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1

River Basin Planning Guidance volume 2  

has been carried out by the Collaborative Research Programme on. River Basin \\Management ..... 2013. 2007. ? Surface Water for the abstraction of drinking water\\. (75/440/EEC) ... (IPPC) (96/61/EC). ? Major Accidents (Seveso) (96/82/EC).

2

Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

A.G. Crook Company

1993-04-01

3

Earlier River Basin Planning  

...North Eastern River Basin...into Member State Law. Identify River Basin Districts, International River Basin Districts and competent authorities....Complete initial characterisation of River Basin Districts and International River Basin Districts. Establish registers of Protected...

4

09 river basin planning  

...coordinated planning system based within river basins. iMPort AncE oF riVEr BASin PLAnninG River basin planning is an ongoing...the sea at a single river mouth, estuary or delta. r iver Basin d istrict...iver Basin d istrict: A river basin or several small river basins combined with larger river basins or joined with neighbouring...

5

North Western River Basin  

...2015North Eastern River BasinNorth Western River BasinRivers and LakesCoastal and...Visits WMUDevelopment ManagementStormwater ManagementNorth Western River BasinManaging our Shared Waters (.PDF 1...

6

Changes in sediment volume in Alder Lake, Nisqually River Basin, Washington, 1945-2011  

Science.gov (United States)

The Nisqually River drains the southwest slopes of Mount Rainier, a glaciated stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of western Washington. The Nisqually River was impounded behind Alder Dam when the dam was completed in 1945 and formed Alder Lake. This report quantifies the volume of sediment deposited by the Nisqually and Little Nisqually Rivers in their respective deltas in Alder Lake since 1945. Four digital elevation surfaces were generated from historical contour maps from 1945, 1956, and 1985, and a bathymetric survey from 2011. These surfaces were used to compute changes in sediment volume since 1945. Estimates of the volume of sediment deposited in Alder Lake between 1945 and 2011 were focused in three areas: (1) the Nisqually River delta, (2) the main body of Alder Lake, along a 40-meter wide corridor of the pre-dam Nisqually River, and (3) the Little Nisqually River delta. In each of these areas the net deposition over the 66-year period was 42,000,000 ± 4,000,000 cubic meters (m3), 2,000,000 ± 600,000 m3, and 310,000 ± 110,000 m3, respectively. These volumes correspond to annual rates of accumulation of 630,000 ± 60,000 m3/yr, 33,000 ± 9,000 m3/yr, and 4,700 ± 1,600 m3/yr, respectively. The annual sediment yield of the Nisqually (1,100 ± 100 cubic meters per year per square kilometer [(m3/yr)/km2]) and Little Nisqually River basins [70 ± 24 (m3/yr)/km2] provides insight into the yield of two basins with different land cover and geomorphic processes. These estimates suggest that a basin draining a glaciated stratovolcano yields approximately 15 times more sediment than a basin draining forested uplands in the Cascade Range. Given the cumulative net change in sediment volume in the Nisqually River delta in Alder Lake, the total capacity of Alder Lake since 1945 decreased about 3 percent by 1956, 8 percent by 1985, and 15 percent by 2011.

Czuba, Jonathan A.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Gish, Casey C.

2012-01-01

7

Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

1993-03-01

8

Penobscot River Basin Overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

The New England River Basins Commission has prepared summary reports on each of the region's major river basins. These reports concentrate on identifying problems in the existing network of planning and resource management programs. The most significant w...

1981-01-01

9

Identifying River Basin Districts  

Identifying River Basin Districts The Water Framework Directive requires us to identify River Basin Districts. These Districts are used in the WFD to manage water environments. In England and Wales we have identified 11 River Basin Districts: * Six entirely in England (Anglian, Humber, North West, South…

10

Thames River Basin District  

The Thames River Basin District encompasses the River Thames and its tributaries, from its source in Gloucestershire through London to the North Sea. The district covers more than 16,000 square kilometres.

11

Dynamic reorganization of river basins.  

Science.gov (United States)

River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology. PMID:24604204

Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu

2014-03-01

12

Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

NONE

1994-12-31

13

Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1992-03-01

14

Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1992-03-01

15

Monitoring and evaluation of smolt migration in the Columbia River Basin; Volume 1; Evaluation of the 1995 predictions of the run-timing of wild migrant subyearling chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project was initiated in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of the project include: (1)to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and to help identify future research and analysis needs; (2)to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to assist in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; and (3)to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4)to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community

1997-01-01

16

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin ; Volume 1 ; Evaluation of the 1995 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Subyearling Chinook in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project was initiated in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of the project include: (1) to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and to help identify future research and analysis needs; (2) to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to assist in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; and (3) to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4) to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community.

Townsend, Richard L.

1997-06-01

17

Altamaha River Basin Management Plan 2003.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document presents Georgia's management plan for the Altamaha River basin, which is being produced as a part of Georgia's River Basin Management Planning (RBMP) approach. The Georgia Environmental Protection Division (EPD) has developed this plan in c...

2003-01-01

18

River Basin Planning Guidance  

measures which should be submitted to the Secretary of State and/or the ... \\integrated approach for the protection and sustainable use of the water \\environment. 1.2 The ... which is defined based on hydrology – see map at Annex \\1). The river.

19

The Rhine River Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nine countries are in part or entirely situated within the Rhine catchment, namely Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy (only 51 km²), Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, The Netherlands and Switzerland. With a total length of about 1250 km, a drainage area of 185 260 km² and an average discharge of about 2300 m³/s, the Rhine ranks 9th among Eurasian rivers. The Rhine is the primary artery of one of the most important economic regions of Europe (annual gross domestic product of 1750 billion US$)...

Uehlinger, Urs F.; Wantzen, Karl M.; Leuven, Rob S.; Arndt, Hartmut

2009-01-01

20

Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume III - Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beaver Creek Hatchery is located on the Elochoman River about 10 miles upstream from the river mouth. The Elochoman River is a north bank tributary of the lower Columbia River, just downstream of Cathlamet, Washington. The facility consists of 10 intermediate raceways, 20 raceways, (1) earthen rearing pond, (2) adult holding ponds, and a hatchery building with 60 troughs. It is staffed with 4 FTE`s. Water rights total 16,013 gpm from three sources: Elochoman River, Beaver Creek and a well. Beaver Creek water is gravity flow while the other two sources are pumped. The Elochoman River is used in summer and fall while Beaver Creek water is used from mid-November through mid-May. Filtered well water (1 cfs) is used to incubate eggs and for early rearing of fry. Water use in summer is about 5,800 gpm. Gobar Pond, a 0.93-acre earthen rearing pond located on Gobar Creek (Kalama River tributary), is operated as a satellite facility.

Colville Confederated Tribes; US Fish and Wildlife Service; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Yakama Indian Nation

1996-06-01

 
 
 
 
21

Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995, Volume I - Idaho.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clearwater Hatchery is located on the north bank of the North Fork of the Clearwater River, downstream from Dworshak Dam. It is approximately 72 miles from Lower Granite Dam, and 504 miles from the mouth of the Columbia River. Site elevation is approximately 994 feet above sea level. The hatchery is staffed with 8 FTE`s. Clearwater Hatchery has two pipelines from Dworshak Reservoir. One is attached to a floating platform and is capable of providing various temperatures at varying depths. The other is a stationary intake about 245 feet below the top of the dam. All water is gravity fed to the hatchery. An 18-inch intake pipe provides an estimated 10 cfs with temperature remaining constant at approximately 40T. The primary 42-inch intake pipe can draw water from 5 to 45 feet in depth with temperatures ranging from 55{degrees} to 60{degrees}F and 70 cfs of flow. This report describes the operations of the hatchery.

Idaho Department of Fish and Game; US Fish and Wildlife Service; Nez Perce Tribe

1996-06-01

22

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume II : Evaluation of the 1996 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Subyearling Chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project was initiated in 1991 in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of this project include: (1)to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and identify future research and analysis needs; (2)to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to aid management in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; (3)to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4)to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community.

Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Yasuda, Dean

1998-07-01

23

Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume II. Annotated bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume is a partially annotated bibliography of reference materials pertaining to the seven KGRA's. The bibliography is divided into sections by program element as follows: terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, heritage resources, socioeconomics and demography, geology, geothermal, soils, hydrology and water quality, seismicity, and subsidence. Cross-referencing is available for those references which are applicable to specific KGRA's. (MHR)

Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

1979-09-01

24

Wadter Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin and Statewide Project Data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synaptic sites, and partial-record sites; and (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake- and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures ga through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two to three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

NONE

1994-12-31

25

England-Scotland cross border River Basin Districts  

…the Solway Tweed River Basin District falls within Scotland; however, the English catchments of the Eden, Waver and Wampool drain to the Solway Firth and the River Till is part of the River Tweed catchment.  Most of the Northumbria River Basin District falls within England. Key issues * River Basin

26

CONTRIBUTIONS TO MOLDOVA RIVER’S INFERIOR BASIN VEGETATION KNOWLEDGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authors describes in this paper two vegetal associations (mesophyllus grasslands, Festuco rubrae-Agrostetum capillaris Horvati? 1951 and Trisetetum flavescentis R?bel 1911 from the inferior basin of Moldova river.

M?RIU?A CONSTANTIN

2004-01-01

27

Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of tritium through the Mississippi Basin and its tributaries was calculated during the years that tritium measurements were made. The cumulative fluxes, calculated in grams of 3II were: (i) 160 g for the Ohio (1961-1986), (ii) 98 g for the upper Missouri (1963-1997), (iii) 30 g for the Arkansas (1961-1997) and (iv) 780 g for the Mississippi (1961-1997). Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Michel, R. L.

2004-01-01

28

River Basin Planning: Theory and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

River Basin Planning is divided into three major parts and an appendix. Part 1, Theory of River Basin Planning, is led by an introductory chapter from the editors emphasizing the major human component in the complex sociotechnical attributes of river basin development. They present a forceful argument for a truly interdisciplinary approach to river basin planning. (The appendix subsequently suggests curriculum development for courses in river basin planning.)Part 2, River Basin Planning: Environmental Issues, is supported by two chapters: one with a focus on soil conservation, the other on ecosystem protection. The soil conservation chapter by I. Douglas illustrates that slow, inadvertent changes may be more damaging in the long run than immediate, direct effects. It postulates that planning for people perforce will require planning for soil conservation as an ongoing activity. The case for environmental protection is somewhat weak because of the singular example chosen for illustration. The Gunung Mulu National Park in Sarawak, Malaysia, is in a fragile, humid, tropical forest region where any change per se is interpreted as being detrimental.

Joeres, Erhard F.

29

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Connecticut River lowlands and Chicopee River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins of the Connecticut River lowlands and Chicopee River basin in southern Franklin, eastern Hampshire, and western Worcester Counties, Massachusetts , are delineated on 18 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 10 square miles along the Chicopee River, or 20 square miles along the Connecticut River. (USGS)

Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1982-01-01

30

Analysis of River Widths in the Amazon River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Rivers play a central role in the global hydrologic cycle, connecting atmospheric fluxes to soil moisture and groundwater storage through the circulation of water and transport of sediments from upland catchments to coastal settings over the landscape. River form on the regional-scale depends substantially on the variations in climate, drainage basin area, human activity, and substrate. Past studies of river form have focused mainly on small systems or network-form descriptions, rather than examining regional-scale continuous river morphology. This study represents the first-ever observational data set of continuous measurement of river widths in the Amazon River basin that are as wide as 50 meters or more. The widths are calculated using the RivWidth algorithm, which automatically calculates continuous river widths from satellite-derived water masks. We used Landsat TM and ETM+ images due to their long historical record, high spatial resolution, and wide global coverage. A total of 263 satellite images acquired during June to September, whenever possible, were used in creating the mask of Amazon River basin. A frequency analysis of river widths shows the wide variability in the distribution of complex-channels in the Amazon basin. The resulting map of river widths, when linked with Digital Elevation Models, can serve as an important tool in evaluating the basic control mechanisms on river formation and improve understanding of key relationships between width and variables such as basin area, lithology, climate, and human influence. The resulting width dataset will also be a significant contribution to the nascent Global River Width Database (GRWD) in the future.

Kustu, M. D.; Pavelsky, T. M.

2012-12-01

31

Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

1993-10-01

32

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, PRELIMINARY BASIN EVALUATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper was to provide a process and a plan by which the Environmental Protection Agency can insure that water quality goals established in the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 are met in the waters of the Upper Snake Basin (17040201, 17040206, 170...

33

Drainage divides, Massachusetts-Hudson River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in northern Berkshire County, Massachusetts, are delineated on five topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for rivers where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams and 10 square miles along the Hoosic or North Branch Noosic Rivers. (USGS)

Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1982-01-01

34

Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume I Kootenai River (Overview, Report and Appendices).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

2001-10-01

35

South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

1990-06-01

36

Transformation for cooperation: river basin organizations, negotiations, and the case of the Nile Basin Initiative  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Basin-wide River Basin Organizations are widely promoted by reputable international bodies as the best way to achieve cooperation in negotiations over shared basins. As more shared basins around the world face growing water scarcity, the need for international cooperation is becoming more intense. It is not clear whether RBOs should be promoted as a best practice in international basins with numerous riparian states. Using the case study of the Nile Basin Initiative basin-wide River Basin Org...

Morissette, Erin

2009-01-01

37

Fish, Piquiri River, Upper Paraná River Basin, Paraná State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Piquiri River hydrographic basin includes adrainage area of 31,000 km2. Headwaters arelocated in the São João Mountains, flowing 485km until the Paraná River. The most importanttributaries of the right margin are the rivers Goioerê,Tricolor and Cantú, while in the left marginthe rivers Sapucaí and Melissa stand out. Sixsamplings were done between October 2002 andSeptember 2003, in three sampling sites(Campina, Apertado and Altônia along thePiquiri River. Fish species were collected usinggill nets with simple meshes and trammel nets, inaddition to longlines. Considering the entire period,1,667 individuals were collected, belonging to 62species distributed among 21 families and 5orders. A total of 25 species are new registers forthis basin, while 6 were still not formallydescribed, indicating that new species will becaptured in future surveys.

Gubiani, E. A.

2006-01-01

38

Coalbed methane potential of the Greater Green River, Piceance, Powder River, and Raton Basins. Topical report, January 1991-July 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coalbed methane potential of the Greater Green River, Piceance, Powder River, and Raton Basins was evaluated in the context of geologic and hydrologic characteristics identified in the San Juan Basin, the nation's leading coalbed methane producing basin. The major comparative criteria were (1) coalbed methane resources, (2) geologic and hydrologic factors that predict areas of high gas producibility and high coalbed reservoir permeability, and (3) coalbed thermal maturity. The technical criteria were expanded to include structure, depositional systems, and data base and then combined with economic criteria (production, industry activity, and pipeline availability) to evaluate the coalbed methane potential of the basins. The Greater Green River and Piceance Basins have primary potential to make a significant near-term contribution to the nation's gas supply. These basins have large gas resources, high-rank coals, high gas contents, and established coalbed methane production. The Greater Green River Basin has numerous coalbed methane targets, good coal-seam permeability, and extensive hydrologic areas favorable for production. The Powder River and Raton Basins were judged to have secondary potential. Coal beds in the Powder River Basin are thermally immature and produce large volumes of water; the Raton Basin has a poor data base and has no gas pipeline infrastructure. Low production and minimal industry activity further limit the near-term potential of the Raton Basin. However, if economic criteria are discounted and only major technical criteria are considered, the Greater Green River and Raton Basins are assigned primary potential. The Raton Basin's shallow, thermally mature coal beds of good permeability are attractive coalbed methane targets, but low coal-seam permeability limits the coalbed methane potential of the Piceance Basin.

Tyler, R.; Ambrose, W.A.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.

1991-12-01

39

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Housatonic River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, are delineated on 12 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 15 square miles along the Housatonic River. (USGS)

Gadoury, Russell A.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1983-01-01

40

GPP estimation over Heihe River Basin, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Gross Primary Production (GPP) is the sum of carbon absorbed by plant canopy. It is a key measurement of carbon mass flux in carbon cycle studies. Remote sensing based light use efficiency model is a widely used method to estimate regional GPP. In this study, MODIS-PSN was used to estimate GPP in Heihe River Basin. In order to better the model accuracy, maximum light use efficiency (?0) in MODIS-PSN is estimated using local observed carbon flux data and meteorological data. After adjustment of parameter ?0, MODIS-PSN can correctly estimate GPP for major vegetation type in the Heihe River Basin. Then, yearly GPP over Heihe River Basin was estimated. The results indicated that about 1.4*1013g carbon enter terrestrial ecosystem through vegetation photosynthesis in the Heihe River Basin one year. In contrast, there is just 5.73*1013g carbon enter terrestrial ecosystem according to the standard MODIS GPP product, which is greatly underestimated GPP in the Heihe River Bain.

Wang, Xufeng; Ma, Mingguo; Li, Xin; Han, Xujun; Ran, Youhua; Huang, Guanghui; Song, Yi; Tan, Junlei

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

England-Scotland cross border River Basin Districts  

…Districts River Basin Districts under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) have been determined using watershed boundaries. In England and Wales there are 11 River Basin Districts. Two of these straddle the border with Scotland the: * Solway Tweed * Northumbria The Solway Tweed River Basin District…

42

Middle Klamath River Sub-basin Planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the FY '99 program is to contribute to the restoration of anadromus fish stocks in the Klamath River using steps outlined in the Draft Phase I Middle Klamath Plan. The Middle Klamath Sub-basin Coordinator, hired by the Karuk Tribe of Cali...

2001-01-01

43

Freshwater Scarcity in the Nile River Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to a growing body of literature, scarcity of freshwater to meet the many needs of Third World countries is rapidly escalating. Furthermore, many of the remaining exploitable sources of freshwater are in river basins shared by two or more soverei...

K. F. Ubbelohde

2000-01-01

44

South East River Basin Liaison Panel  

…District Liaison Panel Meeting 3 20 February 2007 WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE Western Wales River Basin District Liaison Panel Meeting 3 Bwlch Nant yr Arian Visitor Centre Ponterwydd Aberystwyth SY23 3AZ 20 February 2007 Summary report of meeting WW/RBDLP3/Feb07/SU Attendance Sector Attendees Countryside…

45

Regionalization of River Basins Using Cluster Ensemble  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the wake of global water scarcity, forecasting of water quantity and quality, regionalization of river basins has attracted serious attention of the hydrology researchers. It has become an important area of research to enhance the quality of prediction of yield in river basins. In this paper, we analyzed the data of Godavari basin, and regionalize it using a cluster ensemble method. Cluster Ensemble methods are commonly used to enhance the quality of clustering by combining multiple clustering schemes to produce a more robust scheme delivering similar homogeneous basins. The goal is to identify, analyse and describe hydrologically similar catchments using cluster analysis. Clustering has been done using RCDA cluster ensemble algorithm, which is based on discriminant analysis. The algorithm takes H base clustering schemes each with K clusters, obtained by any clustering method, as input and constructs discriminant function for each one of them. Subsequently, all the data tuples are predicted using H discriminant functions for cluster membership. Tuples with consistent predictions are assigned to the clusters, while tuples with inconsistent predictions are analyzed further and either assigned to clusters or declared as noise. Clustering results of RCDA algorithm have been compared with Best of k-means and Clue cluster ensemble of R software using traditional clustering quality measures. Further, domain knowledge based comparison has also been performed. All the results are encouraging and indicate better regionalization of the Godavari basin data.

Sangeeta Ahuja

2012-07-01

46

RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to understand and quantify the resource itself and to develop technologies that will permit commercial exploitation. This study is a contribution to that process.

Robert Caldwell

1998-04-01

47

Simulation of streamflow in small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin, Colorado  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal mining operations in northwestern Colorado commonly are located in areas that have minimal available water-resource information. Drainage-basin models can be a method for extending water-resource information to include periods for which there are no records or to transfer the information to areas that have no streamflow-gaging stations. To evaluate the magnitude and variability of the components of the water balance in the small drainage basins monitored, and to provide some method for transfer of hydrologic data, the U.S. Geological Survey 's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System was used for small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin to simulate daily mean streamflow using daily precipitation and air-temperature data. The study area was divided into three hydrologic regions, and in each of these regions, three drainage basins were monitored. Two of the drainage basins in each region were used to calibrate the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model was not calibrated for the third drainage basin in each region; instead, parameter values were transferred from the model that was calibrated for the two drainage basins. For all of the drainage basins except one, period of record used for calibration and verification included water years 1976-81. Simulated annual volumes of streamflow for drainage basins used in calibration compared well with observed values; individual hydrographs indicated timing differences between the observed and simulated daily mean streamflow. Observed and simulated annual average streamflows compared well for the periods of record, but values of simulated high and low streamflows were different than observed values. Similar results were obtained when calibrated model parameter values were transferred to drainage basins that were uncalibrated. (USGS)

Parker, R. S.; Norris, J. M.

1989-01-01

48

Hydrological analyses in Skrapež river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reasons for lack of hydrological studies in mountainous regions are: absence of hydrological measurements and the fact that measurements were not continuous. However, as mentioned areas are basic sources of fresh, unpolluted and useful water, it is necessary to carry out water regime researches and continuous measurements. Surface amount of water in Skrapež riverbed was analyzed, as well as its regime and water balance. Water management problems were pointed out as well. This paper discusses problems connected to decreasing of water amount in the last 20 years of analyzed period, variations of discharge, threats to economy in periods of both low and high water, and also points out the torrential character of the river. The possibilities of water usage from previously unstudied Skrapež sub basins are pointed out as well. Research and utilization of these sub basins provided that high water quality is preserved, would lead to high level of solving the problems of water supply, irrigation and torrential rivers.

Kova?evi?-Majki? Jelena

2008-01-01

49

Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of {sup 9}Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is primarily controlled by two major factors: (1) its abundance in the rocks of the watershed and (2) the extent of its adsorption onto particle surfaces. The relative importance of these parameters in individual rivers is determined by the extent of interaction with flood-plain sediments and the riverine pH. This understanding of {sup 9}Be geochemistry forms a basis for examination of the geochemical cycling of {sup 10}Be. In rivers which are dominated by interaction with sediments, the riverine concentration of dissolved {sup 10}Be is far lower than that in the incoming rainwater, indicating that a substantial proportion of it is retained within the soils of the basin or is adsorbed onto riverine particles. However, in acidic rivers in which the stable dissolved Be concentration is determined by the Be level in the rocks of the drainage basin, dissolved {sup 10}Be has essentially the same concentration as in precipitation. These observations imply that the soil column in such regions must be saturated with respect to {sup 10}Be, and that the ratio of the inventory to the flux does not represent an age, as may be the case in temperate latitudes, but rather a residence time.

Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States)); Raisbeck, G.M.; Bourles, D.L.; Yiou, F. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay (France)); Measures, C.I. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States))

1992-04-01

50

Sprague River geomorphology studies, Klamath Basin, Oregon  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sprague River drains 4050 square kilometers with a mean annual discharge of 16.3 m3/s before emptying into the Williamson River and then upper Klamath Lake in southcentral Oregon. The alternating wide alluvial segments and narrow canyon reaches of this 135-km-long westward flowing river provide for a variety of valued ecologic conditions and human uses along the river corridor, notably fisheries (including two endangered species of suckers, and formerly salmon), timber harvest, agriculture, and livestock grazing. The complex history of land ownership and landuse, water control and diversion structures, and fishery alterations, provides several targets for attributing historic changes to channel and floodplain conditions. Recently, evolving societal values (as well as much outside money) are inspiring efforts by many entities to 'restore' the Sprague River watershed. In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Klamath Tribes, and many local landowners, we are launching an analysis of Sprague River channel and floodplain processes. The overall objective is to guide restoration activities by providing sound understanding of local geomorphic processes and conditions. To do this we are identifying key floodplain and channel processes, and investigating how they have been affected by historic floodplain activites and changes to the watershed. This is being accomplished by analysis of historic aerial photographs and maps, stratigraphic analysis of floodplain soils and geologic units, mapping of riparian vegetation conditions and changes, and quantitative analysis of high resolution LiDAR topography acquired for the entire river course in December 2004. Preliminary results indicate (1) much of the coarser (and more erodible) floodplain soils are largely composed of pumice deposited in the basin by the 7700 year BP eruption of Mount Mazama; and (2) the LiDAR digital elevation models provide a ready means of subdividing the river into segments with quantifiably different characteristics of channel width, sinuosity, slope, and incision (relative to adjacent floodplain elevations).

McDowell, P. F.; O'Connor, J. E.; Lind, P.

2005-12-01

51

Identification of basin characteristics influencing spatial variation of river flows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The selection of basin characteristics that explain spatial variation of river flows is important for hydrological regionalization as this enables estimation of flow statistics of ungauged basins. A direct gradient analysis method, redundancy analysis, is used to identify basin characteristics, which explain the variation of river flows among 52 selected basins in Zimbabwe. Flow statistics considered are mean annual runoff, coefficient of variation of annual runoff, average number of days per...

2006-01-01

52

Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting (national and international laws and agreements), the institutional setting (the formal networks), information management (the information collection and dissemination system), and financing systems (the public and private sources that cover the water management costs). These elements are usually designed for a specific level and are ideally aligned with the other levels. The presentation will go into detail on connecting the different elements of the water management regime between different levels as well as on the overarching governance issues that play a role and will present opportunities and limitations of the linking options.

Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

2014-05-01

53

Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems tools, using minimum temperature – 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April, when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l., while the low (or null probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.. Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l., moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

G. Trasmonte

2008-04-01

54

Multiobjective Optimization in River Basin Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiobjective optimization in water resources planning consists in trading off noncommensurable objectives within the framework of a complex and dynamic process. Multiobjective optimization is performed at two levels: first, an engineering level, which may be labeled a decision-making aid phase; and then, a managerial level of acceptance of the solution. The engineering level optimization may be performed by means of a cost-effectiveness approach followed by the application of compromise programing, which consists of choosing a compromise solution located as close as possible to an ideal but non-feasible solution. In this paper this combined method is applied to the design of a water resources system in the Central Tisza River Basin in Hungary. The results obtained by following this approach are compared to those in David and Duckstein (1976) and Keeney and Wood (1977), who used, respectively ELECTRE and multiattribute utility theory instead of compromise programing to study the same basin. The proposed methodology is able to lead to either one of the two different decisions resulting from the other studies. A brief discussion of possible approaches for final choice of alternative system is given. Key words in this paper are multiobjective optimization, decision-making aid, cost-effectiveness approach, compromise programing, and river basin development.

Duckstein, Lucien; Opricovic, Serafim

1980-02-01

55

77 FR 16558 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal  

Science.gov (United States)

...River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation...Secretary of the Interior is renewing the charter for the Yakima River Basin Conservation...Certification I hereby certify that Charter renewal of the Yakima River Basin...

2012-03-21

56

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

2009-12-03

57

COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

58

Drainage areas of streams in Arkansas, Ouachita River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Drainage areas, determined in accordance with procedure recommended by the Subcommittee on Hydrology of the Federal Inter-Agency River Basin Committee, are listed for points on streams in the Ouachita River basin in Arkansas. Points on the streams are identified by some topographic feature and by latitude and longitude. (USGS).

Yanchosek, John J.; Hines, Marion S.

1979-01-01

59

Microsoft PowerPoint - DO1 08 211599 NIEA - WMU - WFD Presentation on Draft River Basin ...  

...Draft River Basin Management Plans Carlingford and...yr What is a RBMP? River Basin Districts Classify HIGH GOOD...ManagementHigh Good Moderate Poor BadAssessedArea River Status as % of Total River Length (45 water bodies) Summary...

60

Coalbed Methane Potential of the Greater Green River, Piceance, Powder River, and Raton Basins. Topical Report, January 1991-July 1991.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coalbed methane potential of the Greater Green River, Piceance, Powder River, and Raton Basins was evaluated in the context of geologic and hydrologic characteristics identified in the San Juan Basin, the nation's leading coalbed methane producing basin. ...

A. R. Scott R. Tyler W. A. Ambrose W. R. Kaiser

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Long lasting dynamic disequilibrium in river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

The river basins of ancient landscapes such as the southeastern United States exhibit disequilibrium in the form of migrating divides and stream capture. This observation is surprising in light of the relatively short theoretical fluvial response time, which is controlled by the celerity of the erosional wave that propagates upstream the fluvial channels. The response time is believed to determine the time required for fluvial landscapes to adjust to tectonic, climatic, and base-level perturbations, and its global estimations range between 0.1 Myr and 10s Myr. To address this discrepancy, we develop a framework for mapping continuous dynamic reorganization of natural river basins, and demonstrate the longevity of disequilibrium along the river basins in the southeastern United States that are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The mapping of disequilibrium is based on a proxy for steady-state elevation, ?, that can be easily calculated from digital elevation models. Disequilibrium is inferred from differences in the value of ? across water divides. These differences indicate that with the present day drainage area distribution and river topology the steady-state channels elevation across the divides differs, and therefore divides are expected to migrate in the direction of the higher ? value. We further use the landscape evolution model DAC to explore the source of the longevity of disequilibrium in fluvial landscapes. DAC solves accurately for the location of water divides, using a combination of an analytical solution for hillslopes and low-order channels together with a numerical solution for higher order channels. DAC simulations demonstrate topological, geometrical, and topographical adjustments that persist much longer than the theoretical response time, and consequently, extend the time needed to diminish disequilibrium in the landscape and to reach topological and topographical steady-state. This behavior is interpreted as resulting from a positive feedback between divide migration, which causes topological modifications and area change, on the one hand, and channel slope adjustments, which change the erosion rates on opposing sides of water divides and promote their migration, on the other hand. Furthermore, the constantly shifting drainage area and the changing topology of the drainage network are shown to be a possible source for autogenic sediment flux variations.

Goren, Liran; Willett, Sean D.; McCoy, Scott W.; Perron, J. Taylor; Chen, Chia-Yu

2014-05-01

62

[Landscape change in middle Heihe River Basin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Using GIS and a landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS, this paper dealt with the landscape change in the middle Heihe River Basin during the past 20 years. During the past 20 years, the landscape elements had a complex change of landscape structure and an apparent transition of landscape composition, but the landscape in a whole still displayed a pattern of sharply contrast between oasis landscape and desertification landscape. Human activities significantly changed the distribution and allocation of the limited water resource in the basin, leading to an acute contradiction between desertification and oasisfication. Moreover, the transitional area between desertification and oasisfication was very sensitive to these processes. The decrease of Shannon's diversity index and evenness index manifested the intensive management and reconstruction of landscape by human beings, which improved the socioeconomic benefits of the region on one hand, but decreased the landscape heterogeneity and landscape diversity, leading to the decrease of eco-environmental benefits of some areas in the basin on the other hand. The research method and technology used in this paper were also discussed. PMID:11813437

Lu, L; Cheng, G; Li, X

2001-02-01

63

The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996–2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London–Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max ?32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max ?46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

2014-05-01

64

Hydrologic Drought in the Colorado River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on drought scenarios of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) for the last five hundred years and evaluates the magnitude, severity and frequency of the current five-year drought. Hydrologic drought characteristics have been developed using the historical streamflow data and tree ring chronologies in the UCRB. Historical data include the Colorado River at Cisco and Lees Ferry, Green River, Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index (PHDI), and the Z index. Three ring chronologies were used from 17 spatially representative sites in the UCRB from NOAA's International Tree Ring Data. A PCA based regression model procedures was used to reconstruct drought indices and streamflow in the UCRB. Hydrologic drought is characterized by its duration (duration in year in which cumulative deficit is continuously below thresholds), deficit magnitude (the cumulative deficit below the thresholds for consecutive years), severity (magnitude divided by the duration) and frequency. Results indicate that the current drought ranks anywhere from the 5th to 20th worst drought during the period 1493-2004, depending on the drought indicator and magnitude. From a short term perspective (using annual data), the current drought is more severe than if longer term average (i.e., 5 or 10 year averages) are used to define the drought.

Timilsena, J.; Piechota, T.; Hidalgo, H.; Tootle, G.

2004-12-01

65

Land Use and Land Cover Changes in a Tropical River Basin: A Case from Bharathapuzha River Basin, Southern India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of the spatial and temporal changes in land use and land cover (LULC was conducted using Remote Sensing and GIS. We analyzed the LULC of Bharathapuzha river basin, south India using multispectral LANDSAT imageries of 1973-2005 time periods. 31% depletion in the natural vegetation cover and 8.7% depletion in wetland agriculture area were seen in the basin during the period. On the other hand the urban spread in the basin increased by 32%. The study highlights the need for a scientific management plan for the sustainability of the river basin, keeping in view the recent climatic anomalies and hydrological conditions of the basin.

P. A. Azeez

2010-10-01

66

The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

Vanham, Davy

2014-05-01

67

Use of the RHS method in Golijska Moravica river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available River Habitat Survey (RHS is terrain method developed in UK in 1994. for determination of physical character of rivers and river basin. This method is applied for the first time in Golijska Moravica river basin. Two indices which broadly describe the diversity of river habitat and landscape features (Habitat Quality Assessment (HQA and extent and severity of artificial modification to the channel (Habitat Modification Class (HMC has been developed for reporting purposes. These are based on simple scoring systems which have been agreed by technical experts.

Milanovi? Ana

2006-01-01

68

Erosion and sediment budget of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A case study on Mianyuan River basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Wenchuan Earthquake caused a large number of avalanches and landslides at different scales. It is extremely significant to evaluate the sediment in the earthquake river basins. Along the 38 km long upper Mianyuan River 196 landslides and avalanches happened during the earthquake, which have formed 25 landslide dams and quake lakes. The total volume of sediment erosion due to earthquake was about 115 million m3, which is 75 times higher than the soil erosion in norma...

Lijian Qi; ZhaoYin Wang; Xuzhao Wang

2012-01-01

69

Erosion and sediment transport in the Ganges river basin (India)  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on sampling of the entire region of the Ganges basin, chemical and sediment load supplied at various parts of the basin have been computed. Annual flux of materials from sub-basin into the main basin and input to the Hoogly estuary have been calculated and compared to major river systems of the world. The total annual load at Calcutta (mouth of the river) was calculated as 411 · 10 6 t (328 · 10 6 t sediment load + 83 · 10 6 t chemical load). Erosion rate (549 t km -2 yr. -1) is among the highest in this river system and controlling factors on a global scale, such as basin area, are discussed in detail. Annual decrease in basin elevation indicates a rapid process of denudation and such rates have a bearing on rates of shelf sediment accumulation.

Abbas, Nazar; Subramanian, V.

1984-02-01

70

Review of waterpower withdrawals in Weiser River Basin, Idaho  

Science.gov (United States)

The Weiser River basin is primarily agricultural and is supported by extensive irrigation. The Geological Survey has initiated withdrawals, or has made powersite classifications of lands having value for reservoir sites and for waterpower production. These withdrawals have been examined to see if they should continue in force or if it is in the public interest to restore them. The 1960 report, "Upper Snake River Basin," by the U.S. bureau of Reclamation, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included recommendations conooming potential water resource-development sites in Water River basin. That report furnished much of the information for this review.

Colbert, Jesse Lane; Young, Loyd L.

1964-01-01

71

Attribution of the river flow growth in the Plata Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A regression approach was used to quantitatively estimate the attribution of the notable growth in the river flows of the Plata Basin during 1960-1999. The study was conducted in seven large basins that account for most of the Plata River discharge. Annual rainfall integrated over each basin and annual river flows at their closing points were used for the analysis. The contribution of rainfall changes during each of the three phases of El Nino-Southern Oscillation to total rainfall change in ...

2011-01-01

72

A method for the evaluation of pollution loads from urban areas at river basin scale  

Science.gov (United States)

The European water framework directive (WFD) requires the identification of significant human pressures and impacts on water bodies. This is part of the wider analysis of river basins required by Article 5 (and Annex II) of the WFD, which must be completed by the end of 2004. The human pressures on surface waters include point and diffuse source pollutions, water abstraction, water flow regulation, morphological alterations and land use patterns. In order to be able to complete the analysis of significant pressures and impacts before the WFD deadline it is necessary to maximise the use of existing information. A method using only existing information for the evaluation of point source pollution at river basin scale, especially the pollution loads from drained urban areas into surface waters was therefore proposed. This method includes an approach to estimate imperviousness in urban areas and to calculate sewer overflow volume at river basin scale. The imperviousness in urban areas is estimated using information on land use in CORINE Landcover or ATKIS (Official Topographic-Cartographic Information System). Data used for the evaluation of sewer overflows, such as rainfall depth, sewer lengths, dry weather flow volume and total volume of combined wastewater discharged to wastewater treatment plants, are available from German Weather Survey, or they are, like in North Rhine-Westphalia, stored in databases. Imperviousness in the Wupper basin and nutrient inputs from urban areas into the Wupper river system were calculated in a case study and compared with the results of other investigations.

