WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

A.G. Crook Company

1993-04-01

2

Earlier River Basin Planning  

...North Western River Basin...Member State Law. Identify River Basin Districts, International River Basin Districts and competent authorities....River and Lake Small Water Body Identification (.PDF 284Kb)...

3

Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

1993-03-01

4

09 river basin planning  

...prescribed timescales. r iver Basin Management: the river basin planning process is followed by the implementation...by the implementation of the management measures. The planning process together with the implementation of...objectives Public Participation RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROCESS...

5

River basin administration  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

6

Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental baseline data for the Snake River Plain known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) are evaluated for geothermal development. The objective is to achieve a sound data base prior to geothermal development. These KGRAs are: Vulcan Hot Springs, Crane Creek, Castle Creek, Bruneau, Mountain Home, Raft River, Island Park, and Yellowstone. Air quality, meteorology, hydrology, water quality, soils, land use, geology, subsidence, seismicity, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, demography, socioeconomics, and heritage resources are analyzed. This program includes a summary of environmental concerns related to geothermal development in each of the KGRAs, an annotated bibliography of reference materials (Volume II), detailed reports on the various program elements for each of the KGRAs, a program plan identifying future research needs, and a comprehensive data file.

Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

1979-09-01

7

Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1992-03-01

8

Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1992-03-01

9

Public participation in river basin planning  

...Water Quality Improvement GrantPublic participation in river basin planningNational Stakeholder ForumCatchment...WMUDevelopment ManagementStormwater ManagementPublic participation in river basin planningLast updated: 10 September 2014...

10

Public participation in river basin planning  

...Water Quality Improvement GrantPublic participation in river basin planningClimate ChangeAssessing the...WMUDevelopment ManagementStormwater ManagementPublic participation in river basin planningLast updated: 10 September 2014...

11

Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This arti...

Lifeng Li; Xiubo Yu; Smits, Toine J. M.; Te Boekhorst, Dorri G. J.; Gang Lei; Chen Zhang

2010-01-01

12

Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume III - Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beaver Creek Hatchery is located on the Elochoman River about 10 miles upstream from the river mouth. The Elochoman River is a north bank tributary of the lower Columbia River, just downstream of Cathlamet, Washington. The facility consists of 10 intermediate raceways, 20 raceways, (1) earthen rearing pond, (2) adult holding ponds, and a hatchery building with 60 troughs. It is staffed with 4 FTE`s. Water rights total 16,013 gpm from three sources: Elochoman River, Beaver Creek and a well. Beaver Creek water is gravity flow while the other two sources are pumped. The Elochoman River is used in summer and fall while Beaver Creek water is used from mid-November through mid-May. Filtered well water (1 cfs) is used to incubate eggs and for early rearing of fry. Water use in summer is about 5,800 gpm. Gobar Pond, a 0.93-acre earthen rearing pond located on Gobar Creek (Kalama River tributary), is operated as a satellite facility.

Colville Confederated Tribes; US Fish and Wildlife Service; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Yakama Indian Nation

1996-06-01

13

75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act...

2010-05-14

14

77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act...

2012-04-19

15

75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act...

2010-10-28

16

76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control...

2011-05-02

17

75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control...

2010-05-10

18

77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act...

2012-10-11

19

78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...20350010.REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act...

2013-11-26

20

GUNNISON RIVER (COLORADO) BASIN SELENIUM TARGETING  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gunnison and Uncompahgre River Basins Targeting Project will gather water quality data necessary to characterize the selenium loads that are being contributed from within the basins. Evaluation of the variabiliy of selenium loading in the basins will guide the implementation...

 
 
 
 
21

Regionalization of River Basins Using Cluster Ensemble  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the wake of global water scarcity, forecasting of water quantity and quality, regionalization of river basins has attracted serious attention of the hydrology researchers. It has become an important area of research to enhance the quality of prediction of yield in river basins. In this paper, we analyzed the data of Godavari basin, and regionalize it using a cluster ensemble method. Cluster Ensemble methods are commonly used to enhance the quality of clustering by combining multiple cluste...

Sangeeta Ahuja

2012-01-01

22

Monitoring and evaluation of smolt migration in the Columbia Basin, Volume II: Evaluation of the 1996 predictions of the run-timing of wild migrant subyearling chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime.; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project was initiated in 1991 in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of this project include: (1)to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and identify future research and analysis needs; (2)to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to aid management in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; (3)to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4)to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community

23

Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

Lifeng Li

2010-06-01

24

Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume II. Annotated bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume is a partially annotated bibliography of reference materials pertaining to the seven KGRA's. The bibliography is divided into sections by program element as follows: terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, heritage resources, socioeconomics and demography, geology, geothermal, soils, hydrology and water quality, seismicity, and subsidence. Cross-referencing is available for those references which are applicable to specific KGRA's. (MHR)

Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

1979-09-01

25

Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume II, Oregon.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Big Creek Hatchery is located 16 miles east of Astoria, Oregon and is approximately 3 miles upstream from Big Creek`s confluence with the Columbia River. The site elevation is approximately 75 feet above sea level. The facility includes 2 adult holding ponds, 30 raceways, 1 rearing pond, 64 troughs and 8 stacks of egg incubators. The adult collection and holding ponds are in poor condition and are inadequate to meet current program objectives. There are four water sources for the hatchery: Big Creek, Mill Creek and two springs. Current water rights total 36,158 gpm plus an additional 4.2 cfs reservoir water right. All water supplies are delivered by gravity but can be pumped for reuse if required. The facility is staffed with 9.25 FTE`s. Current practices at the hatchery are described.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; US Fish and Wildlife Service

1996-06-01

26

Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of tritium through the Mississippi Basin and its tributaries was calculated during the years that tritium measurements were made. The cumulative fluxes, calculated in grams of 3II were: (i) 160 g for the Ohio (1961-1986), (ii) 98 g for the upper Missouri (1963-1997), (iii) 30 g for the Arkansas (1961-1997) and (iv) 780 g for the Mississippi (1961-1997). Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Michel, R.L.

2004-01-01

27

Metabolic principles of river basin organization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

2011-07-19

28

CONTRIBUTIONS TO MOLDOVA RIVER’S INFERIOR BASIN VEGETATION KNOWLEDGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authors describes in this paper two vegetal associations (mesophyllus grasslands, Festuco rubrae-Agrostetum capillaris Horvati? 1951 and Trisetetum flavescentis R?bel 1911 from the inferior basin of Moldova river.

M?RIU?A CONSTANTIN

2004-01-01

29

CONTRIBUTIONS TO MOLDOVA RIVER’S INFERIOR BASIN VEGETATION KNOWLEDGE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Authors describes in this paper two vegetal associations (mesophyllus grasslands), Festuco rubrae-Agrostetum capillaris Horvati? 1951 and Trisetetum flavescentis R?bel 1911 from the inferior basin of Moldova river.

M?RIU?A CONSTANTIN; Chifu, T.

2004-01-01

30

Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

1993-10-01

31

South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

1990-06-01

32

Environmental overview of the Northern River Basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) series is the result of a partnership between the governments of Canada, Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The partnership was formed to gather and assess information relating to water and ecosystem quality, fish and fish habitat, vegetation, wildlife, hydrology and human in-stream uses of the aquatic resources of the Peace, Athabasca and the Slave River systems. The study was conducted to analyse the dynamics of the sediment-associated contaminants in these three rivers, with the view of understanding and characterizing the cumulative environmental impacts that urban development, agricultural development, forestry and petroleum have had on the water and aquatic environment of the NRBS area. The series of maps and narrative in this particular document, based on several previously published Northern River Basins Study technical contributions and the Study`s synthesis reports, provides a broad environmental and socio-economic picture of the Northern Rivers Basin, a background against which government decisions respecting the management of the three transboundary river basins can be understood and evaluated. Some of the changes that have occurred in the area since the beginning of the Study in September 1991 are also included in this report. Taken as a whole, these reports provide a panoramic view of the people and environmental setting of the river basin, including a description of the legislative authorities of the senior levels of government relevant to water resource management, and a summary of societal issues and concerns relating to economic development and basin management. 62 refs.,16 tabs., 52 figs.

MacLock, R.B.; Lyons, B.; Ellehoj, E. [Northern River Basins Study, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Gummer, W.D.; Ouellette, M.S.J. [eds.] [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Ecological Applications Research Div.

1997-03-01

33

Transformation for cooperation: river basin organizations, negotiations, and the case of the Nile Basin Initiative  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Basin-wide River Basin Organizations are widely promoted by reputable international bodies as the best way to achieve cooperation in negotiations over shared basins. As more shared basins around the world face growing water scarcity, the need for international cooperation is becoming more intense. It is not clear whether RBOs should be promoted as a best practice in international basins with numerous riparian states. Using the case study of the Nile Basin Initiative basin-wide River Basin Org...

Morissette, Erin

2009-01-01

34

Establishing river basin organisations inVietnam: Red River, Dong Nai River and Lower Mekong Delta.  

Science.gov (United States)

River basin management is receiving considerable attention at present. Part of the debate, now occurring worldwide, concerns the nature of the organisations that are required to manage river basins successfully, and whether special-purpose river basin organisations (RBOs) are always necessary and in what circumstance they are likely to (i) add to the management of the water resources and (ii) be successful. The development of river basin management requires a number of important elements to be developed to a point where the river basin can be managed successfully. These include the relevant laws, the public and non-government institutions, the technical capabilities of the people, the understanding and motivation of people, and the technical capacity and systems, including information. A river basin organisation (or RBO) is taken to mean a special-purpose organisation charged with some part of the management of the water resources of a particular river basin. Generally speaking, such organisations are responsible for various functions related to the supply, distribution, protection and allocation of water, and their boundaries follow the watershed of the river in question. However, the same functions can be carried out by various organisations, which are not configured on the geographical boundaries of a river basin. This paper outlines recent work on river basin organisation in Vietnam, and makes some comparisons with the situation in Australia. PMID:11419135

Taylor, P; Wright, G

2001-01-01

35

Piracicaba river basin : mechanical and chemical erosion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It was carried out the characterization of the mechanical and chemical erosive processes in the Piracicaba River basin, for the period 1992-1996, in terms of the fluvial transport of dissolved and particulate materials. The mechanical erosion was calculated from the suspended sediment transport in the basin, considering the surface runoff discharge and the respective concentration calculated taking in account the statistical hydrogram separation method employed. The specific physical degradat...

Mortatti, Jefferson; Probst, Jean-luc; Bortoletto Junior, Milton Jose?

2003-01-01

36

Interannual variations of river water storage from a multisatellite approach: a case study for the Rio Negro River basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spatio-temporal variations of water volume over inundated areas located in a large river basin have been determined using combined observations from a multi-satellite inundation dataset, the Topex/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry satellite, and in situ hydrographic stations for the water levels over rivers and floodplains. We computed maps of monthly surface water volume change over the period of common availability of T/P and the multisatellite data (1993-2000). The basin of the Negro River, the lar...

Frappart, Fre?de?ric; Papa, Fabrice; S Famiglietti, James; Prigent, Catherine; B Rossow, William; Seyler, Fre?de?rique

2008-01-01

37

77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...  

Science.gov (United States)

...oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will...review of the implementation of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of the Secretary used...

2012-08-01

38

Altitudinal zonation of runoff in the Rasina River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Rasina River Basin is located on the territory of Central Serbia. The aim of this paper is to determine the amount and spatial distribution of water resources, that is, to establish the participation of altitudinal zones in the formation of the total runoff in the Rasina River Basin area upstream from the "?elije" reservoir. In terms of methodology, determination of water volume is based on four separated petrological-hydrological complexes. Average weighted specific runoff in a given territory is 9 l/s/km2. Metamorphites and magmatites are in the first place per participation in the total water runoff of 42.8 %. The second place belongs to sedimentary rocks that make 39.6 % of the total runoff . Unbound sediments participate in the total runoff value with 10.5 % and limestone with 7.1%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: The Research on Climate Change Influences on Environment: Influence Monitoring, Adaptation and Mitigation

Manojlovi? Predrag

2013-01-01

39

Regionalization of River Basins Using Cluster Ensemble  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the wake of global water scarcity, forecasting of water quantity and quality, regionalization of river basins has attracted serious attention of the hydrology researchers. It has become an important area of research to enhance the quality of prediction of yield in river basins. In this paper, we analyzed the data of Godavari basin, and regionalize it using a cluster ensemble method. Cluster Ensemble methods are commonly used to enhance the quality of clustering by combining multiple clustering schemes to produce a more robust scheme delivering similar homogeneous basins. The goal is to identify, analyse and describe hydrologically similar catchments using cluster analysis. Clustering has been done using RCDA cluster ensemble algorithm, which is based on discriminant analysis. The algorithm takes H base clustering schemes each with K clusters, obtained by any clustering method, as input and constructs discriminant function for each one of them. Subsequently, all the data tuples are predicted using H discriminant functions for cluster membership. Tuples with consistent predictions are assigned to the clusters, while tuples with inconsistent predictions are analyzed further and either assigned to clusters or declared as noise. Clustering results of RCDA algorithm have been compared with Best of k-means and Clue cluster ensemble of R software using traditional clustering quality measures. Further, domain knowledge based comparison has also been performed. All the results are encouraging and indicate better regionalization of the Godavari basin data.

Sangeeta Ahuja

2012-07-01

40

RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to understand and quantify the resource itself and to develop technologies that will permit commercial exploitation. This study is a contribution to that process.

Robert Caldwell

1998-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Digital spatial data as support for river basin management: The case of Sotla river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many real-world spatially related problems, including river-basin planning and management, give rise to geographical information system based decision making, since the performance of spatial policy alternatives were traditionally and are still often represented by thematic maps. Advanced technologies and approaches, such as geographical information systems (GIS, offer a unique opportunity to tackle spatial problems traditionally associated with more efficient and effective data collection, analysis, and alternative evaluation. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of the use of digital spatial data and geographical information systems in river basis management. Spatial data on social, environmental and other spatial conditions for the study area of 451.77 km2, the Slovenian part of the Sotla river basin, are used to study the GIS capabilities of supporting spatial decisions in the framework of river basin management.

Prah Klemen

2013-01-01

42

Hydrological analyses in Skrapež river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reasons for lack of hydrological studies in mountainous regions are: absence of hydrological measurements and the fact that measurements were not continuous. However, as mentioned areas are basic sources of fresh, unpolluted and useful water, it is necessary to carry out water regime researches and continuous measurements. Surface amount of water in Skrapež riverbed was analyzed, as well as its regime and water balance. Water management problems were pointed out as well. This paper discusses problems connected to decreasing of water amount in the last 20 years of analyzed period, variations of discharge, threats to economy in periods of both low and high water, and also points out the torrential character of the river. The possibilities of water usage from previously unstudied Skrapež sub basins are pointed out as well. Research and utilization of these sub basins provided that high water quality is preserved, would lead to high level of solving the problems of water supply, irrigation and torrential rivers.

Kova?evi?-Majki? Jelena

2008-01-01

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Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested system of observations, will intersect the important landforms, climate zones, ecology, and human activities of the basin. Characterizing how humans and climate impact the sustainability of water resources in the Susquehanna River Basin will require an evolutionary approach, involving coordination of historical information and a phased-design for the new observing system. Detecting change (past and present) requires that the atmosphere, vegetation, geochemistry, and hydrology of the Susquehanna, are all observed coherently from the headwaters to the Chesapeake, from the boundary layer to the water table. The River Basin Adaptive Monitoring and Modeling Plan (RAMP) represents the design strategy to coherently select and assess core monitoring sites as well as new sites targeted for both short-term and long term scientific campaigns. Rich in historical research and infrastructure, SRBHOS will serve as a fundamental resource for the hydrologic science community into the future, while providing a "characteristic" hydrologic node in the national network.

Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

2004-12-01

44

Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin (EPDRB)  

Science.gov (United States)

This site measures the environmental health of the Danube River Basin and provides information on actions taken to protect the ecosystem. Links to the geography of the basin, the Danube Convention and other publications are also included.

Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin (EPDRB); Europe, Regional E.

45

Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This study shows that morphometric analysis of the basins in regional level are very important to understand general morphological characteristics of the basins. In this case, tectonic and lithological conditions of the basins have greatly affected the morphometric characteristics of the north and south basins of the Marmara Sea. References Abrahams, AD. 1984. Channel Networks: A Geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 161-188. Horton, R.E. 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361. Keller, E.A., Pinter, N. 2002. Active Tectonics Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Ozdemir H., Bird D. 2009. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods, Environmental Geology, vol.56, pp.1405-1415. Schumm, S.A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597-646. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage and channel networks. In: Chow YT (ed) Handbook of appliecl hydrology. Me Graw Hill Book Company, New York. Verstappen, H.Th. 1983. Applied geomorphology. ITC, Enschede.

Elba??, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

2014-05-01

46

Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting (national and international laws and agreements), the institutional setting (the formal networks), information management (the information collection and dissemination system), and financing systems (the public and private sources that cover the water management costs). These elements are usually designed for a specific level and are ideally aligned with the other levels. The presentation will go into detail on connecting the different elements of the water management regime between different levels as well as on the overarching governance issues that play a role and will present opportunities and limitations of the linking options.

Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

2014-05-01

47

Caracterización de las superficies agrícolas y sus volúmenes de irrigación en la cuenca del río San Juan, México / Characterization of agricultural areas and irrigation volumes in the San Juan river basin, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El manejo sustentable de los recursos hidrológicos de la cuenca del rio San Juan es prioritario para el desarrollo regional del nordeste de México. En este trabajo se cualificaron las superficies agrícolas con riego y se predijeron los caudales necesarios para irrigar la superficie bajo tres diferen [...] tes escenarios de precipitación, como una forma de inventariar la necesidad de agua por el sector agrícola. La superficie agrícola total ascendió a 172 000 ha los cultivos más comunes fueron el maíz, el sorgo y los cítricos. Los caudales de agua necesarios para irrigar la superficie agrícola se aproximaron a 1 319, 1 688 y 188 mm³ año-1 cuando se presentan precipitaciones con un 50, 20 y 80% de ocurrencia en la cuenca del río San Juan. La agricultura bajo riego contribuye a disminuir el gasto, conllevar una mayor extracción de agua de los ríos para satisfacer los usos consuntivos de los cultivos cuando existen sequías. Se enfatiza la necesidad de implementar prácticas de manejo sustentable de recursos hidrológicos como una alternativa para amortiguar los cambios potenciales en las superficies agrícolas. Abstract in english The sustainable management of hydrological resources in the San Juan river basin is top-priority for the regional development of Northeastern Mexico. This research report quantified irrigated agricultural areas, and water volumes required for irrigation were predicted under three rainfall scenarios, [...] as an approach to build an inventory of water requirements by the farming sector. The total agricultural area amounted 172 999 hectares, the commonest crops being corn, sorghum and citric fruits. Water volumes required for irrigation approximated 1 319, 1 688 and 188 mm3 year-1 under probability of rainfall occurrence scenarios of 50, 20 and 80% the San Juan river basin. Irrigation agriculture contributes to reduce expenses, leads to a higher water extraction from rivers to satisfy farming consumption when drought periods occur. The need to implement sustainable hydrological resource management practices is stressed, as an alternative to ameliorate potential changes in agricultural areas.

José, Návar; Efraín, Rodríguez Téllez.

48

ANOMALOUSLY PRESSURED GAS DISTRIBUTION IN THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anomalously pressured gas (APG) assets, typically called ''basin-center'' gas accumulations, represent either an underdeveloped or undeveloped energy resource in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB). Historically, the exploitation of these gas resources has proven to be very difficult and costly. In this topical report, an improved exploration strategy is outlined in conjunction with a more detailed description of new diagnostic techniques that more efficiently detect anomalously pressured, gas-charged domains. The ability to delineate gas-charged domains occurring below a regional velocity inversion surface allows operators to significantly reduce risk in the search for APG resources. The Wind River Basin was chosen for this demonstration because of the convergence of public data availability (i.e., thousands of mud logs and DSTs and 2400 mi of 2-D seismic lines); the evolution of new diagnostic techniques; a 175 digital sonic log suite; a regional stratigraphic framework; and corporate interest. In the exploration scheme discussed in this topical report, the basinwide gas distribution is determined in the following steps: (1) A detailed velocity model is established from sonic logs, 2-D seismic lines, and, if available, 3-D seismic data. In constructing the seismic interval velocity field, automatic picking technology using continuous, statistically-derived interval velocity selection, as well as conventional graphical interactive methodologies are utilized. (2) Next, the ideal regional velocity/depth function is removed from the observed sonic or seismic velocity/depth profile. The constructed ideal regional velocity/depth function is the velocity/depth trend resulting from the progressive burial of a rock/fluid system of constant rock/fluid composition, with all other factors remaining constant. (3) The removal of the ideal regional velocity/depth function isolates the anomalously slow velocities and allows the evaluation of (a) the regional velocity inversion surface (i.e., pressure surface boundary); (b) detection and delineation of gas-charged domains beneath the velocity inversion surface (i.e., volumes characterized by anomalously slow velocities); and (c) variations within the internal fabric of the velocity anomaly (i.e., variations in gas charge). Using these procedures, it is possible to construct an anomalous velocity profile for an area, or in the case of the Wind River Basin, an anomalous velocity volume for the whole basin. Such an anomalous velocity volume has been constructed for the Wind River Basin based on 1600 mi of 2-D seismic data and 175 sonic logs, for a total of 132,000 velocity/depth profiles. The technology was tested by constructing six cross sections through the anomalous velocity volume coincident with known gas fields. In each of the cross sections, a strong and intense anomalously slow velocity domain coincided with the gas productive rock/fluid interval; there were no exceptions. To illustrate the applicability of the technology, six target areas were chosen from a series of cross sections through the anomalous velocity volume. The criteria for selection of these undrilled target areas were (1) they were characterized by anomalous velocity domains comparable to known gas fields; (2) they had structural, stratigraphic, and temporal elements analogous to one of the known fields; and (3) they were located at least six sonic miles from the nearest known gas field. The next step in the exploration evolution would be to determine if the detected gas-charged domains are intersected by reservoir intervals characterized by enhanced porosity and permeability. If, in any of these targeted areas, the gas-charged domains are penetrated by reservoir intervals with enhanced storage and deliverability, the gas-charged domains could be elevated to drillable prospects. Hopefully, the work described in this report (the detection and delineation of gas-charged domains) will enable operators in the Wind River Basin and elsewhere to reduce risk significantly and increase the rate an

Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

2003-03-31

49

Updating river basin models with radar altimetry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hydrological models are widely used by water managers as a decision support tool for both real-time and long-term applications. Some examples of real-time management issues are the optimal management of reservoir releases, flood forecasting or water allocation in drought conditions. Long term-applications include the impact analysis of planned hydraulic structures or land use changes and the predicted impact of climate change on water availability. One of the obstacles hydrologists face in setting up river basin models is data availability, whether because the datasets needed do not exist or because of political unwillingness to share data which is a common problem in particular in transboundary settings. In this context, remote sensing (RS) datasets provide an appealing alternative to traditional in-situ data and much research effort has gone into the use of these datasets for hydrological applications. Many types of RS are now routinely used to set up and drive river basin models. One of the key hydrological state variables is river discharge. It is typically the output of interest for water allocation applications and is also widely used as a source of calibration data as it presents the integrated response of a catchment to meteorological forcing. While river discharge cannot be directly measured from space, radar altimetry (RA) can measure water level variations in rivers at the locations where the satellite ground track and river network intersect called virtual stations or VS. In this PhD study, the potential for the use of RA over rivers for hydrological applications in data sparse environments is investigated. The research focused on discharge estimation from RA as well as the use of RA for data assimilation to routing models with the objective of improving river discharge forecasts. In the first paper included in this PhD study, the potential for using altimetry for level and discharge monitoring in the Zambezi River basin was assessed. Altimetric levels were extracted using a detailed river mask at 31 VS located on rivers down to 80 m wide. Root mean square errors relative to in-situ levels were found to be between 0.32 and 0.72 m. Discharge was estimated from the altimetric levels for three different data availability scenarios: availability of an in-situ rating curve at the VS, availability of one pair of simultaneous measurement of cross-section and discharge and availability of historical discharge data. For the few VS where in-situ data was available for comparison, the discharge estimates were found to be within 4.1 to 13.8% of mean annual gauged amplitude. One of the main obstacles to the use of RA in hydrological applications is the low temporal resolution of the data which has been between 10 and 35 days for altimetry missions until now. The location of the VS is also not necessarily the point at which measurements are needed. On the other hand, one of the main strengths of the dataset is its availability in near-real time. These characteristics make radar altimetry ideally suited for use in data assimilation frameworks which combine the information content from models and current observations to produce improved forecasts and reduce prediction uncertainty. The focus of the second and third papers of this thesis was therefore the use of radar altimetry as update data in a data assimilation framework. The approach chosen was to simulate reach storages using a simple Muskingum routing scheme driven by the output of a rainfall-runoff model and to carry out state updates using the Extended Kalman Filter. The data assimilation approach developed was applied in two case studies: the Brahmaputra and Zambezi River basins. In the Brahmaputra, data from 6 Envisat VS located along the main reach was assimilated. The assimilation improved model performance with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency increasing from 0.78 to 0.84 at the outlet of the basin. In the Zambezi River basin, data from 9 Envisat VS located within 2 distinct watersheds was assimilated. Because of the presence of the large Barotse floodplain in the

Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

2013-01-01

50

Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and management. In the past, shared and unclear responsibilities, a spatial mismatch between administrative and river basin boundaries, the lack of relevant information, financial resources and implementation capacity resulted in an uncoordinated and partially uncontrolled exploitation of water resources (Livingstone et al. 2009; Horlemann et al. 2012). The recent decision of the Mongolian government to develop river basin management plans and to provide for their implementation through river basin councils and administrations, and the comparatively good data availability resulting from the R&D project, resulted in the decision to jointly develop a science-based river basin management plan for the KRB as a model region for other river basins of the country. References: Hartwig, M.; Theuring, P.; Rode, M. & Borchardt, D. (2012): Suspended sediments in the Kharaa River catchment (Mongolia) and its impact on hyporheic zone functions. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1535-1546. Hofmann, J.; Venohr, M.; Behrendt, H. & Opitz, D. (2010): Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Water Science and Technology 62(2):353-363. Horlemann, L. & Dombrowsky, I. (2012): Institutionalising IWRM in developing and transition countries: the case of Mongolia. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1547-1559. Karthe, D.; Borchardt, D. & Hufert, F. (2012a): Implementing IWRM: Experiences from a Central Asian Model Region. In: Pandya, A.B. (Ed.) (2012): India Water Week 2012. Water, Energy and Food Security: Call for Solutions, Part A3, pp. 1-15. Delhi: Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. Karthe, D.; Sigel, K.; Scharaw, B. et al. (2012b): Towards an integrated concept for monitoring and improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in urban Mongolia. Water & Risk 20:1-5. Karthe, D.; Malsy, M.; Kopp, B. & Minderlein, S. (2013): Assessing Water Availibility and its Drivers in the Context of an Integrated Water Resources Man

Karthe, Daniel

2013-04-01

51

COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

52

Long lasting dynamic disequilibrium in river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

The river basins of ancient landscapes such as the southeastern United States exhibit disequilibrium in the form of migrating divides and stream capture. This observation is surprising in light of the relatively short theoretical fluvial response time, which is controlled by the celerity of the erosional wave that propagates upstream the fluvial channels. The response time is believed to determine the time required for fluvial landscapes to adjust to tectonic, climatic, and base-level perturbations, and its global estimations range between 0.1 Myr and 10s Myr. To address this discrepancy, we develop a framework for mapping continuous dynamic reorganization of natural river basins, and demonstrate the longevity of disequilibrium along the river basins in the southeastern United States that are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The mapping of disequilibrium is based on a proxy for steady-state elevation, ?, that can be easily calculated from digital elevation models. Disequilibrium is inferred from differences in the value of ? across water divides. These differences indicate that with the present day drainage area distribution and river topology the steady-state channels elevation across the divides differs, and therefore divides are expected to migrate in the direction of the higher ? value. We further use the landscape evolution model DAC to explore the source of the longevity of disequilibrium in fluvial landscapes. DAC solves accurately for the location of water divides, using a combination of an analytical solution for hillslopes and low-order channels together with a numerical solution for higher order channels. DAC simulations demonstrate topological, geometrical, and topographical adjustments that persist much longer than the theoretical response time, and consequently, extend the time needed to diminish disequilibrium in the landscape and to reach topological and topographical steady-state. This behavior is interpreted as resulting from a positive feedback between divide migration, which causes topological modifications and area change, on the one hand, and channel slope adjustments, which change the erosion rates on opposing sides of water divides and promote their migration, on the other hand. Furthermore, the constantly shifting drainage area and the changing topology of the drainage network are shown to be a possible source for autogenic sediment flux variations.

Goren, Liran; Willett, Sean D.; McCoy, Scott W.; Perron, J. Taylor; Chen, Chia-Yu

2014-05-01

53

The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

2014-05-01

54

Development of a Systemwide Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, 1992 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of the second year are reported of a basinwide program to harvest northern squawfish in an effort to reduce mortality due to squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids during their migration from natal streams to the ocean. Six papers are included in this report. They are entitled: feasibility investigation of a commercial longline fishery for northern squawfish in the Columbia River downstream from Bonneville dam; evaluation of the northern squawfish sport-reward fishery in the Columbia and Snake Rivers; controlled angling for northern squawfish at selected dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in 1992; evaluation of harvest technology for squawfish control in Columbia River reservoirs; effectiveness of predator-removal for protecting juvenile fall chinook salmon released from Bonneville Hatchery; and Northern squawfish sport-reward payments.

Ward, David L.

1994-06-01

55

The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

Vanham, Davy

2014-05-01

56

Water equivalent of snow survey of the Red River Basin and Heart/Cannonball River Basin, March 1978  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The water equivalent of accumulated snow was estimated in the Red River and Heart/Cannonball River basins and surrounding areas in North Dakota during the period 8 to 17 March 1978. A total of 570 km were flown, covering a 274 km section of the Red River Basin watershed. These lines had been surveyed in March 1974. Twelve flight lines were flown over the North Dakota side of the Red River from a point 23 km south of the Canadian border southward to the city of Fargo, North Dakota. The eight flight lines flown over the Minnesota side of the Red River extended from 23 km south of the Canadian border southward to Breckenridge, Minnesota. Using six flight lines, a total of 120 km were flown in the Heart/Cannonball River Basin, an area southwest of the city of Bismark, North Dakota. This was the first such flight in the Heart/Cannonball River Basin area. Computed weighted average water equivalents on each flight line in the Red River Basin ranged from 4.8 cm to 12.7 cm of water, averaging 7.6 cm for all lines. In the Heart/Cannonball River Basin, the weighted water equivalent ranged from 8.9 cm to 19.1 cm of water, averaging 12.7 cm for all lines. The method used employs the measurement of the natural gamma rays both before and after snow covers the ground

57

Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

1986-05-01

58

The tritium balance of the Ems river basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the Ems river basin, as a fine example of a Central European lowland basin, an inventory of the tritium distribution is presented for the hydrologic years 1951 to 1983. On the basis of a balance model, the tritium contents in surface waters and groundwater of the Ems river basin are calculated, using known and extrapolated tritium input data and comparing them with the corresponding values measured since 1974. A survey of tritium flows occurring in this basin is presented, taking meteorologic and hydrologic facts into account. (orig.)

59

Incorporating safety into surface haulage in the Powder River basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Powder River Basin (PRB) coal deposit extends from southeast Montana to northeast Wyoming. This paper describes a number of haulage practices and tools in use at several mines of the southern PRB and the way in which safety has been designed into and implemented for surface haulage of coal and overburden. Experiences described herein focus on the northeastern corner of Wyoming. All the mines in this area rely on safe and efficient movement of enormous volumes of material, and the results achieved in safety underscore the planning and attention to detail present in the PRB. There are currently 12 large surface mines (those greater than 10.0MM tons/year) operating in this area. In 1995, these mines produced over 230.0MM tons of coal.

Jeffery, W.; Jennings, C.

1996-12-31

60

PREDICTION OF MINERAL QUALITY OF IRRIGATION RETURN FLOW. VOLUME III. SIMULATION MODEL OF CONJUNCTIVE USE AND WATER QUALITY FOR A RIVER SYSTEM OR BASIN  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of the report documents the development of a digital computer coded simulation model to predict the effect of irrigation of agricultural lands on the resulting irrigation return flow quality. The model is capable of simulating conjunctive uses of water, however, valid...

 
 
 
 
61

LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF THE TENSAS RIVER BASIN, MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA REGION, AND GULF OF MEXICO  

Science.gov (United States)

A group of landscape ecological indicators were applied to biophysical data masked to the Tensas River Basin. The indicators were use to identify and prioritize sources of nutrients in a Mississippi River System sub-basin. Remotely sensed data were used for change detection a...

62

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976  

Science.gov (United States)

This package contains information for the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (170402, 17040104). The report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determini...

63

Atmospheric circulation and snowpack in the Gunnison River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies over the eastern North Pacific Ocean and the western United States are related to variability in snowpack accumulations measured on or about April 1 in the Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Higher-than-average snowpack accumulations are associated with negative 700-millibar height anomalies (anomalous cyclonic circulation) over the western United States and over most of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. The anomalous cyclonic circulation enhances the movement of moisture from the eastern North Pacific Ocean into the southwestern United States. Variability in winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies explain over 50 percent of the variability in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin. The statistically significant linear relations between 700-millibar height anomalies and snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin can be used with general-circulation-model simulations of future 700-millibar height anomalies to estimate changes in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin for future climatic conditions.

McCabe, Gregory J.

1994-01-01

64

Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

65

Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, Costa Rica  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9 km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2 km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Anderson, E.P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, M.C.

2008-01-01

66

Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin, Costa Rica  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

Anderson, E.P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, M.C.

2008-01-01

67

SUGGESTIONS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TUZLA RIVER BASIN (NW TURKEY)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural development consists of a wide variety of new activities such as organic farming and livestock, region-specific products, nature conservation and landscape management, rural tourism, and the development of short supply changes. This research aimed to use a SWOT analysis to identify strategies for rural development in the Tuzla River Basin.The Tuzla River Basin is located on the southern side of the Marmara Region and extends in northeast-southwest direction from the Aegean Sea to ...

C?alis?kan, Vedat; O?zo?zen Kahraman, Selver

2012-01-01

68

Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

1997-10-01

69

Airborne geophysical survey, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are reported of AEC-sponsored, high sensitivity, reconnaisance airborne gamma-ray survey of the Wind River Basin area, Wyoming. The objective of the survey was to define those areas showing surface indications of a generally higher uranium content (uraniferous provinces) and where detailed exploration for uranium would most likely be successful. For the data collection tasks, a TI high sensitivity gamma-ray system consisting of seven large-volume NaI detectors, two 400-channel analyzers, and ancillary geophysical and electronic equipment was used. Gamma-ray spectrometric data were processed to correct for variations in atmospheric and flight conditions and statistically evaluated to remove the effect of surface geologic variations. Data were then compared to regional geomorphic lineaments derived from ERTS-1 imagery. Aeromagnetic data were collected simultaneously with the airborne gamma-ray survey and interpreted in terms of regional structure. Ten major anomalous uranium areas and ten less strong anomalous areas were defined within the region surveyed. These anomalies and the known mining districts and uranium occurrences demonstrated good correlation with the ERTS lineaments. The basins were defined by the aeromagnetic data. It is suggested that gamma-ray spectrometer data be supplemented by both the ERTS and aeromagnetic data to best define the targets of greatest potential for further exploration. (U.S.)

70

M-area basin closure-Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway

71

Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India  

Science.gov (United States)

Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

2014-07-01

72

Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River Basin case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically-based and distributed modelling schemes employing data assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. This study is funded by the European Space Agency under the TIGER-NET project. The objective of TIGER-NET is to develop open-source software tools to support integrated water resources management in Africa and to facilitate the use of satellite earth observation data in water management. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations. Forecasts are produced in real time for lead times of 0 to 7 days. The operational probabilistic forecasts are evaluated using a selection of performance statistics and indicators. The forecasting system delivers competitive forecasts for the Kavango River, which are reliable and sharp. Results indicate that the value of the forecasts is greatest for intermediate lead times between 4 and 7 days.

Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jensen, I. H.; Guzinski, R.; Bredtoft, G. K. T.; Hansen, S.; Michailovsky, C. I.

2014-10-01

73

Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, Costa Rica  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9 km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2 km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Anderson, E. P.; Pringle, C. M.; Freeman, M. C.

2008-01-01

74

Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin, Costa Rica  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

Anderson, E.P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, M. C.

