivers are perennial. They originate from the mountains. Physiography and climate of the catchments of these rivers vary widely. Going from the catchment of the River Satlej to the catchment of Indus River, altitude increases and temperature decreases. In Northern Areas, mountains are covered with glaciers and some of the peaks are higher than 8000m, which get snowfall even in summer season. The basic sources of these rivers are snowmelt, rainfall and under certain conditions seepage from the formations. For certain rivers the source of snow is seasonal which falls in winter and melts in summer. From the middle of March to the breaking of monsoon, in mid July, river water is drawn from the melting of snow. During monsoon, rainfall run-off is added to the rivers over and above that from melting of snow so their dische that from melting of snow so their discharge increases manifold. During 1980-84, samples were collected on monthly basis from the river Satlej at Sulimanki, the river Ravi at Baloki (upstream including Qadirabad-Baloki Link Canal originating from the river Chenab) and Sidnai including two link canals originating from Trimu Headworks just after the confluence of the rivers Chenab and Jhelum, the rivers Chenab at Marala, mixed water of the rivers Chenab and Jhelum, the river Indus at Taunsa and Panjnad (after joining the other tributaries). The samples were analyzed for 18O, 2H and 3H isotopes. All the rivers have wide ranges of stable isotopes and tritium. The river Indus at Taunsa has relatively the most depleted values of ?18O and ?2H because of major contribution of snowmelt coming from glaciated peaks in Northern Areas. Tritium is also higher due to some contribution of snow fallen during high tritium period in 1960s. Isotopic data of pure snowmelt collected during 1992-94 show that ?18O (-15.9 to -12.2 per mille) and ?2H (-115 to -82 per mille) are even more depleted along with still high tritium ranging from 25 to 65TU, which supports the above finding. Isotopic signatures of the river Indus at Panjnad get enriched due to contribution of other tributaries, which have enriched isotopic values. The rivers Sutlej and Ravi have he most enriched values of ?18O and ?2H because their catchments have relatively low altitude and contribution of snowmelt is also less. River Chenab at Marala has the widest ranges of ?18O and ?2H because of mixing of snowmelt originating from higher altitudes and rainfall of piedmont areas. Data of Trimu, which show the combined effect of the rivers Chenab and Jhelum is almost similar to that of Marala. The ?18O and ?2H monitored at both of these stations i.e. Marala and Trimu during 1990-93 have average values of -10 per mille and -61 per mille and -9.4 and 59 per mille respectively, which are slightly different than the previous record. It also observed that temporal variations of both the ?18O and ?2H in rivers are cyclic especially in the rivers Indus, Jhelum and Chenab depending on the contributions of snowmelt and rains i.e. enriched during monsoon. The ?18O and ?2H data also give information about source of moisture. The winter runoff and snowmelt have relatively depleted isotopic signatures and higher d-excess indicating the source of moisture from the West (Mediterranean Sea) while the d-excess in monsoon is relatively less along with enriched isotopic values, which is also confirmed by the meteorological i

  10. Oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales in the Eocene Green River in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. This CD-ROM includes reports, data, and an ArcGIS project describing the assessment. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. Total in-place resources for the three assessed units in the Green River Formation are: (1) Tipton Shale Member, 362,816 million barrels of oil (MMBO), (2) Wilkins Peak Member, 704,991 MMBO, and (3) LaClede Bed of the Laney Member, 377,184 MMBO, for a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place. This compares with estimated in-place resources for the Piceance Basin of Colorado of 1.53 trillion barrels and estimated in-place resources for the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado of 1.32 trillion barrels.

  11. Design of automatic monitoring network for the water quality management of river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Yong; Park, Won Kyu [Korea Environmental Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Il [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-30

    In designing automatic water quality monitoring networks for a river basin, determination of measurement locations and items is critical to the effectiveness of the total system. In this paper we studied how to decide these two design factors when a monitoring network is designed for the purpose of water quality surveillance and emergency alarm. For measurement locations, candidate sites are chosen based on the intake amount for water supply and the point sources of contamination. Then, detailed locations are decided according to the contaminant flow distance. As for measurement items, characteristics and the accident history of water pollution in the basin must be taken into account. Considering economic aspects, we proposed a two-stage measurement plan: basic components for all locations and selective ones variable for different locations. Proposed methodology is demonstrated through a case study for Nak-dong River Basin. (author). 10 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. Environmental setting and water-quality issues in the lower Tennessee River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Woodside, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program are to describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's water resources, identify water-quality changes over time, and identify the primary natural and human factors that affect water quality. The lower Tennessee River Basin is one of 59 river basins selected for study. The water-quality assessment of the lower Tennessee River Basin study unit began in 1997. The lower Tennessee River Basin study unit encompasses an area of about 19,500 square miles and extends from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Paducah, Kentucky. The study unit had a population of about 1.5 million people in 1995.The study unit was subdivided into subunits with relatively homogeneous geology and physiography. Subdivision of the study unit creates a framework to assess the effects of natural and cultural settings on water quality. Nine subunits were delineated in the study unit; their boundaries generally coincide with level III and level IV ecoregion boundaries. The nine subunits are the Coastal Plain, Transition, Western Highland Rim, Outer Nashville Basin, Inner Nashville Basin, Eastern Highland Rim, Plateau Escarpment and Valleys, Cumberland Plateau, and Valley and Ridge.The lower Tennessee River Basin consists of predominantly forest (51 percent) and agricultural land (40 percent). Activities related to agricultural land use, therefore, are the primary cultural factors likely to have a widespread effect on surface- and ground-water quality in the study unit. Inputs of total nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural activities in 1992 were about 161,000 and 37,900 tons, respectively. About 3.7 million pounds (active ingredient) of pesticides was applied to crops in the lower Tennessee River Basin in 1992.State water-quality agencies identified nutrient enrichment and pathogens as water-quality issues affecting both surface and ground water in the lower Tennessee River Basin. Water-quality data collected by State and Federal agencies between 1980 and 1996 were summarized to characterize surface- and ground-water quality of the subunits with respect to these issues. Median concentrations of nitrogen species generally were less than 1 milligram per liter in surface and ground water in all subunits, and were highest throughout the subunits that had the largest percentages of agricultural land use. Median phosphorus concentrations also were less than 1 milligram per liter in all subunits. Phosphatic limestones present in two subunits had a larger effect on phosphorus concentrations in surface and ground water than did the amount of agricultural land use in these subunits. Median counts of fecal coliform were higher in surface water than in ground water in all subunits. The highest median counts in surface water were in the Valley and Ridge (7,500 colonies per 100 milliliters) and the Outer Nashville Basin subunits (5,000 colonies per 100 milliliters). Highest median counts in ground water were in the Inner and Outer Nashville Basin subunit. Natural setting likely has an important effect with respect to fecal contamination of surface and ground water in the lower Tennessee River Basin.