Nafo, I. I.; Geiger, W. F.

73

CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE OF EUGLENOPHYTA IN THE BAHLUI RIVER BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper gives information on the presence of Euglenophyta in various types of water bodies in Bahlui River Basin. Twenty species was identified, some of them being rare in algal flora of Romania.

M. COSTIC?

2009-01-01

74

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976  

Science.gov (United States)

This package contains information for the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (170402, 17040104). The report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determini...

75

Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

1970-01-01

76

Uncertainty in soil physical data at river basin scale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For hydrological modelling studies at the river basin scale, decision makers need guidance in assessing the implications of uncertain data used by modellers as an input to modelling tools. Simulated solute transport through the unsaturated zone is associated with uncertainty due to spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties and derived hydraulic model parameters. In general for modelling studies at the river basin scale spatially available data at various scales must be aggregated to an...

2006-01-01

77

Knowledge-based approaches for river basin management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rare attempts to use knowledge technologies and other relevant approaches are found in the river basin management. Some applications of expert systems as well as utilization of soft computing techniques (as neural networks or genetic algorithms) are known in an experimental level. Knowledge management approaches still have not been used at all. In this paper we discuss knowledge-based approaches in the river basin management as a difficult yet important direction which could be proven to be h...

Mikulecky?, P.; Ols?evic?ova?, K.; Ponce, D.

2007-01-01

78

SUGGESTIONS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TUZLA RIVER BASIN (NW TURKEY)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural development consists of a wide variety of new activities such as organic farming and livestock, region-specific products, nature conservation and landscape management, rural tourism, and the development of short supply changes. This research aimed to use a SWOT analysis to identify strategies for rural development in the Tuzla River Basin.The Tuzla River Basin is located on the southern side of the Marmara Region and extends in northeast-southwest direction from...

O?zo?zen Kahraman, Selver; C?alis?kan, Vedat

2012-01-01

79

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Blackstone and Thames River basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins of the Blackstone and Thames River basins in eastern Hampden, eastern Hampshire, western Norfolk, southern Middlesex, and southern Worcester Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 12 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 miles on tributary streams or 15 square miles along the Blackstone River, French River, or Quinebaug River. (USGS)

Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William

1982-01-01

80

Amazon river mouth Basin; Bacia da foz do Amazonas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stratigraphic maps of the sedimentary Amazon River Mouth Basin, its formation, geographic localization, geological age, rocks characterization on its several layers are presented. Based on PETROBRAS internal works, the stratigraphic maps shows the facies distribution, depositional sequences, lithology, and geological structure of the basin. 7 figs., 5 refs.

Brandao, J.A.S.L.; Feijo, F.J. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

[FS South East River Basin District finalv3.pdf  

…. 14 1 Current condition and classification In 2009, the South East River Basin Management Plan recorded that 33% (10) of groundwater bodies and 19% (76) of other water bodies, such as rivers and lakes, were at good or high condition. These 2009 classifications are the baseline used for the current…

82

Drainage areas of the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Drainage areas for 1,493 drainage area divisions for the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, are listed in the report. Also tabulated for each site are river miles, plus location identifiers: County, latitude and longitude, and the West Virginia District map number. (USGS)

Mathes, M. V.; Payne, D. D., Jr.; Shultz, R. A.; Kirby, J. R.

1982-01-01

83

Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

1996-01-01

84

Water loss in the Potomac River basin during droughts  

Science.gov (United States)

The water loss phenomena in the Washington DC metropoliton area's (WMA) Potomac River water supply basin during droughts was analyzed. Gage errors, permitted withdrawals, evaporation, and transpiration by trees along the river were investigated to account for loss. The Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin (ICPRB) calculated potential gage error and examined permits to determine permitted levels of consumption withdrawals from the Potomac. The result of a single slug test indicated that the soil transmissivity may not be adequate to allow passage of enough water to account for all of the calculated water loss.

Hagen, E. R.; Kiang, J. E.; Dillow, J. J. A.

2004-01-01

85

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Deerfield and Millers River basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in Franklin and northwestern Worcester Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 16 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 10 square miles along the Millers and Deerfield Rivers, or 20 square miles along the Connecticut River. (USGS)

Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1982-01-01

86

Drainage basins features and hydrological behaviour river Minateda basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine basin variables (shape, size and topology) have been analyzed in four small basins with non-permanent run off (SE of Spain). These geomorphological variables have been selected for their high correlation with the Instantaneous unit hydrograph parameters. It is shown that the variables can change from one small basin to another within a very short area; because of it, generalizations about the behaviour of the run off are not possible. In conclusion, it is stated that the variations in geomorphological aspects between different basins, caused mainly by geological constraints, are a very important factor to be controlled in a study of geoecological change derived from climatic change

1990-04-04

87

Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB), a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr<...

Zeng, Z.; Liu, J.; Koeneman, P. H.; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2012-01-01

88

Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, Costa Rica  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui?? River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9 km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2 km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui?? River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Anderson, E. P.; Pringle, C. M.; Freeman, M. C.

2008-01-01

89

Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin, Costa Rica  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

Anderson, E.P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, M. C.

2008-01-01

90

SUGGESTIONS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TUZLA RIVER BASIN (NW TURKEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural development consists of a wide variety of new activities such as organic farming and livestock, region-specific products, nature conservation and landscape management, rural tourism, and the development of short supply changes. This research aimed to use a SWOT analysis to identify strategies for rural development in the Tuzla River Basin.The Tuzla River Basin is located on the southern side of the Marmara Region and extends in northeast-southwest direction from the Aegean Sea to the western slope of Mt. Ida. This basin is divided into three sections, namely upper, middle and lower sections along the Tuzla River Basin. Some nine villages which represented three basins were selected from 35 villages using the methods of stratified sampling for this study. Some 200 surveys were performed in regard to the household number of each village and at 95% confidence level. According to the survey results, the investigated relation between the form of rural economic activity and the rural development characteristics was determined. SWOT and QSPM analysis techniques were used to explain poor conditions and future possibilities of rural development in the basin. In the rural areas of the basin, the form of agriculture, low-income animal husbandry carried out under natural & traditional conditions, emigration and traditional lifestyle are the causes of obstacles to rural development.

Vedat ÇALI?KAN

2012-12-01

91

Continuous flow simulation in the Bârlad river basin, Romania  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the partial results obtained into the project CLIMHYDEX ("Changes in Climate Extremes and associated impact on hydrological events in Romania") project that, among others, have as objectives the development of hydrological models at different spatial and temporal scales and the impact of climate change on extreme runoff in Bârlad catchment. To estimate the impact of climate change and variability on the flow regime in Bârlad catchment CONSUL hydrological model, with lumped parameters, was used. This rainfall-runoff deterministic model simulates the most significant hydrological processes within a hydrographic basin: snow-melting, interception, retention in the depressions, evapotranspiration, infiltration, surface runoff, hypodermic runoff, percolation, base runoff. According to the schematic representation (physiographic modelling) of how water flows and collects in a river basin the model computes the discharge hydrographs on selected simulation points on the river network and then performs their routing and composition on the main river and tributaries. After physiographic modelling resulted for Bârlad river basin: 56 sub-basins and 30 river reaches. CONSUL model was calibrated using historical data in Bârlad river basin by simulating the flow during 1975-2010. Calculation of average precipitation and air temperature (hydrological model input data) for each sub-basin was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from original rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Bârlad river basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. In order to estimate the initial values of CONSUL model parameters the generalization relationships of these parameters based on morphometric characteristics of the river basin or river reach were used. Calibration of model parameters was performed in two stages: (i) individual and (ii) globally. (i) Individual calibration on model structures was made based on the 25 rainfall-runoff events, chosen to cover a wide range of possible situations in the case of floods formation. First step was to determine, by individual basin calibration, the infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters, for the sub-basins controlled by gauging stations in the Bârlad river basin. These parameters allowed then the parameters estimation for the ungauged sub-basins. (ii) Global calibration of rainfall-runoff model parameters was done by simulating the flow on considered calibration period. This second stage allowed the recalibration of infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters at the sub-basins uncontrolled hydrometric as well the calibration of routing equation parameters. CONSUL model simulation results showed that the model gives the best results, in particular in the case of floods generated by precipitation evenly distributed in space. Deviations of flow hydrographs simulated by CONSUL and observed are due to both model errors and insufficient meteorological and hydrological data. The main errors are caused by the uncertainty related to the average precipitation computed values on each basin and its variable spatial and temporal distribution.

Corbu?, Ciprian; Mic, Rodica Paula; M?trea??, Marius

2014-05-01

92

Coupled Teleconnections and River Dynamics for Enhanced Hydrologic Forecasting in the Upper Colorado River Basin USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Accuracy of water supply forecasts has improved for some river basins in the western U.S.A. by integrating knowledge of climate teleconnections, such as El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), into forecasting routines, but in other basins, such as the Colorado River Basin (CRB), forecast accuracy has declined (Pagano et al. 2004). Longer lead time and more accurate seasonal forecasts, particularly during floods or drought, could help reduce uncertainty and risk in decision-making and lengthen the period for planning more efficient and effective strategies for water use and ecosystem management. The goal of this research is to extend the lead time for snowmelt hydrograph estimation by 4-6 months (from spring to the preceding fall), and at the same time increase the accuracy of snowmelt runoff estimates in the Upper CRB (UCRB). We hypothesize that: (1) UCRB snowpack accumulation and melt are driven by large scale climate modes, including ENSO, PDO and AMO, that establish by fall and persist into early spring; (2) forecast analysis may begin in the fall prior to the start of the primary snow accumulation period and when energy to change the climate system is decreasing; and (3) between fall and early spring, streamflow hydrographs will amplify precipitation and temperature signals, and thus will evolve characteristically in response to wet, dry or average hydroclimatic conditions. Historical in situ records from largely unregulated river reaches and undeveloped time periods of the UCRB are used to test this hypothesis. Preliminary results show that, beginning in the fall (e.g., October or November) streamflow characteristics, including magnitude, rate of change and variability, as well as timing and magnitude of fall/early winter and late winter/early spring season flow volumes, are directly correlated with the magnitude of the upcoming snowmelt runoff (or annual basin yield). The use of climate teleconnections to determine characteristic streamflow responses in the UCRB advances understanding of atmosphere/land surface processes and interactions in complex terrain and subsequent effects on snowpack development and runoff (i.e., water supply), and may be used to improve seasonal forecast accuracy and extend lead time to develop more efficient and effective management strategies for water resources and ecosystems.

Matter, M. A.; Garcia, L. A.; Fontane, D. G.

2005-12-01

93

Drought in the Klamath River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

For more than 100 years groups in the western United States have fought over water. During the 1880s, sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers argued over drinking water for their livestock on the high plains. In 1913, the city of Los Angeles began to draw water away from small agricultural communities in the Owen Valley, leaving a dusty dry lake bed. In the late 1950s, construction of the Glen Canyon Dam catalyzed the American environmental movement. Today, farmers are fighting fishermen, environmentalists, and Native American tribes over the water in the Upper Klamath River Basin. A below-average winter snowpack and low rainfall throughout the year have caused an extreme drought in the area along the California/Oregon border. In April 2001 a U.S. District Court stopped water deliveries to farms in the Klamath Irrigation District to preserve adequate water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect two endangered species of Mullet fish (called suckers). Water was also reserved for the threatened Coho Salmon which need enough water to swim downstream from their spawning grounds to the ocean. In addition, several Native American tribes have rights to Klamath River water. Further complicating the situation are a handful of wildlife refuges which usually receive enough irrigation wastewater to support upwards of a million migratory birds and 900 Bald Eagles. This year, however, several of the refuges may not have enough water for the birds which begin arriving in early fall. The severity of this year's drought is underscored by the town of Bonanza, Oregon. Famous for its natural springs, and entirely dependent on wells for drinking water, the town's water supply is now contaminated with pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. The water quality is so bad it's not even safe to bathe in, much less drink. The problem stems from a very low water table. The drop in underground water levels is caused directly by the drought, and indirectly from the increased irrigation from underground aquifers to compensate for the lack of water from Upper Klamath Lake. As the water table drops, clean water stops flowing from the springs and wells, and dirty water from fields flows into the water beneath Bonanza. Area farmers, many of them entirely dependent on irrigation, immediately launched protests when the court's decision to stop irrigation flows was announced, leading to national media coverage. On July 24 the Department of the Interior approved the release of some irrigation water from Upper Klamath Lake, but the flow lasted only until August 23. The water was enough to save some fields growing winter feed for livestock, but some other crops were unsalvageable, and water didn't reach every farmer who needed it. The Klamath Project dates back to 1903, when the Reclamation Service (now the Bureau of Reclamation, a branch of the U.S. Department of the Interior) investigated the possibility of converting rangeland, wetlands, and natural lakes into irrigated farmland. Construction began in 1906, the first water deliveries were made in 1907, and the project was completed in 1924. The Bureau of Reclamation supplies water to the farmers at the cost of delivery, without charging for the water. Fodder, barley, oats, potatoes, and wheat are the principal crops on the 225,000 acres of irrigated land. In addition, the irrigation dams control floodwaters, and the Link River Dam supplies hydroelectric power. The images above show the northeast portion of the Klamath Basin in 2000 (top) and 2001 (lower). These true-color images were acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus sensor aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, launched by NASA and operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Upper Klamath Lake, with its endangered sucker fish, is at the upper left, with the town of Klamath falls immediately below it. Bonanza is to the right of Klamath Falls. Tule Lake, which has been partially converted to farmland, is at the lower right and is surrounded by the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge. To the left of Tule Lake are the remains of Lower Klamath Lake and the marshes of the

2002-01-01

94

The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six ord...

Welber Senteio Smith; Miguel Petrere; Walter Barrella

2003-01-01

95

Transboundary water issues: The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sharing of water of transboundary rivers among riparian nations has become a cause of major concern in different parts of the globe for quite sometime. The issue in the recent decades has been transformed into a source of international tensions and disputes resulting in strained relationships between riparian nations. Conflicts over sharing of water of the international rivers, like the Tigris, Euphrates and Jordan in the Middle East, the Nile in Northern Africa, the Mekong in South-East Asia, the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna in the Indian subcontinent are widely known. The present paper discusses the water sharing -issue in the Ganga- Brahmaputra-Meghna basin located in the Indian sub continent covering five sovereign countries (namely India, Nepal, China, Bhutan and Bangladesh). Rapidly growing population, expanding agricultural and industrial activities besides the impacts of climate change have resulted in stressed condition in the arena of fresh water availability in the basin. Again occurrence of arsenic in sub-surface water in the lower reaches of the basin in India and Bangladesh has also added a new dimension to the problem. All the rivers of the GBM system exhibit wide variations between peak and lean flows as major part of the basin belongs to the monsoon region, where 80%-90 % of annual rainfall is concentrated in 4-5 months of South -West monsoon in the subcontinent. Over and above, the rivers in GBM system carry huge loads of sediments along with the floodwater and receive huge quantum of different kinds of wastes contaminating the water of the rivers. Again high rate of sedimentation of the major rivers and their tributaries have been affecting not only the carrying capacity of the rivers but also drastically reduced their retention capacity. Almost every year during monsoon about 27% and nearly 60% of the GBM basin lying in India and Bangladesh respectively experience flood. The year round navigation in many rivers has also been affected. All these have serious impacts on the economy of this geo politically sensitive region. It was found that the total water resource of the GBM river system would be unable to meet the prevailing water requirements of the basin, not to speak of the rise in demand of water in the future. It was established that the judicious water demand management and effective control of the over-use, misuse and abuse of water in the respective river basins in each country should get preference over competition for access to additional supply of water to meet the requirements and also adoption of technology which helps that goal to achieve should be made.(Author)

2004-05-25

96

Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Meade, R. H.; Rayol, J. M.; Da, Conceicao, S. C.; Natividade, J. R. G.

1991-01-01

97

The estimation of areal rainfall quantiles in Han River Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is very important to establish sufficiently long and reliable annual maximum rainfall data in estimating areal rainfall quantiles of Han River Basin. The data from 9 gauging stations measured by Korea Meteorological Administration may meet such a requirement, however the number of these data sets is too small to estimate overall areal rainfall quantiles in large basin such as Han River Basin. In order to solve such a problem, the space correlations of many sites' data measured by Korea Ministry of Construction and Transportation and Korea Water Resources Corporation (the number of sites is 59) were used for modification of rainfall measure density. And areal rainfall quantiles according to each sub-basin were estimated based on regression analysis. (author). 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

Kim, Kyung-Duk [Korea Infrastructure Safety and Technology Cooperation, Anyang(Korea); Kho, Youn-Woo; Heo, Jun-Haeng [Yonsei University, Seoul(Korea)

2000-08-31

98

Scenarios of changes of selected components of hydrosphere and biosphere in catchment basin of Hron River and Vah River as consequence of climatic change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This text-book consist of the following parts: (1) Hydrologic and climatic relationship of catchment basins; (2) Space interpretation of outputs of climatic scenarios in catchment basins of Hron River and Vah River by geostatistical methods; (3) Teleconnection of annual overflows with SO, NAO, AO and QBO phenomenons; (4) Snow; (5) Mathematical model for modelling of influence of climatic changes on runoff processes; (6) Multi-linear model of transformation of runoff in river-basins; (7) Influence of climatic change on capacity utilization of reserve volume of water reservoir Orava River; (8) Quality of surface waters; (9) Influence of climatic changes on biological factors and soil hydrology; (10) Proposal of framing adaptation arrangements.

2005-01-01

99

Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

2014-05-01

100

Optimal water allocation in the Mekong river basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mekong River is the dominant geo-hydrological structure in mainland Southeast Asia, originating in China and flowing through or bordering Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Whereas water resources in the wet season are more than adequate to fulfill basin needs, there are regional water shortages during the dry season, when only 1-2% of the annual flow reaches the Delta. Recent rapid agricultural and economic development in the basin has led to increasing competition among the...

Ringler, Claudia

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Impact of GRACE signal leakage over the Congo River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size, and second only to the Amazon River in discharge. The impact and connections of this hydrologic flux with the region's climate, biogeochemical cycling, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), especially in wetlands, is clearly of great importance. Yet, there is a great lack of published research documenting the Congo Basin terrestrial water balance. This lack of research is related in part to the limited amount of in-situ data; however, the abundance of spaceborne data suggests an opportunity for discovery. The Congo River is the only major river to cross the equator twice. In doing so, the basin lies in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere such that it receives year-round rainfall from the migration of Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). After the north has its wet season in the spring and summer, the ITCZ moves south and the remainder of the basin receives large amounts of rain. Consequently, the movement of ITCZ can also be observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) TWS changes over the northern and southern boundaries over the Congo. This spatial pattern of the TWS variations are different from that over the Amazon Basin, where the strongest positive or negative annual water storage anomalies are observed to be centered inside the basin. In this study, we examine individual monthly geographical distribution of GRACE TWS changes from various RL05 products, and determine the leakage-contaminated monthly solutions by comparison with reproduced TWS variations from Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model in sub-basin scale. We also present a methodology to empirically remove the signal leakage, and consequently improve the GRACE TWS estimates over the entire Congo Basin.

Lee, H.; Beighley, R. E.; Duan, J.; Shum, C.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Andreadis, K.

2013-05-01

102

Hydrological balance of Chicu River basin, using nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis made part of the ARCAL X III Project, referring to the groundwater study en the Bogota Plain (Sabana de Bogota, Colombia). In the Bogota plain, is found located the Chicu River basin, in such basin are located two towns Tabio and Tenjo, in this zone have been taken advantage the groundwater in the last years. The objective of this work was determined by means of isotopic techniques, the determination of the groundwater origin and its quality using physical and chemical parameters

1992-01-01

103

Drainage areas of the Guyandotte River basin, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

This report, prepared in cooperation with the West Virginia Office of Federal-State Relations (now the Office of Economic and Community Development), lists in tabular form 435 drainage areas for basins within the Guyandotte River basin of West Virginia. Drainage areas are compiled for sites at the mouths of all streams having drainage areas of approximately five square miles or greater, for sites at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations (past and present), and for other miscellaneous sites. (Woodard-USGS)

Mathes, M. V.

1977-01-01

104

75 FR 11554 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal; Notice of Charter Renewal  

Science.gov (United States)

...Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal; Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior...that the Secretary of the Interior is renewing the charter for the Yakima River Basin Conservation...

2010-03-11

105

76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton, Kittitas, Klickitat...Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The Washington State...

2011-04-05

106

Development of a System-Wide Program, Volume II : Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report their results of studies to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Three papers are included in this report. They are entitled: (1) Development of a Systemwide Predator Control Program: Indexing and Fisheries Evaluation; (2) Economic, Social and Legal Feasibility of Commercial Sport, and Bounty Fisheries on Northern Squawfish; (3) Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM): Modeling Approach for Evaluation of Control of Northern Squawfish Populations using Fisheries Exploitation.

Ward, David L.; Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife); Willis, Charles F. (S.P. Cramer and Associates., Gresham, OR)

1994-06-01

107

Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Westfield and Farmington River basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in western Hampshire, western Hampden, and southeastern Berkshire Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 15 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 10 square miles along the Westfield or Farmington Rivers. (USGS)

Gadoury, Russell A.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

1983-01-01

108

THIRTY-FIVE YEARS OF UPPER MISSOURI RIVER BASIN PALEOPATHOLOGY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wet Bones project consisted of speech/hearing evaluations performed on the Native Americans. The Dry Bones project were studies conducted on bones recovered from the region. During 35 years we examined skeletal remnants representing several cultures who existed in Dakota Territory during two millennia. The study of paleopathology was enhanced by salvage archaeology projects conducted before closure of dams across the River in the Upper Missouri River Basin (UMRB). Climatic conditions were unf...

Gregg, John B.

2000-01-01

109

Have your say on water: consultation on the draft River Basin Management Plans  

…possible within the consultation period. The draft River Basin Management Plans describe the main issues for each river basin district and highlights some key actions proposed for dealing with them. The annexes to the document give more detail on the conditions in the river basin district, the actions proposed…

110

Morphometric Characters of a Himalayan River Basin-Pindari river of Pindari Glacier  

Science.gov (United States)

Himalayan region consist many glaciers and glacier-fed rivers. About 17% of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is under permanent cover of Ice and snow and have more than 9000 glaciers and high altitude fresh water lakes. Stream runoff originating from the glaciers has direct implication in geomorphology of the region. Present study is an attempt to find out the stages in the geomorphic development of a higher altitudinal river basin, Pindari river basin. Development of a landscape is equal to the some total of the development of each individual drainage basin of which it is composed. Morphometric parameters of the river basin had been identified viz. linear, areal and relief aspect and examined. Pindari river basin is a 5th order high altitudinal, sub-dendratic, parallel and perennial tributary of Alaknanda River, formed by three main tributaries (Sunderdhunga, Pindari and Kafini). It has the catchment area above 557.63 Km2. This river originates from combined action of rain and snow fall from Pindari glacier which is part of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (a world heritage site). Pindari river basin is located between 1600 m to 6880 m elevation ,and 300 03' 23" -300 19' 04" N Latitude and 790 45' 59" - 80 0 04' 13"E Longitude. Due to microclimatic conditions Pindari river basin generally dry with low annual precipitation. There is heavy rainfall during monsoon season. The approximate variation in the precipitation is from 750 mm to 2000 mm. For estimating the Morphometric parameter SOI toposheet on 1:50000 scale and Landsat data (ETM+) having 15m resolution were georectified in RS and GIS environment. SRTM data was used in analysis of elevation and slope range of the study area. Extensive field study was held on during the year 2010. Morphometric parameters (linear, aerial and relief) of the study area had been estimated. It is observed that Pindari river basin is a sub-dendratic, higher relief, youth, fine texture; elongated basin has peak flow, high discharge, and mature topography with high homogenous erosion. Hydrological system of the study region is complex. Analysis of the Morphometric parameter provides adequate information of both terrain characteristics and hydrological behavior of the catchment and also it is observed that the drainage density of the river is very low which indicates the basin is highly permeable subsoil with dense vegetation cover. Analysis based on circularity ratio, form factor and elongation ratio showed that basin shape of the river is close to circular. The study have significant role to understand landform processes and erosional characteristics of a high altitudinal landform. Present study infers that the integration of morphometrical analysis along with the conventional watershed assessment methods would have a beneficial effect on judicious watershed management of the river Basin. It also included the decrease land resources, soil erosion, and shift runoff of the river basin. Attempt had been made to understand the impact of the river ecosystem of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve especially the upper region of river.

Patel, L. K.; Pillai, J.

2011-12-01

111

Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

2003-03-01

112

Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

2003-03-01

113

K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 1, Regulatory options  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE`s commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. Volume 1 of this two-volume report describes the regulatory options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path.

Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-01-01

114

K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 1, Regulatory options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. Volume 1 of this two-volume report describes the regulatory options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

1995-01-01

115

K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

1995-01-01

116

Fish, Salto Osório Reservoir, Iguaçu River basin, Paraná State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Iguaçu River is a large tributary of the Paraná River, with a highly endemic ichthyofauna due to the geographic isolation imposed by the Iguaçu falls, located near its mouth. Fish were collected monthly in four sampling stations along the Salto Osório Reservoir, from July 2003 to June 2005, using gill nets, casting nets, and long lines. Considering the entire period, 41 fish species were colleted, which belong to six Orders, 17 Families, and 27 Genera. From these, 24 species are considered endemic. Comparisons with other surveys conducted in the Iguaçu River are provided, in addition to comments on the fish endemism, even within the basin.

Oliveira, L. C.

2006-01-01

117

Future demand for Southern Powder River Basin coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article considers the future of the fastest-growing area of coal production in the US, the Southern Powder River Basin, located in north-eastern Wyoming. It's production has grown fivefold since 1980, and today accounts for 30% of total US coal production. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 3 photos.

Wolf, W.P.; Hilty, F.A.; Boyd II, J.T. [John T. Boyd Co. (USA)

2001-10-01

118

[FS Thames River Basin District finalv3.pdf  

…condition and classification In 2009, the Thames Basin Management Plan recorded that 17% (8) of groundwater bodies and 23% (132) of other water bodies, such as rivers and lakes, were at good or high condition. These 2009 classifications are the baseline used for the current status of water bodies. We…

119

Biomorphological structure of the flora of Vychegda River water basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The annotated list and biomorphological analysis of water flora from the basin of Vychegda River are represented. Flora of water bodies is mostly represented by perennial herbaceous plants which have high expansion potential. A lot of species from these flora belong to the special biomorphological group of polycarpous long-lived plants.

Boris Yu. Teteryuk

2013-04-01

120

BEAR RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATION, 1974  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of the waters in the Bear River Basin, Idaho (160102) was surveyed from August 27 to August 29, 1974. The purposes of the survey were to determine point and non-point source loading, to determine whether water quality has improved since the adoption of the 1958 Enfor...

 
 
 
 
121

COLUMBIA BASIN SALMON POPULATIONS AND RIVER ENVIRONMENT DATA  

Science.gov (United States)

Data Access in Real Time (DART) provides an interactive data resource designed for research and management purposes relating to the Columbia Basin salmon populations and river environment. Currently, daily data plus historic information dating back to 1962 is accessible online. D...

122

Digital Atlas of the Upper Washita River Basin, Southwestern Oklahoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous types of environmental data have been collected in the upper Washita River basin in southwestern Oklahoma. However, to date these data have not been compiled into a format that can be comprehensively queried for the purpose of evaluating the effects of various conservation practices implemented to reduce agricultural runoff and erosion in parts of the upper Washita River basin. This U.S. Geological Survey publication, 'Digital atlas of the upper Washita River basin, southwestern Oklahoma' was created to assist with environmental analysis. This atlas contains 30 spatial data sets that can be used in environmental assessment and decision making for the upper Washita River basin. This digital atlas includes U.S. Geological Survey sampling sites and associated water-quality, biological, water-level, and streamflow data collected from 1903 to 2005. The data were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database on September 29, 2005. Data sets are from the Geology, Geography, and Water disciplines of the U.S. Geological Survey and cover parts of Beckham, Caddo, Canadian, Comanche, Custer, Dewey, Grady, Kiowa, and Washita Counties in southwestern Oklahoma. A bibliography of past reports from the U.S. Geological Survey and other State and Federal agencies from 1949 to 2004 is included in the atlas. Additionally, reports by Becker (2001), Martin (2002), Fairchild and others (2004), and Miller and Stanley (2005) are provided in electronic format.

Becker, Carol J.; Masoner, Jason R.; Scott, Jonathon C.

2008-01-01

123

Community Development in the Colorado River Basin, Future Choices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some options and criteria of measurement available to Colorado River Basin communities for future development are described. The highly varied urban and rural centers of the Southwest are examined on the basis of data much of which was furnished by the co...

D. E. Mann

1974-01-01

124

COAL MINE SITING FOR THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. In part 1, an overview of the ORBES-region coal industry is presented. (The region consists of all of Kentu...

125

Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

1985-06-13

126

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume VI : Evaluation of the 2000 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin, and Combined Wild Hatchery Salminids Migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams using Program RealTime.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2000 in season outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from nineteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Camas Creek (new), Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek (new), Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, East Fork Salmon River (new), South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for two stocks of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon, from Redfish Lake and Alturas Lake (new); for a subpopulation of the PIT-tagged wild Snake River fall subyearling chinook salmon; for all wild Snake River PIT-tagged spring/summer yearling chinook salmon (new) and steelhead trout (new)detected at Lower Granite Dam during the 2000 outmigration. The 2000 RealTime project began making forecasts for combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams on the mid-Columbia River and the mainstem Columbia River. Due to the new (in 1999-2000) Snake River basin hatchery protocol of releasing unmarked hatchery-reared fish, the RealTime forecasting project no longer makes run-timing forecasts for wild Snake River runs-at-large using FPC passage indices, as it has done for the previous three years (1997-1999). The season-wide measure of Program RealTime performance, the mean absolute difference (MAD) between in-season predictions and true (observed) passage percentiles, improved relative to previous years for nearly all stocks. The average season-wide MAD of all (nineteen) spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs dropped from 5.7% in 1999 to 4.5% in 2000. The 2000 MAD for the hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon ESU was the lowest recorded, at 6.0%, down from 6.7% in 1999. The MAD for the PIT-tagged ESU of wild Snake River fall sub-yearling chinook salmon, after its second season of run-timing forecasting, was 4.7% in 2000 compared to 5.5% in 1999. The high accuracy of season-wide performance in 2000 was largely due to exceptional Program RealTime performance in the last half of the season. Passage predictions from fifteen of the sixteen spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs available for comparison improved in 2000 compared to 1999. The last-half average MAD over all the yearling chinook salmon ESUs was 4.3% in 2000, compared to 6.5% in 1999. Program RealTime 2000 first-half forecasting performance was slightly worse than that of 1999 (MAD = 4.5%), but still comparable to previous years with a MAD equal to 5.1%. Three yearling chinook ESUs showed moderately large (> 10%) MADs. These stocks had larger-than-average recapture percentages in 2000, producing over-predictions early in the season, in a dynamic reminiscent of migration year 1998 (Burgess et al., 1999). The passage distribution of the new stock of hatchery-reared sockeye salmon from Alturas Lake was well-predicted by Program RealTime, based on only two years of historical data (whole-season MAD = 4.3%). The two new run-of-the-river PIT-tagged stocks of wild yearling chinook salmon and steelhead trout were predicted with very good accuracy (whole-season MADs were 4.8% for steelhead trout and 1.7% for yearling chinook salmon), particularly during the last half of the outmigration. First-half steelhead predictions were among the season's worst (MAD = 10.8%), with over-predictions attributable to the largest passage on record of wild PIT-tagged steelhead trout to Lower Granite Dam. The results of RealTime predictions of passage percentiles of combined wild and hatchery-reared salmonids to Rock Island and McNary were mixed. Some of these passage-indexed runs-at-large were predicted with exceptional accuracy (whole-season MADs for coho salmon outmigrating to Rock Island Dam and McNary Dam were, respectively, 0.58% and 1.24%; for yearling chinook t

Burgess, Caitlin

1998-07-01

127

Hydrological response to climate change for Gilgel Abay River, in the Lake Tana Basin -Upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is likely to have severe effects on water availability in Ethiopia. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of climate change on the Gilgel Abay River, Upper Blue Nile Basin. The Statistical Downscaling Tool (SDSM) was used to downscale the HadCM3 (Hadley centre Climate Model 3) Global Circulation Model (GCM) scenario data into finer scale resolution. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was set up, calibrated, and validated. SDSM downscaled climate outputs were used as an input to the SWAT model. The climate projection analysis was done by dividing the period 2010-2100 into three time windows with each 30 years of data. The period 1990-2001 was taken as the baseline period against which comparison was made. Results showed that annual mean precipitation may decrease in the first 30-year period but increase in the following two 30-year periods. The decrease in mean monthly precipitation may be as much as about -30% during 2010-2040 but the increase may be more than +30% in 2070-2100. The impact of climate change may cause a decrease in mean monthly flow volume between -40% to -50% during 2010-2040 but may increase by more than the double during 2070-2100. Climate change appears to have negligible effect on low flow conditions of the river. Seasonal mean flow volume, however, may increase by more than the double and +30% to +40% for the Belg (small rainy season) and Kiremit (main rainy season) periods, respectively. Overall, it appears that climate change will result in an annual increase in flow volume for the Gilgel Abay River. The increase in flow is likely to have considerable importance for local small scale irrigation activities. Moreover, it will help harnessing a significant amount of water for ongoing dam projects in the Gilgel Abay River Basin. PMID:24250755

Dile, Yihun Taddele; Berndtsson, Ronny; Setegn, Shimelis G

2013-01-01

128

Hydrological Response to Climate Change for Gilgel Abay River, in the Lake Tana Basin - Upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is likely to have severe effects on water availability in Ethiopia. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of climate change on the Gilgel Abay River, Upper Blue Nile Basin. The Statistical Downscaling Tool (SDSM) was used to downscale the HadCM3 (Hadley centre Climate Model 3) Global Circulation Model (GCM) scenario data into finer scale resolution. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was set up, calibrated, and validated. SDSM downscaled climate outputs were used as an input to the SWAT model. The climate projection analysis was done by dividing the period 2010-2100 into three time windows with each 30 years of data. The period 1990-2001 was taken as the baseline period against which comparison was made. Results showed that annual mean precipitation may decrease in the first 30-year period but increase in the following two 30-year periods. The decrease in mean monthly precipitation may be as much as about -30% during 2010-2040 but the increase may be more than +30% in 2070-2100. The impact of climate change may cause a decrease in mean monthly flow volume between -40% to -50% during 2010-2040 but may increase by more than the double during 2070-2100. Climate change appears to have negligible effect on low flow conditions of the river. Seasonal mean flow volume, however, may increase by more than the double and +30% to +40% for the Belg (small rainy season) and Kiremit (main rainy season) periods, respectively. Overall, it appears that climate change will result in an annual increase in flow volume for the Gilgel Abay River. The increase in flow is likely to have considerable importance for local small scale irrigation activities. Moreover, it will help harnessing a significant amount of water for ongoing dam projects in the Gilgel Abay River Basin.

Dile, Yihun Taddele; Berndtsson, Ronny; Setegn, Shimelis G.

2013-01-01

129

A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

Christopher Bonzi

2011-06-01

130

Investigating the Hydrological Characteristics of Kaduna River Basin.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The water resource potential of the Kaduna River for use in irrigation development and water resource management has been studied. The water conveyance efficiencies of the river channels are very low that development of upstream reservoirs and downstream irrigation schemes will result in much water conveyance losses as the water flows downstream from these reservoirs. also, the runoff coefficient of the basin decreases from upstream to downstream catchments while the basin river have been observed to behave as gaining river and loosing river in their upstream and downstream ends respectively .Excessive loss of water by percolation below the root zones should be avoided by proper selection of irrigation water application method because of the low runoff coefficient of the lowland catchment areas. It is thus recommended that the development of the downstream of the basin for agriculture should be carried out with caution as a result of the great water –conveyance losses and the semi-aridity shown by stream flow analysis.

