WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Water-Data Report--Texas 2003, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 72 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 35 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 28 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

Gandara, S. C.

2004-01-01

2

Water Resources Data Texas Water Year 2003, Volume 4. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 4 contains records for water discharge at 64 gaging stations; stage and contents at 14 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 29 gaging stations; and data for 13 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 7 low-flow, 1 crest-stage, and 2 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stageonly stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

Gandara, S. C.

2004-01-01

3

Water-Data Report--Texas 2003, Volume 3. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 93 gaging stations; stage only at 8 gaging stations; stage and contents at 33 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 23 gaging stations; and data for 35 partial-record stations comprised of 15 flood-hydrograph, 19 low-flow, and 1 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surfacewater discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

Gandara, S. C.

2004-01-01

4

Water Resources Data Texas Water Year 2003, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 84 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; stage and contents at 6 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 28 gaging stations; and data for 18 partial-record stations comprised of 1 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

Gandara, S. C.

2004-01-01

5

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1992. Volume 2. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; and stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 86 gaging stations; stage only at 8 gaging stations; stage and contents at 20 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 54 gaging stations; and data for 26 partial-record and 7 flood-hydrograph partial-record stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations; crest-stage and flood-hydrograph partial-record stations, reconnaissance partial-record stations, and low-flow partial-record stations. Records for a few pertinent stations in bordering States also are included.

Buckner, H.D.; Andrews, F.L.; Hinds, B.A.

1993-06-01

6

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1993. Volume 2. San Jacinto River basin, Brazos River basin, San Bernard River basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; and stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 89 gaging stations; stage only at 9 gaging stations; stage and contents at 20 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 48 gaging stations; and data for 29 partial-record and 14 flood-hydrograph partial-record stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations; crest-stage and flood-hydrograph partial-record stations, reconnaissance partial-record stations, and low-flow partial-record stations.

Gandara, S.C.; McPherson, E.M.; Gibbons, W.; Hinds, B.A.; Andrews, F.L.

1994-03-01

7

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1996. Volume 2. San Jacinto River basin, Brazos River basin, San Bernard River basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 74 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; stage and contents at 19 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 41 gaging stations; and data for 44 partial-record stations comprised of 18 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, and 16 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

1997-02-01

8

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1995. Volume 2. San Jacinto River basin, Brazos River basin, San Bernard River basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 September 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 78 gaging stations; stage only at 20 gaging stations; stage and contents at 21 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 43 gaging stations; and data for 32 partial-record and 18 flood-hydrograph partial-record stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations; crest-stage and flood-hydrograph partial-record stations, reconnaissance partial-record stations, and low-flow partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Fisher, J.C.; Hinds, B.A.

1996-02-01

9

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1994. Volume 2. San Jacinto River basin, Brazos River basin, San Bernard river basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1993-30 September 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 79 gaging stations; stage only at 9 gaging stations; stage and contents at 20 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 42 gaging stations; and data for 33 partial-record and 20 flood-hydrograph partial-record stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations; crest-stage and flood-hydrograph partial-record stations, reconnaissance partial-record stations, and low-flow partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Fisher, J.C.; Hinds, B.A.

1995-03-01

10

Water-Data Report--Texas 2003, Volume 2. Trinity River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 49 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 25 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 27 gaging stations; and data for 3 partial-record stations comprised of 2 flood-hydrograph and 1 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

Gandara, S.C.

2004-01-01

11

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin ; Volume 1 ; Evaluation of the 1995 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Subyearling Chinook in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project was initiated in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of the project include: (1) to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and to help identify future research and analysis needs; (2) to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to assist in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; and (3) to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4) to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community.

Townsend, Richard L.

1997-06-01

12

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1993. Volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, Trinity River basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 October 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; and stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 113 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 37 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 81 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record and 11 flood-hydrograph partial-record stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations; crest-stage and flood-hydrograph partial-record stations, reconnaissance partial-record stations, and low-flow partial-record stations.

Gandara, S.C.; McPherson, E.M.; Gibbons, W.; Hinds, B.A.; Andrews, F.L.

1994-03-01

13

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1996. Volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, Trinity River basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 34 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 76 gaging stations; and data for 15 partial-record stations comprised of 9 flood-hydrograph, 3 low-flow, and 3 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

1997-02-01

14

Muskingum River Basin Comprehensive Coordinated Joint Plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plan includes recommended studies, projects, and non-structural programs which the Ohio River Basin Commission has agreed are required to meet the economic, environmental and social needs of the sub-basin, the Muskingum River.

1976-01-01

15

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1995. Volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, Trinity River basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 September 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; stage and contents at 34 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 67 gaging stations; and data for 7 partial-record and 14 flood-hydrograph partial-record stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations; crest-stage and flood-hydrograph partial-record stations, reconnaissance partial-record stations, and low-flow partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Fisher, J.C.; Hinds, B.A.

1996-02-01

16

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1994. Volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, Trinity River basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1993-30 September 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 34 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 60 gaging stations; and data for 7 partial-record and 14 flood-hydrograph partial-record stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations; crest-stage and flood-hydrograph partial-record stations, reconnaissance partial-record stations, and low-flow partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Fisher, J.C.; Hinds, B.A.

1995-03-01

17

Water resources data for Ohio, water year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River basin excluding project data. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. The volume covers the northern part of Ohio and is comprised of the St. Lawrence River Basin and the Lake Erie shoreline.

Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1993-03-01

18

Water resources data for Pennsylvania, water year 1993. Volume 2. Susquehanna and Potomac river basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water resources data for the 1993 water year for Pennsylvania consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; contents and elevations of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report, Volume 2, includes records from the Susquehanna and Potomac River Basins. Specifically, Volume 2 contains (1) discharge records for 97 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations and 39 partial-record stations; (2) elevation and contents records for 13 lakes and reservoirs; and (3) water-level records for 25 observation wells. The location of these sites is shown in figures 6-8. Additional waste data collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program are also presented.