  13. Reanalysis of Data from River Discharge and Gauge Height from the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. G.; Sviercoski, R. D.; Travis, B.; Eggert, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Amazon is the world's largest, discharging more water to the ocean than any other river. Study of the world's fresh water sources becomes more significant with increasing awareness of global climate change and its potential affect on those resources. In this paper, we present a data reanalysis of the daily discharge and the respective gauge height for 87 active gauge stations throughout the Amazon River Basin. The data set was originally obtained from the ANEEL (Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency). The reanalysis consists of normalizing the decimal notation, filtering inconsistencies, and filling in missing data by an averaging procedure. These three problems proved to be nontrivial ones and prevented full benefit from the data. Having the reanalyzed data available will help improve understanding of the spatio-temporal variations of the water budget component of the Amazon basin, corresponding to the fundamental and difficult problem of modeling basin and continental scale hydrologic routing models.

  14. Using radar altimetry to update a routing model of the Zambezi River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry allows for the global monitoring of lakes and river levels. However, the widespread use of altimetry for hydrological studies is limited by the coarse temporal and spatial resolution provided by current altimetric missions and the fact that discharge rather than level is needed for hydrological applications. To overcome these limitations, altimetry river levels can be combined with hydrological modeling in a dataassimilation framework. This study focuses on the updating of a river routing model of the Zambezi using river levels from radar altimetry. A hydrological model of the basin was built to simulate the land phase of the water cycle and produce inflows to a Muskingum routing model. River altimetry from the ENVISAT mission was then used to update the storages in the reaches of the Muskingum model using the Extended Kalman Filter. The method showed improvements in modeled flows relative to the baseline.

  15. Managing High Runoff Discharge in the Urbanized Basins of Asa River Catchment Area of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Iroye

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of flood has been on the increase in Ilorin for sometime; and this exemplifies the problem operating in most urban centres in Nigeria. Increase in runoff production in an urbanized catchment is a function, among other factors of to increase in percentage paved area brought about by deforestation activities and poor environmental attitude of the people. This study examines the relationship between runoff discharge and basin characteristics in Ilorin. Data used were collected directly from the field over a period of one calendar year. Rainfall data were collected in each basin using a standard rainguage of 20cm orifice while basin discharge was collected twice daily (8.00am and 6.30pm using fabricated staff gauge graduated in centimeter. Basin morphometric attributes were computed from topographic map while landuse map was prepared from satellite imagery. Soil samples were collected and analysed for particle size distribution. The result obtained indicates that basin size and landuse have profound influence on the explanation of discharge in the basins. The study thus, recommends a number of options to efficient basin management in the city.
    Keywords: Managing; High runoff discharge; Urbanized basin; Asa river catchment; Ilorin; Nigeria

  16. Regulation of Euphrates and Tigris Rivers and Changes of Basin Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majar, Ahmad; Starodubtsev, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Rivers can be regulated for many purposes (flow regulation, irrigation, navigation, energy generation and ….etc) and this may cause some negative ecological changes in basin of these rivers, one of the clearest examples of this situation, the case in the Euphrates and Tigris basin, where the both rivers are regulated with series of reservoirs and this leads to many ecological changes. In this study we tried to light out the expected changes might happen in soil cover of basin as a result of this large-scale regulation, and in which scheme the soils here undergo changes, how the hydromorphic soil will be changed with the intensification of the processes of desertification. Meadow and meadow - boggy soils of light texture (sands and loamy sands) are gradually transformed onto desert sands. The soils of heavier texture (loams and clays) turn into takyr - like saline soils. At the same time in middle reaches of the rivers the processes of salinization and desertification invade the soils (in Syria) in connection with intensive irrigation of soils, which possess complicated reclamation properties. Key words: Euphrates, Tigris, Reservoirs, river regulation, salinization and desertification,

  17. Interaction of a river with an alluvial basin aquifer: Stable isotopes, salinity and water budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastoe, Christopher J.; Hutchison, William R.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Hawley, John; Hogan, James F.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryDetailed sets of tracer data (isotopes, salinity) and the results of MODFLOW modeling of water budgets provide an unprecedented opportunity for comparing modeling with field data in the area where the Rio Grande enters the Hueco Bolson basin of Texas and Chihuahua. Water from the Rio Grande has recharged the Hueco Bolson aquifer to a depth of 300 m below the surface in the El Paso-Ciudad Juárez area, the depth of infiltration corresponding to the depth of ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments. Groundwater beneath the river exhibits complex isotope and salinity stratification. Post-dam (post -1916, type A) river water has infiltrated to depths up to 80 m. Pre-dam (type B) river water has infiltrated to 300 m depth near downtown El Paso, and has mixed with, or been displaced further downstream by high-salinity native Hueco Bolson groundwater (type C, present in the basin north of the river). Salinity and isotope boundaries do not correspond precisely. Isotope stratification corresponds to water residence time and (for type C) to degree of evaporation; the highest salinities are associated with the most evaporated water. Modeling of water budgets in the basin fill beneath the river predicts present-day mixing of water types B and C where changing rates of pumping have caused a reversal of groundwater flow direction between El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, and deep recharge of type B water under conditions prevailing in the 1960s.

  18. Simulation and economics of coalbed methane production in the Powder River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that coalbed methane has emerged as a significant resource for natural gas production in the United States, with estimates of gas-in-place of 400 trillion cubic feet. In Wyoming the largest coalbed methane resources occur in the Greater Green River, Powder River, and Wind River Basins. Very little of the gas has been exploited. This paper examines the potential of coalbed methane production in the Powder River basin by history matching early production from five gas wells in the Rawhide Butte field using a commercially available coalbed methane simulator, COALGAS. Sensitivity studies showed the most important parameters for establishing production were permeability, initial desorption pressure and drainage area. Langmuir constants, desorption time, porosity, well-bore diameter and skin were comparatively less important for long term production. An economic analysis showed that, based on current capital and operating costs obtained from industrial companies, the development of coalbed methane in the Powder River Basin may be economic if the gas sales price is greater than approximately $1/Mscf

  19. Environmental sensitivity mapping for oil spills in the Canhanduba River Basin, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana F. Francini

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills may cause serious damage to natural resources and anthropogenic activities. In order to mitigate such adverse impacts, contingency planning based on environmental sensitivity mapping has been developed, encompassing potential areas, where such situation may occur. Recently, an oil distribution company, TRANSPETRO, put into operation a new facility in the Canhanduba River Basin, in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. This facility receives and sends off diverse pipelines containing a great variety of oil products, crossing over the main stretch of the river and its tributaries. Canhanduba River supplies water to part of the city of Itajaí and the oil distribution facility, as well as all pipelines are located up river of water collecting point to supply that town. Therefore, environmental sensitivity maps of Canhanduba drainage were done in order to support decision makers in case of manage any oil spill episode in that area. Firstly, rapid environmental assessment protocols - RAPs to evaluate physical river habitats were conducted to portrait their integrity in distinct stretches along the river basin. Finally, environmental sensitivity maps attributes like ecosystem sensitivity, natural resources, and anthropogenic activities were identified nearby pipelines crossings and graded according to its intensity in each observation site, in order to estimate environmental sensitivity indexes (ESI and make up the maps. RAPs’ results indicated that in the great majority of river stretches, environmental integrity varies between bad and fair, while ESIs were relatively high, varying from 6 to 9. An environmental sensitivity map (1:50.000 scale was generated to this area displaying the major attributes and the distinct ESIs along the river basin.

