WorldWideScience

Sample records for river basin volume

  1. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  2. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  3. Precipitation Frequency for Ohio River Basin, USA - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 2

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Ohio River Basin and Surrounding states is based on precipitation data collected between...

  4. The Ebro river basin

    Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria

    2011-01-01

    River basins worldwide are under pressure from economic activities. In Europe, the two main factors hindering the achievement of good chemical and ecological status of European river basins are pollution, mainly coming from agriculture, and hydromorphology (e.g. for navigation, hydroelectricity and flood control). The economic activities affect the chemical and ecological status of rivers, lakes and groundwater and deplete available soil, sediments and water resources. The w...

  5. Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume I

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    Environmental baseline data for the Snake River Plain known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) are evaluated for geothermal development. The objective is to achieve a sound data base prior to geothermal development. These KGRAs are: Vulcan Hot Springs, Crane Creek, Castle Creek, Bruneau, Mountain Home, Raft River, Island Park, and Yellowstone. Air quality, meteorology, hydrology, water quality, soils, land use, geology, subsidence, seismicity, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, demography, socioeconomics, and heritage resources are analyzed. This program includes a summary of environmental concerns related to geothermal development in each of the KGRAs, an annotated bibliography of reference materials (Volume II), detailed reports on the various program elements for each of the KGRAs, a program plan identifying future research needs, and a comprehensive data file.

  6. Transboundary river basin management

    Hassenforder, E.

    2014-01-01

    Managing transboundary river basins is a complex endeavor that requires specific approaches and methods of management and governance. Part 1 of this chapter introduces transboundary river basins and their management: why they are now widely used as a unit of management, potential linkages with the management of other natural resources and with national and regional development planning efforts. It highlights the difference between operational management, strategic management and governanc...

  7. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Mapping the Resilience of International River Basins to Future Climate Change-Induced Water Variability, Volume 2. Appendices

    De Stefano, Lucia; Duncan, James; Dinar, Shlomi; Stahl, Kerstin; Strzepek, Kenneth; Wolf, Aaron T.

    2010-01-01

    The study presented in this report aims to increase our understanding of the global distribution of treaty and River Basin Organization (RBO) mechanisms that may confer resilience to variability in the hydrological regime and how that distribution aligns with current and anticipated regimes. Some basins will experience greater changes in hydrologic variability regimes than others, and we s...

  9. Mapping the Resilience of International River Basins to Future Climate Change-Induced Water Variability, Volume 1. Main Report

    De Stefano, Lucia; Duncan, James; Dinar, Shlomi; Stahl, Kerstin; Strzepek, Kenneth; Wolf, Aaron T.

    2010-01-01

    The study presented in this report aims to increase our understanding of the global distribution of treaty and River Basin Organization (RBO) mechanisms that may confer resilience to variability in the hydrological regime and how that distribution aligns with current and anticipated regimes. Some basins will experience greater changes in hydrologic variability regimes than others, and we s...

  10. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  11. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  12. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  13. Ecological River Basin Management.

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    Addressing the Seventh American Water Resources Conference, Washington, D. C., October, 1971, Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association, presents an expose on how rivers should be managed by methods which restores and preserve the natural life balances of the localities and regions through which they flow. The…

  14. River Basin Planning and Management of Wetlands

    Manongi, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Rufiji River basin has wetlands with economic functions that require conservation; these functions have hitherto been taken for granted. Mismanagement of this basin wouldhave direct effects on these various functions and their values. The execution of largeprojects (e.g. hydropower and irrigation) may have effects which need to be evaluated.Coordinated planning and management at the river basin level is required for the sustainableutilisation of wetlands. To illustrate river basin plan...

  15. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    Lifeng Li; Xiubo Yu; Toine J. M. Smits; Dorri G. J. te Boekhorst; Gang Lei; Chen Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This arti...

  16. Tools for river basin management

    Cools, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Water resources management can be challenging when confronted with pollution, water shortage, floods, water-related diseases, climate change and variability. In this thesis, it is assessed how the management of a multi-functional river basin can be facilitated through the development and testing of analytical tools in data-poor and data-rich context. A variety of tools and strategies is developed and tested on a variety of stakeholder selected themes, namely: •Cost-effective improvement of wa...

  17. Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume III - Washington.

    Colville Confederated Tribes; US Fish and Wildlife Service; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Yakama Indian Nation

    1996-06-01

    Beaver Creek Hatchery is located on the Elochoman River about 10 miles upstream from the river mouth. The Elochoman River is a north bank tributary of the lower Columbia River, just downstream of Cathlamet, Washington. The facility consists of 10 intermediate raceways, 20 raceways, (1) earthen rearing pond, (2) adult holding ponds, and a hatchery building with 60 troughs. It is staffed with 4 FTE`s. Water rights total 16,013 gpm from three sources: Elochoman River, Beaver Creek and a well. Beaver Creek water is gravity flow while the other two sources are pumped. The Elochoman River is used in summer and fall while Beaver Creek water is used from mid-November through mid-May. Filtered well water (1 cfs) is used to incubate eggs and for early rearing of fry. Water use in summer is about 5,800 gpm. Gobar Pond, a 0.93-acre earthen rearing pond located on Gobar Creek (Kalama River tributary), is operated as a satellite facility.

  18. Monitoring and evaluation of smolt migration in the Columbia Basin, Volume II: Evaluation of the 1996 predictions of the run-timing of wild migrant subyearling chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime.; TOPICAL

    This project was initiated in 1991 in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of this project include: (1)to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and identify future research and analysis needs; (2)to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to aid management in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; (3)to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4)to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community

  19. Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume II. Annotated bibliography

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    This volume is a partially annotated bibliography of reference materials pertaining to the seven KGRA's. The bibliography is divided into sections by program element as follows: terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, heritage resources, socioeconomics and demography, geology, geothermal, soils, hydrology and water quality, seismicity, and subsidence. Cross-referencing is available for those references which are applicable to specific KGRA's. (MHR)

  20. Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume II, Oregon.

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; US Fish and Wildlife Service

    1996-06-01

    Big Creek Hatchery is located 16 miles east of Astoria, Oregon and is approximately 3 miles upstream from Big Creek`s confluence with the Columbia River. The site elevation is approximately 75 feet above sea level. The facility includes 2 adult holding ponds, 30 raceways, 1 rearing pond, 64 troughs and 8 stacks of egg incubators. The adult collection and holding ponds are in poor condition and are inadequate to meet current program objectives. There are four water sources for the hatchery: Big Creek, Mill Creek and two springs. Current water rights total 36,158 gpm plus an additional 4.2 cfs reservoir water right. All water supplies are delivered by gravity but can be pumped for reuse if required. The facility is staffed with 9.25 FTE`s. Current practices at the hatchery are described.

  1. Regionalization of River Basins Using Cluster Ensemble

    Sangeeta Ahuja

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of global water scarcity, forecasting of water quantity and quality, regionalization of river basins has attracted serious attention of the hydrology researchers. It has become an important area of research to enhance the quality of prediction of yield in river basins. In this paper, we analyzed the data of Godavari basin, and regionalize it using a cluster ensemble method. Cluster Ensemble methods are commonly used to enhance the quality of clustering by combining multiple cluste...

  2. Wadter Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin and Statewide Project Data

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synaptic sites, and partial-record sites; and (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake- and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures ga through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two to three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  3. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    Lifeng Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  4. Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin

    Michel, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of tritium through the Mississippi Basin and its tributaries was calculated during the years that tritium measurements were made. The cumulative fluxes, calculated in grams of 3II were: (i) 160 g for the Ohio (1961-1986), (ii) 98 g for the upper Missouri (1963-1997), (iii) 30 g for the Arkansas (1961-1997) and (iv) 780 g for the Mississippi (1961-1997). Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  5. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume I Kootenai River (Overview, Report and Appendices).

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  6. Metabolic principles of river basin organization.

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-07-19

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

  7. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  8. Snake River Basin environmental program

    Spencer, S.G.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1979-09-01

    The Snake River Basin Environmental Program was designed to evaluate existing environmental data with respect to potential geothermal development in eight Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRAs) in Idaho. State and federal agencies, public interest groups, consulting groups, and universities participated in the DOE program. Final reports for the program are intended to be utilized as reference documents and planning tools for future environmental studies. Evaluation of the data indicated that the majority of the existing data base is adequate for small-scale direct-use developments. The potential impacts of development on water quality and water supply are the primary environmental concern. Preliminary data suggest that subsidence and induced seismicity may be a problem in several of the KGRAs. Sensitive animal species and habitats have been identified in each area; development in the Castle Creek KGRA may be restricted due to the Birds of Prey Natural Area. Two workshops provided public input on concerns and land use planning for geothermal development in Idaho. Based on the data evaluation and public input, a plan for supplementing the existing environmental data base was prepared.

  9. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems. Hot spot assessment included 100 gauge stations in the river basin with discharge measurement by ADCP, turbidity (T) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), bed load by bed load traps, composition of salt, biochemical oxidation, nitrogen and phosphorous content in water, pH, redox and conductivity values, and also content of heavy metals in water, suspended matter and sediments. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than MPC for water fishery. Most contrast distribution is characteristic for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in the Selenga basin. The most severe pollution of aquatic systems in the basin caused by mining activities is characteristic for a small river Modonkul, which flows into Dzhida River (left tributary of Selenga).

  10. Lower Arkansas River basin high priority issue : Rattlesnake creek subbasin : January 2009

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a section from Volume III: Kansas River Basins, of the Kansas Water Plan, January 2009. This section is pertaining to Rattlesnake Creek subbasin,...

  11. Transformation for cooperation: river basin organizations, negotiations, and the case of the Nile Basin Initiative

    Morissette, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Basin-wide River Basin Organizations are widely promoted by reputable international bodies as the best way to achieve cooperation in negotiations over shared basins. As more shared basins around the world face growing water scarcity, the need for international cooperation is becoming more intense. It is not clear whether RBOs should be promoted as a best practice in international basins with numerous riparian states. Using the case study of the Nile Basin Initiative basin-wide River Basin Org...

  12. Establishing river basin organisations inVietnam: Red River, Dong Nai River and Lower Mekong Delta.

    Taylor, P; Wright, G

    2001-01-01

    River basin management is receiving considerable attention at present. Part of the debate, now occurring worldwide, concerns the nature of the organisations that are required to manage river basins successfully, and whether special-purpose river basin organisations (RBOs) are always necessary and in what circumstance they are likely to (i) add to the management of the water resources and (ii) be successful. The development of river basin management requires a number of important elements to be developed to a point where the river basin can be managed successfully. These include the relevant laws, the public and non-government institutions, the technical capabilities of the people, the understanding and motivation of people, and the technical capacity and systems, including information. A river basin organisation (or RBO) is taken to mean a special-purpose organisation charged with some part of the management of the water resources of a particular river basin. Generally speaking, such organisations are responsible for various functions related to the supply, distribution, protection and allocation of water, and their boundaries follow the watershed of the river in question. However, the same functions can be carried out by various organisations, which are not configured on the geographical boundaries of a river basin. This paper outlines recent work on river basin organisation in Vietnam, and makes some comparisons with the situation in Australia. PMID:11419135

  13. Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin (France)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Cecile; Landemaine, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin (Gay et al. 2013), our aim is to complete sediment budgets by taking into account various sources and sinks both on hillslope and within channel. The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.yr-1. However, a strong variability exists within the study area with channels displaying values of bank retreat up to ~10 cm.yr-1. Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. in 2013 on a small agricultural catchment. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments (under review). Landemaine V., Gay A., Cerdan O., Salvador-Blanes S., Rodriguez S. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river (France) (in prep)

  14. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  15. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  16. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  17. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  18. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  19. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    2013-11-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  20. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  1. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  2. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  3. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  4. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin

    Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (?W = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) river (below confluence with Tuul) ?W = - 1145 t/day. Below Selenga-Orkhon confluence sediment yield reached 2515 t/day, which is corresponded to transboundary sediment flux. Silt sediments (0,001 - 0,05 mm) form the main portion of the transported material. The maximal value of sand flux (302 t/day) was reported for middle stream station of Selenga river (upstream from confluence with Orkhon). The increase of human activities (mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of suspended and dissolved matter transport is indicated along Tuul-Orkhon river system (right tributary of the Selenga river where Mongolia capital Ulaanbaator, gold mine Zaamar and few other mines). The results provide evidence on a connection between increased heavy metal concentrations in water-sediment systems of transboundary rivers and pollutant source zones at industrial and mining centers, both as in-channel erosion and land use.

  5. Digital spatial data as support for river basin management: The case of Sotla river basin

    Prah Klemen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many real-world spatially related problems, including river-basin planning and management, give rise to geographical information system based decision making, since the performance of spatial policy alternatives were traditionally and are still often represented by thematic maps. Advanced technologies and approaches, such as geographical information systems (GIS, offer a unique opportunity to tackle spatial problems traditionally associated with more efficient and effective data collection, analysis, and alternative evaluation. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of the use of digital spatial data and geographical information systems in river basis management. Spatial data on social, environmental and other spatial conditions for the study area of 451.77 km2, the Slovenian part of the Sotla river basin, are used to study the GIS capabilities of supporting spatial decisions in the framework of river basin management.

  6. Simulation of streamflow in small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin, Colorado

    Parker, R.S.; Norris, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Coal mining operations in northwestern Colorado commonly are located in areas that have minimal available water-resource information. Drainage-basin models can be a method for extending water-resource information to include periods for which there are no records or to transfer the information to areas that have no streamflow-gaging stations. To evaluate the magnitude and variability of the components of the water balance in the small drainage basins monitored, and to provide some method for transfer of hydrologic data, the U.S. Geological Survey 's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System was used for small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin to simulate daily mean streamflow using daily precipitation and air-temperature data. The study area was divided into three hydrologic regions, and in each of these regions, three drainage basins were monitored. Two of the drainage basins in each region were used to calibrate the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model was not calibrated for the third drainage basin in each region; instead, parameter values were transferred from the model that was calibrated for the two drainage basins. For all of the drainage basins except one, period of record used for calibration and verification included water years 1976-81. Simulated annual volumes of streamflow for drainage basins used in calibration compared well with observed values; individual hydrographs indicated timing differences between the observed and simulated daily mean streamflow. Observed and simulated annual average streamflows compared well for the periods of record, but values of simulated high and low streamflows were different than observed values. Similar results were obtained when calibrated model parameter values were transferred to drainage basins that were uncalibrated. (USGS)

  7. Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.

    Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

    2014-04-01

    We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs. PMID:24306442

  8. Effective Monitoring of Small River Basins

    Symader, W.; Bierl, R.; Krein, A.

    2002-01-01

    As the transport of many pollutants occurs during high floods monitoring programs must focus on these intermittent events. In small rivers the pollutants start their travel as short pulses often associated with fine particles, but disperse on their way downstreams. Therefore the chemical data of a flood event are only representative of a small part of the basin adjacent to the monitoring station. This is usually not taken into account by evaluating water quality data.

  9. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume IV of V; 1992 Annual Report.

    Peck, Larry

    1993-04-01

    Operational plans for Cowlitz, Elokomin, Grays River, Kalama Falls, Lewis River and Speelyai, Lower Kalama, Lyons Ferry, Methow, Priest Rapids, Ringold Springs, Rock Island, Toutle, Washougal, and Wells Salmon Hatcheries are individually described.

  10. Sustainability Within the Great Monsoon River Basins

    Webster, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    For over five millenia, the great monsoon river basins of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus have provided for great and flourishing agrarian civilizations. However, rapid population growth and urbanization have placed stress on the rural sector causing the use of land that is more prone for flood and drought. In addition, increased population and farming have stressed the availability of fresh water both from rivers and aquifers. Additionally, rapid urbanization has severely reduced water quality within the great rivers. Added to these problems is delta subsidence from water withdrawal that, at the moment far surpasses sea level rise from both natural and anthropogenic effects. Finally, there appear to be great plans for river diversion that may reduce fresh water inflow into the Brahmaputra delta. All of these factors fall against a background of climate change, both anthropogenic and natural, of which there is great uncertainty. We an attempt a frank assessment assessment of the sustainability of society in the great basins and make some suggestions of factors that require attention in the short term.

  11. Sprague River geomorphology studies, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    McDowell, P. F.; O'Connor, J. E.; Lind, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Sprague River drains 4050 square kilometers with a mean annual discharge of 16.3 m3/s before emptying into the Williamson River and then upper Klamath Lake in southcentral Oregon. The alternating wide alluvial segments and narrow canyon reaches of this 135-km-long westward flowing river provide for a variety of valued ecologic conditions and human uses along the river corridor, notably fisheries (including two endangered species of suckers, and formerly salmon), timber harvest, agriculture, and livestock grazing. The complex history of land ownership and landuse, water control and diversion structures, and fishery alterations, provides several targets for attributing historic changes to channel and floodplain conditions. Recently, evolving societal values (as well as much outside money) are inspiring efforts by many entities to 'restore' the Sprague River watershed. In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Klamath Tribes, and many local landowners, we are launching an analysis of Sprague River channel and floodplain processes. The overall objective is to guide restoration activities by providing sound understanding of local geomorphic processes and conditions. To do this we are identifying key floodplain and channel processes, and investigating how they have been affected by historic floodplain activites and changes to the watershed. This is being accomplished by analysis of historic aerial photographs and maps, stratigraphic analysis of floodplain soils and geologic units, mapping of riparian vegetation conditions and changes, and quantitative analysis of high resolution LiDAR topography acquired for the entire river course in December 2004. Preliminary results indicate (1) much of the coarser (and more erodible) floodplain soils are largely composed of pumice deposited in the basin by the 7700 year BP eruption of Mount Mazama; and (2) the LiDAR digital elevation models provide a ready means of subdividing the river into segments with quantifiably different characteristics of channel width, sinuosity, slope, and incision (relative to adjacent floodplain elevations).

  12. Dynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins

    Cabo, Francisco; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Tidball, Mabel

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamic interaction between two regions with interconnected river basins. Precipitation is higher in one river-basin while water productivity is higher in the other. Water transfer increases productivity in the recipient basin, but may cause environmental damage in the donor basin. The recipient faces a trade-off between paying the price of the water transfer, or investing in alternative water supplies to achieve a higher usable water capacity. We analyze the design of...

  13. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River basin case study

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Jensen, Iris Hedegaard; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    2015-01-01

    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically based and distributed modeling schemes employing data...... assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. The objective of this study is to develop open-source software tools to support hydrologic forecasting and integrated water resources management in...

  14. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting (national and international laws and agreements), the institutional setting (the formal networks), information management (the information collection and dissemination system), and financing systems (the public and private sources that cover the water management costs). These elements are usually designed for a specific level and are ideally aligned with the other levels. The presentation will go into detail on connecting the different elements of the water management regime between different levels as well as on the overarching governance issues that play a role and will present opportunities and limitations of the linking options.

  15. Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin

    G. Trasmonte

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems tools, using minimum temperature – 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April, when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l., while the low (or null probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.. Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l., moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

  16. Development of a Systemwide Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, 1992 Annual Report.

    Ward, David L.

    1994-06-01

    Results of the second year are reported of a basinwide program to harvest northern squawfish in an effort to reduce mortality due to squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids during their migration from natal streams to the ocean. Six papers are included in this report. They are entitled: feasibility investigation of a commercial longline fishery for northern squawfish in the Columbia River downstream from Bonneville dam; evaluation of the northern squawfish sport-reward fishery in the Columbia and Snake Rivers; controlled angling for northern squawfish at selected dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in 1992; evaluation of harvest technology for squawfish control in Columbia River reservoirs; effectiveness of predator-removal for protecting juvenile fall chinook salmon released from Bonneville Hatchery; and Northern squawfish sport-reward payments.

  17. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  18. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China

    Yuekui Ding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB; an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 104 km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 104 km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m; lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%; artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land; frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m3; single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category. At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01 and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05; and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01. Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08–16.56; caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated.

  19. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China.

    Ding, Yuekui; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu

    2015-09-01

    We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ) assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB); an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 10⁴ km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 10⁴ km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m); lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%); artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land); frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m³); single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category). At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p land (r = 0.998; p land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08-16.56); caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated. PMID:26393628

  20. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the drainage basin. The slope map of Suketi river basin has been classified into three main zones, which delineate the runoff zone in the mountains, recharge zone in the transition zone between mountains and valley plane, and discharge zone in the plane areas of Balh valley.

  1. River basin management plans for the European Water Framework Directive

    Kronvang, B.; Bechmann, M.; Behrendt, H; Ruboek, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.

    2004-01-01

    The newly adopted EU water framework directive aims at protecting different water bodies by performing impact analysis and developing river basin management plans before 2009. The adoption of management measures in river basins demands that catchment managers are able to quantify the importance of different P-pathways

  2. 18 CFR 725.7 - Regional or river basin planning.

    2010-04-01

    ... planning. 725.7 Section 725.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL IMPLEMENTATION OF EXECUTIVE ORDERS 11988, FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND 11990, PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Responsibilities 725.7 Regional or river basin planning. (a) In agreements between river basin commissions...

  3. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    2010-04-01

    ... River Basins Commission, 55 Court Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02108; Ohio River Basin Commission, 36... Regency Circle, Suite 403 Omaha, Nebraska 68114. (2) Field Committees: Arkansas-White-Red...

  4. [Landscape change in middle Heihe River Basin].

    Lu, L; Cheng, G; Li, X

    2001-02-01

    Using GIS and a landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS, this paper dealt with the landscape change in the middle Heihe River Basin during the past 20 years. During the past 20 years, the landscape elements had a complex change of landscape structure and an apparent transition of landscape composition, but the landscape in a whole still displayed a pattern of sharply contrast between oasis landscape and desertification landscape. Human activities significantly changed the distribution and allocation of the limited water resource in the basin, leading to an acute contradiction between desertification and oasisfication. Moreover, the transitional area between desertification and oasisfication was very sensitive to these processes. The decrease of Shannon's diversity index and evenness index manifested the intensive management and reconstruction of landscape by human beings, which improved the socioeconomic benefits of the region on one hand, but decreased the landscape heterogeneity and landscape diversity, leading to the decrease of eco-environmental benefits of some areas in the basin on the other hand. The research method and technology used in this paper were also discussed. PMID:11813437

  5. Comparing Africa’s Shared River Basins – The Limpopo, Orange, Juba and Shabelle Basins

    Elmi Moamed, Abdullahi

    2014-01-01

    The paper compares the Limpopo and Orange Rivers in Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the Juba and Shabelle Rivers in the Horn of Africa (HoA), which all are internationally shared basins. The aim is to identify differences and similarities between the river basins in the two regions in order to increase our knowledge and understanding of the issue of shared rivers. Relevant data were mainly collected and methods applied include document and literature review, text analysis, ...

  6. Time still to restore the polluted Piracicaba river basin

    Over the last decades the acceleration of the industrialization and urbanization processes together with the intensive agricultural practices have resulted in an impact on the Piracicaba river basin, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The source rivers drain from an area of low population density, absence of heavy industries, non-significant agriculture, native forest and reforestation, the opposite is found in the middle part of the basin. Samples of riverbed sediments were collected along the basin for chemical analysis. Results showed that the source rivers still preserve their natural characteristics, while the Atibaia river in the middle part shows signs of pollution from the agricultural activity, industrial effluents and urban sewage. (author)

  7. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  8. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996–2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London–Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max −32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max −46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed. (letters)

  9. Groundwater Resources of the Virgin River Basin in Utah

    Clyde, Calvin G.

    1987-01-01

    The Division of Water Resources is conducting a study of further water development in the Virgin River Basin. This report examines the effects of groundwater development as a part of the overall study. The study area includes about 1000 square miles in the Central Virgin River Basin east of the Hurricane Fault. The deeply incised Virgin River has cut a youthful drainage network with deep canyons and steep escarpm...

  10. Climate sensitivity of major river basins in Africa

    Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.; Ludwig, F.

    2011-12-01

    We simulate the land surface water balance of five major African river basins using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface hydrologic model forced by gridded climate data of precipitation and temperature for the period 1979-1999. The seasonality and inter-annual variability of the water balance terms vary across the continent and at each river basin. The long-term mean vapor flux convergence P-E agrees well with observed runoff for the eastern and north western basins, whereas there is a relatively large imbalance (28%) for the Oranje River basin possibly because of its small size. The Zambezi and Oranje River basins act as a net source of moisture in dry seasons (strong negative P-E). Both the Nile and Zambezi basins have a low runoff efficiency and a high dryness index, indicating a high sensitivity to climate change in the case of the Nile, and moderate sensitivity in the case of the Zambezi. Although the severity of climate change impacts depends primarily on the magnitude of change, the different hydrological sensitivities of the basins are also important. Precipitation elasticities range from 2.2 to 3.1 for 10% increase and -2.1 to -2.7 for 10% decrease in precipitation respectively over the five river basins, whereas the sensitivity of runoff to temperature ranges (absolute value) from a high of -5%/degC for the Niger basin to a low of -1% for the Orange basin.

  11. Modelling sediment input in large river basins

    Scherer, U.

    2012-04-01

    Erosion and sediment redistribution play a pivotal role in the terrestrial ecosystem as they directly influence soil functions and water quality. In particular surface waters are threatened by emissions of nutrients and contaminants via erosion. The sustainable management of sediments is thus a key challenge in river basin management. Beside the planning and implementation of mitigation measures typically focusing on small and mesoscale catchments, the knowledge of sediment emissions and associated substances in large drainage basins is of utmost importance for water quality protection of large rivers and the seas. The objective of this study was thus to quantify the sediment input into the large drainage basins of Germany (Rhine, Elbe, Odra, Weser, Ems, Danube) as a basis for nutrient and contaminant emissions via erosion. The sediment input was quantified for all watersheds of Germany and added up along the flow paths of the river systems. Due to the large scale, sediment production within the watersheds was estimated based on the USLE for cultivated land and naturally covered areas and on specific erosion rates for mountainous areas without vegetation cover. To quantify the sediment delivery ratio a model approach was developed using data on calculated sediment production rates and long term sediment loads observed at monitoring stations of 13 watersheds located in different landscape regions of Germany. A variety of morphological parameters and catchment properties such as slope, drainage density, share of morphological sinks, hypsometric integral, flow distance between sediment source areas and the next stream as well as soil and land use properties were tested to explain the variation in the sediment delivery ratios for the 13 watersheds. The sediment input into streams is mainly controlled by the location of sediment source areas and the morphology along the flow pathways to surface waters. Thus, this complex interaction of spatially distributed catchment properties cannot be characterized using only spatially lumped parameters for watersheds located in very different landscape regions. From all parameters tested, the mean slope of the watersheds and the share of arable land located in a distance of 500 m revealed a significant relation to the sediment delivery ratio. Using both parameters the sediment input was quantified for all other watersheds of Germany showing a good agreement with observed long term sediment loads at monitoring stations.

  12. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  13. Social Learning in European River-Basin Management: Barriers and Fostering Mechanisms from 10 River Basins

    Brad Searle

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We present and analyze 10 case studies of participatory river-basin management that were conducted as part of the European HarmoniCOP project. The main theme was social learning, which emphasizes the importance of collaboration, organization, and learning. The case studies show that social learning in river-basin management is not an unrealistic ideal. Resistance to social learning was encountered, but many instances of social learning were found, and several positive results were identified. Moreover, 71 factors fostering or hindering social learning were identified; these could be grouped into eight themes: the role of stakeholder involvement, politics and institutions, opportunities for interaction, motivation and skills of leaders and facilitators, openness and transparency, representativeness, framing and reframing, and adequate resources. Promising topics for further research include the facilitation of the social learning processes, the role of power, and interactions in political and institutional contexts.

  14. Use of the RHS method in Golijska Moravica river basin

    Milanović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available River Habitat Survey (RHS is terrain method developed in UK in 1994. for determination of physical character of rivers and river basin. This method is applied for the first time in Golijska Moravica river basin. Two indices which broadly describe the diversity of river habitat and landscape features (Habitat Quality Assessment (HQA and extent and severity of artificial modification to the channel (Habitat Modification Class (HMC has been developed for reporting purposes. These are based on simple scoring systems which have been agreed by technical experts.

  15. Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    Karthe, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and management. In the past, shared and unclear responsibilities, a spatial mismatch between administrative and river basin boundaries, the lack of relevant information, financial resources and implementation capacity resulted in an uncoordinated and partially uncontrolled exploitation of water resources (Livingstone et al. 2009; Horlemann et al. 2012). The recent decision of the Mongolian government to develop river basin management plans and to provide for their implementation through river basin councils and administrations, and the comparatively good data availability resulting from the R&D project, resulted in the decision to jointly develop a science-based river basin management plan for the KRB as a model region for other river basins of the country. References: Hartwig, M.; Theuring, P.; Rode, M. & Borchardt, D. (2012): Suspended sediments in the Kharaa River catchment (Mongolia) and its impact on hyporheic zone functions. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1535-1546. Hofmann, J.; Venohr, M.; Behrendt, H. & Opitz, D. (2010): Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Water Science and Technology 62(2):353-363. Horlemann, L. & Dombrowsky, I. (2012): Institutionalising IWRM in developing and transition countries: the case of Mongolia. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1547-1559. Karthe, D.; Borchardt, D. & Hufert, F. (2012a): Implementing IWRM: Experiences from a Central Asian Model Region. In: Pandya, A.B. (Ed.) (2012): India Water Week 2012. Water, Energy and Food Security: Call for Solutions, Part A3, pp. 1-15. Delhi: Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. Karthe, D.; Sigel, K.; Scharaw, B. et al. (2012b): Towards an integrated concept for monitoring and improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in urban Mongolia. Water & Risk 20:1-5. Karthe, D.; Malsy, M.; Kopp, B. & Minderlein, S. (2013): Assessing Water Availibility and its Drivers in the Context of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM): A Case Study from the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. GeoÖko (submitted). Livingstone, A.J.; Erdenechimeg, C. & Oyunsuvd, A. (2009): Needs assessment on institutional capacity for water governance in Mongolia. Ulaan Baatar: Government of Mongolia & UNDP Mongolia. Malsy, M.; aus der Beek, T.; Eisner, S. & Flörke, M. (2012): Climate Change impacts on Central Asian water resources. Advances in Geosciences 32:77-83. Menzel, L.; Hofmann, J. & Ibisch, R. (2011): Untersuchung von Wasser- und Stoffflüssen als Grundlage für ein Integriertes Wasserressourcen - Management im Kharaa-Einzugsgebiet (Mongolei). Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung 55(2):88-103. MoMo Consortium (2009): Integrated Water Resources Management for Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia (MoMo). Case Study in the Kharaa River Basin. Final Project Report. Mun, Y.; Ko, I.H.; Janchivdorj, L. et al. (2008): Integrated Water Management Model on the Selenge River Basin: Status Survey and Investigation (Phase I). Seoul: KEI Publications. Scharaw, B. & T. Westerhoff (2011): A Leak Detection in Drinking Water Distribution Network of Darkhan in Framework of the Project Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia, Model Region Mongolia. Proceedings of the IWA 1st Central Asian Regional Young and Senior Water Professionals Conference, Almaty/Kazakhstan, pp. 275-282.

  16. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with ?66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays ?66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 g/L).

  17. SEA of river basin management plans

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    In, 2000 the European Parliament and the European Council passed the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to be implemented in all Member States. The consequence of the directive is that river basin management plans (RBMPs) shall be prepared which are legally subject to a strategic environmental...... assessment (SEA). An important environmental factor for the water sector is climate change, especially the changes it causes to the water environment. However, based on an argument of an inadequate knowledge base regarding climate change impacts, the prospect of Danish authorities including climate change in...... their SEAs of RBMPs is weak. In this paper the connections between climate change and water are reviewed. As a result, it is suggested that climate change needs to be considered in three ways: mitigation, adaptation and baseline adaptation. Udgivelsesdato: December...

  18. Water equivalent of snow survey of the Red River Basin and Heart/Cannonball River Basin, March 1978

    The water equivalent of accumulated snow was estimated in the Red River and Heart/Cannonball River basins and surrounding areas in North Dakota during the period 8 to 17 March 1978. A total of 570 km were flown, covering a 274 km section of the Red River Basin watershed. These lines had been surveyed in March 1974. Twelve flight lines were flown over the North Dakota side of the Red River from a point 23 km south of the Canadian border southward to the city of Fargo, North Dakota. The eight flight lines flown over the Minnesota side of the Red River extended from 23 km south of the Canadian border southward to Breckenridge, Minnesota. Using six flight lines, a total of 120 km were flown in the Heart/Cannonball River Basin, an area southwest of the city of Bismark, North Dakota. This was the first such flight in the Heart/Cannonball River Basin area. Computed weighted average water equivalents on each flight line in the Red River Basin ranged from 4.8 cm to 12.7 cm of water, averaging 7.6 cm for all lines. In the Heart/Cannonball River Basin, the weighted water equivalent ranged from 8.9 cm to 19.1 cm of water, averaging 12.7 cm for all lines. The method used employs the measurement of the natural gamma rays both before and after snow covers the ground

  19. The tritium balance of the Ems river basin

    For the Ems river basin, as a fine example of a Central European lowland basin, an inventory of the tritium distribution is presented for the hydrologic years 1951 to 1983. On the basis of a balance model, the tritium contents in surface waters and groundwater of the Ems river basin are calculated, using known and extrapolated tritium input data and comparing them with the corresponding values measured since 1974. A survey of tritium flows occurring in this basin is presented, taking meteorologic and hydrologic facts into account. (orig.)

  20. Incorporating safety into surface haulage in the Powder River basin

    Jeffery, W.; Jennings, C.

    1996-12-31

    The Powder River Basin (PRB) coal deposit extends from southeast Montana to northeast Wyoming. This paper describes a number of haulage practices and tools in use at several mines of the southern PRB and the way in which safety has been designed into and implemented for surface haulage of coal and overburden. Experiences described herein focus on the northeastern corner of Wyoming. All the mines in this area rely on safe and efficient movement of enormous volumes of material, and the results achieved in safety underscore the planning and attention to detail present in the PRB. There are currently 12 large surface mines (those greater than 10.0MM tons/year) operating in this area. In 1995, these mines produced over 230.0MM tons of coal.

  1. Nitrogen contamination in the Yellow River basin of China.

    Xia, Xinghui; Zhou, Jingsong; Yang, Zhifeng

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen contamination is one of the most serious problems in the Yellow River of China. This study was conducted to analyze monitoring data on nitrogen contamination for the Yellow River basin in the years 1980, 1990, 1997, and 1999. Several significant results have arisen from the study. First, in conjunction with an increase in economic indexes from the Yellow River's upper basin to its lower basin, the nitrogen concentration in the tributaries also showed an increasing trend from the upper to the lower basin, which, in turn, led to an increase in the nitrogen concentration of the mainstream from the upper to the lower reaches. Second, nitrogen in the river water in the mainstream and the tributaries of the Yellow River was attributed mainly to point sources. In spite of the fact that the ratio of point to nonpoint sources decreased from 2.7 in 1990 to 1.8 in 1997 for total inorganic nitrogen in river water at the Tongguan Station in the lower basin, point sources increased more than nonpoint sources. Third, the ammonium nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen content of the river water increased significantly in the mainstream and the tributaries during the 1980-1999 period, a change caused by an increase in wastewater discharge and nitrogenous fertilizer application in the Yellow River catchment. PMID:12026096

  2. Landslide Inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified...

  3. Wind River Basin boundary, 1999 Coal Resource Assessment

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior This ArcView shape file contains a polygon representing the extent of the Wind River coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  4. Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources

    The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

  5. 2012 Water Levels - Mojave River and the Morongo Groundwater Basins

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior During 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins....

  6. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin, Costa Rica

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

  7. The future of the reservoirs in the Siret River Basin considering the sediment transport of rivers (ROMANIA

    Petru OLARIU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Siret River Basin is characterized by an important use of hydro potential, resulted in the number of reservoirs constructed and operational. The cascade power stage of the reservoirs on Bistrita and Siret rivers indicate the anthropic interventions with different purposes (hydro energy, water supply, irrigation etc. in the Siret River Basin. In terms of the capacity in the Siret River Basin there is a dominance of the small capacity reservoirs, which is given by the less than 20 mil m³ volumes. Only two lakes have capacities over 200 mil m³: Izvoru Muntelui on Bistrita River and Siriu on Buzau River. Based on the monitoring of the alluvial flow at the hydrometric stations, from the Siret River Basin, there have been analysed the sediment yield formation and the solid transit dimensions in order to obtain typical values for the geographical areas of this territory. The silting of these reservoirs was monitored by successive topobatimetric measurements performed by the Bureau of Prognosis, Hydrology and Hydrogeology and a compartment within Hidroelectrica S.A. Piatra Neamt Subsidiary. The quantities of the deposited sediments are very impressive. The annual rates range betwee3 000 – 2 000 000 t/year, depending on the size of the hydrographical basin, the capacity of the reservoirs, the liquid flow and many other factors which may influence the upstream transport of sediments. These rates of sedimentation lead to a high degree of silting in the reservoirs. Many of them are silted over 50% of the initial capacity and the others even more. The effects of the silting have an important impact when analysing the effective exploitation of the reservoirs. 

  8. International River Basin Negotiations: Building a Database of Illustrative Successes

    McDonald, A

    1988-01-01

    Within IIASA's Environment Program, one of the objectives of the Project on Decision Support Systems for Managing Large International River Basins is to improve the exploitation of increasingly cheap and powerful computer analyses in international river basin negotiations and management. For hardware, the focus is on personal computers, as they may be the only technology reliably available in some parts of the world. For software, the emphasis is on graphics and menu-driven routines that are ...

  9. Glof Study in Tawang River Basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Panda, R.; Padhee, S. K.; Dutta, S.

    2014-11-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is one of the major unexpected hazards in the high mountain regions susceptible to climate change. The Tawang river basin in Arunachal Pradesh is an unexplored region in the Eastern Himalayas, which is impending to produce several upcoming hydro-electric projects (HEP). The main source of the river system is the snow melt in the Eastern Himalayas, which is composed of several lakes located at the snout of the glacier dammed by the lateral or end moraine. These lakes might prove as potential threat to the future scenario as they have a tendency to produce flash flood with large quantity of sediment load during outbursts. This study provides a methodology to detect the potential lakes as a danger to the HEP sites in the basin, followed by quantification of volume of discharge from the potential lake and prediction of hydrograph at the lake site. The remote location of present lakes induced the use of remote sensing data, which was fulfilled by Landsat-8 satellite imagery with least cloud coverage. Suitable reflectance bands on the basis of spectral responses were used to produce informational layers (NDWI, Potential snow cover map, supervised classification map) in GIS environment for discriminating different land features. The product obtained from vector overlay operation of these layers; representing possible water area, was further utilized in combination with Google earth to identify the lakes within the watershed. Finally those identified lakes were detected as potentially dangerous lakes based on the criteria of elevation, area, proximity from streamline, slope and volume of water held. HEC-RAS simulation model was used with cross sections from Google Earth and field survey as input to simulate dam break like situation; hydrodynamic channel routing of the outburst hydrograph along river reach was carried out to get the GLOF hydrograph at the project sites. It was concluded from the results that, the assessed GLOF would be a lead for the qualitative approximation of the amount of bed load transported along the river reach and thus hydropower project sites.

  10. [Upper Steele Bayou Projects : Yazoo River Basin, Mississippi

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a collection of documents related to four projects which were proposed by the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers in the Yazoo River Basin. The Upper Yazoo Basin...

  11. Contributions of small river basins to large-scale hydrology

    Gong, Lebing

    2015-04-01

    Data from small river basins can provide useful information to improve our understanding of hydrology of large regions. For instance, climate and hydrology of a large river basin can be well resembled by a number of small river basins. Those small river basins contain sufficient information, not only on climate and land surface, but also on hydrological characteristics for the large region. Extrapolation of annual discharge was first tested in the Baltic Sea drainage basin (Gong 2014). Result showed that selected sub-basins that cover 2-4% of the gauged area gave the best resemblance of discharge of the gauged basin area. 200 ensemble estimations from the extrapolation method estimates annual discharge for gauged area consistently well with on average 6% error. Further tests using Mopex dataset in Australia and the U.S., as well as a global-scale application using the GRDC dataset also showed promising results. There are strong correlation of climatic and land surface data between the small basins and large area which share similar discharge dynamic as the small basins. This would help to develop a systematic way to identify those small basins and their link to large-scale hydrological variability. Discharge data all around the world collected from basins of various scales are inter-connected because of the similarities of climate and land surface across scales. This inter-connectivity is evolving over time as a result of the change of climate. Understanding it will not only help with filling data gap in un-gauged regions, but also help to improve our understanding of the change of the hydrological system. Gong, L.: Data-driven scale extrapolation: estimating yearly discharge for a large region by small sub-basins, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 343-352, doi:10.5194/hess-18-343-2014, 2014.

  12. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  13. Drainage areas of the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    Mathes, M.V.; Payne, D.D., Jr.; Shultz, R.A.; Kirby, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Drainage areas for 1,493 drainage area divisions for the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, are listed in the report. Also tabulated for each site are river miles, plus location identifiers: County, latitude and longitude, and the West Virginia District map number. (USGS)

  14. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; McEnnis, S.; Berry, P. A. M.; Smith, R.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study...... is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage...

  15. Regional hydrology of the Dolores River Basin, eastern Paradox Basin, Colorado and Utah

    The Dolores River Basin, is in the eastern part of the Paradox Basin and includes the eastern slope of the La Sal Mountains, the western slopes of the Rico and La Plata Mountains, and the southwest flank of the Uncompahgre Plateau. The climate of this area is more humid than most of the surrounding Colorado Plateau region. Precipitation ranges from slightly 200 mm/yr to 1000 mm/yr; the estimated volume of water falling on the area is 4000 x 106 cm3/yr. Of this total, about 600 x 106 cm3/yr is runoff; 190 x 106 cm3/yr recharges the upper ground-water system; and an estimated 55 x 106 cm3 returns to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration from stream valleys. The remainder evaporates. Principal hydrogeologic units are permeable sandstone and limestone and nearly impermeable salt (halitic) deposits. Structurally, the area is dominated by northwest-trending salt anticlines and contiguous faults paralleled by synclinal structures. The Uncompahgre Plateau lies along the north and northeast sides of the area. The instrusive masses that form the La Sal Mountains are laccoliths with bysmaliths and other complex intrusive forms comprising, in gross form, moderately faulted omal structures. Intrusive rocks underlie the La Plata and Rico Mountains along the southeastern edge of the area. These geologic structures significantly modify ground-water flow patterns in the upper ground-water system, but have no conspicuous effect on the flow regime in the lower ground-water system. The water in the upper ground-water system generally is fresh except where it is affected by evaporite dissolution from salt anticlines. The water of the lower ground-water system is slightly saline to briny. Water quality of the Dolores River is slightly saline to fresh, based on dissolved chemical constituents; some of the smaller tributaries of the river have saline water

  16. M-area basin closure-Savannah River Site

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway

  17. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  18. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River basin case study

    Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jensen, I. H.; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, C. I.

    2015-03-01

    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically based and distributed modeling schemes employing data assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. The objective of this study is to develop open-source software tools to support hydrologic forecasting and integrated water resources management in Africa. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations. Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0-7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators and the performance is compared to persistence and climatology benchmarks. The forecasting system delivers useful forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days.

  19. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVI : Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003.

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.