A Saminu

2013-09-01

131

Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Noatak River basin, Alaska, 1978  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrologic data were collected in 1978 described water resources of the Noatak River basin, Alaska. Streamflow varies seasonally. No flow was observed from the upper part of the basin in late winter (April). In the lower part of the basin springs support perennial flow in the Kugururok River and downstream along the Noatak. The discharge of the Noatak was 150 cubic feet per second in April 1978. During the summer, rainstorms are common, and runoff produces high flow. During August 1978, flow was normal in the basin; unit runoff averaged about 1 cubic foot per second per square mile. The Noatak is a gravel-bed stream of moderate slope. It drops about 1,800 feet in elevation from a point near the head waters to the mouth, a distance of 400 miles. Streambed material in most places is gravel, cobbles, and boulders, maximum riffle depths and pool widths increase in a downstream direction. Stream velocity in August 1978 increased from about 1 foot per second in the upper basin to about 4 feet per second in the lower reaches. High-water marks of the maximum evident flood were found at elevations from bankfull to 5 feet above bankfull. Maximum evident flood unit runoff rates were estimated to be less than 50 cubic feet per second per square mile. Scars produced by ice jams were seldom seen above bankfull. Bank erosion appears to be most active in the lowlands. Water in the Noatak River basin is virtually unaffected by man 's activity. Water quality varies with location, weather, season, and source; the water is normally clear, cool, and hard. During late winter sea water intrudes into the Lower Noatak Canyon. Benthic invertebrate community composition and variability suggest the river 's undiminished natural quality. (USGS)

Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.

1981-01-01

132

Drainage areas of the Monogahela River Basin, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains data for 1,127 drainage-area divisions of the Monongahela River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Monongahela River and Dunkard Creek. Data, compiled in down- stream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miels or larger, and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county and the 7-1/2 minute quadrangle in which the site lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, is 4,374.94 square miles.

Stewart, D. K.; Mathes, M. V.

1995-01-01

133

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVI : Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2005, the University of Washington developed a new statistical model to analyze the combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged salmon migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine), has been used to estimate survival and transportation effects on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin from 1996 to 2003. Those results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on both a systemwide basis, incorporating all transport dams analyzed, and a dam-specific basis. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 5,000 tagged smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few tagged hatchery steelhead were transported in these years, no transportation effects are estimated for steelhead. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.71% with a standard error (SE) of 0.18% for spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2003, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. For summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the estimates of annual SAR averaged 1.15% (SE=0.31%). Only for the release years 1999 and 2000 did the Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for hatchery steelhead from the Snake River Basin averaged 0.45% (SE=0.11%), including age-1-ocean returns, for release years 1996 through 2003. For release years when the ocean return probability from Bonneville back to Bonneville could be estimated (i.e., 1999 through 2003), it was estimated that on average approximately 86% of the total integrated mortality for nontransported, tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook, and 74% for steelhead, occurred during the ocean life stage (i.e., from Bonneville to Bonneville). This suggests that additional monitoring and research efforts should include the ocean and estuary environment. Annual estimates of the systemwide T/I are weighted averages of the dam-specific T/I ratios for each transport dam (with {ge} 5,000 tagged fish transported), weighted by the probabilities of being transported at each dam. The systemwide T/I compares the observed SAR under the existing transportation system with the expected SAR if the transportation system had not been operated. Estimates of 1.0 indicate that the systemwide transportation program has no effect on SAR, while estimates > 1.0 indicate that the transportation program increases SAR. Excluding the 2001 release group, the geometric mean of the systemwide T/I estimates for hatchery spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin was 1.15 (SE=0.03) for release years 1997 through 2003. The geometric mean of the systemwide T/I estimates for hatchery summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin was 1.28 (SE=0.13) for release years 1997 through 2000 and 2003. Estimates were much higher for the 2001 release groups. These estimates reflect transportation from Lower Granite and/or Little Goose for most release years, depending on the number of tagged smolts actually transported at each dam during each release year. Differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) is the ratio of post-Bonneville survival to Lower Granite Dam of transported fish to that of nontransported ('inriver') fish. Excluding the 2001 release year, the geometric mean of the D estimates for hatchery spring Chinook salmon from the Snake Ri

Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.

2007-12-07

134

Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:23644791

Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S

2013-02-01

135

Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the

Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

2004-10-01

136

Modification of climate-river flow associations by basin properties  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryGiven heightened concerns about climate and human impacts upon hydrology, there is a need to quantify temporal and spatial variability in water availability, and to establish climate-flow associations to predict future water stress. In the UK, most previous climate-river flow research: (1) used single sites or a network of basins with restricted geographical coverage and/or sparse density; (2) included river flow records impacted by anthropogenic influences; (3) generally recognised the importance of basin properties but did not advance beyond broad basin characterisation. This paper addresses these research gaps and aims to improve understanding of seasonal hydroclimatological associations across the UK by: (1) characterising spatial patterns in winter, spring, summer and autumn flows; (2) identifying regions for which atmospheric circulation (AC) and regional climate (RC) drivers exert strongest control on seasonal flows; and (3) identifying basin properties that have a significant influence on seasonal flows. 104 gauged basins covering mainland Great Britain and having near-natural flow records were used to derive four seasonal flow indices for 1975-2005. For each calendar season, cluster analysis was performed on these indices to group hydrologically similar basins. For each resultant class, climate-flow associations were assessed as well as the identification of influential basin physical properties. RC variables were found to have stronger association with seasonal flows than AC with the best RC predictors varying with season. Only winter and summer showed significant AC-flow correlations. Composition of seasonal flow classes reflected not only climatic input but also the physical nature of the basins. A given basin property may have influence for one season, but not for another; and many properties have only limited influence on modifying climate inputs. For both winter and summer seasons, it may be concluded generally that the higher elevation and more impermeable a basin, the stronger the RC-flow association. For AC-flow associations, regions of significant winter correlations match regions of stronger RC-flow association; summer correlations show an eastern shift. This paper illustrates the important (but variable) role of basin properties in modifying climate signals in river flow and the need to consider both sets of controls in evaluating hydrological sensitivity to climate change.

Laizé, Cédric L. R.; Hannah, David M.

2010-07-01

137

Palaeoclimatological perspective on river basin hydrometeorology: case of the Mekong Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Globally, there have been many extreme weather events in recent decades. A challenge has been to determine whether these extreme weather events have increased in number and intensity compared to the past. This challenge is made more difficult due to the lack of long-term instrumental data, particularly in terms of river discharge, in many regions including Southeast Asia. Thus our main aim in this paper is to develop a river basin scale approach for assessing interannual hydrometeorological a...

Ra?sa?nen, T. A.; Lehr, C.; Mellin, I.; Ward, P. J.; Kummu, M.

2013-01-01

138

Hydrochemistry of the Densu River Basin of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planned hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality have been carried out to understand the sources of dissolved ions in the aquifers supporting groundwater systems in the Densu River basin. The basin is underlain mainly by the proterozoic basin type granitoids with associated gnesis, with dominant mineral such as plagioclase feldspars. The groundwater is Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 facies, due to weathering and ion-exchange of minerals underlying the aquifers. The enrichment of the cation and anions are Na>Ca>Mg>K and HCO3>Cl>SO4>NO3 respectively. Some of the elevated values of both cations and anions may be due to seawater intrusions, ion-exchange, oxidation and anthropogenic activities. Based on these studies, proper management would be recommended to address groundwater quality in the basin. (au)

2007-01-01

139

High-resolution Radar Rainfall Records for Assessment of Hydroclimatology of the Christina River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-resolution 15-minute, 1 km2 radar rainfall data set for the warm season during the period of 2001-2010 was developed for the 1440 km2 Christina River Basin. Daily rainfall observations from rain gauges were used to bias correct radar fields derived from volume scan reflectivity observations from the NEXRAD WSR-88D radar at Fort Dix, NJ. The bias-corrected radar rainfall data were used to assess the spatial and temporal structure of rainfall over the Christina River Basin and its four sub-watersheds: White Clay Creek (277 km2), Red Clay Creek (140 km2), Brandywine Creek (842 km2), and the tidal Christina River (202 km2). High-quality rain gauge data from within the intensively studied 7.5 km2 3rd order east fork of the east branch of White Clay Creek were supplemented with the additional spatial rainfall distribution information provided by the radar rainfall product to create a more complete picture of prescription patterns over this long-term highly-instrumented research watershed. The high-resolution long-term bias-corrected radar rainfall data set will also be used in hydrologic modeling for the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory.

Bates, N. S.; Baeck, M. L.; Smith, J. A.; Damiano, S. G.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.

2013-12-01

140

Factors influencing a basin-wide agreement governing the Nile river  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyzes the challenges facing the Nile River Basin riparian countries in terms of how best to achieve collaborative solutions within a transboundary river basin. Lessons learned from other transboundary river basins are incorporated into an analysis of factors promoting and impeding cooperation. Collective action theory is applied to determine the prospects for a basin-wide agreement in the Nile. While the results of this imply that the prospects for such an agreement are low, fur...

Johnston, Erin Elizabeth

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

South East River Basin District Liaison Panel  

…shortfall, but is making progress. Conservation (eNGOs), Ian Hepburn Influencing and informing management of TRaC water bodies: on going work, which is being linked to the South East England Biodiversity Forum. Managing NNIS: activity is expected during Q3. Extensive river restoration: this overlaps with the…

142

South East River Basin District Liaison Panel  

…Rob Crighton Southampton City Council Ports Sue Simmonite AB Ports Fisheries and angling Ivor Llewlynn Atlantic Salmon Trust Apologies Boat users Paul Raynor Royal Yachting Association Fisheries and angling (freshwater) Tom Davis Test and Itchen Association/ Wessex and Chalk Stream Rivers Trust Guests…

143

Hydrological study of La Paz river basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work aims to determine the hydrological parameters for the La Paz river, by using tracer techniques and also the determination of the water quality parameters for the study of the behavior along the stream. This study intends the prediction and control of the water contamination by using mathematical modelling

1998-01-01

144

South East River Basin Liaison Panel  

…Cymru Farming (FUW) RHIAN NOWELL-PHILLIPS Farmers Union of Wales Fisheries / Angling JOHN STONER Pembrokeshire Rivers Trust Forestry Commission MICHELLE BROMLEY Forestry Commission Wales Mining STEVE HILL The Coal Authority National Parks ROD GRITTEN Snowdonia National Parks Authority Ports / Business…

145

Vegetation communities in estuarine tidal flats in the different river and basin environments of the four major rivers of Ise Bay (Suzuka, Tanaka, Kushida, Mie Prefecture, Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we compared and analysed vegetation communities in the estuarine tidal flats of the four major rivers of Ise Bay (Suzuka River, Tanaka River, Kushida River and Miya River in Mie Prefecture, Japan. Along the Suzuka River, Eragrostis curvula of the exotic plant accounted for 60.0% or more of the entire surface area, and the plant volume was high. Along the Tanaka River, Suaeda maritima community occupied the sand-mud zone in the vicinity of the shoreline on gravel bars, while Phragmites australis community was distributed along a shallow lake upstream. In the Kushida River, a salt marsh plant community (a community type found in areas flooded at high tide of Suaeda maritima, Phragmites australis and Artemisia scoparia was distributed on the sand-mud surface along the main river. A salt marsh plant community (a community type found in areas that do not flood at high tide of Phacelurus latifolius accounted for least 50.0% of the entire surface area. Along the Miya River, the area covered by the annual salt marsh plant community type was larger than the area occupied by this community type along the other rivers. The flow volume of the Miya River was high in April, June and August-October of 2006, July and September of 2007 and April-June of 2008. The flow volume was especially high in July 2007, when it reached levels above 1500.0 m3/s; change in flow volume was also large. We suggest that a large-scale disturbance occurred in the estuary, resulting in the formation of a gravelly sandy surface where an annual salt marsh plant community of Suaeda maritime and Artemisia scoparia has been established and grown as the annual precipitation and catchment volume of the basin have increased.

Korehisa Kaneko

2013-05-01

146

Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in the region.

Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

2014-05-01

147

Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin). The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out unt...

2006-01-01

148

Resource potentials of the Rufiji river basin, Tanzania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tanzania is one of the least developed countries in the world. However, the country has abundant resource potentials. The Rufiji River basin, the largest in the country, is graced with some of the most spectacular scenery and is of high tourist attraction. Other significant potentials include irrigation agriculture, development of hydropower, fisheries and forestry. Properly planned development of these resources could help to boost the economy of the country. But, sustainable development of these resources requires integrated approaches. The Rufiji Basin Development Authority is planning development on a sectoral basis. Such approaches can lead to degradation of resources and land-use conflicts. (20 refs.).

Mwalyosi, R.B.B. (Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research, Aas (NO))

1990-01-01

149

A Review of Integrated River Basin Management for Sarawak River  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Sarawak River was a life-sustaining water source for the residents in Kuching City and surrounding areas. Raw water is treated at Batu Kitang Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP that supplies more than 98% of the total water production in Kuching City. The raw water supply to BKWTP is not adequate to meet the ever increasing water demand. In order to overcome this problem, four projects had been implemented along Sarawak River for managing and securing water supply to BKWTP. Approach: These four projects are construction of 1.5m height storage weir across Sungai Sarawak Kiri river channel, Kuching Barrage and Shiplock, Bengoh Dam and Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS. In 2005, 1.5 m height submersible weir was constructed across Sungai Sarawak Kiri channel for increasing the safe yield that can last until year 2010. Kuching Barrage and Shiplock were commissioned in 2000 as barrier to avoid the saline intrusion reaching upper catchment. 24 telemetry stations were installed along Sarawak River for monitoring and regulating the water level. This will preserve high quality water storage at upper catchment of Sarawak River. In year 2010, Bengoh Dam was constructed to ensure adequate raw water will be supplied to BKWTP for meeting the increasing water demand from 2010-2030. This reservoir will store 144 million m3 of fresh water covering reservoir area of 8.77km2. Beyond 2030, the water supply shall not depend solely on fresh water. Results: Black and grey water in Sarawak Catchment was treated through Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS and recycled for daily used. Conclusion: The treated water that comply Standard A water quality, can distribute for domestic, industrial and irrigation used in nearest future. This will reduce the water demand solely on raw water and create a sustainable living in Kuching City. Beyond 2030, a few alternatives are also proposed for conserving and securing water supply for Kuching city.

Kuok K. Kuok

2011-01-01

150

River Sinuosity Classification - Case study in the Pannonian Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

A new evaluation method is proposed to classify the multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum, in order to minimize the possible human interpretation error. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be similarly useful as the sinuosity spectrum is, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. The river sinuosity values were studied in the Pannonian Basin in order to reveal neotectonic influence on their abrupt changes. The map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire were used to digitize the natural, pre-regulation meandering river thalwegs. 28 rivers were studied, and the connection between the known fault lines and the river sinuosity changes was detected in 36 points, along 26 structural lines. An unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, and the sinuosity values were divided into 5 classes. Because of the sinuosity calculation method, 25 kilometer-long river sections are missing at the two endpoints of the channel. So sometimes the displayed section of the river does not cross to the faults represented on the neotectonic map. In the other cases, where the faults are crossing the rivers, the results are corresponding with the results of the sinuosity spectrum: the river-points on the two sides of the faults belong to different classes. The connection between these fault lines and the change of river sinuosity classes was detected in 23 points, along 16 structural lines The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

2012-04-01

151

Drought Analysis for River Basins, Using the Hydrological Model SIMGRO  

Science.gov (United States)

Drought is a recurring and worldwide phenomenon, with spatial and temporal characteristics that vary significantly from one region to another. Drought has major impacts on society and affects among others the environment and the economy. Impacts are likely to increase with time as societies demands higher services for water and the environment. This will even be more pronounced in the coming decades with the projected climate change, i.e. droughts are becoming more severe in large parts of the world. The prediction of droughts is an essential part of impact assessment for current and future conditions, as part of integrated land and water management. An important question is how changes in meteorological drought will propagate into hydrological droughts in terms of changes in the groundwater system or in the river flow. The objective of our study is to develop and test tools that quantify the space-time development of droughts in a river basin. The spatial aspect of a hydrological drought (spatially-distributed recharge and groundwater heads), in a river basin brings different challenges with respect to describing the characteristics of a drought, such as: onset, duration, severity and extend. We used the regional hydrological model SIMGRO as a basis to generate the necessary data for the drought analysis. SIMGRO is a distributed physically-based model that simulates regional transient saturated groundwater flow, unsaturated flow, actual evapotranspiration, sprinkler irrigation, stream flow, groundwater and surface water levels as a response to rainfall, reference evapotranspiration, and groundwater abstraction. The model is used within the GIS environment Arc-View, which enables the use of digital data, such as soil map, land use, watercourses, as input data for the model. It is also a tool for analysis, because interactively data and results can be presented, as will be shown. Droughts in different hydrological variables (recharge, groundwater heads, river flow) are identified by applying the fixed threshold concept to spatially-distributed simulated time series. The method captures the development of both the duration and the severity for the area in a drought. For the analysis we applied the model to the Taquari river basin (about 106.000 km2), which is situated in the Pantanal region, the upper part of the Paraguay River Basin, Brazil. The question we will address is: how does a hydrological drought develop and what are the spatial characteristics and what are the underlying mechanisms. Examples of the analysis will be shown that aim at a better understanding of the process involved which are essential; to assess the vulnerability of river basins for hydrological droughts.

Querner, E.; van Lanen, H.; Rhebergen, W.

2009-05-01

152

Water balance of the Drini i Bardh River Basin, Kosova  

Science.gov (United States)

Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. In the present day world, the problems of too much, too little or too polluted water are increasing at a rapid rate. These problems have become particularly severe for the developing countries, adversely affecting their agriculture, drinking water supply and sanitation. Water recourse management is no more just a challenger it is a declared crises. Water resources in Kosova are relatively small, total amount of water in our country is small around 1600 m3/inhabitant /year Drini i Bardhë river basin is in the western part of Kosova, it is the biggest river basin with surface of 4.289 km2. Drini i Bardhë discharges its water to Albania and finally to the Adriatic Sea. The area consist of several small stream from the mountains, water flows into tributaries and Drini i Bardhë River. In this river basin are based 12 hydrometric stations, 27 manual and 5 automatic rainfall measurements Drini i Bardhe River main basin contain a big number of sub basins from which the most important are: Lumëbardhi i Pejës (503.5km2), Lumëbardhi i Deçanit (278.3km2), Erenikut (515.5km2), Burimi (446.7km2), Klinës (439.0km2), Mirushes (334.5km2), Toplluges (498.2km2), Bistrica e Prizrenit (266.0 km2) and Plava (309 km2) fig 2. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. Protecting from pollution is a very important issue having in consideration that this river discharges its water and outside the territory. Hydrometeorology Institute of Kosova is in charge for monitoring of water quality. Key works: rainfall, flow, evaporation, river, evaporation coefficient (Ke) and feeding coefficient from underground waters (Ku).

Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Isalm

2010-05-01

153

Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at reducing system vulnerabilities and the improving the resiliency of the Basin to vulnerable conditions. The Study is the most comprehensive long-term assessment to date of the Basin and it confirmed that without action, the Colorado River system will become increasingly challenged to sustain the communities and resources that rely on its water supply. The Study was conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation and its consultant team (CH2M Hill, Black & Veatch, and the RAND Corporation) and the seven Colorado River Basin States, in collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders throughout the Basin. The Study's strong technical foundation forms a basis from which important discussions can begin regarding possible actions to resolve future supply and demand imbalances in order to help ensure the sustainability of the Colorado River system. This talk will provide an overview of the Study's approach and findings, with a focus on the Study's assessment and characterization of vulnerability under uncertainty.

Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

2013-12-01

154

Floods in the English River basin, Iowa  

Science.gov (United States)

An appraisal-level engineering economic cost analysis was performed for two primary types of irrigation systems in a portion of the Columbia Basin Project- a surface-water irrigation system in which water is supplied via canals and laterals, and a system in which surface water is brought to recharging wells and eventually to farms using the transmissive properties of the aquifer and pumping. At 1979 electric power rates, the artificial-recharge irrigation scheme is a viable alternative to surface-distributed irrigation systems, but as electric rates increase, its viability decreases. At three times the 1979 rate, the recharge scheme is uneconomical. (USGS)

Heinitz, A. J.; Riddle, D. E.

1981-01-01

155

US Gulf focus for Powder River Basin coal exports  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article profiles the export of coal through the US Gulf, specifically the Lower Mississippi River and Mobile. In 1990 coal exports for the Lower Mississippi River were 2.72 mst metallurgical coal and 10.07 mst steam coal. The article gives details of exports by destination and examines forecasts of export trends. The article also details the significant development of new international business, sub-bituminous coal from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, which is more than 1500 miles from the Gulf loaders, for export to Europe. The article profiles the producers, i.e. NERCO, Sun Coal, ARCO, Kerr McGee and AMAX. Efficient transport has played a major role in developing the export movement of Powder River Basin coal. The article examines the two railroads which serve the area: the Burlington Northern; and the Union Pacific working in conjunction with the Chicago and North Western. The article also profiles the activities of the various shareside and midstream terminals, particularly IMT and Electro-Coal on the Lower Mississippi River and the McDuffe Coal Terminal in Mobile. 6 figs.

Peckham, R.

1991-09-01

156

Vascular plants of oxbow lakes of Turvo River, Upper Paraná River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vascular plants were investigated in oxbow lakes of Turvo River, Upper Paraná River basin, between Icémand Nova Granada municipalities, state of São Paulo, Brazil. In this region, six lagoons were sampled: Ganzella, Mustafá,Braço Morto, 45, Federal, and Parente. The survey showed a total of 54 species, 36 genera and 22 families. The speciesrichest families were Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Polygonaceae. Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae was the single speciesencountered in all the six lakes.

Araujo, R. B.

2010-01-01

157

Current and future water resources of the Congo River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The water resources of the Congo Basin are under enormous pressure due to decreases in the Oubangui River discharge for the last three decades and the shrinking of Lake Chad. We report on a systematic analysis of the hydrology and water resources of the entire Congo Basin, and that part of the basin within the geographical boundaries of each of the countries across which it flows. We used hydrological models, data from global data bases, and future climate scenarios. We address both historical and future state of water resources management (availability, flood and drought occurrence, dams/reservoirs, and water infrastructure) using the on-going development of a basin scale climate change impact assessment within the Wageningen Universiy -Congo Basin project frame work. Detailed analysis of potential impacts of climate change on the basin's water availability are assessed using two hydrological and water resources models (VIC, Variable Infiltration Capacity and LPJ, Lund-Potsdam-Jena). We use EU-WATCH historical data, three global climate models with two emissions scenarios downscaled and bias corrected using the statistical bias correction procedure described in EU-WATCH project.

Sonessa, M.; Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.; Fulco, L.; Franssen, W.

2011-12-01

158

Coal quality challenges in the Powder River Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The market for US Powder River Basin (PRB) market has now extended to plants that are converting from other coals because of the US`s Clean Air Act. These new customers are more sensitive to constituents that affect boiler and precipitator performance. At the same time, the prospect of deregulation is forcing power companies to improve cost controls. Kerr-McGee coals Jacobs Ranch Mine has responded to these changes with an expanded coal quality and customer service program. The article discusses the history of the growth of the coal industry in the Powder River Basin and goes on to consider the factors affecting the PRB coal market - Btu, sulphur and ash content of coal. New batch loading systems have improved the accuracy of weighing coal and improvements have been made in train handling as the market for PRB coal has grown. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 photos.

Roness, S.G.; Turpin, R.A.; Young, R.A. [Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation, Gillette, WY (United States). Jacobs Ranch Mine

1998-07-01

159

The VERSEAU - TRACKSED Project: origin of Loire River basin sediments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In France, since the beginning of 20th century, rural landscapes have been completely modified by human activities. These practices have resulted in profound sedimentary and morphological alterations (channel bed incision, deposition of fine sediment, bank erosion, etc.), detrimental to the achievement of good water status. Several research efforts have already investigated either global budgets at the river basin or continental scale or local detailed budget at the plot to the field scale. H...

Vandromme, Rosalie; Cerdan, Olivier; Gay, Aurore; Foucher, Anthony; Salvador-blanes, Se?bastien; Lendemaine, Valentin; Desmet, Marc

2013-01-01

160

Flood risk analysis in the Meuse river basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of the study presented in the paper consists in understanding the vulnerability of economic systems to a modification of the hydrology due to climate change in the Meuse river basin. The latter extends over several regions in four different countries. A transnational approach is thus necessary to keep consistency throughout the international catchment. In this paper, we begin by illustrating how a strong collaboration between scientists and water authorities of the different parts of...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Mississippi River Basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia  

Science.gov (United States)

This EPA site provides links to introductory information about the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. It offers answers to questions such as: what is the hypoxic zone, how did it form, what strategies are being implemented to remedy it, and what is the government doing. It also features links to various regions within the Mississippi River Basin, allowing users to explore issues in their own area.

Agency, Environmental P.

162

An indicator system for surface water quality in river basins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public utilities, agricultural and industrial economical sectors and ecosystems depend on the water supplied by the natura environment. These water needs, the European Water Framework Directive requirements and the key surface water pollution problems identified at a River Basin scale, lead to the development of a water quality indicator system for surface waters. This is an environmental tool, which allows the assessment of the pressure-stateimpact of human activities on surface water...

Oliveira, R. E. S.; Lima, M. M. C. L.; Vieira, J. M. Pereira

2005-01-01

163

Trends in chlorinated hydrocarbon levels in Hudson River basin sediments.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of sections from dated sediment cores were used to establish geographic distributions and temporal trends of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminant levels in sediments from natural waters of the Hudson River basin. Radiometric dating was based primarily on the depth distribution of 137(Cs) in the cores and on the occurrence of detectable levels of 7(Be) in surface sediment samples. Eighteen sampling sites included several along the main stem of the Hudson, its major tributaries, and com...

Bopp, R. F.; Chillrud, S. N.; Shuster, E. L.; Simpson, H. J.; Estabrooks, F. D.

1998-01-01

164

Radioecological study of an European river basin: the Rhone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the application of the methodology of site protection studies to a continental site: the Rhone basin. After a description of the area, the author gives a precise definition of the study and discusses the results. Among the numerous radioelements studied, typical results are presented for Strontium, Caesium, Ruthenium and Cerium. The results concern: the river itself, the living aquatic environment, the soils, the agricultural productions. Absorbed quantities of Sr and Cs are assessed and show sufficient safety factors. (author)

1977-09-02

165

“Morphometric Analysis of Kurunda River Basin in Maharashtra, India”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the relationships between drainage characteristics and environmental aspects of Kurunda river basinusing the topographical maps on a scale of 1:50000. Environmental situations have affecting the morphometry of the basin. The combine outcomes have establishes the topographical and even recent developmental situations of the region. It will change the setup of the region also. It is therefore needs to analyze micro level parameters of drainage and environment for suitable planning and management of any developmental plan. The total area of Kurunda river basin is 102.17 sq km and it is divided into eight micro subbasins for in-depth analysis. Drainage pattern of this river is dendritic one. The Morphometric parameters of the stream have been analyzed and calculated by applying standard methods and techniques viz. Horton, 1945; Miller, 1953, Strahler, 1964. The results of primary leveled morphometric analysis have been correlated with soil and its physio-chemical characters. The Stream frequency and Stream length ratio of the basin is 1.55 and 8.39 respectively. The dimensional factors like Form factor (0.42, Elongation Ratio (0.36 and Circulatory Ratio (0.56 have also been calculated. In case of intensity of dissection, Drainage density, Drainage texture and Bifurcation ratio have calculated and it is 1.78 sq km, 0.98 and 13.61 with mean of 3.40 respectively. It is observed that the comparative analysis within the sub-basins have different types of situations and therefore it is recommended that micro-leveled analysis with environmental perspectives of the basin.

Balaji Avhad

2013-07-01

166

Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights-a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions-a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m{sup 3}-enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

Stillwell, Ashlynn S [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1786, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Clayton, Mary E; Webber, Michael E, E-mail: ashlynn.stillwell@mail.utexas.edu, E-mail: mclayton34@mail.utexas.edu, E-mail: webber@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2011-07-15

167

Quality of ground water in the Payette River basin, Idaho  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a study to obtain groundwater quality data in areas of Idaho were land- and water-resource development is expected to increase, water quality, geologic, and hydrologic data were collected for 74 wells in the Payette River basin, west-central Idaho, from July to October 1982. Historical (pre-1982) data from 13 wells were compiled with more recent (1982) data to define, on a reconnaissance level, water quality conditions in major aquifers and to identify factors that may have affected groundwater quality. Water from the major aquifers generally contains predominantly calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions. Sodium and bicarbonate or sulfate are the predominant ions in groundwater from 25% of the 1982 samples. Areally, groundwater from the upper Payette River basin has proportionately lower ion concentrations than water from the lower Payette River basin. Water samples from wells 100 ft deep. Variations in groundwater quality probably are most affected by differences in aquifer composition and proximity to source(s) of recharge. Groundwater in the study area is generally suitable for most uses. In localized areas, pH and concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, or dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, sulfate, fluoride, iron, or manganese exceed Federal drinking water limits and may restrict some uses of the water.

Parliman, D. J.

1986-01-01

168

Sedimentation in three small forested drainage basins in the Alsea River basin, Oregon  

Science.gov (United States)

A multidiscipline investigation to determine the effects of logging on the ecology of three small forested tributary basins is a part of an overall study of the Alsea River basin in the Coast Range of Oregon. The investigation of these small basins will be to (1) establish pre-logging conditions, (2) determine the effects of different logging methods, and (3) study the rate of recovery after the timber harvest. This report presents results of sedimentation in the basins, Deer and Flynn Creeks and Needle Branch, for the first 2 years of study (1959 and 1960 water years). Rainfall, runoff, and sediment discharge are seasonal for the Coast Range of western Oregon. About 95 percent of the rainfall and runoff occurs during the period October to May, but nearly 100 percent of the suspended-sediment discharge occurs during the same period. For Deer Creek, in the 1960 water year, 23 percent of the annual suspended-sediment discharge occurred on 1 day, 58 percent during the 10 days of greatest discharge, and 78 percent during the 38 days of greatest discharge. Rainfall is practically equal for all three of the basins. The runoff of the Deer and Flynn Creek basins is about equal, but that of the Needle Branch basin averaged 8 percent less. Sediment yield varies considerably for the three basins. The suspended-sediment yield of the Deer Creek basin is almost twice that of the Needle Branch basin and almost 1? times that of the Flynn Creek basin. Water temperature of the three streams varied only 22?F during the 2 water years. The greatest variation between streams was 3?F in the minimums. Water temperature effect can be neglected in comparing the sediment yields of the basins. The aquifers of the basins have low storage capacities as illustrated by the very low, late summer flow. A study of a midwinter freshet period for the Deer Creek basin showed that virtually all the rainfall left the basin as runoff within 4 days; the period of significant sediment transport was thus very short.

Williams, R. C.

1964-01-01

169

Estimating resource costs of compliance with EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryResource costs of meeting EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale are estimated by comparing net benefits of water use given ecological status constraints to baseline water use values. Resource costs are interpreted as opportunity costs of water use arising from water scarcity. An optimization approach is used to identify economically efficient ways to meet WFD requirements. The approach is implemented using a river basin simulation model coupled to an economic post-processor; the simulation model and post-processor are run from a central controller that iterates until an allocation is found that maximizes net benefits given WFD requirements. Water use values are estimated for urban/domestic, agricultural, industrial, livestock, and tourism water users. Ecological status is estimated using metrics that relate average monthly river flow volumes to the natural hydrologic regime. Ecological status is only estimated with respect to hydrologic regime; other indicators are ignored in this analysis. The decision variable in the optimization is the price of water, which is used to vary demands using consumer and producer water demand functions. The price-based optimization approach minimizes the number of decision variables in the optimization problem and provides guidance for pricing policies that meet WFD objectives. Results from a real-world application in northern Greece show the suitability of the approach for use in complex, water-stressed basins. The impact of uncertain input values on model outcomes is estimated using the Info-Gap decision analysis framework.

Riegels, Niels; Jensen, Roar; Bensasson, Lisa; Banou, Stella; Møller, Flemming; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

2011-01-01

170

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon release groups were pooled across the entire Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam for this report. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.92% with an estimated standard error (dSE) of 0.25% for wild spring and summer Chinook salmon for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2004, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. Only for the 1999 and 2000 release years did the wild Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for wild steelhead from the Snake River Basin averaged 0.63% (dSE = 0.15%), including age-1-ocean returns, for release years 1996 through 2004. For release years when the ocean return probability from Bonneville back to Bonneville could be estimated (i.e., 1999 through 2004), it was estimated that on average approximately 83% of the total integrated mortality for nontransported, tagged wild spring and summer Chinook, and 78% for steelhead (omitting the 2001 release year), occurred during the ocean life stage (i.e., from Bonneville to Bonneville). This suggests that additional monitoring and research efforts should include the ocean and estuary environment. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Lower Granite Dam were available for the 2003 and 2004 release years for both wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead. The estimated T/I for Lower Granite was significantly > 1.0 for Chinook in 2004 (P < 0.0001) and for steelhead in both 2003 (P < 0.0001) and 2004 (P < 0.0001), indicating that for these release years, wild fish transported at Lower Granite returned there in higher proportions than fish that were returned to the river at Lower Granite, or that passed Lower Granite without detection as juveniles. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Little Goose Dam were available for wild Chinook salmon for both 2003 and 2004. The estimated T/I for Little Goose was significantly > 1.0 for wild Chinook in 2004 (P = 0.0024), but not in 2003 (P = 0.1554). Differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) is the ra

Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

2008-12-03

171

Erosion and sediment budget of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A case study on Mianyuan River basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Wenchuan Earthquake caused a large number of avalanches and landslides at different scales. It is extremely significant to evaluate the sediment in the earthquake river basins. Along the 38 km long upper Mianyuan River 196 landslides and avalanches happened during the earthquake, which have formed 25 landslide dams and quake lakes. The total volume of sediment erosion due to earthquake was about 115 million m3, which is 75 times higher than the soil erosion in normal years. Only a part of the solid material could be transported by the river water flow as suspended load and bed load. The total volume of bed load deposit in the river and the quake lakes was 1.43 million m3. Moreover the quake lakes had also trapped 0.12 million m3 suspended load. Only 0.18 million m3 of fine sediment had been drifted through the quake lakes and transported into the lower reaches of the Mianyuan River. The wide range of size distributions of sediment from earthquake erosion caused the extreme difference in the amounts of sediment erosion and transportation. Most of the sediment from earthquake erosion can be only transported for a short distance by landslides and debris flows. Less than 0.2% of the total volume of sediment from earthquake erosion may be transported into large rivers. Therefore, earthquake erosion has little effect on the sediment transportation and fluvial processes in the large rivers.

Lijian Qi

2012-08-01

172

Environmental Isotope Ratios of River Water in the Danube Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the Danube study were documentation of existing data and completion of long term data sets (2H, 3H, 18O), continuation of monthly sampling of river water, investigation of short term influences, and preliminary interpretation of long term isotope records of river water with respect to hydrological processes, meteorological conditions and environmental changes. Furthermore, this report includes the complete 3H and 18O data set for the Danube at Vienna (1963-2005) and a summary of the results from the Joint Danube Survey 2 (2007). ?18O values of JDS2 river water samples ranged from -13.1 per mille (Inn, alpine river) up to -6.4 per mille (River Sio, evap oration influence). The ?18O value of the Danube increased from -10.8 per mille after the confluence of the Inn River with the upper Danube up to -9.6 per mille at the mouth, with a major change after the inflow of Tisa and Sava. The isotopic composition of river water in the Danube Basin is mainly governed by the isotopic composition of precipitation in the catchment area, while evaporation effects play only a minor role. Short term and long term isotope signals from precipitation are thus transmitted through the whole catchment. Tritium concentrations in most parts of the Danube river system lay around 10 TU during the JDS2 period and reflected the actual 3H content of precipitation in Central Europe, but 3H values up to 40 TU in the Danube and up to 250 TU in some tributaries are clear evi dence for discontinuous releases of 3H from local sources (nuclear power plants) into the rivers. (author)

2012-03-01

173

Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC using the National Weather Service (NWS River Forecasting System (RFS hydrologic model. While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force the NWS RFS utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates and contributes to a better understanding of how hydrologic processes change under varying climate conditions. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study. Additionally, the NWS RFS is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands resulted in a 6 % to 13 % average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the NWS RFS provided by the CBRFC resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10 % to 15 % average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5 % to 8 % increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

W. P. Miller

2011-07-01

174

Towards improving river discharge estimation in ungauged basins: calibration of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river flow width at basin outlet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff models are common tools for river discharge estimation in the field of hydrology. In ungauged basins, the dependence on observed river discharge data for calibration restricts applications of rainfall-runoff models. The strong correlation between quantities of river cross-sectional water surface width obtained from remote sensing and corresponding in situ gauged river discharge has been verified by many researchers. In this study, a calibration scheme of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river width at basin outlet is illustrated. One distinct advantage is that this calibration is independent of river discharge information. The at-a-station hydraulic geometry is implemented to facilitate shifting the calibration objective from river discharge to river width. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE is applied to model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The calibration scheme is demonstrated through a case study for simulating river discharge at Pakse in the Mekong Basin. The effectiveness of the calibration scheme and uncertainties associated with utilization of river width observations from space are examined from model input-state-output behaviour, capability of reproducing river discharge and posterior parameter distribution. The results indicate that the satellite observation of the river width is a competent surrogate of observed discharge for the calibration of rainfall-runoff model at Pakse and the proposed method has the potential for improving reliability of river discharge estimation in basins without any discharge gauging.