  20. Heavy Metal Distribution in the Bottom Sediments Along Tietê River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Mortatti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of heavy metals in fluvial sediments has been used to better understand the potential hazards and criticaltoxicity of heavy metals mainly related to the anthropogenic influences of urban sewage, industrial effluents and agriculturalactivity. The present study analyzed the heavy metals, such as Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb, in the bottom sediments along the TietêRiver basin, a polluted watershed in the Southeast region of Brazil. The distribution of the concentrations of heavy metals inthe upper basin decreased in the following order: Zn > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu, whereas, in the middle part of the basin (whichis under strong urban and industrial influences, high concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cr were observed, measuring 648, 200and 183 ?g g-1, respectively. The sequential chemical extraction in relation to the total concentration was used to assessthe potential bioavailability of heavy metals. In the upper part of the basin, the heavy metals extracted from the bottomsediments were mainly related to the residual fraction, whereas, in the middle part of the basin, the bioavailability of Zn, Crand Ni was higher than 60%, and these metals were mainly related to the iron oxide phase. The high concentration of heavymetals observed in the middle basin of the Tietê river (after the metropolitan area of São Paulo, when compared with theaverage concentration found in the geochemical bottom, showed that, in terms of enrichment factor and geoaccumulationindex, the degree of pollution by Zn is high and by Ni is high to moderate in the downstream direction.

  1. On the contribution of groundwater storage to interannual streamflow anomalies in the Colorado River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rosenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We assess the significance of groundwater storage for seasonal streamflow forecasts by evaluating its contribution to interannual streamflow anomalies in the 29 tributary sub-basins of the Colorado River. Monthly and annual changes in total basin storage are simulated by two implementations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC macroscale hydrology model – the standard release of the model, and an alternate version that has been modified to include the SIMple Groundwater Model (SIMGM, which represents an unconfined aquifer underlying the soil column. These estimates are compared to those resulting from basin-scale water balances derived exclusively from observational data and changes in terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites. Changes in simulated groundwater storage are then compared to those derived via baseflow recession analysis for 72 reference-quality watersheds. Finally, estimates are statistically analyzed for relationships to interannual streamflow anomalies, and predictive capacities are compared across storage terms. We find that both model simulations result in similar estimates of total basin storage change, that these estimates compare favorably with those obtained from basin-scale water balances and GRACE data, and that baseflow recession analyses are consistent with simulated changes in groundwater storage. Statistical analyses reveal essentially no relationship between groundwater storage and interannual streamflow anomalies, suggesting that operational seasonal streamflow forecasts, which do not account for groundwater conditions implicitly or explicitly, are likely not detrimentally affected by this omission in the Colorado River basin.

  2. Clay mineralogy of surface sediments as a tool for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Riboulleau, A.; ChâTelet, E. Armynot; Lorenzoni, L.; Tribovillard, N.; Murray, R. W.; Müller-Karger, F.; Astor, Y. M.

    2013-02-01

    The mineralogical composition of 95 surface sediment samples from the Cariaco Basin continental shelf and Orinoco delta was investigated in order to constrain the clay-mineral main provenance and distribution within the Cariaco Basin. The spatial variability of the data set was studied using a geo-statistical approach that allows drawing representative clay-mineral distribution maps. These maps are used to identify present-day dominant sources for each clay-mineral species in agreement with the geological characteristics of the main river watersheds emptying into the basin. This approach allows (1) identifying the most distinctive clay-mineral species/ratios that determine particle provenance, (2) evaluating the respective contribution of local rivers, and (3) confirming the minimal present-day influence of the Orinoco plume on the Cariaco Basin sedimentation. The Tuy, Unare, and Neveri Rivers are the main sources of clay particles to the Cariaco Basin sedimentation. At present, the Tuy River is the main contributor of illite to the western part of the southern Cariaco Basin continental shelf. The Unare River plume, carrying smectite and kaolinite, has a wide westward propagation, whereas the Neveri River contribution is less extended, providing kaolinite and illite toward the eastern Cariaco Basin. The Manzanares, Araya, Tortuga, and Margarita areas are secondary sources of local influence. These insights shed light on the origin of present-day terrigenous sediments of the Cariaco Basin and help to propose alternative explanations for the temporal variability of clay mineralogy observed in previously published studies.

  3. Application of diatom biotic indices in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a Mediterranean basin. Which one is the most appropriated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Gonzalo; Toja, Julia; Sala, Silvia Estela; de los Reyes Fernández, María; Reyes, Isabel; Adela Casco, María

    2010-11-01

    The diatom community was studied in 110 sites within the Guadalquivir River catchment area, South Spain, in order to test the applicability of diatom biotic indices developed in other European regions to this site and to provide a useful tool for monitoring water quality in the river basin. We identified 399 taxa and calculated five diatomic indices (Specific Polluosensitivity Index (IPS), Biological Diatom Index, Trophic Diatom Index, Index of the European Economic Community, and Diatom-based Eutrophication Pollution Index (EPI-D)). Since the indices analyzed were highly correlated, their results could be compared. The indices that gave the best results were the EPI-D followed by the IPS, the latter being the most widely used index in Iberian catchments. Nevertheless, the EPI-D presented certain advantages: (1) this index correlated the best with the water chemistry in the catchment area; (2) EPI-D is not sensitive to the presence of taxa belonging to the Achnanthidium minutissimum complex frequently present in the Guadalquivir basin. Nevertheless, EPI-D retains its effectiveness and thus constitutes an easier index for application from a taxonomical standpoint. We estimated the general water quality of the entire basin on the basis of EPI-D. According to these results, 55% of the sites had either high or good water quality. The species that better characterized each water quality category in the study area were: A. minutissimum (high and good), Amphora pediculus (moderate), Nitzschia frustulum (poor), and Nitzschia capitellata (bad). PMID:20072812