    2007-12-07

    In 2005, the University of Washington developed a new statistical model to analyze the combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged salmon migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine), has been used to estimate survival and transportation effects on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin from 1996 to 2003. Those results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on both a systemwide basis, incorporating all transport dams analyzed, and a dam-specific basis. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 5,000 tagged smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few tagged hatchery steelhead were transported in these years, no transportation effects are estimated for steelhead. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.71% with a standard error (SE) of 0.18% for spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2003, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. For summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the estimates of annual SAR averaged 1.15% (SE=0.31%). Only for the release years 1999 and 2000 did the Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for hatchery steelhead from the Snake River Basin averaged 0.45% (SE=0.11%), including age-1-ocean returns, for release years 1996 through 2003. For release years when the ocean return probability from Bonneville back to Bonneville could be estimated (i.e., 1999 through 2003), it was estimated that on average approximately 86% of the total integrated mortality for nontransported, tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook, and 74% for steelhead, occurred during the ocean life stage (i.e., from Bonneville to Bonneville). This suggests that additional monitoring and research efforts should include the ocean and estuary environment. Annual estimates of the systemwide T/I are weighted averages of the dam-specific T/I ratios for each transport dam (with {ge} 5,000 tagged fish transported), weighted by the probabilities of being transported at each dam. The systemwide T/I compares the observed SAR under the existing transportation system with the expected SAR if the transportation system had not been operated. Estimates of 1.0 indicate that the systemwide transportation program has no effect on SAR, while estimates > 1.0 indicate that the transportation program increases SAR. Excluding the 2001 release group, the geometric mean of the systemwide T/I estimates for hatchery spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin was 1.15 (SE=0.03) for release years 1997 through 2003. The geometric mean of the systemwide T/I estimates for hatchery summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin was 1.28 (SE=0.13) for release years 1997 through 2000 and 2003. Estimates were much higher for the 2001 release groups. These estimates reflect transportation from Lower Granite and/or Little Goose for most release years, depending on the number of tagged smolts actually transported at each dam during each release year. Differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) is the ratio of post-Bonneville survival to Lower Granite Dam of transported fish to that of nontransported ('inriver') fish. Excluding the 2001 release year, the geometric mean of the D estimates for hatchery spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin was 1.00 (SE=0.09) for release years 1997 through 2003. For hatchery summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the geometric mean of the D estimates was 1.32 (SE=0.27) for release years 1997 through 2000 and 2003. These estimates reflect transportation from Lower Granite and/or Little Goose, depending on the number of tagged smolts actually transported at each dam during each release year. Approximately half the point estimates of D for both spring and summer Chinook salmon were 1.0 or greater, indicating that for those release groups, transported fish did not have lower ocean and adult survival than nontransported fish. For those years with estimates of D < 1.0, the systemwide T/I estimates were always {ge} 1.0, indicating that despite lower ocean and adult survival of transported fish, transportation did not lower SAR overall.

  20. Development of a System-Wide Program, Volume II : Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    Ward, David L.; Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife); Willis, Charles F. (S.P. Cramer and Associates., Gresham, OR)

    1994-06-01

    The authors report their results of studies to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Three papers are included in this report. They are entitled: (1) Development of a Systemwide Predator Control Program: Indexing and Fisheries Evaluation; (2) Economic, Social and Legal Feasibility of Commercial Sport, and Bounty Fisheries on Northern Squawfish; (3) Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM): Modeling Approach for Evaluation of Control of Northern Squawfish Populations using Fisheries Exploitation.

  1. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River Basin

    Michailovsky, C. I.; S. McEnnis; P. A. M. Berry; Smith, R.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. In this study, retracked Envisat altimetry data was extracted over the Zambezi River Basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m ...

  2. The Zambezi River Basin : A Multi-Sector Investment Opportunities Analysis - Basin Development Scenarios

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    The Zambezi River Basin (ZRB) is one of the most diverse and valuable natural resources in Africa. Its waters are critical to sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction in the region. The overall objective of the Zambezi River Multi-Sector Investment Opportunity Analysis (MSIOA) is to illustrate the benefits of cooperation among the riparian countries in the ZRB through a multi-sect...

  3. The Zambezi River Basin : A Multi-Sector Investment Opportunities Analysis - State of the Basin

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    The Zambezi River Basin (ZRB) is one of the most diverse and valuable natural resources in Africa. Its waters are critical to sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction in the region. The overall objective of the Zambezi River Multi-Sector Investment Opportunity Analysis (MSIOA) is to illustrate the benefits of cooperation among the riparian countries in the ZRB through a multi-sect...

  4. SUGGESTIONS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TUZLA RIVER BASIN (NW TURKEY

    Vedat ÇALIŞKAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural development consists of a wide variety of new activities such as organic farming and livestock, region-specific products, nature conservation and landscape management, rural tourism, and the development of short supply changes. This research aimed to use a SWOT analysis to identify strategies for rural development in the Tuzla River Basin.The Tuzla River Basin is located on the southern side of the Marmara Region and extends in northeast-southwest direction from the Aegean Sea to the western slope of Mt. Ida. This basin is divided into three sections, namely upper, middle and lower sections along the Tuzla River Basin. Some nine villages which represented three basins were selected from 35 villages using the methods of stratified sampling for this study. Some 200 surveys were performed in regard to the household number of each village and at 95% confidence level. According to the survey results, the investigated relation between the form of rural economic activity and the rural development characteristics was determined. SWOT and QSPM analysis techniques were used to explain poor conditions and future possibilities of rural development in the basin. In the rural areas of the basin, the form of agriculture, low-income animal husbandry carried out under natural & traditional conditions, emigration and traditional lifestyle are the causes of obstacles to rural development.

  5. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

  6. Transboundary water issues: The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    Sharing of water of transboundary rivers among riparian nations has become a cause of major concern in different parts of the globe for quite sometime. The issue in the recent decades has been transformed into a source of international tensions and disputes resulting in strained relationships between riparian nations. Conflicts over sharing of water of the international rivers, like the Tigris, Euphrates and Jordan in the Middle East, the Nile in Northern Africa, the Mekong in South-East Asia, the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna in the Indian subcontinent are widely known. The present paper discusses the water sharing -issue in the Ganga- Brahmaputra-Meghna basin located in the Indian sub continent covering five sovereign countries (namely India, Nepal, China, Bhutan and Bangladesh). Rapidly growing population, expanding agricultural and industrial activities besides the impacts of climate change have resulted in stressed condition in the arena of fresh water availability in the basin. Again occurrence of arsenic in sub-surface water in the lower reaches of the basin in India and Bangladesh has also added a new dimension to the problem. All the rivers of the GBM system exhibit wide variations between peak and lean flows as major part of the basin belongs to the monsoon region, where 80%-90 % of annual rainfall is concentrated in 4-5 months of South -West monsoon in the subcontinent. Over and above, the rivers in GBM system carry huge loads of sediments along with the floodwater and receive huge quantum of different kinds of wastes contaminating the water of the rivers. Again high rate of sedimentation of the major rivers and their tributaries have been affecting not only the carrying capacity of the rivers but also drastically reduced their retention capacity. Almost every year during monsoon about 27% and nearly 60% of the GBM basin lying in India and Bangladesh respectively experience flood. The year round navigation in many rivers has also been affected. All these have serious impacts on the economy of this geo politically sensitive region. It was found that the total water resource of the GBM river system would be unable to meet the prevailing water requirements of the basin, not to speak of the rise in demand of water in the future. It was established that the judicious water demand management and effective control of the over-use, misuse and abuse of water in the respective river basins in each country should get preference over competition for access to additional supply of water to meet the requirements and also adoption of technology which helps that goal to achieve should be made.(Author)

  7. Challenges of river basin management: Current status of, and prospects for, the River Danube from a river engineering perspective.

    Habersack, Helmut; Hein, Thomas; Stanica, Adrian; Liska, Igor; Mair, Raimund; Jger, Elisabeth; Hauer, Christoph; Bradley, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In the Danube River Basin multiple pressures affect the river system as a consequence of river engineering works, altering both the river hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effects of hydropower development, flood protection and engineering works for navigation on the Danube and to examine specific impacts of these developments on sediment transport and river morphology. Whereas impoundments are characterised by deposition and an excess of sediment with remobilisation of fine sediments during severe floods, the remaining five free flowing sections of the Danube are experiencing river bed erosion of the order of several centimetres per year. Besides the effect of interruption of the sediment continuum, river bed degradation is caused by an increase in the sediment transport capacity following an increase in slope, a reduction of river bed width due to canalisation, prohibition of bank erosion by riprap or regressive erosion following base level lowering by flood protection measures and sediment dredging. As a consequence, the groundwater table is lowered, side-arms are disconnected, instream structures are lost and habitat quality deteriorates affecting the ecological status of valuable floodplains. The lack of sediments, together with cutting off meanders, leads also to erosion of the bed of main arms in the Danube Delta and coastal erosion. This paper details the causes and effects of river engineering measures and hydromorphological changes for the Danube. It highlights the importance of adopting a basin-wide holistic approach to river management and demonstrates that past management in the basin has been characterised by a lack of integration. To-date insufficient attention has been paid to the wide-ranging impacts of river engineering works throughout the basin: from the basin headwaters to the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea coast. This highlights the importance of new initiatives that seek to advance knowledge exchange and knowledge transfer within the basin to reach the goal of integrated basin management. PMID:26589137

  8. The Geography of Conflict in International River Basins

    Beck, L.; Siegfried, T. U.

    2010-12-01

    In most transboundary surface water sharing problems, allocation outcomes are not primarily determined by economic considerations but by the distribution of political and bargaining power. For this reason, we present a hydro--political model to formalize the notion that upstream countries are using water to gain more power whereas downstream countries use power to gain more water. The model incorporates hydrological, political and economic asymmetries between basin stakeholders. We show that equilibrium outcomes are biased towards the more powerful riparian coalition and that absolute upstream or downstream basin dominance emerge as limiting case of the general model. In contrast to obvious situations with a dominating riparian country as for the case of the Nile or Euphrates/Tigris rivers, the model is illustrated in an ambiguous hydro--political environment with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin. The model quantifies negative basin welfare outcomes in function of particular upstream/downstream configurations.

  9. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  10. Optimal water allocation in the Mekong river basin

    Ringler, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    The Mekong River is the dominant geo-hydrological structure in mainland Southeast Asia, originating in China and flowing through or bordering Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Whereas water resources in the wet season are more than adequate to fulfill basin needs, there are regional water shortages during the dry season, when only 1-2% of the annual flow reaches the Delta. Recent rapid agricultural and economic development in the basin has led to increasing competition among the...

  11. Drainage areas of the Guyandotte River basin, West Virginia

    Mathes, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the West Virginia Office of Federal-State Relations (now the Office of Economic and Community Development), lists in tabular form 435 drainage areas for basins within the Guyandotte River basin of West Virginia. Drainage areas are compiled for sites at the mouths of all streams having drainage areas of approximately five square miles or greater, for sites at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations (past and present), and for other miscellaneous sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Impact of GRACE signal leakage over the Congo River Basin

    Lee, H.; Beighley, R. E.; Duan, J.; Shum, C.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Andreadis, K.

    2013-05-01

    The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size, and second only to the Amazon River in discharge. The impact and connections of this hydrologic flux with the region's climate, biogeochemical cycling, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), especially in wetlands, is clearly of great importance. Yet, there is a great lack of published research documenting the Congo Basin terrestrial water balance. This lack of research is related in part to the limited amount of in-situ data; however, the abundance of spaceborne data suggests an opportunity for discovery. The Congo River is the only major river to cross the equator twice. In doing so, the basin lies in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere such that it receives year-round rainfall from the migration of Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). After the north has its wet season in the spring and summer, the ITCZ moves south and the remainder of the basin receives large amounts of rain. Consequently, the movement of ITCZ can also be observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) TWS changes over the northern and southern boundaries over the Congo. This spatial pattern of the TWS variations are different from that over the Amazon Basin, where the strongest positive or negative annual water storage anomalies are observed to be centered inside the basin. In this study, we examine individual monthly geographical distribution of GRACE TWS changes from various RL05 products, and determine the leakage-contaminated monthly solutions by comparison with reproduced TWS variations from Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in sub-basin scale. We also present a methodology to empirically remove the signal leakage, and consequently improve the GRACE TWS estimates over the entire Congo Basin.

  13. Hydrological balance of Chicu River basin, using nuclear techniques

    This thesis made part of the ARCAL X III Project, referring to the groundwater study en the Bogota Plain (Sabana de Bogota, Colombia). In the Bogota plain, is found located the Chicu River basin, in such basin are located two towns Tabio and Tenjo, in this zone have been taken advantage the groundwater in the last years. The objective of this work was determined by means of isotopic techniques, the determination of the groundwater origin and its quality using physical and chemical parameters

  14. The Rhône river basin

    Olivier, J.M.; Carrel, G.; Lamouroux, N.; Dole Olivier, M.J.; Malard, F; Bravard, J. P.; C. Amoros(IRAP, Toulouse, France)

    2009-01-01

    This new guide stands as the only primary source of complete and comparative baseline data on the biological and hydrological characteristics of more than 180 of the highest profile rivers in Europe. With numerous full-color photographs and maps, this book includes conservation information on current patterns of river use and the extent to which human society has exploited and impacted them. Rivers of Europe provides the information ecologists and conservation managers need to better assess t...

  15. Scenarios of changes of selected components of hydrosphere and biosphere in catchment basin of Hron River and Vah River as consequence of climatic change

    This text-book consist of the following parts: (1) Hydrologic and climatic relationship of catchment basins; (2) Space interpretation of outputs of climatic scenarios in catchment basins of Hron River and Vah River by geostatistical methods; (3) Teleconnection of annual overflows with SO, NAO, AO and QBO phenomenons; (4) Snow; (5) Mathematical model for modelling of influence of climatic changes on runoff processes; (6) Multi-linear model of transformation of runoff in river-basins; (7) Influence of climatic change on capacity utilization of reserve volume of water reservoir Orava River; (8) Quality of surface waters; (9) Influence of climatic changes on biological factors and soil hydrology; (10) Proposal of framing adaptation arrangements.

  16. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA WITHIN THE CONCEPT OF TRANSBOUNDARY RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT

    Šeperović, Enes; Imamović, Alma

    2011-01-01

    Transboundary river basin management is a challenge everywhere in the world. EU Water Framework Directive set principles and objectives of transboundary river basin management for EU member states but usually followed by non-members states sharing with them river basins. Bosnia and Herzegovina has taken direction towards cooperation on transboundary river basin management as member of commissions and signing bilateral agreements. Due to the complex institutional arrangements of water manageme...

  17. Monitoring of heavy metals in ecosystems of small rivers of Oka-river's basin

    Some of the priority contaminants are heavy metals. The researches on the ecological range have been held for the purpose of showing up the pollution extent of the surface and soil waters of the small rivers of Oka-river's basin.

  18. Glacial lakes in the Horgos river basin and their outbreak risk assessment

    A. P. Medeu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The river Khorgos (in Kazakhstan – Korgas is a boundary river between Kazakhstan and China. Its basin is located in the central part of southern slope of Dzhungarskiy (Zhetysu Alatau range. According to agreement between Kazakhstan and China at the boundary transition of Khorgos in the floodplain of the river Khorgos the large Center of Frontier Cooperation is erected. Estimation of safety of the mentioned object including connection with possible glacial lakes outbursts has the importance of political-economical value. Nowadays development of glacial lakes in the overhead part of Khorgos river basin has reached apogee. As a roof we can mention the maximum of total glacial lakes area (1,7 million m² in 41 lakes and emptied kettles of former glacial lakes. Six lakes reached highly dangerous outburst stage: the volume of lakes reached some million m³, maximum depth up to 30–40 m. Focal ground filtration of the water from lakes takes place. Development of glacial lakes in Khorgos river basin will continue, and these lakes give and will give real danger for the Center of Frontier Cooperation in case of outburst of naturally dammed lake Kazankol with the similar mechanism of Issyk lake outburst, occurred in 1963 in ZailijskiyAlatau (Ile Alatau.

  19. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  20. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  1. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15 Danube monitoring sites in Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia and Serbia. Most of these sites have continuous stable isotope and tritium records of over 10 years. The longest and most complete record of isotopes in precipitation and the Danube is from Vienna, which contains continuous tritium and stable isotope records since the 1960s. Previous estimates of residence time using tritium in the upper Danube are about 3-5 years (Rank et al., 1998, Yurtsever, 1999). However, these estimates were based on a tritium record up to 1995 and some of the parts of the observed time series were not represented well by the models. We are now re-evaluating the upper Danube residence time using a complete record covering the entire tritium transient created by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (1964-2005). Several combinations of lumped parameter models are being tested using MULTIS and LUMPY. The models assume two main water components in parallel; a "fast" component that represents water with a short residence time (less than one year), resulting from recent precipitation and fast runoff, and a "slow" or "old" component representing discharge of older groundwaters to the river. Preliminary results obtained during this exercise, as well as those determined using other environmental tracers, are providing new insights into the age distribution of water in the upper Danube. Initial calculations with the complete tritium record for Vienna suggest that the mean residence time is substantially older than previous estimates. This study also demonstrates the value of the GNIP/GNIR/WISER dataset for examining dynamics of surface water systems.

  2. Taxonomic revision of the Rineloricaria species (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Paraguay River basin

    Héctor S. Vera-Alcaraz; Carla S. Pavanelli; Zawadzki, Cláudio H.

    2012-01-01

    Species of the genus Rineloricaria from the Paraguay River basin were revised, the following species and geographic distributional patterns were found: R. aurata, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, rio Guaporé in Brazil; R. cacerensis, Paraguay River near Cáceres in Brazil; R. lanceolata, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, Guaporé, Ji-Paraná, Purus, Solimões, and Araguaia rivers in Brazil, Marañón and Madre de Dios rivers in Peru; R. parva, Paraguay River basin in Brazil a...

  3. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    Michailovsky, C. I.; S. McEnnis; P. A. M. Berry; Smith, R.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were ...

  4. Integrated river basin management of Južna Morava River

    Borisavljević Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade in particular, Serbia encountered the problems of drinking water supply, which influenced the perception of professional public about the water crisis but also started more intensive work on water resource perseverance as well as the implementation of European Water Directive. One of the main demands of the Directive focuses on integrated river basin management (IRBM, which is a complex and a large task. The need to collect data on water quality and quantity, specific and key issues of water management in Južna Morava river basin, pressures on river ecosystem, flood risks and erosion problems, cross-border issues, socioeconomic processes, agricultural development as well as protected areas, and also to give the measures for solving problems and pressures recognized in the basin, is undisputable. This paper focuses on detailed analysis of specific pressures on river ecosystem and composition of recommendations for integrated management of Južna Morava river basin as cross-border river basin, taking into the account European experiences in IRBM. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje, podprojekat br. 9: Učestalost bujičnih poplava, degradacija zemljišta i voda kao posledica globalnih promena

  5. How different institutional arrangements promote integrated river basin management

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Frederiksen, Pia; Saarikoski, Heli; Rytkönen, Anne-Mari; Pedersen, Anders Branth

    2013-01-01

    Management Planning processes in six countries around the Baltic Sea. We use theories on multi-level governance, regime interplay and institutional effectiveness. We find that, in most cases, central governments have played a dominant role in the formulation of river basin management plans, while local...

  6. BIG SIOUX RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN INFORMATION OUTREACH PROJECT

    The main goal of the proposed project is to raise public awareness about the importance of protecting the Big Sioux River drainage basin. To accomplish this goal, the City and its partnering agencies are seeking to expand and improve public accessibility to a wide variety of r...

  7. Pyomyositis in the upper Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazonia

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Faragher, Brian; Lalloo, David G

    2012-01-01

    Pyomyositis remains poorly documented in tropical Latin America. We therefore performed a retrospective review of cases admitted to a hospital in the upper Negro river basin during 2002-2006. Seasonality was assessed by the cosinor model and independent predictors of outcome were identified by lo...

  8. Achieving Accountability Through Decentralization: Lessons for Integrated River Basin Management

    Mody, Jyothsna

    2004-01-01

    While decentralization holds out the promise of increased flexibility and efficiency, the preconditions for realizing it are daunting. To draw lessons for productive decentralization in integrated river basin management, this paper surveys the decentralization experience in education, health care, roads, irrigation, and public infrastructure services. Case studies reveal that the prime foc...

  9. The Niger River Basin : A Vision for Sustainable Management

    Andersen, Inger; Dione, Ousmane; Jarosewich-Holder, Martha; Olivry, Jean-Claude; Golitzen, Katherin George

    2008-01-01

    The Niger River Basin Authority (NBA) brings together nine countries to promote integrated water resources management across political borders. The nine - Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria have embraced a shared vision to build institutional capacity, political agreement, and public support for cooperation. The countries agree that sustain...

  10. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E; Carvalho, Ana F; Bonatelli, Marina; Lima, Marcelo C; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2007-01-01

    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched to...

  11. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  12. RUNOFF POTENTIAL OF MUREŞ RIVER UPPER BASIN TRIBUTARIES

    V. SOROCOVSCHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mureş River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mureş River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  13. Drainage areas of the Monogahela River Basin, West Virginia

    Stewart, D.K.; Mathes, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains data for 1,127 drainage-area divisions of the Monongahela River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Monongahela River and Dunkard Creek. Data, compiled in down- stream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miels or larger, and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county and the 7-1/2 minute quadrangle in which the site lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, is 4,374.94 square miles.

  14. A Review of Integrated River Basin Management for Sarawak River

    Kuok K. Kuok; Sobri Harun; Po-Chan Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Sarawak River was a life-sustaining water source for the residents in Kuching City and surrounding areas. Raw water is treated at Batu Kitang Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP) that supplies more than 98% of the total water production in Kuching City. The raw water supply to BKWTP is not adequate to meet the ever increasing water demand. In order to overcome this problem, four projects had been implemented along Sarawak River for managing and securing water&#...

  15. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil.

    Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S

    2013-02-01

    The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:23644791

  16. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards wetland restoration has more weight than the rural population's towards flood protection.

  17. Aquatic risk assessment of priority and other river basin specific pesticides in surface waters of Mediterranean river basins.

    Silva, Emília; Daam, Michiel A; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2015-09-01

    To meet good chemical and ecological status, Member States are required to monitor priority substances and chemicals identified as substances of concern at European Union and local/river-basin/national level, respectively, in surface water bodies, and to report exceedances of the environmental quality standards (EQSs). Therefore, standards have to be set at national level for river basin specific pollutants. Pesticides used in dominant crops of several agricultural areas within the catchment of Mediterranean river basins ('Mondego', 'Sado' and 'Tejo', Portugal) were selected for monitoring, in addition to the pesticides included in priority lists defined in Europe. From the 29 pesticides and metabolites selected for the study, 20 were detected in surface waters of the river basins, seven of which were priority substances: alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, simazine and terbutryn, all of which exceeded their respective EQS values. QSs for other specific pollutants were calculated using different extrapolation techniques (i.e. deterministic or probabilistic) largely based on the method described in view of the Water Framework Directive. Non-acceptable aquatic risks were revealed for molinate, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, propanil, terbuthylazine, and the metabolite desethylatrazine. Implications of these findings for the classification of the ecological status of surface water bodies in Portugal and at the European level are discussed. PMID:26002046

  18. Hydrologic sensitivity of flood runoff and inundation: 2011 Thailand floods in the Chao Phraya River basin

    Sayama, T.; Tatebe, Y.; Iwami, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2015-07-01

    The Thailand floods in 2011 caused unprecedented economic damage in the Chao Phraya River basin. To diagnose the flood hazard characteristics, this study analyses the hydrologic sensitivity of flood runoff and inundation to rainfall. The motivation is to address why the seemingly insignificant monsoon rainfall, or 1.2 times more rainfall than for past large floods, including the ones in 1995 and 2006, resulted in such devastating flooding. To quantify the hydrologic sensitivity, this study simulated long-term rainfall-runoff and inundation for the entire river basin (160 000 km2). The simulation suggested that the flood inundation volume was 1.6 times more in 2011 than for the past flood events. Furthermore, the elasticity index suggested that a 1 % increase in rainfall causes a 2.3 % increase in runoff and a 4.2 % increase in flood inundation. This study highlights the importance of sensitivity quantification for a better understanding of flood hazard characteristics; the presented basin-wide rainfall-runoff-inundation simulation was an effective approach to analyse the sensitivity of flood runoff and inundation at the river basin scale.

  19. Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin

    Milanovi? Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of umadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and floods and torrents (especially in Kragujevac valley by other cite. Particular problem is water quality and pollution in river basin. In this paper will be analyzed water quality of Lepenica river and artificial lakes, built in its river basin, according to the data of Republic Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia. Also, it will be present polluter cadastre in river basin.

  20. Hydrological study of La Paz river basin

    This work aims to determine the hydrological parameters for the La Paz river, by using tracer techniques and also the determination of the water quality parameters for the study of the behavior along the stream. This study intends the prediction and control of the water contamination by using mathematical modelling

  1. Flood control and loss estimation for paddy field at midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

    Cham, T. C.; Mitani, Y.

    2015-09-01

    2011 Thailand flood has brought serious impact to downstream of Chao Phraya River Basin. The flood peak period started from August, 2011 to the end of October, 2011. This research focuses on midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin, which is Nakhon Sawan area includes confluence of Nan River and Yom River, also confluence of Ping River and Nan River. The main purpose of this research is to understand the flood generation, estimate the flood volume and loss of paddy field, also recommends applicable flood counter measurement to ease the flood condition at downstream of Chao Phraya River Basin. In order to understand the flood condition, post-analysis is conducted at Nakhon Sawan. The post-analysis consists of field survey to measure the flood marks remained and interview with residents to understand living condition during flood. The 2011 Thailand flood generation at midstream is simulated using coupling of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic model to understand the flood generation during flood peak period. It is calibrated and validated using flood marks measured and streamflow data received from Royal Irrigation Department (RID). Validation of results shows good agreement between simulated result and actual condition. Subsequently, 3 scenarios of flood control are simulated and Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to assess the spatial distribution of flood extent and reduction of loss estimation at paddy field. In addition, loss estimation for paddy field at midstream is evaluated using GIS with the calculated inundation depth. Results show the proposed flood control at midstream able to minimize 5% of the loss of paddy field in 26 provinces.

  2. Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

  3. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  4. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and by the year 2000. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier CBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. These research and education projects are particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy's programs aimed at addressing aquatic pollution problems associated with DOE National Laboratories. First year funding supported seven collaborative cluster projects and twelve initiation projects. This report summarizes research results for period December 1992--December 1993

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

    2008-12-03

    The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon release groups were pooled across the entire Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam for this report. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.92% with an estimated standard error (dSE) of 0.25% for wild spring and summer Chinook salmon for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2004, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. Only for the 1999 and 2000 release years did the wild Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for wild steelhead from the Snake River Basin averaged 0.63% (dSE = 0.15%), including age-1-ocean returns, for release years 1996 through 2004. For release years when the ocean return probability from Bonneville back to Bonneville could be estimated (i.e., 1999 through 2004), it was estimated that on average approximately 83% of the total integrated mortality for nontransported, tagged wild spring and summer Chinook, and 78% for steelhead (omitting the 2001 release year), occurred during the ocean life stage (i.e., from Bonneville to Bonneville). This suggests that additional monitoring and research efforts should include the ocean and estuary environment. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Lower Granite Dam were available for the 2003 and 2004 release years for both wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead. The estimated T/I for Lower Granite was significantly > 1.0 for Chinook in 2004 (P < 0.0001) and for steelhead in both 2003 (P < 0.0001) and 2004 (P < 0.0001), indicating that for these release years, wild fish transported at Lower Granite returned there in higher proportions than fish that were returned to the river at Lower Granite, or that passed Lower Granite without detection as juveniles. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Little Goose Dam were available for wild Chinook salmon for both 2003 and 2004. The estimated T/I for Little Goose was significantly > 1.0 for wild Chinook in 2004 (P = 0.0024), but not in 2003 (P = 0.1554). Differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) is the ratio of post-Bonneville survival to Lower Granite Dam of transported fish to that of nontransported ('inriver') fish. Estimates of D were available for transportation from Lower Granite and Little Goose dams in 2003 and 2004 for wild Chinook, and from Lower Granite Dam in 2003 and 2004 for wild steelhead. Point estimates ranged from 0.74 (dSE = 0.29) for transportation of wild Chinook salmon from Lower Granite Dam in 2003 to 1.91 (dSE = 0.61) for transportation of wild steelhead from Lower Granite Dam in 2003. Small transport groups resulted in high uncertainty on the point estimates, and only for 2003 steelhead transported from Lower Granite Dam did transported fish have significantly greater post-Bonneville survival than nontransported fish (P = 0.0213).

  6. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15771 Athens (Greece); Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: sdcqam@cid.csic.es [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, C/ Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification.

  7. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification

  8. Water resources planning for a river basin with recurrent wildfires.

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L

    2015-09-01

    Situated in the north of Portugal, the Bea River basin is subject to recurrent wildfires, which produce serious consequences on soil erosion and nutrient exports, namely by deteriorating the water quality in the basin. In the present study, the ECO Lab tool embedded in the Mike Hydro Basin software was used for the evaluation of river water quality, in particular the dissolved concentration of phosphorus in the period 1990-2013. The phosphorus concentrations are influenced by the burned area and the river flow discharge, but the hydrologic conditions prevail: in a wet year (2000, 16.3 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 16.4 m(3)s(-1) the maximum phosphorus concentration was as low as 0.02 mgL(-1), while in a dry year (2005, 24.4 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 2 m(3)s(-1) the maximum concentration was as high as 0.57 mgL(-1). Phosphorus concentrations in the water bodies exceeded the bounds of good ecological status in 2005 and between 2009 and 2012, water for human consumption in 2009 and water for multiple uses in 2010. The River Covas, a right margin tributary of Bea River, is the most appropriate stream as regards the use of water for human consumption, because it presents the biggest water potential with the best water quality. Since wildfires in the basin result essentially from natural causes and climate change forecasts indicate an increase in their frequency and intensity in the near future, forestry measures are proposed to include as a priority the conversion of stands of maritime pine in mixed stands of conifer and hardwood species. PMID:25918888

  9. Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin

    Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in the region.

  10. Groundwater quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2011

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Tia-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 21 production and domestic wells in the Mohawk River Basin in New York in July 2011 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in New York and is underlain by shale, sandstone, carbonate, and crystalline bedrock. The bedrock is overlain by till in much of the basin, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Nine of the wells sampled in the Mohawk River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Mohawk River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was very hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 15 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Four pesticides, all herbicides or their degradates, were detected in four samples at trace levels; three VOCs, including chloroform and two solvents, were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,300 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well, but the median radon activity was higher in samples from sand and gravel wells than in samples from bedrock wells. Coliform bacteria were detected in five samples with a maximum of 92 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Water quality in the Mohawk River Basin is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards exceeded are color (1 sample), pH (1 sample), sodium (9 samples), chloride (1 sample), sulfate (2 samples), dissolved solids (7 samples), aluminum (3 samples), iron (8 samples), manganese (6 samples), radon-222 (10 samples), and bacteria (5 samples). Fecal coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were each detected in one sample. Concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, and uranium, and gross alpha activities, did not exceed existing drinking-water standards in any of the samples collected. Methane concentrations in two samples were greater than 28 milligrams per liter, and the maximum measured concentration was 44.3 milligrams per liter.

  11. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the establishment of a localized broodstock in the near-term, and provide the opportunity to establish natural production over the long-term. Phase II information is presented in this document to clearly articulate the long-term intent and vision of the coho salmon reintroduction program. Phase II would be proposed only if Phase I meets several indicators of success. If Phase I meets all identified indicators of success, authorization for Phase II funding would be pursued via a supplement to this Master Plan.

  12. Tritium in surface water of the Yenisei river Basin

    The paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001-2003 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 41 Bq/L. It has been found that there are surface waters containing enhanced tritium, up to 168 Bq/L, as compared with the background values for the Yenisei River. There are two possible sources of tritium input. First, the last operating reactor of the MCC, which still uses the Yenisei water as coolant. Second, tritium may come from the deep aquifers at the Severny testing site. For the first time tritium has been found in two aquatic plant species of the Yenisei River with maximal tritium concentration 304 Bq/Kg wet weight. Concentration factors of tritium for aquatic plants are much higher than 1

  13. New records of Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus 1758 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae in Ebro River Basin (N Spain.

    Oscoz, J., Toms, P., Durn, C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This note represents a contribution to the knowledge of the presence of the fish leech Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus 1758 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae in the Ebro River Basin. This species was collected in two rivers in the Ebro River Basin. Although this species has been reported from the Iberian Peninsula, these records are scarce and, to the author?s best knowledge, this study presents the first record of Piscicola geometra in the Ebro River Basin.

  14. RESEARCHES REGARDING ICHTHYOFAUNA FROM NADRAG RIVER BASIN

    I. B?N??EAN-DUNEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On this research is showing the present situation of the fish genostock in the Nadrag River, an important confluent of the Timis river, being part of the Banat hydrographical area. The fish species caught in the investigated area are part of Cyprinidae family. The dominant species is Barbus meridionalis petenyi, followed by Alburnoides bipunctatus, incorporating the investigated area in the European grayling (Thymallus thymallus or the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis petenyi zone of the running waters. At present the Barbus meridionalis petentyi population from the area investigated founds itself in a regression, fact that can be connected both with the poaching and with unauthorized hydrotechnic buildings build-up in the last decade.

  15. A Review of Integrated River Basin Management for Sarawak River

    Kuok K. Kuok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sarawak River was a life-sustaining water source for the residents in Kuching City and surrounding areas. Raw water is treated at Batu Kitang Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP that supplies more than 98% of the total water production in Kuching City. The raw water supply to BKWTP is not adequate to meet the ever increasing water demand. In order to overcome this problem, four projects had been implemented along Sarawak River for managing and securing water supply to BKWTP. Approach: These four projects are construction of 1.5m height storage weir across Sungai Sarawak Kiri river channel, Kuching Barrage and Shiplock, Bengoh Dam and Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS. In 2005, 1.5 m height submersible weir was constructed across Sungai Sarawak Kiri channel for increasing the safe yield that can last until year 2010. Kuching Barrage and Shiplock were commissioned in 2000 as barrier to avoid the saline intrusion reaching upper catchment. 24 telemetry stations were installed along Sarawak River for monitoring and regulating the water level. This will preserve high quality water storage at upper catchment of Sarawak River. In year 2010, Bengoh Dam was constructed to ensure adequate raw water will be supplied to BKWTP for meeting the increasing water demand from 2010-2030. This reservoir will store 144 million m3 of fresh water covering reservoir area of 8.77km2. Beyond 2030, the water supply shall not depend solely on fresh water. Results: Black and grey water in Sarawak Catchment was treated through Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS and recycled for daily used. Conclusion: The treated water that comply Standard A water quality, can distribute for domestic, industrial and irrigation used in nearest future. This will reduce the water demand solely on raw water and create a sustainable living in Kuching City. Beyond 2030, a few alternatives are also proposed for conserving and securing water supply for Kuching city.

  16. River Sinuosity Classification - Case study in the Pannonian Basin

    Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

    2012-04-01

    A new evaluation method is proposed to classify the multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum, in order to minimize the possible human interpretation error. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be similarly useful as the sinuosity spectrum is, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. The river sinuosity values were studied in the Pannonian Basin in order to reveal neotectonic influence on their abrupt changes. The map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire were used to digitize the natural, pre-regulation meandering river thalwegs. 28 rivers were studied, and the connection between the known fault lines and the river sinuosity changes was detected in 36 points, along 26 structural lines. An unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, and the sinuosity values were divided into 5 classes. Because of the sinuosity calculation method, 25 kilometer-long river sections are missing at the two endpoints of the channel. So sometimes the displayed section of the river does not cross to the faults represented on the neotectonic map. In the other cases, where the faults are crossing the rivers, the results are corresponding with the results of the sinuosity spectrum: the river-points on the two sides of the faults belong to different classes. The connection between these fault lines and the change of river sinuosity classes was detected in 23 points, along 16 structural lines The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

  17. Multireservoir operations for flood management in Tanshui River basin, Taiwan

    Mei, X.; van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Sloff, C. J.; Prinsen, G.; Vrijling, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of the reservoir system under different design flood events based on SOBEK-RIVER modeling package. The balanced water level index is introduced to deal with the optimal approach for joint reservoir operations. The simulation results suggest that SOBEK-RIVER significantly facilitates the model establishment for studying the propagation of floods through different flood events. It is also found in this study that the joint operation policy performs better during flood emergencies by minimizing flood damage for downstream area. The approach is applied to the Tanshui River which is located in the north of Taiwan and consists of three major tributaries: Tahan River, Hsintien River and Keelung River. Two reservoirs (Shihmen and Festui) are located in the upstream (Tahan and Hsintien) for regulating water release to protect downstream areas from floods during typhoon strikes. To simulate the flood process, the river mouth is selected as the downstream boundary while the inflow into the river basin is controlled by the precipitation. The frequency-duration relationships derived from recorded intense bursts of rainfall of various durations are used to design the precipitation hydrographs. The storm tide distribution in the river mouth is analyzed with Monte Carlo simulations of the tide and storm surge distribution at river mouth to determine the occurrence probabilities of the extreme storm tides. All the scenario designs are based on the available data from typhoon Nari of the year 2001. The study models the flood behavior by the SOBEK-RIVER modeling system which was developed by DELTARES. The proposed procedure in this study involves three modules which are a rainfall runoff model, a reservoir operation model and a channel routing model respectively.

  18. Water balance of the Drini i Bardh River Basin, Kosova

    Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Isalm

    2010-05-01

    Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. In the present day world, the problems of too much, too little or too polluted water are increasing at a rapid rate. These problems have become particularly severe for the developing countries, adversely affecting their agriculture, drinking water supply and sanitation. Water recourse management is no more just a challenger it is a declared crises. Water resources in Kosova are relatively small, total amount of water in our country is small around 1600 m3/inhabitant /year Drini i Bardhë river basin is in the western part of Kosova, it is the biggest river basin with surface of 4.289 km2. Drini i Bardhë discharges its water to Albania and finally to the Adriatic Sea. The area consist of several small stream from the mountains, water flows into tributaries and Drini i Bardhë River. In this river basin are based 12 hydrometric stations, 27 manual and 5 automatic rainfall measurements Drini i Bardhe River main basin contain a big number of sub basins from which the most important are: Lumëbardhi i Pejës (503.5km2), Lumëbardhi i Deçanit (278.3km2), Erenikut (515.5km2), Burimi (446.7km2), Klinës (439.0km2), Mirushes (334.5km2), Toplluges (498.2km2), Bistrica e Prizrenit (266.0 km2) and Plava (309 km2) fig 2. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. Protecting from pollution is a very important issue having in consideration that this river discharges its water and outside the territory. Hydrometeorology Institute of Kosova is in charge for monitoring of water quality. Key works: rainfall, flow, evaporation, river, evaporation coefficient (Ke) and feeding coefficient from underground waters (Ku).

  19. Drought Analysis for River Basins, Using the Hydrological Model SIMGRO

    Querner, E.; van Lanen, H.; Rhebergen, W.

    2009-05-01

    Drought is a recurring and worldwide phenomenon, with spatial and temporal characteristics that vary significantly from one region to another. Drought has major impacts on society and affects among others the environment and the economy. Impacts are likely to increase with time as societies demands higher services for water and the environment. This will even be more pronounced in the coming decades with the projected climate change, i.e. droughts are becoming more severe in large parts of the world. The prediction of droughts is an essential part of impact assessment for current and future conditions, as part of integrated land and water management. An important question is how changes in meteorological drought will propagate into hydrological droughts in terms of changes in the groundwater system or in the river flow. The objective of our study is to develop and test tools that quantify the space-time development of droughts in a river basin. The spatial aspect of a hydrological drought (spatially-distributed recharge and groundwater heads), in a river basin brings different challenges with respect to describing the characteristics of a drought, such as: onset, duration, severity and extend. We used the regional hydrological model SIMGRO as a basis to generate the necessary data for the drought analysis. SIMGRO is a distributed physically-based model that simulates regional transient saturated groundwater flow, unsaturated flow, actual evapotranspiration, sprinkler irrigation, stream flow, groundwater and surface water levels as a response to rainfall, reference evapotranspiration, and groundwater abstraction. The model is used within the GIS environment Arc-View, which enables the use of digital data, such as soil map, land use, watercourses, as input data for the model. It is also a tool for analysis, because interactively data and results can be presented, as will be shown. Droughts in different hydrological variables (recharge, groundwater heads, river flow) are identified by applying the fixed threshold concept to spatially-distributed simulated time series. The method captures the development of both the duration and the severity for the area in a drought. For the analysis we applied the model to the Taquari river basin (about 106.000 km2), which is situated in the Pantanal region, the upper part of the Paraguay River Basin, Brazil. The question we will address is: how does a hydrological drought develop and what are the spatial characteristics and what are the underlying mechanisms. Examples of the analysis will be shown that aim at a better understanding of the process involved which are essential; to assess the vulnerability of river basins for hydrological droughts.

  20. LBA-ECO LC-02 Tributary Coordinates, Acre River, Tri-national River Basin: 2003-2004

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides coordinates for points at the mouth of tributaries of the Acre River in the Tri-national River Basin in South America. Three Global...

  1. LBA-ECO LC-02 Tributary Coordinates, Acre River, Tri-national River Basin: 2003-2004

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides coordinates for points at the mouth of tributaries of the Acre River in the Tri-national River Basin in South America. Three Global...

  2. LBA-ECO LC-02 Tributary Coordinates, Acre River, Tri-national River Basin: 2003-2004

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration This data set provides coordinates for points at the mouth of tributaries of the Acre River in the Tri-national River Basin in South America. Three Global...

  3. Using large volume samplers for the monitoring of particle bound micro pollutants in rivers

    Kittlaus, Steffen [Hrsg.; Fuchs, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The requirements of the WFD as well as substance emission modelling at the river basin scale require stable monitoring data for micro pollutants. The monitoring concepts applied by the local authorities as well as by many scientists use single sampling techniques. Samples from water bodies are usually taken in volumes of about one litre and depending on predetermined time steps or through discharge thresholds. For predominantly particle bound micro pollutants the small sample size of about on...

  4. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at reducing system vulnerabilities and the improving the resiliency of the Basin to vulnerable conditions. The Study is the most comprehensive long-term assessment to date of the Basin and it confirmed that without action, the Colorado River system will become increasingly challenged to sustain the communities and resources that rely on its water supply. The Study was conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation and its consultant team (CH2M Hill, Black & Veatch, and the RAND Corporation) and the seven Colorado River Basin States, in collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders throughout the Basin. The Study's strong technical foundation forms a basis from which important discussions can begin regarding possible actions to resolve future supply and demand imbalances in order to help ensure the sustainability of the Colorado River system. This talk will provide an overview of the Study's approach and findings, with a focus on the Study's assessment and characterization of vulnerability under uncertainty.

  5. Helminth parasites of freshwater fishes, Nazas River basin, northern Mexico

    León, G. Pérez-Ponce

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the first study of the helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from the Nazas River basinin northern Mexico. Between July 2005 and December 2008, 906 individual fish were collected and examined for helminthparasites in 23 localities along the river basin. Twenty-three species of fish were examined as a part of this inventory work.In total, 41 helminth species were identified: 19 monogeneans, 10 digeneans, seven cestodes, one acanthocephalan, andfour nematodes. The biogeographical implications of our findings are briefly discussed.

  6. Current and future water resources of the Congo River basin

    Sonessa, M.; Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.; Fulco, L.; Franssen, W.

    2011-12-01

    The water resources of the Congo Basin are under enormous pressure due to decreases in the Oubangui River discharge for the last three decades and the shrinking of Lake Chad. We report on a systematic analysis of the hydrology and water resources of the entire Congo Basin, and that part of the basin within the geographical boundaries of each of the countries across which it flows. We used hydrological models, data from global data bases, and future climate scenarios. We address both historical and future state of water resources management (availability, flood and drought occurrence, dams/reservoirs, and water infrastructure) using the on-going development of a basin scale climate change impact assessment within the Wageningen Universiy -Congo Basin project frame work. Detailed analysis of potential impacts of climate change on the basin's water availability are assessed using two hydrological and water resources models (VIC, Variable Infiltration Capacity and LPJ, Lund-Potsdam-Jena). We use EU-WATCH historical data, three global climate models with two emissions scenarios downscaled and bias corrected using the statistical bias correction procedure described in EU-WATCH project.