2008-01-01

75

River stage tomography: A new approach for characterizing groundwater basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from tomographic surveys make an inverse problem better posed in comparison to the data from a single excitation source. A tomographic survey provides different coverages and perspectives of subsurface heterogeneity: nonfully redundant information of the subsurface. Fusion of these pieces of information expands and enhances the capability of a conventional survey, provides cross validation of inverse solutions, and constrains inherently ill posed field-scale inverse problems. Basin-scale tomography requires energy sources of great strengths. Spatially and temporally varying natural stimuli are ideal energy sources for this purpose. In this study, we explore the possibility of using river stage variations for basin-scale subsurface tomographic surveys. Specifically, we use numerical models to simulate groundwater level changes in response to temporal and spatial variations of the river stage in a hypothetical groundwater basin. We then exploit the relation between temporal and spatial variations of well hydrographs and river stage to image subsurface heterogeneity of the basin. Results of the numerical exercises are encouraging and provide insights into the proposed river stage tomography. Using naturally recurrent stimuli such as river stage variations for characterizing groundwater basins could be the future of geohydrology. However, it calls for implementation of sensor networks that provide long-term and spatially distributed monitoring of excitation as well as response signals on the land surface and in the subsurface.

Yeh, Tian-Chyi J.; Xiang, Jianwei; Suribhatla, Raghavendra M.; Hsu, Kuo-Chin; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Wen, Jet-Chau

2009-05-01

76

SUGGESTIONS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TUZLA RIVER BASIN (NW TURKEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural development consists of a wide variety of new activities such as organic farming and livestock, region-specific products, nature conservation and landscape management, rural tourism, and the development of short supply changes. This research aimed to use a SWOT analysis to identify strategies for rural development in the Tuzla River Basin.The Tuzla River Basin is located on the southern side of the Marmara Region and extends in northeast-southwest direction from the Aegean Sea to the western slope of Mt. Ida. This basin is divided into three sections, namely upper, middle and lower sections along the Tuzla River Basin. Some nine villages which represented three basins were selected from 35 villages using the methods of stratified sampling for this study. Some 200 surveys were performed in regard to the household number of each village and at 95% confidence level. According to the survey results, the investigated relation between the form of rural economic activity and the rural development characteristics was determined. SWOT and QSPM analysis techniques were used to explain poor conditions and future possibilities of rural development in the basin. In the rural areas of the basin, the form of agriculture, low-income animal husbandry carried out under natural & traditional conditions, emigration and traditional lifestyle are the causes of obstacles to rural development.

Vedat ÇALI?KAN

2012-12-01

77

Continuous flow simulation in the Bârlad river basin, Romania  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the partial results obtained into the project CLIMHYDEX ("Changes in Climate Extremes and associated impact on hydrological events in Romania") project that, among others, have as objectives the development of hydrological models at different spatial and temporal scales and the impact of climate change on extreme runoff in Bârlad catchment. To estimate the impact of climate change and variability on the flow regime in Bârlad catchment CONSUL hydrological model, with lumped parameters, was used. This rainfall-runoff deterministic model simulates the most significant hydrological processes within a hydrographic basin: snow-melting, interception, retention in the depressions, evapotranspiration, infiltration, surface runoff, hypodermic runoff, percolation, base runoff. According to the schematic representation (physiographic modelling) of how water flows and collects in a river basin the model computes the discharge hydrographs on selected simulation points on the river network and then performs their routing and composition on the main river and tributaries. After physiographic modelling resulted for Bârlad river basin: 56 sub-basins and 30 river reaches. CONSUL model was calibrated using historical data in Bârlad river basin by simulating the flow during 1975-2010. Calculation of average precipitation and air temperature (hydrological model input data) for each sub-basin was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from original rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Bârlad river basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. In order to estimate the initial values of CONSUL model parameters the generalization relationships of these parameters based on morphometric characteristics of the river basin or river reach were used. Calibration of model parameters was performed in two stages: (i) individual and (ii) globally. (i) Individual calibration on model structures was made based on the 25 rainfall-runoff events, chosen to cover a wide range of possible situations in the case of floods formation. First step was to determine, by individual basin calibration, the infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters, for the sub-basins controlled by gauging stations in the Bârlad river basin. These parameters allowed then the parameters estimation for the ungauged sub-basins. (ii) Global calibration of rainfall-runoff model parameters was done by simulating the flow on considered calibration period. This second stage allowed the recalibration of infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters at the sub-basins uncontrolled hydrometric as well the calibration of routing equation parameters. CONSUL model simulation results showed that the model gives the best results, in particular in the case of floods generated by precipitation evenly distributed in space. Deviations of flow hydrographs simulated by CONSUL and observed are due to both model errors and insufficient meteorological and hydrological data. The main errors are caused by the uncertainty related to the average precipitation computed values on each basin and its variable spatial and temporal distribution.

Corbu?, Ciprian; Mic, Rodica Paula; M?trea??, Marius

2014-05-01

78

River Basin Planning Guidance volume 2  

Control on phosphates in domestic laundry detergents .... For example, the \\current analytical methods for tributyl tin do not enable measurement at ... remove \\a population of an alien species once it has become well established within a \\given ...

79

Transboundary water issues: The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sharing of water of transboundary rivers among riparian nations has become a cause of major concern in different parts of the globe for quite sometime. The issue in the recent decades has been transformed into a source of international tensions and disputes resulting in strained relationships between riparian nations. Conflicts over sharing of water of the international rivers, like the Tigris, Euphrates and Jordan in the Middle East, the Nile in Northern Africa, the Mekong in South-East Asia, the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna in the Indian subcontinent are widely known. The present paper discusses the water sharing -issue in the Ganga- Brahmaputra-Meghna basin located in the Indian sub continent covering five sovereign countries (namely India, Nepal, China, Bhutan and Bangladesh). Rapidly growing population, expanding agricultural and industrial activities besides the impacts of climate change have resulted in stressed condition in the arena of fresh water availability in the basin. Again occurrence of arsenic in sub-surface water in the lower reaches of the basin in India and Bangladesh has also added a new dimension to the problem. All the rivers of the GBM system exhibit wide variations between peak and lean flows as major part of the basin belongs to the monsoon region, where 80%-90 % of annual rainfall is concentrated in 4-5 months of South -West monsoon in the subcontinent. Over and above, the rivers in GBM system carry huge loads of sediments along with the floodwa loads of sediments along with the floodwater and receive huge quantum of different kinds of wastes contaminating the water of the rivers. Again high rate of sedimentation of the major rivers and their tributaries have been affecting not only the carrying capacity of the rivers but also drastically reduced their retention capacity. Almost every year during monsoon about 27% and nearly 60% of the GBM basin lying in India and Bangladesh respectively experience flood. The year round navigation in many rivers has also been affected. All these have serious impacts on the economy of this geo politically sensitive region. It was found that the total water resource of the GBM river system would be unable to meet the prevailing water requirements of the basin, not to speak of the rise in demand of water in the future. It was established that the judicious water demand management and effective control of the over-use, misuse and abuse of water in the respective river basins in each country should get preference over competition for access to additional supply of water to meet the requirements and also adoption of technology which helps that goal to achieve should be made.(Author)

80

Sustainable development indicators: Case study for South Morava river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subject of research is elaboration and evaluation of indicators of sustainable development in the field of river basin management. Aggregate indicator entitled Ecoregion Sustainable Development Index is identified by calculation of average value by the procedure of leveling of proportion changes of three key indicators (demographic emission index, water quality index, industrial production index. Developed aggregate indicator of sustainable development is calculated and analyzed for South Morava river basin in Serbia, for the period from 1980 to 2010. The beneficiaries of these indicators are the experts from the field of environmental protection and water management who should use it for elaboration of reports directed towards the creators of economic development policy and river basin management planning. Elaborated according to the given methodology, the indicator Ecoregion Sustainable Development Index is available for the decision makers on the national level, internationally comparative and it provides the conditions for further elaboration and application.

Veljkovi? Nebojša D.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Meade, R. H.; Rayol, J. M.; Da, Conceicao, S. C.; Natividade, J. R. G.

1991-01-01

82

Computer model of Raritan River Basin water-supply system in central New Jersey  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a computer model of the Raritan River Basin water-supply system in central New Jersey. The computer model provides a technical basis for evaluating the effects of alternative patterns of operation of the Raritan River Basin water-supply system during extended periods of below-average precipitation. The computer model is a continuity-accounting model consisting of a series of interconnected nodes. At each node, the inflow volume, outflow volume, and change in storage are determined and recorded for each month. The model runs with a given set of operating rules and water-use requirements including releases, pumpages, and diversions. The model can be used to assess the hypothetical performance of the Raritan River Basin water- supply system in past years under alternative sets of operating rules. It also can be used to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes, such as the depletion of reservoir contents below a specified threshold or of streamflows below statutory minimum passing flows, for a period of up to 12 months. The model was constructed on the basis of current reservoir capacities and the natural, unregulated monthly runoff values recorded at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations in the basin.

Dunne, Paul; Tasker, G. D.

1996-01-01

83

Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

2014-05-01

84

Scenarios of changes of selected components of hydrosphere and biosphere in catchment basin of Hron River and Vah River as consequence of climatic change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This text-book consist of the following parts: (1) Hydrologic and climatic relationship of catchment basins; (2) Space interpretation of outputs of climatic scenarios in catchment basins of Hron River and Vah River by geostatistical methods; (3) Teleconnection of annual overflows with SO, NAO, AO and QBO phenomenons; (4) Snow; (5) Mathematical model for modelling of influence of climatic changes on runoff processes; (6) Multi-linear model of transformation of runoff in river-basins; (7) Influence of climatic change on capacity utilization of reserve volume of water reservoir Orava River; (8) Quality of surface waters; (9) Influence of climatic changes on biological factors and soil hydrology; (10) Proposal of framing adaptation arrangements.

85

[Monogenea of the fishes from Chu River basin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of the long-term faunistic study of Monogenea from fishes of the Chu River basin are reported. Fauna of Monogenea in the studied area was found to include 51 species of 11 genera and 5 families. Thirteen parasite species occurred in the mountain part of the basin, and 40 species inhabit the valley zone, including 10 species of the Amur faunistic complex probably introduced to Kyrgyzstan together with acclimatized fishes. PMID:18825925

Karabekova, D U

2008-01-01

86

Microsoft Word - NATURA 2000 Protected Areas in NE River Basin District.DOC  

- 1 - North Eastern River Basin Management Plan Water Dependent Features of Natura 2000 sites (SACs & SPAs) in North Eastern River Basin District December 2009 - 2 - Table of Contents 1 Introduction...

87

Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study. Technical Report C: Water Demand Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study (Study), initiated in January 2010, was conducted by the Bureau of Reclamations (Reclamation) Upper Colorado and Lower Colorado regions, and agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States...

2012-01-01

88

Seismism as genetic factor of landslides in Belica River basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During map in Belica River Basin, it was found two areas with continuously developed landslides that could mark as sliding belt. Genetic analysis established that the development of the sliding belts can not be fully explained on the basis of geological or geomorphologic features. Therefore, it was accessed, in this paper, to seismic analysis as potential genetic factor of this colluvial process. This analysis is required to analyze of recent seismism as well as paleoseismism. Genetic characteristic of the earthquake has been analyzed on the basis of data collected during instrumental period as well as the structural and morphological characteristics of the river basin and its surroundings.

Miloševi? Marko V.

2008-01-01

89

N Budgets of the Piracicaba River Basin, Southeast Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen budgets and the importance of the principal types of land use and other human activities as sources and sinks of N were determined for a meso-scale river basin (12 400 km2) in one of the most developed and economically important regions of South America. The Piracicaba River basin is located in southeastern Brazil and drains into a tributary of the Parana River. The basin supports about 2% of the population of Brazil with intensive agricultural and industrial activities. During two years from 1995 to 1997, biweekly samples were collected at 10 points along the Piracicaba River and its tributaries for analyses of dissolved and particulate N. The annual flux of N increased by a factor of about 20 times from the headwaters to the lower reaches of the main channel. Mass balances calculated for six linked sectors of the river system and for the entire basin had inputs that were generally slightly lower than outputs. These results are different from those observed in temperate regions, where low outputs in relation to inputs are common.

Filoso, S.; Williams, M.; Martinelli, L.

2001-05-01

90

THIRTY-FIVE YEARS OF UPPER MISSOURI RIVER BASIN PALEOPATHOLOGY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wet Bones project consisted of speech/hearing evaluations performed on the Native Americans. The Dry Bones project were studies conducted on bones recovered from the region. During 35 years we examined skeletal remnants representing several cultures who existed in Dakota Territory during two millennia. The study of paleopathology was enhanced by salvage archaeology projects conducted before closure of dams across the River in the Upper Missouri River Basin (UMRB). Climatic conditions were unf...

Gregg, John B.

2000-01-01

91

Evaluation of Water Quality Index in Lerma River Upper Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Lerma River Upper Basin is located between Almoloya del Rio shallow lakes and Atlacomulco Municipality in the State of Mexico; is a natural resource essential to human activities in its surroundings and serves as a source of electricity and drinking water for Mexico City. However, this river is threatened by over-exploitation of its aquifers, disappearance of many of its wellsprings and uncontrolled discharges of wastewater from all sorts. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the water quality in the Upper Lerma River Basin using WQI proposed by the NSF and compare these results with those obtained by the National Water Commission of Mexico (CNA. WQI was calculated using seven parameters: dissolved oxygen, pH, DOB5, temperature change, total phosphates, nitrates, and total solids obtained in four different sampling campaigns carried out in 2005, 2006 and 2012. The results showed that water quality in the Upper Lerma River is bad, mainly associated with high levels of BOD5, nitrates and phosphates found. The results obtained with WQI yielded the same diagnosis that the studies carried out by the CNA, in which water quality was unacceptable. It is worth noting that there is a significant water quality deterioration in the Upper Lerma River Basin with the course of the years, because in 2012 were observed the lower index values regarding 2005 and 2006, so it is imperative to implement measures to restore and preserve the water quality of this important river.

Icela D. Barceló-Quintal

2013-07-01

92

Advection and evolution of river basins in mountain ranges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluvial networks determine to a large extent the structure and geometry of erosive landscapes in mountain ranges. As a consequence it is fundamental to understand how they develop in order to reconstruct and predict landscape evolution in orogens. A particularly important problem with relevance for our future ability of "inverting" landscapes is the degree to which fluvial networks and basin boundaries evolve and change with time. The key question is: are river valleys and basins largely static in the landscape or are they rather dynamic, changing and reorganizing frequently during orogen evolution? A "dynamic" view has long found support in a variety of observations (wind gaps, hanging valleys, inferred changes of sources of clastics) interpreted as evidences of river captures and drainage network changes, and has been reproduced in certain analogue and numerical models. It also seems intuitively reasonable when considered in parallel with the high magnitude and frequency of cenozoic climatic changes combined with the very high rates of vertical and horizontal movements of rocks in active orogens which suggest that landscapes may have changed congruently. However, support for a "static" view has also long existed based on the ubiquitous observation of antecedent rivers and drainage systems cutting through lithological and geological structures (folds and faults), extending behind the main drainage divide in large mountain ranges, or the preservation of superficial cover rocks adjacent to valleys deeply incised into the basement. Spectacular plane deformation of large river basins in the East Himalayan syntaxis also illustrates the possible difficulty encountered by river systems to reorganize (Hallet and Molnar 2001). In the debate over the mechanisms responsible for the consistent width-to-length aspect of the main transverse river basins observed in linear mountain belts of different ages, width and tectonic and climatic regimes (Hovius, 1996), Castelltort and Simpson (2006) have proposed a mechanism which involves (1) the idea that river networks in the lowland plains are incorporated in the orogen as it widens, and (2) that they do not change after their incorporation, thus "importing" a geometry acquired outside of the range independently of the tectonic and climatic influences acting inside the uplifting zone. This mechanisms implies rather a "static" view of river networks which serves as an alternative to models in which river networks continuously reorganize inside uplifting topography in such a way as to maintain a statistical geometry dictated solely by geomorphic processes. In the present work our approach to this problem is to measure and compare the form of river basins in the lowlands and in the uplands of the Himalayas, New-Zealand, Taiwan, the European Alps, the Pyrenees and the Apennines. We first present the method we employ to measure the shape of river basins and the data used. Second, we analyse and discuss our results which show a correlation between the shape of networks developed in the pro-lowlands of active orogens and their upland counterparts whereas such a correlation does not exist on the retro-side of the considered orogens. Our results thus support (1) the horizontal advection of river basins from the pro-lowlands to the pro-uplands, (2) a certain amount of reorganization by widening of basin boundaries, and (3) the existence of a different mechanism of drainage network evolution in the retro-side of the orogens. Castelltort, S., and Simpson, G., 2006, Basin Research, 18: 267-276. Hallet, B. and Molnar, P., 2001. J. Geophys. Res, 106: 13697-13709. Hovius, N., 1996, Basin Research, 8: 29-44.

Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Willett, S.

2009-04-01

93

K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

94

K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 1, Regulatory options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. Volume 1 of this two-volume report describes the regulatory options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

95

Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

2003-03-01

96

Palaeoclimatological perspective on river basin hydrometeorology: case of the Mekong Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globally, there have been many extreme weather events in recent decades. A challenge has been to determine whether these extreme weather events have increased in number and intensity compared to the past. This challenge is made more difficult due to the lack of long-term instrumental data, particularly in terms of river discharge, in many regions including Southeast Asia. Thus our main aim in this paper is to develop a river basin scale approach for assessing interannual hydrometeorological and discharge variability on long, palaeological, time scales. For the development of the basin-wide approach, we used the Mekong River basin as a case study area, although the approach is also intended to be applicable to other basins. Firstly, we derived a basin-wide Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI from the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA. Secondly, we compared the basin-wide PDSI with measured discharge to validate our approach. Thirdly, we used basin-wide PDSI to analyse the hydrometeorology and discharge of the case study area over the study period of 1300–2005. For the discharge-MADA comparison and hydrometeorological analyses, we used methods such as linear correlations, smoothing, moving window variances, Levene type tests for variances, and wavelet analyses. We found that the developed basin-wide approach based on MADA can be used for assessing long-term average conditions and interannual variability for river basin hydrometeorology and discharge. It provides a tool for studying interannual discharge variability on a palaeological time scale, and therefore the approach contributes to a better understanding of discharge variability during the most recent decades. Our case study revealed that the Mekong has experienced exceptional levels of interannual variability during the post-1950 period, which could not be observed in any other part of the study period. The increased variability was found to be at least partly associated with increased El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO activity.

T. A. Räsänen

2013-05-01

97

Land Use and Land Cover Changes in a Tropical River Basin: A Case from Bharathapuzha River Basin, Southern India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study of the spatial and temporal changes in land use and land cover (LULC) was conducted using Remote Sensing and GIS. We analyzed the LULC of Bharathapuzha river basin, south India using multispectral LANDSAT imageries of 1973-2005 time periods. 31% depletion in the natural vegetation cover and 8.7% depletion in wetland agriculture area were seen in the basin during the period. On the other hand the urban spread in the basin increased by 32%. The study highlights the need for a scientific...

Azeez, P. A.; Nikhil Raj, P. P.

2010-01-01

98

COLUMBIA BASIN SALMON POPULATIONS AND RIVER ENVIRONMENT DATA  

Science.gov (United States)

Data Access in Real Time (DART) provides an interactive data resource designed for research and management purposes relating to the Columbia Basin salmon populations and river environment. Currently, daily data plus historic information dating back to 1962 is accessible online. D...

99

AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MOM RIVER BASIN  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year about 1.6 million metric tons of nitrogen, mostly from agriculture, is discharged from the lower Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin into the Gulf of Mexico, and each spring this excess nitrogen fuels the formation of a huge hypoxic zone in the Gulf. In the Mississippi...

100

Biomorphological structure of the flora of Vychegda River water basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The annotated list and biomorphological analysis of water flora from the basin of Vychegda River are represented. Flora of water bodies is mostly represented by perennial herbaceous plants which have high expansion potential. A lot of species from these flora belong to the special biomorphological group of polycarpous long-lived plants.

Boris Yu. Teteryuk

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

OPTIMIZING SALINITY CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple multi-level nonlinear optimization procedure was utilized to formulate the most cost-effective array of salinity control strategies for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The incremental cost-effectiveness methodology qualitatively indicates the location and general type of...

102

Biomorphological structure of the flora of Vychegda River water basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The annotated list and biomorphological analysis of water flora from the basin of Vychegda River are represented. Flora of water bodies is mostly represented by perennial herbaceous plants which have high expansion potential. A lot of species from these flora belong to the special biomorphological group of polycarpous long-lived plants.

Boris Yu. Teteryuk

2013-04-01

103

BEAR RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATION, 1974  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of the waters in the Bear River Basin, Idaho (160102) was surveyed from August 27 to August 29, 1974. The purposes of the survey were to determine point and non-point source loading, to determine whether water quality has improved since the adoption of the 1958 Enfor...

104

Water resources of the Santa Fe River basin, Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

The Santa Fe River basin is a 1,384 square-mile area in north-central Florida. The principal source of water is the Floridan aquifer, a sequence of limestone beds, the upper 300 to 800 feet of which contain potable water. The western part of the basin has the greatest potential yields for individual wells, as much as 5,000 gallons per minute, and contains the largest surface-water supplies. Spring discharge and diffuse seepage from the Floridan aquifer augment the Santa Fe River. The Floridan aquifer is overlain by a confining bed that in the western part of the basin is ineffectual. In the eastern part the Floridan aquifer is confined and the confining bed is overlain by a surficial aquifer. The confining bed contains water-yielding zones, which in addition to the surficial aquifer , may supply water for domestic use. Numerous tributary streams supply small amounts of water to the Santa Fe River and its principal tributary, New River. The base flow of most of these streams is supplied by the surficial aquifer. Estimated water use is about 17 million gallons per day, and runoff from the basin is estimated to be 1,400 million gallons per day. (USGS)

Hunn, J. D.; Slack, L. J.

1983-01-01

105

Hydrological response to climate change for Gilgel Abay River, in the Lake Tana Basin -Upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is likely to have severe effects on water availability in Ethiopia. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of climate change on the Gilgel Abay River, Upper Blue Nile Basin. The Statistical Downscaling Tool (SDSM) was used to downscale the HadCM3 (Hadley centre Climate Model 3) Global Circulation Model (GCM) scenario data into finer scale resolution. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was set up, calibrated, and validated. SDSM downscaled climate outputs were used as an input to the SWAT model. The climate projection analysis was done by dividing the period 2010-2100 into three time windows with each 30 years of data. The period 1990-2001 was taken as the baseline period against which comparison was made. Results showed that annual mean precipitation may decrease in the first 30-year period but increase in the following two 30-year periods. The decrease in mean monthly precipitation may be as much as about -30% during 2010-2040 but the increase may be more than +30% in 2070-2100. The impact of climate change may cause a decrease in mean monthly flow volume between -40% to -50% during 2010-2040 but may increase by more than the double during 2070-2100. Climate change appears to have negligible effect on low flow conditions of the river. Seasonal mean flow volume, however, may increase by more than the double and +30% to +40% for the Belg (small rainy season) and Kiremit (main rainy season) periods, respectively. Overall, it appears that climate change will result in an annual increase in flow volume for the Gilgel Abay River. The increase in flow is likely to have considerable importance for local small scale irrigation activities. Moreover, it will help harnessing a significant amount of water for ongoing dam projects in the Gilgel Abay River Basin. PMID:24250755

Dile, Yihun Taddele; Berndtsson, Ronny; Setegn, Shimelis G

2013-01-01

106

Impacts of urbanization on river system structure: a case study on Qinhuai River Basin, Yangtze River Delta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stream structure is usually dominated by various human activities over a short term. An analysis of variation in stream structure from 1979 to 2009 in the Qinhuai River Basin, China, was performed based on remote sensing images and topographic maps by using ArcGIS. A series of river parameters derived from river geomorphology are listed to describe the status of river structure in the past and present. Results showed that urbanization caused a huge increase in the impervious area. The number of rivers in the study area has decreased and length of rivers has shortened. Over the 30 years, there was a 41.03% decrease in river length. Complexity and stability of streams have also changed and consequently the storage capacities of river channels in intensively urbanized areas are much lower than in moderately urbanized areas, indicating a greater risk of floods. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the urban disturbance to rivers. PMID:25116497

Ji, Xiaomin; Xu, Youpeng; Han, Longfei; Yang, Liu

2014-01-01

107

Isotopic fingerprint of the middle Olt River basin, Romania.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most important tributaries of the Danube River in Romania, the Olt River, was characterized in its middle catchment in terms of the isotopic composition using continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). Throughout a period of 10 months, from November 2010 to August 2011, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected in order to investigate the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the basin waters. The results revealed a significant difference between the Olt River and its tributaries, by the fact that the Olt River waters show smaller seasonal variations in the stable isotopic composition and are more depleted in (18)O and (2)H. The waters present an overall enrichment in heavy isotopes during the warm seasons. PMID:25299076

Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Axente, Damian

2014-12-01

108

Investigating the Hydrological Characteristics of Kaduna River Basin.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The water resource potential of the Kaduna River for use in irrigation development and water resource management has been studied. The water conveyance efficiencies of the river channels are very low that development of upstream reservoirs and downstream irrigation schemes will result in much water conveyance losses as the water flows downstream from these reservoirs. also, the runoff coefficient of the basin decreases from upstream to downstream catchments while the basin river have been observed to behave as gaining river and loosing river in their upstream and downstream ends respectively .Excessive loss of water by percolation below the root zones should be avoided by proper selection of irrigation water application method because of the low runoff coefficient of the lowland catchment areas. It is thus recommended that the development of the downstream of the basin for agriculture should be carried out with caution as a result of the great water –conveyance losses and the semi-aridity shown by stream flow analysis.

A Saminu

2013-09-01

109

Dissolved and bioavailable contaminants in the Seine river basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diffusive Gradient in Thin Films (DGT) and Semi-Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) were deployed in the Seine river basin in order to assess labile metals and truly dissolved Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. We show that the tools are reliable in aquatic environments to assess the speciation of dissolved contaminants and hence provide a good insight into the potential bioavailability of contaminants. The deployment of the DGT and SPMDs in contrasting environments in the Seine river basin allowed distinction to be made of availability of contaminants between headwater streams and much more impacted river reaches and an assessment of bioavailability. At the stations under urban influence, the impact of dissolved organic matter on both copper and PAHs bioavailability is less pronounced than at upstream stations, where humic substances dominate. PMID:17276495

Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Gourlay, Catherine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Mouchel, Jean-Marie; Buzier, Rémy; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise

2007-04-01

110

Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:23644791

Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S

2013-02-01

111

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVI : Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2005, the University of Washington developed a new statistical model to analyze the combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged salmon migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine), has been used to estimate survival and transportation effects on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin from 1996 to 2003. Those results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on both a systemwide basis, incorporating all transport dams analyzed, and a dam-specific basis. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 5,000 tagged smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few tagged hatchery steelhead were transported in these years, no transportation effects are estimated for steelhead. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.71% with a standard error (SE) of 0.18% for spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2003, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. For summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the estimates of annual SAR averaged 1.15% (SE=0.31%). Only for the release years 1999 and 2000 did the Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for hatchery steelhead from the Snake River Basin averaged 0.45% (SE=0.11%), including age-1-ocean returns, for release years 1996 through 2003. For release years when the ocean return probability from Bonneville back to Bonneville could be estimated (i.e., 1999 through 2003), it was estimated that on average approximately 86% of the total integrated mortality for nontransported, tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook, and 74% for steelhead, occurred during the ocean life stage (i.e., from Bonneville to Bonneville). This suggests that additional monitoring and research efforts should include the ocean and estuary environment. Annual estimates of the systemwide T/I are weighted averages of the dam-specific T/I ratios for each transport dam (with {ge} 5,000 tagged fish transported), weighted by the probabilities of being transported at each dam. The systemwide T/I compares the observed SAR under the existing transportation system with the expected SAR if the transportation system had not been operated. Estimates of 1.0 indicate that the systemwide transportation program has no effect on SAR, while estimates > 1.0 indicate that the transportation program increases SAR. Excluding the 2001 release group, the geometric mean of the systemwide T/I estimates for hatchery spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin was 1.15 (SE=0.03) for release years 1997 through 2003. The geometric mean of the systemwide T/I estimates for hatchery summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin was 1.28 (SE=0.13) for release years 1997 through 2000 and 2003. Estimates were much higher for the 2001 release groups. These estimates reflect transportation from Lower Granite and/or Little Goose for most release years, depending on the number of tagged smolts actually transported at each dam during each release year. Differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) is the ratio of post-Bonneville survival to Lower Granite Dam of transported fish to that of nontransported ('inriver') fish. Excluding the 2001 release year, the geometric mean of the D estimates for hatchery spring Chinook salmon from the Snake Ri

Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.

2007-12-07

112

Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the

Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

2004-10-01

113

Hydrochemistry of the Densu River Basin of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planned hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality have been carried out to understand the sources of dissolved ions in the aquifers supporting groundwater systems in the Densu River basin. The basin is underlain mainly by the proterozoic basin type granitoids with associated gnesis, with dominant mineral such as plagioclase feldspars. The groundwater is Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 facies, due to weathering and ion-exchange of minerals underlying the aquifers. The enrichment of the cation and anions are Na>Ca>Mg>K and HCO3>Cl>SO4>NO3 respectively. Some of the elevated values of both cations and anions may be due to seawater intrusions, ion-exchange, oxidation and anthropogenic activities. Based on these studies, proper management would be recommended to address groundwater quality in the basin. (au)

114

Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

2010-01-01

115

Implementing Environmental Flows in Complex Water Resources Systems Case Study: The Duero River Basin, Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

European river basin authorities are responsible for the implementation of the new river basin management plans in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive. This paper presents a new methodology framework and approach to define and evaluate environmental flow regimes in the realistic complexities that exist with multiple water resource needs at a basin scale. This approach links river basin simulation models and habitat time series analysis to generate ranges of environmental fl...

Paredes Arquiola, Javier; Martinez-capel, Francisco; Solera Solera, Abel; Aguilella Vidal, Vicent

2011-01-01

116

Factors influencing a basin-wide agreement governing the Nile river  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyzes the challenges facing the Nile River Basin riparian countries in terms of how best to achieve collaborative solutions within a transboundary river basin. Lessons learned from other transboundary river basins are incorporated into an analysis of factors promoting and impeding cooperation. Collective action theory is applied to determine the prospects for a basin-wide agreement in the Nile. While the results of this imply that the prospects for such an agreement are low, fur...

Johnston, Erin Elizabeth

2009-01-01

117

Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in the region.

Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

2014-05-01

118

Demarcation of Groundwater Prospective Zones in Humid Tropical River Basin: A Geospatial Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

roundwater, being a vital resource, needs to be developed with proper understanding about its occurrence in time and space. Unscientific sand mining is a dominant environmental issue in this humid tropical river basin namely Bharathapuzha river basin geographically on central part of Kerala state, southwest part of India. The sandy layers along the river course declines its water holding capacity due to indiscriminate sand mining throughout the river basin. For a sustainable development of wa...

Girish Gopinath; Sreela Reghu; Reji Srinivas; Rajesh Regunath; Kurian Sajan

2013-01-01

119

People and water in the Assabet River basin, eastern Massachusetts  

Science.gov (United States)

An accounting of the inflows, outflows, and uses of water in the rapidly developing Assabet River Basin, along Interstate 495 in eastern Massachusetts, was done to quantify how people's activities alter the hydrologic system. The study identified subbasins and seasons in which outflows resulting from people's activities were relatively large percentages of total flows, and quantified the fraction of streamflow in the Assabet River that is treated wastewater. Computer models of ground-water flow were also used to test how the components of the hydrologic system, particularly streamflow, would change with future development and increased water use. Computer simulations showed that, when water use was increased to currently permitted levels, streamflows in tributaries would decrease, particularly during the low-flow period. In the Assabet River, increased wastewater discharges resulted in a slight increase in total streamflow and an increase in the fraction of streamflow in the river that is wastewater, relative to existing conditions.

Desimone, Leslie A.

2005-01-01

120

Associations of interdecadal/interannual climate variability and long-term colorado river basin streamflow  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThe study presented here utilized long-term streamflow records (over 500 years) to investigate the influence of interannual/interdecadal climate variability on the Colorado River basin. 19 unimpaired water year streamflow stations were reconstructed utilizing partial least square regression using standard tree ring chronologies. The spatial and temporal variability of drought was evaluated for all the stations for the different centuries in the record. Finally, the relationship between individual impact of ENSO, PDO, and AMO and its combined effect on streamflow was determined using the non parametric Rank Sum test for different lag years (0, +1, +2, and +3) of streamflow. This research also determined the change in streamflow volume with respect to the long-term mean volume of the basin due to individual and coupled effect of oceanic climate influences. Results indicate that there is an increase in streamflow during El Niño and decreased streamflow during La Niña in the basin. Similarly, PDO warm/cold resulted in increased/decreased streamflow. There were few stations related to the AMO in the basin. Finally, the differences in the Upper and Lower basin were noted in the magnitude of changes in streamflow (in terms of percentage) under different individual and coupled influences of ENSO, PDO, and AMO.

Timilsena, Janak; Piechota, Thomas; Tootle, Glenn; Singh, Ashok

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

RESEARCHES REGARDING ICHTHYOFAUNA FROM NADRAG RIVER BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On this research is showing the present situation of the fish genostock in the Nadrag River, an important confluent of the Timis river, being part of the Banat hydrographical area. The fish species caught in the investigated area are part of Cyprinidae family. The dominant species is Barbus meridionalis petenyi, followed by Alburnoides bipunctatus, incorporating the investigated area in the European grayling (Thymallus thymallus or the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis petenyi zone of the running waters. At present the Barbus meridionalis petentyi population from the area investigated founds itself in a regression, fact that can be connected both with the poaching and with unauthorized hydrotechnic buildings build-up in the last decade.

I. B?N??EAN-DUNEA

2013-12-01

122

A Review of Integrated River Basin Management for Sarawak River  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Sarawak River was a life-sustaining water source for the residents in Kuching City and surrounding areas. Raw water is treated at Batu Kitang Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP that supplies more than 98% of the total water production in Kuching City. The raw water supply to BKWTP is not adequate to meet the ever increasing water demand. In order to overcome this problem, four projects had been implemented along Sarawak River for managing and securing water supply to BKWTP. Approach: These four projects are construction of 1.5m height storage weir across Sungai Sarawak Kiri river channel, Kuching Barrage and Shiplock, Bengoh Dam and Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS. In 2005, 1.5 m height submersible weir was constructed across Sungai Sarawak Kiri channel for increasing the safe yield that can last until year 2010. Kuching Barrage and Shiplock were commissioned in 2000 as barrier to avoid the saline intrusion reaching upper catchment. 24 telemetry stations were installed along Sarawak River for monitoring and regulating the water level. This will preserve high quality water storage at upper catchment of Sarawak River. In year 2010, Bengoh Dam was constructed to ensure adequate raw water will be supplied to BKWTP for meeting the increasing water demand from 2010-2030. This reservoir will store 144 million m3 of fresh water covering reservoir area of 8.77km2. Beyond 2030, the water supply shall not depend solely on fresh water. Results: Black and grey water in Sarawak Catchment was treated through Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS and recycled for daily used. Conclusion: The treated water that comply Standard A water quality, can distribute for domestic, industrial and irrigation used in nearest future. This will reduce the water demand solely on raw water and create a sustainable living in Kuching City. Beyond 2030, a few alternatives are also proposed for conserving and securing water supply for Kuching city.

Kuok K. Kuok

2011-01-01

123

Helminth parasites of freshwater fishes, Nazas River basin, northern Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper represents the first study of the helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from the Nazas River basinin northern Mexico. Between July 2005 and December 2008, 906 individual fish were collected and examined for helminthparasites in 23 localities along the river basin. Twenty-three species of fish were examined as a part of this inventory work.In total, 41 helminth species were identified: 19 monogeneans, 10 digeneans, seven cestodes, one acanthocephalan, andfour nematodes. The biogeographical implications of our findings are briefly discussed.

León, G. Pérez-Ponce

2010-01-01

124

DOM in recharge waters of the Santa Ana River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The urban Santa Ana River in California is the primary source of recharge water for Orange County's groundwater basin, which provides water to more than two million residents. This study was undertaken to determine the unidentified portion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in various natural surface and reclaimed waters of the Santa Ana River Basin and to assess the potential health risk of this material. The most abundant organic contaminants were anionic detergent degradation products (constituting about 12% of the DOM), which have no known adverse health effects. In addition, high percentages of dissolved colloids from bacterial cell walls were found during storm flows; these colloids foul membranes used in water treatment. Although no significant health risks were ascribed to the newly characterized DOM, the authors note that even the small amounts of humic substances deposited during storm flow periods were responsible for significant increases in disinfection by_product formation potential in these waters.

Leenheer, J. A.; Aiken, G. R.; Woodside, G.; O'Connor-Patel, K.