W. C. Sun

2010-10-01

175

Towards improving river discharge estimation in ungauged basins: calibration of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river flow width at basin outlet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff models are common tools for river discharge estimation in the field of hydrology. In ungauged basins, the dependence on observed river discharge data for calibration restricts applications of rainfall-runoff models. The strong correlation between quantities of river cross-sectional water surface width obtained from remote sensing and corresponding in situ gauged river discharge has been verified by many researchers. In this study, a calibration scheme of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river width at basin outlet is illustrated. One distinct advantage is that this calibration is independent of river discharge information. The at-a-station hydraulic geometry is implemented to facilitate shifting calibration objective from river discharge to river width. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation methodology is applied to model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The calibration scheme is demonstrated through a case study for simulating river discharge at Pakse in the Mekong Basin. The effectiveness of calibration scheme and uncertainties associated with utilization of river width observations from space are examined from model input-state-output behaviour, capability of reproducing river discharge, and posterior parameter distribution. The results indicate that the satellite observation of river width is a competent surrogate of observed discharge for the calibration of rainfall-runoff model at Pakse and the proposed method has the potential for improving reliability of river discharge estimation in basins without any discharge gauging.

Wenchao Sun

2010-06-01

176

MORPHOMETRIC FEATURES OF RELIEF UNITS FROM BARLAD RIVER BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on previous research, the paper makes a brief characterization of the geomorphological units of Bârlad river basin, respectively of Moldavian Central Plateau, Tutovei Hills and F?lciului Hills (except the northern part of Tecuci Plain. Then, using the Horton-Strahler classification system, were obtained for each unit the morphometric models of drainage and of slopes of the stream segments of successively increasing orders; the laws that define them verify well also on relief units, not only at the scale of the river basins. Based on the aspects resulted from the classification, on measuring the length and elevation differences of successive growing order segments of the river, the determination of average slopes was conducted. The law of slopes checks better, being the most dynamic morphometric element that is quickly adapting to changes of matter and energy flows through the river channels. Using these laws, we can calculate a series of morphometrical parameters, with variations from one unit to another, which can be used to differentiate and characterize those units

Ion Z?voianu

2011-10-01

177

Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water resources are redistributed by very developed and extensive irrigation system. Irrigation water balance is complex because of strong interactions among surface, ground, river and irrigation water. Lower reaches is an extremely arid environment. Water availability in lower reaches has a great impact on the evolution of natural ecosystem and vice versa the landscape change reshapes the hydrological cycle. After the water resource reallocation project implemented in 2000, the water delivered to lower reaches has increased by 36%. Of all the available water resource, about 10% is used to sustain a terminal lake and other water bodies, 20% is used for irrigation to support very rapidly increased farmlands, 40-50% is used to nurture the natural oasis, and other water is lost due to evaporation. The features of hydrological cycle in the HRB is very typical for inland river basins in China's arid region. In this region, air temperature is rising and precipitation is most likely to increase. Accelerating glacier retreat will also produce more water. However, water demand increases more rapidly due to quickly developing economy and growing population. Therefore, how to turn our understanding of hydrological cycle in this environmental fragile region into more rational water resource management is a grand challenge.

Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

2013-12-01

178

Morphotectonic Analysis in the Ghezel Ozan River Basin, NW Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphotectonic analysis by the use of geomorphic indices serves as a tool of recognition in regions with active tectonic deformation. Landforms in active deformation area are created from interaction of tectonic and surficial processes. One of the most important landforms in ground are rivers that are very sensitive to tectonic movements especially uplift and tilting. Thus based on analysis of the rivers and related drainage networks by the use of geomorphic indices we will be able to attain valuable information about tectonic history of the area. In this article, determine of tectonic movements bye the use of geomorphic indices is surveyed in the Ghezel Ozan River basin between 2007 and 2010. After segmentation of the Ghezel Ozan River and preparation of digital elevation model (DEM amounts of geomorphic indices per segments is separately attained. The attained amounts show that different segments of the Ghezel Ozan River vary from each other regarding the amount of tectonic activity and tectonic movements increase from west to east and also, the amount of tectonic tilting is negligible in a lot of the Ghezel Ozan River segments. This situation is completely in agreement with the trend of the seismicity of the area.

Vahid Hosseini Toudeshki

2011-08-01

179

Columbia River basin fish and wildlife program strategy for salmon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three species of Snake River salmon have been listed as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act. In response, the Northwest Power Planning Council worked with the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington, Indian tribes, federal agencies and interest groups to address the status of Snake River salmon runs in a forum known as the Salmon Summit. The Summit met in 1990 and 1991 and reached agreement on specific, short-term actions. When the Summit disbanded in April 1991, responsibility for developing a regional recovery plan for salmon shifted to the Council. The Council responded with a four-phased process of amending its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The first three phases. completed in September 1992, pertain to salmon and steelhead. Phase four, scheduled for completion in October 1993, will take up issues of resident fish and wildlife. This paper deals with the first three phases, collectively known as Strategy for Salmon

1993-05-01

180

Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and indicators to use in the analytical evaluation. A software template guides users through this process. For demonstration, the RBAF-C template has been applied to address competing irrigation demand-anadromous fish flow requirements in the Lemhi Basin, Idaho, and the increase in municipal and industrial demand in the Upper Bhima River Basin, India, which affects water supply to downstream irrigation command areas. The RBAF-A is for quantitatively evaluating the current conditions of water resources in a river basin and testing potential scenarios with respect to the sustainability criterion. The primary foundation for quantifying water movement is a river basin model. Upon this, the RBAF-A Interface organizes input data, collects output data from each discipline, and reports the HWB. Within the RBAF-A Interface, the EGS-HWB Calculator collects output time series data, processes the data with respect to space and time, and computes the ecologic, economic, and social well-being. The Reporting Tool presents the scenario output as values and trends in well-being. To demonstrate the technology, the RBAF-A was applied to the Lemhi Basin, Idaho. The RBAF supports the IWRM process by providing a structured and transparent means to understand the water related issues, analyses to conduct, and indicators to select in assessing the sustainability of water programs and policies in river basins.

Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Occurrence and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane in sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations and geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were investigated in 37 composite surface sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China, including Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Tarim River and Ertix River. The detection frequency of HBCD was 54%, with the concentrations ranged from below limit of detection (LOD) to 206 ng/g dry weight. In general, the geographical distribution showed increasing trends from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the rivers and from North China to Southeast China. Compared to other regions in the world, the average concentration of HBCD in sediments from Yangtze River drainage basin was at relatively high level, whereas those from other six river drainage basins were at lower or similar level. The highest HBCD concentration in sediment from Yangtze River Delta and the highest detection frequency of HBCD in Pearl River drainage basins suggested that the industrial and urban activities could evidently affect the HBCD distribution. HBCD diastereoisomer profiles showed that gamma-HBCD dominated in most of the sediment samples, followed by alpha- and beta-HBCD, which was consistent with those in the commercial HBCD mixtures. Further risk assessment reflected that the average inventories of HBCD were 18.3, 5.87, 3.92, 2.50, 1.77 ng/cm2 in sediments from Pearl River, Haihe River, Tarim River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, respectively. PMID:23586301

Li, Honghua; Shang, Hongtao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

2013-01-01

182

Savannah River Laboratory seepage basins: Environmental information document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basins are located in the northwestern section of the Savannah River Plant in the 700 Area. The four basins are out of service and are awaiting closure. When in operation, the basins received a total of 128,820 m3 of low-level radioactive wastewater from laboratories located in Buildings 735-A and 773-A. Wastewater with radioactivity less than 100 d/m/mL alpha and/or 50 d/m/mL beta-gamma was discharged to the basins. Low concentrations of radioactive and nonradioactive constituents were found in the sediments beneath the seepage basins and a statistical analysis of monitoring data from the six water-table wells indicates elevated levels of chloride, manganese, and sodium in the groundwater. The closure options considered for the basins are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The environmental impact evaluation indicates that the human health risks for all closure options are low. Radioactive risk is dominated by tritium, but there is no significant difference between the closure options because the tritium has leached from the site prior to the closure action. The most significant noncarcinogenic risk results from arsenic. All atmospheric and occupational risks are low. The primary calculated ecological effect is due to direct contact with the basin sediments in the no action option. The relative costs for the various options are $9 million for waste removal and closure, $2.9 million for no waste removal and closure with cap, $2.4 million for no waste removal and closure without cap, and $0.26 million for no action. 36 refs., 27 figs., 98 tabs

1986-01-01

183

Development of a systemwide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predation index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 -- Evaluation: 1993 Annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt was made to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Modeling simulations based on work in the John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that if northern squawfish larger than 250 mm fork length were exploited, at a rate of 10--20%, reductions in their numbers and restructuring of their populations could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50% or more. The authors evaluated the success of three test fisheries conducted in 1993--a sport-reward fishery, a dam-angling fishery, and a trap-net fishery, to achieve a 10--20% exploitation rate on northern squawfish. The authors also began evaluating the response of northern squawfish populations to sustained fisheries. In addition, the authors gathered information regarding the economic, social, and legal feasibility of sustaining each fishery, and report on the structure and function of the fish collection and distribution system

1995-01-01

184

Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month) forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) using the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecasting System (RFS) hydrologic...

Miller, W. P.; Piechota, T. C.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

2011-01-01

185

The Challenges of Integrated Management of Mekong River Basin in Terms of People’s Livelihood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mekong River Basin is a life for many people in six south East Asian countries. The river basin is very productive and has crucial activities like: fishing, agriculture, hydroelectric power, transportation, biodiversity and so on. However, due to mismanagement, political intentions and one way interest only for development, the river basin has already started experiencing complications. The major challenges found out were, huge hydroelectric dam constructions and other projects, high populati...

Belay, Alebel Abebe; Haq, Shah Md Atiqul; Chien, Vuong Quoc; Arafat, Badandi

2010-01-01

186

Going with the flow: River basins as the natural units for water management?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article engages with the currently hegemonic status of a triad of water policy prescriptions: multi-stakeholder platforms, integrated water resources management, and river basin management. A more reflective approach that opens up the choices underlying these concepts, and their limits, is needed. The choice to manage water on the basis of river basins is a political choice, and thus river basins are as much political units as they are natural units. The article concludes that the deline...

Warner, J. F.; Wester, P.; Bolding, J. A.

2008-01-01

187

Resilience in Transboundary Water Governance: the Okavango River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When the availability of a vital resource varies between times of overabundance and extreme scarcity, management regimes must manifest flexibility and authority to adapt while maintaining legitimacy. Unfortunately, the need for adaptability often conflicts with the desire for certainty in legal and regulatory regimes, and laws that fail to account for variability often result in conflict when the inevitable disturbance occurs. Additional keys to resilience are collaboration among physical scientists, political actors, local leaders, and other stakeholders, and, when the commons is shared among sovereign states, collaboration between and among institutions with authority to act at different scales or with respect to different aspects of an ecological system. At the scale of transboundary river basins, where treaties govern water utilization, particular treaty mechanisms can reduce conflict potential by fostering collaboration and accounting for change. One necessary element is a mechanism for coordination and collaboration at the scale of the basin. This could be satisfied by mechanisms ranging from informal networks to the establishment of an international commission to jointly manage water, but a mechanism for collaboration at the basin scale alone does not ensure sound water management. To better guide resource management, study of applied resilience theory has revealed a number of management practices that are integral for adaptive governance. Here, we describe key resilience principles for treaty design and adaptive governance and then apply the principles to a case study of one transboundary basin where the need and willingness to manage collaboratively and iteratively is high--the Okavango River Basin of southwest Africa. This descriptive and applied approach should be particularly instructive for treaty negotiators, transboundary resource managers, and should aid program developers.

Olivia O. Green

2013-06-01

188

Hydrological and geochemical studies on the Sahelo-Sudanian basin of the Niger River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

African drought and rainfall deficits observed during the last twenty years had important repercussions on the runoff of the Niger River (annual deficit of 20 % during the 70's and of 46 % during the 80's). A large reduction of the groundwater storage explains the persistent degradation of the hydrological resource. The inner Delta of the Niger River is a particular system submitted to Sahelian and sub-desertic climatic conditions, and is characterized by large flood plains. Time series of input water volumes in the inner Delta and of the water losses inside it show that the water losses, due to the intense evaporation, vary from 40 km3 to 6 km3. The water losses are maximum during the wettest years, up to 47 %, and minimum during the driest years, only 32 %, due to the reduction of the flooded area. Since 1990 the EQUANIS program associates hydrological and chemical measurements in the study of the dissolved and suspended matter flows in the Niger River's flows to the Sahel. The specific sediment load vary between 7 or 8 t dm2 year-1 for the upper Niger River and 3 t km2 year-1 for the Bani River. The specific dissolved load vary between 10 or 12 t km2 year-1 for the Niger River and 2,5 t km2 year-1 for the Bani River. The annual input in the inner Delta was about 2,2 Mt in 1992-1993. Seasonal variations of the matter fluxes are very different between the upper and the lower parts of the inner Delta, due to the breaking of the annual flood and to the more important flood plains in the upper Delta. The preliminary results indicate that both rivers have a low level in dissolved element concentration. The inner Delta is not an old sedimentary basin and the actual deposits of matter should characterize its working during the lasting deficit of the water resources of the Niger River. (author)

1995-06-01

189

Assessing water deprivation at the sub-river basin scale in LCA integrating downstream cascade effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical water deprivation at the midpoint level is assessed in water-related LCIA methods using water scarcity indicators (e.g., withdrawal-to-availability and consumption-to-availability) at the river basin scale. Although these indicators represent a great step forward in the assessment of water-use-related impacts in LCA, significant challenges still remain in improving their accuracy and relevance. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to derive midpoint characterization factors for water deprivation taking into account downstream cascade effects within a single river basin. This effect is considered at a finer scale because a river basin must be split into different subunits. The proposed framework is based on a two-step approach. First, water scarcity is defined at the sub-river basin scale with the consumption-to-availability (CTA) ratio, and second, characterization factors for water deprivation (CFWD) are calculated, integrating the effects on downstream sub-river basins. The sub-river basin CTA and CFWD were computed based on runoff data, water consumption data and a water balance for two different river basins. The results show significant differences between the CFWD in a given river basin, depending on the upstream or downstream position. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, in which different land planning scenarios, taking into account additional water consumption in a city, are assessed. Our work demonstrates how crucial it is to localize the withdrawal and release positions within a river basin. PMID:24256030

Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Belaud, Gilles; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

2013-12-17

190

Water balance of selected floodplain lake basins in the Middle Bug River valley  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is the first attempt in the literature on the subject of comparing water balance components for floodplain lake basins, depending on the type of a lake connection to the parent river. Research was carried out in the Bug River valley in 2007-2011 water years. Four types of connections were distinguished in the area under study. Simple water balance equation could only be used with regard to the lakes connected to the main river via the upstream crevasses. Detailed and individual water balance equations were developed with reference to the other types of lakes. Water gains and losses varied significantly in the lakes under study. Values of horizontal water balance components (inflow and outflow) of the floodplain lake in Wola Uhruska considerably prevailed over the vertical ones (precipitation and evaporation). Inflow of the Bug River waters was diverse during the time period under study and amounted from 600 000 to 2 200 000 m3 yr-1. Volumes of precipitation and evaporation were rather stable and amounted to approx. 30 000 m3 yr-1. The lowest disparity between horizontal and vertical water balance components was observed in the inter-levee lake. Both upstream inflow of rivers water and outflow from the lake (ranged from 0 in 2008 to 35 000 m3 yr-1 in 2009) were usually an order of magnitude higher than precipitation and evaporation from the lake surface (700-800 m3 yr-1). Study showed that the values and the proportion between aforementioned vertical and horizontal water balance elements were determined by the type of a lake connection to the Bug River. Storage volume showed no relationship to the type of connection, but resulted from individual features of the lakes (location within the valley, precipitation and evaporation volume, difference between water inflow and outflow).

Dawidek, J.; Ferencz, B.

2014-04-01

191

Near real time water resources data for river basin management  

Science.gov (United States)

The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

Paulson, R. W. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

192

Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB, a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr?1 in the HRB over 2004–2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production. The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" (surface- and groundwater component of WF was 811 million m3 yr?1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than "green" (soil water WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

Z. Zeng

2012-08-01

193

Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB), a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr-1 in the HRB over 2004-2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production). The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" (surface- and groundwater) component of WF was 811 million m3 yr-1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than "green" (soil water) WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

Zeng, Z.; Liu, J.; Koeneman, P. H.; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2012-08-01

194

Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB, a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr?1 in the HRB over 2004–2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production. The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" component of WF was 811 million m3 yr?1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than green WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

Z. Zeng

2012-05-01

195

Hydrocarbon Source Rocks in the Deep River and Dan River Triassic Basins, North Carolina  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents an interpretation of the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Deep River and Dan River basins, North Carolina, based on previously unpublished organic geochemistry data. The organic geochemical data, 87 samples from 28 drill holes, are from the Sanford sub-basin (Cumnock Formation) of the Deep River basin, and from the Dan River basin (Cow Branch Formation). The available organic geochemical data are biased, however, because many of the samples collected for analyses by industry were from drill holes that contained intrusive diabase dikes, sills, and sheets of early Mesozoic age. These intrusive rocks heated and metamorphosed the surrounding sediments and organic matter in the black shale and coal bed source rocks and, thus, masked the source rock potential that they would have had in an unaltered state. In places, heat from the intrusives generated over-mature vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) profiles and metamorphosed the coals to semi-anthracite, anthracite, and coke. The maximum burial depth of these coal beds is unknown, and depth of burial may also have contributed to elevated thermal maturation profiles. The organic geochemistry data show that potential source rocks exist in the Sanford sub-basin and Dan River basin and that the sediments are gas prone rather than oil prone, although both types of hydrocarbons were generated. Total organic carbon (TOC) data for 56 of the samples are greater than the conservative 1.4% TOC threshold necessary for hydrocarbon expulsion. Both the Cow Branch Formation (Dan River basin) and the Cumnock Formation (Deep River basin, Sanford sub-basin) contain potential source rocks for oil, but they are more likely to have yielded natural gas. The organic material in these formations was derived primarily from terrestrial Type III woody (coaly) material and secondarily from lacustrine Type I (algal) material. Both the thermal alteration index (TAI) and vitrinite reflectance data (%Ro) indicate levels of thermal maturity suitable for generation of hydrocarbons. The genetic potential of the source rocks in these Triassic basins is moderate to high and many source rock sections have at least some potential for hydrocarbon generation. Some data for the Cumnock Formation indicate a considerably higher source rock potential than the basin average, with S1 + S2 data in the mid-20 mg HC/g sample range, and some hydrocarbons have been generated. This implies that the genetic potential for all of these strata may have been higher prior to the igneous activity. However, the intergranular porosity and permeability of the Triassic strata are low, which makes fractured reservoirs more attractive as drilling targets. In some places, gravity and magnetic surveys that are used to locate buried intrusive rock may identify local thermal sources that have facilitated gas generation. Alternatively, awareness of the distribution of large intrusive igneous bodies at depth may direct exploration into other areas, where thermal maturation is less than the limits of hydrocarbon destruction. Areas prospective for natural gas also contain large surficial clay resources and any gas discovered could be used as fuel for local industries that produce clay products (principally brick), as well as fuel for other local industries.

Reid, Jeffrey C.; Milici, Robert C.

2008-01-01

196

Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and floods and torrents (especially in Kragujevac valley) by other cite. Particular problem is water quality and pollution in river basin. In this paper will be analyzed water quality of Lepenica river...

2007-01-01

197

[Runoff process in forested basin of Hun River-Taizi River, Northeast China: a simulation study].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the hydrological data from the Beikouqian and Nandianyu stations in the upstream of Hun River and Taizi River as well as the meteorological data from the Qingyuan, Xinbin, and Benxi County stations, Northeast China in 1998-2007, a distributed hydrological model (DHS-VM) was applied to simulate the hydrological process in Hun-Tai basin. The scientific applicability of the model was validated, and the reference values of the most sensitive model parameters were provided. The simulated monthly runoff Nash-Suttclife coefficient (E value) for the source region of Hun River in calibration period (1998-2002) and validation period (2003-2007) was 0.9675 and 0. 8957, respectively, which could better reappear the monthly runoff process in this source region. The simulated monthly and annual runoff E values for the upstream of Taizi River were greater than 0.6, indicating that this model had good applicability in Hun-Tai basin, and the calibrated parameter scheme had a good reliability. This paper established a solid framework for the hydrological study over ungauged basin, and constructed a reasonable parameter scheme. PMID:24483070

Cai, Yan-Cong; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xini; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

2013-10-01

198

Closure of the Savannah River Laboratory seepage basins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four seepage basins connected in cascade have been used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for the disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. Waste discharges to these unlined basins occurred between 1954 and 1982 and included a variety of chemical, as well as radioactive, constituents from laboratory experiments and other programs requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE). These seepage basins are being closed in compliance with federal and state regulations, namely the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 as amended in 1984. A strategy for closing a waste disposal site that contains mixed waste (a combination of hazardous and low-level radioactive substances) in compliance with RCRA has been developed and is being applied in the closure of the SRL seepage basins. This strategy consists of several phases including: (a) site characterization, (b) development of alternative closure options, (c) development of alternative closure options, (c) risk assessment, (d) recommendation of a preferred option, and (e) regulatory approval of the final closure plan

1985-11-01

199

Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

River ice is a very important component of the cryosphere, and is especially sensitive to climatic variability. Historical records of appearance or disappearance and timing of ice phenomena are useful indicators for past climatic variations (Williams, 1970). Long-term observations of river ice freeze-up and break-up dates are available for many rivers in the temperate or cold region to detect and analyze the effects of climate change on river ice regime. The ice regime of natural rivers is influenced by climatic, hydrological and morphological factors. Regular ice phenomena observation mostly dates back to the 19th century. During this long-term observation period, the human interventions affecting the hydrological and morphological factors have become more and more intensive (Beltaos and Prowse, 2009). The anthropogenic effects, such as river regulation, hydropower use or water pollution causes different changes in river ice regime (Ashton, 1986). To decrease the occurrence of floods and control the water discharge, nowadays most of the rivers are regulated. River regulation changes the morphological parameters of the river bed: the aim is to create solid and equable bed size and stream gradient to prevent river ice congestion. For the satisfaction of increasing water demands hydropower is also used. River damming results a condition like a lake upstream to the barrage; the flow velocity and the turbulence are low, so this might be favourable for river ice appearance and freeze-up (Starosolsky, 1990). Water pollution affects ice regime in two ways; certain water contaminants change the physical characteristics of the water, e.g. lessens the freezing point of the water. Moreover the thermal stress effect of industrial cooling water and communal wastewater is also important; in winter these water sources are usually warmer, than the water body of the river. These interventions result different changes in the characteristic features of river ice regime. Selected examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime. Climate change and river ice regime research should also take into account these anthropogenic imp

Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

2014-05-01

200

Analysis of the Tanana River Basin using LANDSAT data  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital image classification techniques were used to classify land cover/resource information in the Tanana River Basin of Alaska. Portions of four scenes of LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using computer systems at Ames Research Center in an unsupervised approach to derive cluster statistics. The spectral classes were identified using the IDIMS display and color infrared photography. Classification errors were corrected using stratification procedures. The classification scheme resulted in the following eleven categories; sedimented/shallow water, clear/deep water, coniferous forest, mixed forest, deciduous forest, shrub and grass, bog, alpine tundra, barrens, snow and ice, and cultural features. Color coded maps and acreage summaries of the major land cover categories were generated for selected USGS quadrangles (1:250,000) which lie within the drainage basin. The project was completed within six months.

Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Carson-Henry, C.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The cost of noncooperation in international river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years there has been a renewed interest for water supply enhancement strategies in order to deal with the exploding demand for water in some regions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Within such strategies, reservoirs, especially multipurpose ones, are expected to play a key role in enhancing water security. This renewed impetus for the traditional supply-side approach to water management may indeed contribute to socioeconomic development and poverty reduction if the planning process considers the lessons learned from the past, which led to the recommendations by the World Commission on Dams and other relevant policy initiatives. More specifically, the issues dealing with benefit sharing within an efficient and equitable utilization of water resources are key elements toward the successful development of those river basins. Hence, there is a need for improved coordination and cooperation among water users, sectors, and riparian countries. However, few studies have explicitly tried to quantify, in monetary terms, the economic costs of noncooperation, which we believe to be important information for water managers and policy makers, especially at a time when major developments are planned. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the economic costs of noncooperation when managing large-scale water resources systems involving multiple reservoirs, and where the dominant uses are hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. An analysis of the Zambezi River basin, one of the largest river basins in Africa that is likely to see major developments in the coming decades, is carried out. This valuation exercise reveals that the yearly average cost of noncooperation would reach 350 million US$/a, which is 10% of the annual benefits derived from the system.

Tilmant, A.; Kinzelbach, W.

2012-01-01

202

Towards improving river discharge estimation in ungauged basins: calibration of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river flow width at basin outlet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rainfall-runoff models are common tools for river discharge estimation in the field of hydrology. In ungauged basins, the dependence on observed river discharge data for calibration restricts applications of rainfall-runoff models. The strong correlation between quantities of river cross-sectional water surface width obtained from remote sensing and corresponding in situ gauged river discharge has been verified by many researchers. In this study, a calibration scheme of rainfall-runoff models...

2010-01-01

203

Characterization of Rhizobium loti strains from the Salado River Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty indigenous rhizobia strains, isolated from Lotus tenuis in the area of Chascomús and other regions of the Salado River Basin (Argentina), were characterized based on generation time, acid production, carbon utilization, protein profile, and molecular characterization by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results indicated that native rhizobia isolates from the Chascomús area are predominantly fast and intermediate-growers. The unclassified rhizobia examined by PCR-RFLP were found to be closely related to the reference strains of validly described Rhizobium species. PMID:11519997

Fulchieri, M M; Estrella, M J; Iglesias, A A

2001-06-01

204

Savannah River Site R-Reactor Disassembly Basin In-Situ Decommissioning -10499  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the 105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate it from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,384 cubic meters or 31,894 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were designed and tested for the reactor ISD project, and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and material flow considerations, maximum lift heights and differential height requirements were determined. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and approximately 3,900 cubic yards (2,989 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over about an eighteen month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

2010-03-07

205

Savannah River Site R-Reactor Disassembly Basin In-Situ Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

2010-03-07

206

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R-REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING -10499  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the 105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate it from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,384 cubic meters or 31,894 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were designed and tested for the reactor ISD project, and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and material flow considerations, maximum lift heights and differential height requirements were determined. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and approximately 3,900 cubic yards (2,989 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over about an eighteen month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.

2010-01-04

207

Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

1987-03-01

208

[Spatiotemporal characteristics of reference crop evapotranspiration in inland river basins of Hexi region].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the 1961-2008 daily observation data from 17 meteorological stations in the inland river basins in Hexi region, the daily reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) in the basins was computed by Penman-Monteith equation, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal and annual ET0 were studied by GIS and IDW inverse-distance spatial interpolation. In 1961-2008, the mean annual ET0 (700-1330 mm) increased gradually from southeast to northwest across the basins. The high value of mean annual ET0 in Shule River basin and Heihe River basin declined significantly (P spring > autumn > winter. Wind speed and maximum temperature were the primary factors affecting the ET0 in the basins. Furthermore, wind speed was the predominant factor of downward trend of ET0 in Shule and Heihe basins, while maximum temperature and sunshine hours played an important role in the upward trend of ET0 in Shiyang basin. PMID:21443004

Lü, Xiao-Dong; Wang, He-ling; Ma, Zhong-ming

2010-12-01

209

Wetlands Response to Climate Change across Susquehanna River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) lies in the northeastern United States and contains a mosaic of wetlands that range from permanently wet to temporary embedded in a landscape matrix of natural deciduous forest and agriculture. This study explores the prospects for SRB wetlands under modified hydrologic processes induced due to climatic change. Five mesoscale watersheds: Little Juniata River (560 sq. km.), Mahantango Creek (420 sq. km.), Young Womans Creek (120 sq. km.), Muddy Creek (344 sq. km.), and Lackawanna River (860 sq. km.) were selected as representative watersheds to include variability in climate, topography, soil, geomorphology, and land cover across SRB. We explored the broad spatial and temporal patterns across these watersheds between climate and wetland health using groundwater predictions from Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Modeling System (PIHM) -- a spatially distributed fully-coupled physics-based model. Near present (2004-2010) hourly climate data (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, vapor pressure, wind velocity and solar radiation) were obtained from Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2), climate reanalysis product. The predicted wetland locations were validated against the National Wetland Inventory. We analyzed the effect of spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic states such as streams, groundwater, and evaporative and hydrologic fluxes on the wetland hydrology. To predict the impacts of climate change on the health of the wetland, meteorological data for two 20 year climate periods (History: 1979-1998 and Scenario: 2046-2065) from Meteorological Research Institute's GCM were used as model forcing. The scenarios output showed different responses across the wetlands in the river basin. The key to this study is that a high resolution spatial and temporal model can resolve the coupled effects of wetlands in the context of complete mesoscale watershed simulations.

Duffy, C.; Yu, X.; Bhatt, G.; Kumar, M.

2011-12-01

210

Identification of Flood Source Areas in Pahang River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The roles of upland watersheds in flood source contribution towards downstream areas in a river basin system are generally neglected in the inclusion of management strategy related to downstream flood management. In this study an assessment on the flood source area of Pahang river basin was attempted. The concept of unit flood response as an index of hydrologic response was used in identifying the flood source areas for the basin. The results indicated that among the 16 sub-basins of Pahang river basin, sub-basin of Sungai Pahang is ranked first in production of flood discharge while Sungai Perting sub-basin is ranked last in term of production of flood discharge. Comparison between maximum daily discharge of upper and lower segments of Pahang river basin indicated that up-stream watershed contributes significantly high and more flood (94.78% than down-stream (5.22%. In addition, the upland watersheds were found to more efficient in producing surface runoff and send the floodwater to the lower receiving basin of Sungai Pahang. Considering that basin flood response is generally a nonlinear function of many factors, the sub-basins that are located nearest to and most distance from the basin outlet do not necessarily generate the highest and lowest contribution to the flood peak at the outlet. Similarly, sub-basins producing the highest or lowest absolute or specific discharge at their own outlet may not necessarily ranked first and last in flood index.

Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

2010-01-01

211

Trend detection in river runoff across Mediterranean river basins: evaluation of results from Moroccan case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mediterranean basin is considered among the ecosystems to be especially affected by climate change due to the net decline in precipitations during the last century. This study aims to identify trend in river discharges using a set of graphical and statistical procedures. Annual and monthly continuous streamflow time series from six Mediterranean flow gages in Morocco were checked for possible trend. The rescaled cumulative departure plots of monthly mean flows exhibit a net decreasing tre...

Oueslati, Ons; Girolamo, Anna Maria; Lo Porto, Antonio; Abouabdillah, Aziz

2011-01-01

212

Iron cycling in the Amazon River Basin: the isotopic perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

With the global climate change and increasing anthropic pressure on nature, it is important to find new indicators of the response of complex systems like the Amazon River Basin. In particular, new tracers like iron isotopes may tell us much on processes such as the chemical exchanges between rivers, soils and the biosphere. Pioneering studies revealed that for some river waters, large ?57Fe fractionations are observed between the suspended and dissolved load (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006), and isotopic variations were also recognized on the suspended matter along the hydrological cycle (Ingri et al., 2006). On land, soil studies from various locations have shown that ?57Fe signatures depend mostly on the weathering regime (Fantle and DePaolo, 2004; Emmanuel et al., 2005; Wiederhold et al., 2007; Poitrasson et al., 2008). It thus seems that Fe isotopes could become an interesting new tracer of the exchanges between soils, rivers and the biosphere. We therefore conducted Fe isotope surveys through multidisciplinary field missions on rivers from the Amazon Basin. It was confirmed that acidic, organic-rich black waters show strong Fe isotope fractionation between particulate and dissolved loads. Furthermore, this isotopic fractionation varies along the hydrological cycle, like previously uncovered in boreal waters suspended matter. In contrast, unfiltered waters show very little variation with time. It was also found that Fe isotopes remain a conservative tracer even in the case of massive iron loss during the mixing of chemically contrasted waters such as the Negro and Solimões tributaries of the Amazon River. Given that >95% of the Fe from the Amazon River is carried as detrital materials, our results lead to the conclusion that the Fe isotope signature delivered to the Atlantic Ocean is undistinguishable from the continental crust value, in contrast to previous inferences. The results indicate that Fe isotopes in rivers represent a promising indicator of the interaction between organic matter and iron in rivers, and ultimately the nature of their source in soils. As such, they may become a powerfull tracer of changes occurring on the continents in response to both weathering context and human activities. References: Bergquist, B.A., Boyle, E.A., 2006. Iron isotopes in the Amazon River system: Weathering and transport signatures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248: 54-68. Emmanuel, S., Erel, Y., Matthews, A., Teutsch, N., 2005. A preliminary mixing model for Fe isotopes in soils. Chemical Geology, 222: 23-34. Fantle, M.S., DePaolo, D.J., 2004. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 228: 547-562. Ingri, J., Malinovsky, D., Rodushkin, I., Baxter, D.C., Widerlund, A., Andersson, P., Gustafsson, O., Forsling, W., Ohlander, B., 2006. Iron isotope fractionation in river colloidal matter. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245: 792-798. Poitrasson, F., Viers, J., Martin, F., Braun, J.J., 2008. Limited iron isotope variations in recent lateritic soils from Nsimi, Cameroon: Implications for the global Fe geochemical cycle. Chemical Geology, 253: 54-63. Wiederhold, J.G., Teutsch, N., Kraemer, S.M., Halliday, A.N., Kretzchmar, R., 2007. Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71: 5821-5833.

Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry

2014-05-01

213

Assessment of Interstate Streams in the Susquehanna River Basin Monitoring Report No. 23, January 1-December 31, 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) reviews projects that may have interstate impacts on water resources in the Susquehanna River Basin. SRBC established a monitoring program in 1986 to collect data that were not available from monitoring progra...

M. K. Shank

2010-01-01

214

Integrated River Basin Management Planning: A co-ordinated approach to planning for water  

Integrated River Basin Management Planning: A co-ordinated approach to planning for water Adapting to climate change will require an integrated and flexible approach to planning, building a consensus across many different sectors. Integrated river basin management is one such tool and an important…

215

Integrated River Basin Management Planning: A co-ordinated approach to planning for water  

…incorporate climate change considerations into our analysis for river basin management. That will ensure a co-ordinated and sustainable approach to managing the water environment, by incorporating climate change risks, including those that lead to drought and floods. More information * draft River Basin Management…

216

Integrated River Basin Management Planning: A co-ordinated approach to planning for water  

Integrated River Basin Management Planning: A co-ordinated approach to planning for water Adapting to climate change will require an integrated and flexible approach to planning, building a consensus across many different sectors. Integrated river basin management is one such tool and an important future…

217

Microsoft PowerPoint - Presentation on Draft River Basin Plans, Gabriel Nelson, NIEA  

...actions required. Draft River Basin Management Plans • 1 Northern Ireland only...and measures Draft River Basin Management Plans • Tier 1- NI/RoI...national and EU measures Fisheries management projects; etc Fisheries management projects; etc UWWTD; Habitats Directive; CAP...

218

Microsoft PowerPoint - Draft River Basin Managemant Plans, Alvin Wilson  

...actions required. Draft River Basin Management Plans • 1 Northern Ireland only...and measures Draft River Basin Management Plans • Tier 1- NI/RoI...national and EU measures Fisheries management projects; etc Fisheries management projects; etc UWWTD; Habitats Directive; CAP...