  7. Development of a system wide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predation index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 - Evaluation: 1993 Annual report; ANNUAL

    An attempt was made to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Modeling simulations based on work in the John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that if northern squawfish larger than 250 mm fork length were exploited, at a rate of 10-20%, reductions in their numbers and restructuring of their populations could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50% or more. The authors evaluated the success of three test fisheries conducted in 1993-a sport-reward fishery, a dam-angling fishery, and a trap-net fishery, to achieve a 10-20% exploitation rate on northern squawfish . The authors also began evaluating the response of northern squawfish populations to sustained fisheries. In addition, the authors gathered information regarding the economic, social, and legal feasibility of sustaining each fishery, and report on the structure and function of the fish collection and distribution system

  8. Development of a systemwide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predation index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 -- Evaluation: 1993 Annual report

    An attempt was made to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Modeling simulations based on work in the John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that if northern squawfish larger than 250 mm fork length were exploited, at a rate of 10--20%, reductions in their numbers and restructuring of their populations could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50% or more. The authors evaluated the success of three test fisheries conducted in 1993--a sport-reward fishery, a dam-angling fishery, and a trap-net fishery, to achieve a 10--20% exploitation rate on northern squawfish. The authors also began evaluating the response of northern squawfish populations to sustained fisheries. In addition, the authors gathered information regarding the economic, social, and legal feasibility of sustaining each fishery, and report on the structure and function of the fish collection and distribution system

  9. Nutrient attenuation in rivers and streams, Puget Sound Basin, Washington

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Black, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are important for aquatic ecosystem health. Excessive amounts of nutrients, however, can make aquatic ecosystems harmful for biota because enhanced growth and decay cycles of aquatic algae can reduce dissolved oxygen in the water. In Puget Sound marine waters, low dissolved oxygen concentrations are observed in a number of marine nearshore areas, and nutrients have been identified as a major stressor to the local ecosystem. Delivery of nutrients from major rivers in the Puget Sound Basin to the marine environment can be large. Therefore, it is important to identify factors related to how nutrients are retained (attenuated) within streams and rivers in the Puget Sound Basin. Physical, chemical, and biological factors related to nutrient attenuation were identified through a review of related scientific literature.

  10. Availability of ground water, upper Pawcatuck River basin, Rhode Island

    Allen, William Burrows; Hahn, Glenn Walter; Brackley, Richard A.

    1966-01-01

    The upper Pawcatuck River basin is a 70-square-mile area in southcentral Rhode Island consisting of broad, rolling hills and narrow valleys in the north and fiat-floored plains in the south. It is drained by the Pawcatuck River and its two major tributaries, the Usquepaug-Queen River and the Chipuxet River. Analysis of the water budget for the basin shows that approximately 94 mgd (million gallons per day) or about 63 percent of the precipitation flows out of the basin as streamflow. Of this amount, about 66 mgd is from ground-water seepage. Two ground-water reservoirs composed of glacial deposits of sand and gravel and capable of substantial yields are in the basin. The larger reservoir underlies the central part of the Usquepaug-Queen River valley. This reservoir ranges in width from 3,000 to 4,000 feet and is 32,000 feet long. A large part of the reservoir contains sand and gravel more than 100 feet thick, having a permeability of more than 1,000 gallons per day per square foot. The yield of this reservoir is estimated to be about 17 mgd. The smaller ground-water reservoir is in the Chipuxet River valley. It is about 4,000 feet wide and 16,000 feet long. A large part of this reservoir contains sand and gravel more than 150 feet thick having a permeability of more than 1,000 gallons per day per square foot. The yield of the Chipuxet reservoir is estimated to be about 8.6 mgd. Mineral content of water from both of the reservoirs is generally less than 200 parts per million of dissolved solids. However, in the Chipuxet groundwater reservoir the dissolved solids are somewhat higher, and the iron content is a problem. Only about 1.5 mgd of water is used in the basin. Most of it is used for public supplies and is obtained from wells not tapping the Usquepaug-Queen or Chipuxet ground-water reservoirs. Estimates of the 25 mgd of ground water potentially available are believed to be conservative, and substantially larger quantities may actually be available when development takes place.

  11. Distributed model of hydrological and sediment transport processes in large river basins in Southeast Asia

    Zuliziana, S.; Tanuma, K.; Yoshimura, C.; Saavedra, O. C.

    2015-07-01

    Soil erosion and sediment transport have been modeled at several spatial and temporal scales, yet few models have been reported for large river basins (e.g., drainage areas > 100 000 km2). In this study, we propose a process-based distributed model for assessment of sediment transport at a large basin scale. A distributed hydrological model was coupled with a process-based distributed sediment transport model describing soil erosion and sedimentary processes at hillslope units and channels. The model was tested on two large river basins: the Chao Phraya River Basin (drainage area: 160 000 km2) and the Mekong River Basin (795 000 km2). The simulation over 10 years showed good agreement with the observed suspended sediment load in both basins. The average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and average correlation coefficient (r) between the simulated and observed suspended sediment loads were 0.62 and 0.61, respectively, in the Chao Phraya River Basin except the lowland section. In the Mekong River Basin, the overall average NSE and r were 0.60 and 0.78, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that suspended sediment load is sensitive to detachability by raindrop (k) in the Chao Phraya River Basin and to soil detachability over land (Kf) in the Mekong River Basin. Overall, the results suggest that the present model can be used to understand and simulate erosion and sediment transport in large river basins.

  12. Radioecological study of an European river basin: the Rhone

    The paper describes the application of the methodology of site protection studies to a continental site: the Rhone basin. After a description of the area, the author gives a precise definition of the study and discusses the results. Among the numerous radioelements studied, typical results are presented for Strontium, Caesium, Ruthenium and Cerium. The results concern: the river itself, the living aquatic environment, the soils, the agricultural productions. Absorbed quantities of Sr and Cs are assessed and show sufficient safety factors. (author)

  13. River Basin Management Plans - Institutional framework and planning process

    Frederiksen, Pia; Nielsen, Helle rsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Rytknen, Anne-Mari; Saarikoski, Heli

    2011-01-01

    The report it a deliverable to the Waterpraxis project, based on research carried out in WP3. It is based on country reports from analyses of water planning in one river basin district in each of the countries Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany and Denmark, and it compares the...... institutional set-up, the public participation and the potentials and barriers for implementing the water plans....

  14. Miscellaneous surface-water data, Pecos River basin, New Mexico

    Cranston, C. Clare; Kues, Georgianna E.; Welder, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Miscellaneous surface-water data from the Pecos River basin of New Mexico are assembled into one table. Measurements and estimates of the discharge of streams, springs, and diversion canals and pumps that are not readily available to the public are given. The principal sources of information are published and unpublished reports and various records of the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Mexico State Engineer Office. Many thousands of surface-water discharge values are given. (USGS)

  15. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins.

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/gd.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/gd.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04-0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. PMID:25777957

  16. Exposure of the Main Italian River Basin to Pharmaceuticals

    Ettore Capri; Marco Trevisan; Maria M. Ulaszewska; Matteo Balderacchi; Agata Gallipoli; Federico Ferrari

    2011-01-01

    This study give a preliminary survey of pharmaceutical contamination and accumulation in surface waters and sediments along the river Po basin (74,000 km2, the largest in Italy), a strategic region for the Italian economy: it collects sewage from a vast industrialized area of Italy (Autorità di Baciono del fiume Po, 2006, 2009). 10 pharmaceuticals (atenolol, propanolol, metoprolol, nimesulide, furosemide, carbamazepine, ranitidine, metronidazole, paracetamol, and atorvastatin) from several th...

  17. Spatial heterogeneity study of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin

    Wu, Lijuan; Zhong, Bo; Guo, Liyu; Zhao, Xiangwei

    2014-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the animal-landscape system has three major components: heterogeneity of resource distributions in the physical environment, heterogeneity of plant tissue chemistry, heterogeneity of movement modes by the animal. Furthermore, all three different types of heterogeneity interact each other and can either reinforce or offset one another, thereby affecting system stability and dynamics. In previous studies, the study areas are investigated by field sampling, which costs a large amount of manpower. In addition, uncertain in sampling affects the quality of field data, which leads to unsatisfactory results during the entire study. In this study, remote sensing data is used to guide the sampling for research on heterogeneity of vegetation coverage to avoid errors caused by randomness of field sampling. Semi-variance and fractal dimension analysis are used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin. The spherical model with nugget is used to fit the semivariogram of vegetation coverage. Based on the experiment above, it is found, (1)there is a strong correlation between vegetation coverage and distance of vegetation populations within the range of 0~28051.3188m at Heihe River Basin, but the correlation loses suddenly when the distance greater than 28051.3188m. (2)The degree of spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium. (3)Spatial distribution variability of vegetation occurs mainly on small scales. (4)The degree of spatial autocorrelation is 72.29% between 25% and 75%, which means that spatial correlation of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium high.

  18. Characterizing, Monitoring and Forecasting of Drought in Jordan River Basin

    Khaldoun Shatanawi; Michael Rahbeh; Muhammad Shatanawi

    2013-01-01

    Jordan is very vulnerable to drought because of its location in the arid to semi-arid part of the Middle East. Droughts coupled with water scarcity are becoming a serious threat to the economic growth, social cohesion and political stability. Rainfall time series from four rain stations covering the Jordan River Basin were analyzed for drought characterization and forecasting using standardized precipitation index (SPI), Markov chain and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) m...

  19. REGIONAL GROUNDWATER FLOW MODELLING OF GASH RIVER BASIN, SUDAN

    ABDALLA E. IBRAHIM; ADIL BALLA ELKRAIL

    2008-01-01

    The three-dimensional groundwater flow model was performed to evaluate the groundwater potentiality and assess the effect of groundwater withdrawal to the regional water level and flow direction in the Gash River basin of Sudan. Data used include periodic water level measurements, meteorological data, digital elevation data and well logs from scientific test wells and domestic water wells drilled in the study area. Transient visual MODFLOW model code was calibrated. Numerical simulation indic...

  20. 78 FR 72860 - White River National Forest; Summit County, CO; 2013 Arapahoe Basin Improvements EIS

    2013-12-04

    ... Forest Service White River National Forest; Summit County, CO; 2013 Arapahoe Basin Improvements EIS.... SUMMARY: Arapahoe Basin Ski Area (A-Basin) has submitted a proposal to the White River National Forest... statements made in the 2002 WRNF Forest Plan FEIS; accommodate existing and future demand for high Alpine...

  1. Water resources: the prerequisite for ecological restoration of rivers in the Hai River Basin, northern China.

    Tang, Wenzhong; Mao, Zhanpo; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui

    2015-01-01

    The competition for water resources between humans and river ecosystems is becoming ever more intense worldwide, especially in developing countries. In China, with rapid socioeconomic development, water resources to maintain river ecosystems are progressively decreasing, especially in the Hai River Basin (HRB), which has attracted much attention from the Chinese government. In the past 56 years, water resources have continuously decreased in the basin, such that there is 54.2 % less surface water now compared with then. Water shortages, mainly due to local anthropogenic activities, have emerged as the main limiting factor to river ecological restoration in the HRB. However, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest such project in the world, presents a good opportunity for ecological restoration of rivers in this basin. Water diverted from the Danjiangkou Reservoir will restore surface water resources in the HRB to levels of 30 years ago and will amount to more than 20 billion m(3). Our findings highlight the fact that water resources are crucial for river ecological restoration. PMID:25142344

  2. Floodplain Organic Carbon Storage in the Central Yukon River Basin

    Lininger, K.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain storage of organic carbon is an important aspect of the global carbon cycle that is not well understood or quantified. Although it is understood that rivers transport organic carbon to the ocean, little is known about the quantity of stored carbon in boreal floodplains and the influence of fluvial processes on this storage. We present results on total organic carbon (TOC) content within the floodplains of two rivers, the Dall River and Preacher Creek, in the central Yukon River Basin in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge of Alaska. The results indicate that organic carbon storage is influenced by fluvial disturbance and grain size. The Dall River, which contains a large amount of floodplain carbon, is meandering and incised, with well-developed floodplain soils, a greater percentage of relatively old floodplain surfaces and a slower floodplain turnover time, and finer grain sizes. Preacher Creek stores less TOC, transports coarser grain sizes, and has higher rates of avulsion and floodplain turnover time. Within the floodplain of a particular river, large spatial heterogeneity in TOC content also exists as a function of depositional environment and age and vegetation community of the site. In addition, saturated regions of the floodplains, such as abandoned channels and oxbow lakes, contain more TOC compared to drier floodplain environments. Frozen alluvial soils likely contain carbon that could be released into the environment with melting permafrost, and thus quantifying the organic carbon content in the active layer of floodplain soils could provide insight into the characteristics of the permafrost beneath. The hydrology in these regions is changing due to permafrost melt, and floodplain areas usually saturated could be dried out, causing breakdown and outgassing of carbon stored in previously saturated soils. Ongoing work will result in a first-order estimate of active-layer floodplain carbon storage for the central Yukon River Basin.

  3. Detecting runoff variation in Weihe River basin, China

    Jingjing, F.; Qiang, H.; Shen, C.; Aijun, G.

    2015-05-01

    Dramatic changes in hydrological factors in the Weihe River basin are analysed. These changes have exacerbated ecological problems and caused severe water shortages for agriculture, industries and the human population in the region, but their drivers are uncertain. The Mann-Kendall test, accumulated departure analysis, sequential clustering and the sliding t-test methods were used to identify the causes of changes in precipitation and runoff in the Weihe basin. Change-points were identified in the precipitation and runoff records for all sub-catchments. For runoff, the change in trend was most pronounced during the 1990s, whereas changes in precipitation were more prominent earlier. The results indicate that human activities have had a greater impact than climate change on the hydrology of the Weihe basin. These findings have significant implications for the establishment of effective strategies to counter adverse effects of hydrological changes in the catchment.

  4. Can the Gila River reduce risk in the Colorado River Basin?

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J.; Kanzer, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado River is the most important source of water in the southwest United States and Northern Mexico, providing water to approximately 35 million people and 4-5 million acres of irrigated lands. To manage the water resources of the basin, estimated to be about 17 million acre-feet (MAF) of undepleted supplies per year, managers use reservoir facilities that can store more than 60 MAF. As the demands on the water resources of the basin approach or exceed the average annual supply, and with average flow projected to decrease due to climate change, smart water management is vital for its sustainability. To quantify the future risk of depleting reservoir storage, Rajagopalan et al. (2009) developed a water-balance model and ran it under scenarios based on historical, paleo-reconstructed and future projections of flows, and different management alternatives. That study did not consider the impact of the Gila River, which enters the Colorado River below all major reservoirs and U.S. diversions. Due to intensive use in Central Arizona, the Gila only has significant inflows to the Colorado in wet years. However, these irregular inflows could beneficially influence system reliability in the US by helping to meet a portion of the 1.5 MAF delivery obligations to Mexico. To help quantify the potential system reliability benefit of the Gila River, we modify the Rajagopalan et al (2009) model to incorporate simulated Gila River inflows. These new data inputs to the water balance model are based on historical flows and tree-ring reconstructions of flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (at Lee's Ferry), the Lower Colorado River Basin (tributary inflows), and the intermittent flows from the Gila River which are generated using extreme value analysis methods. Incorporating Gila River inflows, although they are highly variable and intermittent, reduces the modeled cumulative risk of reservoir depletion by 4 to 11% by 2057, depending on the demand schedule, reservoir operation guidelines, and climate change scenario assumptions. This potential risk mitigation could be at least partly realized through enhancements to current management practices, possibly in the Gila River, that could improve the water supply reliability for all stakeholders in the Colorado River Basin.

  5. Knowledge-based approaches for river basin management

    P. Mikulecký

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Rare attempts to use knowledge technologies and other relevant approaches are found in the river basin management. Some applications of expert systems as well as utilization of soft computing techniques (as neural networks or genetic algorithms are known in an experimental level. Knowledge management approaches still have not been used at all. In this paper we discuss knowledge-based approaches in the river basin management as a difficult yet important direction which could be proven to be helpful. We summarize the research done in the scope of the AQUIN project, one of first Czech knowledge management projects in the river basin management. The project was initiated by the water management company in Pilsen, where dispatchers make decisions about manipulations on the reservoir Nýrsko, the strategic source of drinking water for inhabitants of Pilsen. The project aim was to support dispatchers' decision making under a high degree of uncertainty or data shortage. The research is continued in the scope of a new project AQUINpro, planned for the period of 2006 to 2008.

  6. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    Gabos, S. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Sedimentation in three small forested drainage basins in the Alsea River basin, Oregon

    Williams, R.C.

    1964-01-01

    A multidiscipline investigation to determine the effects of logging on the ecology of three small forested tributary basins is a part of an overall study of the Alsea River basin in the Coast Range of Oregon. The investigation of these small basins will be to (1) establish pre-logging conditions, (2) determine the effects of different logging methods, and (3) study the rate of recovery after the timber harvest. This report presents results of sedimentation in the basins, Deer and Flynn Creeks and Needle Branch, for the first 2 years of study (1959 and 1960 water years). Rainfall, runoff, and sediment discharge are seasonal for the Coast Range of western Oregon. About 95 percent of the rainfall and runoff occurs during the period October to May, but nearly 100 percent of the suspended-sediment discharge occurs during the same period. For Deer Creek, in the 1960 water year, 23 percent of the annual suspended-sediment discharge occurred on 1 day, 58 percent during the 10 days of greatest discharge, and 78 percent during the 38 days of greatest discharge. Rainfall is practically equal for all three of the basins. The runoff of the Deer and Flynn Creek basins is about equal, but that of the Needle Branch basin averaged 8 percent less. Sediment yield varies considerably for the three basins. The suspended-sediment yield of the Deer Creek basin is almost twice that of the Needle Branch basin and almost 1? times that of the Flynn Creek basin. Water temperature of the three streams varied only 22?F during the 2 water years. The greatest variation between streams was 3?F in the minimums. Water temperature effect can be neglected in comparing the sediment yields of the basins. The aquifers of the basins have low storage capacities as illustrated by the very low, late summer flow. A study of a midwinter freshet period for the Deer Creek basin showed that virtually all the rainfall left the basin as runoff within 4 days; the period of significant sediment transport was thus very short.

  9. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights-a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions-a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m3-enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  10. The Water Footprint of Agriculture in Duero River Basin

    Ángel de Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF of crops in the Duero river basin. For this purpose CWUModel was developed. CWUModel is able to estimate the green and blue water consumed by crops and the water needed to assimilate the nitrogen leaching resulting from fertilizer application. The total WF of crops in the Spanish Duero river basin was simulated as 9473 Mm3/year (59% green, 20% blue and 21% grey. Cultivation of crops in rain-fed lands is responsible for 5548 Mm3/year of the WF (86% green and 14% grey, whereas the irrigated WF accounts for 3924 Mm3/year (20% green, 47% blue and 33% grey. Barley is the crop with the highest WF, with almost 37% of the total WF for the crops simulated for the basin, followed by wheat (17%. Although maize makes up 16% of the total WF of the basin, the blue and grey components comprise the 36% of the total blue and grey WF in the basin. The relevance of green water goes beyond the rain-fed production, to the extent that in long-cycle irrigated cereals it accounts for over 40% of the total water consumed. Nonetheless, blue water is a key component in agriculture, both for production and economically. The sustainability assessment shows that the current blue water consumption of crops causes a significant or severe water stress level in 2–5 months of the year. The anticipated expansion of irrigation in the coming years could hamper water management, despite the Duero being a relatively humid basin.

  11. BALANCE OF NITROGEN IN ROKIETNICA RIVER BASIN

    Ma?gorzata Rauba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the survey data was calculated nitrogen balance method on the surface of the field on farms within the catchment area of the Rokietnica river in Podlaskie. Based on the analysis of the results obtained, it was found that almost half of all farms participating in the survey, exceeds the safe limit of the positive difference in the balance sheet in accordance with the Code of Good Agricultural Practice. It was also a positive correlation between the measured values of the concentrations of nitrate (V and the amount of waste manure and mineral fertilizers on farms, reflecting the migration of unused nitrogen in the soil profile and the component of pollution of surface waters.

  12. Groundwater quality assessment/corrective action feasibility plan. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    Stejskal, G.F.

    1989-11-15

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Seepage Basins are located in the northeastern section of the 700 Area at the Savannah River Site. Currently the four basins are out of service and are awaiting closure in accordance with the Consent Decree settled under Civil Act No. 1:85-2583. Groundwater monitoring data from the detection monitoring network around the SRL Basins was recently analyzed using South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.92 methods to determine if groundwater in the immediate vicinity of the SRL Basins had been impacted. Results from the data analysis indicate that the groundwater has been impacted by both volatile organic constituents (VOCs) and inorganic constituents. The VOCs, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, are currently being addressed under the auspices of the SRS Hazardous Waste Permit Application (Volume III, Section J.6.3). The impacts resulting from elevated levels of inorganic constituent, such as barium, calcium, and zinc in the water table, do not pose a threat to human health and the environment. In order to determine if vertical migration of the inorganic constituents has occurred three detection monitoring wells are proposed for installation in the upper portion of the Congaree Aquifer.

  13. Environmental Isotope Ratios of River Water in the Danube Basin

    The objectives of the Danube study were documentation of existing data and completion of long term data sets (2H, 3H, 18O), continuation of monthly sampling of river water, investigation of short term influences, and preliminary interpretation of long term isotope records of river water with respect to hydrological processes, meteorological conditions and environmental changes. Furthermore, this report includes the complete 3H and 18O data set for the Danube at Vienna (1963-2005) and a summary of the results from the Joint Danube Survey 2 (2007). δ18O values of JDS2 river water samples ranged from -13.1 per mille (Inn, alpine river) up to -6.4 per mille (River Sio, evap oration influence). The δ18O value of the Danube increased from -10.8 per mille after the confluence of the Inn River with the upper Danube up to -9.6 per mille at the mouth, with a major change after the inflow of Tisa and Sava. The isotopic composition of river water in the Danube Basin is mainly governed by the isotopic composition of precipitation in the catchment area, while evaporation effects play only a minor role. Short term and long term isotope signals from precipitation are thus transmitted through the whole catchment. Tritium concentrations in most parts of the Danube river system lay around 10 TU during the JDS2 period and reflected the actual 3H content of precipitation in Central Europe, but 3H values up to 40 TU in the Danube and up to 250 TU in some tributaries are clear evi dence for discontinuous releases of 3H from local sources (nuclear power plants) into the rivers. (author)

  14. Streamflow in the upper Santa Cruz River basin, Santa Cruz and Pima Counties, Arizona

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1970-01-01

    Streamflow records obtained in the upper Santa Cruz River basin of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico, have been analyzed to aid in the appraisal of the surface-water resources of the area. Records are available for 15 sites, and the length of record ranges from 60 years for the gaging station on the Santa .Cruz River at Tucson to 6 years for Pantano Wash near Vail. The analysis provides information on flow duration, low-flow frequency magnitude, flood-volume frequency and magnitude, and storage requirements to maintain selected draft rates. Flood-peak information collected from the gaging stations has been projected on a regional basis from which estimates of flood magnitude and frequency may be made for any site in the basin. Most streams in the 3,503-square-mile basin are ephemeral. Ground water sustains low flows only at Santa Cruz River near Nogales, Sonoita Creek near Patagonia, and Pantano Wash near Vail. Elsewhere, flow occurs only in direct response to precipitation. The median number of days per year in which there is no flow ranges from 4 at Sonoita Creek near Patagonia to 335 at Rillito Creek near Tomson. The streamflow is extremely variable from year to year, and annual flows have a coefficient of variation close to or exceeding unity at most stations. Although the amount of flow in the basin is small most of the time, the area is subject to floods. Most floods result from high-intensity precipitation caused by thunderstorms during the period ,July to September. Occasionally, when snowfall at the lower altitudes is followed by rain, winter floods produce large volumes of flow.

  15. THE CONFLUENCE RATIO OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN BASIN RIVERS

    RO?IAN GH.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many possibilities to assess the hydrological and geomorphological evolution of a territory. Among them, one remarks the confluence ratio of the rivers belonging to different catchment areas. The values of this indicator may provide information regarding the stage of evolution of the fluvial landforms in the Transylvanian Basin. Also, the values may serve for the calculation of other parameters of catchment areas like: the degree of finishing of the drainage basin for its corresponding order, the density of river segments within a catchment area etc. To calculate the confluence ratio, 35 catchment areas of different orders have been selected. The confluence ratio varies between 3.04 and 6.07. The large range of values demonstrates the existence of a heterogeneous lithology and of morphological and hydrographical contrasts from one catchment area to the other. The existence of values above 5, correlated also with observations in the field, reveals an accelerated dynamics of the geomorphological processes in those catchment areas. This dynamic is mainly supported by the high landform fragmentation due to the first order rivers. In contrast, the catchment areas that have a confluence ratio below 5 are in a more advanced stage of evolution with stable slopes, unable to initiate new first order river segments.

  16. Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water resources are redistributed by very developed and extensive irrigation system. Irrigation water balance is complex because of strong interactions among surface, ground, river and irrigation water. Lower reaches is an extremely arid environment. Water availability in lower reaches has a great impact on the evolution of natural ecosystem and vice versa the landscape change reshapes the hydrological cycle. After the water resource reallocation project implemented in 2000, the water delivered to lower reaches has increased by 36%. Of all the available water resource, about 10% is used to sustain a terminal lake and other water bodies, 20% is used for irrigation to support very rapidly increased farmlands, 40-50% is used to nurture the natural oasis, and other water is lost due to evaporation. The features of hydrological cycle in the HRB is very typical for inland river basins in China's arid region. In this region, air temperature is rising and precipitation is most likely to increase. Accelerating glacier retreat will also produce more water. However, water demand increases more rapidly due to quickly developing economy and growing population. Therefore, how to turn our understanding of hydrological cycle in this environmental fragile region into more rational water resource management is a grand challenge.

  17. Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters

    W. P. Miller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC using the National Weather Service (NWS River Forecasting System (RFS hydrologic model. While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force the NWS RFS utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates and contributes to a better understanding of how hydrologic processes change under varying climate conditions. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study. Additionally, the NWS RFS is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands resulted in a 6 % to 13 % average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the NWS RFS provided by the CBRFC resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10 % to 15 % average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5 % to 8 % increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

  18. Columbia River basin fish and wildlife program strategy for salmon

    Three species of Snake River salmon have been listed as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act. In response, the Northwest Power Planning Council worked with the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington, Indian tribes, federal agencies and interest groups to address the status of Snake River salmon runs in a forum known as the Salmon Summit. The Summit met in 1990 and 1991 and reached agreement on specific, short-term actions. When the Summit disbanded in April 1991, responsibility for developing a regional recovery plan for salmon shifted to the Council. The Council responded with a four-phased process of amending its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The first three phases. completed in September 1992, pertain to salmon and steelhead. Phase four, scheduled for completion in October 1993, will take up issues of resident fish and wildlife. This paper deals with the first three phases, collectively known as Strategy for Salmon

  19. XXI Century Climatology of Snow Cover for the Western River Basins of the Indus River System

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Under changing climate, freshwater resources of Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) region can be affected by changes in temperature and in amount, type and distribution of precipitation. This can have serious implications for the water supply and in turn threaten the food security and economic wellbeing of Indus basin. Using MODIS daily snow products (Terra & Aqua), this study focuses on the assessment of the 2000-2010 snow cover dynamics on seasonal/annual basis against geophysical parameters (aspect, elevation and slope) for the so called western river basins of Indus River System (IRS), namely Indus, Kabul, Jhelum, Astore, Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Shigar and Shyok basins. Results show that inputs from MODIS instrument provide unprecedented better opportunity to study by using GIS techniques the snow cover dynamics in the remote areas like HKH region at such hyper-temporal and finer planar resolution. Adapted non-spectral cloud filtering techniques have significantly reduced cloud coverage and improved sno...

  20. Sediment budget in the Ucayali River basin, an Andean tributary of the Amazon River

    Santini, W.; Martinez, J.-M.; Espinoza-Villar, R.; Cochonneau, G.; Vauchel, P.; Moquet, J.-S.; Baby, P.; Espinoza, J.-C.; Lavado, W.; Carranza, J.; Guyot, J.-L.

    2015-03-01

    Formation of mountain ranges results from complex coupling between lithospheric deformation, mechanisms linked to subduction and surface processes: weathering, erosion, and climate. Today, erosion of the eastern Andean cordillera and sub-Andean foothills supplies over 99% of the sediment load passing through the Amazon Basin. Denudation rates in the upper Ucayali basin are rapid, favoured by a marked seasonality in this region and extreme precipitation cells above sedimentary strata, uplifted during Neogene times by a still active sub-Andean tectonic thrust. Around 40% of those sediments are trapped in the Ucayali retro-foreland basin system. Recent advances in remote sensing for Amazonian large rivers now allow us to complete the ground hydrological data. In this work, we propose a first estimation of the erosion and sedimentation budget of the Ucayali River catchment, based on spatial and conventional HYBAM Observatory network.

  1. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and indicators to use in the analytical evaluation. A software template guides users through this process. For demonstration, the RBAF-C template has been applied to address competing irrigation demand-anadromous fish flow requirements in the Lemhi Basin, Idaho, and the increase in municipal and industrial demand in the Upper Bhima River Basin, India, which affects water supply to downstream irrigation command areas. The RBAF-A is for quantitatively evaluating the current conditions of water resources in a river basin and testing potential scenarios with respect to the sustainability criterion. The primary foundation for quantifying water movement is a river basin model. Upon this, the RBAF-A Interface organizes input data, collects output data from each discipline, and reports the HWB. Within the RBAF-A Interface, the EGS-HWB Calculator collects output time series data, processes the data with respect to space and time, and computes the ecologic, economic, and social well-being. The Reporting Tool presents the scenario output as values and trends in well-being. To demonstrate the technology, the RBAF-A was applied to the Lemhi Basin, Idaho. The RBAF supports the IWRM process by providing a structured and transparent means to understand the water related issues, analyses to conduct, and indicators to select in assessing the sustainability of water programs and policies in river basins.

  2. Savannah River Laboratory seepage basins: Environmental information document

    The basins are located in the northwestern section of the Savannah River Plant in the 700 Area. The four basins are out of service and are awaiting closure. When in operation, the basins received a total of 128,820 m3 of low-level radioactive wastewater from laboratories located in Buildings 735-A and 773-A. Wastewater with radioactivity less than 100 d/m/mL alpha and/or 50 d/m/mL beta-gamma was discharged to the basins. Low concentrations of radioactive and nonradioactive constituents were found in the sediments beneath the seepage basins and a statistical analysis of monitoring data from the six water-table wells indicates elevated levels of chloride, manganese, and sodium in the groundwater. The closure options considered for the basins are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The environmental impact evaluation indicates that the human health risks for all closure options are low. Radioactive risk is dominated by tritium, but there is no significant difference between the closure options because the tritium has leached from the site prior to the closure action. The most significant noncarcinogenic risk results from arsenic. All atmospheric and occupational risks are low. The primary calculated ecological effect is due to direct contact with the basin sediments in the no action option. The relative costs for the various options are $9 million for waste removal and closure, $2.9 million for no waste removal and closure with cap, $2.4 million for no waste removal and closure without cap, and $0.26 million for no action. 36 refs., 27 figs., 98 tabs

  3. Episodic Emplacement of Sediment + Carbon within Large Tropical River Basins

    Aalto, R.; Aufdenkampe, A.

    2012-04-01

    Application of advanced methods for imaging (sub-bottom sonar and ERGI), dating (high resolution 210-Pb and 14-C from deep cores), and biogeochemical analysis have facilitated the characterization and inter-comparison of floodplain sedimentation rates, styles, and carbon loading across disparate large river basins. Two examples explored here are the near-pristine 72,000 km2 Beni River basin in northern Bolivia and the similarly natural 36,000 km2 Strickland River basin in Papua New Guinea - that are located on either side of the Equatorial Pacific warm pool that drives the ENSO phenomenon. Our published research suggests that large, rapid-rise, cold-phase ENSO floods account for the preponderance of sediment accumulation within these two tropical systems. New results to be presented at EGU further clarify the extent of modern deposits (~100 yrs) within both systems and add a deeper perspective into how these extensive floodplains developed over the Holocene, both in response to external forcing (climate and base level) and internal system morphodynamics. The vast scale of these temporally discrete deposits (typically 100s of millions of tonnes over relatively short time periods) involved equate to high burial rates, which in turn support the high carbon loadings sequestered within the resulting sedimentary deposits. We have identified the principal source of this carbon and sedimentary material to be extensive landslides throughout the high-relief headwaters - failures that deliver huge charges of pulverized rock and soil directly into canyons (in both the Bolivian Andes and the PNG Highlands), where raging floodwaters provide efficient transport to lowland depocentres. We present recent results from our research in these basins, providing insight into the details of such enormous mass budgets that result in a signicant carbon sink within the floodplains. Processes, timing, and rates are compared between the two systems, providing insight into the nature of geomorphic hillslope-channel coupling within tropical dispersal systems.

  4. Long Term Discharge Estimation for Ogoué River Basin

    Seyler, F.; Linguet, L.; Calmant, S.

    2014-12-01

    Ogoué river basin is one the last preserved tropical rain forest basin in the world. The river basin covers about 75% of Gabon. Results of a study conducted on wall-to wall forest cover map using Landsat images (Fichet et al., 2014) gave a net forest loss of 0,38% from 1990 and 2000 and sensibly the same loss rate between 2000 and 2010. However, the country launched recently an ambitious development plan, with communication infrastructure, agriculture and forestry as well as mining projects. Hydrological cycle response to changes may be expected, in both quantitative and qualitative aspects. Unfortunately monitoring gauging stations have stopped functioning in the seventies, and Gabon will then be unable to evaluate, mitigate and adapt adequately to these environmental challenges. Historical data were registered during 42 years at Lambaréné (from 1929 to 1974) and during 10 to 20 years at 17 other ground stations. The quantile function approach (Tourian et al., 2013) has been tested to estimate discharge from J2 and ERS/Envisat/AltiKa virtual stations. This is an opportunity to assess long term discharge patterns in order to monitor land use change effects and eventual disturbance in runoff. Figure 1: Ogoué River basin: J2 (red) and ERS/ENVISAT/ALTIKa (purple) virtual stations Fichet, L. V., Sannier, C., Massard Makaga, E. K., Seyler, F. (2013) Assessing the accuracy of forest cover map for 1990, 2000 and 2010 at national scale in Gabon. In press IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote SensingTourian, M. J., Sneeuw, N., & Bárdossy, A. (2013). A quantile function approach to discharge estimation from satellite altimetry (ENVISAT). Water Resources Research, 49(7), 4174-4186. doi:10.1002/wrcr.20348

  5. Predicted channel types - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  6. Predicted riparian vegetation - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  7. 2009-2012 Indiana Statewide Imagery and LiDAR Program: Maumee River Basin Counties

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The counties comprised in this dataset have been chosen based on the relation to the Maumee River basin, a portion of the Lake Erie basin and correlated with the...

  8. LBA-ECO CD-06 Amazon River Basin Land and Stream Drainage Direction Maps

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration This data set provides high-resolution (~500 m) gridded land and stream drainage direction maps for the Amazon River basin, excluding the Rio Tocantins basin. These...

  9. LBA-ECO CD-06 Amazon River Basin Land and Stream Drainage Direction Maps

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides high-resolution (~500 m) gridded land and stream drainage direction maps for the Amazon River basin, excluding the Rio Tocantins basin. These...

  10. Developing a Framework for Stakehoder Consultation in the Umbeluzi River Basin: Project Report

    Ott, Cordula; Haupt, Frank

    2005-01-01

    A Framework for a Consultation Process: Transboundary cooperation and sustainable water management is urgently needed in the up-stream/down-stream situation of the Umbeluzi River Basin between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the Republic of Mozambique. Thus, the Joint Water Commission (JWC) of the two riparian countries initiated the Umbeluzi River Basin Initiative (URBI) with the objective to develop a joint management plan of the river basin. In response to the request by SADC as well as SDC, ...

  11. Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters

    W. P. Miller; T. C. Piechota; Gangopadhyay, S; T. Pruitt

    2011-01-01

    The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month) forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) using the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecasting System (RFS) hydrologic...

  12. Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters

    W. P. Miller; T. C. Piechota; Gangopadhyay, S; T. Pruitt

    2011-01-01

    The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month) forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) using the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecasting Syste...

  13. Assessing components of the natural environment of the Upper Danube and Upper Brahmaputra river basins

    Lang, S.; Kääb, A.; Pechstädt, J.; W.-A. Flügel; Van der Zeil, P.; Lanz, E.; D. Kahuda; Frauenfelder, R; K. Casey; P. Füreder; Sossna, I.; Wagner, I; G. Janauer; N. Exler; Z. Boukalova

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the interplay between the natural environment and the human dimension is one of the prerequisites to successful and sustaining IWRM practises in large river basins such as the Upper Brahmaputra river basin or the Upper Danube river basin. These interactions, their dynamics and changes, and the likely future scenarios were investigated in the BRAHMATWINN project with a series of tools from remote sensing and geoinformatics. An integrated asses...

  14. Emergy-based energy and material metabolism of the Yellow River basin

    Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-03-01

    The Yellow River basin is an opening ecosystem exchanging energy and materials with the surrounding environment. Based on emergy as embodied solar energy, the social energy and materials metabolism of the Yellow River basin is aggregated into emergetic equivalent to assess the level of resource depletion, environmental impact and local sustainability. A set of emergy indices are also established to manifest the ecological status of the total river basin ecosystem.

  15. Regional climate projections in two alpine river basins: Upper Danube and Upper Brahmaputra

    A. Dobler; M. Yaoming; Sharma, N; Kienberger, S.; Ahrens, B

    2011-01-01

    Projections from coarse-grid global circulation models are not suitable for regional estimates of water balance or trends of extreme precipitation and temperature, especially not in complex terrain. Thus, downscaling of global to regionally resolved projections is necessary to provide input to integrated water resources management approaches for river basins like the Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) and the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin (UBRB). This paper discusses th...

  16. International River Basin Management under the EU Water Framework Directive: An Assessment of Cooperation and Water Quality in the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin

    Nilsson, S

    2006-01-01

    This report address issues connected to international river basin management in line with the EU Water Framework Directive. A register, in the form of a GIS data layer, of River Basin Districts established under the directive is presented. The register was created based on official maps of River Basin Districts from EU member states and candidate countries. With the register in place, the number and extent of international River Basin Districts could be determined. The results show that the n...

  17. Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River Basin headwaters

    W. P. Miller; T. C. Piechota; Gangopadhyay, S; T. Pruitt

    2010-01-01

    The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term proj...

  18. Ensemble Flood Forecasting in Africa: A Feasibility Study in the Juba-Shabelle River Basin

    THIEMIG VERA; Pappenberger, Florian; THIELEN DEL POZO Jutta; GADAIN Hussein; DE ROO Arie; BODIS Katalin; DEL MEDICO Mauro; MUTHUSI Flavian

    2009-01-01

    The European Flood Alert System (EFAS) achieves early flood warnings for large to medium-size river basins with lead times of 10 days. This is based on probabilistic weather forecasts, the exceedance of alert thresholds and persistence. The methodologies have been tested for different events and time scales in mid-latitude basins in Europe. In this paper, the transferability of the EFAS-methodologies to equatorial African basins is assessed on the example of the Juba-Shabelle river basin usin...

  19. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin

    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    River ice is a very important component of the cryosphere, and is especially sensitive to climatic variability. Historical records of appearance or disappearance and timing of ice phenomena are useful indicators for past climatic variations (Williams, 1970). Long-term observations of river ice freeze-up and break-up dates are available for many rivers in the temperate or cold region to detect and analyze the effects of climate change on river ice regime. The ice regime of natural rivers is influenced by climatic, hydrological and morphological factors. Regular ice phenomena observation mostly dates back to the 19th century. During this long-term observation period, the human interventions affecting the hydrological and morphological factors have become more and more intensive (Beltaos and Prowse, 2009). The anthropogenic effects, such as river regulation, hydropower use or water pollution causes different changes in river ice regime (Ashton, 1986). To decrease the occurrence of floods and control the water discharge, nowadays most of the rivers are regulated. River regulation changes the morphological parameters of the river bed: the aim is to create solid and equable bed size and stream gradient to prevent river ice congestion. For the satisfaction of increasing water demands hydropower is also used. River damming results a condition like a lake upstream to the barrage; the flow velocity and the turbulence are low, so this might be favourable for river ice appearance and freeze-up (Starosolsky, 1990). Water pollution affects ice regime in two ways; certain water contaminants change the physical characteristics of the water, e.g. lessens the freezing point of the water. Moreover the thermal stress effect of industrial cooling water and communal wastewater is also important; in winter these water sources are usually warmer, than the water body of the river. These interventions result different changes in the characteristic features of river ice regime. Selected examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime. Climate change and river ice regime research should also take into account these anthropogenic impacts. Reference: Ashton, W.D. 1986. River and lake ice engineering. Water Resources Publication, USA 485 p. Starosolszky, Ö., 1990. Effect of river barrages on ice regime. Journal of Hydraulic Research 28/6, 711-718. Williams, G.P., 1970. A note on the break-up of lakes and rivers as indicators of climate change. Atmosphere 8 (1), 23-24.

  20. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  1. Hydrological and geochemical studies on the Sahelo-Sudanian basin of the Niger River

    African drought and rainfall deficits observed during the last twenty years had important repercussions on the runoff of the Niger River (annual deficit of 20 % during the 70's and of 46 % during the 80's). A large reduction of the groundwater storage explains the persistent degradation of the hydrological resource. The inner Delta of the Niger River is a particular system submitted to Sahelian and sub-desertic climatic conditions, and is characterized by large flood plains. Time series of input water volumes in the inner Delta and of the water losses inside it show that the water losses, due to the intense evaporation, vary from 40 km3 to 6 km3. The water losses are maximum during the wettest years, up to 47 %, and minimum during the driest years, only 32 %, due to the reduction of the flooded area. Since 1990 the EQUANIS program associates hydrological and chemical measurements in the study of the dissolved and suspended matter flows in the Niger River's flows to the Sahel. The specific sediment load vary between 7 or 8 t dm2 year-1 for the upper Niger River and 3 t km2 year-1 for the Bani River. The specific dissolved load vary between 10 or 12 t km2 year-1 for the Niger River and 2,5 t km2 year-1 for the Bani River. The annual input in the inner Delta was about 2,2 Mt in 1992-1993. Seasonal variations of the matter fluxes are very different between the upper and the lower parts of the inner Delta, due to the breaking of the annual flood and to the more important flood plains in the upper Delta. The preliminary results indicate that both rivers have a low level in dissolved element concentration. The inner Delta is not an old sedimentary basin and the actual deposits of matter should characterize its working during the lasting deficit of the water resources of the Niger River. (author)

  2. Collaboration in River Basin Management: The Great Rivers Project

    Crowther, S.; Vridhachalam, M.; Tomala-Reyes, A.; Guerra, A.; Chu, H.; Eckman, B.

    2008-12-01

    The health of the world's freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to the health of people, plants and animals around the world. The sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges facing society today. An estimated 1.3 billion people currently lack access to safe drinking water, an issue the United Nations specifically includes in its recently published Millennium Development Goals. IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Collaboration Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish and wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration efforts. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the collaboration aspects of the DSS. The DSS is an open environment tool that allows scientists, policy makers, politicians, land owners, and anyone who desires to take ownership of their actions in support of the environment to work together to that end. The DSS supports a range of features that empower such a community to collaboratively work together. Supported collaboration mediums include peer reviews, live chat, static comments, and Web 2.0 functionality such as tagging. In addition, we are building a 3-D virtual world component which will allow users to experience and share system results, first-hand. Models and simulation results may be annotated with free-text comments and tags, whether unique or chosen from a predefined tag taxonomy. These comments and tag clouds may be used by the community to filter results and identify models or simulations of interest, e.g, by region, modeling approach, spatiotemporal resolution, etc. Users may discuss methods or results in real-time with a built-in chat feature. Separate user groups may be defined for logical groups of collaboration partners, e.g., expert modelers, land managers, policy makers, school children, or the general public, to optimize the collaboration signal-to-noise ratio for all.