2007-01-01

125

Response operations on the Kolva River Basin 1995 oil recovery and mitigation project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil spill recovery efforts at the Kolva River Basin in Northern Russia, were discussed. A major crude oil spill occurred at six points along a pipeline which threatened the riverside communities. An overview of the spill and a description of the site was presented. Hartec Management Consultants Inc. was chosen to contain and recover the huge quantities of oil. To maximize the efficiency of the oil containment and recovery efforts, unique containment, herding, and recovery techniques were developed. Phase I focussed on the containment of the oil to prevent it from reaching the Kolva River, while phase II concentrated on the systematic recovery and removal of the oil. Phase I was completed within five months, with the result that no oil had reached the Kolva River from any of the six sites. In phase II, the removal of the oil was done by high volume skimmers. 1 tab., 6 figs

126

Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)  

Science.gov (United States)

Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and geospatial data to understand the basement and sub-basement structures in the study area. Major tectonic features including the Ouachita thrust-fold belt, Lampasas arch, Llano uplift, and Bend arch surround the southeast Fort Worth Basin. The effects of these tectonic units in the basement were imaged in form of faulted and folded basement and sub-basement layers. Euler deconvolution and integrated forward gravity modeling were employed to extend the interpretations beyond the 3D seismic survey into a regional context. The Harney Basin is a relatively flat lying depression in the northeast portion of the enigmatic High Lava Plains volcanic province in eastern Oregon. In addition to the High Lava Plains active source seismic data, I also employed gravity, magnetic, digital elevation, geologic maps, and other geospatial data in this integrated study. I generated an upper crustal 3D seismic tomographic model of the Harney Basin and surrounding area using the active source seismic data. I then integrated it with gravity, magnetic, and geologic data to produce a geophysical model of the upper crustal structure, which reveals that the basin reaches as deep as 6 km in the central areas. I observed two major caldera shaped features within the basin. These calderas reveal seismic low velocity areas along with low gravity and magnetic anomalies. I interpreted the extent of these calderas with the help of integrated geophysical results. I propose a nested caldera complex in the northern Harney Basin and another caldera in the southern part. The Snake River Plain is an arcuate-shaped topographic low that lies in southern Idaho. This rifted valley is filled by large volume of mafic magma with numerous exposures of silicic volcanic centers. The scientific discussion on the structural complexities and evolution of the Snake River Plain and the role of extension in its formation has been going on for decades. Similarly, high gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with the Snake River Plains, and their possible causes are still the subject of many studies. Numerous recent

Khatiwada, Murari

127

Multi-Decadal Variability of Colorado River Basin Streamflow  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional water resource planning and management are based upon the assumption that past run-off records are indicative of future hydrologic conditions. The severe and sustained nature of the recent drought in the Southwestern United States has underscored the limitation of this planning approach. Furthermore, a growing collection of scientific literature indicates that anthropogenic climate change may further dry the region and strain its water resources. Thus, developing tools and strategies to address streamflow variability, is critical for effective water management in regions such as the Colorado River Basin. A crucial first step toward this end is the understanding of streamflow variability at multi-decadal time scales, driven by large scale climate features such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), etc. Here, a systematic analysis of basin-wide natural streamflow and paleo-reconstructed flows in the Colorado River Basin is presented, using time domain principal component analysis (PCA) and spectral methods based on wavelets and a multi-taper method. The dominant patterns of variability are related to global sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to identify potential large scale climate features that drive the variability. Results indicate that the first two PCs explain approximately 60% of the total streamflow variance in the Basin. The first PC, which is a predominantly Upper Basin signal, correlates strongly with Atlantic Ocean SSTs and shows an AMO pattern, while the second PC has distinct ties to the Pacific Ocean, reminiscent of PDO and ENSO patterns. The spectral analyses of the leading PCs indicate strong coherence with the corresponding indices of the aforementioned climate forcings. The spectrum of the first PC displays a strong signal at 10-15 year and 60-70 year periodicities. Spectral analysis of paleo-reconstructed Upper Basin streamflow indicates that these periodicities are modulated, especially the decadal signal being modulated at a 75-year time scale. These results provide insight into the multi-decadal variability of Colorado River streamflow. Furthermore, they will have considerable utility in realistic simulation of near-term streamflows and consequently, efficient planning and management of water resources in the Colorado River Basin.

Nowak, K. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hoerling, M.; Zagona, E. A.

2010-12-01

128

An indicator system for surface water quality in river basins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public utilities, agricultural and industrial economical sectors and ecosystems depend on the water supplied by the natura environment. These water needs, the European Water Framework Directive requirements and the key surface water pollution problems identified at a River Basin scale, lead to the development of a water quality indicator system for surface waters. This is an environmental tool, which allows the assessment of the pressure-stateimpact of human activities on surface water...

Oliveira, R. E. S.; Lima, M. M. C. L.; Vieira, J. M. Pereira

2005-01-01

129

Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights—a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions—a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m3—enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Clayton, Mary E.; Webber, Michael E.

2011-07-01

130

Knowledge-based approaches for river basin management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rare attempts to use knowledge technologies and other relevant approaches are found in the river basin management. Some applications of expert systems as well as utilization of soft computing techniques (as neural networks or genetic algorithms are known in an experimental level. Knowledge management approaches still have not been used at all. In this paper we discuss knowledge-based approaches in the river basin management as a difficult yet important direction which could be proven to be helpful. We summarize the research done in the scope of the AQUIN project, one of first Czech knowledge management projects in the river basin management. The project was initiated by the water management company in Pilsen, where dispatchers make decisions about manipulations on the reservoir Nýrsko, the strategic source of drinking water for inhabitants of Pilsen. The project aim was to support dispatchers' decision making under a high degree of uncertainty or data shortage. The research is continued in the scope of a new project AQUINpro, planned for the period of 2006 to 2008.

P. Mikulecký

2007-06-01

131

Trends in Surface Water Quality for Korean River basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality is an ongoing problem in many Korean river basins. Maintaining good water quality is essential for the sustainability of the country. While point source pollution has declined with stringent regulation and management (e.g., wastewater discharge permit and the installation of wastewater treatment facilities in major municipalities), nonpoint source pollution is a persistent problem in major metropolitan areas. We used the nonparametric seasonal Kendall's test to determine trends in surface water quality for the period between 1993 and 2002. For temperature, trends were detected only a small number of stations. pH increased significantly in more than half of the stations. Dissolved oxygen showed two opposite trends: upward trends at stations in the main stem river and the upper basin and downward trends at tributary stations. Suspended solids declined in major tributaries, but increased in tributaries adjacent to new suburban development areas. Total phosphorus and total nitrogen showed upward trends except for tributary stations in forested areas, suggesting the ineffectiveness of wastewater treatment facilities in removing these nutrients and confirming the importance of nonpoint source pollution. While urban land cover is positively associated with nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, there are strong regional and local variations in water quality. The relationship between trends and land use change at the local scale did not reveal strong evidence of possible causation. This study demonstrates the complexity of identifying the causal mechanisms of water quality change in highly heterogeneous river basins.

Chang, H.; Boeder, M.

2006-05-01

132

Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs

133

Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

134

Estimating resource costs of compliance with EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Resource costs of meeting EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale are estimated by comparing net benefits of water use given ecological status constraints to baseline water use values. Resource costs are interpreted as opportunity costs of water use arising from water scarcity. An optimization approach is used to identify economically efficient ways to meet WFD requirements. The approach is implemented using a river basin simulation model coupled to an economic post-processor; the simulation model and post-processor are run from a central controller that iterates until an allocation is found that maximizes net benefits given WFD requirements. Water use values are estimated for urban/domestic, agricultural, industrial, livestock, and tourism water users. Ecological status is estimated using metrics that relate average monthly river flow volumes to the natural hydrologic regime. Ecological status is only estimated with respect to hydrologic regime; other indicators are ignored in this analysis. The decision variable in the optimization is the price of water, which is used to vary demands using consumer and producer water demand functions. The price-based optimization approach minimizes the number of decision variables in the optimization problem and provides guidance for pricing policies that meet WFD objectives. Results from a real-world application in northern Greece show the suitability of the approach for use in complex, water-stressed basins. The impact of uncertain input values on model outcomes is estimated using the Info-Gap decision analysis framework. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Riegels, Niels; Jensen, Roar

2011-01-01

135

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon release groups were pooled across the entire Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam for this report. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.92% with an estimated standard error (dSE) of 0.25% for wild spring and summer Chinook salmon for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2004, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. Only for the 1999 and 2000 release years did the wild Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for wild steelhead from the Snake River Basin averaged 0.63% (dSE = 0.15%), including age-1-ocean returns, for release years 1996 through 2004. For release years when the ocean return probability from Bonneville back to Bonneville could be estimated (i.e., 1999 through 2004), it was estimated that on average approximately 83% of the total integrated mortality for nontransported, tagged wild spring and summer Chinook, and 78% for steelhead (omitting the 2001 release year), occurred during the ocean life stage (i.e., from Bonneville to Bonneville). This suggests that additional monitoring and research efforts should include the ocean and estuary environment. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Lower Granite Dam were available for the 2003 and 2004 release years for both wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead. The estimated T/I for Lower Granite was significantly > 1.0 for Chinook in 2004 (P < 0.0001) and for steelhead in both 2003 (P < 0.0001) and 2004 (P < 0.0001), indicating that for these release years, wild fish transported at Lower Granite returned there in higher proportions than fish that were returned to the river at Lower Granite, or that passed Lower Granite without detection as juveniles. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Little Goose Dam were available for wild Chinook salmon for both 2003 and 2004. The estimated T/I for Little Goose was significantly > 1.0 for wild Chinook in 2004 (P = 0.0024), but not in 2003 (P = 0.1554). Differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) is the ra

Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

2008-12-03

136

Erosion and sediment budget of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A case study on Mianyuan River basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Wenchuan Earthquake caused a large number of avalanches and landslides at different scales. It is extremely significant to evaluate the sediment in the earthquake river basins. Along the 38 km long upper Mianyuan River 196 landslides and avalanches happened during the earthquake, which have formed 25 landslide dams and quake lakes. The total volume of sediment erosion due to earthquake was about 115 million m3, which is 75 times higher than the soil erosion in normal years. Only a part of the solid material could be transported by the river water flow as suspended load and bed load. The total volume of bed load deposit in the river and the quake lakes was 1.43 million m3. Moreover the quake lakes had also trapped 0.12 million m3 suspended load. Only 0.18 million m3 of fine sediment had been drifted through the quake lakes and transported into the lower reaches of the Mianyuan River. The wide range of size distributions of sediment from earthquake erosion caused the extreme difference in the amounts of sediment erosion and transportation. Most of the sediment from earthquake erosion can be only transported for a short distance by landslides and debris flows. Less than 0.2% of the total volume of sediment from earthquake erosion may be transported into large rivers. Therefore, earthquake erosion has little effect on the sediment transportation and fluvial processes in the large rivers.

Lijian Qi

2012-08-01

137

Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instab...

Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Ce?cile; Landemaine, Valentin

2014-01-01

138

Environmental Isotope Ratios of River Water in the Danube Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the Danube study were documentation of existing data and completion of long term data sets (2H, 3H, 18O), continuation of monthly sampling of river water, investigation of short term influences, and preliminary interpretation of long term isotope records of river water with respect to hydrological processes, meteorological conditions and environmental changes. Furthermore, this report includes the complete 3H and 18O data set for the Danube at Vienna (1963-2005) and a summary of the results from the Joint Danube Survey 2 (2007). ?18O values of JDS2 river water samples ranged from -13.1 per mille (Inn, alpine river) up to -6.4 per mille (River Sio, evap oration influence). The ?18O value of the Danube increased from -10.8 per mille after the confluence of the Inn River with the upper Danube up to -9.6 per mille at the mouth, with a major change after the inflow of Tisa and Sava. The isotopic composition of river water in the Danube Basin is mainly governed by the isotopic composition of precipitation in the catchment area, while evaporation effects play only a minor role. Short term and long term isotope signals from precipitation are thus transmitted through the whole catchment. Tritium concentrations in most parts of the Danube river system lay around 10 TU during the JDS2 period and reflected the actual 3H content of precipitation in Central Europe, but 3H valcipitation in Central Europe, but 3H values up to 40 TU in the Danube and up to 250 TU in some tributaries are clear evi dence for discontinuous releases of 3H from local sources (nuclear power plants) into the rivers. (author)

139

Anacostia River Basin: Large, Medium, and Small Lumps  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hydrologic Engineering Center, HEC, is performing a hydrologic analysis of the Anacostia River Basin in support of flood-damage-reduction studies there by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Baltimore District. The main objective is to determine the best estimate of flow-exceedance-probability functions at several flood-damage-index locations in the basin. Thus, a generalized methodology for determining flow-frequency curves anywhere in the basin was developed. Three methodologies were used to make best estimates of the flow-frequency curves: watershed-runoff computer simulation modeling, statistical analysis of stream-gauge records, and application of USGS regional regression equations. This paper addresses the watershed-modeling portion of the study. The Anacostia River Basin originates in Maryland and consists of two primary tributaries: the Northwest Branch, 128 sq km at the Hyattsville gauge, and the Northeast Branch, 188 sq km at the Riverdale gauge. After the confluence a short distance downstream, it flows south into eastern Washington, D.C., and the Potomac River. The basins were mostly rural until the 1960's when the D.C.-area urbanization spread from west to east. The streamflow gauges have been in operation since 1939 and precipitation gauges since 1948. The hydrologic model is key to several aspects of such an investigation. Calibrating a hydrologic model helps the engineer understand the precipitation-runoff processes in the basin. Simulating frequency-based storm runoff, e.g., NWS TP-40 with commensurate initial moisture conditions, is an estimate of a like-frequency flow. Simulating key historical storms with current land-use conditions can be used to adjust non-stationary (due to urbanization) gauged annual peak flows. Simulating frequency-based storms, with a model calibrated to a best-estimate flow-frequency curve, can be used to estimate flow frequencies anywhere in the basin for existing and future land-use conditions. The watershed model was constructed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Modeling System, HEC-HMS. HMS can simulate any-sized river basin with unlimited subbasins and routing reaches. It can also simulate subbasin runoff on a gridded, semi-distributed basis. The Anacostia Basin was analyzed in three levels of detail at each gauge: one subbasin, five-to-ten subbasins, and 20-to-30 subbasins. Those levels of detail serve three analysis purposes, respectively: flow-frequency at the gauge, flow frequencies at flood-damage centers in other locations, and flow frequencies throughout the basin for local floodplain management. In addition to comparing simulation results for these different-sized lumps, a 4-km gridded representation of the basin is compared to the large, single-subbasin approach.

Feldman, A. D.; Dufour, A.; Dotson, H. W.

2001-05-01

140

THE CONFLUENCE RATIO OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN BASIN RIVERS  

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Full Text Available There are many possibilities to assess the hydrological and geomorphological evolution of a territory. Among them, one remarks the confluence ratio of the rivers belonging to different catchment areas. The values of this indicator may provide information regarding the stage of evolution of the fluvial landforms in the Transylvanian Basin. Also, the values may serve for the calculation of other parameters of catchment areas like: the degree of finishing of the drainage basin for its corresponding order, the density of river segments within a catchment area etc. To calculate the confluence ratio, 35 catchment areas of different orders have been selected. The confluence ratio varies between 3.04 and 6.07. The large range of values demonstrates the existence of a heterogeneous lithology and of morphological and hydrographical contrasts from one catchment area to the other. The existence of values above 5, correlated also with observations in the field, reveals an accelerated dynamics of the geomorphological processes in those catchment areas. This dynamic is mainly supported by the high landform fragmentation due to the first order rivers. In contrast, the catchment areas that have a confluence ratio below 5 are in a more advanced stage of evolution with stable slopes, unable to initiate new first order river segments.

RO?IAN GH.

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters  

Science.gov (United States)

The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month) forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) using the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecasting System (RFS) hydrologic model. While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force the NWS RFS utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates and contributes to a better understanding of how hydrologic processes change under varying climate conditions. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study. Additionally, the NWS RFS is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands resulted in a 6 % to 13 % average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the NWS RFS provided by the CBRFC resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10 % to 15 % average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5 % to 8 % increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

2011-07-01

142

Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC using the National Weather Service (NWS River Forecasting System (RFS hydrologic model. While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force the NWS RFS utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates and contributes to a better understanding of how hydrologic processes change under varying climate conditions. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study. Additionally, the NWS RFS is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands resulted in a 6 % to 13 % average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the NWS RFS provided by the CBRFC resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10 % to 15 % average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5 % to 8 % increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

W. P. Miller

2011-07-01

143

Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water resources are redistributed by very developed and extensive irrigation system. Irrigation water balance is complex because of strong interactions among surface, ground, river and irrigation water. Lower reaches is an extremely arid environment. Water availability in lower reaches has a great impact on the evolution of natural ecosystem and vice versa the landscape change reshapes the hydrological cycle. After the water resource reallocation project implemented in 2000, the water delivered to lower reaches has increased by 36%. Of all the available water resource, about 10% is used to sustain a terminal lake and other water bodies, 20% is used for irrigation to support very rapidly increased farmlands, 40-50% is used to nurture the natural oasis, and other water is lost due to evaporation. The features of hydrological cycle in the HRB is very typical for inland river basins in China's arid region. In this region, air temperature is rising and precipitation is most likely to increase. Accelerating glacier retreat will also produce more water. However, water demand increases more rapidly due to quickly developing economy and growing population. Therefore, how to turn our understanding of hydrological cycle in this environmental fragile region into more rational water resource management is a grand challenge.

Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

2013-12-01

144

Towards improving river discharge estimation in ungauged basins: calibration of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river flow width at basin outlet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff models are common tools for river discharge estimation in the field of hydrology. In ungauged basins, the dependence on observed river discharge data for calibration restricts applications of rainfall-runoff models. The strong correlation between quantities of river cross-sectional water surface width obtained from remote sensing and corresponding in situ gauged river discharge has been verified by many researchers. In this study, a calibration scheme of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river width at basin outlet is illustrated. One distinct advantage is that this calibration is independent of river discharge information. The at-a-station hydraulic geometry is implemented to facilitate shifting the calibration objective from river discharge to river width. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE is applied to model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The calibration scheme is demonstrated through a case study for simulating river discharge at Pakse in the Mekong Basin. The effectiveness of the calibration scheme and uncertainties associated with utilization of river width observations from space are examined from model input-state-output behaviour, capability of reproducing river discharge and posterior parameter distribution. The results indicate that the satellite observation of the river width is a competent surrogate of observed discharge for the calibration of rainfall-runoff model at Pakse and the proposed method has the potential for improving reliability of river discharge estimation in basins without any discharge gauging.

W. C. Sun

2010-10-01

145

Towards improving river discharge estimation in ungauged basins: calibration of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river flow width at basin outlet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff models are common tools for river discharge estimation in the field of hydrology. In ungauged basins, the dependence on observed river discharge data for calibration restricts applications of rainfall-runoff models. The strong correlation between quantities of river cross-sectional water surface width obtained from remote sensing and corresponding in situ gauged river discharge has been verified by many researchers. In this study, a calibration scheme of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river width at basin outlet is illustrated. One distinct advantage is that this calibration is independent of river discharge information. The at-a-station hydraulic geometry is implemented to facilitate shifting calibration objective from river discharge to river width. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation methodology is applied to model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The calibration scheme is demonstrated through a case study for simulating river discharge at Pakse in the Mekong Basin. The effectiveness of calibration scheme and uncertainties associated with utilization of river width observations from space are examined from model input-state-output behaviour, capability of reproducing river discharge, and posterior parameter distribution. The results indicate that the satellite observation of river width is a competent surrogate of observed discharge for the calibration of rainfall-runoff model at Pakse and the proposed method has the potential for improving reliability of river discharge estimation in basins without any discharge gauging.

Wenchao Sun

2010-06-01

146

Rivers at Risk: An Activity Based Study Guide for the Colorado River Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity guide is intended to increase student awareness and understanding about the Colorado River Basin. Each activity includes objectives, procedures, materials list, related activities, questions for students, and related information. The activities are varied to appeal to a wide range of learning styles and modalities and are…

Samples, Bob, Ed.

147

Columbia River basin fish and wildlife program strategy for salmon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three species of Snake River salmon have been listed as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act. In response, the Northwest Power Planning Council worked with the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington, Indian tribes, federal agencies and interest groups to address the status of Snake River salmon runs in a forum known as the Salmon Summit. The Summit met in 1990 and 1991 and reached agreement on specific, short-term actions. When the Summit disbanded in April 1991, responsibility for developing a regional recovery plan for salmon shifted to the Council. The Council responded with a four-phased process of amending its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The first three phases. completed in September 1992, pertain to salmon and steelhead. Phase four, scheduled for completion in October 1993, will take up issues of resident fish and wildlife. This paper deals with the first three phases, collectively known as Strategy for Salmon

148

Morphotectonic Analysis in the Ghezel Ozan River Basin, NW Iran  

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Full Text Available Morphotectonic analysis by the use of geomorphic indices serves as a tool of recognition in regions with active tectonic deformation. Landforms in active deformation area are created from interaction of tectonic and surficial processes. One of the most important landforms in ground are rivers that are very sensitive to tectonic movements especially uplift and tilting. Thus based on analysis of the rivers and related drainage networks by the use of geomorphic indices we will be able to attain valuable information about tectonic history of the area. In this article, determine of tectonic movements bye the use of geomorphic indices is surveyed in the Ghezel Ozan River basin between 2007 and 2010. After segmentation of the Ghezel Ozan River and preparation of digital elevation model (DEM amounts of geomorphic indices per segments is separately attained. The attained amounts show that different segments of the Ghezel Ozan River vary from each other regarding the amount of tectonic activity and tectonic movements increase from west to east and also, the amount of tectonic tilting is negligible in a lot of the Ghezel Ozan River segments. This situation is completely in agreement with the trend of the seismicity of the area.

Vahid Hosseini Toudeshki

2011-08-01

149

XXI Century Climatology of Snow Cover for the Western River Basins of the Indus River System  

CERN Document Server

Under changing climate, freshwater resources of Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) region can be affected by changes in temperature and in amount, type and distribution of precipitation. This can have serious implications for the water supply and in turn threaten the food security and economic wellbeing of Indus basin. Using MODIS daily snow products (Terra & Aqua), this study focuses on the assessment of the 2000-2010 snow cover dynamics on seasonal/annual basis against geophysical parameters (aspect, elevation and slope) for the so called western river basins of Indus River System (IRS), namely Indus, Kabul, Jhelum, Astore, Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Shigar and Shyok basins. Results show that inputs from MODIS instrument provide unprecedented better opportunity to study by using GIS techniques the snow cover dynamics in the remote areas like HKH region at such hyper-temporal and finer planar resolution. Adapted non-spectral cloud filtering techniques have significantly reduced cloud coverage and improved sno...

Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio

2012-01-01

150

Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and indicators to use in the analytical evaluation. A software template guides users through this process. For demonstration, the RBAF-C template has been applied to address competing irrigation demand-anadromous fish flow requirements in the Lemhi Basin, Idaho, and the increase in municipal and industrial demand in the Upper Bhima River Basin, India, which affects water supply to downstream irrigation command areas. The RBAF-A is for quantitatively evaluating the current conditions of water resources in a river basin and testing potential scenarios with respect to the sustainability criterion. The primary foundation for quantifying water movement is a river basin model. Upon this, the RBAF-A Interface organizes input data, collects output data from each discipline, and reports the HWB. Within the RBAF-A Interface, the EGS-HWB Calculator collects output time series data, processes the data with respect to space and time, and computes the ecologic, economic, and social well-being. The Reporting Tool presents the scenario output as values and trends in well-being. To demonstrate the technology, the RBAF-A was applied to the Lemhi Basin, Idaho. The RBAF supports the IWRM process by providing a structured and transparent means to understand the water related issues, analyses to conduct, and indicators to select in assessing the sustainability of water programs and policies in river basins.

Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

2013-12-01

151

Development of a systemwide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predation index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 -- Evaluation: 1993 Annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt was made to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Modeling simulations based on work in the John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that if northern squawfish larger than 250 mm fork length were exploited, at a rate of 10--20%, reductions in their numbers and restructuring of their populations could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50% or more. The authors evaluated the success of three test fisheries conducted in 1993--a sport-reward fishery, a dam-angling fishery, and a trap-net fishery, to achieve a 10--20% exploitation rate on northern squawfish. The authors also began evaluating the response of northern squawfish populations to sustained fisheries. In addition, the authors gathered information regarding the economic, social, and legal feasibility of sustaining each fishery, and report on the structure and function of the fish collection and distribution system

152

Development of a system wide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predation index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 - Evaluation: 1993 Annual report; ANNUAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt was made to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Modeling simulations based on work in the John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that if northern squawfish larger than 250 mm fork length were exploited, at a rate of 10-20%, reductions in their numbers and restructuring of their populations could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50% or more. The authors evaluated the success of three test fisheries conducted in 1993-a sport-reward fishery, a dam-angling fishery, and a trap-net fishery, to achieve a 10-20% exploitation rate on northern squawfish . The authors also began evaluating the response of northern squawfish populations to sustained fisheries. In addition, the authors gathered information regarding the economic, social, and legal feasibility of sustaining each fishery, and report on the structure and function of the fish collection and distribution system

153

Resilience in Transboundary Water Governance: the Okavango River Basin  

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Full Text Available When the availability of a vital resource varies between times of overabundance and extreme scarcity, management regimes must manifest flexibility and authority to adapt while maintaining legitimacy. Unfortunately, the need for adaptability often conflicts with the desire for certainty in legal and regulatory regimes, and laws that fail to account for variability often result in conflict when the inevitable disturbance occurs. Additional keys to resilience are collaboration among physical scientists, political actors, local leaders, and other stakeholders, and, when the commons is shared among sovereign states, collaboration between and among institutions with authority to act at different scales or with respect to different aspects of an ecological system. At the scale of transboundary river basins, where treaties govern water utilization, particular treaty mechanisms can reduce conflict potential by fostering collaboration and accounting for change. One necessary element is a mechanism for coordination and collaboration at the scale of the basin. This could be satisfied by mechanisms ranging from informal networks to the establishment of an international commission to jointly manage water, but a mechanism for collaboration at the basin scale alone does not ensure sound water management. To better guide resource management, study of applied resilience theory has revealed a number of management practices that are integral for adaptive governance. Here, we describe key resilience principles for treaty design and adaptive governance and then apply the principles to a case study of one transboundary basin where the need and willingness to manage collaboratively and iteratively is high--the Okavango River Basin of southwest Africa. This descriptive and applied approach should be particularly instructive for treaty negotiators, transboundary resource managers, and should aid program developers.

Olivia O. Green

2013-06-01

154

Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River Basin headwaters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC. While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force a hydrologic model utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study.

Additionally, the CBRFC hydrologic model is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands over the Gunnison resulted in a 6% to 13% average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates.

Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the CBRFC's hydrologic model resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10% to 15% average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5% to 8% increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

W. P. Miller

2010-08-01

155

Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month) forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) using the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecasting System (RFS) hydrologic...

Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

2011-01-01

156

Regional climate projections in two alpine river basins: Upper Danube and Upper Brahmaputra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Projections from coarse-grid global circulation models are not suitable for regional estimates of water balance or trends of extreme precipitation and temperature, especially not in complex terrain. Thus, downscaling of global to regionally resolved projections is necessary to provide input to integrated water resources management approaches for river basins like the Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) and the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin (UBRB). This paper discusses the application of the r...

Dobler, Andreas; Yaoming, Ma; Sharma, Nayan; Kienberger, Stefan; Ahrens, Bodo

2012-01-01

157

Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River Basin headwaters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term proj...

Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

2010-01-01

158

Glacier change and glacier runoff variation in the Tuotuo River basin, the source region of Yangtze River in western China  

Science.gov (United States)

Glaciers in the Tuotuo River basin, western China, have been monitored in recent decades by applying topographical maps and high-resolution satellite images. Results indicate that most of glaciers in the Tuotuo River basin have retreated in the period from 1968/1971 to 2001/2002, and their shrinkage area is 3.2% of the total area in the late 1960s. To assess the influence of glacier runoff on river runoff, a modified degree day model including potential clear-sky direct solar radiation has been applied to the glaciated regions of the river basin over the period 1961 2004. It was found that glacier runoff has increased in the last 44 years, especially in the 1990s when a two-thirds increase in river runoff was derived from the increase in glacier runoff caused by loss of ice mass in the entire Tuotuo River basin.

Zhang, Yong; Liu, Shiyin; Xu, Junli; Shangguan, Donghui

2008-11-01

159

Generation and expulsion of petroleum and gas from Almond Formation Coal, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petrographic and geochemical studies of coal from the Almond Formation in the Greater Green River basin demonstrate that the coal contains important volumes of stored liquid petroleum, as well as methane. Modeling indicates that at the basin center, most of the oil generated in the coal has been thermally cracked to gas, whereas at the basin flank the oil-to-gas reaction has barely proceeded. Several new concepts are presented about the mechanism of petroleum generation in coal based on (1) natural maturation trends gleaned form examination of Almond coal samples from different burial depths and (2) similar maturation trends observed in hydrous pyrolysis experiments using immature Almond coal samples. These new concepts show that the oil in the coal was generated during the alteration of desmocollinite and liptinite macerals to exsudatinite (waxy oil) and inertinite solid residue; that the waxy oil was initially stored in porous structures and subsequently in vesicles as the coal matured under increasing temperature; that primary migration of the oil occurred as the generation of a sufficient volume of exsudatinite microfractured the vitrinite-semifusinite vesicles, interconnecting vesicles and pores; and that the thermal cracking of exsudatinite generated a sufficient volume of gas to fracture the vesiculated coal as pore pressure increased and allowed migration of hydrocarbons out of the coal.

Garcia-Gonzalez, M. [Universidad industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Surdam, R.C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Lee, M.L. [Bringham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

1997-01-01

160

Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks in the northern Green River Basin and Hoback Basin, Wyoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project was undertaken to evaluate the favorability for uranium of Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the northern Green River Basin and in the Hoback Basin in western Wyoming. Surface and subsurface investigations were conducted, and areas of favorable lithology for uranium host rocks were delineated. The only known uranium deposits within the project boundaries are in the vicinity of the Pard mine. Only one of the assayed surface samples outside the area of the Pard mine contained an anomalous quantity of uranium (38 ppM). No obvious alteration, other than surface weathering, was recognized at any of the outcrops examined or sampled. On the basis of drill-hole data, the distribution of pyrite in the subsurface indicates a reducing environment over most of the project area. Organic carbon is not common in outcrops or in the subsurface. Gamma-ray spectrometer analyses of the probable granitic source of arkosic conglomerates and sandstones in the Green River Basin suggest that both the granites and the arkosic sediments derived from them should be considered as possible sources of uranium in the northern Green River Basin. The analyses have shown that the uranium content of these granites is within the range of uranium contents of granitic rocks of the Granite and Seminoe Mountains, which are possible sources of uranium for the Gas Hills, Crooks Gap, and Shirley Basin uranium deposits. The present low uranium values in samples of the tuffaceous middle Eocene Bridger Foof the tuffaceous middle Eocene Bridger Formation suggest a low favorability of the Bridger as a source of uranium. An area of boulder conglomerates extending northward from the Pard mine along the flanks of Prospect Mountain and Little Prospect Mountain is considered favorable because of its similarity to the Pard mind lithology

 
 
 
 
161

On the geographic range of freshwater fish in river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the observed geographic distribution of freshwater fish species in the Mississippi-Missouri river system, focusing on the size and spatial distribution of geographic ranges. We use a particular metric of geographic distribution known as environmental resistance, a biogeographic index that quantifies the pointwise average spatial loss of community similarity to identify biogeographic regions of the river basin. Empirical patterns are compared with the results of a neutral metacommunity model in which local fish communities are interconnected through the ecological corridors provided by the river networks. Because neutral theory assumes that all individuals across all the species are functionally equivalent, the comparison is aimed to quantify how much of the geographic range patterns are the result of species' similarity rather than species differences, thus searching for an ecological null model for the analysis of biogeographic range. We also analyze how river network topology affects the spatial arrangement of species. Our results suggest that broad patterns of geographic range of freshwater fish in the Mississippi-Missouri can be explained simply by neutral dynamics engaged in river topology and competition for resources among species without invoking mechanisms that involve asymmetric interspecific interactions.

Bertuzzo, E.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Lynch, H. J.; Fagan, W. F.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

2009-11-01

162

Hydromorphological assessment as a tool for river basin management: The German field survey method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physical habitat characteristics are of great importance for the ecological integrity of rivers and creeks. The assessment of these hydromorphological qualities is a fundamental component of sustainable river basin management and ecologically oriented river development.This paper describes the German field survey method for hydromorphological assessement of streams and points at its potential as a tool for river basin management. We present examples for the application of the method at different management scales: analyzing the overall hydromorphological state at the river basin scale, describing specific hydromorphological characteristics at the river reach scale and monitoring the success of restoration projects at the river segment scale.We show that the German field survey method proved to be an easy-to-apply and efficient tool for river basin management since its introduction in the year 2000. Beside the method’s potentials also several drawbacks have to be considered regarding its application in other regions of the world.

Georg Meir

2013-02-01

163

Collaboration in River Basin Management: The Great Rivers Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The health of the world's freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to the health of people, plants and animals around the world. The sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges facing society today. An estimated 1.3 billion people currently lack access to safe drinking water, an issue the United Nations specifically includes in its recently published Millennium Development Goals. IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Collaboration Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish and wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration efforts. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the collaboration aspects of the DSS. The DSS is an open environment tool that allows scientists, policy makers, politicians, land owners, and anyone who desires to take ownership of their actions in support of the environment to work together to that end. The DSS supports a range of features that empower such a community to collaboratively work together. Supported collaboration mediums include peer reviews, live chat, static comments, and Web 2.0 functionality such as tagging. In addition, we are building a 3-D virtual world component which will allow users to experience and share system results, first-hand. Models and simulation results may be annotated with free-text comments and tags, whether unique or chosen from a predefined tag taxonomy. These comments and tag clouds may be used by the community to filter results and identify models or simulations of interest, e.g, by region, modeling approach, spatiotemporal resolution, etc. Users may discuss methods or results in real-time with a built-in chat feature. Separate user groups may be defined for logical groups of collaboration partners, e.g., expert modelers, land managers, policy makers, school children, or the general public, to optimize the collaboration signal-to-noise ratio for all.

Crowther, S.; Vridhachalam, M.; Tomala-Reyes, A.; Guerra, A.; Chu, H.; Eckman, B.

2008-12-01

164

Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

Thormodsgard, June M.

2009-01-01

165

Performance of dynamical downscaling for Colorado River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The ongoing 2000s western U.S. drought has focused attention on drought susceptibility of the Colorado River basin. There is a concern that many climate models predict permanently drier conditions for the next century over the Colorado basin, however interpretation of these projections is complicated by their coarse spatial resolution which does not resolve the role of the relatively small mountain headwaters area that is the source of much of the basin’s runoff. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to resolve these spatial scales, and for this reason arguably should be a preferred source of information about the future hydrology of the Colorado basin. We use the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF/ARW) regional climate model to explore the effects of climate change on the hydrology of the basin. Initially, we selected three years -- 1993 (wet), 2002 (dry), and 1980 (normal) as test cases, with boundary conditions from the NCEP/DOE reanalysis. For these years, we evaluated the impact of domain size through comparison with WRF runs performed for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) Phase I, with particular attention to the Colorado River basin. We also tested spatial resolutions of 16 km and 25 km in addition to the NARCCAP 50 km spatial resolution. We then performed an 11-year current climate run for the period 1980-1990 with boundary conditions from the NCEP/DOE reanalysis at 50 km spatial resolution and compared spatial patterns of simulated winter precipitation and snow water equivalent (SWE) with the 1/8-degree historical North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data set. Subsequently, we evaluated the impacts of projected future climate change on changes in the spatial distribution of winter precipitation and SWE using 10-year runs with boundary conditions taken from the CCSM General Circulation Model for current and mid-21st century boundary conditions. We also compared the RCM results for current and future climate with inferred changes taken directly from the GCM via statistical downscaling.

Gao, Y.; Zhu, C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2009-12-01

166

Multi-linear model of transformation of runoff in river-basins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The component part of atmospheric precipitations-runoff model of Hron River is a individual model of transformation of flows in river network, too, which transforms runoff from separate partial catchment basin into terminal profile. This component of precipitations-runoff model can also be used as individual hydrologic transformation model of runoff waves in river-basin. Identification and calibration of this model is realised independently on precipitations-runoff model of Hron River, which is described in this chapter in detail.