219

Microsoft PowerPoint - Draft River Basin Management Plans, Alvin Wilson  

...actions required. Draft River Basin Management Plans • 1 Northern Ireland only...and measures Draft River Basin Management Plans • Tier 1- NI/RoI...national and EU measures Fisheries management projects; etc Fisheries management projects; etc UWWTD; Habitats Directive; CAP...

220

Spatial and temporal variations of river nitrogen exports from major basins in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provincial-level data for population, livestock, land use, economic growth, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment rates were used to construct a river nitrogen (N) export model in this paper. Despite uncertainties, our results indicated that river N export to coastal waters increased from 531 to 1,244 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Changjiang River basin, 107 to 223 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Huanghe River basin, and 412 to 1,219 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Zhujiang River basin from 1980 to 2010 as a result of rapid population and economic growth. Significant temporal changes in water N sources showed that as the percentage of runoff from croplands increased, contributions of natural system runoff and rural human and livestock excreta decreased in the three basins from 1980 to 2010. Moreover, the nonpoint source N decreased from 72 to 58 % in the Changjiang River basin, 80 to 67 % in the Huanghe River basin, and 69 to 51 % in the Zhujiang River basin, while the contributions of point sources increased greatly during the same period. Estimated results indicated that the N concentrations in the Changjiang, Huanghe, and Zhujiang rivers during 1980-2004 were higher than those in the St. Lawrence River in Canada and lower than those in the Thames, Donau, Rhine, Seine, and Han rivers during the same period. River N export will reduce by 58, 54, and 57 % for the Changjiang River, Huanghe River, and Zhujiang River in the control scenario in 2050 compared with the basic scenario. PMID:23608986

Ti, Chaopu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Uncertainty in soil physical data at river basin scale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For hydrological modelling studies at the river basin scale, decision makers need guidance in assessing the implications of uncertain data used by modellers as an input to modelling tools. Simulated solute transport through the unsaturated zone is associated with uncertainty due to spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties and derived hydraulic model parameters. In general for modelling studies at the river basin scale spatially available data at various scales must be aggregated to an appropriate scale. Estimating soil properties at unsampled points by means of geostatistical techniques require reliable information on the spatial structure of soil data. In this paper this information is assessed by reviewing current developments in the field of soil physical data uncertainty and adopting a classification system. Then spatial variability and structure is inspected by reviewing experimental work on determining spatial length scales for soil physical (and soil chemical data. Available literature on spatial length scales for soil physical- and chemical properties is reviewed and their use in facilitating change of spatial support discussed. Uncertainty associated to the derivation of hydraulic properties from soil physical properties in this context is also discussed.

P. van der Keur

2006-07-01

222

Evaluation of satellite rainfall estimates over Ethiopian river basins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of high resolution satellite-based rainfall estimates (SREs across six river basins within Ethiopia during the major (Kiremt and minor (Belg rainy seasons for the years 2003 to 2007. The six regions, the Awash, Baro Akobo, Blue Nile, Genale Dawa, Rift Valley and Wabi Shebele River Basins surround the Ethiopian Highlands, which produces different topographical features, as well as spatial and temporal rainfall patterns. Precipitation estimates for the six regions were taken from three widely used high resolution SREs: the Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Neural Networks (PERSIANN and the real-time version of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42RT. All three SREs show the natural northwest-southeast precipitation gradient, but exhibit different spatial (mean annual total and number of rainy days and temporal (monthly totals. When compared to ground based rain gauges throughout the six regions, and for the years of interest, the performance of the three SREs were found to be season independent. The results varied for lower elevations, with CMORPH and TMPA 3B42RT performing better than PERSIANN in the southeast, while PERSIANN provided more accurate results in the northwest. At higher elevations, PERSIANN consistently underestimated while the performance of CMORPH and TMPA 3B42RT varied.

T. G. Romilly

2010-10-01

223

Upper Hiwassee River Basin reservoirs 1989 water quality assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The water in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin is slightly acidic and low in conductivity. The four major reservoirs in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin (Apalachia, Hiwassee, Chatuge, and Nottely) are not threatened by acidity, although Nottely Reservoir has more sulfates than the other reservoirs. Nottely also has the highest organic and nutrient concentrations of the four reservoirs. This results in Nottely having the poorest water clarity and the most algal productivity, although clarity as measured by color and secchi depths does not indicate any problem with most water use. However, chlorophyll concentrations indicate taste and odor problems would be likely if the upstream end of Nottely Reservoir were used for domestic water supply. Hiwassee Reservoir is clearer and has less organic and nutrient loading than either of the two upstream reservoirs. All four reservoirs have sufficient algal activity to produce supersaturated dissolved oxygen conditions and relatively high pH values at the surface. All four reservoirs are thermally stratified during the summer, and all but Apalachia have bottom waters depleted in oxygen. The very short residence time of Apalachia Reservoir, less than ten days as compared to over 100 days for the other three reservoirs, results in it being more riverine than the other three reservoirs. Hiwassee Reservoir actually develops three distinct water temperature strata due to the location of the turbine intake. The water quality of all of the reservoirs supports designated uses, but water quality complaints are being received regarding both Chatuge and Nottely Reservoirs and their tailwaters

1991-01-01

224

??Copula??????????????? Hydrological Droughts Analysis Based on Copulas Function in the East River Basin, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Copula????????????????4????1975~2009???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Variations of hydrological droughts largely decide the variability and availability of water resources of a river basin. The EastRiver basinbears the heavy responsibility for water supply for the megacities within the Pearl River Delta region and those in the vicinity of the Pearl River Delta such as Shenzhen andHong Kong. About 80% of the water consumption of Hong Kong has to be satisfied by the water supply from theEast River. In this case, the sustainable water supply from theEastRiver basinwill be greatly significant for the regional social stability. In this study, statistical behaviors and risks of the hydrological droughts of the East River basin are evaluated using copula functions and the secondary return periods based on the daily streamflow data covering the period of 1975-2009. The research results indicate that the hydrological droughts of high drought severity and long duration are subjected to the decreasing risks from the upper to the lower East River basin. However, the droughts of higher severity or long duration are subjected to the lower risk in the upperEastRiver basinwhen compared to those in the lowerEastRiver basin. Water resources management of theEastRiver basinshould be integrated by taking theEastRiver basinas a whole. And the results of this study will provide theoretical and scientific grounds for the basin-scale water resources management.

???

2012-06-01

225

The Amazon. Bio-geochemistry applied to river basin management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hydrochemical model, using hydrograph separation, developed for the Niger basin, has been proposed as a strategic tool for studying the watershed dynamics at any time and space scales. The model is applied to the Amazon basin, including the main channel and its major tributaries. The database corresponds to a sampling and analytical program developed over 8 cruises at 9 stations (about 70 samples), collected in the framework of the CAMREX Project (1982-1984). The model, based on a hydrograph separation of 3 reservoirs, is successful in extrapolating and predicting the geochemical and environmental behaviour of such large basins, naturally submitted to large secular or annual, regular or even catastrophic climatic oscillations. Several topics have been considered. (1) Coherence among the physico-chemical analyses: dissolved species (pH, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, HCO3-, Cl-, DOC-, SO42-, HPO42-, SiO2, O2 and CO2), and inorganic or organic suspended load (fine and coarse fractions FSS, CSS, POCF, POCC). (2) Hydrograph separation in 3 reservoir contributions: RS, the superficial or rapid runoff, RI, the hypodermic or intermediate runoff, including the flood plain contributions, and RB the ground water or base flow. (3) Estimation of the isotopic and physico-chemical features of each of the 3 flow components: RS, RI, and RB. (4) Determination of the 3 hydrological parameters (size of the reservoir, drying up coefficient, and residence time of water), characterizing each of the 3 flow components (RS, RI, and RB), in each of the 9 basins considered. (5) Hydrological and geochemical balances for all the parameters analysed either (a) cruise by cruise for all tributaries and the Amazon River at Obidos, or (b) among each of the 3 river flow components. (6) Isotopic data set of ?18O in waters, tests of coherence of the hydrograph separation model. (7) Relationships between isotopic signatures and morphological or hydroclimatical parameters characterizing the river-soil-vegetation systems. The developed procedure presents a new tool in environmental predictions, emphasizing the potentiality of geochemical interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets

2005-09-01

226

Modelling hydrological responses of Nerbioi River Basin to Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Future climate change will affect aquatic systems on various pathways. Regarding the hydrological cycle, which is a very important pathway, changes in hydrometeorological variables (air temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration) in first order impact discharges. The fourth report assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is evidence that the recent warming of the climate system would result in more frequent extreme precipitation events, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. Available research and climate model outputs indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99%). For example, it is likely that up to 20% of the world population will live in areas where river flood potential could increase by the 2080s. In Spain, within the Atlantic basin, the hydrological variability will increase in the future due to the intensification of the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. This might cause flood frequency decreases, but its magnitude does not decrease. The generation of flood, its duration and magnitude are closely linked to changes in winter precipitation. The climatic conditions and relief of the Iberian Peninsula favour the generation of floods. In Spain, floods had historically strong socio-economic impacts, with more than 1525 victims in the past five decades. This upward trend of hydrological variability is expected to remain in the coming decades (medium uncertainty) when the intensification of the positive phase of the NAO index (MMA, 2006) is considered. In order to adapt or minimize climate change impacts in water resources, it is necessary to use climate projections as well as hydrological modelling tools. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate and assess the hydrological response to climate changes in flow conditions in Nerbioi river basin (Basque Country, North of Spain). So that adaptation strategies can be defined. In order to fulfil this objective four subobjectives are defined: (1)selection of the future climate projections for the case study area from a wide spectrum of possibilities; (2) model the hydrological processes of the basin with a physically distributed complex hydrological model; (3) validation of the hydrological model with observation data; and (4) runoff simulation introducing regional climate model data selected. The analysis of climate models suggests that extreme precipitation in the Basque Country increased by about 10% during the twenty-first century. This increase of extreme precipitations raised discharge and water level in Nerbioi river basin. That is why in the 21st century it is expected that the flood-prone area will expand for precipitation with a return period of 50 years. In this context, it is necessary to define and evaluate different adaptation options which are already in practice or conceivable according to the current scientific knowledge. As well as evaluate the adaptation measures in terms of their ability to lower the vulnerability of water resources to climate change. For example, land use change could be a useful tool to adapt our basin systems. The land use plays an important role on the water balance of a river by varying the proportion of precipitation that runs off and the fraction that is lost by evapotranspiration. Therefore, both climate change and adaptation strategies will have an impact on the hydrodynamic conditions of rivers; particularly the changes in flow conditions will have a severe ecological, economical and social impact. As future work, adaptation measures will introduce in the future runoff simulation in order to evaluate the effectiveness and as a decision-making tool to operational organisations.

Mendizabal, Maddalen; Moncho, Roberto; Chust, Guillem; Torp, Peter

2010-05-01

227

Operational Hydrologic Forecasts in the Columbia River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Columbia River Basin (CRB) covers an area of ~670,000 km2 and stretches across parts of seven U.S. states and one Canadian province. The basin is subject to a variable climate, and moisture stored in snowpack during the winter is typically released in spring and early summer. These releases contribute to rapid increases in flow. A number of impoundments have been constructed on the Columbia River main stem and its tributaries for the purposes of flood control, navigation, irrigation, recreation, and hydropower. Storage reservoirs allow water managers to adjust natural flow patterns to benefit water and energy demands. In the past decade, the complexity of water resource management issues in the basin has amplified the importance of streamflow forecasting. Medium-range (1-10 day) numerical weather forecasts of precipitation and temperature can be used to drive hydrological models. In this work, probabilistic meteorological variables from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) are used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Soil textures were obtained from FAO data; vegetation types / land cover information from UMD land cover data; stream networks from USGS HYDRO1k; and elevations from CGIAR version 4 SRTM data. The surface energy balance in 0.25° (~25 km) cells is closed through an iterative process operating at a 6 hour timestep. Output fluxes from a number of cells in the basin are combined through one-dimensional flow routing predicated on assumptions of linearity and time invariance. These combinations lead to daily mean streamflow estimates at key locations throughout the basin. This framework is suitable for ingesting daily numerical weather prediction data, and was calibrated using USGS mean daily streamflow data at the Dalles Dam (TDA). Operational streamflow forecasts in the CRB have been active since October 2012. These are 'naturalized' or unregulated forecasts. In 2013, increases of ~2600 m3/s (~48% of average discharge for water years 1879-2012) or greater were observed at TDA during the following periods: 29 March to 12 April, 5 May to 11 May, and 19 June to 29 June. Precipitation and temperature forecasts during these periods are shown along with changes in the model simulated snowpack. We evaluate the performance of the ensemble mean 10 days in advance of each of these three events, and comment on how the distribution of ensemble members affected forecast confidence in each situation.

Shrestha, K. Y.; Curry, J. A.; Webster, P. J.; Toma, V. E.; Jelinek, M.

2013-12-01

228

Response of the Mackenzie River Basin lakes to climate variability  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mackenzie River Basin has experienced the highest year to year climate variability in the northern hemisphere during the winter months over the last 50 years. Lakes have special interest since they reflect the influence of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation oscillations (Teleconnections). Seasonal and composite lake water level anomalies for the negative and positive phases of North Pacific (NP), Pacific North American (PNA), Pacific Decadal (PDO), Arctic (AO), and El Nino Southern (ENSO) Oscillations, indicate PDO to have the largest influence on the amplitude of lake level anomalies across Mackenzie River Basin during 1950--2008. NP is more influential than ENSO in the southern part of the basin and during winter seasons. The response to the Arctic Oscillation (AO) effect is only recorded at Great Slave Lake during the spring. Squared coherence, the frequency domain equivalent of correlation, was used to evaluate the modes and frequencies of correlations between the above mentioned lake levels and teleconnection indexes. Great Bear Lake levels are sensitive to the variability of all considered teleconnections at the decadal (PDO) and interannual (ENSO, PNA, NP, AO) bands. The North Pacific followed by Pacific North American and Arctic Oscillations are the most influential teleconnections at interannual frequencies for the southern part of the basin. The influence of flow regulation on Great Slave Lake level variability mainly affects the coherence response at the (1.0--1.5) years' period, without an impact on the low-frequency climate signal, as reflected by significant correlations with ENSO at the 10 years' period and North Pacific and Arctic Oscillations at the 6.6 years' period. The Aleutian Low indexes indicate the highest interannual frequency, which is significant in the basin, corresponds to the (1.5--1.6) years' period. Differences in the slopes of Lake Altimetry Heights (LAH) across Great Slave Lake identifies deeper and colder areas as ideal to study interannual climate variability due to their minimal change in gradient through time, as compared to areas with higher gradient variability. Changes in lake level gradients are more related to surface water temperature distribution than wind effects.

Sarmiento, Sergio Eduardo

229

Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin. The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out until now. Some of the potential solutions, aiming to achieve the effective flood control, are suggested as well.

Milanovi? Ana

2006-01-01

230

Supporting Long-Term Water Management Negotiations in the Klamath River Basin | Projects at SEI  

...Supporting Long-Term Water Management Negotiations in the Klamath River Basin | Projects at SEI Supporting Long-Term Water Management Negotiations in the Klamath River ... 1# Supporting Long-Term Water Management Negotiations in the Klamath River Basin SEI is providing support to settlement negotiations related to dam removal and long-term ...water allocation on the Klamath River.The goal is to allow the Yurok Tribe and its partners to simulate water management scenarios in a ...computer model of the hydrology of the upper Klamath Basin in order to understand the implications of potential settlement terms.SEI is providing technical ...

231

Water resources of the Weiser River basin, west-central Idaho  

Science.gov (United States)

The study area comprises about 1,600 square miles (4,100 square kilometers) in west-central Idaho and includes the entire Weiser River basin and small areas both west and south of Weiser outside the basin. The basin is sparsely populated and the economy is chiefly agricultural.

Young, H. W.; Harenberg, W. A.; Seitz, Harold R.

1977-01-01

232

[Variation characteristics of runoff coefficient of Taizi River basin in 1967-2006].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the daily precipitation and runoff data of six main embranchments (Haicheng River, Nansha River, Beisha River, Lanhe River, Xihe River, and Taizi River south embranchment) of Taizi River basin in 1967-2006, this paper analyzed the variation trend of runoff coefficient of the embranchments as well as the relationship between this variation trend and precipitation. In 1967-2006, the Taizi River south embranchment located in alpine hilly area had the largest mean annual runoff coefficient, while the Haicheng River located in plain area had the relatively small one. The annual runoff coefficient of the embranchments except Nansha River showed a decreasing trend, being more apparent for Taizi River south embranchment and Lanhe River. All the embranchments except Xihe River had an obvious abrupt change in the annual runoff coefficient, and the beginning year of the abrupt change differed with embranchment. Annual precipitation had significant effects on the annual runoff coefficient. PMID:21941759

Deng, Jun-Li; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

2011-06-01

233

A spatial analysis of phosphorus in the Mississippi river basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and impairs local water quality. We analyzed the spatial pattern of P in the MRB to determine the counties with the greatest January to June P riverine yields and the most critical factors related to this P loss. Using a database of P inputs and landscape characteristics from 1997 through 2006 for each county in the MRB, we created regression models relating riverine total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and particulate P (PP) yields for watersheds within the MRB to these factors. Riverine yields of P were estimated from the average concentration of each form of P during January to June for the 10-yr period, multiplied by the average daily flow, and then summed for the 6-mo period. The fraction of land planted in crops, human consumption of P, and precipitation were found to best predict TP yields with a spatial error regression model ( = 0.48, = 101). Dissolved reactive P yields were predicted by fertilizer P inputs, human consumption of P, and precipitation in a multiple regression model ( = 0.42, = 73), whereas PP yields were explained by crop fraction, human consumption of P, and soil bulk density in a spatial error regression model ( = 0.49, = 61). Overall, the Upper Midwest's Cornbelt region and lower Mississippi basin had the counties with the greatest P yields. These results help to point out specific areas where agricultural conservation practices that reduce losses to streams and rivers and point source P removal might limit the intensity or spatial occurrence of Gulf of Mexico hypoxia and improve local water quality. PMID:21546679

Jacobson, Linda M; David, Mark B; Drinkwater, Laurie E

2011-01-01

234

Mapping and Assessment of Degraded Land in the Heihe River Basin, Arid Northwestern China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the aridinland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects ofenvironmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resourceutilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, suchas its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based onfield observations and TM images from the year 2003, this study p...

Shanzhong Qi; Yumin Cai

2007-01-01

235

Beyond Lees Ferry: Assessing the Long-term Hydrologic Variability of the Lower Colorado River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The future reliability of Colorado River Basin water supplies depends on natural hydrologic variability, climate change impacts and other human factors. Natural variability is the dominant component at annual to decadal time scales and thus, capturing and understanding the full range of such variability is critical to assessing risks to near- and mid-term water supplies. Paleohydrologic reconstructions of annual flow using tree rings provide much longer (400+ years) records of annual flow than do historical gage records, and thus a more complete representation of potential flow sequences. While the long-term natural variability of the Upper Colorado River Basin has been well-captured by high-quality multi-century reconstructions of the annual flow of the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, AZ, there has been no equivalent effort for the whole of the Lower Colorado River Basin, including the Gila River. The contribution of the Lower Basin to overall basin flows is estimated to be 15% on average, but this percentage varies significantly from year to year, potentially impacting water supply risk and management for the entire basin. We present preliminary results from an ongoing effort to assess the hydroclimatic variability of the Lower Basin and to develop reconstructions of annual streamflows for the Gila River and Lower Colorado River near Yuma, AZ, commensurate with the existing Lees Ferry reconstructions. We model the flow of the Gila at the confluence with the Colorado River using Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) and a generalized linear model (GLM) using Lower Basin tributaries, including the upper Gila River and its tributaries (e.g., Salt, Tonto, and Verde Rivers). We also present preliminary reconstructions of Lower Basin streamflows from tree-ring data using different modeling approaches, including GLM and non-parametric k-nearest-neighbor (KNN). These reconstructions of the Lower Basin flows should facilitate more robust estimation of water supply risk to support water resource planning and management

Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J. J.; Kanzer, D.

2011-12-01

236

Hydrochemistry of the Parauari-Maues Acu river basin (Amazon region, Brazil)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical composition of the Parauari-Maues Acu basin is studied through the determination of pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, chloride, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper and manganese. Four expeditions were made and samples were collected in 16 different points of the main course. Chemical analysis of the rivers waters shows seasonal flutuations of the concentrations of the elements in the main river as well as in the main afluents like Nambi river, Amana river and Urupadi river. (Author)

1980-01-01

237

River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; McEnnis, S.

2012-01-01

238

Late quaternary geology in Desaguadero river basin, San Luis, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Absolute radiocarbon datings of the sedimentary successions have come to knowledge enabling us to distinguish the Pleistocene deposits from the supra-lying Holocene ones. A palaeo-environmental evolution is proposed considering climatic fluctuations at the time, their relation with the river unloadings of the Andean glaciers and that proposed for the palaeo-lake of Salina del Bebedero. Sediments are described on the basis of a detailed field sampling, textural analysis (sieved and Bouyoucos) and laboratory geo-chemicals. Their interpretation of the geologic evolution is considered to be very important since it is the only river course on this arid-semi-arid region linked to the reduction of glaciers in the Andes. The sedimentary succession is dominated by high percentages of laminated limes and with green-yellowish to greyish-brown-reddish tones deposited in watery environments of low energy such as lacustrine basins and extended plains of flood, which is why the evolution of the deposit is characterized by the contrast of the values of insolubles (clastic sediment and carbonate) versus solubles (insoluble saline). The climatic cycles dominant and proposed for the center-east Argentine region are identified considering the influence of Andean glaciers on the river systems and the water balances in plain semi-arid environments. (author)

2007-10-10

239

Geohydrology of principal aquifers in the Republican River basin, Kansas  

Science.gov (United States)

Principal aquifers in the Republican River basin in Kansas are unconsolidated alluvial deposits. One such aquifer is formed by the Ogallala Formation of Miocene age which covers most of the western part of the area. Because saturated thickness of the aquifer decrease northeastward, maximum yields to irrigation wells decrease in that direction from 2,000 to 500 gallons per minute. The Grand Island Formation of Pleistocene age occurs in an ancestral channel of the Republican River in northeast Jewell and northwest Republic counties. The maximum yield to wells from this aquifer was estimated to be 2,000 gallons per minute. Quaternary alluvium of Pleistocene and Holocene age occurs in most major stream valleys. The aquifer in the Republican River valley yields as much as 2,000 gallons per minute to irrigation wells. Water levels in the Ogallala Formation commonly declined from 5 to 40 feet during 1950-77 as a result of irrigation withdrawals. Recharge from irrigation by stream diversions have raised water levels as much as 25 feet in the Grand Island Formation and as much as 15 feet in the Quaternary alluvium of the Prairie Dog Creek valley. (USGS)

Dunlap, L. E.

1982-01-01

240

Impact of climate change and agricultural developments in the Taquari River basin, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Pantanal wetland is part of the Upper Paraguay River basin. The major driving force of the wetland system is the annual oscillation between dry and wet seasons. This study focussed on the Taquari basin, a tributary of the Paraguay River, where erosion takes place and parts of the river silt up, resulting in an unstable system leading to serious flooding, ecological deterioration and economic losses. These effects could be the result of the increased precipitation since the 1970s, or land-...

Querner, E. P.; Jonker, R. N. J.; Padovani, C.; Soriano, B.; Galdino, S.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, ...

Chen, N. Sh; Hu, G. Sh; Deng, W.; Khanal, N.; Lu, Y.; Han, D.

2013-01-01

242

Estimating resource costs of compliance with EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Resource costs of meeting EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale are estimated by comparing net benefits of water use given ecological status constraints to baseline water use values. Resource costs are interpreted as opportunity costs of water use arising from water scarcity. An optimization approach is used to identify economically efficient ways to meet WFD requirements. The approach is implemented using a river basin simulation model coupled to an economic post-processor; the simulation model and post-processor are run from a central controller that iterates until an allocation is found that maximizes net benefits given WFD requirements. Water use values are estimated for urban/domestic, agricultural, industrial, livestock, and tourism water users. Ecological status is estimated using metrics that relate average monthly river flow volumes to the natural hydrologic regime. Ecological status is only estimated with respect to hydrologic regime; other indicators are ignored in this analysis. The decision variable in the optimization is the price of water, which is used to vary demands using consumer and producer water demand functions. The price-based optimization approach minimizes the number of decision variables in the optimization problem and provides guidance for pricing policies that meet WFD objectives. Results from a real-world application in northern Greece show the suitability of the approach for use in complex, water-stressed basins. The impact of uncertain input values on model outcomes is estimated using the Info-Gap decision analysis framework. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Riegels, Niels; Jensen, Roar

2011-01-01

243

Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cl...

Hasson, Shabeh Ul; Lucarini, Valerio; Khan, Mobushir Riaz; Petitta, Marcello; Bolch, Tobias; Gioli, Giovanna

2012-01-01

244

SWOT data assimilation for reservoir operations in the upper Niger river basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective is to evaluate the potential for swath altimetry (SWOT) data to improve reservoir operations in the upper Niger river basin where two reservoirs are (or will be) used to sustain water demand, mainly for irrigation. We coupled the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamics model to the VIC hydrology model to compute the "true" state of the system which we used with a SWOT simulator to provide synthetic water levels and surface extent for both the Niger River channel and the two reservoirs. The simulated states were obtained by running the models with perturbed inputs (meteorological forcings to the VIC model, and water level in the two reservoirs). We integrated a reservoir rule model with the river hydrodynamics and hydrology models in order to define dam releases for each reservoir depending on available water in the river reach and downstream water demand. We then assimilated in situ and SWOT data into the coupled models to correct for model and forcing errors. We considered four scenarios: no assimilation, assimilation of in situ data only, assimilation of SWOT data only, and assimilation of both data sources. We computed performance of each scenario from the total volume of released water and the ability of the system to satisfy water demand.

Munier, Simon; Lettenmaier, Dennis; Polebitski, Austin; Brown, Casey

2013-04-01

245

Isotope hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in Purna river basin, Maharashtra, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Purna river basin, mainly located in Akola and Amaravati districts of Maharashtra in India, is an east-west elongated river valley (20 deg. 10'-21 deg. 25' N latitude and 76 deg. 00'-77 deg. 55' E longitude). About 3000 km2 area out of 7500 km2 area of the inland basin is underlain by saline and brackish groundwater. The Quaternary sediments cover much of the area while the basin margins and the basement is composed mainly of the Deccan Traps. In the alluvial belt, the soil (derived from parent basaltic rock) has dense fabric, fertile but poor hydraulic conductivity with high degree of shrink-swell potential. Na+1 is the dominating cation in the soil and Ca+2, Mg+2 decrease with depth. The electrical conductivity of the groundwaters of the area varies from 400 to over 30000 ?S/cm. Some of the earlier studies in the area regarding the origin of salinity suggested intrusion of ancient seawater through Son-Narmada lineament, digenetic alterations, irrigation practices causing accretion and subsequent dissolution of salts in the soil horizons as well as dissolution of salts through the rock matrix. No conclusive inferences could be drawn from these studies. In this study, the problem is tackled by employing isotope and hydrogeochemical techniques. Two sets of water samples from Purna river (Surface water), Dug wells (Shallow aquifer) and tube wells (Deep aquifer) and six piezometer samples were collected from different parts of the Purna river basin and analysed for environmental isotopes as well as major, minor, and trace ions. The interpretation of the results was carried out in the light of other geological information to decipher cause of salinity and delineating recharge and discharge zones of the fresh groundwater in the area. The Piper trilinear plots for fresh waters and saline waters showed that fresh waters are generally Na-HCO3 type whereas saline samples are predominantly Na-Cl type. The hydrochemical facies in saline waters change from HCO3 to Cl type. No linear trend in salinity and depth were observed. It is observed that wherever groundwater flow is less, flushing is less and salinity is more. Computation of molar ionic ratios of the samples suggested that the salts have been derived as a result of weathering of the basalt present in the vicinity. Contribution of local precipitation to groundwater as a direct recharge is insignificant except in hard rock area. The foothills of the Satpura range, which is situated in the north of the basin, act as a recharge zone for fresh groundwaters in the area. Here the alluvium cover is quite thick and it becomes thinner and thinner as it progresses towards Purna River. Ultimately, the alluvium acts as discharge zone along the depression of Purna. The deep aquifers of the area have saline, brackish and fresh waters. The ?D-?18O plot indicates evaporative enrichment. The fresh waters fall near GMWL with a slope of about 8. Brackish waters, falling between saline and fresh waters seems to be mixture of the two waters. This is further inferred as well by the 3H values of the waters. Purna river water samples showed evaporative enrichment. It also indicates contribution of groundwater to the river at some places. A depleted starting isotopic composition for saline groundwater samples compared to present day river water sample indicated either source of saline waters is different from river water or a different climatic conditions existed at the time of recharge in comparison to the present era. ?18O - Cl-1 plot showed that the salinity in the deep aquifers could be due to leaching of salts from the formation as well. The 3H values of the samples showed that the saline aquifers are isolated and not getting modern recharge. However, the brackish water aquifers do get partial recharge from a distant source. The 14C results of the highly saline groundwater samples suggested their uncorrected ages about 4 - 7 ka BP. The ?34S values of the aqueous sulphate samples indicated their non-marine origin. From the study it was concluded that, the deeper saline waters are o

2003-05-19

246

Drainage areas of the Twelvepole Creek basin, West Virginia; Big Sandy River basin, West Virginia; Tug Fork basin, Virginia, Kentucky, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Drainage areas were determined for 61 basins in the Twelvepole Creek basin, West Virginia; 11 basins of the Big Sandy River Basin, West Virginia; and 210 basins in the Tug Fork basin of Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia. Most basins with areas greater than 5 square miles were included. Drainage areas were measured with electronic digitizing equipment, and supplementary measurements were made with a hand planimeter. Stream mileages were determined by measuring, with a graduated plastic strip, distances from the mouth of each stream to the measuring point on that stream. Mileages were reported to the nearest one-hundredth of a mile in all cases. The latitude and longitude of each measuring point was determined with electronic digitizing equipment and is reported to the nearest second. The information is listed in tabular form in downstream order. Measuring points for the basins are located in the tables by intersecting tributaries, by counties, by map quadrangles, or by latitude and longitude. (Woodard-USGS)

Wilson, M. W.

1979-01-01

247

Modelling seasonal N and P loads in three contrasting large river basins using global datasets - Mississippi, Mekong and Rhine River  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nutrients are important components of the global biochemical cycle, and are key controls of the quality of inland and coastal waters. Quantification of the nutrient fluxes from large river basins to the oceans still relies on long-term yearly-load estimates; existing models are essentially empirical budget models that relate total annual basin output to estimates of basin-wide nutrient emissions. In this type of models identification of the source areas, as well as quantificati...

Loos, S.; Middelkoop, H.; Perk, M.; Beek, L. P. H.

2011-01-01

248

78 FR 72860 - White River National Forest; Summit County, CO; 2013 Arapahoe Basin Improvements EIS  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White River National Forest; Summit County...A-Basin) has submitted a proposal to the White River National Forest (WRNF) to pursue...Forest Supervisor, c/Joe Foreman, White River National Forest, PO Box 620,...

2013-12-04

249

Taxonomic revision of the Rineloricaria species (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Paraguay River basin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As espécies do gênero Rineloricaria da bacia do rio Paraguai foram revisadas, as seguintes espécies e padrões de distribuição foram encontradas: R. aurata, bacia do rio Paraguai no Brasil e Paraguai, rio Guaporé no Brasil; R. cacerensis, rio Paraguai perto de Cáceres no Brasil; R. lanceolata, bacia [...] do rio Paraguai no Brasil e Paraguai, rios Guaporé, Ji-Paraná, Purus, Solimões e Araguaia no Brasil, rios Marañón e Madre de Dios no Peru; R. parva, bacia do rio Paraguai no Brasil e Paraguai, rio Paraná na Argentina, rio Uruguai no Brasil. Loricaria hoehnei é proposta como novo sinônimo júnior de R. lanceolata. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies de Rineloricaria da bacia do rio Paraguai é fornecida. Abstract in english Species of the genus Rineloricaria from the Paraguay River basin were revised, the following species and geographic distributional patterns were found: R. aurata, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, rio Guaporé in Brazil; R. cacerensis, Paraguay River near Cáceres in Brazil; R. lanceolata, [...] Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, Guaporé, Ji-Paraná, Purus, Solimões, and Araguaia rivers in Brazil, Marañón and Madre de Dios rivers in Peru; R. parva, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, Paraná River in Argentina, Uruguay River in Brazil. Loricaria hoehnei is proposed as a new junior synonym of R. lanceolata. A key to the species of Rineloricaria from the Paraguay River basin is provided.

Héctor S., Vera-Alcaraz; Carla S., Pavanelli; Cláudio H., Zawadzki.

250

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume V : Evaluation of the 1999 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 1999 inseason outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from sixteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, South Fork Salmon River, and Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for a stock of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake and for the runs-at-large of Snake River wild yearling chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. The 1999 RealTime project began making forecasts for a new stock of PIT-tagged wild fall subyearling chinook salmon, as a substitute for forecasts of the wild run-at-large, discontinued June 6. Forecasts for the run-at-large were discontinued when a large release of unmarked hatchery fish into the Snake River made identification of wild fish impossible. The 1999 Program RealTime performance was comparable to its performance in previous years with respect to the run-at-large of yearling chinook salmon (whole season MAD=3.7%), and the run of hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon (whole season MAD=6.7%). Season-wide performance of program RealTime predictions for wild Snake River yearling chinook salmon ESUs improved in 1999, with mean MADs from the first half of the outmigrations down from 15.1% in 1998 to 4.5% in 1999. RealTime performance was somewhat worse for the run-at-large of steelhead trout in 1999, compared to 1998, particularly during the last half of the outmigration when the MAD increased from 2.7% in 1998 to 6.1% in 1999. A pattern of over-predictions was observed in half of the yearling chinook salmon ESUs and the steelhead run-at-large during the month of May. Lower-than-average outflows were observed at Lower Granite dam during the first half of May, the only period of low flows in an year with otherwise higher-than-average-flows. The passage distribution of the stock new to the RealTime forecasting project, the PIT tagged stock of fall subyearling chinook salmon, was predicted with very good accuracy (whole season MAD=4.7%), particularly during the last half of the outmigration (MAD=3.6%). The RealTime project reverted to a pre-1998 method of adjusting PIT-tagged smolt counts at Lower Granite Dam because of its superior performance during the last half of the outmigration.

Burgess, Caitlin

1998-07-01

251

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume III : Evaluation of the 1997 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Yearling and Subyearling Chinook and Sockeye in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the 1994 outmigration, program RealTime has been applied to provide in-season predictions of smolt outmigration timing for individual and aggregates of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon stocks. Results from the 1997 smolt outmigrations of wild Snake River yearling and subyearling chinook show prediction of run-timing can be accurately forecasted. The number of release sites meeting previous years criteria for RealTime forecasts dropped to five for the wild spring/summer chinook parr PIT-tagged in 1996: Catherine Creek, Imnaha, Lostine, Minam and South Fork Salmon Rivers. An experiment in lessening previous RealTime requirements for forecasting a outmigration in progress added three release sites of chinook: Lake Creek, Secesh and South Fork Wenaha Rivers; and one release of age 1+ sockeye at Redfish Lake. Passage indices provided by the Fish Passage Center for Lower Granite Dam were monitored for the wild subyearling chinook outmigration. Investigation continued into basing predictions on historical years with similar flows as a way to improve forecasting performance for the wild subyearling outmigration. Program RealTime's output is a series of estimated percentages of the status of the smolt outmigration throughout the season. To compare the performance the program from year to year, or to compare various assumptions used set up the forecasting, the mean absolute deviance (MAD) of the daily predicted outmigration-proportion from the actual outmigration-proportion is calculated post-season. Furthermore, these MAD's are considered for three periods of the season: the first 50% of the season, the second 50%, and the entire season.

Townsend, Richard L.