  4. Stationarity of annual flood peaks during 1951-2010 in the Pearl River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Xiao, Mingzhong; Xu, Chong-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The assumption of stationarity of annual peak flood (APF) records at 28 hydrological stations across the Pearl River basin, China, is tested. Abrupt changes in mean and variance are tested using the Pettitt technique and the Loess method. Trends of APFs are analyzed using the Mann-Kendall method and the Spearman technique. And then the stationarity of the APF series is further investigated by GAMLSS models and long-term persistence. Results indicate that: (1) abrupt changes in mean and variance have similar influences on the changing properties of APFs, such as stationarity. Abrupt changes in mean and variance are only field significant in the East River basin; (2) the change points have a considerable impact on the detection of trends, and these may be attributed to the fact that a abrupt increase or decrease in mean values will affect the trend variations. Besides, for the APF series being free of change points and trend, the GAMLSS models also corroborate stationarity of the APF series; (3) the nonstationarity in the Pearl River basin is mainly due to the existence of the change point. However, the APF series with change points in mean and/or variance are also characterized by long-term persistence, and thus it is infeasible to assert that the abrupt behaviors and/or trends of the APF series are the result of human activities or long-term persistence, especially in the East River basin. Results of this study will provide information for management of water resources and design of hydraulic facilities in the Pearl River basin in a changing environment.

  5. Incorporation of GIS Based Program into Hydraulic Model for Water Level Modeling on River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Memarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water resources management usually requires that hydraulic, ecological, and hydrological models be linked. The Hy- drologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS hydraulic model and the Hydrologic Engineering Center Geospatial River Analysis System (HEC-GEORAS, imitates flow and water profiles in the Neka river basin’s downstream flood plain. Hydrograph phases studied during the flood seasons of 1986-1999 and from 2002-2004 were used to calibrate and verify the hydraulic model respectively. Simulations of peak flood stages and hydrographs’ evaluations are congruent with studies and observations, with the former showing mean square errors between 4.8 - 10 cm. HECRAS calculations and forecast flood water levels. Nash-Sutcliffe effectiveness (CR3 is more than 0.92 along with elevated levels of water which were created with some effectiveness (CR5 of 0.94 for the validation period. The coupled two models show good performance in the water level modeling.

  6. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STUDIES ON SOIL EROSION IN VAMSADHARA RIVER BASIN, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Amminedu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact studies on floods of Vamsadhara river basin have been attempted utilizing remote sensing, geotechnical, geomorphological, hydrometeorological and sedimentation data. Various thematic maps on vegetation/crop cover, soils, slope and rainfall are superposed to demarcate the probable areas, prone to erosion. The study reveals that the area with sparse vegetation and shifting cultivation coupled with heavy rainfall in the steep slopes has been subjected to the removal of the fine fertile top soil through runoff, resulting in sedimentation and silting up of the river course in the lower reach of the Vamsadhara river basin. The increase in the flood frequency in the recent years (1980-2010 may be due to the environmental degradation brought about to the vegetation/crop cover practices in the catchment area.

  7. Features of global hydrological processes using the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model simulation: focusing on five major river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Niu, J.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    This study adopts a semi-distributed hydrological model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), to simulate the global terrestrial hydrological processes and analyze the variation of main processes, including precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture. To run the VIC model, we use the daily gridded precipitation product at a higher resolution (1°×1°) from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Besides, other daily meteorological data (including maximum and minimum daily temperatures) are derived from the NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis data. VIC model is run at a daily temporal step and 1° latitude-longitude spatial resolution for the period 1997-2008. The streamflow observations from five major continental river basins in the world (the Amazon River basin, the Mississippi River basin, the Yangtze River basin, the Rhine River basin and the Nile River basin) are used to verify the VIC simulation results. Then, this study quantifies the contributions of precipitation to soil moisture change, evapotranspiration and runoff over these five major river basins. This study also detects the response of those hydrological processes to the increase of temperature, which will benefit the regional environment and water management.

  8. What mainly controls recession flows in river basins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Basudev; Nagesh Kumar, D.

    2014-03-01

    The ubiquity of the power law relationship between dQ/dt and Q for recession periods (-dQ/dt=kQ?,Q being discharge at the basin outlet at time t) clearly hints at the existence of a dominant recession flow process that is common to all real basins. It is commonly assumed that a basin, during recession events, functions as a single phreatic aquifer resting on a impermeable horizontal bed or the Dupuit-Boussinesq (DB) aquifer, and with time different aquifer geometric conditions arise that give different values of ? and k. The recently proposed alternative model, geomorphological recession flow model, however, suggests that recession flows are controlled primarily by the dynamics of the active drainage network (ADN). In this study we use data for several basins and compare the above two contrasting recession flow models in order to understand which of the above two factors dominates during recession periods in steep basins. Particularly, we do the comparison by selecting three key recession flow properties: (1) power law exponent ?, (2) dynamic dQ/dt-Q relationship (characterized by k) and (3) recession timescale (time period for which a recession event lasts). Our observations suggest that neither drainage from phreatic aquifers nor evapotranspiration significantly controls recession flows. Results show that the value of ? and recession timescale are not modeled well by DB aquifer model. However, the above mentioned three recession curve properties can be captured satisfactorily by considering the dynamics of the ADN as described by geomorphological recession flow model, possibly indicating that the ADN represents not just phreatic aquifers but the organization of various sub-surface storage systems within the basin.

  9. The Balearic current and volume transports in the Balearic basin

    OpenAIRE

    Garcialadona, E.; Castellon, A.; Font, J.; Tintore, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Balearic basin is a semi-enclosed basin located in the western Mediterranean Sea, connecting the Gulf of Lions and the Alboran basin. While the characteristics and circulation of the water masses have been rather well established, the exchanges with adjacent basins, essential to our understanding of the circulation in the western Mediterranean and for validating outputs of general circulation models, have never been determined in detail. We present here the data from the FE-89 (June 1989)...