167

GIS-based River Flood Hazard Mapping in Urban Area (A Case Study in Kayu Ara River Basin, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past decades, thousands of lives have been lost, directly or indirectly, by flooding. In fact, of all natural hazards, floods pose the most widely distributed natural hazard to life today. Sungai Kayu Ara river basin which is located in the west part of the Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia was the case study of this research. In order to perform river flood hazard mapping HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS were utilized as hydrologic and hydraulic models, respectively. The generated river flood hazard was based on water depth and flow velocity maps whichwere prepared according to hydraulic model results in GIS environment. The results show that, magnitude of rainfall event (ARI and river basin land-use development condition have significant influences on the river flood hazard maps pattern. Moreover, magnitude of rainfall event caused more influences on the river flood hazard map in comparison with land-use development condition for Sungai Kayu Ara river basin.

Behdokht Vosoogh

2010-12-01

168

Transient incision of the Yellow River: a response to drainage basin integration across the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the character, provenance and accumulation rate of detritus shed from active mountain ranges contains a rich archive of the interplay between tectonics, climate and erosion, the subsequent excavation of such basins offers additional insight into the processes that govern the topographic evolution of orogens. In northeastern Tibet, growth of the Tibetan Plateau was associated with a protracted period of basin development and sediment accumulation extending from Oligocene to Pliocene time. The present-day course of the Yellow River transects a number of these basins as it descends off the high plateau; from upstream to downstream these are the Tongde, Gong He, Guide, Xunhua, and Linxa basins. In the vicinity of the plateau margin, in the Linxia basin, the youngest portions of the stratigraphic record are characterized by an abrupt transition from lacustrine sediments to fluvial gravels that herald the onset of relatively rapid fluvial incision at ~1.7 Ma [Fang et al., 2003; Li et al., 1997]. Little is known, however, about the timing, rates and patterns of fluvial incision along the Yellow River as it flows through basins upstream of the plateau margin. We address this question through a combination of new constraints on the uppermost basin fill from cosmogenic isotope burial ages, analysis of tributary channel profiles, and volumetric reconstruction of the basin fill. The highest basins along the Yellow River (Gong He and Tongde) are characterized by a thick (>400 m) sequence of conglomerates and fluvial sands that appear to reflect filling by an ancestral Yellow River. Well preserved remnants of aggradational surfaces atop the basin fill allow us to reconstruct the volume of eroded material from these basins. Over a ~200 km long reach of the river, both the depth of fluvial incision and the total volume of eroded material decrease in the upstream direction, consistent with headward migration of a wave of incision. Moreover, cosmogenic radionuclide burial ages of several samples near the top of the basin fill indicate that aggradation ceased at approximately 0.5-0.7 Ma, and suggest subsequent incision rates of ~0.7 - 1.0 mm/yr in this region. Finally, upstream of these basins, the Yellow River has incised a deep canyon through bedrock in the Anyemaqen Shan; analysis of tributary profiles and strath terrace profiles reveal a transient wave of incision propagating into the higher elevations of the plateau. Ages of the highest terrace surfaces near the rim of the inner canyon suggest that the onset of incision occurred only in the past 0.15 Ma. Together these results indicate that incision along the Yellow River propagated upstream, integrating fluvial and lacustrine systems along the way. The wave of incision appears to have migrated a streamwise distance of >500km in the past 1.7 Ma, at average rates of nearly 300 km/Myr. We hypothesize that the breach of drainage boundaries was facilitated by 1) a change to a more erosive climatic condition and/or 2) the steady accumulation of potential energy during basin filling and growth of the plateau. Whereas the timing of incision along large rivers in eastern and southeastern Tibet reflects the development of high topography associated with the Tibetan Plateau, incision along the Yellow River appears to significantly postdate growth of the plateau in northeastern Tibet.

Kirby, E.; Craddock, W.; Harkins, N.

2007-12-01

169

Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

River ice is a very important component of the cryosphere, and is especially sensitive to climatic variability. Historical records of appearance or disappearance and timing of ice phenomena are useful indicators for past climatic variations (Williams, 1970). Long-term observations of river ice freeze-up and break-up dates are available for many rivers in the temperate or cold region to detect and analyze the effects of climate change on river ice regime. The ice regime of natural rivers is influenced by climatic, hydrological and morphological factors. Regular ice phenomena observation mostly dates back to the 19th century. During this long-term observation period, the human interventions affecting the hydrological and morphological factors have become more and more intensive (Beltaos and Prowse, 2009). The anthropogenic effects, such as river regulation, hydropower use or water pollution causes different changes in river ice regime (Ashton, 1986). To decrease the occurrence of floods and control the water discharge, nowadays most of the rivers are regulated. River regulation changes the morphological parameters of the river bed: the aim is to create solid and equable bed size and stream gradient to prevent river ice congestion. For the satisfaction of increasing water demands hydropower is also used. River damming results a condition like a lake upstream to the barrage; the flow velocity and the turbulence are low, so this might be favourable for river ice appearance and freeze-up (Starosolsky, 1990). Water pollution affects ice regime in two ways; certain water contaminants change the physical characteristics of the water, e.g. lessens the freezing point of the water. Moreover the thermal stress effect of industrial cooling water and communal wastewater is also important; in winter these water sources are usually warmer, than the water body of the river. These interventions result different changes in the characteristic features of river ice regime. Selected examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime. Climate change and river ice regime research should also take into account these anthropogenic imp

Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

2014-05-01

170

The politics of model maintenance: The Murray Darling and Brantas River Basins compared  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores river basin management in two highly developed basins whose basin governance arrangements are currently undergoing transition: the Murray-Darling basin of Australia and the Brantas basin of Indonesia. Though basin-scale management has been longstanding in both of these cases and the respective models for carrying out integrated river basin management have been considered noteworthy for other countries looking to develop basin institutions, these basin-level arrangements are under flux. This paper indicates some of the difficulties that exist for even widely favoured 'textbook' cases to maintain institutional efficacy within their given shifting contexts. This paper explores drivers behind policy reform and change in scale at which authority is held, concluding with a discussion of the nature of institutional transition given political realities in these basins.

Anjali Bhat

2008-09-01

171

Major Turbidity Events in the North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Water Years 1999-2004  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple high-turbidity events with values greater than 250 Formazin Nephelometric Units occurred in streams of the North Santiam River basin during water years 1999-2004. By using a combination of field reconnaissance, aerial photography, and geographic information systems, eight of these high-turbidity events were investigated and linked to at least one likely source area and became known as 'major turbidity events.' Sediment source type and location, the amount of material transported, and the results of any follow-up investigation of the source area were recorded for each event. Significant findings from this study include: * Although heavy precipitation caused basinwide erosion that increased turbidity in streams, a major turbidity event often required at least one landslide or similar type of contributing source to introduce enough sediment to raise the turbidity value to greater than 250 Formazin Nephelometric Units. * Different processes drove sediment loading at different times. In general, precipitation eroded sediment from source areas or induced landslides. However, in two cases, warm temperatures caused rapid snowmelt, which supplied the water necessary to erode unconsolidated glacial soils or other sediment material and increase turbidity. * Some source areas, such as existing earthflows, repeatedly supplied a large volume of sediment to streams, whereas other sources, such as landslides or debris flows, were unpredictable and sporadically supplied large volumes of sediment to streams. * Major turbidity events were well distributed throughout the North Santiam River basin; discrete events were observed in each of the five subbasins along unregulated streams. * Suspended-sediment loads and clay-water (persistently turbid water) volume estimates were event-specific and varied greatly between major turbidity events, even though, in some cases, the source area was the same; however, high yields generally were observed for events in the Blowout Creek, Breitenbush River, and Little North Santiam River subbasins. * Suspended-sediment loads for each 3-day precipitation-driven major turbidity event supplied greater than 36 percent of the annual load, and snowmelt-driven events supplied greater than 27 percent of the annual load in a single day. * Clay-water yields for event periods generally were highest in the Little North Santiam River subbasin. In addition, average annual percentage of clay-water volume during the period of record was highest in the Little North Santiam River. The second highest average was in Blowout Creek.

Sobieszczyk, Steven; Uhrich, Mark A.; Bragg, Heather M.

2007-01-01

172

Savannah River Site R-Reactor Disassembly Basin In-Situ Decommissioning -10499  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the 105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate it from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,384 cubic meters or 31,894 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were designed and tested for the reactor ISD project, and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and material flow considerations, maximum lift heights and differential height requirements were determined. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and approximately 3,900 cubic yards (2,989 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over about an eighteen month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

173

Savannah River Site R-Reactor Disassembly Basin In-Situ Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

174

A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

2007-01-01

175

Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins radionuclide transport: a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current estimates of increased utilization of nuclear power have brought into focus the problem of the cumulative interaction of several nuclear facilities with the biosphere of a region. An engineering analysis tool to make the necessary calculations from which reasonable estimates of potential radiation dose and dose commitment to individuals and population groups in such a region has been devised by Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This paper discusses the application of the radionuclide transport elements of this computer code to the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins. The radionuclide transport simulator codes (HERMES) were designed to evaluate the environment impact of nuclear facilities in or near the year 2000

176

Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to a lesser extent Zn. Plant species which are the most important for the biomonitoring were identified: Phragmites australis, Ceratophyllum demersum, different pondweeds (Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton friesii), Myriophyllum spicatum, Batrachium trichophyllum. Among them some species are characterized by a group concentration of heavy metals: pondweeds (Mn, Fe, Cu), Myriophyllum spicatum (Fe, Mn, Cu), Batrachium trichophyllum (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn). Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum) is a concentrator of Mn.

Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

2013-04-01

177

Residence times in river basins as determined by analysis of long-term tritium records  

Science.gov (United States)

The US Geological Survey has maintained a network of stations to collect samples for the measurement of tritium concentrations in precipitation and streamflow since the early 1960s. Tritium data from outflow waters of river basins draining 4500-75000 km2 are used to determine average residence times of water within the basins. The basins studied are the Colorado River above Cisco, Utah; the Kissimmee River above Lake Okeechobee, Florida; the Mississippi River above Anoka, Minnesota; the Neuse River above Streets Ferry Bridge near Vanceboro, North Carolina; the Potomac River above Point of Rocks, Maryland; the Sacramento River above Sacramento, California; the Susquehanna River above Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The basins are modeled with the assumption that the outflow in the river comes from two sources-prompt (within-year) runoff from precipitation, and flow from the long-term reservoirs of the basin. Tritium concentration in the outflow water of the basin is dependent on three factors: (1) tritium concentration in runoff from the long-term reservoir, which depends on the residence time for the reservoir and historical tritium concentrations in precipitation; (2) tritium concentrations in precipitation (the within-year runoff component); (3) relative contributions of flow from the long-term and within-year components. Predicted tritium concentrations for the outflow water in the river basins were calculated for different residence times and for different relative contributions from the two reservoirs. A box model was used to calculate tritium concentrations in the long-term reservoir. Calculated values of outflow tritium concentrations for the basin were regressed against the measured data to obtain a slope as close as possible to 1. These regressions assumed an intercept of zero and were carried out for different values of residence time and reservoir contribution to maximize the fit of modeled versus actual data for all the above rivers. The final slopes of the fitted regression lines ranged from 0.95 to 1.01 (correlation coefficient > 0.96) for the basins studied. Values for the residence time of waters within the basins and average relative contributions of the within-year and long-term reservoirs to outflow were obtained. Values for river basin residence times ranged from 2 years for the Kissimmee River basin to 20 years for the Potomac River basin. The residence times indicate the time scale in which the basin responds to anthropogenic inputs. The modeled tritium concentrations for the basins also furnish input data for urban and agricultural settings where these river waters are used. ?? 1992.

Michel, R.L.

1992-01-01

178

FLOODS AND DROUGHT - HYDROCLIMATIC RISKS IN SUHA RIVER BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Suha is a right tributary of Moldova River, and presents a typical discharge for the geographical unit of Obcinele Bucovinei. Data used in the paper have been taken from Siret Basin Water Administration, Bac?u, and represent a time sequence of 40 years. The most significant floods occurred in 1975, 1981, 1984, 1991, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. The most obvious droughts occurred in 1969, 1974, 1978, 1983, 1987 and 2001. It was observed that the evolution of hydrological risk phenomena is closely linked to climatic changes. Increasing population and the need to extend the building design must take into account the extreme values of river flow over time, water resources also being important. Because extreme events occur more often, considering preventive plans against floods is needed. For this reason are analyzed the temperatures, rainfalls and discharge rates.

TÎRNOVAN ALINA

2014-03-01

179

Assessing the Effects of Climate Change on Tropical River Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tropical Rivers 2012 international conference (http://www.crearamazonia.org/tropicalrivers2012/) was part of the International Geoscience Programme 582 project of The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's International Union for Geological Sciences (UNESCO-IUGS). The aim of the IGCP 582 is to provide an integrated assessment of long-term direct effects of climate variability and human-induced change and management of tropical river basins. This assessment is to be achieved by identification, quantification, and modeling of key hydro-geomorphologic indicators during the past and present times, and assessment of the potential influences of global change on fluvial systems and the socio-economic implications of these changes.

Abad, Jorge D.; Montoro, Hugo; Latrubesse, Edgardo

2013-01-01

180

Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002  

Science.gov (United States)

The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

Petersen, James C.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Drivers on carbon dioxide emissions from the Scheldt river basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Inland waters are a key component of the global carbon (C) cycle that transport organic and inorganic C from the terrestrial biosphere to the coastal ocean and emit CO2 to the atmosphere at a significant rate for global CO2 budgets. Yet, mechanisms underlying this CO2 emission to the atmosphere remain poorly understood and seldom modelled mechanistically. For this application a module describing the carbonate system and CO2 air-water exchange was added to the biogeochemical Seneque/Riverstrahler model describing transformation of C, N, P, Si occurring within hydrological networks. The model was applied to the human impacted Scheldt basin and the evolution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and air-water CO2 flux was simulated for the year 1997 when data of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pCO2 are available for model validation. The model reproduces reasonably well the seasonal and spatial variations of the DIC, TA and pCO2 within the 5 main rivers of the Scheldt basin where data are available. At the annual level, the studied rivers act as major sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Results show that the longitudinal variations of pCO2 are mainly controlled by the importance of air-water CO2 exchange. However, the choice of the parameterization of the gas transfer coefficient does not appear critical for this particular system. Biological activity also locally modulates the longitudinal variations of pCO2, while diffuse inputs from the watershed determine the initial conditions in the river without significantly altering the patterns observed from the upstream to the downstream. Both diffuse and punctual sources of C and TA are important drivers of the CO2 exchange in the river. In particular, model application evidences the sensitivity of the simulated CO2 fluxes to the description of human activities on the watershed.

Gypens, Nathalie; Passy, Paul; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Silvestre, Marie; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

182

Wetlands Response to Climate Change across Susquehanna River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) lies in the northeastern United States and contains a mosaic of wetlands that range from permanently wet to temporary embedded in a landscape matrix of natural deciduous forest and agriculture. This study explores the prospects for SRB wetlands under modified hydrologic processes induced due to climatic change. Five mesoscale watersheds: Little Juniata River (560 sq. km.), Mahantango Creek (420 sq. km.), Young Womans Creek (120 sq. km.), Muddy Creek (344 sq. km.), and Lackawanna River (860 sq. km.) were selected as representative watersheds to include variability in climate, topography, soil, geomorphology, and land cover across SRB. We explored the broad spatial and temporal patterns across these watersheds between climate and wetland health using groundwater predictions from Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Modeling System (PIHM) -- a spatially distributed fully-coupled physics-based model. Near present (2004-2010) hourly climate data (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, vapor pressure, wind velocity and solar radiation) were obtained from Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2), climate reanalysis product. The predicted wetland locations were validated against the National Wetland Inventory. We analyzed the effect of spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic states such as streams, groundwater, and evaporative and hydrologic fluxes on the wetland hydrology. To predict the impacts of climate change on the health of the wetland, meteorological data for two 20 year climate periods (History: 1979-1998 and Scenario: 2046-2065) from Meteorological Research Institute's GCM were used as model forcing. The scenarios output showed different responses across the wetlands in the river basin. The key to this study is that a high resolution spatial and temporal model can resolve the coupled effects of wetlands in the context of complete mesoscale watershed simulations.

Duffy, C.; Yu, X.; Bhatt, G.; Kumar, M.

2011-12-01

183

Application of a flood hazard model in the Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

The flood hazard model presented here includes TOPNET, a modified version of TOPMODEL, for hydrologic modeling, and a 2D finite volume model to simulate flood propagation efficient for large scale flood modeling. TOPNET expands on TOPMODEL through the addition of a soil zone component that provides infiltration excess runoff generation capability through a Green-Ampt like parameterization. Further added representations of other hydrologic processes include a potential evapotranspiration component, and a canopy storage component to model interception. Moreover, the model includes a snow melt component, as well as a water management module for a more realistic streamflow computation. The model is implemented with parallel computing to increase the speed of computation. The model is automatically calibrated for its parameters against nine streamflow gauges within the 1000-catchment Susquehanna River basin. Extreme-value distributions are fit to modeled streamflow to obtain Q100 for each reach in the river basin. Hydraulic computations are performed using a computationally-efficient 2D finite-volume, first-order, Godunov-type model. Flood propagation is simulated by forcing the hydraulic model with the Q100 to generate a 100-year return period flood elevations and extent.

Kaheil, Yasir; Begnudelli, Lorenzo

2014-05-01

184

Identification of Flood Source Areas in Pahang River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The roles of upland watersheds in flood source contribution towards downstream areas in a river basin system are generally neglected in the inclusion of management strategy related to downstream flood management. In this study an assessment on the flood source area of Pahang river basin was attempted. The concept of unit flood response as an index of hydrologic response was used in identifying the flood source areas for the basin. The results indicated that among the 16 sub-basins of Pahang river basin, sub-basin of Sungai Pahang is ranked first in production of flood discharge while Sungai Perting sub-basin is ranked last in term of production of flood discharge. Comparison between maximum daily discharge of upper and lower segments of Pahang river basin indicated that up-stream watershed contributes significantly high and more flood (94.78% than down-stream (5.22%. In addition, the upland watersheds were found to more efficient in producing surface runoff and send the floodwater to the lower receiving basin of Sungai Pahang. Considering that basin flood response is generally a nonlinear function of many factors, the sub-basins that are located nearest to and most distance from the basin outlet do not necessarily generate the highest and lowest contribution to the flood peak at the outlet. Similarly, sub-basins producing the highest or lowest absolute or specific discharge at their own outlet may not necessarily ranked first and last in flood index.

Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

2010-01-01

185

Iron cycling in the Amazon River Basin: the isotopic perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

With the global climate change and increasing anthropic pressure on nature, it is important to find new indicators of the response of complex systems like the Amazon River Basin. In particular, new tracers like iron isotopes may tell us much on processes such as the chemical exchanges between rivers, soils and the biosphere. Pioneering studies revealed that for some river waters, large ?57Fe fractionations are observed between the suspended and dissolved load (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006), and isotopic variations were also recognized on the suspended matter along the hydrological cycle (Ingri et al., 2006). On land, soil studies from various locations have shown that ?57Fe signatures depend mostly on the weathering regime (Fantle and DePaolo, 2004; Emmanuel et al., 2005; Wiederhold et al., 2007; Poitrasson et al., 2008). It thus seems that Fe isotopes could become an interesting new tracer of the exchanges between soils, rivers and the biosphere. We therefore conducted Fe isotope surveys through multidisciplinary field missions on rivers from the Amazon Basin. It was confirmed that acidic, organic-rich black waters show strong Fe isotope fractionation between particulate and dissolved loads. Furthermore, this isotopic fractionation varies along the hydrological cycle, like previously uncovered in boreal waters suspended matter. In contrast, unfiltered waters show very little variation with time. It was also found that Fe isotopes remain a conservative tracer even in the case of massive iron loss during the mixing of chemically contrasted waters such as the Negro and Solimões tributaries of the Amazon River. Given that >95% of the Fe from the Amazon River is carried as detrital materials, our results lead to the conclusion that the Fe isotope signature delivered to the Atlantic Ocean is undistinguishable from the continental crust value, in contrast to previous inferences. The results indicate that Fe isotopes in rivers represent a promising indicator of the interaction between organic matter and iron in rivers, and ultimately the nature of their source in soils. As such, they may become a powerfull tracer of changes occurring on the continents in response to both weathering context and human activities. References: Bergquist, B.A., Boyle, E.A., 2006. Iron isotopes in the Amazon River system: Weathering and transport signatures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248: 54-68. Emmanuel, S., Erel, Y., Matthews, A., Teutsch, N., 2005. A preliminary mixing model for Fe isotopes in soils. Chemical Geology, 222: 23-34. Fantle, M.S., DePaolo, D.J., 2004. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 228: 547-562. Ingri, J., Malinovsky, D., Rodushkin, I., Baxter, D.C., Widerlund, A., Andersson, P., Gustafsson, O., Forsling, W., Ohlander, B., 2006. Iron isotope fractionation in river colloidal matter. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245: 792-798. Poitrasson, F., Viers, J., Martin, F., Braun, J.J., 2008. Limited iron isotope variations in recent lateritic soils from Nsimi, Cameroon: Implications for the global Fe geochemical cycle. Chemical Geology, 253: 54-63. Wiederhold, J.G., Teutsch, N., Kraemer, S.M., Halliday, A.N., Kretzchmar, R., 2007. Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71: 5821-5833.

Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry

2014-05-01

186

78 FR 17643 - Greater Mississippi River Basin Water Management Board; Engineer Regulation No. 15-2-13  

Science.gov (United States)

...Greater Mississippi River Basin Water Management Board; Engineer Regulation...Greater Mississippi River Basin Water Management Board. It is applicable to all Corps offices involved with water management within the Greater...

2013-03-22

187

Sustainable Development in Transboundary Water Resource Management : A Case Study of the Mekong River Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global climate change, environmental degradation and demographic changes has emphasizedthe sustainable development of Mekong river basin. The research uses the theoreticalframework that sustainable development in the transboundary water resource management ismost likely to be achieved through the policy making based on the ‘regional approach’ andthe ‘alternative development strategy.’ The aim of this research is to investigate themanagement of Mekong river basin within the theoretical...

Kim, Kyungmee

2011-01-01

188

River basin planning project: social learning (Science Report SC050037/SR1)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report documents the findings of a 12-month Environment Agency science project on social learning for river basin planning. Our aim was to use social learning approaches and soft system methods to inform the development of the River Basin Planning Strategy and improve the effectiveness of the Environment Agency's Water Framework Directive (WFD) Programme

Collins, Kevin; Ison, Ray; Blackmore, Chris

2005-01-01

189

Water Budgets for Selected Watersheds in the Delaware River Basin, Eastern Pennsylvania and Western New Jersey.  

Science.gov (United States)

This pilot study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Delaware River Basin Commission, developed annual water budgets using available data for five watersheds in the Delaware River Basin with different degrees of urbanization and di...

R. A. Sloto, D. E. Buxton

2005-01-01

190

Uncertainty in soil physical data at river basin scale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For hydrological modelling studies at the river basin scale, decision makers need guidance in assessing the implications of uncertain data used by modellers as an input to modelling tools. Simulated solute transport through the unsaturated zone is associated with uncertainty due to spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties and derived hydraulic model parameters. In general for modelling studies at the river basin scale spatially available data at various scales must be aggregated to an appropriate scale. Estimating soil properties at unsampled points by means of geostatistical techniques require reliable information on the spatial structure of soil data. In this paper this information is assessed by reviewing current developments in the field of soil physical data uncertainty and adopting a classification system. Then spatial variability and structure is inspected by reviewing experimental work on determining spatial length scales for soil physical (and soil chemical data. Available literature on spatial length scales for soil physical- and chemical properties is reviewed and their use in facilitating change of spatial support discussed. Uncertainty associated to the derivation of hydraulic properties from soil physical properties in this context is also discussed.

P. van der Keur

2006-07-01

191

Evaluation of satellite rainfall estimates over Ethiopian river basins  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of high resolution satellite-based rainfall estimates (SREs across six river basins within Ethiopia during the major (Kiremt and minor (Belg rainy seasons for the years 2003 to 2007. The six regions, the Awash, Baro Akobo, Blue Nile, Genale Dawa, Rift Valley and Wabi Shebele River Basins surround the Ethiopian Highlands, which produces different topographical features, as well as spatial and temporal rainfall patterns. Precipitation estimates for the six regions were taken from three widely used high resolution SREs: the Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Neural Networks (PERSIANN and the real-time version of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42RT. All three SREs show the natural northwest-southeast precipitation gradient, but exhibit different spatial (mean annual total and number of rainy days and temporal (monthly totals. When compared to ground based rain gauges throughout the six regions, and for the years of interest, the performance of the three SREs were found to be season independent. The results varied for lower elevations, with CMORPH and TMPA 3B42RT performing better than PERSIANN in the southeast, while PERSIANN provided more accurate results in the northwest. At higher elevations, PERSIANN consistently underestimated while the performance of CMORPH and TMPA 3B42RT varied.

T. G. Romilly

2010-10-01

192

Upper Hiwassee River Basin reservoirs 1989 water quality assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The water in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin is slightly acidic and low in conductivity. The four major reservoirs in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin (Apalachia, Hiwassee, Chatuge, and Nottely) are not threatened by acidity, although Nottely Reservoir has more sulfates than the other reservoirs. Nottely also has the highest organic and nutrient concentrations of the four reservoirs. This results in Nottely having the poorest water clarity and the most algal productivity, although clarity as measured by color and secchi depths does not indicate any problem with most water use. However, chlorophyll concentrations indicate taste and odor problems would be likely if the upstream end of Nottely Reservoir were used for domestic water supply. Hiwassee Reservoir is clearer and has less organic and nutrient loading than either of the two upstream reservoirs. All four reservoirs have sufficient algal activity to produce supersaturated dissolved oxygen conditions and relatively high pH values at the surface. All four reservoirs are thermally stratified during the summer, and all but Apalachia have bottom waters depleted in oxygen. The very short residence time of Apalachia Reservoir, less than ten days as compared to over 100 days for the other three reservoirs, results in it being more riverine than the other three reservoirs. Hiwassee Reservoir actually develops three distinct water temperature strata due to the location of the turbine intake. The water quality of all of the reservoirs supports designated uses, but water quality complaints are being received regarding both Chatuge and Nottely Reservoirs and their tailwaters

193

The Amazon. Bio-geochemistry applied to river basin management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hydrochemical model, using hydrograph separation, developed for the Niger basin, has been proposed as a strategic tool for studying the watershed dynamics at any time and space scales. The model is applied to the Amazon basin, including the main channel and its major tributaries. The database corresponds to a sampling and analytical program developed over 8 cruises at 9 stations (about 70 samples), collected in the framework of the CAMREX Project (1982-1984). The model, based on a hydrograph separation of 3 reservoirs, is successful in extrapolating and predicting the geochemical and environmental behaviour of such large basins, naturally submitted to large secular or annual, regular or even catastrophic climatic oscillations. Several topics have been considered. (1) Coherence among the physico-chemical analyses: dissolved species (pH, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, HCO3-, Cl-, DOC-, SO42-, HPO42-, SiO2, O2 and CO2), and inorganic or organic suspended load (fine and coarse fractions FSS, CSS, POCF, POCC). (2) Hydrograph separation in 3 reservoir contributions: RS, the superficial or rapid runoff, RI, the hypodermic or intermediate runoff, including the flood plain contributions, and RB the ground water or base flow. (3) Estimation of the isotopic and physico-chemical features of each of the 3 flow components: RS, RI, and RB. (4) Determination of the 3 hydrological parameters (size of the reservoir, drying up coefficient, and residence time of water), characterizing each of the 3 flow components (RS, RI, and RB), in each of the 9 basins considered. (5) Hydrological and geochemical balances for all the parameters analysed either (a) cruise by cruise for all tributaries and the Amazon River at Obidos, or (b) among each of the 3 river flow components. (6) Isotopic data set of ?18O in waters, tests of coherence of the hydrograph separation model. (7) Relationships between isotopic signatures and morphological or hydroclimatical parameters characterizing the river-soil-vegetation systems. The developed procedure presents a new tool in environmental predictions, emphasizing the potentiality of geochemical interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets

194

??Copula??????????????? Hydrological Droughts Analysis Based on Copulas Function in the East River Basin, China  

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Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Copula????????????????4????1975~2009???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Variations of hydrological droughts largely decide the variability and availability of water resources of a river basin. The EastRiver basinbears the heavy responsibility for water supply for the megacities within the Pearl River Delta region and those in the vicinity of the Pearl River Delta such as Shenzhen andHong Kong. About 80% of the water consumption of Hong Kong has to be satisfied by the water supply from theEast River. In this case, the sustainable water supply from theEastRiver basinwill be greatly significant for the regional social stability. In this study, statistical behaviors and risks of the hydrological droughts of the East River basin are evaluated using copula functions and the secondary return periods based on the daily streamflow data covering the period of 1975-2009. The research results indicate that the hydrological droughts of high drought severity and long duration are subjected to the decreasing risks from the upper to the lower East River basin. However, the droughts of higher severity or long duration are subjected to the lower risk in the upperEastRiver basinwhen compared to those in the lowerEastRiver basin. Water resources management of theEastRiver basinshould be integrated by taking theEastRiver basinas a whole. And the results of this study will provide theoretical and scientific grounds for the basin-scale water resources management.

???

2012-06-01

195

Large rivers in sedimentary basins: Morphology and form observed from satellite imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

Preservation of the deposits of big rivers, like any other river, can only occur where the river crosses an area of net aggradation in a sedimentary basin. Many of the world’s big rivers are systems that transfer sediment load from erosional realms to the sea, depositing fluvial successions only where there is accommodation on the coastal plain. However, many of the big rivers (e.g., Parana, Paraguay, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, and Yukon Rivers) also cross continental sedimentary basins (e.g., sedimentary basins with minimal marine influence that lie inside continents) on their way to the oceans. We use satellite imagery to observe the large-scale morphology of big rivers in these continental sedimentary basins. As with other rivers, big rivers lose confinement of their valleys and form distributive fluvial systems (DFS) as they enter the continental sedimentary basins. Commonly, channel size decreases down-DFS, either through infiltration, bifurcation, or evaporation. Several active and/or old channels radiate outward from a DFS apex, and where the river is incised into its DFS, several paleochannel deposits are visible radiating outward from the DFS apex. Between and adjacent to channels, a significant amount of fine-grained sediment is deposited across the DFS surface, leaving high potential for preservation of floodplain deposits, even on large river DFS dominated by braided river systems. Commonly, the big rivers become the axial river in the sedimentary basin, continuing along strike of the basin. In this position, the river becomes confined between opposing DFS or between transverse DFS and the basin edge. In several examples, the river morphology changes upon reaching the sedimentary basin and across the DFS and this morphology may change once again at the toe of the DFS where the river takes the axial position in the basin. For example, the Brahamaputra River upstream from the sedimentary basin is a relatively narrow, single thread channel that is confined in its valley. Upon entering the sedimentary basin, the Brahmaputra River develops a DFS and becomes broadly braided in form. Distally on the DFS, the braided system bifurcates, leaving relatively large areas where floodplain deposits may be preserved. At the toe of the DFS, the Brahmaputra River becomes the axial system for this portion of the foreland basin. In this axial position, it is held between opposing DFS, thus the channel system migrates back and forth between these DFS and fills this portion of the basin with coarse-grained material. Other large rivers show similar change as they enter a continental sedimentary basin. In areal extent, DFS from smaller rivers occupy more of the modern continental sedimentary basins than the big rivers (either in axial or DFS position), therefore deposits of all rivers in sedimentary basins must be considered in order to fully interpret the rock record.

Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.; Scuderi, L. A.; Nichols, G. J.; Davidson, S. K.

2010-12-01

196

Colorado River Basin Terrestrial Water Storage Dynamics and Vegetation Response  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is an important hydrologic variable that defines the state of a river basin (e.g. floods and droughts) and vegetation response to the water availability and incoming energy. Direct determination of TWS is difficult due to insufficient in-situ data on space-time variability of hydrologic stores (snow, soil moisture, and groundwater) and fluxes (precipitation, evapotranspiration). To better understand intra and inter annual variability of TWS and vegetation response to waters storage changes we implemented three alternative methods to estimate TWS changes: (1) the Basin-Scale Water Balance (BSWB) using North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset; (2) the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) forced with gridded meteorological data; and (3) new remotely sensed gravity field data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Vegetation is represented by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from MODIS and AVHRR estimates. Preliminary results show strong correlations between TWS data and its components (precipitation, modeled shallow, deep soil moisture, etc.) and vegetation greenness and different vegetation response times to available water in upper and lower basins. TWS data are generated in near-real time, stored in the SAHRA Geodatabase and available at http://voda.hwr.arizona.edu/twsc/sahra/.

Durcik, M.; Troch, P. A.; Gupta, H. V.

2009-12-01

197

Response of the Mackenzie River Basin lakes to climate variability  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mackenzie River Basin has experienced the highest year to year climate variability in the northern hemisphere during the winter months over the last 50 years. Lakes have special interest since they reflect the influence of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation oscillations (Teleconnections). Seasonal and composite lake water level anomalies for the negative and positive phases of North Pacific (NP), Pacific North American (PNA), Pacific Decadal (PDO), Arctic (AO), and El Nino Southern (ENSO) Oscillations, indicate PDO to have the largest influence on the amplitude of lake level anomalies across Mackenzie River Basin during 1950--2008. NP is more influential than ENSO in the southern part of the basin and during winter seasons. The response to the Arctic Oscillation (AO) effect is only recorded at Great Slave Lake during the spring. Squared coherence, the frequency domain equivalent of correlation, was used to evaluate the modes and frequencies of correlations between the above mentioned lake levels and teleconnection indexes. Great Bear Lake levels are sensitive to the variability of all considered teleconnections at the decadal (PDO) and interannual (ENSO, PNA, NP, AO) bands. The North Pacific followed by Pacific North American and Arctic Oscillations are the most influential teleconnections at interannual frequencies for the southern part of the basin. The influence of flow regulation on Great Slave Lake level variability mainly affects the coherence response at the (1.0--1.5) years' period, without an impact on the low-frequency climate signal, as reflected by significant correlations with ENSO at the 10 years' period and North Pacific and Arctic Oscillations at the 6.6 years' period. The Aleutian Low indexes indicate the highest interannual frequency, which is significant in the basin, corresponds to the (1.5--1.6) years' period. Differences in the slopes of Lake Altimetry Heights (LAH) across Great Slave Lake identifies deeper and colder areas as ideal to study interannual climate variability due to their minimal change in gradient through time, as compared to areas with higher gradient variability. Changes in lake level gradients are more related to surface water temperature distribution than wind effects.

Sarmiento, Sergio Eduardo

198

The role of snow in the hydrological cycle on the Sava River basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the master degree thesis was to determine the role of snow in the hydrological cycle on Sava River basin. The reason for choosing the Sava River basin is two-fold: it is the largest basin in Slovenia and its hinterland is in the mountains, where snow cover is present each winter. It is important to know and to be able to predict the flow of the Sava River because of flood safety and hydropower production of many hydropower plants on the Sava River. First, we discuss the geologi...

Horvat, Anja

2009-01-01

199

Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin. The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out until now. Some of the potential solutions, aiming to achieve the effective flood control, are suggested as well.

Milanovi? Ana

2006-01-01

200

Hydrochemistry of the Parauari-Maues Acu river basin (Amazon region, Brazil)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical composition of the Parauari-Maues Acu basin is studied through the determination of pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, chloride, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper and manganese. Four expeditions were made and samples were collected in 16 different points of the main course. Chemical analysis of the rivers waters shows seasonal flutuations of the concentrations of the elements in the main river as well as in the main afluents like Nambi river, Amana river and Urupadi river. (Author)

 
 
 
 
201

Late quaternary geology in Desaguadero river basin, San Luis, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Absolute radiocarbon datings of the sedimentary successions have come to knowledge enabling us to distinguish the Pleistocene deposits from the supra-lying Holocene ones. A palaeo-environmental evolution is proposed considering climatic fluctuations at the time, their relation with the river unloadings of the Andean glaciers and that proposed for the palaeo-lake of Salina del Bebedero. Sediments are described on the basis of a detailed field sampling, textural analysis (sieved and Bouyoucos) and laboratory geo-chemicals. Their interpretation of the geologic evolution is considered to be very important since it is the only river course on this arid-semi-arid region linked to the reduction of glaciers in the Andes. The sedimentary succession is dominated by high percentages of laminated limes and with green-yellowish to greyish-brown-reddish tones deposited in watery environments of low energy such as lacustrine basins and extended plains of flood, which is why the evolution of the deposit is characterized by the contrast of the values of insolubles (clastic sediment and carbonate) versus solubles (insoluble saline). The climatic cycles dominant and proposed for the center-east Argentine region are identified considering the influence of Andean glaciers on the river systems and the water balances in plain semi-arid environments. (author)

202

River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

2012-01-01

203

Citizenship and participation in the Macaé e das Ostras Rivers Hydrographic Basin’s Committee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work analyzes the implementation process of the Macaé e das Ostras River Basin Committee as an instrument of the Rio de Janeiro State Water Resources Policy. It was found that the performance of the committee presents obstacles arising from the centralization of power by the state government, the uncertainty of legal and,institutional frameworks, and the predominance of more powerful interests in decision making. However, the Committee also presents great potential to constitute a forum for strengthening democracy and the autonomy of citizens.