1998-07-01

252

Water environmental degradation of the Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water environmental degradation is a major issue in the Heihe River Basin belonging to the inland river basin of temperate arid zone in northwestern China. Mankind's activities, such as dense population and heavy dependence on irrigated agriculture, place immense pressure on available and limited water resources during the last century, especially the recent five decades. An investigation on the water environmental degradation in the Heihe River Basin and analysis of its causation were conducted. The results indicated that water environmental changes in the whole basin were tremendous mostly in the middle reaches, which reflected in surface water runoff change, decline of groundwater table and degeneration of surface water and groundwater quality. Some new forms of management based on traditional and scientific knowledge must be introduced to solve problems of water environmental degradation in the Heihe River Basin. PMID:16160787

Qi, Shan-Zhong; Luo, Fang

2005-09-01

253

Understanding wellbore stability challenges in Horn River Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The industry must spend hundreds of millions of dollars each year because of wellbore instability problems. Shale formations are a major source of wellbore instabilities, and these problems have been particularly acute in the Horn River Basin (HRB), the largest gas shale field in Canada. Shale formations have laminated structures and, therefore, significant differences in mechanical properties parallel and perpendicular to bedding planes; anisotropic estimated horizontal stresses can be caused by these differences. Failure to consider this feature can have very serious consequences for drilling. The authors studied cases where operators had faced severe drilling challenges; then they performed a comprehensive post-mortem analysis of these wells, identified possible causes for problem zones and made recommendations for addressing these problems in future drilling. Three of the key reasons are that shale anisotropy was not properly characterized, that anisotropic stresses were not considered in the pre-spud analysis, and that the attack angle with respect to shale bedding planes was inappropriate.

Khan, Safdar; Ansari, Sajjad; Han, Hongxue; Khosravi, Nader [Schlumberger (Canada)], email: safdar.khan@slb.com

2011-07-01

254

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin, Volume IV : Evaluation of the 1998 Predictions of the Run-timing of Wild Migrant Yearling and Subyearling Chinook and Steelhead, and Hatchery Salmon in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 1998 inseason outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook. These stocks were from eight release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Lake Creek, Imnaha River, Minam River, South Fork Salmon River, and Secesh River. Forecasts were also provided for a stock of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye from Redfish Lake and for the runs-at-large of Snake River wild yearling and subyearling chinook salmon, and steelhead. The 1998 Program RealTime performance was comparable to its performance in previous years for the whole-season evaluations for every stock tracked. Relative to 1997, performance improved for the yearling chinook run-at-large, and for predictions for last-half of the season for every other stock. Performance compared poorly with 1997 predictions for the first half of the runs of PIT-tagged yearling spring/summer chinook stocks and the run-at-large of fall subyearling chinook, and was slightly worse for the first half of the Redfish Lake sockeye run and the steelhead run-at-large. Poor first-half performance was likely due to the unusually large (and in some cases short) outmigrations in 1998. Utilization in 1998 of a different method of adjusting smolt counts at Lower Granite Dam compared to previous years produced slightly better first-half performance than pre-1998 adjustments would have, but slightly worse last-half performance, for all the PIT-tagged stocks, prompting a return to the pre-1998 adjustment formula for the 1999 outmigration. An Army Corp of Engineers (ACOE) experiment during April and May of 1998 involving the installation of two new components to existing structures at Lower Granite Dam did not appear to affect RealTime performance. A comparison of run-timing predictions based on FPC passage indices and Battelle hydroacoustic counts showed the two independent data sources produced very similar results, for the wild steelhead and yearling chinook runs-at-large. Due to the less than desirable first half performance in 1998, a refinement in the calibration process for Program RealTime will be conducted in the future.

Burgess, Caitlin

1997-01-01

255

Systems-taking Heihe River Basin as a Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With increasing occurrence of environmental emergencies in China in recent years, risk management has becoming an important subject in environmental management. Past studies on risk assessment and management have focused on chemical risk but rarely on the ecosystem level risk. Based on the theories of landscape ecology and advanced Geographic Information Systems (GIS technologies, this study built a set of index system and constructed a quantitative method suitable for the arid areas in this study. The Eco-Risk Index (ER in time series could be used to monitor changes of eco-risk caused by natural disasters and human activities. This study also conducted a case study on the middle part of Heihe River Basin which is a typical area in Gansu province in western China. The results have shown a decrease Eco-risk Probability (EP due to the fewer and fewer interference from human activities and natural disaster since 2000. The stability of landscape also improved significantly with Landscape Stability Index (LSI decreased from 0.48 to 0.41, signifying worse landscape stability. But the net primary productivity (NPP’ index increased from 0.67 to 0.94 for the area of interest which indicated improved natural light and temperature. The final Eco-risk Indexes (ER have decreased from 0.83 to 0.58 in the past 11 years because of a significant reduction of the eco-risk factor in the studied region. All the above indicators points to the improvement of the eco-system at Heihe River Basin region. The current research also confirmed that the area of study is in the moderate risk level.

Wang Ruofan

2014-01-01

256

Assessing interannual water balance of La Plata river basin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El río Paraná es el más importante de la Cuenca de La Plata, sustentando economías regionales en tres países. Durante las últimas décadas, se han producido cambios significativos en la cuenca del Paraná, debido a la deforestación y sustitución de cultivos. Esto pudo haber modificado la respuesta de [...] la cuenca en términos de caudales del río Paraná. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar la estructura de la serie temporal de evapotranspiración (ET(t)) de la Cuenca Superior del Paraná. En primer lugar se estudió la relación entre las variables en la ecuación del balance hídrico y luego se aplicó un análisis de espectro singular (SSA, por sus siglas en inglés) para determinar las señales presentes en las series de ET(t). El estudio de correlación muestra que ET(t) está correlacionada con las precipitaciones en las subcuencas del norte y no está correlacionada en la más austral. Las series temporales ET(t)1 ET(t)3 y ET(t)4 muestran una señal de baja frecuencia mientras que las señales dentro del rango ENSO son estadísticamente significativas en ET(t)1, y ET(t)4 , aunque están presentes en las otras subcuencas (ET(t)2, y ET(t)3)como señales débiles. En la Cuenca de La Plata ET(t) estaría afectada tanto por los cambios en las propiedades físicas de la cuenca como por la presencia de la señal en el rango ENSO de las precipitaciones. Abstract in english The Paraná river is the most important component of the La Plata basin, sustaining regional economies in three countries. In the last decades, significant regional changes such as deforestation and crop substitution have been taken place in the Paraná basin. This fact could have modified the basin r [...] esponse in terms of the Paraná streamflow. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the structure of the evapotranspiration (ET(t)) time series of the upper Paraná basin. We analyzed the relationship between the variables in the water balance equation, then we applied a singular spectral analysis (SSA) to learn more about the temporal structure of the ET(t) time series. The correlation study shows that ET(t) is correlated with precipitations in the northern sub-basins but it is not correlated at all in the southern basin. The time structure of ET(t)1 ET(t)3 and ET(t)4 exhibit low-frequency signals while the ENSO-range signals are statistically significant in ET(t)1 and ET(t)4 although it also appears in ET(t)2 and ET(t)3 as a weak signals. Looking at the whole basin, ET(t) would be affected either by changes in the basin physical properties or by the ENSO-range signals present in precipitation.

KREPPER, C. M.; VENTURINI, V..

257

Trends in Extremes Rainfall over the São Francisco River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aims to analyze trends in rainfall extreme over the basin São Francisco (SF) using climate extreme indices (CEI). Also, it was analyzed the relationship between CEI and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). São Francisco River system is one of Brazil's most significant water bodies; it is the fourth largest river system of the continent, one of the two main plateau rivers, and the largest river wholly within Brazil. Inside it are installed a series of hydroelectric dams and irrigation projects that sustain the energy and economy in the Northeast region of Brazil. In order to facilitate the spatial analysis of the trends São Francisco basin was divided in four sectors, called geo-morphological regions. From upstream to downstream, the sectors are: Upper (USF), Middle (MSF), Sub-Middle (SSF) and Lower São Francisco (LSF). The CEI were derived from daily precipitation of Climatic Prediction Center (CPCp) for period of 1979-2005, and from a set of 10 stations' records of daily precipitations within the period 1960-1999. Most of the CEI represent the frequency of heavy precipitation events (R30mm and R50mm) and flood events (RX5day, RX1day and R95p). Droughts (CDDd) are identified by means of two indicators: the longest dry period (CDD) and the cycle annual. Additionally, it was used the ETA_HadCM3 model in order to simulate the present climate (1961-1990) and future projections (2011- 2099) of climate extremes in the basin. The results showed a high interannual variability of the indices and a good relationship between the CEI and SOI. Drought (CDDd), and short period of rainfall (RX1day, RX5day and R30mm) occurred with more frequency and intensity in the El Niño events. This would suggest that extreme rainfall events in short periods of time (RX1day and RX5day) can occur in very rainy or dry years, the difference could be assessed in terms of their impacts. In wet years, with the highest frequency of days with rain and with a moist soil, an extreme event could cause flooding or landslides. Already, an extreme event in a dry year could compensate the deficit of water that the soil of that region can be suffering, not disregarding the possibility of severe impacts due to urbanization problems on river slopes. The spatial distribution of trends showed increase of CDD in Upper SF. R95p showed opposite tends in Upper SF (increase) and Lower SF (decrease). Increasing trend of RX5day was observed in Lower and Lower-Middle SF. Extreme events obtained from model ETA_HadCM3 for the period 1979-1990 are compared with the same obtained from the CPCp. It was showed that the model overestimated RX1day, RX5day and CDD, suggesting dry periods with greater magnitude and short-term precipitation more intense. In future scenarios, dry periods are projected to increase in length and frequency until 2071-2099, while RX1day will be more intense. It is suggested that model outputs are needed to be calibrated with the observed datasets in daily-scale, especially in obtaining rainfall extremes.

Valverde, M. C.; Marengo, J. A.

2013-05-01

258

Estimating Vadose Zone Drainage From a Capped Seepage Basin, F Area, Savannah River Site  

Science.gov (United States)

Large volumes of waste solutions were commonly discharged into unlined seepage basins at many different facilities in the past. Plutonium was extracted from depleted uranium from 1955 to 1988 at the F-Area within the Savannah River Site, with contaminated process waters disposed of in permeable seepage basins. The primarily acidic solutions contained radioactive components (including tritium, 129I, and multiple isotopes of U, Pu, Sr, and Cs), elevated nitrate, and some metals (Hg, Pb, Cd). Basin 3 was the largest F-Area seepage basin, covering 2.0 hectare, with the water table typically at about 20 m below the soil surface. The local groundwater flows at an average velocity of 200 m/y in the approximately 10 m thick shallow aquifer, and is underlain by the low permeability Tan Clay. We used nearly 20 years of groundwater quality data from a monitoring well immediately downstream of Basin 3 to estimate the post-closure drainage of waste solutions through its underlying vadose zone, into the shallow aquifer. The measurements of tritium, nitrate, and specific conductance, were used as plume tracers in our estimates of vadose zone drainage. These calculations indicate that early stages of post-closure waste drainage occurred with high fluxes (? 1 m/y), and quickly declined. However, even after 20 years, drainage continues at a low but significant rate of several cm/y. These estimated drainage fluxes can help constrain predictions on the waste plume behavior, especially with respect to its emerging trailing gradient and anticipated time scales suitable for monitored natural attenuation.

Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Denham, M.

2011-12-01

259

Guidebook to the coal geology of the Powder River coal basin, Wyoming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This survey of Wyoming's Powder River Coal Basin was done in June 1980, with emphasis on coal geology and specifically environments of coal deposition. A geologic map explanation was included. The survey included: (1) the regional depositional framework of the uranium- and coal-bearing Wasatch (Eocene) and Fort Union (Paleocene) Formations, Powder River Basin; (2) the Lake De Smet Coal Seam: the product of active basin-margin sedimentation and tectonics in the Lake De Smet Area, Johnson County, Wyoming, during Eocene Wasatch time; (3) fluvial coal settings of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Clear Creek Area; (4) coal resources of the Powder River Coal basin; (5) survey of chemical and petrographic characteristics of Powder River Basin coals; and (6) the Rawhide Coal Mine, Campbell County, Wyoming. The depositional framework of the Fort Union and Wasach formations is characterized by a northward-flowing intermountain basinal fluvial system. The paleogeographic reconstruction of the fluvial settings of the Tongue River Member deposits in the Powder River-Clear Creek area sugges two important subenvironments of coal accumulation. The thickest and most important coals are found in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and the Eocene Wasatch Formation. Each section was discussed in detail. (DP)

Glass, G.B. (ed.)

1980-01-01

260

Copula-based risk evaluation of droughts across the Pearl River basin, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Daily precipitation data for the period of 1960-2005 from 42 precipitation gauging stations in the Pearl River basin were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall trend test and copula functions. The standardized precipitation index method was used to define drought episodes. Primary and secondary return periods were also analyzed to evaluate drought risks in the Pearl River basin as a whole. Results indicated that: (1) in general, the drought tendency was not significant at a 95 % confidence level. However, significant drought trends could be found in November, December, and January and significant wetting trends in June and July. The drought severity and drought durations were not significant at most of the precipitation stations across the Pearl River basin; (2) in terms of drought risk, higher drought risk could be observed in the lower Pearl River basin and lower drought risk in the upper Pearl River basin. Higher risk of droughts of longer durations was always corresponding to the higher risk of droughts with higher drought severity, which poses an increasing challenge for drought management and water resources management. When drought episodes with higher drought severity occurred in the Pearl River basin, the regions covered by higher risk of drought events were larger, which may challenge the water supply in the lower Pearl River basin. As for secondary return periods, results of this study indicated that secondary return periods might provide a more robust evaluation of drought risk. This study should be of merit for water resources management in the Pearl River basin, particularly the lower Pearl River basin, and can also act as a case study for determining regional response to drought changes as a result of global climate changes.

Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Basin Tendency on Flood and Drought Occurrence for Two Major Rivers in China  

Science.gov (United States)

River basins play a key role in modulating precipitation variability and manifesting the diversified variability response by runoff or soil moisture. These responses are basin-dependent and frequency dependent controlled by many catchment-related characteristics. The fundamental idea of flood/drought tendency evaluation is to examine the basin response in keeping the high-frequency precipitation variability and memorizing the long-term precipitation variability. This study presents the uses of (1) the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and (2) continuous wavelet transform for the tendency evaluation in the sub-basin basis for two major river basins in China, namely the Yangtze River basin and the Pearl River basin. The terrestrial hydrological processes over the two basins are simulated by using the macro-scale hydrological VIC model over the period of 1951-2000. The variability properties of hydrological variable for different sub-basins in time-frequency domain, ranged from 1/6 - 9 years, are revealed by the wavelet transform. With inspection on the wavelet power ratios of runoff and soil moisture to precipitation across different timescales, the flood or drought tendency is then investigated in associated with the effects of basin geomorphologic factors. The results obtained provide valuable information in devising adaptation and mitigation strategies in humid and semi-humid regions, especially in the context of possible climate change.

Niu, J.; Chen, J.

2013-12-01

262

Climate control on Quaternary coal fires and landscape evolution, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Late Cenozoic stream incision and basin excavation have strongly influenced the modern Rocky Mountain landscape, but constraints on the timing and rates of erosion are limited. The geology of the Powder River basin provides an unusually good opportunity to address spatial and temporal patterns of stream incision. Numerous coal seams in the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations within the basin have burned during late Cenozoic incision, as coal was exposed to dry and oxygen-rich near-surface conditions. The topography of this region is dominated by hills capped with clinker, sedimentary rocks metamorphosed by burning of underlying coal beds. We use (U-Th)/He ages of clinker to determine times of relatively rapid erosion, with the assumption that coal must be near Earth's surface to burn. Ages of 55 in situ samples range from 0.007 to 1.1 Ma. Clinker preferentially formed during times in which eccentricity of the Earth's orbit was high, times that typically but not always correlate with interglacial periods. Our data therefore suggest that rates of landscape evolution in this region are affected by climate fluctuations. Because the clinker ages correlate better with eccentricity time series than with an oxygen isotope record of global ice volume, we hypothesize that variations in solar insolation modulated by eccentricity have a larger impact on rates of landscape evolution in this region than do glacial-interglacial cycles.

Riihimaki, C.A.; Reiners, P.W.; Heffern, E.L. [Drew University, Madison, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biology

2009-03-15

263

Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was developed using GAMS 2.25 software. Application of the model to the Akbura River basin indicated efficiencies in the proposed institutional rules especially in low water years.

Nazir Mirzaev

2010-08-01

264

Significant punctiform and diffuse pressure in upper Crasna river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available t. The preservation of healthy ecosystems which are biological valuable, whose actual status is convenient, as well as the improvement or transformation of those partially or heavily modified by anthropic interventions, should be targeted to achieve objectives of the ecological balance of any watercourse. The pressure on aquatic environment are generated by agglomerations, industry and agriculture, but also by hydromorphological area. In the upper of the Crasna basin the level of nutrient impurification due to human agglomeration sets a “sensitive” character for Crasna area and ranks the Crasna river in a lower class of quality. IPPC and NON IPPC industry generates dangerous substances, especially those on List II, which establishes the low state of the Crasna river. Dangerous substances cause toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation in the aquatic environment. Impact of non-priority and priority pollutants, in terms of environmental impact is not distinct, therefore there is a tendency to pay attention to priority poluttants, even if non-priority substances create the gratest damages. Lack of clean technologies or non compliance with Best Available Technologies is the main cause of surface resource contamination by dangerous substances.

Giana Popa

2011-04-01

265

Flood forecasting and early warning system for Dungun River Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Floods can bring such disasters to the affected dweller due to loss of properties, crops and even deaths. The damages to properties and crops by the severe flooding are occurred due to the increase in the economic value of the properties as well as the extent of the flood. Flood forecasting and warning system is one of the examples of the non-structural measures which can give early warning to the affected people. People who live near the flood-prone areas will be warned so that they can evacuate themselves and their belongings before the arrival of the flood. This can considerably reduce flood loss and damage and above all, the loss of human lives. Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model is a runoff analysis model converting rainfall into runoff for a given river basin. The simulation can be done using either ground or satellite-based rainfall to produce calculated discharge within the river. The calculated discharge is used to generate the flood inundation map within the catchment area for the selected flood event using Infowork RS.

2013-06-17

266

Herbicide and degradate flux in the Yazoo River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1996-1997, water samples were collected from five sites in the Yazoo River Basin and analysed for 14 herbicides and nine degradates. These included acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, metribuzin, molinate, norflurazon, prometryn, propanil, propazine, simazine, trifluralin, three degradates of fluometuron, two degradates of atrazine, one degradate of cyanazine, norflurazon, prometryn, and propanil. Fluxes generally were higher in 1997 than in 1996 due to a greater rainfall in 1997 than 1996. Fluxes were much larger from streams in the alluvial plain (an area of very productive farmland) than from the Skuna River in the bluff hills (an area of small farms, pasture, and forest). Adding the flux of the atrazine degradates to the atrazine flux increased the total atrazine flux by an average of 14.5%. The fluometuron degradates added about 10% to the total fluometuron flux, and adding the norflurazon degradate flux to the norflurazon flux increased the flux by 82% in 1996 and by 171% in 1997. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis.

Coupe, R. H.; Welch, H. L.; Pell, A. B.; Thurman, E. M.

2005-01-01

267

Economic Peculiarities of the Romanian Tisa River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A possible answer to the current challenges of the Tisa catchment area, correlated with water management, social and economic development, environmental conservation, is the transnational initiative of the five countries drained by the tributaries of the Tisa River. In this context, the spatial development has a major impact on the Romanian Tisa catchment area by providing the economic cohesion. The purpose of the present paper is to define the current status of economy in the Romanian Tisa River Basin, through the filter of achieving the level of competitiveness claimed by the national, European, or global authorities. By setting several quantitative indicators, analyzed for a standard territorial level (NUTS 3, for a definite time interval (2002-2007, those more or less competitive economic branches, activities or aspects of the analyzed territory were identified, and, at the same time, the elements that “hinder” development, the traditional remnants, or the existing entrepreneurial initiatives. On the basis of relevant indicators, the calculation of an index of competitiveness was proposed at territorial level, the results certifying a certain level of competitiveness for the region under consideration.

ANA-MARIA POP

2010-01-01

268

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

2003-03-01

269

A new species of Tyttocharax (Characiformes: Characidae: Stevardiinae) from the Güejar river, Orinoco river Basin, Colombia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new Tyttocharax species from the Güejar River system, near the Macarena Mountains in Colombia is described. This is the first record for the genus from the Orinoco basin. The combination of the following characters distinguish Tyttocharax metae from its congeners: presence of bony hooks on the pectoral and caudal-fin rays; bony hooks on the anal-fin rays larger than those on the pelvic-fin rays; pectoral-fin rays i,5-6,i; presence of three unbranched dorsal-fin rays; absence of an adipose ...

César Román-Valencia; Garci?a-alzate, Carlos A.; Ruiz-c, Raquel I.; Donald, C.; Taphorn, B.

2012-01-01

270

UPPER SNAKE RIVER PRIORITY BASIN ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN, APRIL 1973  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Snake Accomplishment Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) is defined as the Idaho and Oregon portions of 2 STORET Basins, the Upper Snake Basin and the Central Snake Basin. The Basin drains approximately 62,100 square miles in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon. Four ...

271

Natural and anthropics effects in the silts production of the Magdalena River basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Magdalena River basin sediment yield is 689 +/- 528 t km2 yr1 with maximum values up to 2000 t km2 yr1. Multiple regression analysis indicates that runoff and maximum discharges are the major control s to explain Magdalena basin sediment yield variance. A numerical model with 58% efficiency, (p< 0.01) and 11% relative root mean square error (RRMSE) was obtained to describe the Magdalena basin sediment yield. Time series analyses show that sediment loads have upward trends in 68% of the Magdalena river basin

2005-06-01

272

Cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across large river basins in Europe, Africa and Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and the Amudarya basin is in Central Asia. The evaluation was based mainly on the opinions of policy makers and water management experts in the river basins. The adaptation strategies were evaluated co...

Krysanova, Valentina; Dickens, Chris; Timmerman, Jos; Varela Ortega, Consuelo; Schlu?ter, Maja; Roest, Koen; Huntjens, Patrick; Jaspers, Fons; Buiteveld, Hendrik; Moreno, Edinson; Pedraza Carrera, Javier; Sla?mova, Romana; Marti?nkova?, Marta; Blanco Gutie?rrez, Irene; Esteve Bengoechea, Paloma

2010-01-01

273

Cross-Comparison of Climate Change adaptation Strategies Across Large River Basins in Europe, Africa and Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and the Amudarya basin is in Central Asia. The evaluation was based mainly on the opinions of policy makers and water management experts in the river basins. The adaptation strategies were evaluated co...

Krysanova, V.; Dickens, Ch; Timmerman, J.; Varela Ortega, C.; Schlu?ter, M.; Roest, C. W. J.; Huntjens, P.; Jaspers, A. M. J.; Buiteveld, H.; Moreno, E.; Pedraza Carrera, J.; Sla?mova?, R.; Marti?nkova?, M.; Blanco, I.; Esteve, P.

2010-01-01

274

Detection of Flooding Responses at the River Basin Scale Enhanced by Land use Change  

Science.gov (United States)

The Georges Creek watershed (area 187.5 sq km) in western Maryland (United States) has experienced land use changes (>17% of area) associated with surface mining of coal. The adjacent Savage River watershed (area 127.2 sq km) is unmined. Moments of flood frequency distributions indicated that climatic variability affected both watersheds similarly. Normalizing annual maximum flows by antecedent streamflow and causative precipitation helped identify trends in flooding response. Analysis of contemporary storm events using Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) stage III precipitation data showed that Georges Creek floods are characterized by higher peak runoff and a shorter centroid lag than Savage River floods, likely attributable to differences in current land use. Interestingly, Georges Creek produces only two thirds of the storm-flow volume as Savage River, apparently because of infiltration into abandoned deep mine workings and an associated transbasin diversion constructed circa 1900. Empirical trend analysis is thus complicated by both hydroclimatic variability and the legacy of deep mining in the basin.

McCormick, Brian C.; Eshleman, Keith N.; Griffith, Jeff L.; Townsend, Philip A.

2009-01-01

275

Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005–2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

X. Q. Feng

2013-07-01

276

Dissolved Organic Carbon Export From the Penobscot River Basin to the Gulf of Maine  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent and historical water quality data collected from the Penobscot River in central Maine were analyzed to estimate the flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Historical data collected by the U.S. Geologic Survey during 1973 to 1981 as part of the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and recently collected data during 2004 and 2005 supported by NASA provide a framework for preliminary estimates of seasonal and interannual variability in DOC export. Monthly average concentrations were computed from samples collected during all seasons. Flux estimates were calculated using monthly average concentrations and average daily discharge. For snowmelt and storms measured during 2004 to 2005 DOC increased with increasing discharge, but the increase was distinctly muted during the snowmelt-dominated high spring flow compared with summer and fall storms. DOC export was highest during the spring snowmelt season in spite of relatively low concentrations, compared with late summer and fall because of the substantially higher spring discharge. DOC export tends to be lowest during July through August and increases progressively to moderately high levels during the fall. Export of DOC during the winter months is intermediate between summer and fall levels. Estimated DOC export varied substantially among years ranging from 4.0 t/sq km/yr during the driest year to 7.8 t/sq km/yr during the wettest year. Average annual DOC export per unit area for all years was 5.7 t/sq km/yr. Under wetter conditions flowpaths are thought to include more organic matter-rich surface soils. DOC export from the Penobscot River is substantially higher than estimated for most larger rivers in North America and smaller rivers draining to the Atlantic Ocean along the east coast of the United States. Preliminary evidence from analysis of DOC concentrations in tributaries to the Penobscot River indicates that wetland area and reservoir volume exert substantial control over DOC export in this basin

Huntington, T. G.; Aiken, G. R.

2005-12-01

277

Study of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data procedures: Wind River Basin, Wyoming, Arminto Quadrangle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume contains the following data for the Arminto Quadrangle, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: statistical summary tables; flight-line averages; geologic map units; geologic map with record locations; uranium mines and occurrences, uranium location map, eU symbol anomaly map; eU/eTh symbol anomaly map; eU/K symbol anomaly map; eTh symbol anomaly map; K symbol anomaly map; eTh/K symbol anomaly map; eU profile anomaly map; eU/eTh profile anomaly map; eU/K profile anomaly map; eTh profile anomaly map; K profile anomaly map; eTh/K profile anomaly map; preferred anomaly maps (4- and 7-point); combined 4- and 7-point preferred anomaly map; and stacked significance factor profiles

1979-01-01

278

A New Hydrological Method for Estimating the River Bed and Drainage Basin Components of Erosion and Suspended Sediment Fluxes in River Basins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses the results of river suspended sediment flux (SSF analysis to propose a new hydrological method for quantitatively estimating the river bed and drainage basin (sheet erosion, rill and gully erosion components of total erosion intensity in river basins. The suggested method is based on the establishment of the functional power connection between mean monthly water discharges (WD, Q i and suspended sediment fluxes (r i calculated for the low-water-discharge phases of a river?s hydrological regime in various (on mean annual water discharges years: r i = a×Q i (where a, ì are some empirical coefficients, and further extrapolation of this connection for other phases of the hydrological regime. Thus, the extrapolation allows us to calculate (in a long-term annual SSF the proportions of sediments originating in river beds and drainage basins. The proposed method is tested using a long-term (not less than 10 years series of observations for WD and SSF of 124 chiefly small and midsize rivers of the East-European plain, the Urals, the Eastern Carpathians, the Ciscaucasia and the Caucasus, and Central Asian mountains, containing data on the mean monthly values of WD and SSF. The paper also compares the method with other methods for estimating the components of erosion intensity and SSF..

A.V. Gusarov

2012-04-01

279

Transport and Retention of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon in North America’s Largest River Swamp Basin, the Atchafalaya River Basin  

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Full Text Available Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004 river discharge and water quality records from an upriver and a downriver location of the Atchafalaya River to quantify the inflow, outflow, and inflow–outflow mass balance of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN = organic nitrogen + ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (NO3 + NO2, total phosphorous (TP, and total organic carbon (TOC through the largest river swamp basin in North America. The study found that, over the past 27 years, the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB acted as a significant sink for TKN (annual retention: 24%, TP (41%, and TOC (12%, but a source for NO3 + NO2 nitrogen (6%. On an annual basis, ARB retained 48,500 t TKN, 16,900 t TP, and 167,100 t TOC from the river water. The retention rates were closely and positively related to the river discharge with highs during the winter and spring and lows in the late summer. The higher NO3 + NO2 mass outflow occurred throughout spring and summer, indicating an active role of biological processes on nitrogen as water and air temperatures in the basin rise.

Y. Jun Xu

2013-04-01

280

The Challenges of Integrated Management of Mekong River Basin in Terms of People’s Livelihood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mekong River Basin is a life for many people in six south East Asian countries. The river basin is very productive and has crucial activities like: fishing, agriculture, hydroelectric power, transportation, biodiversity and so on. However, due to mismanagement, political intentions and one way interest only for development, the river basin has already started experiencing complications. The major challenges found out were, huge hydroelectric dam constructions and other projects, high population pressure, lack of cooperation among riparian states (especially upper Mekong region and lower one, and lack of proper management system. This leads to inequitable resource use, impact on water quality, biodiversity loss, and disasters like flooding. It is a high time to make a joint venture among riparian countries for sustainable use of the resource. Multi lateral cooperation and commitment among user countries by consulting all stakeholders will benefit all to use this precious resource equitably without major ecological impacts on the river basin.

Badandi ARAFAT

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

2004-01-01

282

Temporal & Spatial Variation and Benefit Analysis of Farmers Fertilizer at Tarim River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with the continuous development of the fertilizer industry, it provides a large extent of impetus to cultivation. This paper analyzes based on the temporal & spatial variation and planting efficiency of farmers fertilizer at Tarim River Basin, it finds that farmers fertilizer provides a large extent of impetus to cultivation. Therefore, using cointegration method to analyze influence of planting efficiency with farmers fertilizer at Tarim River Basin, the model results show that farmers fertilization amount with planting efficiency at Tarim River Basin and prefectures exists a positive correlation, and the influence of the order is same as the fertilization amount with planting efficiency growth. On this basis, it proposes suggestions on farmers reasonable fertilization.Key words: Tarim River Basin; Fertilization; Plant production value

Yang SU

2012-10-01

283

THE WATER BALANCE OF THE SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN AND ITS RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE. (R824995)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Historical precipitation, temperature and streamflow data for the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) are analyzed with the objective of developing simple statistical and water balance models of streamflow at the watershed's outlet. Annual streamflow is highly corre...

284

Integrated modelling of Global Change impacts in the German Elbe River Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The scope of this study is to investigate the environmental change in the German part of the Elbe river basin, whereby the focus is on two water related problems: having too little water and having water of poor quality.

Hattermann, Fred Fokko

2005-01-01

285

??????????????????? Response of Runoff to Future Climate Change in the Upper Reaches of Heihe River Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Understanding the changes of water resources in different climate scenarios for Heihe River Basin are of great importance due to its scare amount and its vital role in social sustainable development. There...

???; ???

2012-01-01

286

Use of narrative scenarios for evaluating drought management responses in the Upper Colorado River Basin (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Drought and water scarcity are already recurrent features of the Upper Colorado River Basin. Climate model projections (such as CMIP3 and CMIP5) show large uncertainty in future precipitation and river flow for the region. However, there is consensus amongst the models that air temperatures will rise, implying earlier and shorter melt seasons, increased risk of wildfire, outbreak of mountain pine beetle die back, and changing in-stream habitat over coming decades. Hence, future water supply and demand planning must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate multiple, uncertain, and interacting stressors on the water system. This paper describes a decision-centered approach for evaluating drought management options under changed climate conditions, taking into account other co-stressors. The framework comprises three main elements: 1) a model of the water collection and rights system; 2) adaptation options for maintaining overall water for supply; and 3) plausible narratives of future conditions for stress-testing the system/option set configuration. We demonstrate our approach using the Colorado River to Glenwood Springs as a case study. The Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model was selected as a parsimonious tool for rapid appraisal of the Shoshone Call Relaxation Agreement (SCRA) under various narrative scenarios. The SCRA allows relaxation of a senior water right at Shoshone power plant when upstream reservoir storage is forecast to be below 80% and April-July flow in the Colorado is expected to be less than 85% of average. An extended call relaxation may be triggered when a domestic lawn water ban has been invoked by the Denver Board of Water Commissioners. These measures are designed to enable capture of more spring melt to maintain overall volumetric water entitlements regardless of climate variability and change. The SCRA was assessed in terms of frequency of trigger conditions, volume of water stored, and amount of water that is potentially harvested by varying the window of the call relaxation period. Stress tests were applied using combinations of higher air temperatures, single and multi-season precipitation anomalies, partial burn or die back of forest areas in headwater basins, and dust on snowpack events. Temperature and precipitation scenarios were informed by evidence from palaeoclimatic reconstructions, climate model experiments, and regional downscaling. WEAP parameters were adjusted in transparent and physically plausible ways to represent the effects of indirect climate stressors. Overall, the Shoshone case study shows the extent to which increased ';rule flexibility' could yield greater water supply certainty despite climate variability and change. More generally, we demonstrate how decision-centered and narrative approaches can strengthen water planning and adaptation despite large uncertainty about future stressors on river basin properties.

Wilby, R. L.; Miller, K.; Yates, D. N.; Kaatz, L.

2013-12-01

287

Assessing the Resilience of a River Management Regime: Informal Learning in a Shadow Network in the Tisza River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global sources of change offer unprecedented challenges to conventional river management strategies, which no longer appear capable of credibly addressing a trap: the failure of conventional river defense engineering to manage rising trends of disordering extreme events, including frequency and intensity of floods, droughts, and water stagnation in the Hungarian reaches of the Tisza River Basin. Extreme events punctuate trends of stagnation or decline in the ecosystems, economies, and societies of this river basin that extend back decades, and perhaps, centuries. These trends may be the long-term results of defensive strategies of the historical river management regime that reflect a paradigm dating back to the Industrial Revolution: "Protect the Landscape from the River." Since then all policies have defaulted to the imperatives of this paradigm such that it became the convention underlying the current river management regime. As an exponent of this convention the current river management regimes' methods, concepts, infrastructure, and paradigms that reinforce one another in setting the basin's development trajectory, have proven resilient to change from wars, political, and social upheaval for centuries. Failure to address the trap makes the current river management regime's resilience appear detrimental to the region's future development prospects and prompts demand for transformation to a more adaptive river management regime. Starting before transition to democracy, a shadow network has generated multiple dialogues in Hungary, informally exploring the roots of this trap as part of a search for ideas and methods to revitalize the region. We report on how international scientists joined one dialogue, applying system dynamics modeling tools to explore barriers and bridges to transformation of the current river management regime and develop the capacity for participatory science to expand the range of perspectives that inform, monitor, and revise learning, policy, and the practice of river management.

Geza Molnar

2008-06-01

288

The Impact of Rainstorm Stochasticity on Hillslope Sediment Supply to River Channels in Dryland Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate interacts with hillslopes supplying sediment to river channels, and impacting drainage basin functioning and evolution. In particular, coarse sediment supply from hillslopes exerts a strong control on channel bed material grain-size distributions (GSD) which feeds back on bedload flux and consequently affects long-term rates of valley incision/aggradation. However, process-based understanding of sediment supply from hillslopes is poorly constrained because it is spatially and temporally variable as a result of interactions between rainstorm attributes (frequency, intensity, duration, size) and hillslope characteristics within a basin (length, gradient, infiltration rates, GSD). Drylands are particularly sensitive to climatic forcing because they are subjected to infrequent, short-lived, but high intensity rainfall events, which are spatially-variable and often smaller than the basin area. These climatic factors coupled with thin, stony soils typical of drylands, produce dynamic and variable sediment supply to channels, with a high proportion of coarse material that remains in channel beds over long timescales. Currently there is limited understanding of how variability and nonstationarity in regional climate affect hillslope sediment supply to valley floors in dryland basins. In these landscapes, the discrete and spatially variable nature of convective rainstorms and other catchment characteristics create challenges for deterministic modelling of the interaction between climate and sediment transport. Here we represent climate as a stochastic process characterized by probability density functions of storm properties (total annual rainfall, location, size, duration, peak rainfall intensity). This stochastic driver is coupled to a physics-based hillslope sediment transport model in order to investigate the decadal impact of climatic variability on longitudinal hillslope coarse (> 2 mm) sediment supply (flux and GSD) to a mainstem channel within a 170 km2 basin in SE Spain. We also test a number of plausible scenarios of regional climate change and compare all our results against GSDs measured in the channel. Results show highly discontinuous and variable sediment supply along the river reach which is sensitive to rainstorm characteristics as manifested in runoff changes. The interaction between hillslope characteristics and rainstorm attributes results in a non-linear relationship between climate forcing and sediment supply and has significant implications for changing volume and GSD of sediment delivered to the channel.

Michaelides, K.; Singer, M. B.