  10. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary objective of the Institute for Energy Research (IER)-Santa Fe Snyder Corporation DOE Riverton Dome project is to test the validity of a new conceptual model and resultant exploration paradigm for so-called ''basin center'' gas accumulations. This paradigm and derivative exploration strategy suggest that the two most important elements crucial to the development of prospects in the deep, gas-saturated portions of Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) are (1) the determination and, if possible, three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes (i.e., this boundary is typically expressed as a significant inversion in both sonic and seismic velocity-depth profiles) , and (2) the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability ''sweet spots'' (i.e., areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability) in potential reservoir targets below this boundary. There are other critical aspects in searching for basin center gas accumulations, but completion of these two tasks is essential to the successful exploration for the unconventional gas resources present in anomalously pressured rock/fluid systems in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. The southern Wind River Basin, in particular the Riverton Dome and Emigrant areas, is a neat location for testing this exploration paradigm. Preliminary work within the Wind River Basin has demonstrated that there is a regionally prominent pressure surface boundary that can be det pressure surface boundary that can be detected by inversions in sonic velocity depth gradients in individual well log profiles and that can be seen as a velocity inversion on seismic lines. Also, the Wind River Basin in general-and the Riverton Dome area specially-is characterized by a significant number of anomalously pressured gas accumulations. Most importantly, Santa Fe Snyder Corporation has provided the study with sonic logs, two 3-D seismic studies (40 mi(sup 2) and 30 mi(sup 2)) and a variety of other necessary geological and geophysical information

  11. Snake-Salmon River basin hydrological modeling driven by climate model outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X.; Sridhar, V. R.; Moore, B.; Walden, V. P.

    2009-12-01

    Observed climate change for the historical periods can be useful in assessing the water resource changes at river basins. More than 20 research centers around the world have developed and used very sophisticated models that simulate the global climate. These models typically generate a vast amount of data that are directly relevant to various hydrological and water resources assessment studies. The Snake River basin (SRB) is the major residential and agricultural area located in Southern Idaho. It was a managed water area with numerous hydraulic structures to regulate the streamflow. Salmon River Basin (SaRB) is a less populated and unmanaged basin in Central Idaho. These two basins represent two distinctly different settings for understanding the impacts of climate change. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is a macroscale hydrological model developed at University of Washington that solves the water and energy balance. We employ the VIC model to study the streamflow and other hydrological variables, e.g., ET, soil moisture in the SRB and SaRB under the climate change conditions. The climate model -based precipitation and temperature data for 112 scenarios originally developed by Maurer et al. (2007) were downscaled to daily and used as meteorological forcing to predict the future hydrological status at both SRB and SaRB for 3 emission scenarios (A1b, A2 and B1) to represent three levels for the future projected climate impact in the basin using the calibrated VIC. VIC calibration was based on the historical natural streamflow data obtained from the Idaho Department of Water Resources. Comparison will be made between these watersheds to evaluate the impact of future climate change on the basins.

  12. Assessing the Potential for Managing Sediment in the Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, T. B.; Loucks, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Mekong/Lancang River Basin is undergoing a period of rapid hydropower development that will likely result in altering the natural flow and sediment regimes. This could significantly impact the exceptional biodiversity and food production characteristics of the basin's ecosystems. Additionally, alteration of natural sediment processes could impact the geomorphologic makeup of the system, as well as hydropower output and reliability. This study is devoted to exploring the potential for implementing reservoir sediment management practices. Research in collaboration with in-basin hydrologic institutions in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia has focused on a subset of reservoirs that will trap significant quantities of sediment, and that if properly located, designed and operated, could allow sediment passage. Simulation results are presented for reservoirs at several locations throughout the basin, including reservoirs in the Sre Pok, Se San and Se Kong sub-basins (called the "3S" basins), which are a particularly important set of adjacent, transboundary watersheds with respect to biodiversity and ecological productivity. The 3S basins also serve as an important source of flow and sediment to the mainstream Mekong River. Simulation results permit an evaluation of the improvement (compared to current/expected conditions) in sediment passage through reservoirs that is possible if different reservoir sediment management techniques are implemented, including sediment bypasses, flushing and sluicing. Our sediment simulation model implements a daily time-step mass-balance simulation of flow and sediment to predict in relative terms the spatial and temporal accumulation and depletion of sediment in river reaches and in reservoirs under different sediment management policies. The model results include the relative tradeoffs between hydropower production, sediment regime alteration, and flow regime alteration associated with the sediment management techniques deemed feasible at each location.

  13. Long- term discharge variability of the main rivers in the Mediterranean Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvo, C. B.; Gualdi, S.; Scoccimarro, E.; Bellucci, A.

    2009-09-01

    Rivers discharging into the Mediterranean Sea strongly influences salinity regionally and circulation in the sea. At long-term, river discharge for most of the rivers within the Mediterranean Sea basin have been strongly controlled by human activities such as construction of dams and water use for irrigation. However, a climatic signal on a scale of years to decades can still be observed at the discharge of many of these rivers. This work explores the effects of long-term climate variability over the main rivers that discharge at the Mediterranean Sea using observed time series long enough to provide a reliable information of annual to decadal variability. The studied rivers are Rivers Po, Rhône, Nile, Ebro, Adige, Tiber, Arno, and Moulouya. It is shown that trends in the discharge of most of these rivers have a large human component, but also a strong climatic one. Results enhance that, considering the hydrological year average discharge, Scandinavian Oscillation, and North Atlantic Oscillation, in this order, are climate modes that most influence the discharge of these rivers into the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Isotope Investigations of Major Rivers of Indus Basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus River is one of the longest rivers in the World. It has five major tributaries joining from eastern side, the Bias, Satlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum, while a number of small rivers join the Indus on the west side. These perennial rivers originate from mountains covered with glaciers. Isotopic (18O, 2H, 3H) monitoring of these rivers was carried out between 2002 and 2005 to study temporal variations of these isotopes at different control points and to understand water cycles and hydrological processes in the catchments of these rivers. The headwaters of the main Indus River (the Hunza, Gilgit and Kachura tributaries) display the most depleted ?18O (-14.5 to -11.0 per mille ) and ?2H (-106.1 to -72.6 per mille ) values due to precipitation at very high altitudes and very low temperatures. Generally these waters have low d-excess, which indicates that the moisture source is the Indian Ocean. The high d-excess in some winter (November-February) samples from the Hunza and Gilgit indicate the dominance of Mediterranean moisture sources. Kachura station has a ?18O- ?2H line with a slope of 4 and low d-excess, indicating an evaporation effect in Kachura Lake. The Indus River become enriched in isotopes going downstream towards the Arabian Sea because of contributions from rains at low altitude plains and a baseflow mainly recharged by local rains. At tail stations, evaporation and contributil stations, evaporation and contribution from baseflow are responsible for isotopic enrichment. Low tritium in some samples also indicates a baseflow contribution of (relatively older groundwater). The Chenab River has the widest variation in ?18O and ?2H, and the slope of the ?18O- ?2H line is 6.1, which is due to the variable contribution of snowmelt at high altitudes and rains at low altitudes. High d-excess in snowmelt and low d-excess in monsoons show that the moisture source in winter is generally western (Mediterranean) and that monsoon conditions predominantly originate from the Indian Ocean. The Kabul River has experiences a wide variation in isotopic values, probably due to variable contribution from the Swat River, which carries snowmelt. High d-excess associated with depleted isotopic values indicates a dominance of Mediterranean moisture sources in winter, while a low d-excess associated with enriched isotopic values, which typically occurs during summer monsoons points to the Bay of Bengal as the major source of moisture. The Jhelum River and its tributaries upstream of Mangla Lake experience enriched ?18O and ?2H due to the low altitude of its catchment. Precipitation in the catchment results from Indian Ocean moisture sources, and there is not any significant evaporation effect. Isotopic variations in the river Ravi appears to be mainly due to water diversions from the western rivers through link canals. (author)