Virgínia Villas Boas Sá Rego

2011-12-01

204

Chloride control and monitoring program in the Wichita River Basin, Texas, 1996-2009  

Science.gov (United States)

Water resources of the Wichita River Basin in north-central Texas are vital to the water users in Wichita Falls, Tex., and surrounding areas. The Wichita River Basin includes three major forks of the Wichita River upstream from Lake Kemp, approximately 50 miles southwest of Wichita Falls, Tex. The main stem of the Wichita River is formed by the confluence of the North Wichita River and Middle Fork Wichita River upstream from Truscott Brine Lake. The confluence of the South Wichita River with the Wichita River is northwest of Seymour, Tex. (fig. 1). Waters from the Wichita River Basin, which is part of the Red River Basin, are characterized by high concentrations of chloride and other salinity-related constituents from salt springs and seeps (hereinafter salt springs) in the upper reaches of the basin. These salt springs have their origins in the Permian Period when the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma areas were covered by a broad shallow sea. Over geologic time, evaporation of the shallow seas resulted in the formation of salt deposits, which today are part of the geologic formations underlying the area. Groundwater in these formations is characterized by high chloride concentrations from these salt deposits, and some of this groundwater is discharged by the salt springs into the Wichita River.

Haynie, M.M.; Burke, G.F.; Baldys, Stanley III

2011-01-01

205

SWOT data assimilation for reservoir operations in the upper Niger river basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective is to evaluate the potential for swath altimetry (SWOT) data to improve reservoir operations in the upper Niger river basin where two reservoirs are (or will be) used to sustain water demand, mainly for irrigation. We coupled the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamics model to the VIC hydrology model to compute the "true" state of the system which we used with a SWOT simulator to provide synthetic water levels and surface extent for both the Niger River channel and the two reservoirs. The simulated states were obtained by running the models with perturbed inputs (meteorological forcings to the VIC model, and water level in the two reservoirs). We integrated a reservoir rule model with the river hydrodynamics and hydrology models in order to define dam releases for each reservoir depending on available water in the river reach and downstream water demand. We then assimilated in situ and SWOT data into the coupled models to correct for model and forcing errors. We considered four scenarios: no assimilation, assimilation of in situ data only, assimilation of SWOT data only, and assimilation of both data sources. We computed performance of each scenario from the total volume of released water and the ability of the system to satisfy water demand.

Munier, Simon; Lettenmaier, Dennis; Polebitski, Austin; Brown, Casey

2013-04-01

206

Challenging Futures Studies To Enhance Participatory River Basin Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Can the field of futures research help advance participatory management of river basins? This question is supposed to be answered by the present study of which this paper will mainly address the theoretical and conceptual point of view. The 2000 EU Framework directive on water emphasises at least two aspects that will mark the future management of river basins: the need for long-term planning, and a demand for participation. Neither the former nor the latter are new concepts as such, but its combination is in some sense revolutionary. Can long-term plans be made (and implemented) in a participative way, what tools could be useful in this respect, and does this lead to a satisfactory situation in terms of both reaching physical targets and enhancing social-institutional manageability? A possibly rich way to enter the discussion is to challenge futures research as a concept and a practice for enabling multiple stakeholders to design appropriate policies. Futures research is the overall field in which several methods and techniques (like scenario analysis) are mobilised to systematically think through and/or design the future. As such they have proven to be rich exercises to trigger ideas, stimulate debate and design desirable futures (and how to get there). More importantly these exercises have the capability to reconstitute actor relations, and by nature go beyond the institutional boundaries. Arguably the relation between futures research and the planning process is rather distant. Understandably commitments on the direct implementation of the results are hardly ever made, but its impact on changes in the capabilities of the network of actors involved may be large. As a hypothesis we consider that the distant link between an image of the future and the implementation in policy creates sufficient distance for actors to participate (in terms of responsibilities, legal constraints, etc.) and generate potentials, and enough degrees of freedom needed for a successful implementation. However, critical conceptual and design requirements have to be met in order to realise futures research potentials. Since the beginning of the 1990s futures studies are becoming (again) more and more widespread in many different domains (technology, education, urban development, agriculture, environment, etc.). Recently, experiences have been launched and are currently being launched in the water sector (of which the World Water Vision is a well -known - but not necessarily the most representative - example). Although futures studies on a river basin level are still scarce, they will offer already sufficient material for empirical analysis. The research, effectuated within a larger framework study on the implications of futures studies for environmental research, offers at this stage initially a conceptual understanding.

van der Helm, R.

207

Integrated landscape management of the Ipel river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the Ipel river basin, examining its sustainable development. It  devises methodology for integrated landscape management as a basic tool for the implementation of its sustainable development in actual practice. The main objective of this case study is to define the socio-economic and environmental problems, to design measures to eliminate these problems and/or to prevent new problems arising. The ultimate goal is to achieve management practices which are in harmony with this area’s potential, to the greatest possible extent. Thus, basic principles are applied to landscape-ecological optimization of  landscape organisation, including nature protection, biodiversity, landscape stability and the protection of its natural resources. These involve its water and soil and the air/atmosphere in its forests. The protection of its cultural-historical resources is extremely important, including, inter alia, the protection of cultural monuments, protection of historical landscape structures and protection of the entire environment

Zita IZAKOVI?OVÁ

2013-04-01

208

SEA of river basin management plans : incorporating climate change  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In, 2000 the European Parliament and the European Council passed the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to be implemented in all Member States. The consequence of the directive is that river basin management plans (RBMPs) shall be prepared which are legally subject to a strategic environmental assessment (SEA). An important environmental factor for the water sector is climate change, especially the changes it causes to the water environment. However, based on an argument of an inadequate knowledge base regarding climate change impacts, the prospect of Danish authorities including climate change in their SEAs of RBMPs is weak. In this paper the connections between climate change and water are reviewed. As a result, it is suggested that climate change needs to be considered in three ways: mitigation, adaptation and baseline adaptation. Udgivelsesdato: December

Larsen, Sanne Vammen; KØrnØv, Lone

2009-01-01

209

Spatial distribution of runoff in Temštica river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The values of specific runoff are defined by model of multi factorial analyses combined with method of "grid" system. Elemental unit is presented by unit field of 0.5 x 0.5 km. Such multi regression model of high statistical significance enables analyses of specific runoff from many aspects. First aspect is establishing the amount and distribution of water for every altitude zone in total runoff creating. Second is presented in its altitude distribution in dependence of altitude existing of some lithologic-hydrologic complex; at the and from aspect from spatial regionalization it is possible to perceive water distribution within the river basin. By that we could realize water condition of some differential and contrast areas. Application of above mentioned methods as well as processing of each relevant parameter for studying these kinds of problems are carried out in GEOMEDIA program.

Mustafi? Sanja

2006-01-01

210

Hydrological Changes in the Connecticut River Basin Based on Observations and Model Simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how critical hydrological processes are altered in response to our changing climate is of critical importance in a world characterized by increasingly more extreme wet and dry events. Among different regions of the U.S., the strongest increase of extreme precipitation was observed in the northeast region. Using the Connecticut River Basin (the largest basin in the northeast region) as an example, this study provides an historical analysis of the hydrological processes with reference and comparisons to other relevant studies concerning this region. The focus of the analysis is on historical (1950-2011) changes to characteristics of precipitation with respect to intensity, duration, and frequency, discharge timings and magnitudes, and trends of key water budget variables. In addition to data from observations, simulations are run using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model to derive hydrological variables for which long-term observational data are not readily available. VIC is run in two different modes of operation, one operating at hourly time step and one daily, to explore the impact of temporal scaling on modeling results. A comparison of the modes of operation is provided, and the model performance is documented with the use of USGS discharge gauge data, as well as observational soil moisture and evapotranspiration data. Our results show that there is a clear increase to the intensity of rainfall with the fraction of precipitation above the 99% threshold increasing by 7% from 1950-1999. There is also an increase to both days with greater than 10mm of rain and the simple daily intensity index and a slight reduction in consecutive dry days. Mean trends calculated for each season and annual averages for 1950-2011 reveal an increase in precipitation of 3.065 mm/yr along with increases of 1.184 and 1.530 mm/yr in surface and subsurface runoff with slight increases to ET and soil moisture. Contrary to previous studies, there is no early shift of peak discharge timings and even a slight delay to center of volume date, defined as the day when half of the annual discharge passes through the gauging station. Overall, the response of the Connecticut River Basin shows indications of change toward more extreme precipitation, increasing discharge, increasing runoff ratios, wetter soil conditions, and a negligible trend in ET. Our simulations suggest that the basin is entering a wetter regime more subject to meteorological flood conditions than to drought conditions. For the hydrological extremes examined, daily time step is found to be sufficient. We therefore also explore how hydrological processes in the Connecticut River Basin may change in the future using VIC forced by downscaled future data at daily resolution.

Parr, D.; Wang, G.

2013-12-01

211

LUCC and the Hydrologic Responses in the Chaobaihe River Basin Based on Remote Sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

The Miyun Reservoir is the most important water source to Beijing City. In recent decades, the inflow to the reservoir presented a decreasing trend, which seriously threaten the water use of Beijing. In order to analyze the reasons, based on the terrain and land use information from GIS and RS (Remote Sensing), we revised the Bagrov evapotranspiration estimation method, introduced a water loss model under conditions of human impacts, and established a distributed monthly water balance model applied to the Chaobeihe river basin controlled by Miyun Reservoir. The hydrometerologic data from 1961 to 1966, when human impacts were slight, was used to calibrate and verify the model, and the data from 1973 to 1990, when human impacts were significant, were used to model simulation and analysis. Take the year 1966 as background, the scenario analysis, which concentrated on the impact of land cover change on evapotranspiration, showed: without considering the spatial distribution of land cover, if the size of forest area increases one time, the runoff will decrease by about 2.8% (the evapotranspiration increases); if the size of meadow area increases one time, the runoff will increase by about 5.6% (the evapotranspiration decreases); if the size of dry land area increases one time, the runoff will increase by about 2.0% (the evapotranspiration decreases); the change amplitudes for the three scenarios are within 6%. However, from 1960 to 1990, the areas of the three land-use types did not change so much, and if the water loss model is not involved, the observed runoff volume is 10.7% less than simulated one for the Chaohe river basin and 24.8% for the Baihe river basin, which means we should consider not only the impact of land cover change on evapotranspiration, but also the extra water loss caused by human activities, such as the water and soil conservation constructions. After take the water loss estimation into account, the simulation results indicated that the water loss had a increasing tendency from 1973 to 1990, and the water loss became much stable in the late 1980s only for Chaohe river basin; within one year, water loss varied with seasons, especially in summer, the reservoirs and water-soil conservation constructions held up the flood water and made runoff lost, but the springs were water supply period. Hydraulic constructions is of great benefit to human and ecologic protection, on the other hand, these engineering measures can reallocate water resources in time and space, and will influence the stream flow in a sense.

Wang, G.; Xia, J.

2004-05-01

212

Climate control on Quaternary coal fires and landscape evolution, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Late Cenozoic stream incision and basin excavation have strongly influenced the modern Rocky Mountain landscape, but constraints on the timing and rates of erosion are limited. The geology of the Powder River basin provides an unusually good opportunity to address spatial and temporal patterns of stream incision. Numerous coal seams in the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations within the basin have burned during late Cenozoic incision, as coal was exposed to dry and oxygen-rich near-surface conditions. The topography of this region is dominated by hills capped with clinker, sedimentary rocks metamorphosed by burning of underlying coal beds. We use (U-Th)/He ages of clinker to determine times of relatively rapid erosion, with the assumption that coal must be near Earth's surface to burn. Ages of 55 in situ samples range from 0.007 to 1.1 Ma. Clinker preferentially formed during times in which eccentricity of the Earth's orbit was high, times that typically but not always correlate with interglacial periods. Our data therefore suggest that rates of landscape evolution in this region are affected by climate fluctuations. Because the clinker ages correlate better with eccentricity time series than with an oxygen isotope record of global ice volume, we hypothesize that variations in solar insolation modulated by eccentricity have a larger impact on rates of landscape evolution in this region than do glacial-interglacial cycles.

Riihimaki, C.A.; Reiners, P.W.; Heffern, E.L. [Drew University, Madison, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biology

2009-03-15

213

Flood forecasting and early warning system for Dungun River Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Floods can bring such disasters to the affected dweller due to loss of properties, crops and even deaths. The damages to properties and crops by the severe flooding are occurred due to the increase in the economic value of the properties as well as the extent of the flood. Flood forecasting and warning system is one of the examples of the non-structural measures which can give early warning to the affected people. People who live near the flood-prone areas will be warned so that they can evacuate themselves and their belongings before the arrival of the flood. This can considerably reduce flood loss and damage and above all, the loss of human lives. Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model is a runoff analysis model converting rainfall into runoff for a given river basin. The simulation can be done using either ground or satellite-based rainfall to produce calculated discharge within the river. The calculated discharge is used to generate the flood inundation map within the catchment area for the selected flood event using Infowork RS.

214

Significant punctiform and diffuse pressure in upper Crasna river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available t. The preservation of healthy ecosystems which are biological valuable, whose actual status is convenient, as well as the improvement or transformation of those partially or heavily modified by anthropic interventions, should be targeted to achieve objectives of the ecological balance of any watercourse. The pressure on aquatic environment are generated by agglomerations, industry and agriculture, but also by hydromorphological area. In the upper of the Crasna basin the level of nutrient impurification due to human agglomeration sets a “sensitive” character for Crasna area and ranks the Crasna river in a lower class of quality. IPPC and NON IPPC industry generates dangerous substances, especially those on List II, which establishes the low state of the Crasna river. Dangerous substances cause toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation in the aquatic environment. Impact of non-priority and priority pollutants, in terms of environmental impact is not distinct, therefore there is a tendency to pay attention to priority poluttants, even if non-priority substances create the gratest damages. Lack of clean technologies or non compliance with Best Available Technologies is the main cause of surface resource contamination by dangerous substances.

Giana Popa

2011-04-01

215

Economic Peculiarities of the Romanian Tisa River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A possible answer to the current challenges of the Tisa catchment area, correlated with water management, social and economic development, environmental conservation, is the transnational initiative of the five countries drained by the tributaries of the Tisa River. In this context, the spatial development has a major impact on the Romanian Tisa catchment area by providing the economic cohesion. The purpose of the present paper is to define the current status of economy in the Romanian Tisa River Basin, through the filter of achieving the level of competitiveness claimed by the national, European, or global authorities. By setting several quantitative indicators, analyzed for a standard territorial level (NUTS 3, for a definite time interval (2002-2007, those more or less competitive economic branches, activities or aspects of the analyzed territory were identified, and, at the same time, the elements that “hinder” development, the traditional remnants, or the existing entrepreneurial initiatives. On the basis of relevant indicators, the calculation of an index of competitiveness was proposed at territorial level, the results certifying a certain level of competitiveness for the region under consideration.

ANA-MARIA POP

2010-01-01

216

Enhanced Drought Monitoring in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

As a part of the National Integrated Drought Information System's Upper Colorado River Basin pilot project, an aggressive collaborative drought monitoring and communication process was initiated in 2010. Weekly climate, drought and water supply assessments were begun which included webinars during critical times of the year -- primarily late January through mid summer. A diverse set of stakeholders ranging from ski area operators, river commissioners, state and federal agency representatives, public land managers, municipal water providers, agricultural interests and media from a 3-state area were invited to participate along with National Weather Service forecast office personal, state climate office representatives and other information providers. The process evolved to become a weekly drought monitoring "committee" providing detailed input to the U.S. Drought Monitor national author. In 2012 this new system was put to the test as dry winter conditions exploded into extreme and widespread drought as the normal spring storms failed to materialize and instead long-duration above average temperatures added evaporative stress to the already limited water supplies. This presentation examines this effort with an emphasis on stakeholder engagement. The overall impact of the 2012 drought appears, so far, to be less than what was experienced in 2002 although measured stream flow appears tp be similar. To what extent this could be attributed to the enhanced drought monitoring and communication will be discussed. The sustainability of this aggressive monitoring effort will also be assessed.

Doesken, N.; Smith, R.; Ryan, W.; Schwalbe, Z.; Verdin, J. P.

2012-12-01

217

Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was developed using GAMS 2.25 software. Application of the model to the Akbura River basin indicated efficiencies in the proposed institutional rules especially in low water years.

Nazir Mirzaev

2010-08-01

218

Assessing the Resilience of a River Management Regime: Informal Learning in a Shadow Network in the Tisza River Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global sources of change offer unprecedented challenges to conventional river management strategies, which no longer appear capable of credibly addressing a trap: the failure of conventional river defense engineering to manage rising trends of disordering extreme events, including frequency and intensity of floods, droughts, and water stagnation in the Hungarian reaches of the Tisza River Basin. Extreme events punctuate trends of stagnation or decline in the ecosystems, economies, and societi...

Geza Molnar; Attila Sarvari; Peter Balogh; Zsuzsanna Flachner; Piotr Magnuszewski; Jan Sendzimir; Zsuzsanna Nagy

2008-01-01

219

Hydrological and hydrochemical impact studies in the urbanised Petrusse river basin (Luxembourg)  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of ancient topographical maps, the growing urbanisation of the Petrusse river basin (42.9 km2) has been documented on 50-year time steps since 1770. While until the 1950's urban areas remained below 10% of total basin area, they are now close to 50%. This rapid change has consisted mainly in a change from cropland into built areas. As a direct consequence of these considerable changes in landuse, the basin presumably has undergone significant modifications of both its hydrological regime and the quality of the flowing surface waters. In the framework of a national monitoring programme, the Petrusse basin has been progressively equipped with 3 recording streamgauges between 1999 and 2003. Several meteorological stations are located in the immediate vicinity of the basin. The hydrological regime revealed by the 15-minute recordings of the streamgauges is very specific to heavily urbanised basins, i.e. characterised by quick reactions to incoming rainfall, as well as very limited contributions from sub-surface and groundwater reservoirs. A conceptual hydrological model has been used to evaluate roughly the impact of the progressive urbanisation of the Petrusse basin since 1770 on the rainfall-runoff relationship. Major changes were found for summer months, with significantly higher peak discharges and increasingly rapid reactions to rainfall events. However, the limitations of the spatial density of rainfall recordings (only 1 rainfall measurement site available between 1854 - 1949) cause severe shortcomings in the accuracy of the incoming rainfall estimations, especially in the case of convective rainfall events. This in turn also considerably reduces the accuracy of the historical rainfall-runoff simulations. Between 2002 and 2004, several monitoring campaigns have been carried out in the Petrusse basin in order to determine the impact of sewer system contributions from the urbanised areas to the water quality within the Petrusse. The investigations have shown a very strong so-called first-flush effect. During dry sequences, numerous deposits on roads and roofs (heavy metals, oils, etc.) accumulate, before being washed away during the first minutes of rainfall events and being ultimately being transported to the Petrusse river via the sewer systems, causing considerable pollution peaks. Current investigations target a reduction of this pollution. The involved volumes of polluted water are of such extent, that they cannot be dealt with by conventional waste water treatment systems. The currently existing rainfall measurement network around the city of Luxembourg has a spatial resolution that is still too low to capture accurately convective rainfall events. A new rainfall measurement approach will soon be tested to estimate spatio-temporal rainfall dynamics with a high resolution above the city of Luxembourg. Based on a combination of conventional raingauges, weather radar and microwave measurements (via cell-phone networks) this approach is supposed to provide data that might ultimately contribute to a real-time management of the first flush pollutions in the Petrusse river basin.

Pfister, L.; Iffly, J.; Guignard, C.; Krein, A.; Matgen, P.; Salvia-Castellvi, M.; van den Bos, R.; Tailliez, C.; Barnich, F.; Hofmmann, L.

2009-04-01

220

Climatic variation and river flow in glacierised Himalayan basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal patterns of precipitation vary considerably along the Himalayan arc from substantial summer monsoon maximum in the south-east to winter precipitation maximum with drier summers in the north-west. In the south-east, river flow is reduced during part of the summer seasonal maximum discharge in basins at higher elevations by snowfall raising albedo of glacier surfaces and reducing meltwater production, whereas at lower elevations river flow arising from glacier melt is augmented by monsoon rainfall. In the north-west, glacier ice-melt provides most of the summer seasonal maximum flow. Year-to-year variations in river flow therefore respond to differing climatic signals. Year-to-year variability and long-term trends of the glaciologically-relevant variables winter and summer precipitation and summer air temperature have been examined for stations distributed along the length of the Karakoram-Himalayan ranges. Air temperature trend varied according to location, with increases in the later part of the twentieth century only at stations at higher elevations in the south-east. Total annual precipitation showed large year-to-year fluctuations, but with little trend from the 1900s to the 1990s, though varying from area to area. Discharge data for the Ganges are limited and totally missing for India since the 1970s. For the upper Indus, runoff declined from the 1970s to the 1990s, but the trend of flow in tributaries of the Ganges arising in Nepal is not clear. It is therefore difficult to identify the overall pattern of how runoff trends have responded to changes in monsoon precipitation, air temperature and glacier recession along the Himalayan arc.

Collins, D. N.; Davenport, J.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Hydrological and geochemical studies on the Sahelo-Sudanian basin of the Niger River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

African drought and rainfall deficits observed during the last twenty years had important repercussions on the runoff of the Niger River (annual deficit of 20 % during the 70's and of 46 % during the 80's). A large reduction of the groundwater storage explains the persistent degradation of the hydrological resource. The inner Delta of the Niger River is a particular system submitted to Sahelian and sub-desertic climatic conditions, and is characterized by large flood plains. Time series of input water volumes in the inner Delta and of the water losses inside it show that the water losses, due to the intense evaporation, vary from 40 km3 to 6 km3. The water losses are maximum during the wettest years, up to 47 %, and minimum during the driest years, only 32 %, due to the reduction of the flooded area. Since 1990 the EQUANIS program associates hydrological and chemical measurements in the study of the dissolved and suspended matter flows in the Niger River's flows to the Sahel. The specific sediment load vary between 7 or 8 t dm2 year-1 for the upper Niger River and 3 t km2 year-1 for the Bani River. The specific dissolved load vary between 10 or 12 t km2 year-1 for the Niger River and 2,5 t km2 year-1 for the Bani River. The annual input in the inner Delta was about 2,2 Mt in 1992-1993. Seasonal variations of the matter fluxes are very different between the upp fluxes are very different between the upper and the lower parts of the inner Delta, due to the breaking of the annual flood and to the more important flood plains in the upper Delta. The preliminary results indicate that both rivers have a low level in dissolved element concentration. The inner Delta is not an old sedimentary basin and the actual deposits of matter should characterize its working during the lasting deficit of the water resources of the Niger River. (author)

222

Detection of Flooding Responses at the River Basin Scale Enhanced by Land use Change  

Science.gov (United States)

The Georges Creek watershed (area 187.5 sq km) in western Maryland (United States) has experienced land use changes (>17% of area) associated with surface mining of coal. The adjacent Savage River watershed (area 127.2 sq km) is unmined. Moments of flood frequency distributions indicated that climatic variability affected both watersheds similarly. Normalizing annual maximum flows by antecedent streamflow and causative precipitation helped identify trends in flooding response. Analysis of contemporary storm events using Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) stage III precipitation data showed that Georges Creek floods are characterized by higher peak runoff and a shorter centroid lag than Savage River floods, likely attributable to differences in current land use. Interestingly, Georges Creek produces only two thirds of the storm-flow volume as Savage River, apparently because of infiltration into abandoned deep mine workings and an associated transbasin diversion constructed circa 1900. Empirical trend analysis is thus complicated by both hydroclimatic variability and the legacy of deep mining in the basin.

McCormick, Brian C.; Eshleman, Keith N.; Griffith, Jeff L.; Townsend, Philip A.

2009-01-01

223

Li-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France  

Science.gov (United States)

The Loire River in France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117 800 km2. Upstream, the Loire River flows following a south to north direction from the Massif Central down to the city of Orléans, 650 km from its source. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic Ocean. Over time, its basin has been exposed to numerous sources of anthropogenic metal pollutions, such as metal mining, industry, agriculture and domestic inputs. The Loire River basin is thus an excellent study site to develop new isotope systematics for tracking anthropogenic sources of metal pollutions (Zn and Pb) and also to investigate Li isotope tracing that can provide key information on the nature of weathering processes at the Loire River Basin scale. Preliminary data show that Li-Zn-Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions span a wide range in river waters of the Loire River main stream and the main tributaries. There is a clear contrast between the headwaters upstream and rivers located downstream in the lowlands. In addition, one of the major tributaries within the Massif Central (the Allier River) is clearly influenced by inputs resulting from mineralizations and thermomineral waters. The results showed that, on their own, each of these isotope systematics reveals important information about the geogenic or anthropogenic origin Li-Zn-Pb. Considered together, they are however providing a more integrated understanding of the overall budgets of these elements at the scale of the Loire River Basin.

Millot, R.; Desaulty, A.; Widory, D.; Bourrain, X.

2013-12-01

224

Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China  

Science.gov (United States)

Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985-2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT). A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005-2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens) of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

Feng, X. Q.; Zhang, G. X.; Xu, Y. Jun

2013-07-01

225

QUANTIFICATION OF TRANSIT LOSSES, AND ITS EFFECTS ON SURFACE-WATER RESOURCES, ARKANSAS RIVER BASIN, COLORADO.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colorado Water Law enables downstream water users to use natural river channels to convey water from upstream storage reservoirs to downstream canals, provided an equitable charge is made for transit loss. Charging a variable transit-loss rate for delivery of winter water stored in Pueblo Reservoir has resulted in better management of the basin's surface-water resources. Not only are more accurate volumes of stored water delivered to each irrigator, but use of the natural channel for conveyance of these waters now has minimal effect on users of direct-flow water rights. A better understanding of specific sources of transit loss also has allowed water users to manage the timing and rate of their reservoir releases to optimize beneficial use of their stored water.

Livingston, Russell, K.

1985-01-01

226

Turbidity and suspended-sediment transport in the Russian River Basin, California  

Science.gov (United States)

The Russian River in north coastal California has a persistent turbidness, which has reportedly caused a decline in the success of the sports fishermen. As a consequence, the number of sports fishermen angling in the river has declined, and industries dependent on their business have suffered. To determine the source of the turbidity and the rate of sediment transport in the basin, a network of sampling station was established in February 1964 along the river, on some of its tributaries, and near Lake Pillsbury in the upper Eel River basin.

Ritter, John R.; Brown, William M., III

1971-01-01

227

The fish fauna in tropical rivers: the case of the Sorocaba River basin, São Paulo, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpio. PMID:15162785

Smith, Welber Senteio; Petrere Júnior, Miguel; Barrella, Walter

2003-01-01

228

Transport and Retention of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon in North America’s Largest River Swamp Basin, the Atchafalaya River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004 river discharge and water quality records from an upriver and a downriver location of the Atchafalaya River to quantify the inflow, outflow, and inflow–outflow mass balance of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN = organic nitrogen + ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (NO3 + NO2, total phosphorous (TP, and total organic carbon (TOC through the largest river swamp basin in North America. The study found that, over the past 27 years, the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB acted as a significant sink for TKN (annual retention: 24%, TP (41%, and TOC (12%, but a source for NO3 + NO2 nitrogen (6%. On an annual basis, ARB retained 48,500 t TKN, 16,900 t TP, and 167,100 t TOC from the river water. The retention rates were closely and positively related to the river discharge with highs during the winter and spring and lows in the late summer. The higher NO3 + NO2 mass outflow occurred throughout spring and summer, indicating an active role of biological processes on nitrogen as water and air temperatures in the basin rise.

Y. Jun Xu

2013-04-01

229

Intensive Survey of the Big Muddy River Basin, Summer 2000: Data Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2000 the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (Illinois EPA) and the Illinois Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) cooperatively conducted an intensive survey of the Big Muddy River Basin. Stream conditions were evaluated by collection of water c...

S. P. Shasteen, M. R. Matson, M. M. King, J. M. Levesque, G. L. Minton

2003-01-01

230

Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

231

delivering the programme of measures in the northern ireland river basin management plans ..  

...in the first river basin management plans which were published for...areas with a dedicated Catchment Management Officer working in each area...funded project “Development of Lake Management Tools”. Although good progress has been...

232

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRIC UTILITY SECTOR IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN REGION  

Science.gov (United States)

This report was prepared in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The potential effects of these different pricing mechanisms on capacity requirements, load factors, and ...

233

The Impact of Rainstorm Stochasticity on Hillslope Sediment Supply to River Channels in Dryland Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate interacts with hillslopes supplying sediment to river channels, and impacting drainage basin functioning and evolution. In particular, coarse sediment supply from hillslopes exerts a strong control on channel bed material grain-size distributions (GSD) which feeds back on bedload flux and consequently affects long-term rates of valley incision/aggradation. However, process-based understanding of sediment supply from hillslopes is poorly constrained because it is spatially and temporally variable as a result of interactions between rainstorm attributes (frequency, intensity, duration, size) and hillslope characteristics within a basin (length, gradient, infiltration rates, GSD). Drylands are particularly sensitive to climatic forcing because they are subjected to infrequent, short-lived, but high intensity rainfall events, which are spatially-variable and often smaller than the basin area. These climatic factors coupled with thin, stony soils typical of drylands, produce dynamic and variable sediment supply to channels, with a high proportion of coarse material that remains in channel beds over long timescales. Currently there is limited understanding of how variability and nonstationarity in regional climate affect hillslope sediment supply to valley floors in dryland basins. In these landscapes, the discrete and spatially variable nature of convective rainstorms and other catchment characteristics create challenges for deterministic modelling of the interaction between climate and sediment transport. Here we represent climate as a stochastic process characterized by probability density functions of storm properties (total annual rainfall, location, size, duration, peak rainfall intensity). This stochastic driver is coupled to a physics-based hillslope sediment transport model in order to investigate the decadal impact of climatic variability on longitudinal hillslope coarse (> 2 mm) sediment supply (flux and GSD) to a mainstem channel within a 170 km2 basin in SE Spain. We also test a number of plausible scenarios of regional climate change and compare all our results against GSDs measured in the channel. Results show highly discontinuous and variable sediment supply along the river reach which is sensitive to rainstorm characteristics as manifested in runoff changes. The interaction between hillslope characteristics and rainstorm attributes results in a non-linear relationship between climate forcing and sediment supply and has significant implications for changing volume and GSD of sediment delivered to the channel.

Michaelides, K.; Singer, M. B.

2013-12-01

234

Quantifying the contribution of glacier runoff to streamflow in the upper Columbia River basin, Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glacier melt provides important contributions to streamflow in many mountainous regions. Hydrologic model calibration in glacier-fed catchments is difficult because errors in modelling snow accumulation can be offset by compensating errors in glacier melt. This problem is particularly severe in catchments with modest glacier cover, where goodness-of-fit statistics such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency may not be highly sensitive to the streamflow variance associated with glacier melt. While glacier mass balance measurements can be used to aid model calibration, they are absent for most catchments. We introduce the use of glacier volume change determined from repeated glacier mapping in a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation procedure to calibrate a hydrologic model. We also explicitly account for changes in glacier area through the calibration and test periods. The approach is applied to the Mica basin in the Canadian portion of the Columbia River basin using the HBV-EC hydrologic model. Use of glacier volume change in the calibration procedure effectively reduced parameter uncertainty and helped to ensure that the model was accurately predicting glacier mass balance as well as streamflow. The seasonal and interannual variations in glacier melt contributions were assessed by running the calibrated model with historic glacier cover and also after converting all glacierized areas to alpine land cover in the model setup. Although glaciers in the Mica basin only cover 5 % of the watershed, glacier ice melt contributes up to 25 % and 35 % of streamflow in August and September, respectively, and is particularly important during periods of warm, dry weather following winters with low accumulation and early snowpack depletion. The approach introduced in this study provides an effective and widely applicable approach for calibrating hydrologic models in glacier fed catchments, as well as for quantifying the magnitude and timing of glacier melt contributions to streamflow.

G. Jost

2011-05-01

235

Neural network approach to stream-aquifer modeling for improved river basin management  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryArtificial neural networks (ANNs) are applied to efficient modeling of stream-aquifer responses in an intensively irrigated river basin under a variety of water management alternatives for improving irrigation efficiency, reducing soil water salinity, increasing crop yields, controlling nonbeneficial consumptive use, and decreasing salt loadings to the river. Two ANNs for the main stem river and the tributary regime are trained and tested using solution datasets from a high resolution, finite difference MODFLOW-MT3DMS groundwater flow and contaminant transport model of a representative subregion within the river basin. Stream-aquifer modeling in the subregion is supported by a dense field data collection network with the ultimate goal of extending knowledge gained from the subregion modeling to the sparsely monitored remainder of the river basin where data insufficiency precludes application of MODFLOW-MT3DMS at the desired spatial resolution. The trained and tested ANNs capture the MODFLOW-MT3DMS modeled subregion stream-aquifer responses to system stresses using geographic information system (GIS) processed explanatory variables correlated with irrigation return flow quantity and quality for basin-wide application. The methodology is applied to the Lower Arkansas River basin in Colorado by training and testing ANNs derived from a MODFLOW-MT3DMS modeled subregion of the Lower Arkansas River basin in Colorado, which includes detailed unsaturated and saturated zone modeling and calibration to the extensive field data monitoring network in the subregion. Testing and validation of the trained ANNs shows good performance in predicting return flow quantities and salinity concentrations. The ANNs are linked with the GeoMODSIM river basin network flow model for basin-wide evaluation of water management alternatives.

Triana, Enrique; Labadie, John W.; Gates, Timothy K.; Anderson, Charles W.

2010-09-01

236

Water Accounting Plus for Water Resources Reporting and River Basin Planning:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis introduces Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. WA+ is a simple, yet comprehensive and understandable water accounting framework that provides a standardized way of data collection and a presentation system that describes the overall land and water management situation in complex river basins. WA+ tracks water depletions rather than withdrawals...

Karimi, P.

2014-01-01

237

Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was...

Nazir Mirzaev; Jusipbek Kazbekov; Andrew Noble; Oyture Anarbekov; Kahramon Jumabaev; Murat Yakubov; Akmal Karimov; Ahmad Alimdjanov

2010-01-01

238

Tritium balance of the Ems river basin (1951-1983). Pt. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the Ems river basin an inventory of the tritium distribution is presented for the hydrologic years 1951-1983. On the basis of a balance model the tritium contents in surface and groundwater of the Ems river basin are calculated using known and extrapolated tritium input data and compared with the corresponding values measured since 1974. A survey of the tritium flows occurring in this area is presented, taking meteorologic and hydrologic facts into account. (orig.)

239

Assessing the Resilience of a River Management Regime: Informal Learning in a Shadow Network in the Tisza River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global sources of change offer unprecedented challenges to conventional river management strategies, which no longer appear capable of credibly addressing a trap: the failure of conventional river defense engineering to manage rising trends of disordering extreme events, including frequency and intensity of floods, droughts, and water stagnation in the Hungarian reaches of the Tisza River Basin. Extreme events punctuate trends of stagnation or decline in the ecosystems, economies, and societies of this river basin that extend back decades, and perhaps, centuries. These trends may be the long-term results of defensive strategies of the historical river management regime that reflect a paradigm dating back to the Industrial Revolution: "Protect the Landscape from the River." Since then all policies have defaulted to the imperatives of this paradigm such that it became the convention underlying the current river management regime. As an exponent of this convention the current river management regimes' methods, concepts, infrastructure, and paradigms that reinforce one another in setting the basin's development trajectory, have proven resilient to change from wars, political, and social upheaval for centuries. Failure to address the trap makes the current river management regime's resilience appear detrimental to the region's future development prospects and prompts demand for transformation to a more adaptive river management regime. Starting before transition to democracy, a shadow network has generated multiple dialogues in Hungary, informally exploring the roots of this trap as part of a search for ideas and methods to revitalize the region. We report on how international scientists joined one dialogue, applying system dynamics modeling tools to explore barriers and bridges to transformation of the current river management regime and develop the capacity for participatory science to expand the range of perspectives that inform, monitor, and revise learning, policy, and the practice of river management.