  3. LBA-ECO LC-04 Macrohydrological Routing Data for the Amazon and Tocantins River Basin

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides continental-scale hydrological river flow routing parameter data for the Amazon and Tocantins River basins at 5 minute (~9 km) resolution...

  4. LBA-ECO LC-04 Macrohydrological Routing Data for the Amazon and Tocantins River Basin

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides continental-scale hydrological river flow routing parameter data for the Amazon and Tocantins River basins at 5 minute (~9 km)...

  5. GIS-based River Flood Hazard Mapping in Urban Area (A Case Study in Kayu Ara River Basin, Malaysia

    Behdokht Vosoogh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, thousands of lives have been lost, directly or indirectly, by flooding. In fact, of all natural hazards, floods pose the most widely distributed natural hazard to life today. Sungai Kayu Ara river basin which is located in the west part of the Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia was the case study of this research. In order to perform river flood hazard mapping HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS were utilized as hydrologic and hydraulic models, respectively. The generated river flood hazard was based on water depth and flow velocity maps whichwere prepared according to hydraulic model results in GIS environment. The results show that, magnitude of rainfall event (ARI and river basin land-use development condition have significant influences on the river flood hazard maps pattern. Moreover, magnitude of rainfall event caused more influences on the river flood hazard map in comparison with land-use development condition for Sungai Kayu Ara river basin.

  6. Morphometrical Analysis and Peak Runoff Estimation for the Sub-Lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria

    Salami, Adebayo Wahab; Amoo, Oseni Taiwo; Adeyemo, Joshiah Adetayo; Mohammed, Abdulrasaq Apalando; Adeogun, Adeniyi Ganiyu

    2016-03-01

    This study utilized Spatial Information Technology (SIT) such as Remote Sensing (RS), a Geographical Information System (GIS), the Global Positioning System (GPS) and a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for a morphometrical analysis of five sub-basins within the Lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria. Morpho-metrical parameters, such as the total relief, relative relief, relief ratio, ruggedness number, texture ratio, elongation ratio, circularity ratio, form factor ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, sinuosity factor and bifurcation ratio, have been computed and analyzed. The study revealed that the contribution of the morphometric parameters to flooding suggest catchment No. 1 has the least concentration time and the highest runoff depth. Catchment No. 4 has the highest circularity ratio (0.35) as the most hazardous site where floods could reach a great volume over a small area.

  7. Morphometrical Analysis and Peak Runoff Estimation for the Sub-Lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria

    Salami Adebayo Wahab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized Spatial Information Technology (SIT such as Remote Sensing (RS, a Geographical Information System (GIS, the Global Positioning System (GPS and a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM for a morphometrical analysis of five sub-basins within the Lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria. Morpho-metrical parameters, such as the total relief, relative relief, relief ratio, ruggedness number, texture ratio, elongation ratio, circularity ratio, form factor ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, sinuosity factor and bifurcation ratio, have been computed and analyzed. The study revealed that the contribution of the morphometric parameters to flooding suggest catchment No. 1 has the least concentration time and the highest runoff depth. Catchment No. 4 has the highest circularity ratio (0.35 as the most hazardous site where floods could reach a great volume over a small area.

  8. Hydrologic effects of climate change in the Delaware River basin

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Ayers, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The Thornthwaite water balance and combinations of temperature and precipitation changes representing climate change were used to estimate changes in seasonal soil-moisture and runoff in the Delaware River basin. Winter warming may cause a greater proportion of precipitation in the northern part of the basin to fall as rain, which may increase winter runoff and decrease spring and summer runoff. Estimates of total annual runoff indicate that a 5 percent increase in precipitation would be needed to counteract runoff decreases resulting from a warming of 2??C; a 15 percent increase for a warming of 4??C. A warming of 2?? to 4??C, without precipitation increases, may cause a 9 to 25 percent decrease in runoff. The general circulation model derived changes in annual runoff ranged from -39 to +9 percent. Results generally agree with those obtained in studies elsewhere. The changes in runoff agree in direction but differ in magnitude. Additional aspects of the subject are discussed.

  9. 210Po in meteoric and surface waters at Corumbatai River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the presence of 222Rn and 210Po in wet (rainwater) deposition occurring at a very important sedimentary basin located in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, i.e. the Corumbatai River Basin. It is a sub-basin of the giant Parana sedimentary basin (Paleozoic-Cenozoic) that extends over an area of 1,700,000 km2. The Corumbatai River is the major river draining the area, and its water is extensively used by water supply systems in the basin. Since rainwater deposition has been recognized as a major source of dissolved species in rivers, surface waters from Corumbatai River were also collected at two sampling points, upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, the principal municipality within the basin

  10. The cost of noncooperation in international river basins

    Tilmant, A.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest for water supply enhancement strategies in order to deal with the exploding demand for water in some regions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Within such strategies, reservoirs, especially multipurpose ones, are expected to play a key role in enhancing water security. This renewed impetus for the traditional supply-side approach to water management may indeed contribute to socioeconomic development and poverty reduction if the planning process considers the lessons learned from the past, which led to the recommendations by the World Commission on Dams and other relevant policy initiatives. More specifically, the issues dealing with benefit sharing within an efficient and equitable utilization of water resources are key elements toward the successful development of those river basins. Hence, there is a need for improved coordination and cooperation among water users, sectors, and riparian countries. However, few studies have explicitly tried to quantify, in monetary terms, the economic costs of noncooperation, which we believe to be important information for water managers and policy makers, especially at a time when major developments are planned. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the economic costs of noncooperation when managing large-scale water resources systems involving multiple reservoirs, and where the dominant uses are hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. An analysis of the Zambezi River basin, one of the largest river basins in Africa that is likely to see major developments in the coming decades, is carried out. This valuation exercise reveals that the yearly average cost of noncooperation would reach 350 million US$/a, which is 10% of the annual benefits derived from the system.

  11. Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins radionuclide transport: a case study

    The current estimates of increased utilization of nuclear power have brought into focus the problem of the cumulative interaction of several nuclear facilities with the biosphere of a region. An engineering analysis tool to make the necessary calculations from which reasonable estimates of potential radiation dose and dose commitment to individuals and population groups in such a region has been devised by Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This paper discusses the application of the radionuclide transport elements of this computer code to the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins. The radionuclide transport simulator codes (HERMES) were designed to evaluate the environment impact of nuclear facilities in or near the year 2000

  12. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to a lesser extent Zn. Plant species which are the most important for the biomonitoring were identified: Phragmites australis, Ceratophyllum demersum, different pondweeds (Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton friesii), Myriophyllum spicatum, Batrachium trichophyllum. Among them some species are characterized by a group concentration of heavy metals: pondweeds (Mn, Fe, Cu), Myriophyllum spicatum (Fe, Mn, Cu), Batrachium trichophyllum (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn). Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum) is a concentrator of Mn.

  13. A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

  14. Simulation of upper Kuantan River basin streamflow using SWAT model

    Mohd, Mohd Syazwan Faisal; Juneng, Liew; Tangang, Fredolin; Rahman, Nor Faiza Abd; Khalid, Khairi; Haron, Siti Humaira

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the capabilities of Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) in simulating streamflow in a tropical watershed - upper Kuantan river basin. Two statistical metrics were used for model evaluation; i) coefficient of determination (R2) and ii) Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (NSI). The calibration result shows that there is a good agreement between the observed and simulated monthly streamflow with R2=0.84 and NSI=0.82. For validation the result is acceptable which the value of R2=0.59 and NSI=0.57. The results suggest that SWAT model is able to simulate the hydrologic characteristics of the tropical watershed well.

  15. Forecasting of the radionuclides migration the Iput' river basin

    The forecasting estimates of Cs 137 and Sr 90 migration in the Iput' river basin during 100 years after the Chernobyl accident were carried out on the basis of multicamera model. This time period was divided on three ranges - 1986 (retrospective estimates), 1987 - 2000 and 2001 - 2086. Long-range forecasts of dissemination of the contamination in Iput' were shown that during century in the Iput' aquatic system the concentration of Cs 137 will decrease to 3000 times and that of Sr 90 to 10000 times. (authors)

  16. Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

  17. Savannah River Site R-Reactor Disassembly Basin In-Situ Decommissioning -10499

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the 105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate it from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,384 cubic meters or 31,894 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were designed and tested for the reactor ISD project, and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and material flow considerations, maximum lift heights and differential height requirements were determined. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and approximately 3,900 cubic yards (2,989 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over about an eighteen month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  18. Savannah River Site R-Reactor Disassembly Basin In-Situ Decommissioning

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  19. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R-REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING -10499

    Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.

    2010-01-04

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the 105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate it from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,384 cubic meters or 31,894 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were designed and tested for the reactor ISD project, and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and material flow considerations, maximum lift heights and differential height requirements were determined. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and approximately 3,900 cubic yards (2,989 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over about an eighteen month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  20. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River. PMID:26691085

  1. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Transboundary River Basin: The Case of Tonle Sap Lake, Mekong River Basin

    Marko Keskinen; Paradis Someth; Aura Salmivaara; Matti Kummu

    2015-01-01

    The water-energy-food nexus is promoted as a new approach for research and policy-making. But what does the nexus mean in practice and what kinds of benefits does it bring? In this article we share our experiences with using a nexus approach in Cambodias Tonle Sap Lake area. We conclude that water, energy and food security are very closely linked, both in the Tonle Sap and in the transboundary Mekong River Basin generally. The current drive for large-scale hydropower threatens water and food...

  2. The influence of frozen soil change on water balance in the upper Yellow River Basin, China

    Cuo, L.; Zhao, L.; Zhou, B.

    2013-12-01

    Yellow River supports 30% of China's population and 13% of China's total cultivated area. About 35% of the Yellow River discharge comes from the upper Yellow River Basin. Seasonally frozen, continuous and isolated permafrost soils coexist and cover the entire upper Yellow River Basin. The spatial distribution of various frozen soisl is primarily determined by the elevation in the basin. Since the past five decades, air temperature has increased by a rate of 0.03 C/year in the upper Yellow River Basin. Many studies reported the conversions of continuous to isolated permafrost soil, permafrost soil to seasonally frozen soil and the thickening of the active layer due to rising temperature in the basin. However, very few studies reported the impact of the change of frozen soil on the water balance in the basin. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is applied in the upper Yellow River Basin to study the change of frozen soil and its impact on the water balance. Soil temperature and soil liquid content measured up to 3 m below ground surface at a number of sites in the upper Yellow River Basin and the surroundings are used to evaluate the model simulation. Streamflow is also calibrated and validated using historical streamflow records. The validated VIC model is then used to investigate the frozen soil change and the impact of the change on water balance terms including surface runoff, baseflow, evapotranspiration, soil water content, and streamflow in the basin.

  3. Ecosystem-based river basin management: its approach and policy-level application

    Nakamura, Takehiro

    2003-10-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management is an approach aimed at achieving sustainable development with a focus on water resources. This management concept is characterized by its catchment approach, inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary approach and multiple management objectives. There is an effort to widen the management scope to include multiple resources and environmental considerations in the river basin management schemes. In order to achieve river basin management objectives and multiple global environmental benefits, an ecosystem approach to river basin management is promoted. The Ecosystem-based River Basin Management aims to maximize and optimize the total value of the ecosystem functions relevant to classified ecosystems within a river basin by conserving and even enhancing these functions for the next generations. A procedure to incorporate such ecosystem functions into policy framework is presented in this paper. Based on this policy framework of the Ecosystem-based River Basin Management, a case study is introduced to apply the concept to the Yangtze River basin. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) assessment report, this basin suffers from frequent floods of large magnitudes, which are due to the degradation of ecosystem functions in the basin. In this case, the government of the People's Republic of China introduced Ecosystem Function Conservation Areas to conserve ecosystem functions related to flood events and magnitude, such as soil conservation, agricultural practices and forestry, while producing economic benefits for the local population. Copyright

  4. Quantifying Changes in Accessible Water in the Colorado River Basin

    Castle, S.; Thomas, B.; Reager, J. T.; Swenson, S. C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the western United States is heavily managed yet remains one of the most over-allocated rivers in the world providing water across seven US states and Mexico. Future water management strategies in the CRB have employed land surface models to forecast discharges; such approaches have focused on discharge estimates to meet allocation requirements yet ignore groundwater abstractions to meet water demands. In this analysis, we illustrate the impact of changes in accessible water, which we define as the conjunctive use of both surface water reservoir storage and groundwater storage, using remote sensing observations to explore sustainable water management strategies in the CRB. We employ high resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data to detect changes in reservoir storage in the two largest reservoirs within the CRB, Lakes Mead and Powell, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies to isolate changes in basin-wide groundwater storage in the Upper and Lower CRB from October 2003 to December 2012. Our approach quantifies reservoir and groundwater storage within the CRB using remote sensing to provide new information to water managers to sustainably and conjunctively manage accessible water.

  5. Use of remote sensing data in distributed hydrological models: Applications in the Senegal river basin

    Sandholt, Inge; Andersen, Jens; Dybkjær, Gorm Ibsen; Lo, Medou; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she......Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she...

  6. A comparison of integrated river basin management strategies: A global perspective

    Zhao, Chunhong; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Guanghong

    In order to achieve the integrated river basin management in the arid and rapid developing region, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in Northwestern China, one of critical river basins were selected as a representative example, while the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia and the Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the USA were selected for comparative analysis in this paper. Firstly, the comparable characters and hydrological contexts of these three watersheds were introduced in this paper. Then, based on comparative studies on the river basin challenges in terms of the drought, intensive irrigation, and rapid industrialization, the hydrological background of the MDB, the CRB and the HRB was presented. Subsequently, the river management strategies were compared in three aspects: water allocation, water organizations, and water act and scientific projects. Finally, we proposed recommendations for integrated river basin management for the HRB: (1) Water allocation strategies should be based on laws and markets on the whole basin; (2) Public participation should be stressed by the channels between governance organizations and local communities; (3) Scientific research should be integrated into river management to understand the interactions between the human and nature.

  7. The Amazon. Bio-geochemistry applied to river basin management

    A hydrochemical model, using hydrograph separation, developed for the Niger basin, has been proposed as a strategic tool for studying the watershed dynamics at any time and space scales. The model is applied to the Amazon basin, including the main channel and its major tributaries. The database corresponds to a sampling and analytical program developed over 8 cruises at 9 stations (about 70 samples), collected in the framework of the CAMREX Project (1982-1984). The model, based on a hydrograph separation of 3 reservoirs, is successful in extrapolating and predicting the geochemical and environmental behaviour of such large basins, naturally submitted to large secular or annual, regular or even catastrophic climatic oscillations. Several topics have been considered. (1) Coherence among the physico-chemical analyses: dissolved species (pH, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, HCO3-, Cl-, DOC-, SO42-, HPO42-, SiO2, O2 and CO2), and inorganic or organic suspended load (fine and coarse fractions FSS, CSS, POCF, POCC). (2) Hydrograph separation in 3 reservoir contributions: RS, the superficial or rapid runoff, RI, the hypodermic or intermediate runoff, including the flood plain contributions, and RB the ground water or base flow. (3) Estimation of the isotopic and physico-chemical features of each of the 3 flow components: RS, RI, and RB. (4) Determination of the 3 hydrological parameters (size of the reservoir, drying up coefficient, and residence time of water), characterizing each of the 3 flow components (RS, RI, and RB), in each of the 9 basins considered. (5) Hydrological and geochemical balances for all the parameters analysed either (a) cruise by cruise for all tributaries and the Amazon River at Obidos, or (b) among each of the 3 river flow components. (6) Isotopic data set of δ18O in waters, tests of coherence of the hydrograph separation model. (7) Relationships between isotopic signatures and morphological or hydroclimatical parameters characterizing the river-soil-vegetation systems. The developed procedure presents a new tool in environmental predictions, emphasizing the potentiality of geochemical interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets

  8. Modelling hydrological responses of Nerbioi River Basin to Climate Change

    Mendizabal, Maddalen; Moncho, Roberto; Chust, Guillem; Torp, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Future climate change will affect aquatic systems on various pathways. Regarding the hydrological cycle, which is a very important pathway, changes in hydrometeorological variables (air temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration) in first order impact discharges. The fourth report assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is evidence that the recent warming of the climate system would result in more frequent extreme precipitation events, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. Available research and climate model outputs indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99%). For example, it is likely that up to 20% of the world population will live in areas where river flood potential could increase by the 2080s. In Spain, within the Atlantic basin, the hydrological variability will increase in the future due to the intensification of the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. This might cause flood frequency decreases, but its magnitude does not decrease. The generation of flood, its duration and magnitude are closely linked to changes in winter precipitation. The climatic conditions and relief of the Iberian Peninsula favour the generation of floods. In Spain, floods had historically strong socio-economic impacts, with more than 1525 victims in the past five decades. This upward trend of hydrological variability is expected to remain in the coming decades (medium uncertainty) when the intensification of the positive phase of the NAO index (MMA, 2006) is considered. In order to adapt or minimize climate change impacts in water resources, it is necessary to use climate projections as well as hydrological modelling tools. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate and assess the hydrological response to climate changes in flow conditions in Nerbioi river basin (Basque Country, North of Spain). So that adaptation strategies can be defined. In order to fulfil this objective four subobjectives are defined: (1)selection of the future climate projections for the case study area from a wide spectrum of possibilities; (2) model the hydrological processes of the basin with a physically distributed complex hydrological model; (3) validation of the hydrological model with observation data; and (4) runoff simulation introducing regional climate model data selected. The analysis of climate models suggests that extreme precipitation in the Basque Country increased by about 10% during the twenty-first century. This increase of extreme precipitations raised discharge and water level in Nerbioi river basin. That is why in the 21st century it is expected that the flood-prone area will expand for precipitation with a return period of 50 years. In this context, it is necessary to define and evaluate different adaptation options which are already in practice or conceivable according to the current scientific knowledge. As well as evaluate the adaptation measures in terms of their ability to lower the vulnerability of water resources to climate change. For example, land use change could be a useful tool to adapt our basin systems. The land use plays an important role on the water balance of a river by varying the proportion of precipitation that runs off and the fraction that is lost by evapotranspiration. Therefore, both climate change and adaptation strategies will have an impact on the hydrodynamic conditions of rivers; particularly the changes in flow conditions will have a severe ecological, economical and social impact. As future work, adaptation measures will introduce in the future runoff simulation in order to evaluate the effectiveness and as a decision-making tool to operational organisations.

  9. Is fish passage technology saving fish resources in the lower La Plata River basin?

    Norberto Oscar Oldani; Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún; John Michael Nestler; Richard Andrew Goodwin

    2007-01-01

    Over 450 dams have been constructed in the upper Paraná River basin in Brazil during the past 40 years. River regulation by these dams is considered a primary factor in the reduction of fish diversity and depletion of migratory species. In contrast to the upper Paraná Basin, only two large dams (both with upstream fish passage) have been constructed in the lower La Plata River basin. Fishery managers in the lower basin are concerned that existing and planned dams will further deplete populati...

  10. Estimation of nutrient contributions from the ocean across a river basin using stable isotope analysis

    Nakayama, K.; Maruya, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Komata, M.; Komai, K.; Kuwae, T.

    2015-11-01

    Total nitrogen (TN), which consists of total particulate nitrogen (TPN) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), is transported with not only in river channels but also across the entire river basin, including via ground water and migratory animals. In general, TPN export from an entire river basin to the ocean is larger than TDN in a mountainous region. Since marine derived nutrients (MDN) are hypothesized to be mainly transported as suspended matters from the ground surface, it is necessary to investigate the contribution of MDN to the forest floor (soils) in order to quantify the true role of MDN at the river ecosystem scale. This study investigated TN export from an entire river basin, and also we estimated the contribution of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) to total oceanic nitrogen input across a river basin. The maximum potential contribution of TN entering the river basin by salmon was found to be 23.8 % relative to the total amount of TN exported from the river basin. The contribution of particulate nitrogen based on suspended sediment from the ocean to the river basin soils was 22.9 % with SD of 3.6 % by using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of nitrogen (?15N).

  11. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.

    Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices.

  12. Reconstruction of The Extreme Flood In The Vycoma River Basin

    Kubes, R.

    In the paper methods and results of the reconstruction of the extreme flood in the Vycoma River Basin in the village Klatova Nova Ves in Slovakia are presented. No flow measurements were accessible at site, only results from an a-posteriori made flood level survey were available. The method of isochrones was applied for the flood reconstruction; its parameters were estimated from catchment characteristics and by hydrological analogy from a part of the basin where flow and rainfall measurements were available. Velocities of runoff for all possible flow pathways were estimated by hydraulic methods. The catchment was split up into zones with equal travel time of runoff to the catchment outlet. Maps of the spatial distribution of rainfall were estimated using rainfall data from neighboring catchments and meteorological radar measurements. The effective rainfall and changes of the runoff coefficients during the event were estimated by hydrological analogy according to the flood measured at a gauging station in subcatchment in the upper part of the basin. Isochrones constructed for the subcatchment were also used in the calibration. Timing and the maximum peak of the flood in Klatova Nova Ves from the isochrone model were compared with flood characteristics estimated by one-dimensional hydraulic model HEC-RAS. Applicabil- ity of the approach was discussed.

  13. Time Series Analysis of Floods across the Niger River Basin

    Valentin Aich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the increasing number of catastrophic floods in the Niger River Basin, focusing on the relation between long term hydro-climatic variability and flood risk over the last 40 to 100 years. Time series for three subregions (Guinean, Sahelian, Benue show a general consistency between the annual maximum discharge (AMAX and climatic decadal patterns in West Africa regarding both trends and major changepoints. Variance analysis reveals rather stable AMAX distributions except for the Sahelian region, implying that the changes in flood behavior differ within the basin and affect mostly the dry Sahelian region. The timing of the floods within the year has changed only downstream of the Inner Niger Delta due to retention processes. The results of the hydro-climatic analysis generally correspond to the presented damage statistics on people affected by catastrophic floods. The damage statistics shows positive trends for the entire basin since the beginning in the 1980s, with the most extreme increase in the Middle Niger.

  14. Operational Hydrologic Forecasts in the Columbia River Basin

    Shrestha, K. Y.; Curry, J. A.; Webster, P. J.; Toma, V. E.; Jelinek, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) covers an area of ~670,000 km2 and stretches across parts of seven U.S. states and one Canadian province. The basin is subject to a variable climate, and moisture stored in snowpack during the winter is typically released in spring and early summer. These releases contribute to rapid increases in flow. A number of impoundments have been constructed on the Columbia River main stem and its tributaries for the purposes of flood control, navigation, irrigation, recreation, and hydropower. Storage reservoirs allow water managers to adjust natural flow patterns to benefit water and energy demands. In the past decade, the complexity of water resource management issues in the basin has amplified the importance of streamflow forecasting. Medium-range (1-10 day) numerical weather forecasts of precipitation and temperature can be used to drive hydrological models. In this work, probabilistic meteorological variables from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) are used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Soil textures were obtained from FAO data; vegetation types / land cover information from UMD land cover data; stream networks from USGS HYDRO1k; and elevations from CGIAR version 4 SRTM data. The surface energy balance in 0.25° (~25 km) cells is closed through an iterative process operating at a 6 hour timestep. Output fluxes from a number of cells in the basin are combined through one-dimensional flow routing predicated on assumptions of linearity and time invariance. These combinations lead to daily mean streamflow estimates at key locations throughout the basin. This framework is suitable for ingesting daily numerical weather prediction data, and was calibrated using USGS mean daily streamflow data at the Dalles Dam (TDA). Operational streamflow forecasts in the CRB have been active since October 2012. These are 'naturalized' or unregulated forecasts. In 2013, increases of ~2600 m3/s (~48% of average discharge for water years 1879-2012) or greater were observed at TDA during the following periods: 29 March to 12 April, 5 May to 11 May, and 19 June to 29 June. Precipitation and temperature forecasts during these periods are shown along with changes in the model simulated snowpack. We evaluate the performance of the ensemble mean 10 days in advance of each of these three events, and comment on how the distribution of ensemble members affected forecast confidence in each situation.

  15. [Spatiotemporal variation analysis and identification of water pollution sources in the Zhangweinan River basin].

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Xu, Zong-Xue; Tang, Fang-Fang; Yu, Wei-Dong; Cheng, Yan-Ping

    2012-02-01

    In this study, several statistical methods including cluster analysis, seasonal Kendall test, factor analysis/principal component analysis and principal component regression were used to evaluate the spatiotemporal variation of water quality and identify the sources of water pollution in the Zhangweinan River basin. Results of spatial cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated that the Zhangweinan River basin can be classified into two regions. One is the Zhang River upstream located in the northwest of the Zhangweinan River basin where water quality is good. The other one covers the Wei River and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin, where water is seriously polluted. In this region, pollutants from point sources flow into the river and the water quality changes greatly. Results of temporal cluster analysis and seasonal Kendall test indicated that the study periods may be classified into three periods and two different trends were detected during the period of 2002-2009. The first period was the year of 2002-2003, during which water quality had deteriorated and serious pollution was observed in the Wei river basin and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin. The second period was the year of 2004-2006, during which water quality became better. The year of 2007-2009 is the third period, during which water quality had been improved greatly. Despite that water quality in the Zhangweinan River basin had been improved during the period of 2004-2009, the water quality in the Wei River (southwestern part of the basin), the Wei Canal River and the Zhangweixin River (eastern plain of the basin) is still poor. Principal component analysis and multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores showed that the main pollutants of the Zhangweinan River basin came from point source discharge such as heavy industrial wastewater, municipal sewage, chemical industries wasterwater and mine drainage in upstream. Non-point source pollution such as agricultural pollution and runoff pollution caused by heavy rainfalls also showed considerable impact on water quality in the Zhangweinan River basin during flood seasons. These results provide useful information for better pollution control strategies in the Zhangweinan River basin. PMID:22509568

  16. Modeling Water-Quality Loads to the Reservoirs of the Upper Trinity River Basin, Texas, USA

    Taesoo Lee; Xiuying Wang; Michael White; Pushpa Tuppad; Raghavan Srinivasan; Balaji Narasimhan; Darrel Andrews

    2015-01-01

    The Upper Trinity River Basin (TRB) is the most populated river basin and one of the largest water suppliers in Texas. However, sediment and nutrient loads are reducing the capacity of reservoirs and degrading water quality. The objectives of this study are to calibrate and validate the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for ten study watersheds within the Upper TRB in order to assess nutrient loads into major reservoirs in the basin and to predict the effects of point source elimina...

  17. Characteristics of water isotopes and hydrograph separation during the spring flood period in Yushugou River basin, Eastern Tianshans, China

    Xiaoyan Wang; Zhongqin Li; Edwards Ross; Ruozihan Tayier; Ping Zhou

    2015-02-01

    Many of the river basins in northwest China receive water from melting glaciers and snow in addition to groundwater. This region has experienced a significant change in glacier and snowpack volume over the past decade altering hydrology. Quantifying changes in water resources is vital for developing sustainable strategies in the region. During 2013, a water-isotope source apportionment study was conducted during the spring flood in the Yushugou River basin, northwestern China. The study found significant differences in water isotopes between river water, snowmelt water, and groundwater. During the study period, the isotopic composition of groundwater remained relatively stable. This stability suggests that the groundwater recharge rate has not been significantly impacted by recent hydro-climatic variability. The river water flow rate and water 18O displayed an inverse relationship. This relationship is indicative of snowmelt water injection. The relative contribution of the two sources was estimated using a two-component isotope hydrograph separation. The contribution of snowmelt water and groundwater to Yushugou River were ∼63% and ∼37%, respectively. From the study, we conclude that snowmelt water is the dominant water source to the basin during the spring melt period.

  18. Hydrochemistry of the Parauari-Maues Acu river basin (Amazon region, Brazil)

    The chemical composition of the Parauari-Maues Acu basin is studied through the determination of pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, chloride, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper and manganese. Four expeditions were made and samples were collected in 16 different points of the main course. Chemical analysis of the rivers waters shows seasonal flutuations of the concentrations of the elements in the main river as well as in the main afluents like Nambi river, Amana river and Urupadi river. (Author)

  19. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    C. I. Michailovsky

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

  20. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    Michailovsky, C. I.; McEnnis, S.; Berry, P. A. M.; Smith, R.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2012-07-01

    Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

  1. Playing the game, identity and perception-of-the-other in water cooperation in the Jordan River Basin

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    experiments with the Jordan River Basin Boardgame Exercise (JRBBE) played with respondent groups from inside and outside the Jordan River Basin. The experiments consisted of one control group outside the basin and seven respondent groups both outside and inside the basin. This article argues that the role of...

  2. Multi-model comparison of a major flood in the groundwater-fed basin of the Somme River (France)

    F. Habets; Gascoin, S.; S. Korkmaz; Thiéry, D; Zribi, M.; Amraoui, N.; Carli, M; A. Ducharne; Leblois, E.; E. Ledoux; Martin, E.; Noilhan, J.; C. Ottlé; P. Viennot

    2010-01-01

    The Somme River Basin is located above a chalk aquifer and the discharge of the somme River is highly influenced by groundwater inflow (90% of river discharge is baseflow). In 2001, the Somme River Basin suffered from a major flood causing damages estimated to 100 million euro (Deneux and Martin, 2001). The purpose of the present research is to evaluate the ability of four hydrologic models to reproduce flood events in the Somme River Basin over an 18-year period, by comparison...

  3. Global surveys of reservoirs and lakes from satellites and regional application to the Syrdarya river basin

    Large reservoirs along rivers regulate downstream flows to generate hydropower but may also store water for irrigation and urban sectors. Reservoir management therefore becomes critical, particularly for transboundary basins, where coordination between riparian countries is needed. Reservoir management is even more important in semiarid regions where downstream water users may be totally reliant on upstream reservoir releases. If the water resources are shared between upstream and downstream countries, potentially opposite interests arise as is the case in the Syrdarya river in Central Asia. In this case study, remote sensing data (radar altimetry and optical imagery) are used to highlight the potential of satellite data to monitor water resources: water height, areal extent and storage variations. New results from 20 years of monitoring using satellites over the Syrdarya basin are presented. The accuracy of satellite data is 0.6 km3 using a combination of MODIS data and satellite altimetry, and only 0.2 km3 with Landsat images representing 2–4% of average annual reservoir volume variations in the reservoirs in the Syrdarya basin. With future missions such as Sentinel-3A (S3A), Sentinel-3B (S3B) and surface water and ocean topography (SWOT), significant improvement is expected. The SWOT mission’s main payload (a radar interferometer in Ka band) will furthermore provide 2D maps of water height, reservoirs, lakes, rivers and floodplains, with a temporal resolution of 21 days. At the global scale, the SWOT mission will cover reservoirs with areal extents greater than 250  ×  250 m with 20 cm accuracy. (letter)

  4. A large-scale model for simulating the fate & transport of organic contaminants in river basins.

    Lindim, C; van Gils, J; Cousins, I T

    2016-02-01

    We present STREAM-EU (Spatially and Temporally Resolved Exposure Assessment Model for EUropean basins), a novel dynamic mass balance model for predicting the environmental fate of organic contaminants in river basins. STREAM-EU goes beyond the current state-of-the-science in that it can simulate spatially and temporally-resolved contaminant concentrations in all relevant environmental media (surface water, groundwater, snow, soil and sediments) at the river basin scale. The model can currently be applied to multiple organic contaminants in any river basin in Europe, but the model framework is adaptable to any river basin in any continent. We simulate the environmental fate of perfluoroctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the Danube River basin and compare model predictions to recent monitoring data. The model predicts PFOS and PFOA concentrations that agree well with measured concentrations for large stretches of the river. Disagreements between the model predictions and measurements in some river sections are shown to be useful indicators of unknown contamination sources to the river basin. PMID:26414740

  5. SWOT data assimilation for reservoir operations in the upper Niger river basin

    Munier, Simon; Lettenmaier, Dennis; Polebitski, Austin; Brown, Casey

    2013-04-01

    Our objective is to evaluate the potential for swath altimetry (SWOT) data to improve reservoir operations in the upper Niger river basin where two reservoirs are (or will be) used to sustain water demand, mainly for irrigation. We coupled the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamics model to the VIC hydrology model to compute the "true" state of the system which we used with a SWOT simulator to provide synthetic water levels and surface extent for both the Niger River channel and the two reservoirs. The simulated states were obtained by running the models with perturbed inputs (meteorological forcings to the VIC model, and water level in the two reservoirs). We integrated a reservoir rule model with the river hydrodynamics and hydrology models in order to define dam releases for each reservoir depending on available water in the river reach and downstream water demand. We then assimilated in situ and SWOT data into the coupled models to correct for model and forcing errors. We considered four scenarios: no assimilation, assimilation of in situ data only, assimilation of SWOT data only, and assimilation of both data sources. We computed performance of each scenario from the total volume of released water and the ability of the system to satisfy water demand.

  6. Isotope composition of iron delivered to the oceans by intertropical rivers: The Amazon River Basin case

    Poitrasson, F.; Vieira, L. C.; Seyler, P.; dos Santos Pinheiro, G. M.; Mulholland, D. S.; Ferreira Lima, B. A.; Bonnet, M.; Martinez, J.; Prunier, J.

    2011-12-01

    Riverborne iron is a notable source for this biogeochemically key element to the oceans. Recent investigations have shown that its isotopic composition may vary significantly in oceanic waters. Hence, a proper understanding of the Fe cycle at the surface of the Earth requires a good characterization of the isotopic composition of its various reservoirs. However, as the database growths, it appears that the isotope composition of the riverborne Fe delivered to the oceans may be more varied than initially thought, in agreement with inferences from soil studies from different climatic contexts. It is therefore important to compare major rivers from different latitudes. We focused our attention on the Amazon River and its tributaries that represent ca. 20% of the freshwater delivered to the oceans by world rivers. Preliminary experiments suggest that water filtration may induce biases in stable Fe isotope composition. Therefore, we worked first on bulk waters, sampled during multidisciplinary field campaigns on the Amazon River and its tributaries, including the Solimoes, Negro, Madeira and Tapajos Rivers. Besides a complete sample physical-chemical characterization, Fe isotope determinations were conduced after water sample mineralization, iron purification and MC-ICP-MS analysis. Our first results reveal that most bulk water samples cluster close to the continental crust value (0.1% δ57FeIRMM-14) with an overall range of 0.2%. This is consistent with the restricted range found in lateritic soils elsewhere that represent 80% of the Amazon basin surface. Only black water rivers flowing over the podzols of the northern portion of the Amazon basin tend to show lighter isotopic compositions, down to -0.18%. However, sediment analyses suggest that this light Fe isotopic is lost through sedimentation on the river bed, thereby leading the waters to have Fe isotope compositions remaining close to that of the continental crust. This constant isotopic signature holds whatever the relative proportion of dissolved Fe in the bulk waters budget, that ranges from 5 to 50% in these waters, whatever the sample depth and whenever the samples were taken in the river cycle. Hence, given that several studies have shown that Fe loss through flocculation in estuaries does not affect Fe isotope signatures, we conclude that the bulk waters from the Amazon River delivered to the ocean should have an isotopic composition close to that of the continental crust.

  7. Isotope hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in Purna river basin, Maharashtra, India

    Full text: Purna river basin, mainly located in Akola and Amaravati districts of Maharashtra in India, is an east-west elongated river valley (20 deg. 10'-21 deg. 25' N latitude and 76 deg. 00'-77 deg. 55' E longitude). About 3000 km2 area out of 7500 km2 area of the inland basin is underlain by saline and brackish groundwater. The Quaternary sediments cover much of the area while the basin margins and the basement is composed mainly of the Deccan Traps. In the alluvial belt, the soil (derived from parent basaltic rock) has dense fabric, fertile but poor hydraulic conductivity with high degree of shrink-swell potential. Na+1 is the dominating cation in the soil and Ca+2, Mg+2 decrease with depth. The electrical conductivity of the groundwaters of the area varies from 400 to over 30000 ?S/cm. Some of the earlier studies in the area regarding the origin of salinity suggested intrusion of ancient seawater through Son-Narmada lineament, digenetic alterations, irrigation practices causing accretion and subsequent dissolution of salts in the soil horizons as well as dissolution of salts through the rock matrix. No conclusive inferences could be drawn from these studies. In this study, the problem is tackled by employing isotope and hydrogeochemical techniques. Two sets of water samples from Purna river (Surface water), Dug wells (Shallow aquifer) and tube wells (Deep aquifer) and six piezometer samples were collected from different parts of the Purna river basin and analysed for environmental isotopes as well as major, minor, and trace ions. The interpretation of the results was carried out in the light of other geological information to decipher cause of salinity and delineating recharge and discharge zones of the fresh groundwater in the area. The Piper trilinear plots for fresh waters and saline waters showed that fresh waters are generally Na-HCO3 type whereas saline samples are predominantly Na-Cl type. The hydrochemical facies in saline waters change from HCO3 to Cl type. No linear trend in salinity and depth were observed. It is observed that wherever groundwater flow is less, flushing is less and salinity is more. Computation of molar ionic ratios of the samples suggested that the salts have been derived as a result of weathering of the basalt present in the vicinity. Contribution of local precipitation to groundwater as a direct recharge is insignificant except in hard rock area. The foothills of the Satpura range, which is situated in the north of the basin, act as a recharge zone for fresh groundwaters in the area. Here the alluvium cover is quite thick and it becomes thinner and thinner as it progresses towards Purna River. Ultimately, the alluvium acts as discharge zone along the depression of Purna. The deep aquifers of the area have saline, brackish and fresh waters. The ?D-?18O plot indicates evaporative enrichment. The fresh waters fall near GMWL with a slope of about 8. Brackish waters, falling between saline and fresh waters seems to be mixture of the two waters. This is further inferred as well by the 3H values of the waters. Purna river water samples showed evaporative enrichment. It also indicates contribution of groundwater to the river at some places. A depleted starting isotopic composition for saline groundwater samples compared to present day river water sample indicated either source of saline waters is different from river water or a different climatic conditions existed at the time of recharge in comparison to the present era. ?18O - Cl-1 plot showed that the salinity in the deep aquifers could be due to leaching of salts from the formation as well. The 3H values of the samples showed that the saline aquifers are isolated and not getting modern recharge. However, the brackish water aquifers do get partial recharge from a distant source. The 14C results of the highly saline groundwater samples suggested their uncorrected ages about 4 - 7 ka BP. The ?34S values of the aqueous sulphate samples indicated their non-marine origin. From the study it was concluded that, the deeper saline waters are o

  8. [Spatiotemporal characteristics of reference crop evapotranspiration in inland river basins of Hexi region].

    Lü, Xiao-Dong; Wang, He-ling; Ma, Zhong-ming

    2010-12-01

    Based on the 1961-2008 daily observation data from 17 meteorological stations in the inland river basins in Hexi region, the daily reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) in the basins was computed by Penman-Monteith equation, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal and annual ET0 were studied by GIS and IDW inverse-distance spatial interpolation. In 1961-2008, the mean annual ET0 (700-1330 mm) increased gradually from southeast to northwest across the basins. The high value of mean annual ET0 in Shule River basin and Heihe River basin declined significantly (P basin ascended slightly. The ET0 in the basins had a significant annual fluctuation, which centralized in Linze and decreased toward northwest and southeast. The ET0 in summer and autumn contributed most of a year, and the highest value of ET0 all the year round always appeared in Shule River basin. The climatic trend rate was in the order of summer > spring > autumn > winter. Wind speed and maximum temperature were the primary factors affecting the ET0 in the basins. Furthermore, wind speed was the predominant factor of downward trend of ET0 in Shule and Heihe basins, while maximum temperature and sunshine hours played an important role in the upward trend of ET0 in Shiyang basin. PMID:21443004

  9. Importance of the Mississippi River Basin for investigating agricultural–chemical contamination of the hydrologic cycle

    Kolpin, Dana W.

    2000-01-01

    This special issue is devoted to recent and ongoing research relating to the fate and transport of agricultural chemicals in the Mississippi River Basin by the US Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology (Toxics) Program. The Mississippi River Basin drains approximately 3 200 000 km2 representing 41% of the United States. This is the largest river in the United States and the third largest in the world. The Mississippi River discharges an average of 19 920 m3/s of water into the Gulf of Mexico. The river is an extensively used resource, supplying drinking water to 70 cities in the United States.

  10. Taxonomic revision of the Rineloricaria species (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the Paraguay River basin

    Hctor S. Vera-Alcaraz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Rineloricaria from the Paraguay River basin were revised, the following species and geographic distributional patterns were found: R. aurata, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, rio Guapor in Brazil; R. cacerensis, Paraguay River near Cceres in Brazil; R. lanceolata, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, Guapor, Ji-Paran, Purus, Solimes, and Araguaia rivers in Brazil, Maran and Madre de Dios rivers in Peru; R. parva, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, Paran River in Argentina, Uruguay River in Brazil. Loricaria hoehnei is proposed as a new junior synonym of R. lanceolata. A key to the species of Rineloricaria from the Paraguay River basin is provided.As espcies do gnero Rineloricaria da bacia do rio Paraguai foram revisadas, as seguintes espcies e padres de distribuio foram encontradas: R. aurata, bacia do rio Paraguai no Brasil e Paraguai, rio Guapor no Brasil; R. cacerensis, rio Paraguai perto de Cceres no Brasil; R. lanceolata, bacia do rio Paraguai no Brasil e Paraguai, rios Guapor, Ji-Paran, Purus, Solimes e Araguaia no Brasil, rios Maran e Madre de Dios no Peru; R. parva, bacia do rio Paraguai no Brasil e Paraguai, rio Paran na Argentina, rio Uruguai no Brasil. Loricaria hoehnei proposta como novo sinnimo jnior de R. lanceolata. Uma chave de identificao para as espcies de Rineloricaria da bacia do rio Paraguai fornecida.