  15. Estimating surface water area changes using time-series Landsat data in the Qingjiang River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhiqiang; Linghu, Bin; Ling, Feng; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Weidong; Wang, Hailei; Gui, Yuanmiao; Sun, Bingyu; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    The Qingjiang River Basin, which is 423 km long in the Hubei province, China, is the first large tributary of the Yangtze River below the Three Gorges. The Qingjiang River Basin surface water area monitoring plays an important role in the water resource management strategy and regular monitoring management of the Yangtze River watershed. Hydropower cascade exploitation, which started in 1987, has formed three reservoirs including the Geheyan reservoir, the Gaobazhou reservoir, and the Shuibuya reservoir in the midstream and downstream of the Qingjiang River Basin. They have made a great impact on surface water area changes of the Qingjiang River Basin and need to be taken into account. We monitor the Qingjiang River Basin surface water area changes from 1973 to 2010. Ten scenes from the Multispectral Scanner System (MSS), seven scenes from the Thematic Mapper (TM), and two scenes from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) remote sensing data of Landsat satellites, the normalized different water index (NDWI), the modified NDWI (MNDWI), and Otsu image segmentation method were employed to quantitatively estimate the Qingjiang River Basin surface water area in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, respectively. The results indicate that the surface water area of the Qingjiang River Basin shows a growing trend with the hydropower cascade development from the 1980s to the first decade of the 21st century. The study concluded the significance of human activities impact on surface water spatiotemporal distribution. Surface water accretion is significant in most parts of the Qingjiang River Basin and might be related to the constructed cascade hydropower dams.

  16. A combined linear optimisation methodology for water resources allocation in Alfeios River Basin (Greece) under uncertain and vague system conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekri, Eleni; Yannopoulos, Panayotis; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, a combined linear programming methodology, based on Li et al. (2010) and Bekri et al. (2012), is employed for optimizing water allocation under uncertain system conditions in the Alfeios River Basin, in Greece. The Alfeios River is a water resources system of great natural, ecological, social and economic importance for Western Greece, since it has the longest and highest flow rate watercourse in the Peloponnisos region. Moreover, the river basin was exposed in the last decades to a plethora of environmental stresses (e.g. hydrogeological alterations, intensively irrigated agriculture, surface and groundwater overexploitation and infrastructure developments), resulting in the degradation of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. As in most Mediterranean countries, water resource management in Alfeios River Basin has been focused up to now on an essentially supply-driven approach. It is still characterized by a lack of effective operational strategies. Authority responsibility relationships are fragmented, and law enforcement and policy implementation are weak. The present regulated water allocation puzzle entails a mixture of hydropower generation, irrigation, drinking water supply and recreational activities. Under these conditions its water resources management is characterised by high uncertainty and by vague and imprecise data. The considered methodology has been developed in order to deal with uncertainties expressed as either probability distributions, or/and fuzzy boundary intervals, derived by associated ?-cut levels. In this framework a set of deterministic submodels is studied through linear programming. The ad hoc water resources management and alternative management patterns in an Alfeios subbasin are analyzed and evaluated under various scenarios, using the above mentioned methodology, aiming to promote a sustainable and equitable water management. Li, Y.P., Huang, G.H. and S.L., Nie, (2010), Planning water resources management systems using a fuzzy-boundary interval-stochastic programming method, Elsevier Ltd, Advances in Water Resources, 33: 1105-1117. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.06.015 Bekri, E.S., Disse, M. and P.C.,Yannopoulos, (2012), Methodological framework for correction of quick river discharge measurements using quality characteristics, Session of Environmental Hydraulics - Hydrodynamics, 2nd Common Conference of Hellenic Hydrotechnical Association and Greek Committee for Water Resources Management, Volume: 546-557 (in Greek).

  17. Sediment discharge in the Santa Clara River Basin, Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rhea P.

    1979-01-01

    Sediment data collected in the Santa Clara River in California basin, during the 1967-75 water years were analyzed to determine the particle size and quantity of sediment transported past three gaging stations. The total sediment discharge of the basin , computed from records of Santa Clara River at Montalvo for water years 1968-75, was 63.5 million tons, of which 59.5 million tons was carried in suspension and an estimated 4 million tons was transported as unsampled sediment discharge. About 17.7 million tons, or 28 percent of the total sediment discharge, was coarse sediment (particles larger than 0.062 millimeter). Most of the sediment was transported during only a few days of floodflow each year. During the 1968-75 water years, approximately 55 percent of the total sediment was transported in 2 days and 92 percent was transported in 53 days. The long-term (1928-75) average annual sediment discharge of the Santa Clara River at Montalvo is estimated at 3.67 million tons. Of that quantity, 2.58 million tons consisted of fine sediment and 1.09 million tons consisted of coarse sediment. A sediment budget for the Santa Clara River basin was estimated for sediment discharges under both natural and actual conditions. The major difference between natural and actual sediment discharges of the Santa Clara River basin is the sediment intercepted upstream from Lake Piru. The combined trap efficiency of Lake Piru and Pyramid Lake approaches 100 percent. Sediment deposited in these reservoirs resulted in about a 6-percent reduction of sediment to the Santa Clara River basin during the historical period (1928-75) and a 12-percent reduction during the period most affected by dams (1953-75). Sediment losses to the basin by gravel mining, diversion of flows, and interception of sediment in the Castaic Creek basin resulted in additional reductions of 2 percent during the period 1928-75 and 4 percent during the period 1953-75. (Kosco-USGS)