Geza Molnar

2008-06-01

240

Uranium isotopic investigations and radiocarbon measurements of river-groundwater systems, Sabarmati basin, Gujarat, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of uranium concentrations, 234U/238U activity ratios along the Sabarmati river and adjacent phreatic aquifers and radiocarbon in confined aquifers in the Watrak-Shedi sub-basin, part of Sabarmati basin, have been carried out. The uranium isotope distributions show marked seasonal variations in river waters, whereas they are within experimental uncertainties in the groundwaters adjacent to the river bed. The observed seasonal variations indicate the presence of a groundwater component in Sabarmati river, and its contribution to the total river flow appears to be maximum during summer. Apparent radiocarbon ages of confined aquifers in Watrak-Shedi sub-basin show that the groundwater flow is in the NE-SW direction with a velocity of 6-7 m/a. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
241

THIRTY-FIVE YEARS OF UPPER MISSOURI RIVER BASIN PALEOPATHOLOGY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El proyecto Huesos Mojados consistía en las evaluaciones de hablar/escuchar a y con los nativos de Norteamérica. El proyecto Huesos Secos consistía en estudios conducidos en los huesos recuperados de la región. Durante 35 años, examinamos los restos esqueletales que representan varias culturas difer [...] entes que vivían en el Territorio Dakota durante 2000 años. Un factor que mejora la paleopatología en esta región eran los proyectos arqueológicos de rescate conducidos antes de cerrar las represas que cruzan el Río Missouri en Dakota del Sur. Las condiciones climáticas no eran favorables para momificación, así que el estudio fue limitado a los huesos. En 1966, participamos en y recibimos mucho estímulo del simposio de paleopatología en la Fundación Nacional de Ciencia. En 1977, T.A. Cockburn cuestionó si la mastoiditis y sus complicaciones existían en los Estados Unidos, y eso estimuló nuestro entusiasmo. Los resultados del proyecto Huesos Secos son el tema de este trabajo Abstract in english Wet Bones project consisted of speech/hearing evaluations performed on the Native Americans. The Dry Bones project were studies conducted on bones recovered from the region. During 35 years we examined skeletal remnants representing several cultures who existed in Dakota Territory during two millenn [...] ia. The study of paleopathology was enhanced by salvage archaeology projects conducted before closure of dams across the River in the Upper Missouri River Basin (UMRB). Climatic conditions were unfavorable to mummification, limiting the study to bones. We were stimulated by a symposium on paleopathology at National Science Foundation, chaired by S. Jarcho (Yale University) (1966). There emphasis was placed on demography and epidemiology. Additional motivation by T.A. Cockburn (Detroit) (1977), who questioned whether ear disease, mastoiditis, and its complications, existed in proto United States, focused our attention on the Dry Bones study. The results of the Dry Bones project are presented here

John B., Gregg.

2000-01-01

242

THIRTY-FIVE YEARS OF UPPER MISSOURI RIVER BASIN PALEOPATHOLOGY  

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Full Text Available Wet Bones project consisted of speech/hearing evaluations performed on the Native Americans. The Dry Bones project were studies conducted on bones recovered from the region. During 35 years we examined skeletal remnants representing several cultures who existed in Dakota Territory during two millennia. The study of paleopathology was enhanced by salvage archaeology projects conducted before closure of dams across the River in the Upper Missouri River Basin (UMRB. Climatic conditions were unfavorable to mummification, limiting the study to bones. We were stimulated by a symposium on paleopathology at National Science Foundation, chaired by S. Jarcho (Yale University (1966. There emphasis was placed on demography and epidemiology. Additional motivation by T.A. Cockburn (Detroit (1977, who questioned whether ear disease, mastoiditis, and its complications, existed in proto United States, focused our attention on the Dry Bones study. The results of the Dry Bones project are presented hereEl proyecto Huesos Mojados consistía en las evaluaciones de hablar/escuchar a y con los nativos de Norteamérica. El proyecto Huesos Secos consistía en estudios conducidos en los huesos recuperados de la región. Durante 35 años, examinamos los restos esqueletales que representan varias culturas diferentes que vivían en el Territorio Dakota durante 2000 años. Un factor que mejora la paleopatología en esta región eran los proyectos arqueológicos de rescate conducidos antes de cerrar las represas que cruzan el Río Missouri en Dakota del Sur. Las condiciones climáticas no eran favorables para momificación, así que el estudio fue limitado a los huesos. En 1966, participamos en y recibimos mucho estímulo del simposio de paleopatología en la Fundación Nacional de Ciencia. En 1977, T.A. Cockburn cuestionó si la mastoiditis y sus complicaciones existían en los Estados Unidos, y eso estimuló nuestro entusiasmo. Los resultados del proyecto Huesos Secos son el tema de este trabajo

John B. Gregg

2000-01-01

243

Impact assessment on ecosystem to climate change in Heihe river Basin in NW China  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the field investigation, documents and the concept of vulnerability, we developed a set of index system about vulnerability and adaptive capacity which influenced the ecosystem of Heihe River basin because of climate change. The index system mainly included two kinds of factors, climate factors and other factors. The climate indicators include humidity, annual rainfall, yearly temperature, etc; other factors include remote sensing data and socioeconomic materials, such as annual grassland area change, etc. We utilize the method of Analytic Hierarchy Plan (AHP) to distribute the weight of each indicator. We calculated quantitatively the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the ecosystem to climate change of 9 counties in Heihe River Basin in 2000, this results represent the status quo. According to the GCMs project, the precipitation will rise by 27%, 19% and 30% when the concentration of CO II double. The future vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate change of the ecosystem of 9 counties in Heihe River Basin when CO II double were calculated. The results show: (1)The ecological environment of the Heihe River Basin is incredibly vulnerable, on the whole, and in different places in the basin, its vulnerable degree is different to some extent. (2)In the whole basin, the comparatively low vulnerable ecosystem district is the upper reaches of the Heihe River. (3)In 2070, The most vulnerable district is still the lower reaches of the basin.

Sun, Landong; Xu, Zhongmin; Ren, Zhenhe

2007-09-01

244

Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

2008-08-01

245

Use of Precipitation - Runoff Models to Generate Hydrologic Scenarios in a High-altitude Andean Basin of the Ecuadorian Amazon Region. Case study of the Quijos River Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known of the hydrology and meteorology of the expansive Andean Amazon region in South America, which extends for approximately 600.000 Km2 and represents around the 10% of the total Amazon region. Climatic processes that occur in the Andean part of the Amazon influence the middle and lower parts of the Amazon Region. Consequently, there is a need to understand the hydro-climatic characteristics in the high lands of the Andean Amazon. Understanding hydrologic processes in the Andean Amazon is challenged by the lack of hydro meteorological data at all levels. Especially challenging is the absence of data at the appropriate scale for adequate calibration and verification of mathematical models, mainly for understanding precipitation - runoff of high altitude watersheds located on the western most part of the Amazon. The study area is located on the upper part of the Napo River named the Quijos river basin after the junction of the Oyacachi River with a surface area of about 2.500,00 Km2. It is composed mainly of high altitude lands named Paramo, Andean grass lands, primary cloudy forest known for their high water retention and regulatory capacity. The models used in the Quijos river basin in the upper part of the Amazon region of Ecuador are precipitation-runoff models widely used around the world. The Simulator for Water Resources in Rural Basins - Water Quality (SWRRBWQ ) (Arnold et. al. 1990, Williams et. al. 1985), works on a daily time steps basis with daily values of meteorological data both observed in the field or generated by the model, and by sub diving the main basin into a suitable number of sub basins with a meteorological station in it The second model used is the Hydrologic Modeling System from the Hydrologic Engineering Center which is a precipitation - runoff model run at a daily basis as well. Input data sets are basic climate data as precipitation, evapotranspiration, temperature, relative humidity basin wide at daily basis; land cover, soil type, soil characteristics, hydrographic characteristics, as well as registered discharge information in several control points of the basin, that were used for calibration purposes. Several runs of the models were done in order to assess parameter sensibility of the models using appropriate parameter for each case. Calibration for the two models were done for a period where enough information exists even though the time record for verification purposes is well ahead of time so it is assumed that basin wide conditions have not change in time. Three hydrologic scenarios for future discharge prediction based on conservation policies, urbanization, deforestation, or land use change on the area were generated by using HEC-HMS model for the January 1984 - December 1987 period because of its better performance in comparison to the SWRRBWQ model. Scenarios one and two showed almost no difference with the original discharge but scenario three showed an increase in water discharge with time. Results show that in high altitude basins the HEC-HMS performs better than SWRRBWQ model in determining mainly peak discharges but differed in reproducing the total volume of run-off, keeping a good agreement to reproduce seasonality patterns of water discharge. Better information of basin wide characteristics like soil antecedent moisture conditions, land cover, and surface albedo during the calibration period is needed in order to improve model results mainly in volume discharge.

Galarraga, R.; McClain, M.; Ortega, F.; Estacio, A.; Febres, A.

2007-05-01

246

ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY: THE YAMPA AND WHITE RIVER BASINS  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yampa and White River Basins are key areas in the Nation's search for untaped resources to supplement increasing energy demands. The basins contain vast beds of low-sulfur, strippable coal that potentially will support a large number of coal-fired powerplants as well as some ...

247

Radon Concentration in the Cataniapo-Autana River Basin, Amazonas State, Venezuela  

Science.gov (United States)

Radon activity concentration is measured in rivers of the Autana-Cataniapo hydrologic basin. The region experiments mining and it is forecasted that the basin will be perturbed. Radon activity monitoring is one of the methods to measure environmental changes. Values of radon concentration in water range between 0.4 and 30 Bq L-1.

Sajo-Bohus, L.; Greaves, E. D.; Alvarez, H.; Liendo, J.; Vásquez, G.

2007-10-01

248

The cathedral and the bazaar: Monocentric and polycentric river basin management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two contemporary theories of river basin management are compared. One is centralised 'regulatory river basin management' with an apex authority that seeks hydrometric data and nationally agreed standards and procedures in decisions over water quality and allocation. This model is commonplace and can be identified in many water training curricula and derivatives of basin management policy. The other, 'polycentric river basin management', is institutionally, organisationally and geographically more decentralised, emphasising local, collective ownership and reference to locally agreed standards. The polycentric model is constructed from the creation of appropriate managerial subunits within river basins. This model emphasises the deployment of hydrologists, scientists and other service providers as mediating agents of environmental and institutional transformation, tackling issues arising within and between the basin subunits such as water allocation and distribution, productivity improvement and conflict resolution. Significantly, it considers water allocation between subunits rather than between sectors and to do this promulgates an experimental, step-wise pragmatic approach, building on local ideas to make tangible progress in basins where data monitoring is limited, basin office resources are constrained and regulatory planning has stalled. To explore these issues, the paper employs the 'Cathedral and Bazaar' metaphor of Eric Raymond. The discussion is informed by observations from Tanzania, Nigeria and the UK.

Bruce Lankford

2010-01-01

249

An Ecologic Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Humboldt River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Humboldt River Basin covers a large part of northern Nevada. Very little is known about the water quality of the entire Basin. The people living in this area depend on clean water. Not knowing about water quality is a concern because people will need to manage the negative...

250

Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin. Volume III, Experiment Designs and Statistical Models to Estimate the Effect of Transportation on Survival of Columbia River System Salmonids.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiment designs to estimate the effect of transportation on survival and return rates of Columbia River system salmonids are discussed along with statistical modeling techniques. Besides transportation, river flow and dam spill are necessary components in the design and analysis, otherwise questions as to the effects of reservoir drawdowns and increased dam spill may never be satisfactorily answered. Four criteria for comparing different experiment designs are: (1) feasibility; (2) clarity of results; (3) scope of inference; and (4) time to learn. A controlled experiment with treatments that are a combination of transport status (transported or left in-river), river flow level, and dam spill level should provide the clearest results of transport effect. The potential for bias due to interactions between year effects and the treatments is minimized by running as many treatments as possible within a single outmigration year. Relatedly, the most rapid learning will occur if several different treatments are implemented at randomly chosen time periods within thesame outmigration season. If the range of flow and dam manipulation includes scenarios of interest to managers, the scope of inference should be satisfactory. On the other hand these designs may be the least feasible; trying to manage the river system under a sequence of deliberately chosen flow regimes within a single season, for example, may be quite impractical. At the other end of the spectrum are designs that simply have two treatment combinations, transportation and being left in-river, and the influence of flow and spill are controlled for, if possible, in after-the-fact statistical analysis. Because of possible confounding influences of flow and spill on the transportation effect, these designs could yield the most ambiguous results and require the most years of experimentation to learn. If flows and spill are not manipulated in a planned, well defined, and impartial manner the scope and quality of inference may not be satisfactory. On the other hand, these designs are the simplest to implement. Implementation issues are: (1) The nature of flow and spill level manipulations will need clear definition, either in absolute terms, cfs, or relative terms, such as spilling 10% of the water. (2) Relatedly, system wide implementation of flow and spill levels will provide simpler interpretation of results than will mixing spill rates, for instance, between dams. Transporting fish from just one location will also simplify interpretation. (3) Tagging of experimental fish should be done well upstream of the dams with random assignment to transport or in-river groups done later, near the dams, to minimize biases from delayed tagging mortality. (4) Tagging with PIT tags and CWTs in combination will provide evidence of any potential homing problems. (5) High PIT tag retention rates are important to minimizing potential analysis problems (thus on-going research to improve retention is vital). (6) Approximate sample sizes to achieve a desired level of precision can be calculated fairly easily using formulas provided in the report.

Newman, Ken

1997-06-01

251

Comparing impacts of climate change on streamflow in four large African river basins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to compare impacts of climate change on streamflow in four large representative African river basins: the Niger, the Upper Blue Nile, the Oubangui and the Limpopo. We set up the eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) for all four basins individually. The validation of the models for four basins shows results from adequate to very good, depending on the quality and availability of input and calibration data. For the climat...

Aich, V.; Liersch, S.; Vetter, T.; Huang, S.; Tecklenburg, J.; Hoffmann, P.; Koch, H.; Fournet, S.; Krysanova, V.; Mu?ller, E. N.; Hattermann, F. F.

2014-01-01

252

River basin flood potential inferred using GRACE gravity observations at several months lead time  

Science.gov (United States)

The wetness of a watershed determines its response to precipitation, leading to variability in flood generation. The importance of total water storage--which includes snow, surface water, soil moisture and groundwater--for the predisposition of a region to flooding is less clear, in part because such comprehensive observations are rarely available. Here we demonstrate that basin-scale estimates of water storage derived from satellite observations of time-variable gravity can be used to characterize regional flood potential and may ultimately result in longer lead times in flood warnings. We use a case study of the catastrophic 2011 Missouri River floods to establish a relationship between river discharge, as measured by gauge stations, and basin-wide water storage, as measured remotely by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Applying a time-lagged autoregressive model of river discharge, we show that the inclusion of GRACE-based total water storage information allows us to assess the predisposition of a river basin to flooding as much as 5-11 months in advance. Additional case studies of flood events in the Columbia River and Indus River basins further illustrate that longer lead-time flood prediction requires accurate information on the complete hydrologic state of a river basin.

Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2014-08-01

253

Analysis of Hydrologic Variability Over the Colorado River Basin Under Changing Climate Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Provisional assumptions of natural flow over the Colorado River Basin indicate average flow between calendar years 2000 and 2008 to be the lowest 9-year average on the observed record. In response to continued severe drought conditions and water consumption, the United States Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) implemented the Colorado River Interim Guidelines for Lower Basin Shortages and the Coordinated Operations for Lake Powell and Lake Mead. Under these guidelines, Reclamation used the Colorado River Simulation System (CRSS) model and historical streamflow data to indicate the probability of shortage conditions imposed on the Lower Colorado River Basin to be at most 40% over the interim period. For this study, the development of streamflow projections over the Colorado River Basin is investigated using statistically downscaled climate projections from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Intercomparison Project phase 3 multi-model dataset and the ensemble streamflow prediction tool from the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center. These streamflow projections derived from assessments of future climate can then be used to force Reclamation's CRSS model to evaluate the impacts of climate change to operation of the Colorado River System.

Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.

2008-12-01

254

Adaptive Governance and Resilience: the Columbia River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecologists have made progress in developing criteria for describing the resilience of an ecological system. Expansion of that effort to social-ecological systems has begun the identification of institutional changes to the social system necessary to foster ecological resilience including the use of adaptive management and integrated ecosystem management. But the changes in governance needed to foster ecosystem resilience will not be adopted by democratic societies without careful attention to their effect on the social system itself. Increased flexibility by resource management agencies in the form of adaptive management must be exercised in a manner that is legitimate and responsive to the social system. In addition, any change in governance must begin with the current complexities in which jurisdictional boundaries do not mimic those of ecosystems, and economic dependency on development imposes risk on any management change. We use the concept of legitimacy in governance as a necessary component of any change to achieve greater social-ecological resilience and turn to network theory as a means to facilitate legitimacy across existing geographic and subject matter jurisdictional boundaries. In application to the Columbia River Basin shared by the US and Canada, we explore the concept of resilience in a complex multi-jurisdictional watershed, taking the position that while adaptive management may foster ecological resilience, it is only one factor in the institutional changes needed to foster social-ecological resilience captured in the concept of adaptive governance.

Cosens, B.; Boll, J.; Fremier, A. K.

2012-12-01

255

Pyomyositis in the upper Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazonia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pyomyositis remains poorly documented in tropical Latin America. We therefore performed a retrospective review of cases admitted to a hospital in the upper Negro river basin during 2002-2006. Seasonality was assessed by the cosinor model and independent predictors of outcome were identified by logistic regression. Determinants of time-to-fever resolution were analysed using Cox regression. No seasonal trend was observed (p=0.284) among 82 hospitalised patients. The disease predominated in young males and the most commonly affected part of the body was the lower limb (68 [63.5%] out of 107 lesions). Staphylococcus aureus was the only identified infecting organism (18 of 20 culture results, 90%). Complications occurred in 17 patients (20.7%) and the case fatality rate was 2.4%. Children were more likely to present with eosinophilia than adults (OR= 4.20, 95% CI 1.08-16.32, p=0.048), but no other significant differences regarding clinical presentation and outcomes were observed. The time-to-fever resolution was the only independent determinant of poor outcome (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.92, p

Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Faragher, Brian

2012-01-01

256

REGIONAL GROUNDWATER FLOW MODELLING OF GASH RIVER BASIN, SUDAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The three-dimensional groundwater flow model was performed to evaluate the groundwater potentiality and assess the effect of groundwater withdrawal to the regional water level and flow direction in the Gash River basin of Sudan. Data used include periodic water level measurements, meteorological data, digital elevation data and well logs from scientific test wells and domestic water wells drilled in the study area. Transient visual MODFLOW model code was calibrated. Numerical simulation indicated that, a sharp drop of hydraulic head can be observed at the center of the model area, generated cone of depressions and a continuous decline of head with respect to the time as a result of heavy groundwater abstraction. The central part of the area, represent relatively high permeability zone and the model confirmed it to be the most productive region in the area and can be used for storing additional groundwater. Observation wells elaborate the reasonable match between the observed and calculated heads through the entire simulation period.

ABDALLA E. IBRAHIM

2008-12-01

257

Thallium distribution in sediments from the Pearl river basin, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thallium (Tl) is a rare element of high toxicity. Sediments sampled in three representative locations near industries utilizing Tl-containing raw materials from the Pearl River Basin, China were analyzed for their total Tl contents and the Tl contents in four sequentially extracted fractions (i.e., weak acid exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fraction). The results reveal that the total Tl contents (1.25-19.1 {mu}g/g) in the studied sediments were slightly high to quite high compared with those in the Chinese background sediments. This indicates the apparent Tl contamination of the investigated sediments. However, with respect to the chemical fractions, Tl is mainly associated with the residual fraction (>60%) of the sediments, especially of those from the mining area of Tl-bearing pyrite minerals, indicating the relatively low mobility, and low bioavailability of Tl in these sediments. This obviously contrasts with the previous findings that Tl is mainly entrapped in the first three labile fractions of the contaminated samples. Possible reasons were given for the dominating association of Tl with the residual fraction (>95%) of the mining area sediments. The significant role of certain K-containing silicates or minerals of these sediments on retaining Tl in the residual fraction, discovered by this study, provides a special field of research opportunity for the Tl-containing wastewater treatment. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Liu, Juan [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Qi, Jianying [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Lippold, Holger [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Chunlin [Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou (China)

2010-10-15

258

Ecotoxicological assessment of industrial wastewaters in Trancão River Basin (Portugal).  

Science.gov (United States)

It is important to assess the toxicity of complex effluents, since chemical evaluation alone is insufficient to protect the environment. Direct Toxicity Assessment is valuable in the decision process regarding the final disposal of complex wastewaters as it measures the total effects of the discharge, because of its known and unknown chemicals, additionally having some degree of ecological relevance. In Portugal, ecotoxicity tests are not used on a regular basis to control wastewaters. So, an integrated ecotoxicological, physical, and chemical study of wastewaters from 17 industries, in the Trancão River Basin, was carried out viewing proposing a test battery to be used in wastewater evaluation. An approach which does not include an ecotoxicological characterization may not properly evaluate the potential risks of effluent discharges, especially when they are complex. From the study carried out the use of a battery of assays to apply in the monitoring of complex wastewaters was proposed, including Microtox test, Daphnia test, and an algal test. Moreover, the added value of the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial wastewaters was demonstrated and could support the implementation of EU Directives (e.g. IPPC, WFD) within the Portuguese situation. PMID:18214883

Picado, Ana; Mendonça, Elsa; Silva, Luís; Paixão, Susana M; Brito, Fátima; Cunha, Maria Ana; Leitão, Sara; Moura, Isabel; Hernan, Robert

2008-08-01

259

Integrated river basin management, ICT and DSS: Challenges and needs  

Science.gov (United States)

River basin management is a complex task. Therefore, instruments that help to assess the present situation and assist in the development and evaluation of solutions may be important. Since several decades and after the implementation of the first compulsory legal environments and institutional organizations for IWRM and IRBM, the need for an efficient support in the different decision-making processes has emerged. After several experiences, the demonstration of the interest of ICT and DSS systems is obvious in the water resources management domain. However and until now, most of the efforts have been focused on the theoretical aspects with very few integrations into operational approaches. The implementation of the new European water framework directive (2000) represents today one key example from which some lessons can be learned in the way of definition and use of ICT and DSS systems for IWRM and IRBM. The paper presents the concepts available through ICT and DSS. The example of the WFD is used to underline the challenges and the difficulties for the elaboration of new tools - DSSs - which could be able to answer of the challenges of IWRM and IRBM.

Gourbesville, Philippe

260

Fluvial dynamics of an anabranching river system in Himalayan foreland basin, Baghmati river, north Bihar plains, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Anabranching river systems are now regarded as a separate class in river classifications owing to their distinctive morphological/hydrological characteristics and fluvial processes. A better understanding of anabranching rivers still needs detailed data from different environmental and geographical settings. This paper presents a detailed account of an anabranching river system from the Himalayan foreland basin. The Baghmati river system from north Bihar Plains, eastern India provides a typical example of an anabranching river system located in the interfan area between the Kosi and the Gandak megafans. The river system is braided in upstream reaches and meandering in downstream reaches, but the midstream anabranching reach is characterized by low width-depth ratio (11-16), gentle gradient (0.00018-0.00015), variable peak discharge, frequent flooding and high sediment load. The anabranching in the midstream reaches is a response to its inability to transport high sediment load due to gentle channel slope and dominance of aggradation process. The development of anabranches is related to rapid and frequent avulsions of the river channels with eight major avulsions observed in the 30-km-wide floodplain in the last 230 years. The decadal scale avulsion history of the Baghmati river system makes it 'hyperavulsive' and the major causative factors for such channel instability are sedimentological readjustments and active tectonics in the basin area.

Jain, Vikrant; Sinha, R.

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

Science.gov (United States)

The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

2006-01-01

262

AN APPLICATION OF GIS BASED NONPOINT SOURCE MODELING TO LITTLE MIAMI RIVER BASIN: PRACTICE AND EXPERIENCE USING BASINS  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality has improved significantly in the Little Miami River Basin, OH, over the past few decades because of improvements in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastes. However, water quality modeling is necessary to assess the relative impacts of point and nonpoint s...

263

The design and analysis of salmonid tagging studies in the Columbia basin. Volume 8: A new model for estimating survival probabilities and residualization from a release-recapture study of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) smolts in the Snake River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake river fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging. These models do not utilize available capture history data from this second year and, thus, produce negatively biased estimates of survival probabilities. A new multinomial likelihood model was developed that results in biologically relevant, unbiased estimates of survival probabilities using the full two years of capture history data. This model was applied to 1995 Snake River fall chinook hatchery releases to estimate the true survival probability from one of three upstream release points (Asotin, Billy Creek, and Pittsburgh Landing) to Lower Granite Dam. In the data analyzed here, residualization is not a common physiological response and thus the use of CJS models did not result in appreciably different results than the true survival probability obtained using the new multinomial likelihood model

264

Depositional systems of a synorogenic continental deposit. The upper paleocene and lower Eocene Wasatch formation in the Powder River basin, northeast Wyoming (chapter H). Evolution of sedimentary basins, Powder River Basin. Bulletin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synorogenic fluvial and paludal rocks of the upper Paleocene and lower Eocene Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin contain large deposits of coal and uranium. These rocks also record the culmination of Laramide tectonic events marked by subsidence in the basin and uplift of the bounding structures. The study establishes the early Eocene plaeogeography of the basin using a two-part approach consisting of (1) sedimentary particle-shape and -size analysis, and (2) paleocurrent studies.

Seeland, D.

1992-01-01

265

Elements for an integrated resource planning in the framework of river basins: a study for the Cuiaba River Basin; Elementos para um planejamento integrado de recursos no ambito de bacias hidrograficas: um estudo para a bacia do rio Cuiaba  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new approach in energy planning in Brazil, IRP - Integrated Resources Planning for River Basins, gathers three main determinants of development: water, electricity and piped gas. This paper argues, briefly, the need of this planning, of indicative character, integrated with the River Basin Plans, and it presents a retrospective analysis concerning water, electricity and LPG demands of the economy sectors from Cuiaba River Basin region, priority elements to aid the prospective studies and to carry out process related to the IRP. (author)

Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: ildorileo@sigmanet.com.br, e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

2008-07-01

266

[Genetic variability of Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae) in the middle basin of Nare and Guatapé Rivers, Magdalena River system, Colombia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Brycon henni is a native species in Magdalena's River basin, and because of its cultural and economic importance, is strongly overexploited. This study aimed to describe the genetic variability and population structure of this species from Nare and Guatapé rivers basins. A total of 195 individuals were collected and DNA extractions were obtained from muscle and blood tissue. Fourteen primers were evaluated with the RAPD technique, being four of them polymorphic, and produced 66 different fragments (63% polymorphism). Besides, using the molecular variance (AMOVA) analysis, the population structure was described for all sites (phi(ST) = 0.297, phi(ST) = 0.163; Nare and Guatapé river basins, respectively), and suggested the importance of the migratory behaviour of the species in the genetic differentiation. Genetic distances among sampled sites showed that most of the genetic differentiation occurred between sites Guatapé and El Cardal with respect to the others. A Mantel Test demonstrated a correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.431 both of the basins evaluated; r = 0.377, Nare river middle basin), and suggested isolation by distance. The outcomes obtained in this study have valuable implications in species conservation and the genetic variability of natural populations of B. henni, and should be complemented with morphological analyses. PMID:21516650

Hurtado-Alarcón, Julio César; Mancera-Rodríguez, Néstor J; Saldamando-Benjumea, Clara I

2011-03-01

267

A study of faulting patterns in the Pearl River Mouth Basin through analogue modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pearl River Mouth Basin is one of the most favorable areas for gas exploration on the northern slope of the South China Sea. Differences of fault patterns between shelf and slope are obvious. In order to investigate the tectonic evolution, five series of analogue modeling experiments were compared. The aim of this study is to investigate how crustal thickness influences fault structures, and compare this to the observed present-day fault structures in the Pearl River Mouth Basin. The initial lithospheric rheological structure can be derived from the best fit between the modeled and observed faults. The results indicate. (1) Different initial crustal rheological structures can produce different rift structures in the Pearl River Mouth Basin. (2) We also model that the Baiyun Sag in the southern Pearl River Mouth Basin may have had a thinned crust before rifting compared to the rest of the basin. (3) The thickness ratio of brittle to ductile crust in southern Pearl River Mouth Basin is less than normal crust, suggesting an initially hot and weak lithosphere. (4) Slightly south of the divergent boundary magma may have taken part in the rifting process during the active rift stage.

Zhang, Yun Fan; Sun, Zhen

2013-12-01

268

Comprehensive flood mitigation and management in the Chi River Basin, Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Severe flooding of the flat downstream area of the Chi River Basin occurs frequently. This flooding is causing catastrophic loss of human lives, damage and economic loss. Effective flood management requires a broad and practical approach. Although flood disasters cannot completely be prevented, major part of potential loss of lives and damages can be reduced by comprehensive mitigation measures. In this paper, the effects of river normalisation, reservoir operation, green river (bypass), and ...

Kunitiyawichai, K.; Schultz, B.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Suryadi, F. X.; Corzo, G. A.

2011-01-01

269

Distribution and dispersal of two invasive crayfish species in the Drava River basin, Croatia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this work is to explore the current distribution and dispersal rates of two nonindigenous crayfish species (NICS) recorded in Croatia: the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) and spiny-cheek crayfish(Orconectes limosus). Both NICS have been recorded in the Drava River basin, with signal crayfish spreading downstream from the north-west along the Drava’s tributary the Mura River, and spiny-cheek crayfish spreading upstream from the east from the Danube River throughout the ...

Hudina, S.; Faller, M.; Lucic?, A.; Klobuc?ar, G.; Maguire, I.

2009-01-01

270

Optional water development strategies for the Yellow River Basin: Balancing agricultural and ecological water demands  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yellow River Basin is of the utmost importance for China in terms of food production, natural resources management, and socioeconomic development. Water withdrawals for agriculture, industry, and households in the past decade have seriously depleted environmental and ecological water requirements in the basin. This study presents a modeling scenario analysis of some water development strategies to harmonize water withdrawal demand and ecological water demand in the Yellow River Basin through water savings and interbasin water transfers. A global water and food analysis model including the Yellow River Basin as one of the modeling units is applied for the analysis. The model demonstrates that there is little hope of resolving the conflict between agriculture water demand and ecological water demand in the basin if the current water use practices continue. Trade-offs exist between irrigation water use and ecological water use, and these trade-offs will become more intense in future years with population growth, urbanization, and industrial development as well as growing food demand. Scenario analysis in this study concludes that increasing basin water use efficiency to 0.67 first and then supplementary water availability by interbasin water transfer through the South-North Water Transfer Project may provide a solution to water management of the Yellow River Basin in the next 25 years.

Cai, Ximing; Rosegrant, Mark W.

2004-08-01

271

???????????????? Spatial-Temporal Changes of Precipitation Structure across the Pearl River Basin, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????42???1960~2005?46????????????????(ATP???????(ATD??????(ATI????????(MWP??????????????????????????????????????????????Mann-Kendall??????????????????????1 ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2 ???????(2~5 d??????????????????????????????????????????????3 ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Daily precipitation data over the Pearl River basin (1960-2005 from 42 rain gauges is used in this article. Precipitation indices such as annual total precipitation amount, annual total rainy days, annual precipitation intensity and annual mean rainy days are defined. These precipitation indices are analyzed using the modified Mann-Kendall method. Results show that: 1 Decreasing trend of precipitation is found mainly in the middle and upper Pearl River basin. Rainy-days are decreasing almost over the entire basin. Thus, the precipitation intensity of Pearl River basin is increasing, particularly in the middle and the eastern parts of the basin; 2 The occurrence and fractional contribution of wet periods with shorter durations (2 - 5 d are tending to be predominant while longer durations are decreasing in recent decades; 3 Heavy storms are easy to occur in the eastern of the basin during shorter durations. Higher risk of floods and reduction of water yield in the lower basin will increase uncertainty of water supply in the Pearl River Delta and hence pose new challenges for water resources management.

???

2012-06-01

272

The Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in Bangladesh: basin denudation and sedimentation  

Science.gov (United States)

Every year the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in Bangladesh transport 316 and 721 million tonnes of sediment, respectively. These high loads of suspended sediment reflect the very high rate of denudation in their drainage basins. The average mechanical denudation rate for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins together is 365 mm 103 yr-1. However, the rate is higher in the Brahmaputra Basin than that in the Ganges Basin. Several factors, including mean trunk channel gradient, relief ratio, runoff, basin lithology and recurring earthquakes are responsible for these high denudation rates. Of the total suspended sediment load (i.e. 1037 million tonnes) transported by these rivers, only 525 million tonnes (c. 51% of the total load) are delivered to the coastal area of Bangladesh and the remaining 512 million tonnes are deposited within the lower basin, offsetting the subsidence. Of the deposited load, about 289 million tonnes (about 28% of the total load) are deposited on the floodplains of these rivers. The remaining 223 million tonnes (about 21% of the total load) are deposited within the river channels, resulting in aggradation of the channel bed at an average rate of about 3·9 cm yr-1. Although the Brahmaputra transports a higher sediment load than the Ganges, the channel bed aggradation rate is much higher for the Ganges. This study also documents a wide range of interannual, seasonal and daily variation in suspended sediment transport and water discharge. Interannual variation in sediment deposition within the basin is also suggested.

Islam, Mohammad Rezwanul; Fahliza Begum, Syeda; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Ogawa, Katsuro

1999-12-01

273

Development of a robust procedure to predict flood magnitudes in Pangani river basin in Tanzania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a method to determine a robust flood estimation procedure to predict flood magnitudes and their corresponding frequency of occurrence for Pangani river basin in Tanzania. A regional frequency analysis approach which combines data from gauging stations within a region treated as homogeneous statistically is used. This approach provides the possibility to extend the estimation of flood magnitudes to ungauged river catchments. The predictive ability test applied to selected a robust flood frequency procedure indicated that Pearson type 3/probability weighted moment (P3/PWM) is a suitable procedure for Pangani river basin. (orig.)

Mkhandi, S.H.; Mtalo, F. [Dar es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Water Resources Engineering

2000-07-01

274

Pb-Zn-Cd-Hg multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France  

Science.gov (United States)

The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition (major ions and pollutants such as metals) of the dissolved load of rivers. Furthermore, this influence can also be evidenced in the suspended solid matter known to play an important role in the transport of heavy metals through river systems. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. Initially, the Loire upstream flows in a south to north direction originating in the Massif Central, and continues up to the city of Orléans, 650 km from the source. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The Loire River then follows a general east to west direction to the Atlantic Ocean. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for heavy metals Zn-Cd-Pb-Hg in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for these metals for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. The main objective of this study is to characterize the sources and the behavior of these heavy metals in the aquatic environment, and their spatial distribution using a multi-isotope approach. Each of these isotope systematics on their own reveals important information about their geogenic or anthropogenic origin but, considered together, provide a more integrated understanding of the budgets of these pollutants within the Loire River Basin.

Millot, R.; Widory, D.; Innocent, C.; Guerrot, C.; Bourrain, X.; Johnson, T. M.

2012-12-01

275

ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCE ON FLOW AND SEDIMENT REGIME OF A RIVER BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Brahmaputra river basin in India is at present undergoing rapid agricultural, industrial and economic development with more than 30 million people living within this part of the major basin. The presentstudy examines impacts of some of the anthropogenic activities that are responsible for the disturbances to the flow and sediment regime as well as to the biogeochemical flux of nutrients through the river. The study also throws light on some aspects of the climatic change of the north-eastern region of India in particular, because of the considerable effect of the monsoon over the flow regime of the river.

BALESHWAR SINGH

2012-01-01

276

Contaminants of emerging concern in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, 2008-11  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of discrete water-quality samples were collected in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin near the city of Arlington, Washington, through a partnership with the Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians. These samples included surface waters of the Stillaguamish River, adjacent tributary streams, and paired inflow and outflow sampling at three wastewater treatment plants in the lower river basin. Chemical analysis of these samples focused on chemicals of emerging concern, including wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and halogenated organic compounds on solids and sediment. This report presents the methods used and data results from the chemical analysis of these samples.

Wagner, Richard J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Sevigny, Jennifer M.; Pope, Judy M.

2014-01-01

277

Decomposition analysis of water footprint changes in a water-limited river basin: a case study of the Haihe River basin, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Decomposition analysis of water footprint (WF) changes, or assessing the changes in WF and identifying the contributions of factors leading to the changes, is important to water resource management. Instead of focusing on WF from the perspective of administrative regions, we built a framework in which the input-output (IO) model, the structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model and the generating regional IO tables (GRIT) method are combined to implement decomposition analysis for WF in a river basin. This framework is illustrated in the WF in Haihe River basin (HRB) from 2002 to 2007, which is a typical water-limited river basin. It shows that the total WF in the HRB increased from 4.3 × 1010 m3 in 2002 to 5.6 × 1010 m3 in 2007, and the agriculture sector makes the dominant contribution to the increase. Both the WF of domestic products (internal) and the WF of imported products (external) increased, and the proportion of external WF rose from 29.1 to 34.4%. The technological effect was the dominant contributor to offsetting the increase of WF. However, the growth of WF caused by the economic structural effect and the scale effect was greater, so the total WF increased. This study provides insights about water challenges in the HRB and proposes possible strategies for the future, and serves as a reference for WF management and policy-making in other water-limited river basins.