  11. Understanding wellbore stability challenges in Horn River Basin

    Khan, Safdar; Ansari, Sajjad; Han, Hongxue; Khosravi, Nader [Schlumberger (Canada)], email: safdar.khan@slb.com

    2011-07-01

    The industry must spend hundreds of millions of dollars each year because of wellbore instability problems. Shale formations are a major source of wellbore instabilities, and these problems have been particularly acute in the Horn River Basin (HRB), the largest gas shale field in Canada. Shale formations have laminated structures and, therefore, significant differences in mechanical properties parallel and perpendicular to bedding planes; anisotropic estimated horizontal stresses can be caused by these differences. Failure to consider this feature can have very serious consequences for drilling. The authors studied cases where operators had faced severe drilling challenges; then they performed a comprehensive post-mortem analysis of these wells, identified possible causes for problem zones and made recommendations for addressing these problems in future drilling. Three of the key reasons are that shale anisotropy was not properly characterized, that anisotropic stresses were not considered in the pre-spud analysis, and that the attack angle with respect to shale bedding planes was inappropriate.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF IBEZ RIVER BASIN AS A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE

    Roberto Concha M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an account of a pioneer experience in Chile that deals with territorial planning based on the concept of cultural landscape, It is a cultural diagnosis of Ibaez river basin in the Chilean Patagonia, promoted by the regional government of Aysen and carried out by NGO POLOC. We will refer to the methodology and results of the characterization process of The study uses previous diagnosis and available databasis regarding the study area and gathers new information mainly from oral sources. Through interviews and workshops, a multidisciplinary team assumes the role of describing the and gathering about 29 variables from 4 thematic areas. The integration of information allowed us to describe the main phenomena that have shaped the landscape. In turn, the spatial distribution of different variables was incorporated into a GIS, in order to identify and characterize landscape units which assemble distinctions and value ratings of the landscape users

  13. Assessing interannual water balance of La Plata river basin

    C. M., KREPPER; V., VENTURINI.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El ro Paran es el ms importante de la Cuenca de La Plata, sustentando economas regionales en tres pases. Durante las ltimas dcadas, se han producido cambios significativos en la cuenca del Paran, debido a la deforestacin y sustitucin de cultivos. Esto pudo haber modificado la respuesta de [...] la cuenca en trminos de caudales del ro Paran. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar la estructura de la serie temporal de evapotranspiracin (ET(t)) de la Cuenca Superior del Paran. En primer lugar se estudi la relacin entre las variables en la ecuacin del balance hdrico y luego se aplic un anlisis de espectro singular (SSA, por sus siglas en ingls) para determinar las seales presentes en las series de ET(t). El estudio de correlacin muestra que ET(t) est correlacionada con las precipitaciones en las subcuencas del norte y no est correlacionada en la ms austral. Las series temporales ET(t)1 ET(t)3 y ET(t)4 muestran una seal de baja frecuencia mientras que las seales dentro del rango ENSO son estadsticamente significativas en ET(t)1, y ET(t)4 , aunque estn presentes en las otras subcuencas (ET(t)2, y ET(t)3)como seales dbiles. En la Cuenca de La Plata ET(t) estara afectada tanto por los cambios en las propiedades fsicas de la cuenca como por la presencia de la seal en el rango ENSO de las precipitaciones. Abstract in english The Paran river is the most important component of the La Plata basin, sustaining regional economies in three countries. In the last decades, significant regional changes such as deforestation and crop substitution have been taken place in the Paran basin. This fact could have modified the basin r [...] esponse in terms of the Paran streamflow. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the structure of the evapotranspiration (ET(t)) time series of the upper Paran basin. We analyzed the relationship between the variables in the water balance equation, then we applied a singular spectral analysis (SSA) to learn more about the temporal structure of the ET(t) time series. The correlation study shows that ET(t) is correlated with precipitations in the northern sub-basins but it is not correlated at all in the southern basin. The time structure of ET(t)1 ET(t)3 and ET(t)4 exhibit low-frequency signals while the ENSO-range signals are statistically significant in ET(t)1 and ET(t)4 although it also appears in ET(t)2 and ET(t)3 as a weak signals. Looking at the whole basin, ET(t) would be affected either by changes in the basin physical properties or by the ENSO-range signals present in precipitation.

  14. THE EFFECT OF VARYING ELECTROFISHING DESIGN ON BIOASSESSMENT RESULTS OF FOUR LARGE RIVERS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    In 1999, the effect of electrofishing design (single bank or paired banks) and sampling distance on bioassessment results was studied in four boatable rivers in the Ohio River basin. The relationship between the number of species collected and the total distance electrofished wa...

  15. Changes in precipitation and temperature in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    Ma, Chong; Pan, Suli; Wang, Guoqing; Liao, Yufang; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Global warming brings a huge challenge to society and human being. Understanding historic and future potential climate change will be beneficial to regional crop, forest, and water management. This study aims to analyze the precipitation and temperature changes in the historic period and future period 2021-2050 in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The Mann-Kendall rank test for trend and change point analysis was used to analyze the changes in trend and magnitude based on historic precipitation and temperature time series. Four global climate models (GCMs) and a statistical downscaling approach, LARS-WG, were used to estimate future precipitation and temperature under RCP4.5. The results show that annual precipitation in the basin is increasing, although not significant, and will probably continue to increase in the future on the basis of ensemble projections of four GCMs. Temperature is increasing in a significant way and all GCMs projected continuous temperature increase in the future. There will be more extreme events in the future, including both extreme precipitation and temperature.

  16. Water quality assessment of the Sacramento River Basin, California; environmental setting and study design

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Knifong, Donna L.; MacCoy, Dorene E.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Majewski, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the environmental setting and investigative activities of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The Sacramento River Basin is one of 60 study units located throughout the United States that has been scheduled for study as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The Sacramento River Basin is the most important source of freshwater in California. Water quality studies in the Sacramento River Basin study unit focus on the Sacramento Valley because it is here that the principal uses of water and potential impacts on water quality occur. Investigative activities include a network of surface water sites, where water chemistry and aquatic biological sampling are done, and a variety of ground water studies. In addition, investigations of the cycling and distribution of volatile organic compounds in the urban environment and the distribution of total and methyl mercury in the Sacramento River and tributaries will be completed.

  17. Temporal and spatial variability of drought in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, China

    Yuan, Zhe; Yan, Deng-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Yin, Jun; Yuan, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Drought is a kind of extreme hydrological event. With the penetration of climate change impact, severity, areal extent, and frequency of drought are increasing, especially in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, which plays a key role in China's agriculture production. Analyzing the regional temporal and spatial variability in the context of climate change could provide a basis for the evasion of disasters and risk. The maximum number of consecutive dry days was selected as the indicator to analyze the decadal variability of drought severity, areal extent, and spatial variability of drought frequency in different seasons in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Based on these, temporal and spatial variability of two kinds of special extreme events—consecutive drought and heavy rain after drought—were studied. The results showed that: (1) Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin mainly experienced moderate drought and severe drought. Moderate drought mainly occurs in autumn. High-frequency region of moderate drought is located in the plain of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, and its area is approximately 22.7 % of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Severe drought often occurs in spring with high-frequency region in the upstream of the Yellow River. The area of this high-frequency region is about 6 % of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. (2) During 1961~2011, the areal extent of summer severe drought, autumn severe drought, and extreme drought all showed increasing trend, in which the increasing trend of the autumn severe drought area in the Yellow River has reached the significance level α = 0.05. (3) Consecutive drought of several seasons often took place in Ningxia plain and Hetao plain which lie in the northwest of the Yellow River Basin. In the recent 20 years, consecutive drought from spring to summer and consecutive drought from summer to autumn occurred frequently. Drought-flood abrupt alternation such as heavy rain after drought often occurred in summer temporally and Huaihe River Basin spatially.

  18. Economic Peculiarities of the Romanian Tisa River Basin

    ANA-MARIA POP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A possible answer to the current challenges of the Tisa catchment area, correlated with water management, social and economic development, environmental conservation, is the transnational initiative of the five countries drained by the tributaries of the Tisa River. In this context, the spatial development has a major impact on the Romanian Tisa catchment area by providing the economic cohesion. The purpose of the present paper is to define the current status of economy in the Romanian Tisa River Basin, through the filter of achieving the level of competitiveness claimed by the national, European, or global authorities. By setting several quantitative indicators, analyzed for a standard territorial level (NUTS 3, for a definite time interval (2002-2007, those more or less competitive economic branches, activities or aspects of the analyzed territory were identified, and, at the same time, the elements that “hinder” development, the traditional remnants, or the existing entrepreneurial initiatives. On the basis of relevant indicators, the calculation of an index of competitiveness was proposed at territorial level, the results certifying a certain level of competitiveness for the region under consideration.

  19. Significant punctiform and diffuse pressure in upper Crasna river basin

    Giana Popa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available t. The preservation of healthy ecosystems which are biological valuable, whose actual status is convenient, as well as the improvement or transformation of those partially or heavily modified by anthropic interventions, should be targeted to achieve objectives of the ecological balance of any watercourse. The pressure on aquatic environment are generated by agglomerations, industry and agriculture, but also by hydromorphological area. In the upper of the Crasna basin the level of nutrient impurification due to human agglomeration sets a “sensitive” character for Crasna area and ranks the Crasna river in a lower class of quality. IPPC and NON IPPC industry generates dangerous substances, especially those on List II, which establishes the low state of the Crasna river. Dangerous substances cause toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation in the aquatic environment. Impact of non-priority and priority pollutants, in terms of environmental impact is not distinct, therefore there is a tendency to pay attention to priority poluttants, even if non-priority substances create the gratest damages. Lack of clean technologies or non compliance with Best Available Technologies is the main cause of surface resource contamination by dangerous substances.

  20. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2002

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

  1. Flood forecasting and early warning system for Dungun River Basin

    Floods can bring such disasters to the affected dweller due to loss of properties, crops and even deaths. The damages to properties and crops by the severe flooding are occurred due to the increase in the economic value of the properties as well as the extent of the flood. Flood forecasting and warning system is one of the examples of the non-structural measures which can give early warning to the affected people. People who live near the flood-prone areas will be warned so that they can evacuate themselves and their belongings before the arrival of the flood. This can considerably reduce flood loss and damage and above all, the loss of human lives. Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model is a runoff analysis model converting rainfall into runoff for a given river basin. The simulation can be done using either ground or satellite-based rainfall to produce calculated discharge within the river. The calculated discharge is used to generate the flood inundation map within the catchment area for the selected flood event using Infowork RS.

  2. Assessing the resilience of a river management regime: Informal learning in a shadow network in the Tisza River Basin

    Geza Molnar; Attila Sarvari; Peter Balogh; Zsuzsanna Flachner; Piotr Magnuszewski; Jan Sendzimir; Zsuzsanna Nagy

    2008-01-01

    Global sources of change offer unprecedented challenges to conventional river management strategies, which no longer appear capable of credibly addressing a trap: the failure of conventional river defense engineering to manage rising trends of disordering extreme events, including frequency and intensity of floods, droughts, and water stagnation in the Hungarian reaches of the Tisza River Basin. Extreme events punctuate trends of stagnation or decline in the ecosystems, economies, and societi...

  3. Investigation into impacts of land-use changes on floods in the upper Huaihe River basin, China

    Yu, M.; Li, Q.; Lu, G.; Wang, H.; Li, P.

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the agricultural land-use change on flood regime, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Dapoling station was selected as the case study site. Based on topography, land-use, hydrological and meteorological data in 1990s and 2010s, the improved distributed Xinanjiang model, with potential evapotranspiration being computed by coupling a dual-source evapotranspiration model with a simplified plant growth model, was adopted to simulate the daily and hourly rainfall-runoff processes over 1990s and 2010s, and then the effects of land-use change on flood volume, flood peak, occurring time of flood peak, the percentage of surface runoff component were investigated respectively. The results was interesting and indicated that impacts of land-use change on flood characteristics varied significantly with land-use types. The outputs could provide valuable references for flood risk management and water resources management in the Huaihe River basin.

  4. Past climate and land cover change impacts on streamflow in upper Yellow River Basin, China

    Cuo, L.

    2011-12-01

    Upper Yellow River Basin is located in the northern Tibetan Plateau. More than half of the annual total yield of the entire Yellow River is contributed from the Upper Yellow River Basin. Like the other part of the world, upper Yellow River Basin has been experiencing climate change. Also, sponsored by China Central Government, local Provincial government launched "Returning Farm Land and Grazing Land to Grasses and Forests" in 2000 and "Three Rivers' Source Region Environmental Protection Project" in 2005 to conserve ecosystem in the source region of the Yellow River. Understanding climate and land cover change impacts on the streamflow in the upper Yellow River Basin is essential for local and downstream ecosystems. This study utilized a large scale hydrology model - Variable Infiltration Capacity model to investigate both climate and land cover change impacts on the streamflow in the upper Yellow River Basin. Past 50-year of climate data, and 1994 and 2004 land cover data obtained from NOAA AVHRR and MODIS satellites were used in the study. 1994 and 2004 were the years before and after the execution of environmental protection programs. The investigation revealed that warmer climate has resulted in lower annual total streamflow, higher spring peak but lower summer flow. After launching the ecosystem conservation programs, streamflow has decreased. In the source region of the Yellow River, climate change impact dominates over land cover change impact.

  5. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  6. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin. Volume III, Experiment Designs and Statistical Models to Estimate the Effect of Transportation on Survival of Columbia River System Salmonids.

    Newman, Ken

    1997-06-01

    Experiment designs to estimate the effect of transportation on survival and return rates of Columbia River system salmonids are discussed along with statistical modeling techniques. Besides transportation, river flow and dam spill are necessary components in the design and analysis, otherwise questions as to the effects of reservoir drawdowns and increased dam spill may never be satisfactorily answered. Four criteria for comparing different experiment designs are: (1) feasibility; (2) clarity of results; (3) scope of inference; and (4) time to learn. A controlled experiment with treatments that are a combination of transport status (transported or left in-river), river flow level, and dam spill level should provide the clearest results of transport effect. The potential for bias due to interactions between year effects and the treatments is minimized by running as many treatments as possible within a single outmigration year. Relatedly, the most rapid learning will occur if several different treatments are implemented at randomly chosen time periods within thesame outmigration season. If the range of flow and dam manipulation includes scenarios of interest to managers, the scope of inference should be satisfactory. On the other hand these designs may be the least feasible; trying to manage the river system under a sequence of deliberately chosen flow regimes within a single season, for example, may be quite impractical. At the other end of the spectrum are designs that simply have two treatment combinations, transportation and being left in-river, and the influence of flow and spill are controlled for, if possible, in after-the-fact statistical analysis. Because of possible confounding influences of flow and spill on the transportation effect, these designs could yield the most ambiguous results and require the most years of experimentation to learn. If flows and spill are not manipulated in a planned, well defined, and impartial manner the scope and quality of inference may not be satisfactory. On the other hand, these designs are the simplest to implement. Implementation issues are: (1) The nature of flow and spill level manipulations will need clear definition, either in absolute terms, cfs, or relative terms, such as spilling 10% of the water. (2) Relatedly, system wide implementation of flow and spill levels will provide simpler interpretation of results than will mixing spill rates, for instance, between dams. Transporting fish from just one location will also simplify interpretation. (3) Tagging of experimental fish should be done well upstream of the dams with random assignment to transport or in-river groups done later, near the dams, to minimize biases from delayed tagging mortality. (4) Tagging with PIT tags and CWTs in combination will provide evidence of any potential homing problems. (5) High PIT tag retention rates are important to minimizing potential analysis problems (thus on-going research to improve retention is vital). (6) Approximate sample sizes to achieve a desired level of precision can be calculated fairly easily using formulas provided in the report.

  7. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Basin Characteristics, 2002

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents basin characteristics for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and...

  8. Towards a decision support system for flood management in a river basin

    Vieira, Luís Manuel Vasquez; Pinho, José L. S.; Schwanenberg, D.; Vieira, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    A platform for flood forecasting (FEWS-LIMA) in the Portuguese river Lima basin was implemented applying Delft-FEWS software. This platform integrates SOBEK Sacramento hydrological model, SOBEK rivers hydrodynamic models (working together in predicting river hydrodynamics behaviour), and a comprehensive hydrological database. The calibration of these models was achieved using historical river flow data of different rainfall events for two different periods: after the dams construction and bef...

  9. Mining and Seasonal Variation of the Metals Concentration in the Puyango River BasinEcuador

    Edwin Cueva; Oscar Betancourt; Maria Eugenia Garcia; Jean Remy D. Gimaraes

    2012-01-01

    The Puyango River Basin covers approximately an area of 4400 km2, it is located in Southern of Ecuador, with Calera and Amarillo rivers as tributaries. In this region, one of the main activities is small scale gold and silver mining. Currently there are 110 processing plants on the bank of Calera and Amarillo rivers, causing a significant degradation of natural resources. A seasonal comparison of metal concentrations in surface water, sediments and particulate matter from the Puyango River an...

  10. Reservoirs promote the taxonomic homogenization of fish communities within river basins

    Clavero, Miguel; Hermoso, Virgilio

    2011-01-01

    Most studies analyzing patterns in biotic homogenization of fish communities have used large-scale approaches, while the community-level effects of species intro- ductions and local extinctions within river basins have been sparsely analyzed. In this article, we examine patterns in freshwater fish a- and b-diversity in relation to the presence of reservoirs in a Mediterranean river (Guadiana river; Iberian Peninsula). We used fish samples from 182 river localities and 59 reservoir ones to add...

  11. Annual Observations of Climatic Impacts in the Songhua River Basin, China

    Song Xiao Cheng; Liu Jing

    2015-01-01

    Heat fluxes have been recognized as determinant regarding the river effect on microclimate. The relationship between rivers and the atmosphere is particularly significant for heat fluxes and varies with the meteorology and hydrology. In this study, based on annual observation data from the Songhua River Basin (Harbin, China), a regression and a stochastic model were used to analyze the relationship of the atmosphere-river daily maximum temperatures and evaluate the heat fluxes. The root mean ...

  12. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River Basin

    C. I. Michailovsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. In this study, retracked Envisat altimetry data was extracted over the Zambezi River Basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 5.5 to 7.4 % terms of high flow estimation relative to in situ gauge measurements. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 8.2 and 25.8 % of the high flow estimates.

  13. SWOT data assimilation for operational reservoir management on the upper Niger River Basin

    Munier, S.; Polebistki, A.; Brown, C.; Belaud, G.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will provide two-dimensional maps of water elevation for rivers with width greater than 100 m globally. We describe a modeling framework and an automatic control algorithm that prescribe optimal releases from the Selingue dam in the Upper Niger River Basin, with the objective of understanding how SWOT data might be used to the benefit of operational water management. The modeling framework was used in a twin experiment to simulate the "true" system state and an ensemble of corrupted model states. Virtual SWOT observations of reservoir and river levels were assimilated into the model with a repeat cycle of 21 days. The updated state was used to initialize a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm that computed the optimal reservoir release that meets a minimum flow requirement 300 km downstream of the dam. The data assimilation results indicate that the model updates had a positive effect on estimates of both water level and discharge. The "persistence," which describes the duration of the assimilation effect, was clearly improved (greater than 21 days) by integrating a smoother into the assimilation procedure. We compared performances of the MPC with SWOT data assimilation to an open-loop MPC simulation. Results show that the data assimilation resulted in substantial improvements in the performances of the Selingue dam management with a greater ability to meet environmental requirements (the number of days the target is missed falls to zero) and a minimum volume of water released from the dam.

  14. Detection of Flooding Responses at the River Basin Scale Enhanced by Land use Change

    McCormick, Brian C.; Eshleman, Keith N.; Griffith, Jeff L.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2009-01-01

    The Georges Creek watershed (area 187.5 sq km) in western Maryland (United States) has experienced land use changes (>17% of area) associated with surface mining of coal. The adjacent Savage River watershed (area 127.2 sq km) is unmined. Moments of flood frequency distributions indicated that climatic variability affected both watersheds similarly. Normalizing annual maximum flows by antecedent streamflow and causative precipitation helped identify trends in flooding response. Analysis of contemporary storm events using Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) stage III precipitation data showed that Georges Creek floods are characterized by higher peak runoff and a shorter centroid lag than Savage River floods, likely attributable to differences in current land use. Interestingly, Georges Creek produces only two thirds of the storm-flow volume as Savage River, apparently because of infiltration into abandoned deep mine workings and an associated transbasin diversion constructed circa 1900. Empirical trend analysis is thus complicated by both hydroclimatic variability and the legacy of deep mining in the basin.

  15. Hydrologic model framework for river basins with a range of hydroclimatic and bioclimatic conditions

    Crdenas Gaudry, Mara.; Gutknecht, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    This presentation reports on the first steps in the development of a regional scale runoff modelling framework for a river basin that features a wide range of diverse hydroclimatic and landscape conditions across the basin. A new approach will be tested based on an ecohydrologically and water balance oriented landscape classification concept. As starting point the Holdridge life zone system concept will be used which is based on indices of precipitation, evapotranspiration and temperature and differentiates landscapes with respect to climatic and elevation zones. Further steps of the projects will include the search for additional indices that can be used to define the controls on the dominant runoff processes in relations to water balance and landscapes chatacteristics, respectively. The final model framework will be constructed around a group of modules, each of the modules representing specific conditions with respect to the geomorphologic and ecohydrologic characteristics of the particular landscape type. The selected test river basins are located in 2 regions of Peru, the Piura region (24,000 Km2) and the Lambayeque region (10,000 Km2). They feature a wide range of hydroclimatic and landcover situations with diversity of landscapes (from high mountaneous andean areas to flat coastal areas, from forested areas to desert areas, and from permanent to ephemeral lakes). A very particular feature exists in the form of the lake Ramon next to the coast of the sea which exhibits a strong bild-up in the time of ENSO/El Nio episodes, reaching an extent of about 2,000 Km2 in area and around 8,000 million m3 in volume in the ENSO event 1997-98, and a strong redrawal at the end of such an episode.

  16. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    X. Q. Feng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005–2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  17. Cross-Comparison of Climate Change adaptation Strategies Across Large River Basins in Europe, Africa and Asia

    Krysanova, V.; Dickens, Ch.; Timmerman, J.; Varela Ortega, C.; Schlüter, M.; Roest, C.W.J.; Huntjens, P.; Jaspers, A.M.J.; Buiteveld, H.; E. Moreno; Pedraza Carrera, de, J.; Slámová, R. (Romana); Martínková, M.; Blanco, I; Esteve, P.

    2010-01-01

    A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and the Amudarya basin is in Central Asia. The evaluation was based mainly on the opinions of policy makers and water management experts in the river basins. The adaptation strategies were evaluated co...

  18. Cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across large river basins in Europe, Africa and Asia

    Krysanova, Valentina; Dickens, Chris; Timmerman, Jos; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Schlüter, Maja; Roest, Koen; Huntjens, Patrick; Jaspers, Fons; Buiteveld, Hendrik; Moreno, Edinson; de Pedraza Carrera, Javier; Slámová, Romana; Martínková, Marta; Blanco, Irene; Esteve, Paloma

    2010-01-01

    A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and the Amudarya basin is in Central Asia. The evaluation was based mainly on the opinions of policy makers and water management experts in the river basins. The adaptation strategies were evaluated co...

  19. CRITERIA FOR OPTIMIZING PARAMETERS OF WATER RESOURCES SYSTEM IN BASINS OF SMALL RIVERS IN SUBMONTANE REGIONS OF VIETNAM

    Ngoc Kien Pham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of a river flow makes it possible to meet contradictive requirements of various participants of water resources systems. In recent years the main participants of water resources systems pay a lot of attention to flood prevention in Vietnam and water floods are rather typical for river basins in the South-West of Belarus. Due to such circumstances it looks rather reasonable to create water storage reservoirs. However, degree of flow regulation that is value of the reservoir useful capacity must have a techno-economic justification with due account of river basin specific features. The paper considers particularities of small rivers in pre-mountainous regions of Vietnam. It is expected that the main water use occurs during irrigation processes. For this reason the requirements of other water resources systems participants (especially requirements on flood protection have come into account in a minimum way. The paper proposes a criterion for optimization of water resources systems parameters and in this case the main participants are irrigation and flood prevention. The criterion reflects minimum regulated volume of river flow per unit of irrigated area while observing restrictions pertaining to flood control, water supply, pond fish farms, water power engineering and environmental protection. Application of mathematical models on the basis of economic criteria for optimization of the water resources systems parameters is possible rather rare due to absence, shortage or poor accuracy in initial data.

  20. A New Hydrological Method for Estimating the River Bed and Drainage Basin Components of Erosion and Suspended Sediment Fluxes in River Basins

    A.V. Gusarov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the results of river suspended sediment flux (SSF analysis to propose a new hydrological method for quantitatively estimating the river bed and drainage basin (sheet erosion, rill and gully erosion components of total erosion intensity in river basins. The suggested method is based on the establishment of the functional power connection between mean monthly water discharges (WD, Q i and suspended sediment fluxes (r i calculated for the low-water-discharge phases of a river?s hydrological regime in various (on mean annual water discharges years: r i = aQ i (where a, are some empirical coefficients, and further extrapolation of this connection for other phases of the hydrological regime. Thus, the extrapolation allows us to calculate (in a long-term annual SSF the proportions of sediments originating in river beds and drainage basins. The proposed method is tested using a long-term (not less than 10 years series of observations for WD and SSF of 124 chiefly small and midsize rivers of the East-European plain, the Urals, the Eastern Carpathians, the Ciscaucasia and the Caucasus, and Central Asian mountains, containing data on the mean monthly values of WD and SSF. The paper also compares the method with other methods for estimating the components of erosion intensity and SSF..

  1. Transport and Retention of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon in North America’s Largest River Swamp Basin, the Atchafalaya River Basin

    Y. Jun Xu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004 river discharge and water quality records from an upriver and a downriver location of the Atchafalaya River to quantify the inflow, outflow, and inflow–outflow mass balance of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN = organic nitrogen + ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (NO3 + NO2, total phosphorous (TP, and total organic carbon (TOC through the largest river swamp basin in North America. The study found that, over the past 27 years, the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB acted as a significant sink for TKN (annual retention: 24%, TP (41%, and TOC (12%, but a source for NO3 + NO2 nitrogen (6%. On an annual basis, ARB retained 48,500 t TKN, 16,900 t TP, and 167,100 t TOC from the river water. The retention rates were closely and positively related to the river discharge with highs during the winter and spring and lows in the late summer. The higher NO3 + NO2 mass outflow occurred throughout spring and summer, indicating an active role of biological processes on nitrogen as water and air temperatures in the basin rise.

  2. Introduction to special section on River Basin Management: Economics, Management, and Policy

    Saleth, R. Maria

    2004-08-01

    The literature on river basin management is growing with an expanding coverage of issues and basins and an increasing refinement of approaches and methods. Still, many old questions remain unresolved, while new concerns are emerging, especially on the economic, managerial, and policy dimensions of river basin management. This special section brings together a set of papers that addresses some of these issues in the context of different basins around the world by adopting varying perspectives and approaches. This introductory paper prepares the stage and context for the special section with a brief review of existing literature and a quick overview of the papers included in the special section. Since the review indicates the major focus and coverage as well as the weak spots and gaps in present research, it provides context both to gauge the significance of the selected papers and to indicate the key areas requiring attention in future research on the subject of river basin management.

  3. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  4. Landslide Deposit Boundaries for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This layer is an inventory of existing landslides deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide deposit shown on this map has been...

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Anna Lineaments

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper: Anna, L.O., 1986, Geologic...

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Structural Features

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following publication: Anna, L.O., 1986, Geologic framework of the ground water...

  7. RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

  8. Aerial photo mosaic of the Miami River, Tillamook basin, Oregon in 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  9. Head Scarp Boundary for the Landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Polygons represent head scarps and flank scarps associated with landslide deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. This work was completed as part...

  10. Location of Photographs Showing Landslide Features in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data points represent locations of photographs taken of landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. Photos were taken in spring of 2010 during field...

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in fishes and sediments from the Tensas River Basin, Lousiana

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aquatic habitats of the Tensas River Basin in northeastern Louisiana have been heavily impacted by sediment and agrichemical runoff due to intensive drainage,...

  12. Timber Harvest Change in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, 1995 to 2009

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Using available aerial photos from approximately a 15-year period, changes in timber harvest were mapped in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. Timber...

  13. Wyodak-Anderson clinker in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana (prbclkg.shp)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the Wyodak-Anderson clinker in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This theme was created...

  14. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. These data...

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Maughan and Perry Lineaments

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following publication: Maughan, E.K., and Perry, W.J., Jr., 1986, Lineaments and...

  16. Aerial photo mosaic of the Wilson and Kilchis Rivers, Tillamook basin, Oregon in 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  17. Aerial photo mosaic of the Tillamook and Trask Rivers, Tillamook basin, Oregon in 1939

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  18. Point of Rocks, Black Butte faults, Green River Basin, Wyoming (grbfltg.shp)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior This ArcView shapefile contains a line representation of faults in a portion of the the Green River Basin. The fault data are part of the National Coal Resource...

  19. Drainage areas for selected stream-sampling stations, Missouri River Basin

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), an investigation of the Missouri River Basin is being conducted to...

  20. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. These data...

  1. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil....

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Slack Lineaments

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following publication: Slack, P. B., 1981, Paleotectonics and hydrocarbon...

  3. Geospatial Dataset of Agricultural Lands in the Upper Colorado River Basin, 2007 - 10

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents the extent and spatial distribution of irrigated agricultural lands in the Upper Colorado River Basin for 2007-10. The boundaries in this...

  4. Thickness of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River structural basin

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior These data represent the thickness, in feet, of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River basin. The data are presented as ASCII text files that...

  5. Thickness of the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River structural basin

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior These data represent the thickness, in feet, of the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River basin. The data are presented as ASCII text files that...

  6. Thickness of the upper Fort Union aquifer in the Powder River structural basin

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior These data represent the thickness, in feet, of the upper Fort Union aquifer in the Powder River basin. The data are presented as ASCII text files that can be...

  7. Thickness of the lower Fort Union aquifer in the Powder River structural basin

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior These data represent the thickness, in feet, of the lower Fort Union aquifer in the Powder River basin. The data are presented as ASCII text files that can be...

  8. Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil

    The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

  9. LBA-ECO CD-06 Soil Classification Map, Ji-Parana River Basin, Rondonia, Brazil

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration This data set provides a digital map of soil orders for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil (Western Amazonia). Soil orders were manually...

  10. LBA-ECO CD-06 Soil Classification Map, Ji-Parana River Basin, Rondonia, Brazil

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration ABSTRACT: This data set provides a digital map of soil orders for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil (Western Amazonia). Soil orders were...

  11. 1:250,000-scale geology of the Carson River Basin, Nevada and California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior This data set consists of digital continuous geologic data for the Carson River Basin, Nevada and California. It was compiled from individual county 1:250,000-scale...

  12. Biodiversity and conservation status of fish of Ceyhan River basin in Osmaniye, Turkey

    Mahmut Dağlı

    2015-11-01

    The conservation measures suggested in this river basin must include strict regulation and control over removal of sand, controlling pollution and minimizing the threats caused by the increasing number of exotic species.

  13. LBA-ECO CD-06 Amazon River Basin Land and Stream Drainage Direction Maps

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides high-resolution (~500 m) gridded land and stream drainage direction maps for the Amazon River basin, excluding the Rio Tocantins...

  14. Use of narrative scenarios for evaluating drought management responses in the Upper Colorado River Basin (Invited)

    Wilby, R. L.; Miller, K.; Yates, D. N.; Kaatz, L.

    2013-12-01

    Drought and water scarcity are already recurrent features of the Upper Colorado River Basin. Climate model projections (such as CMIP3 and CMIP5) show large uncertainty in future precipitation and river flow for the region. However, there is consensus amongst the models that air temperatures will rise, implying earlier and shorter melt seasons, increased risk of wildfire, outbreak of mountain pine beetle die back, and changing in-stream habitat over coming decades. Hence, future water supply and demand planning must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate multiple, uncertain, and interacting stressors on the water system. This paper describes a decision-centered approach for evaluating drought management options under changed climate conditions, taking into account other co-stressors. The framework comprises three main elements: 1) a model of the water collection and rights system; 2) adaptation options for maintaining overall water for supply; and 3) plausible narratives of future conditions for stress-testing the system/option set configuration. We demonstrate our approach using the Colorado River to Glenwood Springs as a case study. The Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model was selected as a parsimonious tool for rapid appraisal of the Shoshone Call Relaxation Agreement (SCRA) under various narrative scenarios. The SCRA allows relaxation of a senior water right at Shoshone power plant when upstream reservoir storage is forecast to be below 80% and April-July flow in the Colorado is expected to be less than 85% of average. An extended call relaxation may be triggered when a domestic lawn water ban has been invoked by the Denver Board of Water Commissioners. These measures are designed to enable capture of more spring melt to maintain overall volumetric water entitlements regardless of climate variability and change. The SCRA was assessed in terms of frequency of trigger conditions, volume of water stored, and amount of water that is potentially harvested by varying the window of the call relaxation period. Stress tests were applied using combinations of higher air temperatures, single and multi-season precipitation anomalies, partial burn or die back of forest areas in headwater basins, and dust on snowpack events. Temperature and precipitation scenarios were informed by evidence from palaeoclimatic reconstructions, climate model experiments, and regional downscaling. WEAP parameters were adjusted in transparent and physically plausible ways to represent the effects of indirect climate stressors. Overall, the Shoshone case study shows the extent to which increased ';rule flexibility' could yield greater water supply certainty despite climate variability and change. More generally, we demonstrate how decision-centered and narrative approaches can strengthen water planning and adaptation despite large uncertainty about future stressors on river basin properties.

  15. Development of a Systemwide Predator Control Program, Volume I : Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, 1993 annual report.

    Willis, Charles F.; Ward, David L.

    1995-06-01

    Modified Merwin trap nets were tested by an experimental fishery in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam to determine their effectiveness in selectively harvesting northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) over 11 inches in total length. The fishery was evaluated for its potential to supplement exploitation rates of the sportreward and dam-angling fisheries to achieve the objectives of the northern squawfish management program. Special consideration was given to the potential for, and impact on, incidental catches of adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) listed as threatened and endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preseason site and data surveys identified suitable fishing locations where physical parameters are favorable to trap-net deployment and northern squawfish habitat was present. A total of 16 floating trap nets were operated from June 2 through August 4, 1993. We made 1,392 sets with a mean soak time of 2.9 hours. The total catch was 45,803 fishes including 10,440 (23% of the total catch) northern squawfish of which 1,688 (4% of the total catch) were large (greater than 11 inches in total length). Mean catch rate was 0.3 large northern squawfish per hour of soak time. Nearly all incidentally captured fishes were released alive and in good condition. Bycatch of adult salmonids totaled 1,036 fishes (2% of the total catch). Operational criteria, designed to limit incidental take of salmonids, restricted the fishing time, dates, and locations. In addition, lack of prior operating experience with the gear type and limited gear effectiveness in high velocities found in the free-flowing river below Bonneville Dam contributed to the low harvest rate for northern squawfish. We determined that a large scale floating trap-net fishery outside the boat restricted zones (BRZs) of hydropower projects would not significantly improve the exploitation rate of northern squawfish either above or below Bonneville Dam.

  16. Erosion-induced massive organic carbon burial and carbon emission in the Yellow River basin, China

    Ran, L; X. X. Lu; Z. Xin

    2013-01-01

    Soil erosion and terrestrial deposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) can potentially play a significant role in global carbon cycling. Assessing the fate of SOC during erosion and subsequent transport and sedimentation is of critical importance. Using hydrological records of soil erosion and sediment load, and compiled organic carbon (OC) data, budgets of the eroded soils and OC induced by water in the Yellow River basin during 1950–2010 were analyzed. The Yellow River basin has experi...

  17. Spatial Fit and Water Policies: Managing Asymmetries in the Dongjiang River Basin

    Lee, FYS; Mossb, T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how classic upstream–downstream conflicts of water resources management can be interpreted more broadly in terms of spatial misfits and disparities between the river basin, territorial jurisdictions, degrees of political influence and socio-economic conditions. It applies the analytical concept of spatial fit in order to explore issues of governance in managing water in the Dongjiang River basin, selected by virtue of the huge political and economic asymmet...

  18. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J.H.A.; Mirumachi, N; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; M. Kummu

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world'...

  19. Water stress in global transboundary river basins: significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J.H.A.; Mirumachi, N; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; M. Kummu

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world’...

  20. Water Accounting Plus for Water Resources Reporting and River Basin Planning

    Karimi, P.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. WA+ is a simple, yet comprehensive and understandable water accounting framework that provides a standardized way of data collection and a presentation system that describes the overall land and water management situation in complex river basins. WA+ tracks water depletions rather than withdrawals...

  1. Assessing Management Regimes in Transboundary River Basins: Do They Support Adaptive Management?

    Eduard Interwies; Nicole Kranz; Erik Mostert; Raadgever, G. T.; Jos G. Timmerman

    2008-01-01

    River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper pr...

  2. A contribution to drinking water sources protection strategies in a portuguese river basin

    Vieira, J. M. Pereira; Duarte, António A. L. Sampaio; Pinho, José L. S.; Boaventura, Rui A. Rocha

    1999-01-01

    The need and growing interest on raw water sources protection is a great concern in river basin planning and management. Problems related to drinking water sources can range from shortage of water to water quality degradation mainly due to intensive urbanisation and industrial policies as well as uncontrolled agricultural practices. The river Cavado basin, located in the north-western region of Portugal, has a very intensive use for water supply, irrigation and hydropower generation. N...

  3. Regional Flood Frequency Analysis in the Volta River Basin, West Africa

    Kossi Komi; Amisigo, Barnabas A.; Bernd Diekkrüger; Fabien C. C. Hountondji

    2016-01-01

    In the Volta River Basin, flooding has been one of the most damaging natural hazards during the last few decades. Therefore, flood frequency estimates are important for disaster risk management. This study aims at improving knowledge of flood frequencies in the Volta River Basin using regional frequency analysis based on L-moments. Hence, three homogeneous groups have been identified based on cluster analysis and a homogeneity test. By using L-moment diagrams and goodness of fit tests, the ge...

  4. Using the SPEI to Assess Recent Climate Change in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, South Tibet

    Binquan Li; Wei Zhou; Yaoyang Zhao; Qin Ju; Zhongbo Yu; Zhongmin Liang; Kumud Acharya

    2015-01-01

    The Yarlung Zangbo River (YZR) is the largest river system in the Tibetan Plateau, and its basin is one of the centers of human economic activity in Tibet. Large uncertainties exist in several previous climate change studies in this basin because of limited climate observations. In this paper, we used a meteorological drought index (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI) and a newly-released gridded climate forcing dataset based on high-quality climate station data to re-e...

  5. Potential Evapotranspiration Methods and their Impact on the Assessment of River Basin Runoff Under Climate Change

    Yates, D; Strzepek, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    The current trend in increased amounts of green house gases in the atmosphere will likely affect both precipitation and evapotranspiration, which will in turn affect the runoff response of river basins. These impacts on river basin discharge are discussed in the context of changes in evapotranspiration estimates which are found by coupling a monthly water balance model to account for changes in soil moisture and micrometerological and empirical estimates of potential evapotranspiration. The p...

  6. Comparison of Flood Management options for the Yang River Basin, Thailand

    Kunitiyawichai, K.; Schultz, B.; Uhlenbrook, S; Suryadi, F.X.; Van Griensven, A

    2011-01-01

    The Yang River Basin, Thailand, has always been subjected to flooding, but due to recent developments in land use there is an increase in the vulnerability in several parts of the river basin. To mitigate impacts of flooding, both structural and non-structural measures can be taken. This paper discusses three scenario simulations focusing on flood retardation, retention, and damage mitigation measures. A main tributary was simulated by a process-based hydrological model (SWAT) and coupled to ...

  7. Tritium balance of the Ems river basin (1951-1983). Pt. 2

    For the Ems river basin an inventory of the tritium distribution is presented for the hydrologic years 1951-1983. On the basis of a balance model the tritium contents in surface and groundwater of the Ems river basin are calculated using known and extrapolated tritium input data and compared with the corresponding values measured since 1974. A survey of the tritium flows occurring in this area is presented, taking meteorologic and hydrologic facts into account. (orig.)

  8. Water Accounting Plus for Water Resources Reporting and River Basin Planning:

    Karimi, P.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. WA+ is a simple, yet comprehensive and understandable water accounting framework that provides a standardized way of data collection and a presentation system that describes the overall land and water management situation in complex river basins. WA+ tracks water depletions rather than withdrawals...

  9. Real-time remote sensing driven river basin modeling using radar altimetry

    Pereira Cardenal, Silvio Javier; Riegels, Niels; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; P. A. M. Berry; Smith, R.G.; Yakovlev, A.; T. U. Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Many river basins have a weak in-situ hydrometeorological monitoring infrastructure. However, water resources practitioners depend on reliable hydrological models for management purposes. Remote sensing (RS) data have been recognized as an alternative to in-situ hydrometeorological data in remote and poorly monitored areas and are increasingly used to force, calibrate, and update hydrological models. In this study, we evaluate the potential of informing a river basin model with real-time rada...

  10. Real-time remote sensing driven river basin modeling using radar altimetry

    S. J. Pereira-Cardenal; N. D. Riegels; P. A. M. Berry; Smith, R.G.; Yakovlev, A.; T. U. Siegfried; P. Bauer-Gottwein

    2011-01-01

    Many river basins have a weak in-situ hydrometeorological monitoring infrastructure. However, water resources practitioners depend on reliable hydrological models for management purposes. Remote sensing (RS) data have been recognized as an alternative to in-situ hydrometeorological data in remote and poorly monitored areas and are increasingly used to force, calibrate, and update hydrological models.

    In this study, we evaluate the potential of informing a river basin mode...

  11. Universal Multifractal description applied to precipitation pattern in the Ebro River Basin

    Valencia Delfa, José Luis; Saa Requejo, Antonio; Gascó Montes, José María; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    Water supplies in the Ebro River Basin are increasingly stressed, especially during the summer season. The year-to-year fluctuations in rainfall over this area exert vital influence on the regional hydrology, agriculture and several related industries in the region. Repeated anomalous rainfall in recent decades has had a devastating impact on this region, both socially and economically. We characterised the change in the rainfall variability pattern in the Ebro River Basin using universal mul...

  12. Quantifying the contribution of glacier runoff to streamflow in the upper Columbia River basin, Canada

    G. Jost

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Glacier melt provides important contributions to streamflow in many mountainous regions. Hydrologic model calibration in glacier-fed catchments is difficult because errors in modelling snow accumulation can be offset by compensating errors in glacier melt. This problem is particularly severe in catchments with modest glacier cover, where goodness-of-fit statistics such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency may not be highly sensitive to the streamflow variance associated with glacier melt. While glacier mass balance measurements can be used to aid model calibration, they are absent for most catchments. We introduce the use of glacier volume change determined from repeated glacier mapping in a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation procedure to calibrate a hydrologic model. We also explicitly account for changes in glacier area through the calibration and test periods. The approach is applied to the Mica basin in the Canadian portion of the Columbia River basin using the HBV-EC hydrologic model. Use of glacier volume change in the calibration procedure effectively reduced parameter uncertainty and helped to ensure that the model was accurately predicting glacier mass balance as well as streamflow. The seasonal and interannual variations in glacier melt contributions were assessed by running the calibrated model with historic glacier cover and also after converting all glacierized areas to alpine land cover in the model setup. Although glaciers in the Mica basin only cover 5 % of the watershed, glacier ice melt contributes up to 25 % and 35 % of streamflow in August and September, respectively, and is particularly important during periods of warm, dry weather following winters with low accumulation and early snowpack depletion. The approach introduced in this study provides an effective and widely applicable approach for calibrating hydrologic models in glacier fed catchments, as well as for quantifying the magnitude and timing of glacier melt contributions to streamflow.

  13. Process innovations to minimize waste volumes at Savannah River

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) temporarily stores high-level radioactive waste in underground storage tanks. Approximately 2.85 x 10/sup 5/ cubic meters of waste have evaporated to 1.15 x 10/sup 5/ cubic meters since plant startup in the early 1950's. Sixty percent of the radioactivity is contained in the approximate 10 volume percent stored as alkaline sludge. The remainder of the waste and radioactivity is stored as alkaline salt cake and salt solution. The waste management process development objective for permanent disposal is to concentrate the radioactivity into the smallest practical volume

  14. Hypothesis of historical effects from selenium on endangered fish in the Colorado River basin

    Hamilton, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic selenium contamination of aquatic ecosystems was first associated with cooling reservoirs of coal-fired power plants in the late 1970s, and later with drainage water from agricultural irrigation activities in the 1980s. In the 1990s, selenium contamination has been raised as a concern in the recovery of currently endangered fish in the Colorado River system. Widespread contamination from seleniferous drain waters from agriculture has been documented in the upper and lower Colorado River basins. Historically, irrigation started in the upper Colorado River basin in the late 1880s. In the 1930s, selenium concentrations in various drains, tributaries, and major rivers in the upper and lower Colorado River basins were in the 100s and 1000s of ??g/L. Native fish inhabiting large rivers such as the Colorado pikeminnow and razorback sucker were abundant before 1890, but became rare after 1910 to 1920, before the influence of mainstem reservoirs in the upper and lower Colorado River. A hypothesis is presented that selenium contamination of the tributaries and major rivers of the Colorado River basin in the 1890 to 1910 period caused the decline of the endangered fish and continues to inhibit their recovery. ?? 1999 by ASP.