  18. Characterization of the regional variability of flood regimes within the Omo-Gibe River Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yared, Adanech; Demissie, Solomon S.; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viglione, Alberto; MacAlister, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological variability and seasonality is one of the Ethiopia's primary water resource management challenges. Variability is most obviously manifest in endemic, devastating droughts and floods. While the level of flooding is quite often extremely high and destroys human beings and property, in many cases flooding is of vital importance because the community benefits from flood recession agriculture. This is the case of the lower Omo plain whose agriculture is based on the regularity of the inundations due to flooding of the Omo Gibe River. The big flood in 2006, which caused death for more than 300 people and 2000 cattle, poses a dilemma. Flooding must be controlled and regulated in a way that the damages are reduced as much as possible but the flooding-related benefits are not lost. To this aim, characterization and understanding of hydrological variability of the Omo Gibe River basin is fundamental. The goal of this work is to extract the maximal amount of information on the hydrological variability and specially on the flooding regime from the few data available in the region. Because most of the basin is ungauged, hydrological information is reconstructed using the data from 9 gauged catchments. A daily water balance model has been developed, calibrated and validated for 9 gauged catchments and, subsequently, the parameters have been correlated to catchment characteristics in order to establish a functional relationship that allows to apply the model to ungauged catchments. Daily streamflow has been predicted for 15 ungauged catchments, which are assumed to comprehensively represent the hydrological variability of the Omo-Gibe River Basin. Even though both northern and southern catchments are affected by a strong seasonality of precipitation, with most of the rain falling in less than 3 months, most of the northern catchments are humid, while in the southern part of the Omo-Gibe River basin, the catchments are either humid, dry sub humid, semiarid or arid. As for climate, also landscape and vegetation cover is more homogeneous in the northern part of the Omo Gibe River basin than in the southern part. Consequently, the runoff variability reflects the interesting diversity of climate and landscape of the basin. The gradient of flooding regimes from the north to the south of the Omo Gibe River basin will be analysed and the impacts of possible regime changes will be discussed.

  19. A two-stage climate adaptation framework for improving irrigation planning in the Niger River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troemel, S.; Kumjian, M.; Ryzhkov, A.; Simmer, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Niger River Basin is marked with high intra-annual and interannual climate variability and deep future climate uncertainty. This presents an intimidating context for the development of infrastructure investment strategies, which are needed for economic development and food security within the basin. Of interest is the ability to adaptively manage an infrastructure system through the use of seasonal forecasts and planning decisions such that the climate variability and change effects are mitigated. This study presents a sampling stochastic dynamic programming (SSDP) model for the development of adaptive management decisions consistent with seasonal hydrologic forecasts. The proposed framework is demonstrated for the Upper Niger region of the Niger Basin, consisting of multiple reservoirs and a large irrigation system, 'Office Du Niger'. The approach is compared with 'stationarity-based' operations and strategies optimized for projected climate changes. Results indicate that updating seasonal planning decisions is a promising option for climate change adaptation for the Niger and similar basins elsewhere.

  20. A two-stage climate adaptation framework for improving irrigation planning in the Niger River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, M. U.; Brown, C. M.; Lownsbery, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Niger River Basin is marked with high intra-annual and interannual climate variability and deep future climate uncertainty. This presents an intimidating context for the development of infrastructure investment strategies, which are needed for economic development and food security within the basin. Of interest is the ability to adaptively manage an infrastructure system through the use of seasonal forecasts and planning decisions such that the climate variability and change effects are mitigated. This study presents a sampling stochastic dynamic programming (SSDP) model for the development of adaptive management decisions consistent with seasonal hydrologic forecasts. The proposed framework is demonstrated for the Upper Niger region of the Niger Basin, consisting of multiple reservoirs and a large irrigation system, 'Office Du Niger'. The approach is compared with 'stationarity-based' operations and strategies optimized for projected climate changes. Results indicate that updating seasonal planning decisions is a promising option for climate change adaptation for the Niger and similar basins elsewhere.

  1. Work plan for the Schuylkill River basin, Pennsylvania; assessment of river quality as related to the distribution and transport of trace metals and organic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, G.L.; Yorke, Thomas H.; Stamer, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is making a river-quality assessment of the Schuylkill River basin in Pennsylvania from October 1978 to March 1981. It is part of a continuing program designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of river-quality studies for basin planning and water-resource management. Study objectives include determining (1) presence of selected trace metals and organic substances in the water and sediments of the Schuylkill River between Berne and Philadelphia; (2) source, distribution, and transport of selected trace metals and organic substances in the river from Berne to Philadelphia; (3) frequency of occurrence of selected trace metals and organic substances in the river at Pottstown and Manayunk; (4) effects of low dams on the distribution and transport of selected trace metals and organic substances in the river between Pottstown and Philadelphia.

  2. Modelling native fish richness to evaluate the effects of hydromorphological changes and river restoration (Júcar River Basin, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya-Marín, Esther Julia; Martínez-Capel, Francisco; Costa, Rui Manuel Soares; Alcaraz-Hernández, Juan Diego

    2012-12-01

    The richness of native fish is considered to be an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, and improving richness is a key goal in the management of river ecosystems. An artificial neural network (ANN) model based on field data from 90 sample sites distributed throughout the Júcar River Basin District was developed to predict the native fish species richness (NFSR). The Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm was used for model training. When constructing the model, we tried different numbers of neurons (hidden layers), compared different transfer functions, and tried different k values (from 3 to 10) in the k-fold cross-validation method. This process and the final selection of key variables with relevant ecological meaning support the reliability and robustness of the final ANN model. The partial derivatives method was applied to determine the relative importance of input environmental variables. The final ANN model combined variables describing riparian quality, water quality, and physical habitat and helped identify the primary drivers of the NFSR patterns in Mediterranean rivers. In the second part of the study, the model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of two restoration actions in the Júcar River: the removal of two abandoned weirs and the progressive increase in the proportion of riffles. The model indicated that the combination of these actions produced a rise in NFSR, which ultimately reached the maximum values observed in the reference site of that river ecotype (sensu the European Water Framework Directive). The results demonstrate the importance of longitudinal connectivity and riffle proportion for improving NFSR and the power of ANNs to help decisions in the management and ecological restoration of Mediterranean rivers. Furthermore, this model at the basin scale is the first step for further research on the effects of water scarcity and global change on Mediterranean fish communities. PMID:23031292

  3. Climate-change impacts on hydrology and nutrients in a Danish lowland river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Hans Estrup; Kronvang, Brian; Larsen, Søren E; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Jensen, Torben Strange; Rasmussen, Erik Koch