Zhi, Y.; Yang, Z. F.; Yin, X. A.

2014-05-01

278

BASIN MORPHOLOGY AND LAND USEWITH SPECIAL REFFERENCE TO PANCHANOI RIVER BASIN, A MICRO WATERSHED OF MAHANANDA RIVER SYSTEM, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Micro watershed is defined as a small watershed, in which a certain number of families live, make use and manage the resources of the area, mainly the soil, water, vegetation,including crops and native vegetation, and fauna, including domestic and wild animals. From the operational point of view, the micro watershed has an area that may be planned by a technician counting on local resources and/or a number of families that may be treated as a social nucleus that shares some common interests and here the use of land is very much associated with the local physiography and that is why the study about land use should give emphasis on the relief characteristics. The present paper is based on a small river basin and its changing land use. So here it is very important to study about the drainage morphology as a whole or especially on that particular area where the changing tendency of land use has already been recognized. At the same time it is also to be noticed that the land use pattern may also be affected by the anthropogenic effect. So it is also very

SUBHADIP GUPTA

2013-03-01

279

Development of a Systemwide Predator Control Program, Volume I : Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, 1993 annual report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modified Merwin trap nets were tested by an experimental fishery in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam to determine their effectiveness in selectively harvesting northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) over 11 inches in total length. The fishery was evaluated for its potential to supplement exploitation rates of the sportreward and dam-angling fisheries to achieve the objectives of the northern squawfish management program. Special consideration was given to the potential for, and impact on, incidental catches of adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) listed as threatened and endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preseason site and data surveys identified suitable fishing locations where physical parameters are favorable to trap-net deployment and northern squawfish habitat was present. A total of 16 floating trap nets were operated from June 2 through August 4, 1993. We made 1,392 sets with a mean soak time of 2.9 hours. The total catch was 45,803 fishes including 10,440 (23% of the total catch) northern squawfish of which 1,688 (4% of the total catch) were large (greater than 11 inches in total length). Mean catch rate was 0.3 large northern squawfish per hour of soak time. Nearly all incidentally captured fishes were released alive and in good condition. Bycatch of adult salmonids totaled 1,036 fishes (2% of the total catch). Operational criteria, designed to limit incidental take of salmonids, restricted the fishing time, dates, and locations. In addition, lack of prior operating experience with the gear type and limited gear effectiveness in high velocities found in the free-flowing river below Bonneville Dam contributed to the low harvest rate for northern squawfish. We determined that a large scale floating trap-net fishery outside the boat restricted zones (BRZs) of hydropower projects would not significantly improve the exploitation rate of northern squawfish either above or below Bonneville Dam.

Willis, Charles F.; Ward, David L.

1995-06-01

280

Analysis of efficiency of pollution reduction measures in rural basin using MIKE Basin model. Case study: Olšava River Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the results of testing the applicability of the MIKE Basin model for simulating the effi-ciency of scenarios for reducing water pollution. The model has been tested on the Olšava River Basin (520 km2) which is a typical rural region with a heterogeneous mix of pollution sources with variable topography and land use. The study proved that the model can be calibrated successfully using even the limited amount of data typically available in rural ba-sins. The scenarios of po...

Kaiglova?, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

A Catalog of Upper Colorado River Basin Droughts  

Science.gov (United States)

The upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) has experienced drought conditions since 2000, resulting in below average flows at Lees Ferry in eight of the past eleven years. Droughts have occurred periodically over the interval of the gage record, 1906-2009. An examination of the history of droughts in the basin can provide context for evaluating both the current drought, and an understanding of the range of characteristics and possible causes of drought. In this study we have evaluated six periods of drought, considering seasonality of temperature and precipitation, spatial patterns of precipitation and runoff, and sequences of flow. To investigate possible causal mechanisms, we assessed sea surface temperatures, 500 mb geopotential height patterns, and modes of ocean/atmospheric variability through an examination of a set of circulation indices. A comparison of the six droughts indicates that while droughts that impact the UCRB share some common characteristics, each evolves in a unique way. At times, cold El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events appear to be linked to drought, particularly in the 1950s, while in other cases, drought years coincide with warm ENSO events, pointing to the transitional nature of the region, with respect to ENSO teleconnections. Droughts persist through a variety of types of circulation modes, and cool ENSO is only one of those modes. A key feature for non-cool ENSO drought years is an elevated 500mb pressure anomaly centered over the Pacific Northwest, extending over much of the western US. The most recent drought stands out as a remarkably warm drought, when compared to previous droughts, with the largest cumulative deficits in runoff. This drought coincided with cool ENSO conditions from 2000-2002 and in 2006, but was characterize by a strong Aleutian Low and high pressure extending over much of western North America in 2003, 2004, and 2007. In order to better anticipate droughts and the persistence of drought conditions in the UCRB, more work is needed to better understand the range of ocean/atmospheric conditions that lead to drought in this region.

Woodhouse, C. A.; Glueck, M. F.

2010-12-01

282

Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

1997-12-01

283

Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

Kammerud, Terje Andre

1997-12-31

284

Characterization of selenium in the lower Gunnison River basin, Colorado, 1988-2000  

Science.gov (United States)

Selenium concentrations in certain water bodies in the lower Gunnison River Basin, including the lower Gunnison River and lower Uncompahgre River, have exceeded the Colorado water-quality standard of 5 micrograms per liter for selenium. A task force was formed in 1998 that consists of various government agencies, private irrigation companies, and local residents to address the selenium concerns in the lower Gunnison River Basin. The task force, working with the National Irrigation Water Quality Program, needed more detailed information on selenium loading in the basin to develop viable alternatives for remediating selenium in the lower Gunnison River Basin. In 1999-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected selenium data for tributaries of the Gunnison River downstream from the North Fork of the Gunnison and in the North Fork Basin. The largest selenium load in a tributary stream was in the Uncompahgre River, which accounted for about 38 percent of the selenium load in the Gunnison River at Whitewater. The North Fork of the Gunnison River accounted for about 7 percent of the selenium load in the Gunnison River. Two tributaries east of Delta, Sunflower Drain and Bonafide Ditch, consist primarily of irrigation return flows and were other major selenium sources to the Gunnison River. Some tributaries in the lower North Fork Basin had selenium concentrations exceeding 5 micrograms per liter. Except for several streams draining the Uncompahgre Plateau, many tributaries to the Gunnison River downstream from the North Fork had selenium concentrations exceeding 5 micrograms per liter. Except during occasional rain and snowmelt events, selenium loading from nonirrigated desert areas was minimal. Detailed characterization studies were done in 1999-2000 on Cedar Creek and Loutzenhizer Arroyo, which contribute the largest tributary selenium loads to the Uncompahgre River. Selenium concentrations in Cedar Creek downstream from Miguel Road ranged from 12 to 28 micrograms per liter in November 1999. Montrose Arroyo was the largest selenium source to Cedar Creek. On an annual basis, about 20 percent of the selenium load in Cedar Creek originates in the basin upstream from Miguel Road. Selenium concentrations in Loutzenhizer Arroyo ranged from 157 to 347 micrograms per liter in February 2000. A significant increase in selenium concentrations occurred in the stream reach between the Selig Canal and Falcon Road (LZU7). Although selenium concentrations in the west tributary of Loutzenhizer Arroyo were lower than in the main stem, the west tributary contributed about 41 percent of the selenium load. Downstream from the confluence with the west tributary to the mouth, selenium concentrations in the arroyo gradually decreased, and the increase in selenium load in the lower reach was small.

Butler, David L.; Leib, Kenneth J.

2002-01-01

285

Impact of deforestation on local precipitation patterns over the Da River basin, Vietnam  

Science.gov (United States)

Change in land cover, e.g. from forest to bare soil, might severely impact the hydrological cycle at the river basin scale by altering the balance between rainfall and evaporation, ultimately affecting streamflow dynamics. These changes generally occur over decades, but they might be much more rapid in developing countries, where economic growth and growing population may cause abrupt changes in landscape and ecosystem. Detecting, analysing and modelling these changes is an essential step to design mitigation strategies and adaptation plans, balancing economic development and ecosystem protection. In this work we investigate the impact of land cover changes on the water cycle in the Da River basin, Vietnam. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate the interlink between deforestation and precipitation. The case study is particularly interesting because Vietnam is one of the world fastest growing economies and natural resources have been considerably exploited to support after-war development. Vietnam has the second highest rate of deforestation of primary forests in the world, second to only Nigeria (FAO 2005), with associated problems like abrupt change in run-off, erosion, sediment transport and flash floods. We performed land cover evaluation by combining literature information and Remote Sensing techniques, using Landsat images. We then analysed time series of precipitation observed on the period 1960-2011 in several stations located in the catchment area. We used multiple trend detection techniques, both state-of-the-art (e.g., Linear regression and Mann-Kendall) and novel trend detection techniques (Moving Average on Shifting Horizon), to investigate trends in seasonal pattern of precipitation. Results suggest that deforestation may induce a negative trend in the precipitation volume. The effect is mainly recognizable at the beginning and at the end of the monsoon season, when the local mechanisms of precipitation formation prevail over the large scale ones.

Anghileri, Daniela; Spartà, Daniele; Castelletti, Andrea; Boschetti, Mirco

2014-05-01

286

Using Collaborative Modeling to Inform Policy Decisions in the Bow River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bow River in Alberta, Canada serves a wide range of municipal, agricultural, recreational, and industrial purposes in the province. In 2006, the basin was deemed over-allocation and closed to new licenses. The Calgary region, however, continues to expand. In the next 60 to 70 years, population levels are expected to reach 2.8 million (more than double the current 1.2 million) with 800,000 new jobs. This increasing pressure led several stakeholders to work together in the development of a new management model to improve the management of the system as an integrated watershed. The major previous model of the system allowed only limited flexibility in management, focusing instead on strict license based operations. Over a 6 month period, with numerous multi-party meetings, the group developed the Bow River Operations Model (BROM). Based in OASIS software, this model integrated input from the major water users in the region to emulate the real-life decisions that are actually made on a daily bases, even when technically in violation of the strict license agreements (e.x. junior licensees receiving water despite senior priority due to exceedingly low volume requirements). Using historical records as forecasts, and performance measures developed with the best available science through expert opinion, participants jointly developed a new reservoir operation strategy. Even with such a short timeframe, the BROM exercise showed that there was substantial room for improvement. Utilizing a "Water Bank" of purchased storage, downstream flows could be significantly improved without affecting quality. Additional benefits included fishery improvement, new recreation opportunities, dissolved oxygen improvement during critical periods, and the ability to accommodate long-term demand forecasts for surrounding municipalities. This strategy has been presented to, and favorably received by, the Alberta Minister of Environment for guidance during negotiations with the local hydropower utility. Work continues on implementation and new areas of the basin are being considered for similar processes.

Sheer, A. S.; Sheer, D. P.; Hill, D.

2011-12-01

287

Conceptual model of the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins, United States and Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

The three uppermost principal aquifer systems of the Northern Great Plains—the glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems—are described in this report and provide water for irrigation, mining, public and domestic supply, livestock, and industrial uses. These aquifer systems primarily are present in two nationally important fossil-fuelproducing areas: the Williston and Powder River structural basins in the United States and Canada. The glacial aquifer system is contained within glacial deposits that overlie the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems in the northeastern part of the Williston structural basin. Productive sand and gravel aquifers exist within this aquifer system. The Upper Cretaceous aquifer system is contained within bedrock lithostratigraphic units as deep as 2,850 and 8,500 feet below land surface in the Williston and Powder River structural basins, respectively. Petroleum extraction from much deeper formations, such as the Bakken Formation, is rapidly increasing because of recently improved hydraulic fracturing methods that require large volumes of relatively freshwater from shallow aquifers or surface water. Extraction of coalbed natural gas from within the lower Tertiary aquifer system requires removal of large volumes of groundwater to allow degasification. Recognizing the importance of understanding water resources in these energy-rich basins, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater Resources Program (http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/gwrp/) began a groundwater study of the Williston and Powder River structural basins in 2011 to quantify this groundwater resource, the results of which are described in this report. The overall objective of this study was to characterize, quantify, and provide an improved conceptual understanding of the three uppermost and principal aquifer systems in energy-resource areas of the Northern Great Plains to assist in groundwater-resource management for multiple uses. The study area includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming in the United States and Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada. The glacial aquifer system is contained within glacial drift consisting primarily of till, with smaller amounts of glacial outwash sand and gravel deposits. The lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems are contained within several formations of the Tertiary and Cretaceous geologic systems, which are hydraulically separated from underlying aquifers by a basal confining unit. The lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems each were divided into three hydrogeologic units that correspond to one or more lithostratigraphic units. The period prior to 1960 is defined as the predevelopment period when little groundwater was extracted. From 1960 through 1990, numerous flowing wells were installed near the Yellowstone, Little Missouri and Knife Rivers, resulting in local groundwater declines. Recently developed technologies for the extraction of petroleum resources, which largely have been applied in the study area since about 2005, require millions of gallons of water for construction of each well, with additional water needed for long-term operation; therefore, the potential for an increase in groundwater extraction is high. In this study, groundwater recharge and discharge components were estimated for the period 1981–2005. Groundwater recharge primarily occurs from infiltration of rainfall and snowmelt (precipitation recharge) and infiltration of streams into the ground (stream infiltration). Total estimated recharge to the Williston and Powder River control volumes is 4,560 and 1,500 cubic feet per second, respectively. Estimated precipitation recharge is 26 and 15 percent of total recharge for the Williston and Powder River control volumes, respectively. Estimated stream infiltration is 71 and 80 percent of total recharge for the Williston and Powder River control volumes, respectively. Groundwater discharge primarily is to streams and springs and is estimated to be about 97 and 92 percent of total discharge for the W

Long, Andrew J.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Bednar, Jennifer M.; Davis, Kyle W.; McKaskey, Jonathan D.R.G.; Thamke, Joanna N.

2014-01-01

288

Estimation of erosion and sedimentation yield in the Ucayali river basin, a Peruvian tributary of the Amazon River, using ground and satellite methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2003, the works of HYBAM observatory (www.ore-hybam.org) has allowed to quantify with accuracy, precision and over a long period Amazon's main rivers discharges and sediments loads. In Peru, a network of 8 stations is regularly gauged and managed in association with the national meteorological and Hydrological service (SENAMHI), the UNALM (National Agrological University of La Molina) and the National Water Agency (ANA). Nevertheless, some current processes of erosion and sedimentation in the foreland basins are still little known, both in volumes and in localization. The sedimentary contributions of Andean tributaries could be there considerable, masking a very strong sedimentation in subsidence zones localized between the control points of the HYBAM's network. The development of spatial techniques such as the Altimetry and reflectance measurement allows us today to complete the ground's network: HYBAM's works have allowed establishing a relation between surface concentration and reflectance in Amazonian rivers (Martinez et al., 2009, Espinoza et al., 2012) and reconstituting water levels series (Calmant et al., 2006, 2008). If the difficulty of calibration of these techniques increases towards the upstream, their use can allow a first characterization of the tributaries contributions and sedimentation zones. At world level, erosion and sedimentation yields in the upper Ucayali are exceptional, favored by a marked seasonality in this region (Espinoza et al., 2009, Lavado, 2010, Pépin et al., 2010) and the presence of cells of extreme precipitation ("Hotspots") (Johnson et al., 1976, Espinoza et al, 2009a). The upper Ucayali drainage basin is a Piggyback where the River run with a low slope, parallel to the Andean range, deposing by gravity hundred millions a year of sands, silts and clays. In this work, we thus propose an estimation of sedimentation and erosion yield in the Ucayali river basin using ground and satellite methods.

Santini, William; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Espinoza, Raul; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo

2014-05-01

289

Comparative diagnostic analysis of runoff generation processes in Oklahoma DMIP2 basins: The Blue River and the Illinois River  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThis paper presents the results of a comparative diagnostic study of runoff generation processes in two test basins in Oklahoma: The Blue River at Blue and the Illinois River near Tahlequah. This study involves analysis of signatures of spatio-temporal runoff variability, extracted from both observed rainfall-runoff data and from predictions of a distributed, physically based rainfall-runoff model. Analysis of observed data in both basins indicates that event runoff coefficients are systematically higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Model predictions indicate that the transition from high to low runoff coefficients in the Blue River basin is linked to variations of water table depth and surface soil moisture, contributing to a seasonal switching of surface runoff generation mechanisms, from saturation excess to infiltration excess. In the Illinois River basin, however, due to more permeable soils, infiltration excess runoff occurs rarely. The differences in intra-annual patterns of runoff coefficients and runoff generation mechanisms can be partly explained by the seasonality of climate forcing and water table position. Despite the significant differences of runoff generation mechanisms between the two basins, spatial analysis of the model results reveals that in both watersheds, but especially so in the more humid Illinois River basin, saturation excess runoff and subsurface stormflow coexist in competition throughout the year. This competition is quantitatively shown to be controlled by the relative magnitudes of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils and the topographic slope. In addition, the spatial variabilities of runoff generation processes also impact the spatial scaling behavior of runoff ratios, indicating the existence of a threshold watershed size beyond which the variability is averaged out.

Li, Hongyi; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Tian, Fuqiang

2012-02-01

290

Distribution and dispersal of two invasive crayfish species in the Drava River basin, Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to explore the current distribution and dispersal rates of two nonindigenous crayfish species (NICS recorded in Croatia: the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus and spiny-cheek crayfish(Orconectes limosus. Both NICS have been recorded in the Drava River basin, with signal crayfish spreading downstream from the north-west along the Drava’s tributary the Mura River, and spiny-cheek crayfish spreading upstream from the east from the Danube River throughout the Drava River. Signal crayfish distribution in the Mura River has been recorded up to 3 km from the confluence with the Drava River. Based on literature data and the current recorded distribution front, the downstream dispersal rate was between 18 and 24.4 km·yr?1. Spiny-cheek crayfish distribution has been recorded 15 km upstream of the Drava River mouth into the Danube River. Its upstream dispersal in the Drava River has been calculated at 2.5 km·yr ?1. Both NICS could have an impact on native crayfish populations recorded within the Drava River basin in Croatia: the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus and the narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus. In the Mura River no noble crayfish have been recorded since 2007, and the watercourse is at the moment dominated by the signal crayfish. Spiny-cheek crayfish populations have been found in coexistence with narrow-clawed crayfish populations, with O. limosus dominating by 16:1.

S. Hudina

2009-01-01

291

The use of remote sensing and geographic information systems for the evaluation of river basins: a case study for Turkey, Marmara River Basin and Istanbul.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine sensitive river basins and specific areas that urgently need planning activities for sustainable resource and environmental management. In this context, a combination of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) were employed. For that purpose, a comprehensive overview of the current situation of Turkish river basins in terms of existing spatial data was provided and all tabular data gathered from the national authorities on regional basis was assessed in combination with the geometric data of Turkish river basins in a GIS environment. Considering the GIS studies that covered all 26 Turkish basins, the Marmara River Basin was selected as the model sensitive region and was studied in more detail by using 2000 dated Landsat 7 ETM mosaic satellite image. Results of this comprehensive study indicated that Istanbul, which is located in the basin under study and the largest metropolitan of Turkey, was determined as the most populated and urbanized area of the region. Istanbul was further examined to determine the expansion of urban areas over a time period of 16 years using Landsat images dated 1984, 1992 and 2000. Finally, interpretations were done by combining the demographic and statistical data on urban wastewater treatment plants to present the prevailing situation of the water treatment facilities in Istanbul. Our study not only delineated the importance of applying environmental policies correctly for the efficient installation and operation of urban wastewater treatment plants in Istanbul but also demonstrated that effective urban wastewater management is a nationwide problem in Turkey. PMID:19184706

Ulugtekin, Necla; Balcik, Filiz Bektas; Dogru, Ahmet O; Goksel, Cigdem; Alaton, Idil Arslan; Orhon, Derin

2009-03-01

292

Characterizing, Monitoring and Forecasting of Drought in Jordan River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jordan is very vulnerable to drought because of its location in the arid to semi-arid part of the Middle East. Droughts coupled with water scarcity are becoming a serious threat to the economic growth, social cohesion and political stability. Rainfall time series from four rain stations covering the Jordan River Basin were analyzed for drought characterization and forecasting using standardized precipitation index (SPI, Markov chain and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model. The 7-year moving average of Amman data showed a decreasing trend while data from the other three stations were stable or showed an increasing trend. The frequency analysis indicated 2-year return period for near zero SPI values while the return period for moderate drought was 7 years. Successive droughts had occurred at least three times during the past 40 years. Severe droughts are expected once every 20 - 25 year period at all rain stations. The extreme droughts were rare events with return periods between 80 and 115 years. There are equal occurrence probabilities for drought and wet conditions in any given year, irrespective, of the condition in the previous year. The results showed that ARIMA model was successful in predicting the overall statistics with a given period at annual scales. The overall number of predicted/observed droughts during the validation periods were 2/2 severe droughts for Amman station and, 0/1, 1/1, 0/1 extreme droughts for Amman, Irbid and Mafraq stations, respectively. In addition, the ARIMA model also predicted 3 out of 4 actual moderate droughts for Amman and Mafraq stations. It was concluded that early warning of developing droughts can be deduced form the monthly Markov transitional probabilities. ARIMA models can be used as a forecasting tool of the future drought trends. Using the first and second order Markov probabilities can complement the ARIMA predictions.

Khaldoun Shatanawi

2013-12-01

293

Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of the Oubangui River and tributaries (Congo River basin).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. ?(13)C of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between -28.1‰ and -5.8‰, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin. PMID:24954525

Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V

2014-01-01

294

K West Basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides estimates of the volume of sludge (1) expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel elements and (2) in the fuel storage canisters in K West Basin. The original estimates were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of KE canister sludge density. Revision 1 revised the volume estimates of sludge based on additional data from evaluations of material from the KW Basin fuel subsurface examinations and KW canister sludge characterization data. A nominal Working Estimate and an upper level Working Bound is developed for the canister sludge and the fuel wash sludge components in the KW Basin

295

K East basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides estimates of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel elements and in the fuel storage canisters in K East Basin. The original estimates were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. Revision 1 revised the volume estimates of sludge from processing of the fuel elements based on additional data from evaluations of material from the KE Basin fuel subsurface examinations. A nominal Working Estimate and an upper level Working Bound is developed for the canister sludge and the fuel wash sludge components in the KE Basin

296

Geographical information system-based morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin, Kerala, India  

Science.gov (United States)

A morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler's system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. The Bharathapuzha drainage basin is sprawled over an area of 5,988.56 km2. The study area was designated as seventh-order basin and lower order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 1.07 km/km2. The slope of basin varied from 0° to 70° and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The elongation ratio of the basin is 0.57 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The drainage texture of the basin is 7.78 which indicates an intermediate texture that exists over the region. Hence, from the study, it can be concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM-DEM) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool in morphometric analysis and the data can be used for basin management and other hydrological studies in future.

Magesh, N. S.; Jitheshlal, K. V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Jini, K. V.

2013-06-01

297

The Balearic current and volume transports in the Balearic basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Balearic basin is a semi-enclosed basin located in the western Mediterranean Sea, connecting the Gulf of Lions and the Alboran basin. While the characteristics and circulation of the water masses have been rather well established, the exchanges with adjacent basins, essential to our understanding of the circulation in the western Mediterranean and for validating outputs of general circulation models, have never been determined in detail. We present here the data from the FE-89 (June 1989)...

Garcialadona, E.; Castellon, A.; Font, J.; Tintore, J.

1996-01-01

298

Prospects for Learning in River Management: Exploring the Initial Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Swedish River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study explores the initial implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Lule River basin, Sweden, examining how and to what extent administrative procedures enable learning through dialogue and stakeholder collaboration. Theorising on adaptive co-management and social learning is used to structure what is to be learnt,…

Lundmark, Carina; Jonsson, Gunnar

2014-01-01

299

Sensitivity of the hydrologic cycle in Tana river basin to climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tana River basin in Kenya has four distinct climates along it's gradient from cool humid in mount Kenya region through arid and semi arid in the lower plains to semi humid coastal climate. From the highlands of mount Kenya to the plateau on the lowlands, the river traverses some sections which have high potential for hydro-electric power generation. The government has constructed water reovirus to collect water for electricity generation. The influence of the reovirus have also caused climate modification. The aim of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of the river flows in the Tana river to climate change. The study indicates that, as long as temperature increment of up to 2 degrees centigrade are accompanied by positive changes (greater than 10%) in rainfall over the basin, then the hydrologic cycle adjust itself accordingly to give a positive response (increased runoff) in terms of the river at the outlet

300

Satellite-based water balance of the Nile River basin: a multisensor approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite-informed estimates of distributed hydrologic fluxes and storages in remote, ungauged, or contentious river basins is the subject of active research. Here we review recent developments in remotely sensed water flux and balance estimates for large basins, including the Nile River basin, and present results of a new analysis that applies TRMM, GRACE, and a Meteosat-based implementation of the ALEXI evapotranspiration algorithm to generate spatially and temporally distributed estimates of hydrologic fluxes and storages in the Nile basin. Results are evaluated using previous studies of the Nile water balance, historic river gauge data, and available in situ measurements of distributed fluxes. It is found that the independent estimates of precipitation, water storage changes, and evapotranspiration offered by TRMM, GRACE, and ALEXI, respectively, can be used to close the climatological water balance of the Nile River basin and critical Nile subbasins to first order, but that the technique has limitations at shorter time scales due to random error, at smaller spatial scales, due to resolution limitations, and in the characterization of systematic error due to limited availability of relevant in situ observations. The strengths and limitations of the analysis will be evaluated with respect to alternative methodologies and to resource information needs in the Nile basin.

Zaitchik, B. F.; Anderson, M. C.; Ozdogan, M.; Yilmaz, M.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Tracing nutrient sources in the Mississippi River Basin, United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To provide information for the development of management strategies to reduce N loads and enhance N attenuation mechanisms, isotopic techniques have been used to investigate the sources and cycling of nutrients at a number of sites in the Mississippi Basin (which includes the Ohio and Missouri River Basins). About half of the POM in the Mississippi (and other big rivers in the USA) is composed of plankton and/or heterotrophic bacteria. This suggests that in-situ productivity may be a significant source of bioavailable organic matter contributing to the hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Monthly samples from 19 river sites in the Basin sampled over 5 years showed that ? 15N and ? 13C were quite useful in discriminating among four major categories of POM: terrestrial soil, fresh terrestrial vegetation, aquatic macrophytes, and plankton/bacteria The isotopic data, along with ancillary chemical and hydrologic measurements, were also useful for documenting seasonal changes in in-situ processes. A pilot study in 2000-2001, designed to investigate the usefulness of isotopic techniques for determining nutrient sources in 24 medium and large watersheds in the Basin, found that nitrate and POM from basins with different land uses (e.g., row crops, animal farming, urban development, and undeveloped) had moderately distinctive isotopic compositions. The nitrate ? 18O and ? 15N values of the large rivers sites resembled the compositions vers sites resembled the compositions seen in sites dominated by row crops. Sites with livestock tended to have high ? 15N values characteristic of manure, and urban and undeveloped sites tended to have higher ? 18O values characteristic of a significant fraction of atmospheric nitrate. The ? 18O data were critical in showing abrupt changes in nitrate sources with discharge. A more thorough study of nutrient sources in the Ohio River Basin was initiated in 2002. For this study, nitrate, POM, and water were collected 15-20 times each year at 6 small NAWQA-program watersheds in the White River- Miami River basins, and at the 7 large river NASQAN-program sites in the Ohio River Basin. Nitrate samples were analyzed for ? 15N and ? 18O, POM for ? 15N and ? 13C, and water for ? 18O and ? 2H. The ? 15N and ? 13C of fish were used as indicators of nutrient sources. Other studies have indicated that POM consists primarily of phytoplankton and is transported in the water column, particularly size fractions < 1-mm diameter, were the primary food source for food webs in the Ohio and Upper Mississippi Rivers

302

Allozyme comparison of two populations of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Ivaí River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Two allopatric morphotypes of the genus Rinelocaria were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique: one morphotype, R. pentamaculata, from the Keller River in the middle stretch of the Ivaí River basin and the other, R. aff. pentamaculata, from the São João River in the upper portion o [...] f the Ivaí River basin. The morphotype from the São João River was collected upstream from the São João waterfall, which is about 80 m deep. Twelve enzymatic systems (AAT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD) were analyzed, which allowed to score 22 loci. Only loci Aat-2, Est-3 and Mdh-C showed polymorphism. The two samples differed in allele frequencies at the three polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity for all loci was 0.0806 ± 0.0447 in the Keller River sample. For the São João River morphotype, this value was 0.0489 ± 0.0350. Nei' s genetic identity and distance between the two populations were respectively 0.9789 and 0.0213. Wright's F IS, F IT and F STover all loci were estimated as 0.3121, 0.4021 and 0.1309, respectively. We consider that the two morphotypes represent species in statu nascendi.

Daniel M., Limeira; Erasmo, Renesto; Cláudio H., Zawadzki.

303

Water demand management: A case study of the Heihe River Basin in China  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigates the water supply and demand situation in the Heihe River Basin, China, and formulates a demand oriented water management approach in the irrigated agricultural sector in response to the increasing water shortage due to population growth and local economic development. This approach requires institutional reinforcement, water pricing reform and agricultural sector adjustment based on a virtual water trade analysis. It is also proposed to use a river basin water balance model for the water management authority to support decision-making. The paper reviews both technical and non-technical measures proposed for the Heihe River Basin management and concludes that with the growing water demand, the water authority can’t continue to supply the water without trying to actually influence the demand. Besides technical measures, e.g., through water saving measures and reservoir building, demand management has to come into force as an important part of integrated river basin management, so as to ensure the sustainable development of the Heihe River Basin.

Chen, Yan; Zhang, Dunqiang; Sun, Yangbo; Liu, Xinai; Wang, Nianzhong; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

304

Effects of Human Alterations on Global River Basins and their Associated Coastal Zones: focus on River-dominated Ocean Margins (RiOMars)  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal systems connected to large rivers, mostly major delta systems or river-dominated ocean margins (RiOMars), make up environments is very different from other near-shore environments such as macro-tidal estuaries, lagoons or fjords. In this type, the major biogeochemical transformation of incoming river fluxes takes place in a plume on the continental margins (RiOMars). This effect is even more pronounced at high flow stages when the highest volumes of water and material are delivered. The filtering efficiency of delta systems is highest during low flows, and some of the systems may be influenced by tides when ebb and flood might flow through different channels, creating a braided network of streams and many islands (Dürr et al. 2011). Here, we discuss controls on the different nutrient forms delivered to different coastal environments, and how they are assessed (Global-NEWS and other approaches), with a special focus on large deltas and RiOMars. Drivers and impacts of global change will be explored through the Millenium Assessment Scenarios and how the fluxes to these different coastal systems might change. An increasing role is also played by aquaculture in different coastal types as a non-insignificant source of nutrients. World-wide distribution of coastal types and their related river basins (Dürr et al. 2011). Characteristics of types of near-shore coastal areas and their associated river basins Greenland and Antarctica excepted. Data from Dürr et al. (2011) and the Global-NEWS program (Seitzinger et al. 2005 and Mayorga et al. 2010).

Dürr, H. H.; Van Cappellen, P.; Meybeck, M.; Laruelle, G. G.; Mayorga, E.; Hartmann, J.; Maavara, T.; Bouwman, L.; Seitzinger, S.

2013-12-01

305

Soil productive potential of the river basins located in European part of Russia  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for integral monitoring indicators of natural ecosystems biosphere functions assessment is becoming really urgent nowadays. From the point of view of ecologic and economic indicators, characterizing ecosystems structure and functioning, soil fertility and vegetation productivity parameters, which have been studied for a long time as biosphere and environment forming functions rank first priority. For integrated characteristic of ecosystems soil and vegetation condition we have suggested to apply the index of "soil-productive potential" (SPP), characterizing the ability of nature and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems for sustained product (phytomass) reproduction under specific soil-bioclimatic conditions. It characterizes ecosystem reserve via the index expressed in numbers and averages the following parameters: • specific phytomass reserve (all living elevated and underground parts of plants in terms of total dry mass t/ hectare are considered); • specific productivity (phytomass augmentation for a year per unit area); • natural soil fertility (humus content, % as a characteristic); • crop-producing power (grain crop-producing power is considered, centner/hectare); • bioclimatic parameters (integrated index, including the sum of biologically active temperatures and moistening coefficient); • soil-ecologic index (SEI). Soil-productive potential allows the assessment of average perennial area resource for phytomass production by natural and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems. For more convenient comparative estimation, characteristics are ranked by dividing them into equal intervals according to 5-number scale with consequent numbers summation to overall index. As a result both soil-productive potential of natural eco-systems and total soil-productive potential of the whole area with a glance to the condition of available agrocenosis are calculated. Soil-productive potential of 12 first-rank major river basins of the European part of Russia have been assessed. Within the largest basin in terms of watershed area of the Volga, the Oka and the Kama (2-nd rank river basins) have been singled out and characterized separately. The method of river basins boundaries overlapping (in digital map scaled 1:1000000) on zonal spaces in «Arc GIS» has been applied. The biggest phytomass reserve is concentrated in the Neva and the Oka river basins, in the southern direction phytomass reserve is gradually declining due to the decrease of forest area. The most productive areas are the Don, the Ural, the Kuban basins. Productivity of the Volga basin ecosystems as a whole is medial (the highest values are typical for the Oka basin). The highest humus content is registered in the Kuban river basin, the lowest - in the North Dvina basin. The most favourable bioclimatic conditions are observed in the Dnieper basin. As a result high values of soil-productive potential are typical for the ecosystems of the Dnieper, the Kuban and the Volga basins where this value is high only due to the Oka basin area. The received values of soil-productive potential were correlated to hydraulogic characteristics of these basins, peculiarities of land use and arable land condition (according to SEI and crop capacity). High discharge module is stated to be typical for the northern rivers basins of little soil-productive potential (the Pechora, the Mezen); river basins of high soil-productive potential are characterized by low or average values of discharge module (the Dnieper, the Oka, the Kuban). The most agriculturally developed area is the Don basin, as here agricultural load reaches the highest limit, about 60% of the area is ploughed up though natural ecosystems and agricultural systems potential is not the highest, that may threaten the proper functioning of the basin. Ecosystem high soil-productive potential in the Kuban basin corresponds to good condition of arable lands, high crop capacity and great agricultural development of the area.

Mishchenko, Natalia; Shoba, Sergei; Trifonova, Tatiana

2014-05-01

306

Glacial lake McConnell: Paleogeography, age, duration, and associated river deltas, mackenzie river basin, western Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Glacial Lake McConnell lasted from 11.8 to 8.3 ka BP while occupying parts of the Great Bear, Great Slave and Athabasca Lake basin. The retreating Laurentide ice-front formed the eastern margin, whereas low rolling hills formed the north, west and south shorelines. Three major deltas were deposited at the mouths of the Laird, Peace and Athabasca rivers. The total extent of all phases of the lake was 240,000 km2, while the largest extent was 210,000 km2 at 10.5 ka BP. Downwarping of the basin by glacial ice was the main cause of the lake, whereas sediment blockage between Jean Marie River and Fort Simpson was secondary. Initially, glacial Lake McConnell occupied the northwestern corner (Smith Arm) of the Great Bear Lake basin and discharged through the Hare Indian River outlet. By 11.5 ka BP the enlarged water body flowed out the Great Bear River, but only for a short period of time. The Mackenzie River formed the third outlet near Jean Marie River at 11 ka BP and flow in the Great Bear River ceased until 9 ka BP. At 9.9 ka BP glacial Lake McConnell was impacted by a major flood from glacial Lake Agassiz with a peak discharge of 2-7 × 106 m3/sec. Flood water discharged from glacial Lake McConnell, peaking at 0.35-0.57 × 106 m3/sec and receding flow continued for 30 months. The massive influx of floodwater into glacial Lake McConnell caused an abrupt increase of discharge, which enlarged the outlet channel to between 6 and 13 km wide between Fort Simpson and Jean Marie River. At 8.3 ka BP, isostatic rebound ended the 3500-year-old extensive lake by dividing it into the Great Slave Lake and Lake Athabasca.

Smith, Derald G.