2013-12-01

289

Uncertainty in soil physical data at river basin scale ? a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For hydrological modelling studies at the river basin scale, decision makers need guidance in assessing the implications of uncertain data used by modellers as an input to modelling tools. Simulated solute transport through the unsaturated zone is associated with uncertainty due to spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties and derived hydraulic model parameters. In general for modelling studies at the river basin scale spatially available data at various scales must be aggregated to an...

2006-01-01

290

Compilation of references on geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 1,100 references concerning geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho, are compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's RASA (Regional Aquifer-System Analysis) study of the Snake River Plain. The list of references is intended as a primary source of information for investigators concerned with previous studies in the basin. Reference numbers correlate with a key-word index to help the user select and locate desired references. (USGS)

Bassick, M. D.

1986-01-01

291

Large-scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic modelling of the Amazon River basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, a hydrologic/hydrodynamic modeling of the Amazon River basin iscpresented using the MGB-IPH model with a validation using remotely sensed observations. Moreover, the sources of model errors by means of the validation and sensitivity tests are investigated, and the physical functioning of the Amazon basin is also explored. The MGBIPH is a physically based model resolving all land hydrological processes and here using a full 1-D river hydrodynamic module with a simple floodplain ...

Paiva, Rodrigo; Buarque, Diogo; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-paule; Frappart, Fre?de?ric; Calmant, Ste?phane; Mendes, Carlos

2013-01-01

292

Changes of the intensity of Ljig river basin erosion: Influence of anthropogenic factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to new field investigations as well as mapping of erosion in Ljig river basin we have found out that its intensity has changed in regard to period of 40 years ago. The most expressive changes were noticed in Ljig river basin. As we have not noticed changes in physical-geographical factors the cause of the intensity decrease might be only influenced by indirect anthropogenic factor. Processes of growing old and decrease of rural population, migration village-town, marginalization of ...

2006-01-01

293

Comparison of Flood Management options for the Yang River Basin, Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Yang River Basin, Thailand, has always been subjected to flooding, but due to recent developments in land use there is an increase in the vulnerability in several parts of the river basin. To mitigate impacts of flooding, both structural and non-structural measures can be taken. This paper discusses three scenario simulations focusing on flood retardation, retention, and damage mitigation measures. A main tributary was simulated by a process-based hydrological model (SWAT) and coupled to ...

Kunitiyawichai, K.; Schultz, B.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Suryadi, F. X.; Griensven, A.

2011-01-01

294

A contribution to drinking water sources protection strategies in a portuguese river basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The need and growing interest on raw water sources protection is a great concern in river basin planning and management. Problems related to drinking water sources can range from shortage of water to water quality degradation mainly due to intensive urbanisation and industrial policies as well as uncontrolled agricultural practices. The river Cavado basin, located in the north-western region of Portugal, has a very intensive use for water supply, irrigation and hydropower generation. N...

Vieira, J. M. Pereira; Duarte, Anto?nio A. L. Sampaio; Pinho, Jose? L. S.; Boaventura, Rui A. Rocha

1999-01-01

295

Spatio-Temporal Variations of Precipitation Extremes in the Yangtze River Basin (1960-2002, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Daily precipitation data during 1960-2002 from 150 stations in the Yangtze River basin were analyzed with the help of linear trend analysis. Highest 5-day and 10-day precipitation amount (R5D and R10D and percentile daily precipitation maxima (prec95p for 95th percentile and prec99p for 99th percentile were accepted as the precipitation extreme index. The frequency of the R5D and R10D was in downward trend, this phenomenon is more obvious in the middle Yangtze River basin; The stations with total precipitation of R5D and R10D are in significant upward trend (> 95% confidence level are mostly located in the lower Yangtze River basin and the south-western part of the Yangtze River basin; 2 the spatial distribution of the frequency of total precipitation of the percentile daily precipitation maxima is similar to that of R5D and R10D. However the frequency of prec95p and prec99p is in significant upward trend. The upward trend of total precipitation changes of prec95p and prec99p is more obvious than that of frequency of prec95p and prec99p. The regions dominated by upward trend of frequency/total precipitation of prec95p and prec99p are also the lower Yangtze River basin and south-western part of the Yangtze River basin. Therefore the occurrence probability of the flash floods in the lower Yangtze River basin and south-western part of the Yangtze River basin will be greater.

Qiang Zhang

2011-01-01

296

Uncertainty in climate change projections of discharge for the Mekong River Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mekong River Basin is a key regional resource in Southeast Asia for sectors that include agriculture, fisheries and electricity production. Here we explore the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater resources within the river basin. We quantify uncertainty in these projections associated with GCM structure and climate sensitivity, as well as from hydrological model parameter specification. This is achieved by running pattern-scaled GCM scenarios through a semi-distributed hydro...

2011-01-01

297

Quantifying the contribution of glacier runoff to streamflow in the upper Columbia River basin, Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glacier melt provides important contributions to streamflow in many mountainous regions. Hydrologic model calibration in glacier-fed catchments is difficult because errors in modelling snow accumulation can be offset by compensating errors in glacier melt. This problem is particularly severe in catchments with modest glacier cover, where goodness-of-fit statistics such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency may not be highly sensitive to the streamflow variance associated with glacier melt. While glacier mass balance measurements can be used to aid model calibration, they are absent for most catchments. We introduce the use of glacier volume change determined from repeated glacier mapping in a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation procedure to calibrate a hydrologic model. We also explicitly account for changes in glacier area through the calibration and test periods. The approach is applied to the Mica basin in the Canadian portion of the Columbia River basin using the HBV-EC hydrologic model. Use of glacier volume change in the calibration procedure effectively reduced parameter uncertainty and helped to ensure that the model was accurately predicting glacier mass balance as well as streamflow. The seasonal and interannual variations in glacier melt contributions were assessed by running the calibrated model with historic glacier cover and also after converting all glacierized areas to alpine land cover in the model setup. Although glaciers in the Mica basin only cover 5 % of the watershed, glacier ice melt contributes up to 25 % and 35 % of streamflow in August and September, respectively, and is particularly important during periods of warm, dry weather following winters with low accumulation and early snowpack depletion. The approach introduced in this study provides an effective and widely applicable approach for calibrating hydrologic models in glacier fed catchments, as well as for quantifying the magnitude and timing of glacier melt contributions to streamflow.

G. Jost

2011-05-01

298

Uranium isotopic investigations and radiocarbon measurements of river-groundwater systems, Sabarmati Basin, Gujarat, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of uranium concentrations, and 234U/238U activity ratios along the Sabarmati River and adjacent phreatic aquifers, and radiocarbon in confined aquifers in the Watrak-Shedi sub-basin, part of the Sabarmati basin, have been carried out. The uranium isotope distributions show marked seasonal variations in river waters, whereas they are within experimental uncertainties in the groundwaters adjacent to the river bed. The observed seasonal variations indicate the presence of a groundwater component in the Sabarmati River, and its contribution to the total river flow appears to be maximum during summer. Apparent radiocarbon ages of confined aquifers in the Watrak-Shedi sub-basin show that the groundwater flow is in the NE-SW direction with a velocity of 6-7m/a. (author)

1978-06-23

299

Uranium isotopic investigations and radiocarbon measurements of river-groundwater systems, Sabarmati basin, Gujarat, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of uranium concentrations, 234U/238U activity ratios along the Sabarmati river and adjacent phreatic aquifers and radiocarbon in confined aquifers in the Watrak-Shedi sub-basin, part of Sabarmati basin, have been carried out. The uranium isotope distributions show marked seasonal variations in river waters, whereas they are within experimental uncertainties in the groundwaters adjacent to the river bed. The observed seasonal variations indicate the presence of a groundwater component in Sabarmati river, and its contribution to the total river flow appears to be maximum during summer. Apparent radiocarbon ages of confined aquifers in Watrak-Shedi sub-basin show that the groundwater flow is in the NE-SW direction with a velocity of 6-7 m/a. (orig.)

1978-06-23

300

Isotope hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in Purna river basin, Maharashtra, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two sets of water samples from Purna river (Surface water), Dug wells (Shallow aquifer) and tube wells (Deep aquifer) and six piezometer samples were collected from different parts of the Purna river basin and analysed for environmental isotopes as well as major, minor, and trace ions. The interpretation of the results was carried out in the light of other geological information to decipher cause of salinity and delineating recharge and discharge zones of the fresh groundwater in the area. The Piper trilinear plots for fresh waters and saline waters showed that fresh waters are generally Na-HCO3 type whereas saline samples are predominantly Na-Cl type. The hydrochemical facies in saline waters change from HCO3 to Cl type. The deep aquifers of the area have saline, brackish and fresh waters. The ? D - ? 18O plot indicates evaporative enrichment. The fresh waters fall near GMWL with a slope of about 8. Brackish waters, falling between saline and fresh waters seems to be mixture of the two waters. This is further inferred as well by the 3H values of the waters. ? 18O - Cl -1 plot showed that the salinity in the deep aquifers could be due to leaching of salts from the formation as well. The 3H values of the samples showed that the saline aquifers are isolated and not getting modern recharge. However, the brackish water aquifers do get partial recharge from a distant source. The 14C results of the highly saline groundwater samples suggested their uncorrected ages about 4 - 7 ka BP. The ? 34S values of the aqueous sulphate samples indicated their non-marine origin. From the study it was concluded that, the deeper saline waters are old waters; their salinity is predominantly Na-Cl type. The mechanism of salinisation appears to be owing to evaporation, dissolution, and leaching of salts from formation. The isotope study also indicates their non-marine origin of salinity

2003-05-19

 
 
 
 
301

THIRTY-FIVE YEARS OF UPPER MISSOURI RIVER BASIN PALEOPATHOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wet Bones project consisted of speech/hearing evaluations performed on the Native Americans. The Dry Bones project were studies conducted on bones recovered from the region. During 35 years we examined skeletal remnants representing several cultures who existed in Dakota Territory during two millennia. The study of paleopathology was enhanced by salvage archaeology projects conducted before closure of dams across the River in the Upper Missouri River Basin (UMRB. Climatic conditions were unfavorable to mummification, limiting the study to bones. We were stimulated by a symposium on paleopathology at National Science Foundation, chaired by S. Jarcho (Yale University (1966. There emphasis was placed on demography and epidemiology. Additional motivation by T.A. Cockburn (Detroit (1977, who questioned whether ear disease, mastoiditis, and its complications, existed in proto United States, focused our attention on the Dry Bones study. The results of the Dry Bones project are presented hereEl proyecto Huesos Mojados consistía en las evaluaciones de hablar/escuchar a y con los nativos de Norteamérica. El proyecto Huesos Secos consistía en estudios conducidos en los huesos recuperados de la región. Durante 35 años, examinamos los restos esqueletales que representan varias culturas diferentes que vivían en el Territorio Dakota durante 2000 años. Un factor que mejora la paleopatología en esta región eran los proyectos arqueológicos de rescate conducidos antes de cerrar las represas que cruzan el Río Missouri en Dakota del Sur. Las condiciones climáticas no eran favorables para momificación, así que el estudio fue limitado a los huesos. En 1966, participamos en y recibimos mucho estímulo del simposio de paleopatología en la Fundación Nacional de Ciencia. En 1977, T.A. Cockburn cuestionó si la mastoiditis y sus complicaciones existían en los Estados Unidos, y eso estimuló nuestro entusiasmo. Los resultados del proyecto Huesos Secos son el tema de este trabajo

John B. Gregg

2000-01-01

302

Medieval Drought in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleoclimatic records have consistently identified the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), approximately A.D. 900- 1300, as unusual for the incidence of multi-decadal drought in the western United States. Four newly developed tree-ring chronologies derived from living trees, standing dead trees and logs are examined for evidence of a MCA drought signature in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). The four chronologies extend to before A.D. 1000, and each has a statistically significant significant linear relationship with annual flow of the Colorado River from 1906 to present (23-48 percent of the flow variance explained). A flow reconstruction based on three chronologies with acceptably high sample depth in the MCA begins in A.D. 762, accounts for 60 percent of the flow variance in the 1906-2003 calibration period, and identifies a drought in the mid-1100s as the most severe multi-decadal drought in the long-term record. Highlights of this inferred drought are 13 consecutive years of below normal flow (A. D. 1143-1155) and a broad window of 62 years (A. D. 1118-1179) with no years of much-above-normal flow. The individual chronologies reveal a spatial pattern of heightened intensity of drought toward the western part of the UCRB, although the drought was also present in the Colorado Rockies. Comparison with other regional paleoclimatic reconstructions from the western United States shows the results are consistent with dry, and probably warm, conditions over the intermountain region. Differences are noted in timing of the mid-1100s drought in the UCRB and epic MCA droughts in the Sierra Nevada of California inferred from tree-ring data and other paleoclimatic evidence. The results emphasize the importance of striving for greater spatial resolution in the paleoclimatic record of drought in western North America.

Meko, D. M.; Woodhouse, C. A.

2007-05-01

303

THIRTY-FIVE YEARS OF UPPER MISSOURI RIVER BASIN PALEOPATHOLOGY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El proyecto Huesos Mojados consistía en las evaluaciones de hablar/escuchar a y con los nativos de Norteamérica. El proyecto Huesos Secos consistía en estudios conducidos en los huesos recuperados de la región. Durante 35 años, examinamos los restos esqueletales que representan varias culturas difer [...] entes que vivían en el Territorio Dakota durante 2000 años. Un factor que mejora la paleopatología en esta región eran los proyectos arqueológicos de rescate conducidos antes de cerrar las represas que cruzan el Río Missouri en Dakota del Sur. Las condiciones climáticas no eran favorables para momificación, así que el estudio fue limitado a los huesos. En 1966, participamos en y recibimos mucho estímulo del simposio de paleopatología en la Fundación Nacional de Ciencia. En 1977, T.A. Cockburn cuestionó si la mastoiditis y sus complicaciones existían en los Estados Unidos, y eso estimuló nuestro entusiasmo. Los resultados del proyecto Huesos Secos son el tema de este trabajo Abstract in english Wet Bones project consisted of speech/hearing evaluations performed on the Native Americans. The Dry Bones project were studies conducted on bones recovered from the region. During 35 years we examined skeletal remnants representing several cultures who existed in Dakota Territory during two millenn [...] ia. The study of paleopathology was enhanced by salvage archaeology projects conducted before closure of dams across the River in the Upper Missouri River Basin (UMRB). Climatic conditions were unfavorable to mummification, limiting the study to bones. We were stimulated by a symposium on paleopathology at National Science Foundation, chaired by S. Jarcho (Yale University) (1966). There emphasis was placed on demography and epidemiology. Additional motivation by T.A. Cockburn (Detroit) (1977), who questioned whether ear disease, mastoiditis, and its complications, existed in proto United States, focused our attention on the Dry Bones study. The results of the Dry Bones project are presented here

Gregg, John B..

304

ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY: THE YAMPA AND WHITE RIVER BASINS  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yampa and White River Basins are key areas in the Nation's search for untaped resources to supplement increasing energy demands. The basins contain vast beds of low-sulfur, strippable coal that potentially will support a large number of coal-fired powerplants as well as some ...

305

Planning status report: water resources appraisal for hydroelectric licensing, Menominee River basin, Michigan, Wisconsin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Menominee River basin located in northernmost Wisconsin and the central section of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan is described. Tabulated data are presented on existing and retired hydro power plants and on thermal power plants in the basin and on the licensing status of existing hydro plants. Potential water resource developments and the need for additional studies are discussed. (LCL)

1980-08-01

306

Coal Bed Methane Potential of the Sand Wash Basin, Green River Coal Region, Colorado.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sand Wash Basin covers most of the Colorado portion of the Green River coal region. Significant coal beds are found in four Cretaceous formations in the basin: the Iles and Williams Fork Formations of the Mesaverde Group, the Lance Formation, and the ...

D. L. Boreck C. M. Tremain L. Sitowitz T. D. Lorenson

1981-01-01

307

Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin. Volume III, Experiment Designs and Statistical Models to Estimate the Effect of Transportation on Survival of Columbia River System Salmonids.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiment designs to estimate the effect of transportation on survival and return rates of Columbia River system salmonids are discussed along with statistical modeling techniques. Besides transportation, river flow and dam spill are necessary components in the design and analysis, otherwise questions as to the effects of reservoir drawdowns and increased dam spill may never be satisfactorily answered. Four criteria for comparing different experiment designs are: (1) feasibility; (2) clarity of results; (3) scope of inference; and (4) time to learn. A controlled experiment with treatments that are a combination of transport status (transported or left in-river), river flow level, and dam spill level should provide the clearest results of transport effect. The potential for bias due to interactions between year effects and the treatments is minimized by running as many treatments as possible within a single outmigration year. Relatedly, the most rapid learning will occur if several different treatments are implemented at randomly chosen time periods within thesame outmigration season. If the range of flow and dam manipulation includes scenarios of interest to managers, the scope of inference should be satisfactory. On the other hand these designs may be the least feasible; trying to manage the river system under a sequence of deliberately chosen flow regimes within a single season, for example, may be quite impractical. At the other end of the spectrum are designs that simply have two treatment combinations, transportation and being left in-river, and the influence of flow and spill are controlled for, if possible, in after-the-fact statistical analysis. Because of possible confounding influences of flow and spill on the transportation effect, these designs could yield the most ambiguous results and require the most years of experimentation to learn. If flows and spill are not manipulated in a planned, well defined, and impartial manner the scope and quality of inference may not be satisfactory. On the other hand, these designs are the simplest to implement. Implementation issues are: (1) The nature of flow and spill level manipulations will need clear definition, either in absolute terms, cfs, or relative terms, such as spilling 10% of the water. (2) Relatedly, system wide implementation of flow and spill levels will provide simpler interpretation of results than will mixing spill rates, for instance, between dams. Transporting fish from just one location will also simplify interpretation. (3) Tagging of experimental fish should be done well upstream of the dams with random assignment to transport or in-river groups done later, near the dams, to minimize biases from delayed tagging mortality. (4) Tagging with PIT tags and CWTs in combination will provide evidence of any potential homing problems. (5) High PIT tag retention rates are important to minimizing potential analysis problems (thus on-going research to improve retention is vital). (6) Approximate sample sizes to achieve a desired level of precision can be calculated fairly easily using formulas provided in the report.

Newman, Ken

1997-06-01

308

Dating Fluvial Terraces by 230Th/U on Pedogenic Carbonate, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

Science.gov (United States)

Reliable and precise ages of Quaternary pedogenic carbonate can be obtained with 230Th/U dating by TIMS applied to large suites of carefully selected small samples. Datable carbonate can form within a few thousand years of surface stabilization allowing ages of Quaternary deposits and surfaces to be closely estimated. We have dated pedogenic carbonate from glacio-fluvial terraces of the Wind River Basin to better constrain the age of the penultimate glaciation in the central Rocky Mountains. Dense pedogenic carbonate clast-rinds from gravels of middle to late Quaternary terraces in the Wind River Basin contain 5-35 ppm U and 0.01-0.3 ppm 232Th, with (230Th/232Th)=5-7500, making them extremely suitable for 230Th/U dating. Complexities in the textures of the Wind River clast-rinds emphasized the importance of sampling horizons as thin as 0.5 mm from polished slabs to avoid averaging long (104-105 yr) and potentially discontinuous depositional histories. Samples meeting straightforward textural criteria with finite 230Th/U ages preserve within-rind stratigraphic order in all cases. Cosmogenic nuclide (10Be, 26Al, 36Cl) dating of Wind River terraces by others yields most-probable ages that are systematically younger than those inferred from clast-rind 230Th/U ages though the differences are not resolvable outside of the analytical and systematic uncertainties of the two techniques. Ages from 230Th/U rind dating for terraces WR4 (163+/-8 ka) and WR2 (55+/-7 ka), in conjunction with constraints from WR1 and the modern floodplain, indicate incision of the Wind River is slower than previously inferred and relatively uniform from terrace to terrace over the past glacial cycle. An age of 151+/-9 ka is interpolated for terrace WR3 that may be traced to moraines of the final advance of the Bull Lake glaciation at the type locality. The new age indicates that the Bull Lake glaciation climaxed near the end of marine isotope stage 6 rather than in early stage 5 and coincided with a global ice volume maximum. Thus, the Bull Lake glaciation is not an example of asynchrony between advances of mountain glaciers and continental ice sheets.

Sharp, W. D.; Ludwig, K. R.; Chadwick, O. A.; Amundson, R.; Glaser, L. L.

2001-12-01

309

Pyomyositis in the upper Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyomyositis remains poorly documented in tropical Latin America. We therefore performed a retrospective review of cases admitted to a hospital in the upper Negro river basin during 2002-2006. Seasonality was assessed by the cosinor model and independent predictors of outcome were identified by logistic regression. Determinants of time-to-fever resolution were analysed using Cox regression. No seasonal trend was observed (p=0.284) among 82 hospitalised patients. The disease predominated in young males and the most commonly affected part of the body was the lower limb (68 [63.5%] out of 107 lesions). Staphylococcus aureus was the only identified infecting organism (18 of 20 culture results, 90%). Complications occurred in 17 patients (20.7%) and the case fatality rate was 2.4%. Children were more likely to present with eosinophilia than adults (OR= 4.20, 95% CI 1.08-16.32, p=0.048), but no other significant differences regarding clinical presentation and outcomes were observed. The time-to-fever resolution was the only independent determinant of poor outcome (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.92, p<0.001) and was significantly longer in patients treated with combined antibiotic therapy than in those treated with single antibiotics (HR=0.523, 95% CI 0.296-0.926, p=0.026). Further studies to determine the best antibiotic therapy modality for the treatment of pyomyositis are required. PMID:22819770

Borges, Alvaro H D; Faragher, Brian; Lalloo, David G

2012-09-01

310

Ecotoxicological assessment of industrial wastewaters in Trancão River Basin (Portugal).  

Science.gov (United States)

It is important to assess the toxicity of complex effluents, since chemical evaluation alone is insufficient to protect the environment. Direct Toxicity Assessment is valuable in the decision process regarding the final disposal of complex wastewaters as it measures the total effects of the discharge, because of its known and unknown chemicals, additionally having some degree of ecological relevance. In Portugal, ecotoxicity tests are not used on a regular basis to control wastewaters. So, an integrated ecotoxicological, physical, and chemical study of wastewaters from 17 industries, in the Trancão River Basin, was carried out viewing proposing a test battery to be used in wastewater evaluation. An approach which does not include an ecotoxicological characterization may not properly evaluate the potential risks of effluent discharges, especially when they are complex. From the study carried out the use of a battery of assays to apply in the monitoring of complex wastewaters was proposed, including Microtox test, Daphnia test, and an algal test. Moreover, the added value of the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial wastewaters was demonstrated and could support the implementation of EU Directives (e.g. IPPC, WFD) within the Portuguese situation. PMID:18214883

Picado, Ana; Mendonça, Elsa; Silva, Luís; Paixão, Susana M; Brito, Fátima; Cunha, Maria Ana; Leitão, Sara; Moura, Isabel; Hernan, Robert

2008-08-01

311

Paleotectonics and hydrocarbon accumulation, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Belle Fourche arch, a subtle northeast-trending paleoarch, extends across the central part of the Powder River basin, Wyoming, to the Black Hills uplift. The arch is the result of differential vertical uplift, primarily during Cretaceous time, on numerous northeast-trending structural lineaments. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that the structural lineaments which form the Belle Fourche arch have rejuvenated periodically throughout the Phanerozoic. Evidence includes: (1) localization of Minnelusa Formation (Permian) hydrocarbon production along the crest of the arch; (2) localization of Dakota Formation (Cretaceous) alluvial point-bar production on the crest of the arch; (3) localization of lower Muddy Formation (Cretaceous) channel deposits parallel with, and on the downthrown sides of, lineament trends; (4) abrupt change in depositional strike of upper Muddy Formation (Cretaceous) marine bars close to the arch; (5) superposition of Turner sandstone (Cretaceous) channel deposits along the trends of Muddy channels; and (6) localization of virtually all significant Upper Cretaceous Shannon and Sussex sandstone offshore marine-bar production along the crest of the arch. Subtle uplift along the arch was persistent during at least lower Muddy through Sussex deposition, a period of about 35 m.y. 14 figures.

Slack, P.B.

1981-04-01

312

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites

2004-01-01

313

Pyomyositis in the upper Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazonia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pyomyositis remains poorly documented in tropical Latin America. We therefore performed a retrospective review of cases admitted to a hospital in the upper Negro river basin during 2002-2006. Seasonality was assessed by the cosinor model and independent predictors of outcome were identified by logistic regression. Determinants of time-to-fever resolution were analysed using Cox regression. No seasonal trend was observed (p=0.284) among 82 hospitalised patients. The disease predominated in young males and the most commonly affected part of the body was the lower limb (68 [63.5%] out of 107 lesions). Staphylococcus aureus was the only identified infecting organism (18 of 20 culture results, 90%). Complications occurred in 17 patients (20.7%) and the case fatality rate was 2.4%. Children were more likely to present with eosinophilia than adults (OR= 4.20, 95% CI 1.08-16.32, p=0.048), but no other significant differences regarding clinical presentation and outcomes were observed. The time-to-fever resolution was the only independent determinant of poor outcome (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.92, p

Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Faragher, Brian

2012-01-01

314

REGIONAL GROUNDWATER FLOW MODELLING OF GASH RIVER BASIN, SUDAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The three-dimensional groundwater flow model was performed to evaluate the groundwater potentiality and assess the effect of groundwater withdrawal to the regional water level and flow direction in the Gash River basin of Sudan. Data used include periodic water level measurements, meteorological data, digital elevation data and well logs from scientific test wells and domestic water wells drilled in the study area. Transient visual MODFLOW model code was calibrated. Numerical simulation indicated that, a sharp drop of hydraulic head can be observed at the center of the model area, generated cone of depressions and a continuous decline of head with respect to the time as a result of heavy groundwater abstraction. The central part of the area, represent relatively high permeability zone and the model confirmed it to be the most productive region in the area and can be used for storing additional groundwater. Observation wells elaborate the reasonable match between the observed and calculated heads through the entire simulation period.

ABDALLA E. IBRAHIM

2008-12-01

315

????????????? Projection of Future Precipitation in the Lhasa River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????ERA-40?MIROC3.2_medres?????????????????Automated Statistical Downscaling(ASD?????????????????????????????2046~2065??2081~2100??????????????ASD??????????????????????????(R2??13%~22%??????????????(RMSE?????0.25?0.53???????????????????????????10.55%~17.25%???????????????????????????????19.03%~59.02%??????????????????????18.43%~40.93%?Under the impact of global warming, the Lhasa River Basin (LRB, located at the political, economic, and cultural center of Tibetan region, is experiencing significant climate change. It is important to undertake the climate studies over LRB. On the basis of observed precipitation at meteorological stations, ERA-40 reanalysis and MIROC3.2_medres data, statistical downscaling model—Automated Statistical Downscaling (ASD was employed to simulate historical daily precipitation. Future precipitation scenarios for the periods of 2046 - 2065 and 2081 - 2100 were generated by using ASD model. Results show that ASD model can simulate the basic features of precipitation well, with the explanation variance (R2 of each station reaching 13% - 22%. Root mean square errors (RSME during calibration and validation periods are around 0.25 and 0.53, respectively. Precipitation regime will change significantly in the future. Total amount of annual precipitation will decrease by 10.55% - 17.25%. Future precipitation will become more concentrated. In summer, precipitation will increase evidently, and the amplitude of change is 19.03% - 59.02%, while precipitation in spring, autumn and winter will experience obvious decreasing, with the ratio of 18.43% - 40.93%.

???

2012-08-01

316

LIVING WITH FLOOD AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD DEVELOPMENT IN LOWER BRAHMAPUTRA RIVER BASIN, ASSAM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available River basin is considered as the basic hydrologic unit for planning and development of water resources and livelihood. Assam's Brahmaputra valley represents one of the most acutely hazard-prone regions in the country, having a total flood prone area of 3.2 million hectare. The lower Brahmaputra basin, Assam has caused the hazards of annual floods and erosion, bringing misery to the people and shattering the fragile agro-economic base of the region. The important factors causing floods in Assam are heavy rainfall, inadequate capacity of river, severe soil erosion, river bed silting, landslides, earthquakes, poor drainage, deforestation and practice of shifting cultivation or Jhoom as well as physical and anthropogenic causes. This paper focuses on the managing floods through specific structural measures such as reservoirs, embankments, channel improvement, town protection, river turning works, watershed management, inter-basin transfer, bank protection and anti-erosion work. Nonstructural methods to control the floods and soil erosion should be through flood forecasting, flood plain zoning, changing cropping pattern and public participation in management works. The paper also provides various flood mitigation processes for the challenges faced in the lower Brahmaputra basin, Assam for sustainable development. This paper mainly focuses on measurement of vulnerability and identification of vulnerable issues of Lower Brahmaputra basin with respect to various magnitude levels. The present study attempts to formulate a kind of sustainable livelihood development strategy for the development of lower Brahmaputra river basin, Assam. An analysis of major resources as well as critical problems has been done in order to identify the potential and challenges for the river basin, so that a sustainable development strategy can be formulated. It has been attempted to look into the integration at the spatial, sectoral and institutional level, while identifying the sustainable strategy for river basin, Assam.

R. B. Singh

2014-04-01

317

The Role of Cooperation and Information Exchange in Transnational River Basins: the Zambezi River case  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of multiple, institutionally independent but physically interconnected decision-makers is a distinctive features of many water resources systems, especially of transnational river basins. The adoption of a centralized approach to study the optimal operation of these systems, as mostly done in the water resources literature, is conceptually interesting to quantify the best achievable performance, but of little practical impact given the real political and institutional setting. Centralized management indeed assumes a cooperative attitude and full information exchange by the involved parties. However, when decision-makers belong to different countries or institutions, it is very likely that they act considering only their local objectives, producing global externalities that negatively impact on other objectives. In this work we adopt a Multi-Agent Systems framework, which naturally allows to represent a set of self-interested agents (decision-makers and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision-making process. According to this agent-based approach, each agent represents a decision-maker, whose decisions are defined by an explicit optimization problem considering only the agent's local interests. In particular, this work assesses the role of information exchange and increasing level of cooperation among originally non-cooperative agents. The Zambezi River basin is used to illustrate the methodology: the four largest reservoirs in the basin (Ithezhithezhi, Kafue-Gorge, Kariba and Cahora Bassa) are mainly operated for maximizing the economic revenue from hydropower energy production with considerably negative effects on the aquatic ecosystem in the Zambezi delta due to the alteration of the natural flow regime. We comparatively analyse the ideal centralized solution and the current situation where all the decision-makers act independently and non-cooperatively. Indeed, although a new basin-level institution called Zambezi Watercourse Commission (ZAMCON) should be established in the next future, Zambia recently refused to sign and ratify the ZAMCON Protocol and the road toward a fully cooperative framework is still long. Results show that increasing levels of information exchange can help in mitigating the conflict generated by a non-cooperative setting as it allows the downstream agents, i.e. Mozambique country, to better adapt to the upstream management strategies. Furthermore, the role of information exchange depends on the considered objectives and it is particularly relevant for environmental interests.

Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

2012-12-01

318

Flood of April 2-3, 2005, Neversink River Basin, New York.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy rain on April 2-3, 2005 produced rainfall amounts of 3 inches to almost 6 inches within a 36-hour period throughout the Delaware River basin. Major flooding occurred in the East and West Branches of the Delaware River and their tributaries, the main...

G. D. Firda T. P. Suro

2006-01-01

319

Integrated River Basin Management Planning: A co-ordinated approach to planning for water  

…legislation that lays down minimum standards for the condition of rivers, lakes, estuaries, coastal waters and groundwaters. The Directive is based on the concept of river basin management. This means that we need to identify bodies of water which are at risk of not meeting those standards as well as any actions…

320

Integrated River Basin Management Planning: A co-ordinated approach to planning for water  

…Integrated river basin management is one such tool and an important future vehicle for our adaptation work. We are responsible for implementing the Water Framework Directive (WFD), European Union legislation that lays down minimum standards for the condition of rivers, lakes, estuaries, coastal waters and groundwaters…

 
 
 
 
321

Analysis of river regime and water balance in the ?etinja River Basin  

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Full Text Available Water regime and water balance of the ?etinja River were analysed in this paper on the basis of a thirty-year data series on water level and discharge in the period from 1978 to 2008. The analysis of the ?etinja water level showed the mean annual water level of 53 cm in the mentioned period, whereas the lowest mean monthly water levels were in August, and the maximum mean monthly water levels in March and April. The average mean annual discharge of the ?etinja near Šengolj was 5.60 m3/s of the observation period 1978-2008. The annual value of the average discharges was similar to the annual value of the mean monthly low and high waters. It has been concluded that the ?etinja River belongs to the moderate-continental variance of the pluvial-nival regime. The results of the research have shown that about 5.60 m3/s of water is formed in the ?etinja Basin with specific runoff of 10.95 l/s/km2. Even though precipitation is not so low and ranges around 875 mm per year, the amount of the river inflow is smaller due to high evaporation of over 60%. Considering that the Šengolj hydrological station has been situated at 8.2 km from the mouth, and the station Stapari stopped working in 2002, there is an opinion that it would be significant to put the hydrological station in the part of the river course, as well as on larger tributaries. .

Milijaševi? Dragana

2010-01-01

322

Elements for an integrated resource planning in the framework of river basins: a study for the Cuiaba River Basin; Elementos para um planejamento integrado de recursos no ambito de bacias hidrograficas: um estudo para a bacia do rio Cuiaba  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new approach in energy planning in Brazil, IRP - Integrated Resources Planning for River Basins, gathers three main determinants of development: water, electricity and piped gas. This paper argues, briefly, the need of this planning, of indicative character, integrated with the River Basin Plans, and it presents a retrospective analysis concerning water, electricity and LPG demands of the economy sectors from Cuiaba River Basin region, priority elements to aid the prospective studies and to carry out process related to the IRP. (author)

Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: ildorileo@sigmanet.com.br, e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

2008-07-01

323

AN APPLICATION OF GIS BASED NONPOINT SOURCE MODELING TO LITTLE MIAMI RIVER BASIN: PRACTICE AND EXPERIENCE USING BASINS  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality has improved significantly in the Little Miami River Basin, OH, over the past few decades because of improvements in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastes. However, water quality modeling is necessary to assess the relative impacts of point and nonpoint s...

324

The design and analysis of salmonid tagging studies in the Columbia basin. Volume 8: A new model for estimating survival probabilities and residualization from a release-recapture study of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) smolts in the Snake River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake river fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging. These models do not utilize available capture history data from this second year and, thus, produce negatively biased estimates of survival probabilities. A new multinomial likelihood model was developed that results in biologically relevant, unbiased estimates of survival probabilities using the full two years of capture history data. This model was applied to 1995 Snake River fall chinook hatchery releases to estimate the true survival probability from one of three upstream release points (Asotin, Billy Creek, and Pittsburgh Landing) to Lower Granite Dam. In the data analyzed here, residualization is not a common physiological response and thus the use of CJS models did not result in appreciably different results than the true survival probability obtained using the new multinomial likelihood model

1997-01-01

325

Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume V; Analysis of In-River Growth for PIT-Tagged Spring Chinook Smolt, 1999 Technical Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The length of tagged fish is often measured at the release site and at least one downstream detection site for many PIT-tagged releases, enabling the study of growth of a particular salmonid species, run, year-class and rearing type, during their downstream migration. The purpose of this report is to suggest an approach to analyze the in-river growth of PIT-tagged salmonid yearlings. Since the age of the tagged fish is unknown, its growth must be assessed by means of the relationships between the release and recovery sizes of tagged fish, and between those and the time elapsed between release and recovery. Analyses of this type require adequate samples. A simple three-step protocol for selecting adequate data for unbiased samples is provided. Three methods: Walford's lines, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and one-tail paired t-tests, are suggested as analytical tools and applied to detect in-river growth from selected samples of PIT-tagged spring chinook yearlings. Finally, the between-sample comparison of growth rates by means of a simple linear model is discussed.

Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

1999-07-01

326

Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies  

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Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

Bernhard Barraqué

2008-06-01

327

Salinity management in river basins; modelling and management of the salt-affected Jarreh reservoir (Iran).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sources and origin of salts in the basin of the two salt- affected Shapur and Dalaki rivers (Southern Iran) and the processes involved in salinization have been studied. The extent of water deterioration have been identified by examining spatial changes in the rivers water quality. Among salinity management measures pertaining to water quality, the engineering measures are investigated. It appears that the construction and management of the planned Jarreh Reservoir on the Shapur River...

Shiati, K.