  15. Temporal variations in river-ice break-up over the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada

    de Rham, Laurent P.; Prowse, Terry D.; Bonsal, Barrie R.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryFor northern and arctic regions, the spring break-up period has important socio-economic, ecological and morphological effects. While these impacts are reasonably well understood, spatial and temporal assessments of break-up timing and duration remain limited due to the lack of readily available hydrometric data. For this study, the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) of Canada is selected as a test watershed in which the spatial and temporal aspects of observed (1913-2002) spring river-ice break-up are characterized. Data from 29 Water Survey of Canada gauging sites are used including the commonly assessed 'Last B date' (last ice effect) and two hydrometric variables extracted directly from original water-level recording charts (the timing of initiation of break-up and peak water-level during break-up). It is found that the extracted variables provide a more physically based quantitative description of the break-up season in the MRB compared to the 'Last B date' method. On average, the northwards progressing ice break-up season within the MRB lasts ∼8 weeks but historically has varied within a window representative of ∼3 months of the year. The break-up period at specific locations varies from 4 days to 4 weeks. Results also indicate an anomalous zone of earlier spring break-up in the upper Peace and Athabasca region that may be partially related to the effects of flow regulation. In addition, the Mann-Kendall test reveals significantly earlier trends in the timing of spring break-up (∼1 day/decade) in upstream portions of the major tributaries of the MRB over the period 1970-2002. While similar trends have been found for other hydroclimatic variables in the basin, this study highlights the temporal patterns and variability of the spring break-up period in the Mackenzie River system.

  16. Isotope hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in Purna river basin, Maharashtra, India

    Two sets of water samples from Purna river (Surface water), Dug wells (Shallow aquifer) and tube wells (Deep aquifer) and six piezometer samples were collected from different parts of the Purna river basin and analysed for environmental isotopes as well as major, minor, and trace ions. The interpretation of the results was carried out in the light of other geological information to decipher cause of salinity and delineating recharge and discharge zones of the fresh groundwater in the area. The Piper trilinear plots for fresh waters and saline waters showed that fresh waters are generally Na-HCO3 type whereas saline samples are predominantly Na-Cl type. The hydrochemical facies in saline waters change from HCO3 to Cl type. The deep aquifers of the area have saline, brackish and fresh waters. The δ D - δ 18O plot indicates evaporative enrichment. The fresh waters fall near GMWL with a slope of about 8. Brackish waters, falling between saline and fresh waters seems to be mixture of the two waters. This is further inferred as well by the 3H values of the waters. δ 18O - Cl -1 plot showed that the salinity in the deep aquifers could be due to leaching of salts from the formation as well. The 3H values of the samples showed that the saline aquifers are isolated and not getting modern recharge. However, the brackish water aquifers do get partial recharge from a distant source. The 14C results of the highly saline groundwater samples suggested their uncorrected ages about 4 - 7 ka BP. The δ 34S values of the aqueous sulphate samples indicated their non-marine origin. From the study it was concluded that, the deeper saline waters are old waters; their salinity is predominantly Na-Cl type. The mechanism of salinisation appears to be owing to evaporation, dissolution, and leaching of salts from formation. The isotope study also indicates their non-marine origin of salinity

  17. Uranium isotopic investigations and radiocarbon measurements of river-groundwater systems, Sabarmati basin, Gujarat, India

    Measurements of uranium concentrations, 234U/238U activity ratios along the Sabarmati river and adjacent phreatic aquifers and radiocarbon in confined aquifers in the Watrak-Shedi sub-basin, part of Sabarmati basin, have been carried out. The uranium isotope distributions show marked seasonal variations in river waters, whereas they are within experimental uncertainties in the groundwaters adjacent to the river bed. The observed seasonal variations indicate the presence of a groundwater component in Sabarmati river, and its contribution to the total river flow appears to be maximum during summer. Apparent radiocarbon ages of confined aquifers in Watrak-Shedi sub-basin show that the groundwater flow is in the NE-SW direction with a velocity of 6-7 m/a. (orig.)

  18. Uranium isotopic investigations and radiocarbon measurements of river-groundwater systems, Sabarmati Basin, Gujarat, India

    Measurements of uranium concentrations, and 234U/238U activity ratios along the Sabarmati River and adjacent phreatic aquifers, and radiocarbon in confined aquifers in the Watrak-Shedi sub-basin, part of the Sabarmati basin, have been carried out. The uranium isotope distributions show marked seasonal variations in river waters, whereas they are within experimental uncertainties in the groundwaters adjacent to the river bed. The observed seasonal variations indicate the presence of a groundwater component in the Sabarmati River, and its contribution to the total river flow appears to be maximum during summer. Apparent radiocarbon ages of confined aquifers in the Watrak-Shedi sub-basin show that the groundwater flow is in the NE-SW direction with a velocity of 6-7m/a. (author)

  19. Combining Expert and Stakeholder Knowledge to Define Water Management Priorities in the Mkrou River Basin

    Arnaud Reynaud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participatory approaches to water management, and specifically to transboundary river management, have been widely applied over recent decades. Regarding transboundary rivers, the active involvement of key actors in policy planning is of great importance. In this context, a participatory approach has been used to identify sectors of interest and priorities related to water and development in the Mkrou transboundary River Basin involving three countries: Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We conducted a web-based survey to quantify expert opinion on sectors of water management policy and priorities for the Mkrou River Basin. The same set of questions was then put to a sample of local stakeholders living in this river basin. Our analysis reveals some points of convergence and some discrepancies between the opinions of experts and local stakeholders. Overall, it provides a comparative analysis of how experts and local stakeholders prioritize water policy measures, which could influence decision-making.

  20. Framework design for remote sensing monitoring and data service system of regional river basins

    Fu, Jun'e.; Lu, Jingxuan; Pang, Zhiguo

    2015-08-01

    Regional river basins, transboundary rivers in particular, are shared water resources among multiple users. The tempo-spatial distribution and utilization potentials of water resources in these river basins have a great influence on the economic layout and the social development of all the interested parties in these basins. However, due to the characteristics of cross borders and multi-users in these regions, especially across border regions, basic data is relatively scarce and inconsistent, which bring difficulties in basin water resources management. Facing the basic data requirements in regional river management, the overall technical framework for remote sensing monitoring and data service system in China's regional river basins was designed in the paper, with a remote sensing driven distributed basin hydrologic model developed and integrated within the frame. This prototype system is able to extract most of the model required land surface data by multi-sources and multi-temporal remote sensing images, to run a distributed basin hydrological simulation model, to carry out various scenario analysis, and to provide data services to decision makers.

  1. Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in three river basins

    Powers, Stephen M.; Bruulsema, Thomas W.; Burt, Tim P.; Chan, Neng Iong; Elser, James J.; Haygarth, Philip M.; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Jarvie, Helen P.; Lyu, Yang; Peterson, Heidi M.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Shen, Jianbo; Worrall, Fred; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-05-01

    Global food production depends on phosphorus. Phosphorus is broadly applied as fertilizer, but excess phosphorus contributes to eutrophication of surface water bodies and coastal ecosystems. Here we present an analysis of phosphorus fluxes in three large river basins, including published data on fertilizer, harvested crops, sewage, food waste and river fluxes. Our analyses reveal that the magnitude of phosphorus accumulation has varied greatly over the past 30-70 years in mixed agricultural-urban landscapes of the Thames Basin, UK, the Yangtze Basin, China, and the rural Maumee Basin, USA. Fluxes of phosphorus in fertilizer, harvested crops, food waste and sewage dominate over the river fluxes. Since the late 1990s, net exports from the Thames and Maumee Basins have exceeded inputs, suggesting net mobilization of the phosphorus pool accumulated in earlier decades. In contrast, the Yangtze Basin has consistently accumulated phosphorus since 1980. Infrastructure modifications such as sewage treatment and dams may explain more recent declines in total phosphorus fluxes from the Thames and Yangtze Rivers. We conclude that human-dominated river basins may undergo a prolonged but finite accumulation phase when phosphorus inputs exceed agricultural demand, and this accumulated phosphorus may continue to mobilize long after inputs decline.

  2. EVALUATING POINT-NONPOINT SOURCE WATER QUALITY TRADING IN A RARITAN RIVER BASIN SUB-WATERSHED

    This project addresses water quality issues in the Raritan River Basin of New Jersey. It will build upon an existing study that determined the technical feasibility of implementing a point-nonpoint source water quality trading program in the Basin. Water quality trading is ...

  3. Originality of Foreign Language Teaching Technologies in Higher Educational Establishments of the Danube River Basin Countries

    Olga Demchenko

    2014-01-01

    The article is aimed at investigating the originality of foreign language teaching technologies in higher educational establishments of the Danube river basin countries. Definitions of teaching technologies, typology of some foreign language teaching technologies, analysis of activity learning technologies are given. The stress is made on the importance of competence and communicative approaches in Maritime English teaching in the Danube basin higher educational establishments.

  4. Radon Concentration in the Cataniapo-Autana River Basin, Amazonas State, Venezuela

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Greaves, E. D.; Alvarez, H.; Liendo, J.; Vásquez, G.

    2007-10-01

    Radon activity concentration is measured in rivers of the Autana-Cataniapo hydrologic basin. The region experiments mining and it is forecasted that the basin will be perturbed. Radon activity monitoring is one of the methods to measure environmental changes. Values of radon concentration in water range between 0.4 and 30 Bq L-1.

  5. OVERVIEW OF THE MARK TWAIN LAKE/SALT RIVER BASIN CONSERVATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT

    The Mark Twain Lake/Salt River Basin was selected as one of 12 USDA-Agricultural Research Service benchmark watersheds for the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) because of documented soil and water quality problems and broad stakeholder interest. The basin is located in northeastern Mis...

  6. The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Monocentric and Polycentric River Basin Management

    Bruce Lankford

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two contemporary theories of river basin management are compared. One is centralised 'regulatory river basin management' with an apex authority that seeks hydrometric data and nationally agreed standards and procedures in decisions over water quality and allocation. This model is commonplace and can be identified in many water training curricula and derivatives of basin management policy. The other, 'polycentric river basin management', is institutionally, organisationally and geographically more decentralised, emphasising local, collective ownership and reference to locally agreed standards. The polycentric model is constructed from the creation of appropriate managerial subunits within river basins. This model emphasises the deployment of hydrologists, scientists and other service providers as mediating agents of environmental and institutional transformation, tackling issues arising within and between the basin subunits such as water allocation and distribution, productivity improvement and conflict resolution. Significantly, it considers water allocation between subunits rather than between sectors and to do this promulgates an experimental, step-wise pragmatic approach, building on local ideas to make tangible progress in basins where data monitoring is limited, basin office resources are constrained and regulatory planning has stalled. To explore these issues, the paper employs the 'Cathedral and Bazaar' metaphor of Eric Raymond. The discussion is informed by observations from Tanzania, Nigeria and the UK.

  7. Use of Precipitation - Runoff Models to Generate Hydrologic Scenarios in a High-altitude Andean Basin of the Ecuadorian Amazon Region. Case study of the Quijos River Basin.

    Galarraga, R.; McClain, M.; Ortega, F.; Estacio, A.; Febres, A.

    2007-05-01

    Little is known of the hydrology and meteorology of the expansive Andean Amazon region in South America, which extends for approximately 600.000 Km2 and represents around the 10% of the total Amazon region. Climatic processes that occur in the Andean part of the Amazon influence the middle and lower parts of the Amazon Region. Consequently, there is a need to understand the hydro-climatic characteristics in the high lands of the Andean Amazon. Understanding hydrologic processes in the Andean Amazon is challenged by the lack of hydro meteorological data at all levels. Especially challenging is the absence of data at the appropriate scale for adequate calibration and verification of mathematical models, mainly for understanding precipitation - runoff of high altitude watersheds located on the western most part of the Amazon. The study area is located on the upper part of the Napo River named the Quijos river basin after the junction of the Oyacachi River with a surface area of about 2.500,00 Km2. It is composed mainly of high altitude lands named Paramo, Andean grass lands, primary cloudy forest known for their high water retention and regulatory capacity. The models used in the Quijos river basin in the upper part of the Amazon region of Ecuador are precipitation-runoff models widely used around the world. The Simulator for Water Resources in Rural Basins - Water Quality (SWRRBWQ ) (Arnold et. al. 1990, Williams et. al. 1985), works on a daily time steps basis with daily values of meteorological data both observed in the field or generated by the model, and by sub diving the main basin into a suitable number of sub basins with a meteorological station in it The second model used is the Hydrologic Modeling System from the Hydrologic Engineering Center which is a precipitation - runoff model run at a daily basis as well. Input data sets are basic climate data as precipitation, evapotranspiration, temperature, relative humidity basin wide at daily basis; land cover, soil type, soil characteristics, hydrographic characteristics, as well as registered discharge information in several control points of the basin, that were used for calibration purposes. Several runs of the models were done in order to assess parameter sensibility of the models using appropriate parameter for each case. Calibration for the two models were done for a period where enough information exists even though the time record for verification purposes is well ahead of time so it is assumed that basin wide conditions have not change in time. Three hydrologic scenarios for future discharge prediction based on conservation policies, urbanization, deforestation, or land use change on the area were generated by using HEC-HMS model for the January 1984 - December 1987 period because of its better performance in comparison to the SWRRBWQ model. Scenarios one and two showed almost no difference with the original discharge but scenario three showed an increase in water discharge with time. Results show that in high altitude basins the HEC-HMS performs better than SWRRBWQ model in determining mainly peak discharges but differed in reproducing the total volume of run-off, keeping a good agreement to reproduce seasonality patterns of water discharge. Better information of basin wide characteristics like soil antecedent moisture conditions, land cover, and surface albedo during the calibration period is needed in order to improve model results mainly in volume discharge.

  8. Hydrologic sensitivity of Indian sub-continental river basins to climate change

    Mishra, Vimal; Lilhare, Rajtantra

    2016-04-01

    Climate change may pose profound implications for hydrologic processes in Indian sub-continental river basins. Using downscaled and bias corrected future climate projections and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), we show that a majority of the Indian sub-continental river basins are projected to shift towards warmer and wetter climate in the future. During the monsoon (June to September) season, under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 (8.5), the ensemble mean air temperature is projected to increase by more than 0.5 (0.8), 1.0 (2.0), and 1.5 (3.5) °C in the Near (2010-2039), Mid (2040-2069), and End (2070-2099) term climate, respectively. Moreover, the sub-continental river basins may face an increase of 3-5 °C in the post-monsoon season under the projected future climate. While there is a large intermodel uncertainty, robust increases in precipitation are projected in many sub-continental river basins under the projected future climate especially in the Mid and End term climate. A sensitivity analysis for the Ganges and Godavari river basins shows that surface runoff is more sensitive to change in precipitation and temperature than that of evapotranspiration (ET). An intensification of the hydrologic cycle in the Indian sub-continental basins is evident in the projected future climate. For instance, for Mid and End term climate, ET is projected to increase up to 10% for the majority of the river basins under both RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. During the monsoon season, ensemble mean surface runoff is projected to increase more than 40% in 11 (15) basins under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) scenarios by the end of the 21st century. Moreover, streamflow is projected to increase more than 40% in 8 (9) basins during the monsoon season under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) scenarios. Results show that water availability in the sub-continental river basins is more sensitive towards changes in the monsoon season precipitation rather than air temperature. While in the majority of the sub-continental river basins, water availability is projected to increase, spatial and temporal (interannual) variability in the monsoon season precipitation under the projected future climate may play a significant role. Changes in the hydrologic processes under the projected future climate indicate that substantial efforts may be required to develop water management strategies in the Indian sub-continental river basins in the future.

  9. Assessment of Climate Change Effects on Water Resources in the Yellow River Basin, China

    Zhiyong Wu; Heng Xiao; Guihua Lu; Jinming Chen

    2015-01-01

    The water resources in the Yellow River basin (YRB) are vital to social and economic development in North and Northwest China. The basin has a marked continental monsoon climate and its water resources are especially vulnerable to climate change. Projected runoff in the basin for the period from 2001 to 2030 was simulated using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model. VIC was first calibrated using observations and then was driven by the precipitation and temperatu...

  10. Complexity analysis of precipitation in changing environment in Chien River Basin, China

    Qing-hua LUAN; Wang, Hao; Da-zhong XIA

    2011-01-01

    The hydrologic process influenced by the multi-action of climate, geography, vegetation and human activities becomes more and more complex, which is the important characteristic of hydrologic system. The different complexity distributions of precipitation process of Chien River Basin (sub-basin of MinChiang Basin) in two periods(one is from 1952 to 1980 and the other is from 1981 to 2009) are illustrated respectively in this paper in which the fractal based on Continuous Wavelet Transform (CW...

  11. Relationship between River Flow, Rainfall and Groundwater pumpage in Mikkes Basin (Morocco)

    K. Belhassan

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between river flow, rainfall and groundwater pumpage in the Mikkes stream during the period 1968-2009. The Mikkes basin is located in the north center of Morocco and consists of three different zones that represent diversified geologies. This basin includes a phreatic and confined aquifer in Saïs basin and a shallow aquifer in the Tabular Middle Atlas. Analysis of monthly medium flows between 1968 and 2009 shows an approximate oceanic system which is c...

  12. Comparing impacts of climate change on streamflow in four large African river basins

    Aich, V.; Liersch, S.; T. Vetter; Huang, S; J. Tecklenburg; Hoffmann, P.; Koch, H; S. Fournet; V. Krysanova; E. N. Mller; F. F. Hattermann

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to compare impacts of climate change on streamflow in four large representative African river basins: the Niger, the Upper Blue Nile, the Oubangui and the Limpopo. We set up the eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) for all four basins individually. The validation of the models for four basins shows results from adequate to very good, depending on the quality and availability of input and calibration data. For the climate impact...

  13. Comparing impacts of climate change on streamflow in four large African river basins

    Aich, V.; Liersch, S.; T. Vetter; Huang, S; J. Tecklenburg; Hoffmann, P.; Koch, H; S. Fournet; V. Krysanova; E. N. Mller; F. F. Hattermann

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare impacts of climate change on streamflow in four large representative African river basins: the Niger, the Upper Blue Nile, the Ubangi and the Limpopo. We set up the eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) for all four basins individually. The validation of the models for four basins shows results from adequate to very good, depending on the quality and availability of input (observed climate...

  14. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screens Evaluations, 2006 Annual Report.

    Chamness, Mickie; Abernethy, Scott; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated Gardena Farms, Little Walla Walla, and Garden City/Lowden II Phase II fish screen facilities and provided underwater videography beneath a leaking rubber dam in the Walla Walla River basin in 2006. Evaluations of the fish screen facilities took place in early May 2006, when juvenile salmonids are generally outmigrating. At the Gardena Farms site, extended high river levels caused accumulations of debris and sediment in the forebay. This debris covered parts of the bottom drum seals, which could lead to early deterioration of the seals and drum screen. Approach velocities were excessive at the upstream corners of most of the drums, leading to 14% of the total approach velocities exceeding 0.4 feet per second (ft/s). Consequently, the approach velocities did not meet National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design criteria guidelines for juvenile fish screens. The Little Walla Walla site was found to be in good condition, with all approach, sweep, and bypass velocities within NMFS criteria. Sediment buildup was minor and did not affect the effectiveness of the screens. At Garden City/Lowden II, 94% of approach velocities met NMFS criteria of 0.4 ft/s at any time. Sweep velocities increased toward the fish ladder. The air-burst mechanism appears to keep large debris off the screens, although it does not prevent algae and periphyton from growing on the screen face, especially near the bottom of the screens. In August 2006, the Gardena Farm Irrigation District personnel requested that we look for a leak beneath the inflatable rubber dam at the Garden City/Lowden II site that was preventing water movement through the fish ladder. Using our underwater video equipment, we were able to find a gap in the sheet piling beneath the dam. Erosion of the riverbed was occurring around this gap, allowing water and cobbles to move beneath the dam. The construction engineers and irrigation district staff were able to use the video footage to resolve the problem within a couple weeks. We had hoped to also evaluate the effectiveness of modifications to louvers behind the Nursery Bridge screens when flows were higher than 350 cubic feet per second, (cfs) but were unable to do so. Based on the one measurement made in early 2006 after the modified louvers were set, it appears the modified louvers may help reduce approach velocities. The auxiliary supply water system gates also control water through the screens. Evaluating the effect of different combinations of gate and louver positions on approach velocities through the screens may help identify optimum settings for both at different river discharges.

  15. Thallium distribution in sediments from the Pearl river basin, China

    Liu, Juan [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Qi, Jianying [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Lippold, Holger [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Chunlin [Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2010-10-15

    Thallium (Tl) is a rare element of high toxicity. Sediments sampled in three representative locations near industries utilizing Tl-containing raw materials from the Pearl River Basin, China were analyzed for their total Tl contents and the Tl contents in four sequentially extracted fractions (i.e., weak acid exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fraction). The results reveal that the total Tl contents (1.25-19.1 {mu}g/g) in the studied sediments were slightly high to quite high compared with those in the Chinese background sediments. This indicates the apparent Tl contamination of the investigated sediments. However, with respect to the chemical fractions, Tl is mainly associated with the residual fraction (>60%) of the sediments, especially of those from the mining area of Tl-bearing pyrite minerals, indicating the relatively low mobility, and low bioavailability of Tl in these sediments. This obviously contrasts with the previous findings that Tl is mainly entrapped in the first three labile fractions of the contaminated samples. Possible reasons were given for the dominating association of Tl with the residual fraction (>95%) of the mining area sediments. The significant role of certain K-containing silicates or minerals of these sediments on retaining Tl in the residual fraction, discovered by this study, provides a special field of research opportunity for the Tl-containing wastewater treatment. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Sinos River Hydrographic Basin: urban occupation, industrialization and environmental memory.

    Nunes, M F; Figueiredo, J A S; Rocha, A L C

    2015-12-01

    This article presents an analysis of the process of industrialization and urbanization of the Sinos Valley in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, starting from the establishment of leather goods and footwear manufacturing in the region during the 19th century when tanneries and factories producing footwear and/or components for footwear began to appear, and with special attention to aspects related to the environmental impact on the Sinos river hydrographic basin. The article is based on both bibliographic and documentary research and also draws on biographical narratives of workers with links to the leather goods and footwear industry obtained using ethnographic method. It was found that contemporary environmental conflicts emerge from within a memory of work and an environmental memory in which the factories, the unplanned urbanization, and the utilization of water and other natural resources form a chain of significance. Significance that precludes any form of fragmented analysis that isolates any of these aspects from the others: the economic, socio-historic, cultural, political, or the environmental. PMID:26815938

  17. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003

    Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2004-05-01

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  18. Pesticides in the Ebro River basin: Occurrence and risk assessment.

    Ccanccapa, Alexander; Masiá, Ana; Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 50 pesticides were analyzed in the Ebro River basin in 2010 and 2011 to assess their impact in water, sediment and biota. A special emphasis was placed on the potential effects of both, individual pesticides and their mixtures, in three trophic levels (algae, daphnia and fish) using Risk Quotients (RQs) and Toxic Units (TUs) for water and sediments. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and carbendazim were the most frequent in water (95, 95 and 70% of the samples, respectively). Imazalil (409.73 ng/L) and diuron (150 ng/L) were at the highest concentrations. Sediment and biota were less contaminated. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and diclofenthion were the most frequent in sediments (82, 45 and 21% of the samples, respectively). The only pesticide detected in biota was chlorpyrifos (up to 840.2 ng g(-1)). Ecotoxicological risk assessment through RQs showed that organophosphorus and azol presented high risk for algae; organophosphorus, benzimidazoles, carbamates, juvenile hormone mimic and other pesticides for daphnia, and organophosphorus, azol and juvenile hormone mimics for fish. The sum TUsite for water and sediments showed values pesticide residues present. PMID:26802514

  19. SWAT Model of Etowah River Basin Phosphorus Transport

    Radcliffe, D. E.; Lin, Z.

    2005-12-01

    The Etowah River Basin forms the watershed of Lake Allatoona in North Georgia. Lake Allatoona is classified as in transition to eutrophic and the state has placed a cap on annual phosphorus (P) loads to the lake. Our objective was to develop a watershed-scale model of P transport to Lake Allatoona using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We used the Parameter Estimator (PEST) software for auto-calibration of daily water flow and manual calibration for SS and P concentrations. We also used PEST to conduct a sensitivity analysis. PEST did an excellent job of calibrating flow, although there was a tendency to under-predict peak flow during storms. There was a tendency to under-predict base-flow concentrations of SS and P and it was difficult to judge how well the model was calibrated for storm SS and P predictions due to the sparse observed data set. The most sensitive parameters for predicting P yield were two hydrologic parameters (one of which was curve number) followed by 3 parameters related to P in soil. Sediment-related parameters were also among the 10 most sensitive parameters.

  20. Geologic Storage at the Basin Scale: Region-Based Basin Modeling, Powder River Basin (PRB), NE Wyoming and SE Montana

    Melick, J. J.; Gardner, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage from the over 2000 power plants is estimated at 3-5 GT/yr, which requires large- scale geologic storage of greenhouse gasses in sedimentary basins. Unfortunately, determination of basin scale storage capacity is currently based on oversimplified geologic models that are difficult to validate. Simplification involves reducing the number of geologic parameters incorporated into the model, modeling with large grid cells, and treatment of subsurface reservoirs as homogeneous media. The latter problem reflects the focus of current models on fluid and/or fluid-rock interactions rather than fluid movement and migration pathways. For example, homogeneous models over emphasize fluid behavior, like the buoyancy of super-critical CO2, and hence overestimate leakage rates. Fluid mixing and fluid-rock interactions cannot be assessed with models that only investigate these reactions at a human time scale. Preliminary and conservative estimates of the total pore volume for the PRB suggest 200 GT of supercritical CO2 can be stored in this typical onshore sedimentary basin. The connected pore volume (CPV) however is not included in this estimate. Geological characterization of the CPV relates subsurface storage units to the most prolific reservoir classes (RCs). The CPV, number of well penetrations, supercritical storage area, and potential leakage pathways characterize each RC. Within each RC, a hierarchy of stratigraphic cycles is populated with stationary sedimentation regions that control rock property distributions by correlating environment of deposition (EOD) to CPV. The degree to which CPV varies between RCs depends on the geology and attendant heterogeneity retained in the fluid flow model. Region-based modeling of the PRB incorporates 28000 wells correlated across a 70,000 Km2 area, 2 km thick on average. Within this basin, five of the most productive RCs were identified from production history and placed in a fourfold stratigraphic framework (second- through fourth-order cycles). Within the small- scale 4th-order sequences (30-150-m thick, 16 total), sedimentation regions, each corresponding to an EOD, are defined by thickness, lithology and core-calibrated well-log patterns. This talk illustrates the workflow by focusing on one of the 16 layers in the basin-scale model. Isopach maps from this sample layer conform to depositional patterns confirmed through definition of five core-calibrated, well-log defined sedimentation regions. Lithology distributions also conform to thickness trends in nearshore deltas, but not in offshore regions, where sand-rich and sheet-like, but thin-bedded sandstones are flanked by mud-rich intervals of equivalent thickness. These maps represent sedimentation patterns confined by basal erosional sequence boundary and basin-wide bentonite, yet containing up to seven high-frequency sequence boundaries. To illustrate over simplification problems in this same layer, a 14000 km2 sample area is 600 km3 and using standard averaging methods, which are considered to be geologic in origin, the CPV is 16 km3. However, averaging increases connectivity with high CPV more uniformly distributed; significantly, the key mud belt region separating nearshore from offshore sandstones is not represented. Region-based modeling of this layer yields 13 km3 (110 Bbl). Furthermore, significant vertical leakage may exist from the 20000 well penetrations and faults and fractures along the western basin margin. This example illustrates the importance of accurately characterizing heterogeneity and distributing CPV using sedimentation regions.

  1. Lumped conceptual hydrological model for Purna river basin, India

    V D Loliyana; P L Patel

    2015-12-01

    In present study, a lumped conceptual hydrological model, NAM (MIKE11), is calibrated while optimizing the runoff simulations on the basis of minimization of percentage water balance (% WBL) and root mean square error (RMSE) using measured stream flow data of eight years from 1991 to 1998 for Yerli catchment (area = 15,701 km2) of upper Tapi basin, Maharashtra in Western India. The sensitivity of runoff volume and peak-runoff has been undertaken with reference to nine NAM parameters using the data of calibration period. The runoff volume and peak-runoff have been found to be highly sensitive with reference to maximum water content in root zone storage (Lmax) and overland flow coefficient (CQOF) respectively. On the other hand, runoff volume is found to be moderately sensitive with maximum water content in surface storage (Umax). The calibrated model has been validated for independent stream flow data of Yerli gauging site for years 2001–2004, and Gopalkheda gauging site for years 1991–1998 and 2001–2004. The model performance has been assessed using statistical performance indices, and compared the same with their yardsticks suggested in published literature. The simulated results demonstrated that calibrated model is able to simulate hydrographs satisfactorily for Yerli (NSE = 0.86–0.88, r = 0.93–0.96, EI = 1.05–1.12) as well as Gopalkheda subcatchments (NSE = 0.76–0.92 and r = 0.88–0.96, EI = 0.89–0.91) at monthly time scale. The model also performs reasonably well in simulating the annual hydrographs at daily time scale. The calibrated model may be useful in prediction of water yield and flooding conditions in the Purna catchment.

  2. Groundwater quality in the Chemung River, Eastern Lake Ontario, and Lower Hudson River Basins, New York, 2013

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Reddy, James E.

    2015-01-01

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, water samples were collected from 4 production wells and 4 domestic wells in the Chemung River Basin, 8 production wells and 7 domestic wells in the Eastern Lake Ontario Basin, and 12 production wells and 13 domestic wells in the Lower Hudson River Basin (south of the Federal Lock and Dam at Troy) in New York. All samples were collected in June, July, and August 2013 to characterize groundwater quality in these basins. The samples were collected and processed using standard USGS procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  3. K East basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system

    This document provides estimates of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel elements and in the fuel storage canisters in K East Basin. The original estimates were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. Revision 1 revised the volume estimates of sludge from processing of the fuel elements based on additional data from evaluations of material from the KE Basin fuel subsurface examinations. A nominal Working Estimate and an upper level Working Bound is developed for the canister sludge and the fuel wash sludge components in the KE Basin

  4. The Role of Cooperation and Information Exchange in Transnational River Basins: the Zambezi River case

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of multiple, institutionally independent but physically interconnected decision-makers is a distinctive features of many water resources systems, especially of transnational river basins. The adoption of a centralized approach to study the optimal operation of these systems, as mostly done in the water resources literature, is conceptually interesting to quantify the best achievable performance, but of little practical impact given the real political and institutional setting. Centralized management indeed assumes a cooperative attitude and full information exchange by the involved parties. However, when decision-makers belong to different countries or institutions, it is very likely that they act considering only their local objectives, producing global externalities that negatively impact on other objectives. In this work we adopt a Multi-Agent Systems framework, which naturally allows to represent a set of self-interested agents (decision-makers and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision-making process. According to this agent-based approach, each agent represents a decision-maker, whose decisions are defined by an explicit optimization problem considering only the agent's local interests. In particular, this work assesses the role of information exchange and increasing level of cooperation among originally non-cooperative agents. The Zambezi River basin is used to illustrate the methodology: the four largest reservoirs in the basin (Ithezhithezhi, Kafue-Gorge, Kariba and Cahora Bassa) are mainly operated for maximizing the economic revenue from hydropower energy production with considerably negative effects on the aquatic ecosystem in the Zambezi delta due to the alteration of the natural flow regime. We comparatively analyse the ideal centralized solution and the current situation where all the decision-makers act independently and non-cooperatively. Indeed, although a new basin-level institution called Zambezi Watercourse Commission (ZAMCON) should be established in the next future, Zambia recently refused to sign and ratify the ZAMCON Protocol and the road toward a fully cooperative framework is still long. Results show that increasing levels of information exchange can help in mitigating the conflict generated by a non-cooperative setting as it allows the downstream agents, i.e. Mozambique country, to better adapt to the upstream management strategies. Furthermore, the role of information exchange depends on the considered objectives and it is particularly relevant for environmental interests.

  5. The Zambezi River Basin : A Multi-Sector Investment Opportunities Analysis - Modeling, Analysis, and Input Data

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    The Zambezi River Basin (ZRB) is one of the most diverse and valuable natural resources in Africa. Its waters are critical to sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction in the region. The overall objective of the Zambezi River Multi-Sector Investment Opportunity Analysis (MSIOA) is to illustrate the benefits of cooperation among the riparian countries in the ZRB through a multi-sect...

  6. The Zambezi River Basin : A Multi-Sector Investment Opportunities Analysis - Summary Report

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    The Zambezi River Basin (ZRB) is one of the most diverse and valuable natural resources in Africa. Its waters are critical to sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction in the region. The overall objective of the Zambezi River Multi-Sector Investment Opportunity Analysis (MSIOA) is to illustrate the benefits of cooperation among the riparian countries in the ZRB through a multi-sect...

  7. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1998.

    Blanton, S.L.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1999-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River.

  8. Washington Phase II fish diversion screen evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1998

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River

  9. Analysis of river regime and water balance in the ?etinja River Basin

    Milijaevi? Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water regime and water balance of the ?etinja River were analysed in this paper on the basis of a thirty-year data series on water level and discharge in the period from 1978 to 2008. The analysis of the ?etinja water level showed the mean annual water level of 53 cm in the mentioned period, whereas the lowest mean monthly water levels were in August, and the maximum mean monthly water levels in March and April. The average mean annual discharge of the ?etinja near engolj was 5.60 m3/s of the observation period 1978-2008. The annual value of the average discharges was similar to the annual value of the mean monthly low and high waters. It has been concluded that the ?etinja River belongs to the moderate-continental variance of the pluvial-nival regime. The results of the research have shown that about 5.60 m3/s of water is formed in the ?etinja Basin with specific runoff of 10.95 l/s/km2. Even though precipitation is not so low and ranges around 875 mm per year, the amount of the river inflow is smaller due to high evaporation of over 60%. Considering that the engolj hydrological station has been situated at 8.2 km from the mouth, and the station Stapari stopped working in 2002, there is an opinion that it would be significant to put the hydrological station in the part of the river course, as well as on larger tributaries. .

  10. Documentation of input datasets for the soil-water balance groundwater recharge model of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5 million acres of farmland, and generating about 12 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power annually. The Upper Colorado River Basin, encompassing more than 110,000 square miles (mi2), contains the headwaters of the Colorado River (also known as the River) and is an important source of snowmelt runoff to the River. Groundwater discharge also is an important source of water in the River and its tributaries, with estimates ranging from 21 to 58 percent of streamflow in the upper basin. Planning for the sustainable management of the Colorado River in future climates requires an understanding of the Upper Colorado River Basin groundwater system. This report documents input datasets for a Soil-Water Balance groundwater recharge model that was developed for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  11. COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS TO PREDICT ANNUAL SEDIMENT YIELD IN CARONI RIVER BASIN, VENEZUELA

    Edilberto Guevara-Pérez; Adriana M. Márquez

    2007-01-01

    Caroní River Basin is located in the south-eastern part of Venezuela; with an area of 92.000 km², 40% of which belongs to the main affluent, the Paragua River. Caroní basin is the source of 66% of energy of the country. About 85% of the hydro electrical energy is generated in Guri reservoir located in the lower part of the watershed. To take provisions to avoid the reservoir silting it is very important the study of sediment yield of the basin. In this paper result of three empirical sediment...

  12. Groundwater quality in the Delaware and St. Lawrence River Basins, New York, 2010

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 10 production and domestic wells in the Delaware River Basin in New York and from 20 production and domestic wells in the St. Lawrence River Basin in New York from August through November 2010 to characterize groundwater quality in the basins. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  13. HAZARDS, VULNERABILITY AND ASSOCIATED HYDROLOGICAL RISKS IN THE HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN OF THE RIVER UZ, TRIBUTARY OF THE RIVER TROTUŞ

    MIFTODE IOANA DELIA

    2015-01-01

    As a consequence of the climatic change that has occurred in the last decade, the number of occurrences of extreme phenomena, follows an increasing trend with material and human casualties. The prevention of flash floods requires the complex and paramount importance action of responsible agencies. The river Uz is one of the most important tributaries of the Trotuş River; its basin has a high density hydrographical network. Using the data from the Basin Water Administration, Siret – Bacău, it ...

  14. Elements for an integrated resource planning in the framework of river basins: a study for the Cuiaba River Basin; Elementos para um planejamento integrado de recursos no ambito de bacias hidrograficas: um estudo para a bacia do rio Cuiaba

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: ildorileo@sigmanet.com.br, e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    A new approach in energy planning in Brazil, IRP - Integrated Resources Planning for River Basins, gathers three main determinants of development: water, electricity and piped gas. This paper argues, briefly, the need of this planning, of indicative character, integrated with the River Basin Plans, and it presents a retrospective analysis concerning water, electricity and LPG demands of the economy sectors from Cuiaba River Basin region, priority elements to aid the prospective studies and to carry out process related to the IRP. (author)

  15. Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies

    Bernhard Barraqu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

  16. Interactions between ground water and surface water in the Suwannee River basin, Florida

    Katz, B.G.; DeHan, R.S.; Hirten, J.J.; Catches, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water and surface water constitute a single dynamic system in roost parts of the Suwannee River basin due to the presence of karat features that facilitate the interaction between the surface and subsurface. Low radon-222 concentrations (below background levels) and enriched amounts of oxygen-18 and deuterium in ground water indicate mixing with surface water in parts of the basin. Comparison of surface water and regional ground water flow patterns indicate that boundaries for ground water basins typically do not coincide with surface water drainage subbasins. There are several areas in the basin where ground water flow that originates outside of the Suwannee River basin crosses surface water basin boundaries during both low-flow and high-flow conditions. In a study area adjacent to the Suwannee River that consists predominantly of agricultural land use, 18 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer and 7 springs were sampled three times during 1990 through 1994 for major dissolved inorganic constituents, trace elements, and nutrients. During a period of above normal rainfall that resulted in high river stage and high ground water levels in 1991, the combination of increased amounts of dissolved organic carbon and decreased levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water created conditions favorable for the natural reduction of nitrate by denitrification reactions in the aquifer. As a result, less nitrate was discharged by ground water to the Suwannee River.

  17. Assessing Management Regimes in Transboundary River Basins: Do They Support Adaptive Management?

    Eduard Interwies

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper presents such an overview, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management.

  18. Mapping and Assessment of Degraded Land in the Heihe River Basin, Arid Northwestern China

    Yumin Cai

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the aridinland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects ofenvironmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resourceutilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, suchas its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based onfield observations and TM images from the year 2003, this study provides classificationand evaluation information concerning the degraded land in the basin of the Heihe River.There are five types of degraded land types in the Heihe River Basin: water eroded in thesouthern mountains, sandified and vegetation degraded near the oases, aridized in the lowreaches, and salinized in the lowlands. The total degraded area covers 29,355.5 km2,22.58% of the land in the study area. Finally, degraded land in the Heihe River Basin wasevaluated according to changes in the physical structure and chemical components of soils,land productivity, secondary soil salt, and water conditions.

  19. Spatial and temporal variations in the occurrences of wet periods over major river basins in India

    N R Deshpande; N Singh

    2010-10-01

    This study highlights the hydro-climatic features of the five wet periods contributing in different percentages to the annual rainfall total over major river basins in India.Spatial and temporal variations in the parameters such as starting date,duration and rainfall intensity of these wet periods throughout India have been discussed using daily gridded rainfall data for the period 1951 –2007.An attempt is also made here,to assess the impact of global SSTs on the start and duration of the wet periods in Indian river basins. It is observed that,for almost all river basins in India,the 10%wet period occurs in the months of July/August with an average duration of 1 –3 days and rainfall intensity varying from 44 to 89 mm/day.The duration of the wet period contributing 90%to the annual rainfall varies from 112 days in the central parts of India to 186 days in the northern parts of the country.Signi ficant increase in the rainfall intensity has been observed in the case of some river basins of central India. The late start of 75%wet period along the West Coast and in peninsular river basins has been observed with increase in Nino 3.4 SSTs (MAM),while increase in the duration of the 75%wet period over the Krishna basin is associated with increase in Nino 3.4 SSTs (concurrent JJAS).

  20. Comprehensive flood mitigation and management in the Chi River Basin, Thailand

    Kunitiyawichai, K.; Schultz, B.; Uhlenbrook, S.; F. X. Suryadi; Corzo, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Severe flooding of the flat downstream area of the Chi River Basin occurs frequently. This flooding is causing catastrophic loss of human lives, damage and economic loss. Effective flood management requires a broad and practical approach. Although flood disasters cannot completely be prevented, major part of potential loss of lives and damages can be reduced by comprehensive mitigation measures. In this paper, the effects of river normalisation, reservoir operation, green river (bypass), and ...

  1. Salinity management in river basins; modelling and management of the salt-affected Jarreh reservoir (Iran).

    Shiati, K.

    1991-01-01

    The sources and origin of salts in the basin of the two salt- affected Shapur and Dalaki rivers (Southern Iran) and the processes involved in salinization have been studied. The extent of water deterioration have been identified by examining spatial changes in the rivers water quality. Among salinity management measures pertaining to water quality, the engineering measures are investigated. It appears that the construction and management of the planned Jarreh Reservoir on the Shapur River is ...

  2. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Transboundary River Basin: The Case of Tonle Sap Lake, Mekong River Basin

    Marko Keskinen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The water-energy-food nexus is promoted as a new approach for research and policy-making. But what does the nexus mean in practice and what kinds of benefits does it bring? In this article we share our experiences with using a nexus approach in Cambodia’s Tonle Sap Lake area. We conclude that water, energy and food security are very closely linked, both in the Tonle Sap and in the transboundary Mekong River Basin generally. The current drive for large-scale hydropower threatens water and food security at both local and national scales. Hence, the nexus provides a relevant starting point for promoting sustainable development in the Mekong. We also identify and discuss two parallel dimensions for the nexus, with one focusing on research and analysis and the other on integrated planning and cross-sectoral collaboration. In our study, the nexus approach was particularly useful in facilitating collaboration and stakeholder engagement. This was because the nexus approach clearly defines the main themes included in the process, and at the same time widens the discussion from mere water resource management into the broader aspects of water, energy and food security.

  3. Contaminants of emerging concern in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, 2008-11

    Wagner, Richard J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Sevigny, Jennifer M.; Pope, Judy M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of discrete water-quality samples were collected in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin near the city of Arlington, Washington, through a partnership with the Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians. These samples included surface waters of the Stillaguamish River, adjacent tributary streams, and paired inflow and outflow sampling at three wastewater treatment plants in the lower river basin. Chemical analysis of these samples focused on chemicals of emerging concern, including wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and halogenated organic compounds on solids and sediment. This report presents the methods used and data results from the chemical analysis of these samples.

  4. On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin

    N. Sh. Chen; G. Sh. Hu; Deng, W.; N. Khanal; Zhu, Y. H.; Han, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, soil erosion and sedimentatio...

  5. Pb-Zn-Cd-Hg multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    Millot, R.; Widory, D.; Innocent, C.; Guerrot, C.; Bourrain, X.; Johnson, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition (major ions and pollutants such as metals) of the dissolved load of rivers. Furthermore, this influence can also be evidenced in the suspended solid matter known to play an important role in the transport of heavy metals through river systems. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. Initially, the Loire upstream flows in a south to north direction originating in the Massif Central, and continues up to the city of Orlans, 650 km from the source. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The Loire River then follows a general east to west direction to the Atlantic Ocean. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for heavy metals Zn-Cd-Pb-Hg in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for these metals for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. The main objective of this study is to characterize the sources and the behavior of these heavy metals in the aquatic environment, and their spatial distribution using a multi-isotope approach. Each of these isotope systematics on their own reveals important information about their geogenic or anthropogenic origin but, considered together, provide a more integrated understanding of the budgets of these pollutants within the Loire River Basin.