307

Characterization of Basin Volumes in Mechanically Stable Packings  

Science.gov (United States)

There are a finite number of distinct mechanically stable (MS) packings in granular systems composed of frictionless particles. For typical packing-generation protocols employed in experimental and numerical studies, the probabilities with which the MS packings occur are highly nonuniform and depend strongly on preparation protocol. Despite intense work, it is extremely difficult to predict a priori the MS packing probabilities. We describe a novel computational method for calculating the MS packing probabilities by directly measuring the volume of the MS packing `basin of attraction', which we define as the collection of initial points in configuration space at zero packing fraction that map to a given MS packing by following a particular dynamics in the density landscape. We show that there is a small core region with size lc surrounding each MS packing in configuration space in which all initial conditions map to a given MS packing. However, we find that the MS packing probabilities are not strongly correlated with lc and thus they are determined by complex geometric features of the landscape that are distant from the MS packing.

Shattuck, Mark D.; Ashwin, S. S.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; O'Hern, Corey S.

2012-02-01

308

Low polyphase fluvial levels of the river Crni Timok in the basin of Zaje?ar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of origin and extension of the river terrace in Serbian valleys has been dealt with by many explorers. Beside those extensive investigations, this problem has not been explained enough. Therefore, more detailed investigations of river terraces were taken on a smaller region in the valley of the river Crni Timok in the basin of Zaje?ar (the Eastern Serbia). A series of low river terraces (the first terrace of r.h. 3-5 m the second terrace of r.h. 5-10 m, the third terrace of r.h. ...

Neši? Dragan

2004-01-01

309

Sr and Nd isotopes of suspended sediments from rivers of the Amazon basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems are important tools to constrain the provenance of sediment load in river systems. This study presents the isotopic composition of Sr and Nd isotopes and major and minor elements in suspended sediments from the Marañón-Solimões, Amazonas and Beni-Madeira rivers. The data were used to constrain the source region of the sediments and to better understand the main seasonal and spatial transport processes within the basin based on the variations of the chemical and isotopic signals. They also allow establishing a relationship between sediment concentrations and flow rate values. The study presents data collected during a hydrological year between 2009 and 2010. The Marañón-Solimões River presents low Sr isotopic values (0.7090-0.7186), broad EpslonNd(0) range (-15.17 to -8.09) and Nd model (TDM) ages varying from 0.99 to 1.81 Ga. Sources of sediments to the Marañón-Solimões River include recent volcanic rocks in northern Peru and Ecuador, as well as rocks with long crustal residence time and carbonates from the Marañón Basin, Peru. The Beni-Madeira River has more radiogenic Sr isotope values (0.7255-0.7403), more negative EpslonNd(0) values (-20.46 to -10.47), and older Nd isotope model ages (from 1.40 to 2.35 Ga) when compared to the Marañón-Solimões River. These isotope data were related to the erosion of Paleozoic and Cenozoic foreland basins that are filled with Precambrian sediments derived from the Amazonian Craton. These basins are located in Bolivian Subandina Zone. The Amazon River presents intermediate isotopic values when compared to those found in the Marañón-Solimões and Beni-Madeira rivers. Its Sr isotope ratios range between 0.7193 and 0.7290, and its EpslonNd(0) values varies between -11.09 and -9.51. The Nd isotope model ages of the suspended sediments vary between 1.28 and 1.77 Ga. Concentrations of soluble and insoluble elements indicate a more intense weathering activity in sediments of the Beni-Madeira River. This river has a larger difference in the Sr isotopic composition between the diluted and solid phases, which has been assigned to the high level of weathering of its sediment source area. In the Beni-Madeira River sub-basin dominates weathering of silicate rocks, while in the Marañón-Solimões River sub-basin there also weathering of carbonate and evaporitic rocks.

Hatting, Karina; Santos, Roberto V.; Sondag, Francis

2014-05-01

310

Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently (2011) completed an assessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of grade, in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Greater Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah. Green River Formation oil shale also is present in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado, and the results of these assessments are published separately. No attempt was made to estimate the amount of oil that is economically recoverable because there has not yet been an economic method developed to recover the oil from Green River Formation oil shale.

Johnson, R. C.; Mercier, T. J.; Brownfield, M. E.

2011-01-01

311

Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation: Review of River Basin Management Planning in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By the end of 2009, programmes of measures and river basin management plans under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD had for the first time been set up for all 10 river basin districts inGermany. They provide the water management planning tools for achieving good status of surface and groundwater by 2015. Since a good ecological status for many water bodies cannot be attained by this deadline, the Directive provides for two supplementary planning cycles running to 2021 and 2027 respectively. Owing to its ecological approach, the WFD has much in common with nature conservation. The project “Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation” sought to discover how the aims of the WFD and nature conservation are linked in the practice of river basin management planning and what possibilities there are for optimisation from a nature conservation point of view. On this basis, proposals were made for updating and implementing plans.

SCHMIDT Catrin

2012-09-01

312

Initial Sediment Transport Model of the Mining-Affected Aries River Basin, Romania  

Science.gov (United States)

The Romanian government is interested in understanding the effects of existing and future mining activities on long-term dispersal, storage, and remobilization of sediment-associated metals. An initial Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was prepared using available data to evaluate hypothetical failure of the Valea Sesei tailings dam at the Rosia Poieni mine in the Aries River basin. Using the available data, the initial Aries River Basin SWAT model could not be manually calibrated to accurately reproduce monthly streamflow values observed at the Turda gage station. The poor simulation of the monthly streamflow is attributed to spatially limited soil and precipitation data, limited constraint information due to spatially and temporally limited streamflow measurements, and in ability to obtain optimal parameter values when using a manual calibration process. Suggestions to improve the Aries River basin sediment transport model include accounting for heterogeneity in model input, a two-tier nonlinear calibration strategy, and analysis of uncertainty in predictions.

Friedel, Michael J.; Linard, Joshua I.

2008-01-01

313

Isotope hydrology and hydrochemistry of some nutrient enrichment sources to the Densu River Basin, Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen consuming materials to aquatic ecosystems can change nutrient dynamics, deplete oxygen and change abundance and diversity of aquatic plants and animals. The isotopic techniques in groundwater resource management in the Densu river Basin required a research and assessment program to establish the contribution of sewage discharge and agriculture to eutrophication in the Densu River and examine the source of nutrients and other pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem. This will improve the understanding of the interaction between nutrient input, dissolved oxygen and aquatic ecosystem productivity. Combining isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of samples in the basin will show the influence of natural and anthropogenic source of nutrients in the Densu River Basin. (author)

314

Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The high demand for water, the recent multiyear drought (1999-2007), and projections of global warming have raised questions about the long-term sustainability of water supply in the southwestern United States. In this study, the potential effects of specific levels of atmospheric warming on water-year streamflow in the Colorado River basin are evaluated using a water-balance model, and the results are analyzed within the context of a multi-century tree-ring reconstruction (1490-1998) of streamflow for the basin. The results indicate that if future warming occurs in the basin and is not accompanied by increased precipitation, then the basin is likely to experience periods of water supply shortages more severe than those inferred from the longterm historical tree-ring reconstruction. Furthermore, the modeling results suggest that future warming would increase the likelihood of failure to meet the water allocation requirements of the Colorado River Compact.

McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

2007-01-01

315

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In December 1992, the CBR was awarded a five-year grant of $25M from the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project was an interdisciplinary, collaborative research and education project aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments. This project funded 15 collaborative cluster multi-year projects and 41 one-year initiation projects out of 165 submitted research proposals. This project was carried out by 134 research and technical support faculty from Xavier University (School of Arts and Sciences, and College of Pharmacy) and Tulane University (Schools of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Health and Tropical Medicine), and 173 publications and 140 presentations were produced. More than 100 graduate and undergraduate students were trained through these collaborative cluster and initiation research projects. Nineteen Tulane graduate students received partial funding to conduct their own competitively-chosen research projects, and 28 Xavier undergraduate LIFE Scholars and 30 LIFE Interns were supported with DOE funding to conduct their mentored research projects. Studies in this project have defined: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, (2) the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and (3) the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The bayou and spoil banks of Bayou Trepagnier were mapped and analyzed in terms of risks associated with the levels of hydrocarbons and metals at specific sample sites. Data from contaminated sample sites have been incorporated into a large database and used in GIS analyses to track the fate and transport of heavy metals from spoil banks into the surrounding marsh. These data are crucial to understanding how heavy metals move through wetlands environments. These data, coupled with plume characterization data, indicate that Bayou Trepagnier is a model system for understanding how wetlands populations of fish, amphibians, and plants respond to long-term hydrocarbon and metals contamination. The CBR has fifteen years of experience in developing model aquatic ecosystems for evaluating environmental problems relevant to DOE cleanup activities. Using biotechnology screens and biomarkers of exposure, this project supports other CBR research demonstrating that chemicals in the environment can signal/alter the development of species in aquatic ecosystems, and show detrimental impacts on community, population, and the ecosystem, including human health. CBR studies funded through this grant have resulted in private sector investments, international collaborations, development of new technologies, and substantial new knowledge concerning the effects of hazardous materials on human and ecosystem health. Through the CBR, Tulane and Xavier Universities partnered with DOE-EM to lay groundwork for an effective research agenda that has become part of the DOE long term stewardship science and technology program and institutional management of the DOE complex.

John A. McLachlan

2003-12-01

316

Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins: Waste site assessment report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Waste Site Assessment for the SRL Seepage Basins is the second in a series of documents being prepared to support development of an appropriate closure plan for these basins. The closure of these basins will be designed to provide protection to human health and the environment and to meet the provisions of the Consent Decree. A Technical Data Summary for these basins has already been submitted as part of the Consent Decree. This Site Assessment Report includes a waste site characterization, and a discussion of closure options for the basins. A closure option is recommended in this report, but details of the recommended closure are not provided in this report since they will be provided in a subsequent closure plan. The closure plan is the third document required under the Consent Decree. 18 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

Haselow, J.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.

1989-09-05

317

Simulation of stream discharge and transport of nitrate and selected herbicides in the Mississippi River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Stream discharge and the transport of nitrate, atrazine, and metolachlor in the Mississippi River Basin were simulated using the DAFLOW/BLTM hydrologic model. The simulated domain for stream discharge included river reaches downstream from the following stations in the National Stream Quality Accounting Network: Mississippi River at Clinton, IA; Missouri River at Hermann, MO; Ohio River at Grand Chain, IL; and Arkansas River at Little Rock, AR. Coefficients of hydraulic geometry were calibrated using data from water year 1996; the model was validated by favourable simulation of observed discharges in water years 1992-1994. The transport of nitrate, atrazine, and metolachlor was simulated downstream from the Mississippi River at Thebes, IL, and the Ohio River at Grand Chain. Simulated concentrations compared favourably with observed concentrations at Baton Rouge, LA. Development of this model is a preliminary step in gaining a more quantitative understanding of the sources and fate of nutrients and pesticides delivered from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Broshears, Robert E.; Clark, Gregory M.; Jobson, Harvey E.

2001-05-01

318

The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determin [...] ada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y Synbranchiformes por una especie. Entre estas, se encontró 2 especies exóticas. Las especies más abundantes fueron Astyanax fasciatus y Hypostomus ancistroides. En relación con el peso total, la especie más representativas fueron Hoplias malabaricus y Hypostomus ancistroides. En tanto que, Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus y Hoplias malabaricus fueron las más representativas en relación al preso promedio. Las longitudes estandar más grandes fue encontradas en Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens y Cyprinus carpio Abstract in english A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standa [...] rd length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpio

Welber, Senteio Smith; Miguel, Petrere; Walter, Barrella.

319

The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpioSe realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y Synbranchiformes por una especie. Entre estas, se encontró 2 especies exóticas. Las especies más abundantes fueron Astyanax fasciatus y Hypostomus ancistroides. En relación con el peso total, la especie más representativas fueron Hoplias malabaricus y Hypostomus ancistroides. En tanto que, Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus y Hoplias malabaricus fueron las más representativas en relación al preso promedio. Las longitudes estandar más grandes fue encontradas en Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens y Cyprinus carpio

Welber Senteio Smith

2003-09-01

320

Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries

 
 
 
 
321

Spatial and temporal variability of daily precipitation concentration in the Lancang River basin, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lorenz Curve, a concept used in economic theory, is used to quantify spatial-temporal variability in the daily time series of precipitation concentrations. The Lorenz Curve provides a graphical view of the cumulative percentage of total yearly precipitation. In addition, further extraction of the data using the Gini coefficient and Lorenz asymmetry coefficient provides a two-parameter measure of precipitation concentration and an explanation of the basis for the underlying inequalities in precipitation distribution. Based on the calculation of the precipitation concentration index (CI) and the Lorenz asymmetry coefficient (S) values from 1960 to 2010, variations in the trends and periodic temporal-spatial patterns of precipitation at 31 stations across the Lancang River basin are discussed. The results are as follows: (1) highest precipitation CI values occurred in the southern Lancang River basin, whereas the lowest precipitation CI values were mainly observed in the upper reaches of the Lancang River basin, which features a more homogeneous temporal distribution of rainfall. S values throughout the entire basin were less than one, indicating that minor precipitation events have the highest contribution to overall precipitation inequality. (2) Application of the Mann-Kendall test revealed that a significant, decreasing trend in precipitation CI that exceeding the 95th percentile was detected in the upper and middle reaches of the Lancang River basin. However, there was only one significant (0.05) S value trend throughout the river. (3) Climate jumps in annual CI occurred during the early 1960s, 1970s and 1980s at Jinghong, Deqin and Zaduo stations, respectively. (4) Dominant periodic variations in precipitation CI, with periods of 4-17 years, were found. These results allow for an improved understanding of extreme climate events and improved river basin water resource management.

Shi, Wanli; Yu, Xuezhong; Liao, Wengen; Wang, Ying; Jia, Baozhen

2013-07-01

322

Reconnaissance of contaminants in selected wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and stormwater runoff entering the Columbia River, Columbia River Basin, Washington and Oregon, 2008-10  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxic contamination is a significant concern in the Columbia River Basin in Washington and Oregon. To help water managers and policy makers in decision making about future sampling efforts and toxic-reduction activities, a reconnaissance was done to assess contaminant concentrations directly contributed to the Columbia River through wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent and stormwater runoff from adjacent urban environments and to evaluate instantaneous loadings to the Columbia River Basin from these inputs.

Morace, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

323

On the contribution of groundwater storage to interannual streamflow anomalies in the Colorado River basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assess the significance of groundwater storage for seasonal streamflow forecasts by evaluating its contribution to interannual streamflow anomalies in the 29 tributary sub-basins of the Colorado River. Monthly and annual changes in total basin storage are simulated by two implementations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model – the standard release of the model, and an alternate version that has been modified to include the SIMple Groundwater Model (SIMGM)...

Rosenberg, E. A.; Clark, E. A.; Steinemann, A. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2013-01-01

324

On the contribution of groundwater storage to interannual streamflow anomalies in the Colorado River basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assess the significance of groundwater storage for seasonal streamflow forecasts by evaluating its contribution to interannual streamflow anomalies in the 29 tributary sub-basins of the Colorado River. Monthly and annual changes in total basin storage are simulated by two implementations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model – the standard release of the model, and an alternate version that has been modified to include the SIMple Groundwater Model (SIMGM)...

Rosenberg, E. A.; Clark, E. A.; Steinemann, A. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2012-01-01

325

Teleconnection analysis of runoff and soil moisture over the Pearl River basin in South China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the teleconnection of two climatic patterns, namely the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), with hydrological processes over the Pearl River basin in South China. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is used to simulate the daily hydrological processes over the basin for the study period 1952–2000, and then, using the simulation results, the time series of the monthly runoff and soil moisture anomalies for its ten sub-...

Niu, J.; Chen, J.; Sivakumar, B.

2013-01-01

326

Spatial disaggregation of bias-corrected GCM precipitation for improved hydrologic simulation: Ping River Basin, Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global Climate Models (GCMs) precipitation scenarios are often characterized by biases and coarse resolution that limit their direct application for basin level hydrological modeling. Bias-correction and spatial disaggregation methods are employed to improve the quality of ECHAM4/OPYC SRES A2 and B2 precipitation for the Ping River Basin in Thailand. Bias-correction method, based on gamma-gamma transformation, is applied to improve the frequency and amount of raw GCM precipitation at the grid...

Sharma, D.; Das Gupta, A.; Babel, M. S.

2007-01-01

327

Distributed modeling of landsurface water and energy budgets in the inland Heihe river basin of China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A distributed model for simulating the land surface hydrological processes in the Heihe river basin was developed and validated on the basis of considering the physical mechanism of hydrological cycle and the artificial system of water utilization in the basin. Modeling approach of every component process was introduced from 2 aspects, i.e., water cycle and energy cycle. The hydrological processes include evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff, groundwater flow, interaction between groundwa...

Jia, Y.; Ding, X.; Qin, C.; Wang, H.

2009-01-01

328

LIVING WITH FLOOD AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD DEVELOPMENT IN LOWER BRAHMAPUTRA RIVER BASIN, ASSAM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available River basin is considered as the basic hydrologic unit for planning and development of water resources and livelihood. Assam's Brahmaputra valley represents one of the most acutely hazard-prone regions in the country, having a total flood prone area of 3.2 million hectare. The lower Brahmaputra basin, Assam has caused the hazards of annual floods and erosion, bringing misery to the people and shattering the fragile agro-economic base of the region

R. B. Singh

2014-05-01

329

Modeling and management of water in the Klamath River Basin: overcoming politics and conflicts  

Science.gov (United States)

The network flow model MODSIM, which was designed as a water quantity mass balance model for evaluating and selecting water management alternatives, has been applied to the Klamath River basin. A background of conflicting issues in the basin is presented. The complexity of water quantity model development, while satisfying the many stakeholders and involved special interest groups is discussed, as well as the efforts taken to have the technical model accepted and used, and overcome stakeholder criticism, skepticism, and mistrust of the government.

Flug, Marshall; Scott, John F.

1998-01-01

330

Quantifying the contribution of glacier runoff to streamflow in the upper Columbia River Basin, Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glacier melt provides important contributions to streamflow in many mountainous regions. Hydrologic model calibration in glacier-fed catchments is difficult because errors in modelling snow accumulation can be offset by compensating errors in glacier melt. This problem is particularly severe in catchments with modest glacier cover, where goodness-of-fit statistics such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency may not be highly sensitive to the streamflow variance associated with glacier melt. While glacier mass balance measurements can be used to aid model calibration, they are absent for most catchments. We introduce the use of glacier volume change determined from repeated glacier mapping in a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation procedure to calibrate a hydrologic model. This approach is applied to the Mica basin in the Canadian portion of the Columbia River Basin using the HBV-EC hydrologic model. Use of glacier volume change in the calibration procedure effectively reduced parameter uncertainty and helped to ensure that the model was accurately predicting glacier mass balance as well as streamflow. The seasonal and interannual variations in glacier melt contributions were assessed by running the calibrated model with historic glacier cover and also after converting all glacierized areas to alpine land cover in the model setup. Sensitivity of modelled streamflow to historic changes in glacier cover and to projected glacier changes for a climate warming scenario was assessed by comparing simulations using static glacier cover to simulations that accommodated dynamic changes in glacier area. Although glaciers in the Mica basin only cover 5% of the watershed, glacier ice melt contributes up to 25% and 35% of streamflow in August and September, respectively. The mean annual contribution of ice melt to total streamflow varied between 3 and 9% and averaged 6%. Glacier ice melt is particularly important during warm, dry summers following winters with low snow accumulation and early snowpack depletion. Although the sensitivity of streamflow to historic glacier area changes is small and within parameter uncertainties, our results suggest that glacier area changes have to be accounted for in future projections of late summer streamflow. Our approach provides an effective and widely applicable method to calibrate hydrologic models in glacier fed catchments, as well as to quantify the magnitude and timing of glacier melt contributions to streamflow.

G. Jost

2012-03-01

331

A LAND USE ANALYSIS OF EXISTING AND POTENTIAL COAL SURFACE MINING AREAS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY REGION  

Science.gov (United States)

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It reports on the land use changes resulting from the surface mining of coal in the Ohio River Basin, which...

332

Tritium balance of the Ems river basin (1951-1983). Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the Ems river basin an inventory of the tritium distribution is presented for the hydrologic years 1951-1983. On the basis of a balance model the tritium contents in surface and groundwater of the Ems river basin are calculated using known and extrapolated tritium input data and compared with the corresponding values measured since 1974. A survey of the tritium flows occurring in this area is presented, taking meteorologic and hydrologic facts into account. A water balance serves as a basis for determining the tritium balance. (orig.)

333

Meteorological, water-temperature, and discharge data for the Mattole River basin, Humboldt County, California  

Science.gov (United States)

To overcome a major difficulty in the testing of the validity of river-temperature models - the lack of adequate precise synoptic data for an entire river basin - synoptic meteorologic, water-temperature, and discharge data were obtained in the Mattole River Basin in northern California during the period June 10 through August 31, 1975. The variables monitored were water temperature in the main channel and major tributaries, wind velocity, wet-bulb and dry-bulb air temperature, total hemispherical incoming radiation, total incoming shortwave radiation, discharge in the main channel and major tributaries, and average velocity and axial dispersion coefficients in the main channel. This report describes the experimental design and the instrumentation and procedures followed to insure the best possible information, and it presents a detailed set of data which can be used in testing river-temperature models. (USGS)

Noble, R. D.; Jackman, Alan P.

1983-01-01

334

Use of isotopes to study floodplain wetland and river flow interaction in the White Volta River basin, Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Floodplain wetlands influence the timing and magnitude of stream responses to rainfall. In managing and sustaining the level of water resource usage in any river catchment as well as when modelling hydrological processes, it is essential that the role of floodplain wetlands in stream flows is recognised and understood. Existing studies on hydrology within the Volta River basin have not adequately represented the variability of wetland hydrological processes and their contribution to the sustenance of river flow. In order to quantify the extent of floodwater storage within riparian wetlands and their contribution to subsequent river discharges, a series of complementary studies were conducted by utilising stable isotopes, physical monitoring of groundwater levels and numerical modelling. The water samples were collected near Pwalugu on the White Volta River and at three wetland sites adjacent to the river using the grab sampling technique. These were analysed for (18)O and (2)H. The analysis provided an estimate of the contribution of pre-event water to overall stream flow. In addition, the variation in the isotopic composition in the river and wetland water samples, respectively, revealed the pattern of flow and exchange of water between the wetlands and the main river system. PMID:20229387

Nyarko, Benjamin Kofi; Kofi Essumang, David; Eghan, Moses J; Reichert, Barbara; van de Giesen, Nick; Vlek, Paul

2010-03-01

335

Reconstructing the Santa Tecla flash flood in the Ondara River (Ebro Basin, NE Spain)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Santa Tecla flood may be considered the most catastrophic rainfall event in the modern history of Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula), and one of the most important in the Western Mediterranean Basin. This event took place during the night between 22nd and 23rd September 1874, in which torrential convective rainfalls generated significant flash floods in most of the small streams in the southern half of Catalonia (i.e. Ondara, Corb, Francolí and Siurana catchments). More than 570 people died, 150 of which in the town of Tàrrega, by the Ondara River. Despite being one of the last huge floods of the pre-instrumental era and, consequently, without any precipitation or flow data, the event was reconstructed both hydraulically and hydrologically for the Ondara River at Tàrrega (150 km2). Thus, the maximum water level and the temporal evolution of the flood were obtained, respectively, from several epigraphic limnimarks found in Tàrrega and from the event description recorded in historical documents. Additionally, the information from local archaeological sites allowed the reconstruction of the fluvial section at Tàrrega at the end of the 19th century. Finally, some old cellars flooded during the event provided information about sediment concentration at the peak flow. The methodology put into practice for the event reconstruction had two stages. The first stage was the hydraulic modelling, which estimated the peak flow. The input data used were the maximum water level given by the limnimetric marks, a digital terrain model of the river bed shape, and the stream and floodplain roughness and channel slope (which were considered similar to the present ones, according to archaeological data). The hydraulic model used was the unidimensional HEC-RAS (USACE), applied in several cross sections of the Ondara River at Tàrrega. The second stage was the hydrological modelling. The objective of this stage was to derive the event hyetograph from the above calculated peak flow and the hydrologic response of the basin. This hydrologic behaviour, that is the relation between the hyetograph and the hydrograph, was estimated taking into account rainfall duration (6-8 hours according to historical documents), basin characteristics, soil type, soil land use and cover and the antecedent soil moisture, using SCS Curve Number method. After that, a transfer Synthetic Unitary Hydrograph function and a wave propagation method (Muskingum) were applied to describe the discharge evolution and the water routing into the stream channel. The software used in this stage was the HEC-HMS (USACE). The results of the hydraulic simulation at the Sant Agustí street cross section were the following: a) a maximum water depth of 6.16 m above the original river bed, b) a mean water velocity of about 2 m•s-1, c) a peak flow of 996 m3•s-1 (increased by 480 m3•s-1 from the Cercavins River downstream Tàrrega), and d) a specific peak discharge of the event of 6.6 m3•s-1•km-2, which exceeds the values of the 500-year return period floods compiled from the Ebro drainage basin systematic database. From the information obtained in the flooded cellars, the sediment concentration during the peak flow was estimated in 11.2% (in volume), characteristic of a hyperconcentrated flow. The water level reached in the abovepresented cross section is partly explained by the recently discovered Sant Agustí Bridge, buried until now in the river bed. The results of the hydrologic modelling were: a) a surface runoff total volume of 12 hm3, b) a runoff coefficient of about 35.5%, c) a lagtime of 2.5-3 hours, and d) if the previous soil humidity for the Curve Number method was low (situation I), a total rainfall of 225 mm with a peak intensity higher than 100 mm•h-1 is needed; if the previous soil humidity for the Curve Number method was medium (situation II), a total rainfall of 156 mm with a peak intensity of about 70 mm•h-1 occurs. Rainfall values for medium previous moisture condition (II) represent a 1000-year return period according to the regional systematic data.

Balasch, J. C.; Tuset, J.; Ramos, M. C.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

2009-09-01

336

Modeling Flood Inundation Induced by River Flow and Storm Surges over a River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Low-lying coastal regions and their populations are at risk during storm surge events and high freshwater discharges from upriver. An integrated storm surge and flood inundation modeling system was used to simulate storm surge and inundation in the Tsengwen River basin and the adjacent coastal area in southern Taiwan. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model with an unstructured grid was used, which was driven by the tidal elevation at the open boundaries and freshwater discharge at the upriver boundary. The model was validated against the observed water levels for three typhoon events. The simulation results for the model were in reasonable agreement with the observational data. The model was then applied to investigate the effects of a storm surge, freshwater discharge, and a storm surge combined with freshwater discharge during an extreme typhoon event. The super Typhoon Haiyan (2013 was artificially shifted to hit Taiwan: the modeling results showed that the inundation area and depth would cause severe overbank flow and coastal flooding for a 200 year return period flow. A high-resolution grid model is essential for the accurate simulation of storm surges and inundation.

Wei-Bo Chen

2014-10-01

337

Origin of thick lower tertiary coal beds in the powder river basin, Wyoming and Montana. Some paleogeographic constraints (Chapter Q). Bulletin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The late Paleocene and early Eocene paleogeography of the Powder River Basin suggests that the thick coals in the basin formed from peat deposits in dip-elongate swamps near the basin-axis trunk streams. The Powder River Basin has more than 80 percent of the coal resources in Wyoming, and therefore factors not related to climate or subsidence rate must be unique to the Powder River Basin. The most likely factor is regional paleogeography.

Seeland, D.

1993-01-01

338

Empowering Water Quality Management in Lamtakhong River Basin, Thailand Using WASP Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research aimed at empowering local authorities on water quality management in the Lamtakhong river basin, Thailand with the assist of a water quality model, namely Water quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP). Organic overcapacity and consequent dissolved oxygen depletion was recently the primary water quality issue of the river. WASP was successfully calibrated and validated using collected monthly hydrologic and water quality data from the year 2008 to 2009. The model was found to ...

Nares Chuersuwan; Subuntith Nimrat; Sukanda Chuersuwan

2013-01-01

339

Hydrological Modeling in a watershed of the Lower Araguaia River Basin, TO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydrological simulation is an important tool for water resources management since it allows for practitioners toevaluate the impacts of anthropic activities and climatic changes on water availability. The Lontra River watershedis situated in the Lower Araguaia River Basin which is an important economic region of Northern Tocantins State.The understanding of its hydrological features is fundamental for the development of environmental studies forsupporting the decision-making related to the wa...

Marcelo Ribeiro Viola; Carlos Rogério de Mello; Marcos Giongo; Samuel Beskow; André Ferreira dos Santos

2012-01-01

340

Geochemical behaviour of dissolved trace elements in a monsoon-dominated tropical river basin, Southwestern India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study presents a 3-year time series data on dissolved trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) in a monsoon-dominated river basin, the Nethravati River in tropical Southwestern India. The river basin lies on the metamorphic transition boundary which separates the Peninsular Gneiss and Southern Granulitic province belonging to Archean and Tertiary-Quaternary period (Western Dharwar Craton). The basin lithology is mainly composed of granite gneiss, charnockite and metasediment. This study highlights the importance of time series data for better estimation of metal fluxes and to understand the geochemical behaviour of metals in a river basin. The dissolved trace elements show seasonality in the river water metal concentrations forming two distinct groups of metals. First group is composed of heavy metals and minor elements that show higher concentrations during dry season and lesser concentrations during the monsoon season. Second group is composed of metals belonging to lanthanides and actinides with higher concentration in the monsoon and lower concentrations during the dry season. Although the metal concentration of both the groups appears to be controlled by the discharge, there are important biogeochemical processes affecting their concentration. This includes redox reactions (for Fe, Mn, As, Mo, Ba and Ce) and pH-mediated adsorption/desorption reactions (for Ni, Co, Cr, Cu and REEs). The abundance of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides as a result of redox processes could be driving the geochemical redistribution of metals in the river water. There is a Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) at different time periods, both negative and positive, in case of dissolved phase, whereas there is positive anomaly in the particulate and bed sediments. The Ce anomaly correlates with the variations in the dissolved oxygen indicating the redistribution of Ce between particulate and dissolved phase under acidic to neutral pH and lower concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Unlike other tropical and major world rivers, the effect of organic complexation on metal variability is negligible in the Nethravati River water. PMID:24374620

Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K; Tripti, M; Audry, Stéphane; Riotte, Jean; Braun, J J; Udaya Shankar, H N

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Restoration potential for Danube River Basin, lower Danube and Mura Drava Danube Biosphere Reserve  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Originally main Danube basin floodplains would cover an area of 26,500 km², which is equal to about 3.3% of the total catchment size. In recent history, 80% have been cut off by dikes and dams for flood control, hydropower generation, to improve navigability or simply to meliorate land for agricultural purposes. River regulation, rectification and floodplain loss changed the hydromorphological conditions for many major rivers and cause the loss of large water retention areas, the ac...

Schwarz, Ulrich

2013-01-01

342

The topographic distribution of annual incoming solar radiation in the Rio Grande River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

We model the annual incoming solar radiation topoclimatology for the Rio Grande River basin in Colorado, U.S.A. Hourly pyranometer measurements are combined with satellite reflectance data and 30-m digital elevation models within a topographic solar radiation algorithm. Our results show that there is large spatial variability within the basin, even at an annual integration length, but the annual, basin-wide mean is close to that measured by the pyranometers. The variance within 16 sq km and 100 sq km regions is a linear function of the average slope in the region, suggesting a possible parameterization for sub-grid-cell variability.

Dubayah, R.; Van Katwijk, V.

1992-01-01

343

Lava flooding of ancient planetary crusts: geometry, thickness, and volumes of flooded lunar impact basins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of lava volumes on planetary surfaces provide important data on the lava flooding history and thermal evolution of a planet. Lack of information concerning the configuration of the topography prior to volcanic flooding requires the use of a variety of techniques to estimate lava thicknesses and volumes. A technique is described and developed which provides volume estimates by artificially flooding unflooded lunar topography characteristic of certain geological environments, and tracking the area covered, lava thicknesses, and lava volumes. Comparisons of map patterns of incompletely buried topography in these artificially flooded areas are then made to lava-flooded topography on the Moon in order to estimate the actual lava volumes. This technique is applied to two areas related to lunar impact basins; the relatively unflooded Orientale basin, and the Archimedes-Apennine Bench region of the Imbrium basin. (Auth.)

344

Effects of oil production on water resources in the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of a comprehensive study of water quality in the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky, an area of intense oil-production activity was investigated. Groundwater sampling indicated that shallow groundwater in valley alluvial areas was probably not affected by oil-production activities, that water flooding had decreased the mineral content of water in the oil-production units but not in the overlying formations, and that the character of water in a shallow bedrock formation may reflect mixing of freshwater from the overlying alluvium and mineralized water from deeper units. Surface water from oil-production basins was determined to be a sodium chloride type water, differing from the calcium bicarbonate type water generally found in basins unaffected by oil production. The average annual yields of bromide, chloride, sodium, and strontium from one oil-production basin were at least 10 times greater than from a non-production basin. The largest concentrations of chloride and bromide in the Kentucky River downstream of the oil basins typically occur in the fall of the year, as precipitation and runoff increase following the dry late-summer months. Conceptually, these large concentrations are a result of the flushing of ionic constituents from the oil-production basins that have accumulated during the dry season

345

Change and persistence in land surface phenologies of the Don and Dnieper river basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991 produced major socio-economic and institutional dislocations across the agricultural sector. The picture of broad scale patterns produced by these transformations continues to be discovered. We examine here the patterns of land surface phenology (LSP) within two key river basins-Don and Dnieper-using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 1982 to 2000 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data from 2001 to 2007. We report on the temporal persistence and change of LSPs as summarized by seasonal integration of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series using accumulated growing degree-days (GDDI NDVI). Three land cover super-classes-forest lands, agricultural lands, and shrub lands-constitute 96% of the land area within the basins. All three in both basins exhibit unidirectional increases in AVHRR GDDI NDVI between the Soviet and post-Soviet epochs. During the MODIS era (2001-2007), different socio-economic trajectories in Ukraine and Russia appear to have led to divergences in the LSPs of the agricultural lands in the two basins. Interannual variation in the shrub lands of the Don river basin has increased since 2000. This is due in part to the better signal-to-noise ratio of the MODIS sensor, but may also be due to a regional drought affecting the Don basin more than the Dnieper basin.

Kovalskyy, V; Henebry, G M, E-mail: geoffrey.henebry@sdstate.ed [Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence (GIScCE), South Dakota State University, 1021 Medary Avenue, Wecota Hall 506B, Brookings, SD 57007-3510 (United States)

2009-10-15

346

Change and persistence in land surface phenologies of the Don and Dnieper river basins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991 produced major socio-economic and institutional dislocations across the agricultural sector. The picture of broad scale patterns produced by these transformations continues to be discovered. We examine here the patterns of land surface phenology (LSP) within two key river basins-Don and Dnieper-using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 1982 to 2000 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data from 2001 to 2007. We report on the temporal persistence and change of LSPs as summarized by seasonal integration of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series using accumulated growing degree-days (GDDI NDVI). Three land cover super-classes-forest lands, agricultural lands, and shrub lands-constitute 96% of the land area within the basins. All three in both basins exhibit unidirectional increases in AVHRR GDDI NDVI between the Soviet and post-Soviet epochs. During the MODIS era (2001-2007), different socio-economic trajectories in Ukraine and Russia appear to have led to divergences in the LSPs of the agricultural lands in the two basins. Interannual variation in the shrub lands of the Don river basin has increased since 2000. This is due in part to the better signal-to-noise ratio of the MODIS sensor, but may also be due to a regional drought affecting the Don basin more than the Dnieper basin.

347

Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn. Similarly, the inter-annual variability of spring season snow cover and spring season precipitation explains well the inter-annual variability of the summer season discharge from most of the basins. These findings indicate some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast in the region, suggesting snow cover as a possible predictor.

Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

2014-10-01

348

Using radar altimetry to update a large-scale hydrological model of the Brahmaputra river basin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Measurements of river and lake water levels from space-borne radar altimeters (past missions include ERS, Envisat, Jason, Topex) are useful for calibration and validation of large-scale hydrological models in poorly gauged river basins. Altimetry data availability over the downstream reaches of the Brahmaputra is excellent (17 high-quality virtual stations from ERS-2, 6 from Topex and 10 from Envisat are available for the Brahmaputra). In this study, altimetry data are used to update a large-scale Budyko-type hydrological model of the Brahmaputra river basin in real time. Altimetry measurements are converted to discharge using rating curves of simulated discharge versus observed altimetry. This approach makes it possible to use altimetry data from river cross sections where both in-situ rating curves and accurate river cross section geometry are not available. Model updating based on radar altimetry improved model performance considerably. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency increased from 0.77 to 0.83. Real-time river basin modelling using radar altimetry has the potential to improve the predictive capability of large-scale hydrological models elsewhere on the planet.

Milzow, Christian; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

2014-01-01

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Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program) based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB). Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit) scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain), one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cu