    2006-07-15

    The Mike 11-TRANS modelling system was applied to the lowland Gjern river basin in Denmark to assess climate-change impacts on hydrology and nitrogen retention processes in watercourses, lakes and riparian wetlands. Nutrient losses from land to surface waters were assessed using statistical models incorporating the effect of changed hydrology. Climate-change was predicted by the ECHAM4/OPYC General Circulation Model (IPCC A2 scenario) dynamically downscaled by the Danish HIRHAM regional climate model (25 km grid) for two time slices: 1961-1990 (control) and 2071-2100 (scenario). HIRHAM predicts an increase in mean annual precipitation of 47 mm (5%) and an increase in mean annual air temperature of 3.2 degrees C (43%). The HIRHAM predictions were used as external forcings to the rainfall-runoff model NAM, which was set up and run for 6 subcatchments within and for the entire, Gjern river basin. Mean annual runoff from the river basin increases 27 mm (7.5%, pgroundwater fed streams and decrease in streams with a low base-flow index. The modelled change in the seasonal hydrological pattern is most pronounced in first- or second-order streams draining loamy catchments, which currently have a low base-flow during the summer period. Reductions of 40-70% in summer runoff are predicted for this stream type. A statistical nutrient loss model was developed for simulating the impact of changed hydrology on diffuse nutrient losses (i.e. losses from land to surface waters) and applied to the river basin. The simulated mean annual changes in TN loads in a loamy and a sandy subcatchment were, respectively, +2.3 kg N ha(-1) (8.5%) and +1.6 kg N ha(-1) (6.9%). The rainfall-runoff model and the nutrient loss model were chained with Mike 11-TRANS to simulate the combined effects of climate-change on hydrology, nutrient losses and nitrogen retention processes at the scale of the river basin. The mean annual TN export from the river basin increased from the control to the scenario period by 7.7%. Even though an increase in nitrogen retention in the river system of 4.2% was simulated in the scenario period, an increased in-stream TN export resulted because of the simulated increase in the diffuse TN transfer from the land to the surface-waters. PMID:16647104

  4. Mining and Seasonal Variation of the Metals Concentration in the Puyango River Basin—Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cueva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Puyango River Basin covers approximately an area of 4400 km2, it is located in Southern of Ecuador, with Calera and Amarillo rivers as tributaries. In this region, one of the main activities is small scale gold and silver mining. Currently there are 110 processing plants on the bank of Calera and Amarillo rivers, causing a significant degradation of natural resources. A seasonal comparison of metal concentrations in surface water, sediments and particulate matter from the Puyango River and its effluents is made. It was done a differentiation between natural contaminations with the anthropogenic one generated by mining activity. Samples were taken during dry season (2004 and rainy season (2006, and analyzed physicochemical parameters, anions and cations and the concentrations of heavy metals. The results show a clear influence of gold mining in Puyango River contamination, starting with its tributaries, Calera and Amarillo rivers, which have the highest concentrations of heavy metals from the basin, corresponding with the location of the mineral processing plants.

  5. Spatio-temporal variation analysis of hydrochemical characteristics in the Luanhe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Li, Xuyong; Wang, Huiliang; Li, Wenzan

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of river pollution and assessment of spatial and temporal variation in hydrochemistry are essential to river water pollution control in the context of rapid economic growth and growing pollution threats in China. In this study, we focused on hydrochemical characteristics of the Luanhe River Basin (China) and evaluation of 12 hydrochemical variables obtained from 32 monitoring stations during 2001-2010. In each study year, the streams were monitored in the three hydrological periods (April, August, and October) to observe differences in the impacts of agricultural activity and rainfall pattern. Multivariate statistical methods were applied to the data set, and the river water hydrochemical characteristics were assessed using the water quality identification index (WQIIM). The results showed that parameters had variable contribution to water quality status in different months except for ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total nitrogen (TN), which were the most important parameters in contributing to water quality variations for all three periods. Results of WQIIM revealed that 18 sites were classified as 'meeting standard' while the other 14 sites were classified as 'not meeting standard', with most of the seriously polluted sites located in urban area, mainly due to discharge of wastewater from domestic and industrial sources. Sites with low pollution level were located primarily in smaller tributaries, whereas sites of medium and high pollution levels were in the main river channel and the larger tributaries. Our findings provide valuable information and guidance for water pollution control and water resource management in the Luanhe River Basin. PMID:23508159

  6. Discovering the Cubango-Okavango river basin. A geomorphological description of the Angolan rivers and its fish assemblages and the ecological implications of future human development

    OpenAIRE

    Preiswerk, Sebastian Benedikt Coimbra

    2013-01-01

    The years fly by but the African continet and its enourmos richness remains an undiscovered treasure. The Angolan province Cuando-Cubango includes one of the biggest watersheds of the African continent, the Cubango-Okavango river basin. One of the rivers where most parts remains untouched and in a pristine form. Ongoing water resources planning intends to regulate large parts of the basin and to intensify human uses. In order to better understand and to analize ecological respo...

  7. Glacier characteristics and changes in the Sary-Jaz River Basin (Central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) – 1990–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Osmonov, Azamat; Bolch, Tobias; Xi, Chen; Kurban, Alishir; Guo, Wanqing

    2013-01-01

    The water discharge from the heavily glacierized Sary-Jaz River Basin (Eastern Kyrgyzstan) is of high importance for the very arid Tarim Basin located in Xinjiang (north-western China). We investigated glacier changes in the entire Sary-Jaz River Basin, which covers a large part of the Central Tien Shan, for the period from 1990 to 2010 based on Landsat ‘TM’/‘ETM+’data. We found 1310 glaciers (>0.1 km²), which covered 2055 ± 41.1 km² (?18% of the entire basin) in 1990. The glacie...

  8. Spatiotemporal variability of climate and streamflow in the Songhua River Basin, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengping; Zhang, Guangxin; Xu, Y. Jun

    2014-06-01

    The Songhua River Basin (SRB) is located in the high latitude region of China’s far northeast and is sensitive to global warming. This study utilized long-term meteorological and river discharge records in the SRB to assess spatiotemporal variability and trends in temperature, precipitation, and discharge. Daily precipitation and temperature data were collected from 37 meteorological stations across the SRB for the period from January 1960 to December 2009. Monthly discharges from 33 major river gauge stations in three sub-basins of the SRB were gathered for the same period. The modified Mann-Kendall tests, flow duration curves and correlation statistics were performed to identify the long-term trend and interrelation of the hydrometeorological variables. The results showed that temperature in the SRB has steadily increased in the past five decades, while precipitation fluctuated greatly among the years and the decades with a declining trend since 1980s. The largest change in temperature was found in the last two decades, with a decadal increase of about 1 °C. Concurrently, a declining trend in annual discharge from the SRB was found after 1990, while intra-annual variation of discharge increased. Overall, annual discharge at most gauge stations across the SRB showed a downward trend in the past five decades, with a significantly decreasing trend in the Lower Songhua River. Seasonally, the declining trend in discharge was prevalent in spring and discharge mainly declined in the lower Nenjiang River and the Lower Songhua River throughout most of a year. The flow duration analysis showed a decrease in high flow (Q5), but an increase in low flow (Q95) after 1990 at most mainstream stations of the SRB. However, both the lowest and highest monthly discharge displayed a declining trend during 1960-2009. Because precipitation in this river basin is concentrated during the summer and fall months, annual discharge was closely and positively correlated with precipitation amount occurred during these two seasons.

  9. <