  6. An Integrated Decision Support System for Water Quality Management of Songhua River Basin

    Zhang, Haiping; Yin, Qiuxiao; Chen, Ling

    2010-11-01

    In the Songhua River Basin of China, many water resource and water environment conflicts interact. A Decision Support System (DSS) for the water quality management has been established for the Basin. The System is featured by the incorporation of a numerical water quality model system into a conventional water quality management system which usually consists of geographic information system (GIS), WebGIS technology, database system and network technology. The model system is built based on DHI MIKE software comprising of a basin rainfall-runoff module, a basin pollution load evaluation module, a river hydrodynamic module and a river water quality module. The DSS provides a friendly graphical user interface that enables the rapid and transparent calculation of various water quality management scenarios, and also enables the convenient access and interpretation of the modeling results to assist the decision-making.

  7. Regional Flood Frequency Analysis in the Volta River Basin, West Africa

    Kossi Komi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Volta River Basin, flooding has been one of the most damaging natural hazards during the last few decades. Therefore, flood frequency estimates are important for disaster risk management. This study aims at improving knowledge of flood frequencies in the Volta River Basin using regional frequency analysis based on L-moments. Hence, three homogeneous groups have been identified based on cluster analysis and a homogeneity test. By using L-moment diagrams and goodness of fit tests, the generalized extreme value and the generalized Pareto distributions are found suitable to yield accurate flood quantiles in the Volta River Basin. Finally, regression models of the mean annual flood with the size of the drainage area, mean basin slope and mean annual rainfall are proposed to enable flood frequency estimation of ungauged sites within the study area.

  8. Real-time remote sensing driven river basin modeling using radar altimetry

    Pereira Cardenal, Silvio Javier; Riegels, Niels; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Berry, P.A.M.; Smith, R.G.; Yakovlev, A.; Siegfried, T.U.

    2011-01-01

    and reanalysis data. Altimetry data assimilation reduced the mean absolute error of the simulated reservoir water levels from 4.7 to 1.9 m, and overall model RMSE from 10.3 m to 6.7 m. Model performance was variable for the different reservoirs in the system. The RMSE ranged from 10% to 76% of the...... and poorly monitored areas and are increasingly used to force, calibrate, and update hydrological models. In this study, we evaluate the potential of informing a river basin model with real-time radar altimetry measurements over reservoirs. We present a lumped, conceptual, river basin water balance...... reference evapotranspiration was derived from temperature data. The Ensemble Kalman Filter was used to assimilate radar altimetry (ERS2 and Envisat) measurements of reservoir water levels. The modeling approach was applied to the Syr Darya River Basin, a snowmelt-dominated basin with large topographical...

  9. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a...

  10. Hydrochemistry and weathering rates on Corumbata River basin, So Paulo State, Brazil

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Lima, Jorge Luis Nepomuceno de

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThis work was held at the Corumbata River basin that is inserted within the giant Paran sedimentary basin (Paleozoic-Cenozoic) in South America. The Corumbata River is the major river draining the area and its water is extensively used by water supply systems in the basin. Its surface waters were collected at two sampling points, upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, the principal municipality within the basin. We report chemical and radionuclides ( 222Rn and 210Po) analyses for rainwater and river water samples in order to estimate chemical weathering fluxes. All major chemical data indicated poorer conditions of the water quality in Corumbata River after reaching Rio Claro city. However, one very important finding was that the weighted mean of the 210Po activity concentration is the same (0.21 dpm/L) upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, indicating that 210Po is a conservative nuclide. The net output flux in Corumbata River basin estimated from the difference between the total discharge flux and the input flux based on wet precipitation yielded a negative value for polonium as it is a very particle-reactive radionuclide, tending to accumulate into fluvial sediments. The chemical weathering rate (removed material quantity) corresponded to 76.5 t/km 2 yr when Po data in sediments and rocks were utilized in the calculations. This rate is compatible with others determined elsewhere, indicating the usefulness of Po in studies of weathering processes, even in areas characterized by anthropogenic inputs.

  11. Malheur River Basin cooperative bull trout/redband trout research project, annual report FY 1999; ANNUAL

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99

  12. Flathead River Basin Hydrologic Observatory, Northern Rocky Mountains

    Woessner, W. W.; Running, S. W.; Potts, D. F.; Kimball, J. S.; Deluca, T. H.; Fagre, D. B.; Makepeace, S.; Hendrix, M. S.; Lorang, M. S.; Ellis, B. K.; Lafave, J.; Harper, J.

    2004-12-01

    We are proposing the 22, 515 km2 glacially-sculpted Flathead River Basin located in Montana and British Columbia as a Hydrologic Observatory. This hydrologic landscape is diverse and includes large pristine watersheds, rapidly developing intermountain valleys, and a 95 km2 regulated reservoir and 510 km2 lake. The basin has a topographic gradient of over 2,339 m, and spans high alpine to arid climatic zones and a range of biomes. Stream flows are snow-melt dominated and underpinned by groundwater baseflow. The site headwaters contain 37 glaciers and thousands of square kilometers of watersheds in which fire and disease are the only disturbances. In contrast, the HO also contains watersheds at multiple scales that were dominated by glaciers within the last 100 years but are now glacier free, impacted by timber harvests and fires of varying ages to varying degrees, modified by water management practices including irrigation diversion and dams, and altered by development for homes, cities and agriculture. This Observatory provides a sensitive monitor of historic and future climatic shifts, air shed influences and impacts, and the consequences of land and water management practices on the hydrologic system. The HO watersheds are some of the only pristine watersheds left in the contiguous U.S.. They provide critical habitat for key species including the native threaten bull trout and lynx, and the listed western cutthroat trout, bald eagle, gray wolf and the grizzly bear. For the last several thousand years this system has been dominated by snow-melt runoff and moderated by large quantities of water stored in glacial ice. However, the timing and magnitude of droughts and summer flows have changed dramatically. With the information that can be gleaned from sediment cores and landscape records at different scales, this HO provides scientists with opportunities to establish baseline watershed conditions and data on natural hydrologic variability within the system. Such a context frames the current and further observations and assists with translating measured changes into links with the varied HO ecosystems.

  13. Quantitative predictions of streamflow variability in the Susquehanna River Basin

    Alexander, R.; Boyer, E. W.; Leonard, L. N.; Duffy, C.; Schwarz, G. E.; Smith, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrologic researchers and water managers have increasingly sought an improved understanding of the major processes that control fluxes of water and solutes across diverse environmental settings and large spatial scales. Regional analyses of observed streamflow data have led to advances in our knowledge of relations among land use, climate, and streamflow, with methodologies ranging from statistical assessments of multiple monitoring sites to the regionalization of the parameters of catchment-scale mechanistic simulation models. However, gaps remain in our understanding of the best ways to transfer the knowledge of hydrologic response and governing processes among locations, including methods for regionalizing streamflow measurements and model predictions. We developed an approach to predict variations in streamflow using the SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) modeling infrastructure, with mechanistic functions, mass conservation constraints, and statistical estimation of regional and sub-regional parameters. We used the model to predict discharge in the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) under varying hydrological regimes that are representative of contemporary flow conditions. The resulting basin-scale water balance describes mean monthly flows in stream reaches throughout the entire SRB (represented at a 1:100,000 scale using the National Hydrologic Data network), with water supply and demand components that are inclusive of a range of hydrologic, climatic, and cultural properties (e.g., precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil and groundwater storage, runoff, baseflow, water use). We compare alternative models of varying complexity that reflect differences in the number and types of explanatory variables and functional expressions as well as spatial and temporal variability in the model parameters. Statistical estimation of the models reveals the levels of complexity that can be uniquely identified, subject to the information content and uncertainties of the hydrologic and climate measurements. Assessment of spatial variations in the model parameters and predictions provides an improved understanding of how much of the hydrologic response to land use, climate, and other properties is unique to specific locations versus more universally observed across catchments of the SRB. This approach advances understanding of water cycle variability at any location throughout the stream network, as a function of both landscape characteristics (e.g., soils, vegetation, land use) and external forcings (e.g., precipitation quantity and frequency). These improvements in predictions of streamflow dynamics will advance the ability to predict spatial and temporal variability in key solutes, such as nutrients, and their delivery to the Chesapeake Bay.

  14. Regional Cooperation Efforts in the Mekong River Basin: Mitigating river-related security threats and promoting regional development

    Susanne Schmeier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of international rivers is often perceived as leading to conflicts or even water wars. However, as the development of the Mekong River shows, cooperation has not only prevailed in the last decades, but River Basin Organizations (RBOs, established to mitigate river-related conflicts and/or develop the river basin, have also contributed to the emergence of more general cooperation structures, mainly by creating spill-over effects in other issue-areas, bringing cooperation to policy fields beyond the river itself. This article assesses the contribution of the Mekong River Commission (MRC and the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS to the sustainable development of the Mekong Region as well as to the promotion of regional cooperation in mainland South-East Asia in general. --- Die Entwicklung grenzu?berschreitender Flu?sse wird oft mit Konflikten oder gar Kriegen um Wasser assoziiert. Wie jedoch die Entwicklung im Mekong-Becken zeigt, waren die vergangenen Jahrzehnte nicht nur von Kooperation gezeichnet, sondern Flussbeckenorganisationen konnten auerdem dazu beitragen, weitreichendere Kooperationsstrukturen zu entwickeln, die sich auf andere Politikfelder ausdehnen. Dieser Artikel bescha?ftigt sich mit dem Beitrag der Mekong River Commission (MRC und der Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung in der Mekong Region sowie zur Fo?rderung allgemeiner regionaler Kooperation im Festla?ndischen Su?dostasien.

  15. Analysis of efficiency of pollution reduction measures in rural basin using MIKE Basin model. Case study: Olšava River Basin

    Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of testing the applicability of the MIKE Basin model for simulating the effi-ciency of scenarios for reducing water pollution. The model has been tested on the Olšava River Basin (520 km2) which is a typical rural region with a heterogeneous mix of pollution sources with variable topography and land use. The study proved that the model can be calibrated successfully using even the limited amount of data typically available in rural ba-sins. The scenarios of pol...

  16. Working Group “Blue”. Promotion of Low-INput Danube Agriculture in the Mura River Basin (LINDA)

    Diociaiuti, Tommaso; Fatur, Tanja; Gregorič, Asta; Jurecska, Judit Laura; Kulyk, Nataliya; Radmann, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the major sources of pollution of the surface water and groundwater of the Danube River Basin. Lying at the intersection of three countries – Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia, together with its transboundary groundwater body, the Mura River Basin represents a challenging pilot area with extensive agriculture. This project aims to reduce agricultural water pollution in the Mura River Basin by introducing low-input sustainable agriculture. The project will: (a) consolida...

  17. Monitoring of Evapotranspiration in a Semi-Arid Inland River Basin by Combining Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing Observations

    Guangcheng Hu; Li Jia

    2015-01-01

    As a typical inland river basin, Heihe River basin has been experiencing severe water resource competition between different land cover types, especially in the middle stream and downstream areas. Terrestrial actual evapotranspiration (ETa), including evaporation from soil and water surfaces, evaporation of rainfall interception, transpiration of vegetation canopy and sublimation of snow and glaciers, is an important component of the water cycle in the Heihe River basin. We developed a hyb...

  18. Monitoring Land Use/Land Cover Changes in a River Basin due to Urbanization using Remote Sensing and GIS Approach

    S. Shukla; Khire, M. V.; S. S. Gedam

    2014-01-01

    Faster pace of urbanization, industrialization, unplanned infrastructure developments and extensive agriculture result in the rapid changes in the Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) of the sub-tropical river basins. Study of LU/LC transformations in a river basin is crucial for vulnerability assessment and proper management of the natural resources of a river basin. Remote sensing technology is very promising in mapping the LU/LC distribution of a large region on different spatio-temporal s...

  19. Effects of land use change on groundwater recharge. A case study in the Day River Basin, Vietnam.

    Wolf, M.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the potential effects of different land use change scenarios on groundwater recharge in the Day River Basin in Vietnam. The Soil Water and Assessment Tool (SWAT), a spatially distributed model able to predict the environmental impact of land use changes, was applied to the Day River Basin. . Three land use change maps where created, representing three scenarios for the Day River Basin in 2035. Scenario I business as usual (BAU), scenario II ...

  20. Spatiotemporal variations of soil moisture in the Tarim River basin, China

    Su, Buda; Wang, Anqian; Wang, Guojie; Wang, Yanjun; Jiang, Tong

    2016-06-01

    Based on in situ soil moisture and river runoff records in the Tarim River basin, usability of the long term Essential Climate Variable (ECV) soil moisture dataset is validated in the arid climatic region of China. The spatio-temporal variation of soil moisture and its possible influencing factors in the 1988-2013 is also preliminary analyzed in the current paper. Results reveal that the ECV soil moisture can capture the large scale dynamics of regional water cycle quite satisfactorily, showing good agreement with in situ observations in their seasonal and interannual variability. In the period of 1988-2013, the ECV soil moisture shows obvious increasing trends in the northwest and the southwest parts of the Tarim River basin, particularly in spring (March-May) and autumn (September-November). Statistical analysis further suggests that the variations of soil moisture in the Tarim River basin are more controlled by precipitation, and temperature is less effective in controlling of soil moisture variations.

  1. Using radar altimetry to update a large-scale hydrological model of the Brahmaputra river basin

    Finsen, F.; Milzow, Christian; Smith, R.; Berry, P.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of river and lake water levels from space-borne radar altimeters (past missions include ERS, Envisat, Jason, Topex) are useful for calibration and validation of large-scale hydrological models in poorly gauged river basins. Altimetry data availability over the downstream reaches of the...... Brahmaputra is excellent (17 high-quality virtual stations from ERS-2, 6 from Topex and 10 from Envisat are available for the Brahmaputra). In this study, altimetry data are used to update a large-scale Budyko-type hydrological model of the Brahmaputra river basin in real time. Altimetry measurements are...... improved model performance considerably. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency increased from 0.77 to 0.83. Real-time river basin modelling using radar altimetry has the potential to improve the predictive capability of large-scale hydrological models elsewhere on the planet....

  2. Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming

    Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

    1997-12-01

    The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

  3. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Kammerud, Terje Andre

    1997-12-31

    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Soil erosion assessment of a Himalayan river basin using TRMM data

    Pandey, A.; Mishra, S. K.; Gautam, A. K.; Kumar, D.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the soil erosion of a Himalayan river basin, the Karnali basin, Nepal, using rainfall erosivity (R-factor) derived from satellite-based rainfall estimates (TRMM-3B42 V7). Average annual sediment yield was estimated using the well-known Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The eight-year annual average rainfall erosivity factor (R) for the Karnali River basin was found to be 2620.84 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1. Using intensity-erosivity relationships and eight years of the TRMM daily rainfall dataset (1998-2005), average annual soil erosion was also estimated for Karnali River basin. The minimum and maximum values of the rainfall erosivity factor were 1108.7 and 4868.49 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, respectively, during the assessment period. The average annual soil loss of the Karnali River basin was found to be 38.17 t ha-1 year-1. Finally, the basin area was categorized according to the following scale of erosion severity classes: Slight (0 to 5 t ha-1 year-1), Moderate (5 to 10 t ha-1 year-1), High (10 to 20 t ha-1 year-1), Very High (20 to 40 t ha-1 year-1), Severe (40 to 80 t ha-1 year-1) and Very Severe (>80 t ha-1 year-1). About 30.86% of the river basin area was found to be in the slight erosion class. The areas covered by the moderate, high, very high, severe and very severe erosion potential zones were 13.09%, 6.36%, 11.09%, 22.02% and 16.64% respectively. The study revealed that approximately 69% of the Karnali River basin needs immediate attention from a soil conservation point of view.

  5. Using Collaborative Modeling to Inform Policy Decisions in the Bow River Basin

    Sheer, A. S.; Sheer, D. P.; Hill, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Bow River in Alberta, Canada serves a wide range of municipal, agricultural, recreational, and industrial purposes in the province. In 2006, the basin was deemed over-allocation and closed to new licenses. The Calgary region, however, continues to expand. In the next 60 to 70 years, population levels are expected to reach 2.8 million (more than double the current 1.2 million) with 800,000 new jobs. This increasing pressure led several stakeholders to work together in the development of a new management model to improve the management of the system as an integrated watershed. The major previous model of the system allowed only limited flexibility in management, focusing instead on strict license based operations. Over a 6 month period, with numerous multi-party meetings, the group developed the Bow River Operations Model (BROM). Based in OASIS software, this model integrated input from the major water users in the region to emulate the real-life decisions that are actually made on a daily bases, even when technically in violation of the strict license agreements (e.x. junior licensees receiving water despite senior priority due to exceedingly low volume requirements). Using historical records as forecasts, and performance measures developed with the best available science through expert opinion, participants jointly developed a new reservoir operation strategy. Even with such a short timeframe, the BROM exercise showed that there was substantial room for improvement. Utilizing a "Water Bank" of purchased storage, downstream flows could be significantly improved without affecting quality. Additional benefits included fishery improvement, new recreation opportunities, dissolved oxygen improvement during critical periods, and the ability to accommodate long-term demand forecasts for surrounding municipalities. This strategy has been presented to, and favorably received by, the Alberta Minister of Environment for guidance during negotiations with the local hydropower utility. Work continues on implementation and new areas of the basin are being considered for similar processes.

  6. Water Availability in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin and the Middle East from GRACE

    Voss, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lo, M.; de Linage, C.; Swenson, S. C.; Rodell, M.

    2010-12-01

    As water security becomes more tenuous, conflicts and disputes over the appropriate management and allocation of transboundary water resources are sure to arise. In particular, the Middle East faces extreme scarcity as a result of both natural climate variations and the impacts of water management decisions and policies. A recent drought, which began in 2007, caused regional hardships as precious water resources dwindled and collaboration between nations failed to accommodate shared needs. In this work, the area surrounding the Tigris and Euphrates River Basin was selected as a case study to evaluate trends in fresh water availability. Because few complete datasets exist for precipitation, streamflow, evapotranspiration, groundwater or surface water in the area, remote sensing techniques, including GRACE and altimetry, as well as land-surface models were utilized to develop an understanding of the regional hydrology. These observations and model results were used to estimate trends in total water storage and its individual components - soil moisture, snow water equivalent, surface water and groundwater. GRACE data show a clear decrease in total water storage in the Middle East from January 2003 to December 2009, and indicate that the selected region experienced a total volume loss of 143 km3 of water. Supporting datasets suggest that approximately two-thirds of this was a loss of groundwater. These results highlight the impacts of drought conditions on groundwater consumption and of agricultural expansion on available water resources in the region. Furthermore, they raise important political issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring and datasets for the core components of the water budget.

  7. Impact of deforestation on local precipitation patterns over the Da River basin, Vietnam

    Anghileri, Daniela; Spart, Daniele; Castelletti, Andrea; Boschetti, Mirco

    2014-05-01

    Change in land cover, e.g. from forest to bare soil, might severely impact the hydrological cycle at the river basin scale by altering the balance between rainfall and evaporation, ultimately affecting streamflow dynamics. These changes generally occur over decades, but they might be much more rapid in developing countries, where economic growth and growing population may cause abrupt changes in landscape and ecosystem. Detecting, analysing and modelling these changes is an essential step to design mitigation strategies and adaptation plans, balancing economic development and ecosystem protection. In this work we investigate the impact of land cover changes on the water cycle in the Da River basin, Vietnam. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate the interlink between deforestation and precipitation. The case study is particularly interesting because Vietnam is one of the world fastest growing economies and natural resources have been considerably exploited to support after-war development. Vietnam has the second highest rate of deforestation of primary forests in the world, second to only Nigeria (FAO 2005), with associated problems like abrupt change in run-off, erosion, sediment transport and flash floods. We performed land cover evaluation by combining literature information and Remote Sensing techniques, using Landsat images. We then analysed time series of precipitation observed on the period 1960-2011 in several stations located in the catchment area. We used multiple trend detection techniques, both state-of-the-art (e.g., Linear regression and Mann-Kendall) and novel trend detection techniques (Moving Average on Shifting Horizon), to investigate trends in seasonal pattern of precipitation. Results suggest that deforestation may induce a negative trend in the precipitation volume. The effect is mainly recognizable at the beginning and at the end of the monsoon season, when the local mechanisms of precipitation formation prevail over the large scale ones.

  8. Water quality and the rotifer populations in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    Holland, L.E.; Bryan, C.F.; Newman, J.P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The authors compiled distributional and ecological information on the class Rotifera from both flood controlled and uncontrolled reaches of the Atchafalya River Basin, a large river-swamp in the south-central United States. In the minimally altered lower basin a variety of aquatic habitats within a small area resulted in a very diverse rotifer community consisting of an average of 46 taxa. In contrast, only an average of 28 different taxa were collected in leeved upper basin habitats. As a result of cluster analysis it was possible to identify rotifer communities associated with areas of similar water quality. Variations in suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and organic carbon were most often significantly associated with variations in rotifer numbers from the lower basin. Seasonal flushing of backwater areas by mainstem waters is very important in maintaining the diversity of these lower basin rotifer communities.

  9. Physical Structure of Northern Colorado River Basin Cloud Systems

    Rauber, Robert M.

    This paper describes the physical structure and temporal evolution of wintertime cloud systems over the Yampa River Basin, one of the eight major subbasins supplying water to the Colorado River. The primary purpose of this work was to provide a firm foundation for the evaluation of precipitation augmentation potential of these cloud systems. Information presented in this paper is based on data collected during two wintertime field programs conducted near Colorado's Park Range. Data from a wide variety of cloud systems were analyzed to determine the temporal variation, physical distribution, and microphysical structure of supercooled liquid water. Ice phase characteristics were studied including crystal concentrations and habits, nucleation, secondary ice particle production, and growth by deposition, accretion and aggregation. The following are the major conclusions of this analysis: (1) The shallow orographic cloud system with cloud top temperature warmer than about -20(DEGREES)C was identified as the system with the largest potential for precipitation augmentation. This type of cloud system was found to have persistent and significant liquid water contents in three regions: (1) near cloud top, (2) between cloud base and approximately the -12(DEGREES)C level, and (3) in regions of strong orographic forcing. Nucleation observed near cloud top occurred by the condensation-freezing mechanism. The primary habits of crystals produced by these cloud systems were dendritic. Aggregation, fragmentation and accretion were all active processes in these cloud systems. (2) Deep cloud systems with tops colder than -20(DEGREES)C generally were found to have less potential for precipitation augmentation based on their reduced liquid water contents and frequent larger precipitation rates. Liquid water contents in deep stratiform cloud systems were generally limited to the region near the mountain crest. (3) Radiometric data suggested that organized convective regions initially contained significant supercooled water, but in a short time, convert to the ice phase. Particles falling from such clouds were frequently rimed and aggregated, suggesting complex growth processes. Three hypotheses for precipitation augmentation are formulated based on the physical distribution of liquid water and evolution of precipitation processes observed in Park Range clouds. Field experiments to test each of the individual hypotheses are described.

  10. River Modeling in Large and Ungauged Basins: Experience of Setting up the HEC RAS Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins

    Hossain, F.; Maswood, M.

    2014-12-01

    River modeling is the processing of setting up a physically-based hydrodynamic model that can simulate the water flow dynamics of a stream network against time varying boundary conditions. Such river models are an important component of any flood forecasting system that forecasts river levels in flood prone regions. However, many large river basins in the developing world such as the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna (GBM), Indus, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong and Niger are mostly ungauged. Such large basins lack the necessary in-situ measurements of river bed depth/slope, bathymetry (river cross section), floodplain mapping and boundary condition flows for forcing a river model. For such basins, proxy approaches relying mostly on remote sensing data from space platforms are the only alternative. In this study, we share our experience of setting up the widely-used 1-D river model over the entire GBM basin and its stream network. Good quality in-situ measurements of river hydraulics (cross section, slope, flow) was available only for the downstream and flood prone region of the basin, which comprises only 7% of the basin area. For the remaining 93% of the basin area, we resorted to the use of data from the following satellite sensors to build a workable river model: a) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for deriving bed slope; b) LANDSAT/MODIS for updating river network and flow direction generated by elevation data; c) radar altimetry data to build depth versus width relationship at river locations; d) satellite precipitation based hydrologic modeling of lateral flows into main stem rivers. In addition, we referred to an extensive body of literature to estimate the prevailing baseline hydraulics of rivers in the ungauged region. We measured success of our approach by systematically testing how well the basin-wide river model could simulate river level dynamics at two measured locations inside Bangladesh. Our experience of river modeling was replete with numerous hurdles that we did not anticipate, and often required a change in plan. In this study we summarize these key hurdles faced and offer a step by step approach to setting up river models for large ungauged river basins. Such a guide can be useful for the community wishing to set up RAS type models in basins such as Niger, Mekong, Irrawaddy, Indus etc.

  11. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  12. Water stress in global transboundary river basins: significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world’s transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. We found that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  13. Irrigation Depletions 1928-1989 : 1990 Level of Irrigation, Snake Yakima and Deschutes River Basins.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administation; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-07-01

    The vast amount of irrigation in relation to the available water and extensive system of reservoirs located in the Snake River Basin above Brownlee reservoir precludes this area from using methods such as Blaney-Criddle for estimating irrigation depletions. Also the hydrology, irrigation growth patterns, and water supply problems are unique and complex. Therefore regulation studies were utilized to reflect the net effect on streamflow of the changes in irrigated acreage in terms of corresponding changes in storage regulation and in the amount of water depleted and diverted from and returned to the river system. The regulation study for 1990 conditions was conducted by the Idaho Department of Water Resources. The end product of the basin simulation is 61 years of regulated flows at various points in the river system that are based on 1990 conditions. Data used by the Idaho Department of Water Resources is presented in this section and includes natural gains to the river system and diversions from the river system based on a 1990 level of development and operation criteria. Additional information can be obtained for an Idaho Department of Water Resources Open-File Report ``Stream Flows in the Snake River Basin 1989 Conditions of Use and Management`` dated June 1991. Similar considerations apply to the Yakima and Deschutes river basins.

  14. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    M. A. Kabir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R–squared value indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the model including descriptions of the various components and the results of its application on two case study areas.

  15. River Gain and Loss Studies for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota Water Resources Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 2000 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and -quality needs of the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin in North Dakota and of possible options to meet those water needs. To obtain the river gain and loss information needed to properly account for available streamflow within the basin, available river gain and loss studies for the Sheyenne, Turtle, Forest, and Park Rivers in North Dakota and the Wild Rice, Sand Hill, Clearwater, South Branch Buffalo, and Otter Tail Rivers in Minnesota were reviewed. Ground-water discharges for the Sheyenne River in a reach between Lisbon and Kindred, N. Dak., were about 28.8 cubic feet per second in 1963 and about 45.0 cubic feet per second in 1986. Estimated monthly net evaporation losses for additional flows to the Sheyenne River from the Missouri River ranged from 1.4 cubic feet per second in 1963 to 51.0 cubic feet per second in 1976. Maximum water losses for a reach between Harvey and West Fargo, N. Dak., for 1956-96 ranged from about 161 cubic feet per second for 1976 to about 248 cubic feet per second for 1977. Streamflow gains of 1 to 1.5 cubic feet per second per mile were estimated for the Wild Rice, Sand Hill, and Clearwater Rivers in Minnesota. The average ground-water discharge for a 5.2-mile reach of the Otter Tail River in Minnesota was about 14.1 cubic feet per second in August 1994. The same reach lost about 14.1 cubic feet per second between February 1994 and June 1994 and about 21.2 cubic feet per second between August 1994 and August 1995.

  16. GIS-based River Flood Hazard Mapping in Urban Area (A Case Study in Kayu Ara River Basin, Malaysia)

    Behdokht Vosoogh; Ismail Abustan; Rozi bin Abdullah; Sina Alaghmand,

    2010-01-01

    In the past decades, thousands of lives have been lost, directly or indirectly, by flooding. In fact, of all natural hazards, floods pose the most widely distributed natural hazard to life today. Sungai Kayu Ara river basin which is located in the west part of the Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia was the case study of this research. In order to perform river flood hazard mapping HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS were utilized as hydrologic and hydraulic models, respectively. The generated river flood hazard was ba...

  17. K West Basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system

    Estimates were made of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel and in the fuel storage canisters in K West Basin. These were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. These estimates, made in early 1997, are reviewed and the basic assumptions used discussed

  18. Geographical information system-based morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin, Kerala, India

    Magesh, N. S.; Jitheshlal, K. V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Jini, K. V.

    2013-06-01

    A morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler's system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. The Bharathapuzha drainage basin is sprawled over an area of 5,988.56 km2. The study area was designated as seventh-order basin and lower order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 1.07 km/km2. The slope of basin varied from 0 to 70 and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The elongation ratio of the basin is 0.57 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The drainage texture of the basin is 7.78 which indicates an intermediate texture that exists over the region. Hence, from the study, it can be concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM-DEM) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool in morphometric analysis and the data can be used for basin management and other hydrological studies in future.

  19. SURVEY OF COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN STREAMS FOR COLUMBIA PEBBLESNAIL Fluminicola columbiana AND SHORTFACE LANX Fisherola nuttalli

    Neitzel, D. A.; Frest, T. J.

    1993-05-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; the lower Salmon River and middle Snake River, Idaho; and possibly in Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon; and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historical range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde, Washington and Oregon; Imnaha and John Day rivers, Oregon; Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River: Columbia pebblesnail to a population in the Hanford Reach plus six other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major mbutaries shortface lanx to two populations (in the Hanford Reach and near Bonneville Dam) plus nine other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  20. Multi-model comparison of a major flood in the groundwater-fed basin of the Somme River (France)

    F. Habets; Gascoin, S.; S. Korkmaz; Thiéry, D; Zribi, M.; Amraoui, N.; Carli, M; A. Ducharne; Leblois, E.; E. Ledoux; Martin, E.; Noilhan, J.; C. Ottlé; P. Viennot

    2009-01-01

    The Somme River Basin is located above a chalk aquifer and the discharge of the somme River is highly influenced by groundwater inflow (90% of river discharge is baseflow). In 2001, the Somme River Basin suffered from a major flood causing damages estimated to 100 million Euro (Deneux and Martin, 2001). The purpose of the present research is to evaluate the ability of four hydrologic models to reproduce flood events in the Somme River Basin over an 18-year period, by comparison with observed ...

  1. Inorganic arsenic speciation at river basin scales: The Tinto and Odiel Rivers in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain

    Sarmiento, A.M. [Department of Geology, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: aguasanta.miguel@dgeo.uhu.es; Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Casiot, C.; Elbaz-Poulichet, F.; Egal, M. [Laboratoire Hydrosciences, UMR 5569, Universite Montpellier 2, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05 (France)

    2009-04-15

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers are heavily affected by acid mine drainage from mining areas in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. In this work we have conducted a study along these rivers where surface water samples have been collected. Field measurements, total dissolved metals and Fe and inorganic As speciation analysis were performed. The average total concentration of As in the Tinto river (1975 {mu}g L{sup -1}) is larger than in the Odiel river (441 {mu}g L{sup -1}); however, the mean concentration of As(III) is almost four times higher in the Odiel. In wet seasons the mean pH levels of both rivers (2.4 and 3.2 for the Tinto and Odiel, respectively) increase slightly and the amount of dissolved total arsenic tend to decrease, while the As(III)/(V) ratio strongly increase. Besides, the concentration of the reduced As species increase along the water course. As a result, As(III)/(V) ratio can be up to 100 times higher in the lower part of the basins. An estimation of the As(III) load transported by both rivers into the Atlantic Ocean has been performed, resulting in about 60 kg yr{sup -1} and 2.7 t yr{sup -1} by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, respectively. - Total arsenic concentration decreases along the water basins, however the As(III)/(V) ratio increases.

  2. Tracing nutrient sources in the Mississippi River Basin, United States of America

    To provide information for the development of management strategies to reduce N loads and enhance N attenuation mechanisms, isotopic techniques have been used to investigate the sources and cycling of nutrients at a number of sites in the Mississippi Basin (which includes the Ohio and Missouri River Basins). About half of the POM in the Mississippi (and other big rivers in the USA) is composed of plankton and/or heterotrophic bacteria. This suggests that in-situ productivity may be a significant source of bioavailable organic matter contributing to the hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Monthly samples from 19 river sites in the Basin sampled over 5 years showed that δ 15N and δ 13C were quite useful in discriminating among four major categories of POM: terrestrial soil, fresh terrestrial vegetation, aquatic macrophytes, and plankton/bacteria The isotopic data, along with ancillary chemical and hydrologic measurements, were also useful for documenting seasonal changes in in-situ processes. A pilot study in 2000-2001, designed to investigate the usefulness of isotopic techniques for determining nutrient sources in 24 medium and large watersheds in the Basin, found that nitrate and POM from basins with different land uses (e.g., row crops, animal farming, urban development, and undeveloped) had moderately distinctive isotopic compositions. The nitrate δ 18O and δ 15N values of the large rivers sites resembled the compositions seen in sites dominated by row crops. Sites with livestock tended to have high δ 15N values characteristic of manure, and urban and undeveloped sites tended to have higher δ 18O values characteristic of a significant fraction of atmospheric nitrate. The δ 18O data were critical in showing abrupt changes in nitrate sources with discharge. A more thorough study of nutrient sources in the Ohio River Basin was initiated in 2002. For this study, nitrate, POM, and water were collected 15-20 times each year at 6 small NAWQA-program watersheds in the White River- Miami River basins, and at the 7 large river NASQAN-program sites in the Ohio River Basin. Nitrate samples were analyzed for δ 15N and δ 18O, POM for δ 15N and δ 13C, and water for δ 18O and δ 2H. The δ 15N and δ 13C of fish were used as indicators of nutrient sources. Other studies have indicated that POM consists primarily of phytoplankton and is transported in the water column, particularly size fractions < 1-mm diameter, were the primary food source for food webs in the Ohio and Upper Mississippi Rivers

  3. Landscape Based Modeling of Nonpoint Source Nitrogen Loading in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina

    Garten, C.T.

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this research was to arrive at a quantitative and qualitative assessment of nonpoint sources of potential excess N under different land use/land cover (LULC) categories in the Neuse River Basin on a seasonal time scale. This assessment is being supplied to EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, for inclusion in a hydrologic model to predict seasonal fluxes of N from the terrestrial landscape to surface receiving waters and groundwater in the Neuse River Basin. The analysis was performed in the following five steps: (1) development of a conceptual model to predict potential excess N on land, (2) a literature review to parameterize N fluxes under LULC categories found in the Neuse River Basin, (3) acquisition of high resolution (15-m pixel) LULC data from EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, (4) acquisition of a soil N inventory map for the Neuse River Basin, (5) calculations of potential excess N on a seasonal basis for the entire Neuse River Basin.

  4. Regionalization and spatial changing properties of droughts across the Pearl River basin, China

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Li, Jianfeng

    2012-11-01

    SummaryIn frequency analysis for droughts, the absence of lengthy records usually limits the reliability of statistical estimates. To overcome this limitation, a "regional" analysis approach is often used. Hydrological events typically have multivariate characteristics; therefore it is logical to jointly consider these characteristics when carrying out a multivariate regional frequency analysis for these events. This study presents a method for regional frequency analysis in the Pearl River basin using the multivariate L-moments homogeneity test. Results indicate that the Pearl River basin can be categorized into five homogeneous regions in terms of drought variation, and the Plackett copula fits well for all of the homogeneous regions. The frequency analysis of all sites in each homogeneous region shows that the Pearl River Delta is characterized by a high drought risk, while a relatively lower drought risk in the west and northeast parts of the Pearl River basin. Results of this study will be useful for basin-scale water resources management across the Pearl River basin.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of Terrestrial Water Storage in five major Africa river basins

    Beyene, T.; Kabat, P.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Ludwig, F.

    2010-12-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of continental hydrologic water balances are poorly understood despite recent advances in remote sensing and modeling techniques applicable to continental river basins. The African continent has particularly interesting surface water dynamics due to strong precipitation gradients, and it’s a large number of lakes and wetlands. However, it lacks hydrologic measurements that would help to understand its terrestrial water balance. We use Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements and the Variable Infiltration Capacity land surface model to characterize terrestrial water dynamics over five major African river basins (Nile , Congo, Zambezi, Niger and Oranje). Temporal variations in the gravitational field obtained from GRACE are used to reveal the total terrestrial water storage changes over the selected river basins. Recent advances in filtering and leakage error corrections near the coasts enable us to obtain total water storage changes at finer spatial resolution than has previously been possible. These satellite measurements are then used to constrain the hydrologic- modeling results over river basins where in situ data are sparse. Comparison of the GRACE observations for the period April 2002 to Jan 2010, i.e., the mass variability extracted from temporal gravity variations, with the VIC water balance components suggests that, when filtered with an averaging radius of 750 km, the hydrological signals generated at the selected river basin scale are clearly recovered by GRACE. Keywords: Remote sensing; gravity field; GRACE; hydrology; VIC; spatio-temporal

  6. Probabilistic forecasting of seasonal drought behaviors in the Huai River basin, China

    Xiao, Mingzhong; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The Huai River basin is one of the major supplier of agricultural products in China, and droughts have critical impacts on agricultural development. Good knowledge of drought behaviors is of great importance in the planning and management of agricultural activities in the Huai River basin. With the copula functions to model the persistence property of drought, the probabilistic seasonal drought forecasting models have been built in the Huai River basin. In this study, droughts were monitored by the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) with the time scales of 3, 6, and 9 months, and their composite occurrence probability has been used to forecast the seasonal drought. Results indicated that the uncertainty related to the predicted seasonal drought is larger when more severe droughts occurred in the previous seasons, and the severe drought which occurs in summer and autumn will be more likely to be persistent in the next season while the severe drought in winter and spring will be more likely to be recovered in the subsequent season. Furthermore, given the different drought statuses in the previous season, spatial patterns of the predicted drought events with the largest occurrence probability have also been investigated, and results indicate that the Huai River basin is vulnerable to the extreme drought in most parts of the basin, e.g., the severe drought in winter will be more likely to be persistent in spring in the central part of the southern Huai River basin. Such persistent drought events pose serious challenges for planning and management of agricultural irrigation, then results of the study will be valuable for the planning of crop cultivation or mitigation of the losses caused by drought in the Huai River basin, China.

  7. Maintaining healthy rivers and lakes through water diversion from Yangtze River to Taihu lake in Taihu Basin

    Hao-yun WU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the Taihu water resources assessment, an analysis of the importance and rationality of the water diversion from the Yangtze River to Taihu Lake in solving the water problem and establishing a harmonious eco-environment in the Taihu Basin is performed. The water quantity and water quality conjunctive dispatching decision-making support system, which ensures flood control, water supply and eco-aimed dispatching, is built by combining the water diversion with flood control dispatching and strengthening water resources monitoring and forecasting. With the practice and effect assessment, measures such as setting the integrated basin management format, further developing water diversion and improving the hydraulic engineering projects system and water monitoring system are proposed in order to maintain healthy rivers and guarantee the development of the economy and society in the Taihu Basin.

  8. Soil productive potential of the river basins located in European part of Russia

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Shoba, Sergei; Trifonova, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The search for integral monitoring indicators of natural ecosystems biosphere functions assessment is becoming really urgent nowadays. From the point of view of ecologic and economic indicators, characterizing ecosystems structure and functioning, soil fertility and vegetation productivity parameters, which have been studied for a long time as biosphere and environment forming functions rank first priority. For integrated characteristic of ecosystems soil and vegetation condition we have suggested to apply the index of "soil-productive potential" (SPP), characterizing the ability of nature and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems for sustained product (phytomass) reproduction under specific soil-bioclimatic conditions. It characterizes ecosystem reserve via the index expressed in numbers and averages the following parameters: • specific phytomass reserve (all living elevated and underground parts of plants in terms of total dry mass t/ hectare are considered); • specific productivity (phytomass augmentation for a year per unit area); • natural soil fertility (humus content, % as a characteristic); • crop-producing power (grain crop-producing power is considered, centner/hectare); • bioclimatic parameters (integrated index, including the sum of biologically active temperatures and moistening coefficient); • soil-ecologic index (SEI). Soil-productive potential allows the assessment of average perennial area resource for phytomass production by natural and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems. For more convenient comparative estimation, characteristics are ranked by dividing them into equal intervals according to 5-number scale with consequent numbers summation to overall index. As a result both soil-productive potential of natural eco-systems and total soil-productive potential of the whole area with a glance to the condition of available agrocenosis are calculated. Soil-productive potential of 12 first-rank major river basins of the European part of Russia have been assessed. Within the largest basin in terms of watershed area of the Volga, the Oka and the Kama (2-nd rank river basins) have been singled out and characterized separately. The method of river basins boundaries overlapping (in digital map scaled 1:1000000) on zonal spaces in «Arc GIS» has been applied. The biggest phytomass reserve is concentrated in the Neva and the Oka river basins, in the southern direction phytomass reserve is gradually declining due to the decrease of forest area. The most productive areas are the Don, the Ural, the Kuban basins. Productivity of the Volga basin ecosystems as a whole is medial (the highest values are typical for the Oka basin). The highest humus content is registered in the Kuban river basin, the lowest - in the North Dvina basin. The most favourable bioclimatic conditions are observed in the Dnieper basin. As a result high values of soil-productive potential are typical for the ecosystems of the Dnieper, the Kuban and the Volga basins where this value is high only due to the Oka basin area. The received values of soil-productive potential were correlated to hydraulogic characteristics of these basins, peculiarities of land use and arable land condition (according to SEI and crop capacity). High discharge module is stated to be typical for the northern rivers basins of little soil-productive potential (the Pechora, the Mezen); river basins of high soil-productive potential are characterized by low or average values of discharge module (the Dnieper, the Oka, the Kuban). The most agriculturally developed area is the Don basin, as here agricultural load reaches the highest limit, about 60% of the area is ploughed up though natural ecosystems and agricultural systems potential is not the highest, that may threaten the proper functioning of the basin. Ecosystem high soil-productive potential in the Kuban basin corresponds to good condition of arable lands, high crop capacity and great agricultural development of the area.

  9. Temporal variation of streamflow, sediment load and their relationship in the Yellow River basin, China.

    Zhao, Guangju; Mu, Xingmin; Strehmel, Alex; Tian, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Variation of streamflow and sediment load in the Yellow River basin has received considerable attention due to its drastic reduction during the past several decades. This paper presents a detailed investigation on the changes of streamflow and sediment load from 1952 to 2011 using monthly observations at four gauging stations along the Yellow River. The results show significant decreasing trends for both streamflow and sediment load at all four gauging stations over the past 60 years. The wavelet transform demonstrated discontinuous periodicities from 1969 to 1973 and after 1986 due to the construction of large reservoirs and implementation of numerous soil and water conservations practices. The sediment rating curves with the power-law function was applied to investigate the relationship between discharge and sediment load. The results indicate distinct variations of the relationship between streamflow and sediment and implied significant hydro-morphological changes within different periods. The reducing sediment supply from the source region and the increased erosive power of the river are detected at Lanzhou station, while the decrease of the transport capacity at Toudaoguai is caused by severe siltation. Significant changes in the relationship between streamflow and sediment load are found at Huayuankou and Gaocun stations, which are largely induced by evident sediment income and trapping effects of large reservoirs. It is estimated that numerous reservoirs have strongly altered the regime and magnitude of streamflow and trapped large amount of sediment, leading to severe siltation and evident reduction of their total volumes. A decrease in precipitation, incoming water from the upper reaches, soil and water conservation measures as well as water consumption contribute most to the significant reduction of streamflow. The decrease of sediment load mainly resulted from various soil and water conservation measures and trapping in reservoirs from 1986 to 2011. PMID:24603668

  10. Using the SPEI to Assess Recent Climate Change in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, South Tibet

    Binquan Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Yarlung Zangbo River (YZR is the largest river system in the Tibetan Plateau, and its basin is one of the centers of human economic activity in Tibet. Large uncertainties exist in several previous climate change studies in this basin because of limited climate observations. In this paper, we used a meteorological drought index (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI and a newly-released gridded climate forcing dataset based on high-quality climate station data to re-evaluate climate change in the YZR Basin during the period of 1961–2014. Results showed that precipitation experienced a statistically insignificant increasing trend at a rate of 6.32 mm/10 years, and its annual mean was 512.40 mm. The basin was sensitive to climate change in terms of the air temperature that significantly increased at the rate of 0.32 °C/10 years. This warming rate was obviously larger than that in many other regions. Analysis of SPEI showed that the basin had no obvious statistical trends in the number of dry/wet episodes, but the severity of dry episode aggravated in terms of duration and magnitude. This study provides a reliable analysis of climate change in the YZR Basin, and suggests this large Tibetan river basin is sensitive to climate change.