1991-01-01

328

Mining and Seasonal Variation of the Metals Concentration in the Puyango River Basin—Ecuador  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Puyango River Basin covers approximately an area of 4400 km2, it is located in Southern of Ecuador, with Calera and Amarillo rivers as tributaries. In this region, one of the main activities is small scale gold and silver mining. Currently there are 110 processing plants on the bank of Calera and Amarillo rivers, causing a significant degradation of natural resources. A seasonal comparison of metal concentrations in surface water, sediments and particulate matter fr...

Maria Eugenia Garcia; Oscar Betancourt; Edwin Cueva; Gimaraes, Jean Remy D.

2012-01-01

329

Towards a digital watershed, with a case study in the Heihe River Basin of northwest China  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated watershed study and river basin management needs integrated database and integrated hydrological and water resource models. We define digital watershed as a web-based information system that integrates data from different sources and in different scales through both information technology and hydrological modeling. In the last two years, a “digital basin” of the Heihe River Basin, which is a well-studied in-land catchment in China’s arid region was established. More than 6 Gb of in situ observation data, GIS maps, and remotely sensed data have been uploaded to the Heihe web site. Various database and dynamic web techniques such as PHP, ASP, XML, VRML are being used for data service. In addition, the DIAL (Data and Information Access Link), IMS (Internet Map Server) and other Web-GISs are used to make GIS and remote sensing datasets of the Heihe River Basin available and accessible on the Internet. We also have developed models for estimating the evapotranspiration, bio-physical parameters, and snow runoff. These methods can be considered as the elements to build up the integrated watershed model that can be used for integrated management of the Heihe River Basin. The official domain name of the digital Heihe River Basin is heihe.westgis.ac.cn

Li, X.; Cheng, G.-D.; Ma, M.-G.; Lu, L.; Ge, Y.-C.

2003-04-01

330

Mapping and Assessment of Degraded Land in the Heihe River Basin, Arid Northwestern China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the aridinland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects ofenvironmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resourceutilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, suchas its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based onfield observations and TM images from the year 2003, this study provides classificationand evaluation information concerning the degraded land in the basin of the Heihe River.There are five types of degraded land types in the Heihe River Basin: water eroded in thesouthern mountains, sandified and vegetation degraded near the oases, aridized in the lowreaches, and salinized in the lowlands. The total degraded area covers 29,355.5 km2,22.58% of the land in the study area. Finally, degraded land in the Heihe River Basin wasevaluated according to changes in the physical structure and chemical components of soils,land productivity, secondary soil salt, and water conditions.

Yumin Cai

2007-10-01

331

Mapping and assessment of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, arid northwestern China  

Science.gov (United States)

Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the arid inland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects of environmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resource utilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, such as its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based on field observations and TM images from the year 2003, this study provides classification and evaluation information concerning the degraded land in the basin of the Heihe River. There are five types of degraded land types in the Heihe River Basin: water eroded in the southern mountains, sandified and vegetation degraded near the oases, aridized in the low reaches, and salinized in the lowlands. The total degraded area covers 29,355.5 km2, 22.58% of the land in the study area. Finally, degraded land in the Heihe River Basin was evaluated according to changes in the physical structure and chemical components of soils, land productivity, secondary soil salt, and water conditions.

Qi, Shanzhong; Cai, Yumin

2007-01-01

332

Modelling native fish richness to evaluate the effects of hydromorphological changes and river restoration (Júcar River Basin, Spain)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The richness of native fish is considered to be an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, and improving richness is a key goal in the management of river ecosystems. An artificial neural network (ANN) model based on field data from 90 sample sites distributed throughout the Júcar River Basin District was developed to predict the native fish species richness (NFSR). The Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm was used for model training. When constructing the model, we tried different numbers ...

Olaya Mari?n, Esther Julia; Martinez-capel, Francisco; Soares Costa, Rui Manuel; Alcaraz-herna?ndez, Juan Diego

2012-01-01

333

A water quality model for shallow river-lake systems and its application in river basin management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work documents the development and application of a new model for simulating mass transport and turnover in rivers and shallow lakes. The simulation tool called 'TRAM' is intended to complement mesoscale eco-hydrological catchment models in studies on river basin management. TRAM aims at describing the water quality of individual water bodies, using problem- and scale-adequate approaches for representing their hydrological and ecological characteristics. The need for such flexible water ...

Kneis, David

2007-01-01

334

On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, soil erosion and s...

Sh Chen, N.; Sh Hu, G.; Deng, W.; Khanal, N.; Zhu, Y. H.; Han, D.

2013-01-01

335

???????????????? Spatial-Temporal Changes of Precipitation Structure across the Pearl River Basin, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????42???1960~2005?46????????????????(ATP???????(ATD??????(ATI????????(MWP??????????????????????????????????????????????Mann-Kendall??????????????????????1 ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2 ???????(2~5 d??????????????????????????????????????????????3 ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Daily precipitation data over the Pearl River basin (1960-2005 from 42 rain gauges is used in this article. Precipitation indices such as annual total precipitation amount, annual total rainy days, annual precipitation intensity and annual mean rainy days are defined. These precipitation indices are analyzed using the modified Mann-Kendall method. Results show that: 1 Decreasing trend of precipitation is found mainly in the middle and upper Pearl River basin. Rainy-days are decreasing almost over the entire basin. Thus, the precipitation intensity of Pearl River basin is increasing, particularly in the middle and the eastern parts of the basin; 2 The occurrence and fractional contribution of wet periods with shorter durations (2 - 5 d are tending to be predominant while longer durations are decreasing in recent decades; 3 Heavy storms are easy to occur in the eastern of the basin during shorter durations. Higher risk of floods and reduction of water yield in the lower basin will increase uncertainty of water supply in the Pearl River Delta and hence pose new challenges for water resources management.

???

2012-06-01

336

Malheur River Basin cooperative bull trout/redband trout research project, annual report FY 1999; ANNUAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99

2000-01-01

337

BASIN MORPHOLOGY AND LAND USEWITH SPECIAL REFFERENCE TO PANCHANOI RIVER BASIN, A MICRO WATERSHED OF MAHANANDA RIVER SYSTEM, INDIA  

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Full Text Available Micro watershed is defined as a small watershed, in which a certain number of families live, make use and manage the resources of the area, mainly the soil, water, vegetation,including crops and native vegetation, and fauna, including domestic and wild animals. From the operational point of view, the micro watershed has an area that may be planned by a technician counting on local resources and/or a number of families that may be treated as a social nucleus that shares some common interests and here the use of land is very much associated with the local physiography and that is why the study about land use should give emphasis on the relief characteristics. The present paper is based on a small river basin and its changing land use. So here it is very important to study about the drainage morphology as a whole or especially on that particular area where the changing tendency of land use has already been recognized. At the same time it is also to be noticed that the land use pattern may also be affected by the anthropogenic effect. So it is also very

SUBHADIP GUPTA

2013-03-01

338

A Catalog of Upper Colorado River Basin Droughts  

Science.gov (United States)

The upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) has experienced drought conditions since 2000, resulting in below average flows at Lees Ferry in eight of the past eleven years. Droughts have occurred periodically over the interval of the gage record, 1906-2009. An examination of the history of droughts in the basin can provide context for evaluating both the current drought, and an understanding of the range of characteristics and possible causes of drought. In this study we have evaluated six periods of drought, considering seasonality of temperature and precipitation, spatial patterns of precipitation and runoff, and sequences of flow. To investigate possible causal mechanisms, we assessed sea surface temperatures, 500 mb geopotential height patterns, and modes of ocean/atmospheric variability through an examination of a set of circulation indices. A comparison of the six droughts indicates that while droughts that impact the UCRB share some common characteristics, each evolves in a unique way. At times, cold El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events appear to be linked to drought, particularly in the 1950s, while in other cases, drought years coincide with warm ENSO events, pointing to the transitional nature of the region, with respect to ENSO teleconnections. Droughts persist through a variety of types of circulation modes, and cool ENSO is only one of those modes. A key feature for non-cool ENSO drought years is an elevated 500mb pressure anomaly centered over the Pacific Northwest, extending over much of the western US. The most recent drought stands out as a remarkably warm drought, when compared to previous droughts, with the largest cumulative deficits in runoff. This drought coincided with cool ENSO conditions from 2000-2002 and in 2006, but was characterize by a strong Aleutian Low and high pressure extending over much of western North America in 2003, 2004, and 2007. In order to better anticipate droughts and the persistence of drought conditions in the UCRB, more work is needed to better understand the range of ocean/atmospheric conditions that lead to drought in this region.

Woodhouse, C. A.; Glueck, M. F.

2010-12-01

339

Analysis of future precipitation in the Koshi river basin, Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed precipitation projections for the Koshi river basin in Nepal using outputs from 10 General Circulation Models (GCMs) under three emission scenarios (B1, A1B and A2). The low resolution future precipitation data obtained from the GCMs was downscaled using the statistical downscaling model LARS-WG. The data was downscaled for 48 stations located in the six physiographic regions in the Koshi basin. The precipitation projections for three future periods, i.e. 2020s, 2055s and 2090s, are presented using empirical Probability Density Functions (PDFs) for each physiographic region. The differences between the mean values of individual GCM projections and the mean value of the multi-model for the three scenarios allow for the estimation of uncertainty in the projections. We also analyzed the precipitation of the baseline and future periods using six indices that are recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDMI). Results indicate that not all GCMs agree on weather changes in precipitation will be positive or negative. A majority of the GCMs and the average values of all the GCMs for each scenario, indicate a positive change in summer, autumn and annual precipitation but a negative change in spring precipitation. Differences in the GCM projections exist for all the three future periods and the differences increase with time. The estimated uncertainty is higher for scenario A1B compared to B1 and A2. Differences among scenarios are small during the 2020s, which become significant during the 2055s and 2090s. The length of the wet spell is expected to increase, whereas the length of the dry spell is expected to decrease in all three future periods. There is a large scatter in the values of the indices: number of days with precipitation above 20 mm, 1-day maximum precipitation, 5-day maximum precipitation, and amount of precipitation on the days with precipitation above 95th percentile, both in direction and magnitude of the change.

Agarwal, Anshul; Babel, Mukand S.; Maskey, Shreedhar

2014-05-01

340

THE FLOOD RISK IN THE IALOMITA RIVER BASIN CASE STUDY: THE JULY 1975 FLASH FLOOD  

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Full Text Available Te flood risk in the Ialomita river basin case study: the july 1975 flash flood. Since over the last four decades the Ialomita River Basin has been affected by several catastrophic hydrological events, of which the most important were the ones in 1975, 2001 and 2005, for a better management of the extreme situations generated by such episodes we propose a new methodology regarding the estimation of the flash-flood appearance potential in this particular river basin, as well as an analysis of such an event that occurred in July 1975 and affected large swaths of the geographic area we have taken into consideration. In order to identify the regions which are vulnerable to the processes caused by slope run-off we have used the Flash Flood Potential Transmission Index (FFPTI, first proposed and used by Smith (2003 in the “Western Region Flash Flood Project” (WRFFP and then by several researchers from Romania, such as G. Minea (2011, M. M?trea?? (2011 and M. Borcan (2011. The main purpose of this method is the estimation of an index that would synthetically express the flashflood potential for both a major river basin (such as Ialomita River Basin as well as for a minor river basin (usually sub-components of major river basins. The quantification of the impact that the major physical-geographic factors (slope, soil texture and land use and the main run-off causing factor, rainfall, have gives the magnitude of this flash-flood potential transmission index.

M. RETEGAN

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Impact of deforestation on local precipitation patterns over the Da River basin, Vietnam  

Science.gov (United States)

Change in land cover, e.g. from forest to bare soil, might severely impact the hydrological cycle at the river basin scale by altering the balance between rainfall and evaporation, ultimately affecting streamflow dynamics. These changes generally occur over decades, but they might be much more rapid in developing countries, where economic growth and growing population may cause abrupt changes in landscape and ecosystem. Detecting, analysing and modelling these changes is an essential step to design mitigation strategies and adaptation plans, balancing economic development and ecosystem protection. In this work we investigate the impact of land cover changes on the water cycle in the Da River basin, Vietnam. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate the interlink between deforestation and precipitation. The case study is particularly interesting because Vietnam is one of the world fastest growing economies and natural resources have been considerably exploited to support after-war development. Vietnam has the second highest rate of deforestation of primary forests in the world, second to only Nigeria (FAO 2005), with associated problems like abrupt change in run-off, erosion, sediment transport and flash floods. We performed land cover evaluation by combining literature information and Remote Sensing techniques, using Landsat images. We then analysed time series of precipitation observed on the period 1960-2011 in several stations located in the catchment area. We used multiple trend detection techniques, both state-of-the-art (e.g., Linear regression and Mann-Kendall) and novel trend detection techniques (Moving Average on Shifting Horizon), to investigate trends in seasonal pattern of precipitation. Results suggest that deforestation may induce a negative trend in the precipitation volume. The effect is mainly recognizable at the beginning and at the end of the monsoon season, when the local mechanisms of precipitation formation prevail over the large scale ones.

Anghileri, Daniela; Spartà, Daniele; Castelletti, Andrea; Boschetti, Mirco

2014-05-01

342

Estimation of erosion and sedimentation yield in the Ucayali river basin, a Peruvian tributary of the Amazon River, using ground and satellite methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2003, the works of HYBAM observatory (www.ore-hybam.org) has allowed to quantify with accuracy, precision and over a long period Amazon's main rivers discharges and sediments loads. In Peru, a network of 8 stations is regularly gauged and managed in association with the national meteorological and Hydrological service (SENAMHI), the UNALM (National Agrological University of La Molina) and the National Water Agency (ANA). Nevertheless, some current processes of erosion and sedimentation in the foreland basins are still little known, both in volumes and in localization. The sedimentary contributions of Andean tributaries could be there considerable, masking a very strong sedimentation in subsidence zones localized between the control points of the HYBAM's network. The development of spatial techniques such as the Altimetry and reflectance measurement allows us today to complete the ground's network: HYBAM's works have allowed establishing a relation between surface concentration and reflectance in Amazonian rivers (Martinez et al., 2009, Espinoza et al., 2012) and reconstituting water levels series (Calmant et al., 2006, 2008). If the difficulty of calibration of these techniques increases towards the upstream, their use can allow a first characterization of the tributaries contributions and sedimentation zones. At world level, erosion and sedimentation yields in the upper Ucayali are exceptional, favored by a marked seasonality in this region (Espinoza et al., 2009, Lavado, 2010, Pépin et al., 2010) and the presence of cells of extreme precipitation ("Hotspots") (Johnson et al., 1976, Espinoza et al, 2009a). The upper Ucayali drainage basin is a Piggyback where the River run with a low slope, parallel to the Andean range, deposing by gravity hundred millions a year of sands, silts and clays. In this work, we thus propose an estimation of sedimentation and erosion yield in the Ucayali river basin using ground and satellite methods.

Santini, William; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Espinoza, Raul; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo

2014-05-01

343

Conceptual model of the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins, United States and Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

The three uppermost principal aquifer systems of the Northern Great Plains—the glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems—are described in this report and provide water for irrigation, mining, public and domestic supply, livestock, and industrial uses. These aquifer systems primarily are present in two nationally important fossil-fuelproducing areas: the Williston and Powder River structural basins in the United States and Canada. The glacial aquifer system is contained within glacial deposits that overlie the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems in the northeastern part of the Williston structural basin. Productive sand and gravel aquifers exist within this aquifer system. The Upper Cretaceous aquifer system is contained within bedrock lithostratigraphic units as deep as 2,850 and 8,500 feet below land surface in the Williston and Powder River structural basins, respectively. Petroleum extraction from much deeper formations, such as the Bakken Formation, is rapidly increasing because of recently improved hydraulic fracturing methods that require large volumes of relatively freshwater from shallow aquifers or surface water. Extraction of coalbed natural gas from within the lower Tertiary aquifer system requires removal of large volumes of groundwater to allow degasification. Recognizing the importance of understanding water resources in these energy-rich basins, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater Resources Program (http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/gwrp/) began a groundwater study of the Williston and Powder River structural basins in 2011 to quantify this groundwater resource, the results of which are described in this report. The overall objective of this study was to characterize, quantify, and provide an improved conceptual understanding of the three uppermost and principal aquifer systems in energy-resource areas of the Northern Great Plains to assist in groundwater-resource management for multiple uses. The study area includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming in the United States and Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada. The glacial aquifer system is contained within glacial drift consisting primarily of till, with smaller amounts of glacial outwash sand and gravel deposits. The lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems are contained within several formations of the Tertiary and Cretaceous geologic systems, which are hydraulically separated from underlying aquifers by a basal confining unit. The lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems each were divided into three hydrogeologic units that correspond to one or more lithostratigraphic units. The period prior to 1960 is defined as the predevelopment period when little groundwater was extracted. From 1960 through 1990, numerous flowing wells were installed near the Yellowstone, Little Missouri and Knife Rivers, resulting in local groundwater declines. Recently developed technologies for the extraction of petroleum resources, which largely have been applied in the study area since about 2005, require millions of gallons of water for construction of each well, with additional water needed for long-term operation; therefore, the potential for an increase in groundwater extraction is high. In this study, groundwater recharge and discharge components were estimated for the period 1981–2005. Groundwater recharge primarily occurs from infiltration of rainfall and snowmelt (precipitation recharge) and infiltration of streams into the ground (stream infiltration). Total estimated recharge to the Williston and Powder River control volumes is 4,560 and 1,500 cubic feet per second, respectively. Estimated precipitation recharge is 26 and 15 percent of total recharge for the Williston and Powder River control volumes, respectively. Estimated stream infiltration is 71 and 80 percent of total recharge for the Williston and Powder River control volumes, respectively. Groundwater discharge primarily is to streams and springs and is estimated to be about 97 and 92 percent of total discharge for the W

Long, Andrew J.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Bednar, Jennifer M.; Davis, Kyle W.; Mckaskey, Jonathan D. R. G.; Thamke, Joanna N.

2014-01-01

344

Time Series Analysis for the Drac River Basin (france)  

Science.gov (United States)

This research is based on analyzing of discharge time-series in four stream flow gage stations located in the Drac River basin in France: (i) Guinguette Naturelle, (ii) Infernet, (iii) Parassat and the stream flow gage (iv) Villard Loubière. In addition, time-series models as the linear regression (single and multiple) and the MORDOR model were implemented to analyze the behavior the Drac River from year 1969 until year 2010. Twelve different models were implemented to assess the daily and monthly discharge time-series for the four flow gage stations. Moreover, five selection criteria were use to analyze the models: average division, variance division, the coefficient R2, Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE) and the Nash Number. The selection of the models was made to have the strongest models with an important level confidence. In this case, according to the best correlation between the time-series of stream flow gage stations and the best fitting models. Four of the twelve models were selected: two models for the stream flow gage station Guinguette Naturel, one for the station Infernet and one model for the station Villard Loubière. The R2 coefficients achieved were 0.87, 0.95, 0.85 and 0.87 respectively. Consequently, both confidence levels (the modeled and the empirical) were tested in the selected model, leading to the best fitting of both discharge time-series and models with the empirical confidence interval. Additionally, a procedure for validation of the models was conducted using the data for the year 2011, where extreme hydrologic and changes in hydrologic regimes events were identified. Furthermore, two different forms of estimating uncertainty through the use of confidence levels were studied: the modeled and the empirical confidence levels. This research was useful to update the used procedures and validate time-series in the four stream flow gage stations for the use of the company Électricité de France. Additionally, coefficients for both the models and the confidence levels were updated applying a selection and critic data algorithm for the 2011 time series, leading to empirical levels gives better results than the modeled ones.

Parra-Castro, K.; Donado-Garzon, L. D.; Rodriguez, E.

2013-12-01

345

A historical perspective of river basin management in the Pearl River Delta of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three innovations in water and soil conservancy technology in the Pearl River Delta of South China, i.e., dike building, land reclamation, and dike-pond systems, were examined from a historical perspective. They were found to best reflect local farmers' efforts to cope with the challenges of various water disasters and to build a harmonious relationship with the changed environment. These technologies were critical to the agricultural success and sustainability over the past 2000 years, and reflected local farmers' wisdom in balancing land use and environmental conservation. Imprudent use of a new agricultural technology could damage the environment, and could disturb the human-environment relationship, as evidenced by the more frequent flooding that followed inappropriate dike building and premature reclamation. It is suggested that as the urbanization and industrialization process in the delta region continues, the kind of thinking that made the water and soil conservancy sustainable needs to be incorporated into the design of similar technologies for water use and river basin management today. PMID:17240525

Weng, Qihao

2007-12-01

346

Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of the Oubangui River and tributaries (Congo River basin).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. ?(13)C of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between -28.1‰ and -5.8‰, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin. PMID:24954525

Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V

2014-01-01

347

Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows in inland river basins in Northwest China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management in these has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.09 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and large areas of glaciers in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 88.0% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80–90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 95% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficient in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficient were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. glaciers in upstream and desert in downstream and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation in upstream and low precipitation in downstream. There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments for the entire Heihe river basin at sub-basin level. The results are helpful for formulating reasonable water policies to improve water resources management in the inland river basins of China.

C. F. Zang

2012-03-01

348

Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows in inland river basins in Northwest China  

Science.gov (United States)

In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management in these has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.09 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and large areas of glaciers in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 88.0% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80-90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 95% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficient in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficient were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. glaciers in upstream and desert in downstream) and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation in upstream and low precipitation in downstream). There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments for the entire Heihe river basin at sub-basin level. The results are helpful for formulating reasonable water policies to improve water resources management in the inland river basins of China.

Zang, C. F.; Liu, J.; van der Velde, M.; Kraxner, F.

2012-03-01

349

Geographical information system-based morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin, Kerala, India  

Science.gov (United States)

A morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler's system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. The Bharathapuzha drainage basin is sprawled over an area of 5,988.56 km2. The study area was designated as seventh-order basin and lower order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 1.07 km/km2. The slope of basin varied from 0° to 70° and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The elongation ratio of the basin is 0.57 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The drainage texture of the basin is 7.78 which indicates an intermediate texture that exists over the region. Hence, from the study, it can be concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM-DEM) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool in morphometric analysis and the data can be used for basin management and other hydrological studies in future.

Magesh, N. S.; Jitheshlal, K. V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Jini, K. V.

2013-06-01

350

Multi-model comparison of a major flood in the groundwater-fed basin of the Somme River (France)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Somme River Basin is located above a chalk aquifer and the discharge of the somme River is highly influenced by groundwater inflow (90% of river discharge is baseflow). In 2001, the Somme River Basin suffered from a major flood causing damages estimated to 100 million euro (Deneux and Martin, 2001). The purpose of the present research is to evaluate the ability of four hydrologic models to reproduce flood events in the Somme River Basin over an 18-year period, by comparison with observe...

Habets, F.; Gascoin, S.; Korkmaz, S.; Thie?ry, D.; Zribi, M.; Amraoui, N.; Carli, M.; Ducharne, A.; Leblois, E.; Ledoux, E.; Martin, E.; Noilhan, J.; Ottle?, C.; Viennot, P.

2010-01-01

351

Multi-model comparison of a major flood in the groundwater-fed basin of the Somme River (France)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Somme River Basin is located above a chalk aquifer and the discharge of the somme River is highly influenced by groundwater inflow (90% of river discharge is baseflow). In 2001, the Somme River Basin suffered from a major flood causing damages estimated to 100 million euro (Deneux and Martin, 2001). The purpose of the present research is to evaluate the ability of four hydrologic models to reproduce flood events in the Somme River Basin over an 18-year period, by comparison with observed ...

Habets, F.; Gascoin, S.; Korkmaz, S.; Thie?ry, D.; Zribi, M.; Amraoui, N.; Carli, M.; Ducharne, A.; Leblois, E.; Ledoux, E.; Martin, E.; Noilhan, J.; Ottle, C.; Viennot, P.

2010-01-01

352

Multi-model comparison of a major flood in the groundwater-fed basin of the Somme River (France)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Somme River Basin is located above a chalk aquifer and the discharge of the somme River is highly influenced by groundwater inflow (90% of river discharge is baseflow). In 2001, the Somme River Basin suffered from a major flood causing damages estimated to 100 million Euro (Deneux and Martin, 2001). The purpose of the present research is to evaluate the ability of four hydrologic models to reproduce flood events in the Somme River Basin over an 18-year period, by comparison with observed ...

Habets, F.; Gascoin, S.; Korkmaz, S.; Thie?ry, D.; Zribi, M.; Amraoui, N.; Carli, M.; Ducharne, A.; Leblois, E.; Ledoux, E.; Martin, E.; Noilhan, J.; Ottle?, C.; Viennot, P.

2009-01-01

353

Sensitivity of the hydrologic cycle in Tana river basin to climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tana River basin in Kenya has four distinct climates along it's gradient from cool humid in mount Kenya region through arid and semi arid in the lower plains to semi humid coastal climate. From the highlands of mount Kenya to the plateau on the lowlands, the river traverses some sections which have high potential for hydro-electric power generation. The government has constructed water reovirus to collect water for electricity generation. The influence of the reovirus have also caused climate modification. The aim of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of the river flows in the Tana river to climate change. The study indicates that, as long as temperature increment of up to 2 degrees centigrade are accompanied by positive changes (greater than 10%) in rainfall over the basin, then the hydrologic cycle adjust itself accordingly to give a positive response (increased runoff) in terms of the river at the outlet

1998-01-01

354

K East basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides estimates of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel elements and in the fuel storage canisters in K East Basin. The original estimates were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. Revision 1 revised the volume estimates of sludge from processing of the fuel elements based on additional data from evaluations of material from the KE Basin fuel subsurface examinations. A nominal Working Estimate and an upper level Working Bound is developed for the canister sludge and the fuel wash sludge components in the KE Basin

1998-01-01

355

K West Basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides estimates of the volume of sludge (1) expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel elements and (2) in the fuel storage canisters in K West Basin. The original estimates were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of KE canister sludge density. Revision 1 revised the volume estimates of sludge based on additional data from evaluations of material from the KW Basin fuel subsurface examinations and KW canister sludge characterization data. A nominal Working Estimate and an upper level Working Bound is developed for the canister sludge and the fuel wash sludge components in the KW Basin.

Pitner, A.L.

1998-08-19

356

Satellite-based water balance of the Nile River basin: a multisensor approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite-informed estimates of distributed hydrologic fluxes and storages in remote, ungauged, or contentious river basins is the subject of active research. Here we review recent developments in remotely sensed water flux and balance estimates for large basins, including the Nile River basin, and present results of a new analysis that applies TRMM, GRACE, and a Meteosat-based implementation of the ALEXI evapotranspiration algorithm to generate spatially and temporally distributed estimates of hydrologic fluxes and storages in the Nile basin. Results are evaluated using previous studies of the Nile water balance, historic river gauge data, and available in situ measurements of distributed fluxes. It is found that the independent estimates of precipitation, water storage changes, and evapotranspiration offered by TRMM, GRACE, and ALEXI, respectively, can be used to close the climatological water balance of the Nile River basin and critical Nile subbasins to first order, but that the technique has limitations at shorter time scales due to random error, at smaller spatial scales, due to resolution limitations, and in the characterization of systematic error due to limited availability of relevant in situ observations. The strengths and limitations of the analysis will be evaluated with respect to alternative methodologies and to resource information needs in the Nile basin.

Zaitchik, B. F.; Anderson, M. C.; Ozdogan, M.; Yilmaz, M.

2013-12-01

357

Tracing nutrient sources in the Mississippi River Basin, United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To provide information for the development of management strategies to reduce N loads and enhance N attenuation mechanisms, isotopic techniques have been used to investigate the sources and cycling of nutrients at a number of sites in the Mississippi Basin (which includes the Ohio and Missouri River Basins). About half of the POM in the Mississippi (and other big rivers in the USA) is composed of plankton and/or heterotrophic bacteria. This suggests that in-situ productivity may be a significant source of bioavailable organic matter contributing to the hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Monthly samples from 19 river sites in the Basin sampled over 5 years showed that ? 15N and ? 13C were quite useful in discriminating among four major categories of POM: terrestrial soil, fresh terrestrial vegetation, aquatic macrophytes, and plankton/bacteria The isotopic data, along with ancillary chemical and hydrologic measurements, were also useful for documenting seasonal changes in in-situ processes. A pilot study in 2000-2001, designed to investigate the usefulness of isotopic techniques for determining nutrient sources in 24 medium and large watersheds in the Basin, found that nitrate and POM from basins with different land uses (e.g., row crops, animal farming, urban development, and undeveloped) had moderately distinctive isotopic compositions. The nitrate ? 18O and ? 15N values of the large rivers sites resembled the compositions seen in sites dominated by row crops. Sites with livestock tended to have high ? 15N values characteristic of manure, and urban and undeveloped sites tended to have higher ? 18O values characteristic of a significant fraction of atmospheric nitrate. The ? 18O data were critical in showing abrupt changes in nitrate sources with discharge. A more thorough study of nutrient sources in the Ohio River Basin was initiated in 2002. For this study, nitrate, POM, and water were collected 15-20 times each year at 6 small NAWQA-program watersheds in the White River- Miami River basins, and at the 7 large river NASQAN-program sites in the Ohio River Basin. Nitrate samples were analyzed for ? 15N and ? 18O, POM for ? 15N and ? 13C, and water for ? 18O and ? 2H. The ? 15N and ? 13C of fish were used as indicators of nutrient sources. Other studies have indicated that POM consists primarily of phytoplankton and is transported in the water column, particularly size fractions < 1-mm diameter, were the primary food source for food webs in the Ohio and Upper Mississippi Rivers

2003-05-19

358

Regionalization and spatial changing properties of droughts across the Pearl River basin, China  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryIn frequency analysis for droughts, the absence of lengthy records usually limits the reliability of statistical estimates. To overcome this limitation, a "regional" analysis approach is often used. Hydrological events typically have multivariate characteristics; therefore it is logical to jointly consider these characteristics when carrying out a multivariate regional frequency analysis for these events. This study presents a method for regional frequency analysis in the Pearl River basin using the multivariate L-moments homogeneity test. Results indicate that the Pearl River basin can be categorized into five homogeneous regions in terms of drought variation, and the Plackett copula fits well for all of the homogeneous regions. The frequency analysis of all sites in each homogeneous region shows that the Pearl River Delta is characterized by a high drought risk, while a relatively lower drought risk in the west and northeast parts of the Pearl River basin. Results of this study will be useful for basin-scale water resources management across the Pearl River basin.

Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Li, Jianfeng

2012-11-01

359

UPPER/MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER BASIN STATUS REPORT, 1975  

Science.gov (United States)

The Snake River (17040104, 170402, 170501) begins with relatively high water quality, with nutrient levels below those considered potentially causative to algal activity. Below Heise, nutrient concentrations rise and the quality of the river is degraded. Phosphorus enters the S...

360

Green River Basin Formation water flood demonstration project, Uinta Basin, Utah  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Green River Formation of the Uinta Basin, Utah, contains abundant hydrocarbons that are inefficiently produced by primary means. However, secondary recovery projects have only been rarely implemented, largely because of complex geology and hydrocarbon chemistry. An evaluation of the successful Lomax Monument Butte Unit water flood will be performed under this contract, and based on this information, water floods will be initiated in nearby Travis and Boundary units. The project will also develop new techniques to characterize reservoir heterogeneity and the response of the reservoir to water flooding. In 1987, Lomax Exploration Company successfully implemented a water flood on their Monument Butte Unit which has a geologically heterogeneous low energy reservoir with a high paraffin crude oil. Production of about 5% of the OOIP from primary methods was increased through the water flood to an estimated recovery of 20% OOIP. The project will: (1) perform a technical evaluation of the successful Monument Butte Unit; (2) based on this information, extend the successful water flood to nearby Travis and Boundary units; (3) develop new characterization techniques and (4) transfer the technology to operators, regulators, government agencies, and the financial community.

Lomax, J.D. (Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Nielson, D.L. (Utah Univ. Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Deo, M.D. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering)

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Floodplain biogeochemical processing of floodwaters in the Atchafalaya River Basin during the Mississippi River flood of 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

2011 flood in the Lower Mississippi resulted in the second highest recorded river flow diverted into the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). The higher water levels during the flood peak resulted in high hydrologic connectivity between the Atchafalaya River and floodplain, with up to 50% of the Atchafalaya River water moving off channel. Water quality samples were collected throughout the ARB over the course of the flood event. Significant nitrate (NO3-) reduction (75%) occurred within the floodplain, resulting in a total NO3- reduction of 16.6% over the flood. The floodplain was a small but measurable source of dissolved reactive phosphorus and ammonium (NH4+). Collectively, these results from this large flood event suggest that enhancing river-floodplain connectivity through freshwater diversions will reduce NO3- loads to the Gulf of Mexico during large annual floods.

Scott, Durelle T.; Keim, Richard F.; Edwards, Brandon L.; Jones, C. Nathan; Kroes, Daniel E.

2014-04-01

362

Pollutant sources investigation and remedial strategies development for the Kaoping River Basin, Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kaoping River Basin, located in southern Taiwan, flows through approximately 171 km and drains towards the South Taiwan Strait. It is the largest and the most intensively used river basin in Taiwan. Based on the results from the pollutant sources investigation and water quality analysis, the main water pollution sources of the Kaoping River were livestock wastewater from hog farms, municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, leachate from riverbank landfills, and non-point source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas in the upper catchment. Concern about the deteriorating condition of the river led the Government of Taiwan to amend the relevant legislation and strengthen the enforcement of the discharge regulations to effectively manage the river and control the pollution. The following remedial strategies have been taken to improve the river water quality since 2001: (1) hog ban in the upper catchment of the Kaoping River Basin, thus, 510 thousand hogs have been removed/relocated; (2) removal of riverbank landfills; (3) enforcement of the industrial wastewater discharge standards; (4) sewer system construction in five cities along the river corridor; (5) application of best management practices for NPS pollutant control; (6) application of natural wastewater treatment systems (e.g. land treatment, constructed wetland, overland flow, riverbank sedimentation/aeration pond) for domestic wastewater treatment in rural areas; and (7) construction of the watershed geographical information system (GIS) and real time water quality monitoring system to effectively monitor and manage the watershed. Recent water quality investigation results indicate that the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient loadings to the Kaoping River have been significantly reduced and the water quality has been improved after the implementation of the remedial strategies described above. Results and experience obtained from this study will be helpful in designing the watershed management strategies for other similar river basins. PMID:14653639

Kao, C M; Wu, F C; Chen, K F; Lin, T F; Yen, Y E; Chiang, P C

2003-01-01

363

Soil productive potential of the river basins located in European part of Russia  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for integral monitoring indicators of natural ecosystems biosphere functions assessment is becoming really urgent nowadays. From the point of view of ecologic and economic indicators, characterizing ecosystems structure and functioning, soil fertility and vegetation productivity parameters, which have been studied for a long time as biosphere and environment forming functions rank first priority. For integrated characteristic of ecosystems soil and vegetation condition we have suggested to apply the index of "soil-productive potential" (SPP), characterizing the ability of nature and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems for sustained product (phytomass) reproduction under specific soil-bioclimatic conditions. It characterizes ecosystem reserve via the index expressed in numbers and averages the following parameters: • specific phytomass reserve (all living elevated and underground parts of plants in terms of total dry mass t/ hectare are considered); • specific productivity (phytomass augmentation for a year per unit area); • natural soil fertility (humus content, % as a characteristic); • crop-producing power (grain crop-producing power is considered, centner/hectare); • bioclimatic parameters (integrated index, including the sum of biologically active temperatures and moistening coefficient); • soil-ecologic index (SEI). Soil-productive potential allows the assessment of average perennial area resource for phytomass production by natural and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems. For more convenient comparative estimation, characteristics are ranked by dividing them into equal intervals according to 5-number scale with consequent numbers summation to overall index. As a result both soil-productive potential of natural eco-systems and total soil-productive potential of the whole area with a glance to the condition of available agrocenosis are calculated. Soil-productive potential of 12 first-rank major river basins of the European part of Russia have been assessed. Within the largest basin in terms of watershed area of the Volga, the Oka and the Kama (2-nd rank river basins) have been singled out and characterized separately. The method of river basins boundaries overlapping (in digital map scaled 1:1000000) on zonal spaces in «Arc GIS» has been applied. The biggest phytomass reserve is concentrated in the Neva and the Oka river basins, in the southern direction phytomass reserve is gradually declining due to the decrease of forest area. The most productive areas are the Don, the Ural, the Kuban basins. Productivity of the Volga basin ecosystems as a whole is medial (the highest values are typical for the Oka basin). The highest humus content is registered in the Kuban river basin, t