  11. Enhancing Floodplain Management in the Lower Mekong River Basin Using Vegetation and Water Cycle Satellite Observations

    Bolten, J. D.; Spruce, J.; Wilson, R.; Strauch, K.; Doyle, T.; Srinivan, R.; Lakshmi, V.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River Basin shared by China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam, is considered the lifeblood of Southeast Asia. The Mekong Basin is subject to large hydrological fluctuations on a seasonal and inter-annual basis. The basin remains prone to severe annual floods that continue to cause widespread damage and endanger food security and the livelihood of the millions who dwell in the region. Also the placement of newly planned dams primarily for hydropower in the Lower Mekong Basin may cause damaging social, agriculture and fisheries impacts to the region where we may now likely be at a critical 'tipping point'. The primary goal of this project is to apply NASA and USGS products, tools, and information for improved flood and water management in the Lower Mekong River Basin to help characterize, understand, and predict future changes on the basin. Specifically, we are providing and helping transfer to the Mekong River Commission (MRC) and the member countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam, and Burma the enhanced Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using remotely sensed surface, ground water, and root zone soil moisture along with improved Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) maps. In order to estimate the flood potential and constrain the SWAT Available Water Capacity model parameter over the region, we are assimilated GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage observations into the Catchment Land Surface Model. In addition, a Graphic Visualization Tool (GVT) as been developed to work in concert with the output of the SWAT model parameterized for the Mekong Basin as an adjunct tool of the MRC Decision Support Framework. The project requires a close coordination of the development and assessment of the enhanced MRC SWAT with the guidance of MRC resource managers and technical advisors. This presentation will evaluate the skill of the enhanced SWAT model using qualitative (i.e., MODIS change detection) and quantitative (e.g., streamflow) metrics over one sub-basin of the Lower Mekong River Basin.

  12. Isotope characterization of major rivers of Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Pakistan lies between latitudes 24 deg. and 37 deg. North and longitudes 61 deg. to 76 deg. east. It possesses quite complicated and attractive physiographical features. There are very often a series of mountain ranges possessing deep broad valleys in-between. It includes the famous valley of the Indus having Indus River, which is one of the longest rivers in the World. It has five major tributaries: Bias, Satlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum joining from the eastern side, while a number of small rivers join the Indus on the right side. All these main rivers are perennial. They originate from the mountains. Physiography and climate of the catchments of these rivers vary widely. Going from the catchment of the River Satlej to the catchment of Indus River, altitude increases and temperature decreases. In Northern Areas, mountains are covered with glaciers and some of the peaks are higher than 8000m, which get snowfall even in summer season. The basic sources of these rivers are snowmelt, rainfall and under certain conditions seepage from the formations. From the middle of March to the breaking of monsoon, in mid July, river water is drawn from the melting of snow. During monsoon, rainfall run-off is added to the rivers over and above of snowmelt, so their discharge increases manifold. During 1980-84, samples were collected on monthly basis from the river Satlej at Sulimanki, the river Ravi at Baloki (upstream including Qadirabad-Baloki Link Canal originating from the river Chenab) and Sidnai including two link canals originating from Trimu Headworks (just after the confluence of the rivers Chenab and Jhelum), Panjnad (combination of five eastern tributaries) and the river Indus at Tarbela and Taunsa. The samples were analyzed for 18O,2H and 3H isotopes. The isotopic data (ranges, mean values) and δ18O-δ2H correlations are tabulated

  13. Planning and design of studies for river-quality assessment in the Truckee and Carson River basins, California and Nevada

    Nowlin, Jon O.; Brown, W.M.; Smith, L.H.; Hoffman, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the Geological Survey 's river-quality assessment in the Truckee and Carson River basins in California and Nevada are to identify the significant resource management problems; to develop techniques to assess the problems; and to effectively communicate results to responsible managers. Six major elements of the assessment to be completed by October 1981 are (1) a detailing of the legal, institutional, and structural development of water resources in the basins and the current problems and conflicts; (2) a compilation and synthesis of the physical hydrology of the basins; (3) development of a special workshop approach to involve local management in the direction and results of the study; (4) development of a comprehensive streamflow model emcompassing both basins to provide a quantitative hydrologic framework for water-quality analysis; (5) development of a water-quality transport model for selected constituents and characteristics on selected reaches of the Truckee River; and (6) a detailed examination of selected fish habitats for specified reaches of the Truckee River. Progress will be periodically reported in reports, maps, computer data files, mathematical models, a bibliography, and public presentations. In building a basic framework to develop techniques, the basins were viewed as a single hydrologic unit because of interconnecting diversion structures. The framework comprises 13 hydrographic subunits to facilitate modeling and sampling. Several significant issues beyond the scope of the assessment were considered as supplementary proposals; water-quality loadings in Truckee and Carson Rivers, urban runoff in Reno and management alternatives, and a model of limnological processes in Lahontan Reservoir. (USGS)

  14. Free-Living and Particle-Associated Bacterioplankton in Large Rivers of the Mississippi River Basin Demonstrate Biogeographic Patterns.

    Jackson, Colin R; Millar, Justin J; Payne, Jason T; Ochs, Clifford A

    2014-12-01

    The different drainage basins of large rivers such as the Mississippi River represent interesting systems in which to study patterns in freshwater microbial biogeography. Spatial variability in bacterioplankton communities in six major rivers (the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, Tennessee, and Arkansas) of the Mississippi River Basin was characterized using Ion Torrent 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. When all systems were combined, particle-associated (>3 μm) bacterial assemblages were found to be different from free-living bacterioplankton in terms of overall community structure, partly because of differences in the proportional abundance of sequences affiliated with major bacterial lineages (Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Planctomycetes). Both particle-associated and free-living communities ordinated by river system, a pattern that was apparent even after rare sequences or those affiliated with Cyanobacteria were removed from the analyses. Ordination of samples by river system correlated with environmental characteristics of each river, such as nutrient status and turbidity. Communities in the Upper Mississippi and the Missouri and in the Ohio and the Tennessee, pairs of rivers that join each other, contained similar taxa in terms of presence-absence data but differed in the proportional abundance of major lineages. The most common sequence types detected in particle-associated communities were picocyanobacteria in the Synechococcus/Prochlorococcus/Cyanobium (Syn/Pro) clade, while free-living communities also contained a high proportion of LD12 (SAR11/Pelagibacter)-like Alphaproteobacteria. This research shows that while different tributaries of large river systems such as the Mississippi River harbor distinct bacterioplankton communities, there is also microhabitat variation such as that between free-living and particle-associated assemblages. PMID:25217018

  15. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    Neitzel, D.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Frest, T.J. [Deixis Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species` historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river`s major tributaries.

  16. Reproductive traits of the spirlin Alburnoides bipunctatus in the Vistula River basin.

    Marsza?, Lidia; B?o?ska, Dagmara

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether environmental conditions may explain interpopulation variation in fecundity and egg size of the spirlin from two rivers of the Vistula River basin. The obtained results indicated that the reproductive performance, including the gonadosomatic index, was similar in both rivers and fecundity increased with total length of females. The observed differences in water temperatures and flow speed between the rivers were too small to cause discernible differences in the reproductive performance of fish. PMID:26370462

  17. Hydro-meteorological characteristics of Chitral River basin at the peak of the Hindukush range

    Salma Khalid; Shafiq Ur Rehman; Syed Mushtaq Ali Shah; Alia Naz; Beena Saeed; Sadia Alam; Farman Ali; Hasina Gul

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the impact of mean maximum temperature on Chitral river basin situated at Chitral district and high altitude (>6000 m) peaks of the Hindukush range under changing climate in Pakistan. The analysis of Chitral River as one of the tributary of Kabul River—the second largest river of Pakistan—revealed that change in temperature has a profound influence on the snow/glacial melt in comparison to the mean monthly rainfall. This is because the studied river is faded by the snow a...

  18. Export of Nitrogen From the Yukon River Basin to the Bering Sea

    Dornblaser, M. M.; Striegl, R. G.

    2005-12-01

    The US Geological Survey measured nitrogen export from the 831,400 km2 Yukon River basin during 2001-04 as part of a five year water quality study of the Yukon River and its major tributaries. Concentrations of NO2+NO3, NH4+DON, and particulate N were measured ~6 times annually during open water and once under ice cover at three locations on the Yukon River, and on the Porcupine and Tanana Rivers. Concentration and continuous flow data were used to generate daily and annual loads of N species. NH4 concentration was generally negligible when compared to DON concentration, allowing for comparison of the relative importance of DIN vs. DON export at various watershed scales. NO2 concentration was also small compared to NO3. At Pilot Station, the last site on the Yukon before it flows into the Yukon Delta and the Bering Sea, DIN, DON, and particulate N loads averaged 19.3 106 kg/yr, 52.6 106 kg/yr, and 39.1 106 kg/yr, respectively. Normalized for the watershed area at Pilot Station, corresponding N yields were 1.65, 4.52, and 3.35 mmol/m2/yr. DIN yield for the Yukon at Pilot Station is substantially less than the NO3 flux reported for tropical/temperate rivers such as the Amazon, the Yangtze, and the Mississippi. DIN yield in the upper Yukon River basin is similar to that of the Mackenzie and other arctic rivers, but increases substantially downstream. This is likely due to development around Fairbanks in the Tanana River basin. When compared to other headwater basins in the upper Yukon, the Tanana basin yields about four times more DIN and two times more particulate N, while DON yields are only slightly elevated.

  19. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    Johnson, R.C.; Mercier, T.J.; Brownfield, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently (2011) completed an assessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of grade, in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Greater Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah. Green River Formation oil shale also is present in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado, and the results of these assessments are published separately. No attempt was made to estimate the amount of oil that is economically recoverable because there has not yet been an economic method developed to recover the oil from Green River Formation oil shale.

  20. Lava flooding of ancient planetary crusts: geometry, thickness, and volumes of flooded lunar impact basins

    Estimates of lava volumes on planetary surfaces provide important data on the lava flooding history and thermal evolution of a planet. Lack of information concerning the configuration of the topography prior to volcanic flooding requires the use of a variety of techniques to estimate lava thicknesses and volumes. A technique is described and developed which provides volume estimates by artificially flooding unflooded lunar topography characteristic of certain geological environments, and tracking the area covered, lava thicknesses, and lava volumes. Comparisons of map patterns of incompletely buried topography in these artificially flooded areas are then made to lava-flooded topography on the Moon in order to estimate the actual lava volumes. This technique is applied to two areas related to lunar impact basins; the relatively unflooded Orientale basin, and the Archimedes-Apennine Bench region of the Imbrium basin. (Auth.)

  1. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China.

    Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; Sun, Huaiwei; Ye, Lei; Zhai, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale. PMID:26544070

  2. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China

    Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; Sun, Huaiwei; Ye, Lei; Zhai, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale. PMID:26544070

  3. 210Po in meteoric and surface waters at Corumbatai River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    210Po is an intermediary member of the natural mass number (4n+2) 238U decay series that finishes at the stable 206Pb, according to the sequence: 238U (4.49 Ga, α) → 234Th (24.1 d, β-) → 234Pa (1.18 min, β- ) → 234U (0.248 Ma, α) → 230Th (75.2 ka, α) 226Ra (1622 a, α) → 222Rn (3.83 d, α) → 218Po (3.05 min, α) → 214Pb (26.8 min, β-) → 214Bi (19.7 min, β-) → 214Po (0.16 ms, α) → 210Pb (22.26 a, β-) → 210Bi (5 d, β-) → 210Po (138 d, α) → 206Pb. Because some of the 222Rn escape from the rocks and minerals to the surrounding fluid phase, such as air, 222Rn emanating from land surfaces is responsible for 210Pb and 210Po present in the atmosphere. The average 222Rn escape rates measured and calculated in the northern high latitudes are 0.18-0.53 atom cm-2 s-1. The oceans are not considered important sources of atmospheric 222Rn, since the oceanic flux is about 1% of the continental one. 210Pb produced by 222Rn is removed from the atmosphere by precipitation, being its concentration in rain of about 2 pCiL-1. The atmospheric 210Pb returning to the earth's surface has been commonly referred to as unsupported (excess) 210Pb, and neither 210Po nor 210Pb have been significantly investigated in atmospheric studies performed at South America. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the presence of 222Rn and 210Po in wet (rainwater) deposition occurring at a very important sedimentary basin located in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, i.e. the Corumbatai river basin. It is a sub-basin of the giant Parana sedimentary basin (Paleozoic - Cenozoic) that extends over an area of 1,700,000 km2. The Corumbatai river is the major river draining the area, and its water is extensively used by water supply systems in the basin. Since rainwater deposition has been recognized as a major source of dissolved species in rivers, surface waters from Corumbatai river were also collected at two sampling points, upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, the principal municipality within the basin. Surface waters and rainwater samples for 210Po and 222Rn analyses were collected between January 1998 and January 1999. Volumes between 10 and 21 L were utilized for 210Po analysis, whereas 1 L was used for evaluating 222Rn in rainwater. A known amount (7.68 dpm/mL) of 209Po spike was added to each sample for 210Po analysis, and polonium coprecipitated with Fe(OH)3. The recovered Po was plated onto a copper disc suspended in a 20% hydroxylamine hydrochloride + 25% sodium citrate solution heated to 85-90 deg. C, and stirred during 75-90 min. Conventional alpha spectroscopy with Si(Au) surface barrier detectors coupled to EG and G Ortec multichannel buffer was used to acquire the 210Po activity concentration data. 222Rn in rainwater was extracted by circulating a stream of Rn-free air through the sample container to purge the water phase of its dissolved/accumulated 222Rn. The emanation procedure consisting on its removal from the sample, its transfer to a scintillation flask, and its detection by alpha-scintillation counting was used to acquire the 222Rn activity concentration data. 210Po activity concentration in rainwater ranged between 0.04 and 1.19 dpm/L (average = 0.35 dpm/L) and between 0.07 and 0.46 dpm/L (average = 0.20 dpm/L) at the two investigated sampling points, whereas the 222Rn activity concentration ranged between 40 and 479 dpm/L (average = 182 dpm/L). Thus, low 210Po/222Rn activity ratios corresponding to 0.0002-0.004 were determined, implying on the non-existence of secular radioactive equilibrium between these nuclides. This is, in fact, expected since the 210Pb half life is much higher than that of its parent 222Rn. 210Po activity concentration in surface waters collected upstream from Rio Claro city ranged between 0.06 and 0.75 dpm/L (average = 0.23 dpm/L), whereas in surface waters collected downstream from Rio Claro city ranged between 0.07 and 0.65 dpm/L (average 0.26 dpm/L). A trend of decreasing 210Po activity concentration in accordance with increasing rainfall was identified at both sampling sites, that is compatible with dilution effects in surface drainage during the more rainy periods. Traditionally, the drainage in the Corumbatai river basin has received along the time significant in natura emissions of municipal waste products and discharge of waste water, sludge, sewage, sanitary and industrial effluents, among others. Thus, the water quality downstream from Rio Claro city is much worse than that of upstream from Rio Claro city, but, despite this, the dissolved 210Po activity concentration is practically the same at both sampling sites. This suggests that 210Po is a conservative nuclide, potentially much important to be used as a natural tracer of hydrological systems, even in polluted areas

  4. Emergence and Evolution of Endogenous Water Institutions in an African River Basin: Local Water Governance and State Intervention in the Pangani River Basin, Tanzania

    Komakech, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Water management challenges in basins of Sub-Saharan Africa and in other parts of the world are increasing due to rapid urbanisation, poverty and food insecurity, energy demands, and climate change. Nearly half of the world population live in cities, and this is estimated to reach two-thirds of the world's population by the year 2050. The need to improve water services in cities poses new challenges to river basin management. Water transfer from other sectors to cities is an obvious way of re...

  5. Alligator Rivers Analogue Project. Final Report - Volume 1

    This summary report, which highlights the work and findings of the Alligator Rivers Analogue Project (ARAP) is one of a series of 16 volumes, listed below. Detailed descriptions and results are provided in Volumes 2 to 16. Full acknowledgment to individual contributions is provided in the individual reports, and in Appendix I of this report. The findings from the technical studies are discussed in the context of assessments of the long-term performance of geological repositories for radioactive wastes, which are being undertaken in many countries. They are also considered in an integrated 'Scenario Development' approach, aimed to understand the formation of the ore deposit. Despite their inherent uncertainties, the findings provide a basis for assessing the way in which radionuclides will migrate in environments with a variety of geologic settings and over a range of different geologic timescales. Thus, section 2 of this report discusses the concept of using uranium deposits as natural analogues and refers to a number of such studies, including those at the Koongarra deposit in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia. Section 3 reviews early scientific work in the Alligator Rivers Region and summarises the results of the analogue studies undertaken between 1981 and 1987 that were funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the UK Department of the Environment (UKDoE). Section 4 describes the objectives of ARAP and the manner in which the study was conducted and provides a general outline of the project and a summary of the findings. A general description of the Koongarra ore deposit, the focus of ARAP, is provided in Section 5, with Sections 6-13 providing summaries of the work carried out to characterise the site in detail and provide data for modelling. Sections 14-18 discuss how this data was used in modelling and how the results may be applied for performance assessment studies. Finally, Section 19 considers the implications of the work for performance assessment modelling

  6. Distribution of extreme rainfall events over Ebro River basin

    Saa, Antonio; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Valencia, Jose Luis; Gasc, Jose Maria

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a description of the heavy rainfall phenomenon on statistical tools from a Spanish region. We want to quantify the effect of the climate change to verify the rapidity of its evolution across the variation of the probability distributions. Our conclusions have special interest for the agrarian insurances, which may make estimates of costs more realistically. In this work, the analysis mainly focuses on: The distribution of consecutive days without rain for each gauge stations and season. We estimate density Kernel functions and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) for a network of station from the Ebro River basin until a threshold value u. We can establish a relation between distributional parameters and regional characteristics. Moreover we analyze especially the tail of the probability distribution. These tails are governed by law of power means that the number of events n can be expressed as the power of another quantity x : n(x) = x? . ? can be estimated as the slope of log-log plot the number of events and the size. The most convenient way to analyze n(x) is using the empirical probability distribution. Pr(X > x) ? x-?. The distribution of rainfall over percentile of order 0.95 from wet days at the seasonal scale and in a yearly scale with the same treatment of tails than in the previous section. The evolution of the distribution in the second XXth century and the impact on the extreme values model. After realized the analyses it does not appreciate difference in the distribution throughout the time which suggests that this region does not appreciate increase of the extreme values both for the number of dry consecutive days and for the value of the rainfall References: Coles, Stuart (2001). An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values,. Springer-Verlag Krishnamoorthy K. (2006), Handbook of Statistical Distributions with Applications, Chapman & Hall/CRC. Bodini A., Cossu A. (2010). Vulnerability assessment of Central-East Sardinia (Italy) to extreme rainfall events. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 61-72

  7. Isotope hydrology and hydrochemistry of some nutrient enrichment sources to the Densu River Basin, in Ghana

    Anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen consuming materials to aquatic ecosystems can change nutrient dynamics, deplete oxygen and change abundance and diversity of aquatic plants and animals. The isotopic techniques in groundwater resource management in the Densu River Basin required a research and assessment program to establish the contribution of sewage discharge and agriculture to eutrophication in the Densu River and examine the source of nutrients and other pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem. This will improve the understanding of the interaction between nutrient input, dissolved oxygen and aquatic ecosystem productivity. Combining isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of samples in the basin will show the influence of natural and anthropogenic source of nutrients in the Densu River Basin. (author)

  8. Initial Sediment Transport Model of the Mining-Affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    Friedel, Michael J.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian government is interested in understanding the effects of existing and future mining activities on long-term dispersal, storage, and remobilization of sediment-associated metals. An initial Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was prepared using available data to evaluate hypothetical failure of the Valea Sesei tailings dam at the Rosia Poieni mine in the Aries River basin. Using the available data, the initial Aries River Basin SWAT model could not be manually calibrated to accurately reproduce monthly streamflow values observed at the Turda gage station. The poor simulation of the monthly streamflow is attributed to spatially limited soil and precipitation data, limited constraint information due to spatially and temporally limited streamflow measurements, and in ability to obtain optimal parameter values when using a manual calibration process. Suggestions to improve the Aries River basin sediment transport model include accounting for heterogeneity in model input, a two-tier nonlinear calibration strategy, and analysis of uncertainty in predictions.

  9. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN

    John A. McLachlan

    2003-12-01

    In December 1992, the CBR was awarded a five-year grant of $25M from the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project was an interdisciplinary, collaborative research and education project aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments. This project funded 15 collaborative cluster multi-year projects and 41 one-year initiation projects out of 165 submitted research proposals. This project was carried out by 134 research and technical support faculty from Xavier University (School of Arts and Sciences, and College of Pharmacy) and Tulane University (Schools of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Health and Tropical Medicine), and 173 publications and 140 presentations were produced. More than 100 graduate and undergraduate students were trained through these collaborative cluster and initiation research projects. Nineteen Tulane graduate students received partial funding to conduct their own competitively-chosen research projects, and 28 Xavier undergraduate LIFE Scholars and 30 LIFE Interns were supported with DOE funding to conduct their mentored research projects. Studies in this project have defined: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, (2) the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and (3) the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The bayou and spoil banks of Bayou Trepagnier were mapped and analyzed in terms of risks associated with the levels of hydrocarbons and metals at specific sample sites. Data from contaminated sample sites have been incorporated into a large database and used in GIS analyses to track the fate and transport of heavy metals from spoil banks into the surrounding marsh. These data are crucial to understanding how heavy metals move through wetlands environments. These data, coupled with plume characterization data, indicate that Bayou Trepagnier is a model system for understanding how wetlands populations of fish, amphibians, and plants respond to long-term hydrocarbon and metals contamination. The CBR has fifteen years of experience in developing model aquatic ecosystems for evaluating environmental problems relevant to DOE cleanup activities. Using biotechnology screens and biomarkers of exposure, this project supports other CBR research demonstrating that chemicals in the environment can signal/alter the development of species in aquatic ecosystems, and show detrimental impacts on community, population, and the ecosystem, including human health. CBR studies funded through this grant have resulted in private sector investments, international collaborations, development of new technologies, and substantial new knowledge concerning the effects of hazardous materials on human and ecosystem health. Through the CBR, Tulane and Xavier Universities partnered with DOE-EM to lay groundwork for an effective research agenda that has become part of the DOE long term stewardship science and technology program and institutional management of the DOE complex.

  10. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins: Waste site assessment report

    Haselow, J.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.

    1989-09-05

    This Waste Site Assessment for the SRL Seepage Basins is the second in a series of documents being prepared to support development of an appropriate closure plan for these basins. The closure of these basins will be designed to provide protection to human health and the environment and to meet the provisions of the Consent Decree. A Technical Data Summary for these basins has already been submitted as part of the Consent Decree. This Site Assessment Report includes a waste site characterization, and a discussion of closure options for the basins. A closure option is recommended in this report, but details of the recommended closure are not provided in this report since they will be provided in a subsequent closure plan. The closure plan is the third document required under the Consent Decree. 18 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil

    Welber Senteio Smith

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpioSe realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y Synbranchiformes por una especie. Entre estas, se encontró 2 especies exóticas. Las especies más abundantes fueron Astyanax fasciatus y Hypostomus ancistroides. En relación con el peso total, la especie más representativas fueron Hoplias malabaricus y Hypostomus ancistroides. En tanto que, Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus y Hoplias malabaricus fueron las más representativas en relación al preso promedio. Las longitudes estandar más grandes fue encontradas en Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens y Cyprinus carpio

  12. Ensemble streamflow forecasting experiments in a tropical basin: The São Francisco river case study

    Fan, Fernando Mainardi; Collischonn, Walter; Meller, Adalberto; Botelho, Luiz César Mendes

    2014-11-01

    The present study shows experiments of ensemble forecasting applied to a large tropical river basin, where such forecasting methodologies have many potential applications. The case study is the Três Marias hydroelectric power plant basin (Brazil), on the São Francisco river, where forecast results are particularly important for reservoir operation and downstream flood control. Results showed some benefits in the use of ensembles, particularly for the reservoir inflow on flooding events, and in comparison to the deterministic values given by the control member of the ensemble and by the ensemble mean. The study also discusses the improvements that must be tested and implemented in order to achieve better results, what is particularly important for the smaller basins within the study case. Despite the necessary improvements mentioned, the results suggest that benefits can result from the application of ensemble forecasts for hydropower plants with large basins within the Brazilian energy system.

  13. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    Neitzel, D.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Frest, T.J. (Deixis Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  14. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of daily precipitation concentration in the Lancang River basin, China

    Shi, Wanli; Yu, Xuezhong; Liao, Wengen; Wang, Ying; Jia, Baozhen

    2013-07-01

    The Lorenz Curve, a concept used in economic theory, is used to quantify spatial-temporal variability in the daily time series of precipitation concentrations. The Lorenz Curve provides a graphical view of the cumulative percentage of total yearly precipitation. In addition, further extraction of the data using the Gini coefficient and Lorenz asymmetry coefficient provides a two-parameter measure of precipitation concentration and an explanation of the basis for the underlying inequalities in precipitation distribution. Based on the calculation of the precipitation concentration index (CI) and the Lorenz asymmetry coefficient (S) values from 1960 to 2010, variations in the trends and periodic temporal-spatial patterns of precipitation at 31 stations across the Lancang River basin are discussed. The results are as follows: (1) highest precipitation CI values occurred in the southern Lancang River basin, whereas the lowest precipitation CI values were mainly observed in the upper reaches of the Lancang River basin, which features a more homogeneous temporal distribution of rainfall. S values throughout the entire basin were less than one, indicating that minor precipitation events have the highest contribution to overall precipitation inequality. (2) Application of the Mann-Kendall test revealed that a significant, decreasing trend in precipitation CI that exceeding the 95th percentile was detected in the upper and middle reaches of the Lancang River basin. However, there was only one significant (0.05) S value trend throughout the river. (3) Climate jumps in annual CI occurred during the early 1960s, 1970s and 1980s at Jinghong, Deqin and Zaduo stations, respectively. (4) Dominant periodic variations in precipitation CI, with periods of 4-17 years, were found. These results allow for an improved understanding of extreme climate events and improved river basin water resource management.

  16. Scaling up watershed model parameters--Flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The Edisto River is the longest and largest river system completely contained in South Carolina and is one of the longest free flowing blackwater rivers in the United States. The Edisto River basin also has fish-tissue mercury concentrations that are some of the highest recorded in the United States. As part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River basin, analyses and simulations of the hydrology of the Edisto River basin were made with the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL). The potential for scaling up a previous application of TOPMODEL for the McTier Creek watershed, which is a small headwater catchment to the Edisto River basin, was assessed. Scaling up was done in a step-wise process beginning with applying the calibration parameters, meteorological data, and topographic wetness index data from the McTier Creek TOPMODEL to the Edisto River TOPMODEL. Additional changes were made with subsequent simulations culminating in the best simulation, which included meteorological and topographic wetness index data from the Edisto River basin and updated calibration parameters for some of the TOPMODEL calibration parameters. Comparison of goodness-of-fit statistics between measured and simulated daily mean streamflow for the two models showed that with calibration, the Edisto River TOPMODEL produced slightly better results than the McTier Creek model, despite the significant difference in the drainage-area size at the outlet locations for the two models (30.7 and 2,725 square miles, respectively). Along with the TOPMODEL hydrologic simulations, a visualization tool (the Edisto River Data Viewer) was developed to help assess trends and influencing variables in the stream ecosystem. Incorporated into the visualization tool were the water-quality load models TOPLOAD, TOPLOAD-H, and LOADEST. Because the focus of this investigation was on scaling up the models from McTier Creek, water-quality concentrations that were previously collected in the McTier Creek basin were used in the water-quality load models.

  17. A Methodology to Assess the Water Energy Food Ecosystems Nexus in Transboundary River Basins

    Lucia de Strasser; Annukka Lipponen; Mark Howells; Stephen Stec; Christian Bréthaut

    2016-01-01

    The “nexus” is a potentially very appropriate approach to enhance resource efficiency and good governance in transboundary basins. Until now, however, evidence has been confined to isolated case studies and the nexus approach remains largely undefined. The methodology presented in this paper, developed for preparing a series of nexus assessments of selected river basins under the Water Convention of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), is a timely contribution to this on...

  18. FACTORS THAT INCREASE DRYNESS PHENOMENON ON SMALL RIVERS IN PRUT BASIN (ANALYSIS OF CONDITIONALITIES)

    Florin Vartolomei

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze factors causing increased of dryness phenomenon on small rivers in Prut basin. Are analyzed, the non-climate components of the landscape (relief, geology, soil,vegetation) and climatic factors on corresponding area(rainfalls). In reporting the number of years that has occurred dryness to number of years of observations showed that the frequency of the dryness phenomenon is over 90 % for basins with areas less than 5km 2. The maximum period recorded without flow for ...

  19. Teleconnection analysis of runoff and soil moisture over the Pearl River basin in South China

    Niu, J.; Chen, J; B. Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the teleconnection of two climatic patterns, namely the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), with hydrological processes over the Pearl River basin in South China. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is used to simulate the daily hydrological processes over the basin for the study period 1952–2000, and then, using the simulation results, the time series of the monthly runoff and soil moisture a...

  20. A Methodology to Assess the Water Energy Food Ecosystems Nexus in Transboundary River Basins

    Lucia de Strasser; Annukka Lipponen; Mark Howells; Stephen Stec; Christian Brthaut

    2016-01-01

    The nexus is a potentially very appropriate approach to enhance resource efficiency and good governance in transboundary basins. Until now, however, evidence has been confined to isolated case studies and the nexus approach remains largely undefined. The methodology presented in this paper, developed for preparing a series of nexus assessments of selected river basins under the Water Convention of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), is a timely contribution to this on...

  1. The role of upstream water use on water stress in transboundary river basins: a global analysis

    Munia, Hafsa

    2014-01-01

    Upstream-downstream relationship remains one of the many challenges of transboundary water management. Water use of upstream countries has always impact on the downstream water availability and in some cases it might lead to increased water scarcity in downstream part of a basin. In this study, aim is to assess the change in water stress level due to water use of upstream countries in the world’s transboundary river basins. Water stress level was first calculated considering only own water us...

  2. Some Aspects of the Hydrology of the Fraser River Basin, British Columbia

    Hickin, Edward J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple computational procedure for calculating the water balance in the Fraser River basin in British Columbia is presented. The computational model uses readily available meteorological records and is based on the definitional equality that, for a given year, runoff is equal to the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration adjusted for basin storage fluctuation. The annual hydrologic record generated by this model indicates that, for the period 1951 to 1976, precipitation bas...

  3. Distributed modeling of landsurface water and energy budgets in the inland Heihe river basin of China

    Jia, Y.; Ding, X.; C. Qin; Wang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A distributed model for simulating the land surface hydrological processes in the Heihe river basin was developed and validated on the basis of considering the physical mechanism of hydrological cycle and the artificial system of water utilization in the basin. Modeling approach of every component process was introduced from 2 aspects, i.e., water cycle and energy cycle. The hydrological processes include evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff, groundwater flow, interaction between groundwa...

  4. Distributed modeling of landsurface water and energy budgets in the inland Heihe river basin of China

    Jia, Y.; Ding, X.; C. Qin; Wang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A distributed model for simulating the land surface hydrological processes in the Heihe river basin was developed and validated on the basis of considering the physical mechanism of hydrological cycle and the artificial system of water utilization in the basin. Modeling approach of every component process was introduced from 2 aspects, i.e., water cycle and energy cycle. The hydrological processes include evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff, groundwater flow, interactio...

  5. A stochastic approach for the description of the water balance dynamics in a river basin

    Manfreda, S.; Fiorentino, M

    2008-01-01

    The present paper introduces an analytical approach for the description of the soil water balance dynamics over a schematic river basin. The model is based on a stochastic differential equation where the rainfall forcing is interpreted as an additive noise in the soil water balance. This equation can be solved assuming known the spatial distribution of the soil moisture over the basin transforming the two-dimensional problem in space in a one dimensional one. This assumption...

  6. Predicting presence of fish species in the Seine River basin using artificial neuronal networks

    Boët, P.; Fuhs, T.

    2000-01-01

    In the Seine River basin, an initial study has evidenced the main factors that contribute to the current organization of the fish assemblages on the scale of the entire hydrographic network (Belliard, 1994). The characteristics of the environment associated with the longitudinal and regional organization of the basin proved to be determining factors (Belliard et al., 1997). This work is based on the results of in situ fish sampling made by electrofishing. These data are by nature extremely he...

  7. Modeling and management of water in the Klamath River Basin: overcoming politics and conflicts

    Flug, Marshall; Scott, John F.

    1998-01-01

    The network flow model MODSIM, which was designed as a water quantity mass balance model for evaluating and selecting water management alternatives, has been applied to the Klamath River basin. A background of conflicting issues in the basin is presented. The complexity of water quantity model development, while satisfying the many stakeholders and involved special interest groups is discussed, as well as the efforts taken to have the technical model accepted and used, and overcome stakeholder criticism, skepticism, and mistrust of the government.

  8. Originality of Foreign Language Teaching Technologies in Higher Educational Establishments of the Danube River Basin Countries

    Olga Demchenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at investigating the originality of foreign language teaching technologies in higher educational establishments of the Danube river basin countries. Definitions of teaching technologies, typology of some foreign language teaching technologies, analysis of activity learning technologies are given. The stress is made on the importance of competence and communicative approaches in Maritime English teaching in the Danube basin higher educational establishments.

  9. The role of upstream water use on water stress in transboundary river basins: a global analysis

    Munia, Hafsa

    2014-01-01

    Upstream-downstream relationship remains one of the many challenges of transboundary water management. Water use of upstream countries has always impact on the downstream water availability and in some cases it might lead to increased water scarcity in downstream part of a basin. In this study, aim is to assess the change in water stress level due to water use of upstream countries in the worlds transboundary river basins. Water stress level was first calculated considering only own water us...

  10. LIVING WITH FLOOD AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD DEVELOPMENT IN LOWER BRAHMAPUTRA RIVER BASIN, ASSAM

    Singh, R. B.; B. W. Pandey; Abhay Shankar Prasad

    2014-01-01

    River basin is considered as the basic hydrologic unit for planning and development of water resources and livelihood. Assam's Brahmaputra valley represents one of the most acutely hazard-prone regions in the country, having a total flood prone area of 3.2 million hectare. The lower Brahmaputra basin, Assam has caused the hazards of annual floods and erosion, bringing misery to the people and shattering the fragile agro-economic base of the region. The important factors causin...

  11. Dealing with variability in water availability: the case of the Verde Grande River basin, Brazil

    Collischonn, B.; Lopes, A. V.; Pante, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a water resources management strategy developed by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) to cope with the conflicts between water users in the Verde Grande River basin, located at the southern border of the Brazilian semi-arid region. The basin is dominated by water-demanding fruit irrigation agriculture, which has grown significantly and without adequate water use control, over the last 30 years. The current water demand for irrigation exceeds water availability (unde...

  12. Snow Cover Variations and Controlling Factors at Upper Heihe River Basin, Northwestern China

    Yunbo Bi; Hongjie Xie; Chunlin Huang; Changqing Ke

    2015-01-01

    Snow is an important water resource and greatly influences water availability in the downstream areas. In this study, snow cover variations of the Upper Heihe River Basin (UHRB) during hydrological years (HY) 2003–2013 (September through August) is examined using the flexible multiday-combined MODIS snow cover products. Spatial distribution and pattern of snow cover from year to year for the basin is found to be relatively stable, with maximum snow cover area (SCA) and snow cover days occurri...

  13. Tracing Sources of Nitrate and Organic Matter in the Willamette River Basin During Summer Baseflow Conditions using Isotopic Techniques

    Kendall, C.; Lajtha, K.; McDonnell, J. J.; Johnson, H.; Anderson, C.; Frentress, J.; Griffith, S. M.; Grove, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    The effect of land use on water quality at the large river basin scale is poorly understood. In particular, quantifying the sources of water, nutrients, and organic matter to the river and linking these sources to specific land uses and point-sources of pollution is problematic in large basins. The Willamette River in Oregon is the 13th largest river by volume in the USA and drains a watershed of approximately 30,000 km2. The watershed contains more than 70 percent of Oregon's population and is under increasing pressure from continued urbanization. To better understand the sources of water, nutrients, and organic matter to the Willamette River and how these sources are linked to land uses, we conducted a synoptic sampling of the Willamette River and its major tributaries under summer baseflow conditions in late August 2006. We collected samples from the entire length of the Willamette River, from its confluence with the McKenzie, Middle Fork, and Coast Fork Rivers north to its confluence with the Columbia River in Portland, a distance of greater than 275 km. Grab-samples were collected mid-river from the Willamette River at sites selected to provide both uniform geographic coverage plus samples of different sources of nitrate, including feedlot operations, urban sewer and septic drainage, industrial effluent, and agriculture. In addition, near-shore grab-samples were collected from all major tributaries near their confluence with the Willamette River, from the mouths of minor tributaries to the Willamette River that had largely urban or agricultural land use, and from major sub-tributaries, reservoirs, or other sites of local hydrologic interest. All these samples will be analyzed for nitrate, ammonium, and DOC concentrations, conductivity, water-d18O and d2H, nitrate d15N and d18O, and POM d15N, d13C, and C:N. Nitrate concentrations in the Willamette River during the summer are typically much lower than in the winter, and generally show little variation downstream. The turbidity is also lower during the summer, and very low concentrations of POM were observed during our synoptic sampling. We will assess whether nitrate isotopes might be useful at identifying relatively subtle changes in nutrient sources to the river that are not apparent with nitrate concentrations alone. We will also determine whether POM isotopes can identify spatial changes in organic matter sources to the river. Finally, during the winter, high concentrations of nitrate in the Willamette River are correlated with storm events that flush nitrate from soils from different land uses and which presumably represent different sources of nitrate. We plan a second synoptic sampling run in Winter 2007 to explore these mechanisms and seasonal differences in nitrate concentrations.

  14. Negotiated River Basin Management Implementing the Danube Declaration

    Linnerooth, J.

    1988-01-01

    During the past few years there has been a growing international concern about environmental and socio-economic impacts and conflicts associated with the use of transboundary water resources in general, and also with the use of international rivers in particular. The Decision Support Systems for Managing Large International Rivers Project (LIR) was launched at IIASA to address at least some of the crucial issues regarding the management of large international rivers. The project aims to provi...

  15. Temporal and spatial variations of precipitation in the Jinsha River basin during 1961-2010

    Zeng, X.; Zhao, N.; Sun, H.; Ye, L.; Zhai, J.

    2015-05-01

    Knowing the variations of precipitation at the basin scale is very important to study the impacts of climate change on water resources and hydrological processes. To achieve the temporal and spatial variations of precipitation on long time scales and some extreme indicators in the Jinsha River basin, some typical precipitation indices were analysed based on daily precipitation data for 1961-2010 for the research area. The results showed that AP had a certain increasing tendency without passing the significance test, while AP in the lower reach of the basin decreased slightly. PFS had no obvious changes, while MP through a year (except rainfall in September and December) had a slight increasing tendency. In addition, AP and PFS showed obvious spatial differences, and the higher rainfall area was located in the lower basin especially in the Hengduan Mountain area. LRD and MRD increased slightly in the upper and middle regions, while they decreased slightly in the lower basin. HRD increased over most of the whole basin, but it had a decreasing tendency in the headwater region and around Dege station but did not pass the significance test. DD and CDD in one year showed similar spatial change patterns and had an obvious decreasing tendency in the upper and middle basin, while they had an obvious increasing tendency in the lower basin. CWD almost decreased over the whole basin, and decreased significantly in a small part of the lower basin. The temporal changes of the typical precipitation indices may confirm the possible increasing tendency for occurrence of drier climate and even drought events in the downstream of Jinsha River basin.

  16. Tritium balance of the Ems river basin (1951-1983). Pt. 1

    For the Ems river basin an inventory of the tritium distribution is presented for the hydrologic years 1951-1983. On the basis of a balance model the tritium contents in surface and groundwater of the Ems river basin are calculated using known and extrapolated tritium input data and compared with the corresponding values measured since 1974. A survey of the tritium flows occurring in this area is presented, taking meteorologic and hydrologic facts into account. A water balance serves as a basis for determining the tritium balance. (orig.)

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of precipitation in Haihe River basin in the recent 53 years

    Wang, B.; Xu, Z

    2015-01-01

    In the context of climate change, the precipitation of the Haihe River basin undergoes significant changes. Based on the daily precipitation data from 58 stations over 53 years in and around Haihe River basin, the spatial and temporal variation of precipitation was analysed by the M-K test method using the ArcGIS platform. The results showed that there is a descending trend in the annual precipitation and after the mutations, 97.9% of the area experiences a precipitation reduction by the amou...

  18. 33 CFR 334.160 - Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.; naval restricted area. 334.160 Section 334.160 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.160 Severn River, at U.S. Naval Academy Santee Basin, Annapolis, Md.;...

  19. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis,...

  20. Quantifying the contribution of glacier runoff to streamflow in the upper Columbia River Basin, Canada

    G. Jost

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glacier melt provides important contributions to streamflow in many mountainous regions. Hydrologic model calibration in glacier-fed catchments is difficult because errors in modelling snow accumulation can be offset by compensating errors in glacier melt. This problem is particularly severe in catchments with modest glacier cover, where goodness-of-fit statistics such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency may not be highly sensitive to the streamflow variance associated with glacier melt. While glacier mass balance measurements can be used to aid model calibration, they are absent for most catchments. We introduce the use of glacier volume change determined from repeated glacier mapping in a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation procedure to calibrate a hydrologic model. This approach is applied to the Mica basin in the Canadian portion of the Columbia River Basin using the HBV-EC hydrologic model. Use of glacier volume change in the calibration procedure effectively reduced parameter uncertainty and helped to ensure that the model was accurately predicting glacier mass balance as well as streamflow. The seasonal and interannual variations in glacier melt contributions were assessed by running the calibrated model with historic glacier cover and also after converting all glacierized areas to alpine land cover in the model setup. Sensitivity of modelled streamflow to historic changes in glacier cover and to projected glacier changes for a climate warming scenario was assessed by comparing simulations using static glacier cover to simulations that accommodated dynamic changes in glacier area. Although glaciers in the Mica basin only cover 5% of the watershed, glacier ice melt contributes up to 25% and 35% of streamflow in August and September, respectively. The mean annual contribution of ice melt to total streamflow varied between 3 and 9% and averaged 6%. Glacier ice melt is particularly important during warm, dry summers following winters with low snow accumulation and early snowpack depletion. Although the sensitivity of streamflow to historic glacier area changes is small and within parameter uncertainties, our results suggest that glacier area changes have to be accounted for in future projections of late summer streamflow. Our approach provides an effective and widely applicable method to calibrate hydrologic models in glacier fed catchments, as well as to quantify the magnitude and timing of glacier melt contributions to streamflow.