Durlin, R.R.; Schaffstall, W.P.

1994-01-01

19

Water resources data for Pennsylvania, water year 1991. Volume 1. Delaware river basin. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1990-30 September 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Pennsylvania consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; contents and elevations of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report, Volume 1, includes records from the Delaware River basin. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 83 continuous record streamflow-gaging stations and 75 partial-record stations, 2 special study, and 5 miscellaneous streamflow sites; (2) elevation and contents records for 12 lakes and reservoirs and elevations for 1 tidal station; (3) water-quality records for 23 gaging stations, for 67 ungaged streamsites; and (4) water-level records for 17 observation wells.

Kolva, J.R.; White, T.E.; Druther, R.L.; Moleski, P.

1992-11-01

20

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1992. Volume 3: Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; and stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 129 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging stations; stage and contents at 13 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 82 gaging stations; and data for 26 partial-record and 4 flood-hydrograph partial-record stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations; crest-stage and flood-hydrograph partial-record stations, reconnaissance partial-record stations, and low-flow partial-record stations. Records for a few pertinent stations in bordering States also are included.

Buckner, H.D.; Andrews, F.L.; Hinds, B.A.

1993-06-01

 
 
 
 
21

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1993. Volume 3. Colorado River basin, Lavaca River basin, Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; and stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 134 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging stations; stage and contents at 13 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 81 gaging stations; and data for 30 partial-record and 4 flood-hydrograph partial-record stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations; crest-stage and flood-hydrograph partial-record stations, reconnaissance partial-record stations, and low-flow partial-record stations.

Gandara, S.C.; McPherson, E.M.; Gibbons, W.; Hinds, B.A.; Andrews, F.L.

1994-03-01

22

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1996. Volume 3. Colorado River basin, Lavaca River basin, Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 110 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging station; stage and contents at 12 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 53 gaging stations; and data for 38 partial-record stations comprised of 9 flood-hydrograph, 17 low-flow, and 12 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations.

Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

1997-02-01

23

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1994. Volume 3. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River basin, Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1993-30 September 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 128 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging stations; stage and contents at 13 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 50 gaging stations, and data for 32 partial-record and 6 flood-hydrograph partial-record stations. Also inclued are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations; crest-stage and flood-hydrograph partial-record stations, reconnaissance partial-record stations, and low-flow partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Fisher, J.C.; Hinds, B.A.

1995-03-01

24

Water resources data for Texas, water year 1995. Volume 3. Colorado River basin, Lavaca River basin, Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 September 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 123 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; stage and contents at 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 62 gaging stations; and data for 35 partial-record and 6 flood-hydrograph partial-record stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations; crest-stage and flood-hydrograph partial-record stations, reconnaissance partial-record stations, and low-flow partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Fisher, J.C.; Hinds, B.A.

1996-02-01

25

Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume II of V; 1992 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clearwater Hatchery is located on the north bank of the North Fork of the Clearwater River, downstream from Dworshak Dam. It is approximately 72 miles from Lower Granite Dam, and 504 miles from the mouth of the Columbia River. Site elevation is approximately 994 feet above sea level. The hatchery is staffed with 7 FTE's. Clearwater Hatchery has two pipelines from Dworshak Reservoir. One is attached to a floating platform and is capable of providing various temperatures at varying depths. The other is a stationary intake about 245 feet below the top of the dam. All water is gravity fed to the hatchery. An l8 inch intake pipe provides an estimated 10 cfs with temperature remaining constant at approximately 40 F. The primary 42-inch intake pipe can draw water from 5 to 45 feet in depth with temperatures ranging from 55 to 60 F and 70 cfs of flow. The hatchery facility consists of 11 chinook raceways, 24 steelhead raceways, 2 adult holding ponds, a covered spawning area with 2 live wells and 60 concrete rearing vats. There are 40 double stacks of Heath-type incubators and each vat also has an incubation jar. All facility units are in excellent condition. Clearwater Hatchery also supports satellite facilities at Red River, Crooked River and Powell. The Red River satellite facility is located approximately 15 miles east of Elk City, Idaho. It is approximately 186 miles upstream from Lower Granite Dam and 618 miles from the mouth of the Columbia River. It was first built in 1974 by the Columbia River Project and then remodeled by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1986. Red River is supplied by gravity flow from an intake located at the bottom of the South Fork of Red River, 225 yards upstream from the facility. Water rights allow for 10 cfs and during low flows in the summer about 5 cfs is available. Temperatures range from 40 F in the spring to 71 F in early August. The facility consists of two adult holding ponds, a removable tripod and panel weir, and a rearing pond. All units are in good condition due to the recent remodeling. The Crooked River satellite facility is located 20 miles downstream of Red River. The trap is located 0.5 miles upstream of the mouth of Crooked River, a tributary of the South Fork of the Clearwater River. The rearing ponds are 10 miles upstream from the Crooked River adult trap. Crooked River water is supplied by gravity flow by an intake 200 yards upstream of the facility raceways. Water rights allow for 10 cfs at the rearing facility and 10 cfs at the trapping facility. Water temperatures range from 42 to 70 F. The trap and weir are located at the mouth of Crooked River. Ten miles upstream from the mouth are two raceways, a cleaning waste pond and final settling pond. All facility units are in good condition. The Powell satellite facility is located 122 miles east of the Clear-water Hatchery at the headwaters of the Lochsa River, the confluence of the Crooked Fork Creek and White Sands Creek. Powell is 192.5 miles from Lower Granite Dam and 624 miles from the mouth of the Columbia River. The Powell Facility receives gravity flow water from Walton Creek at a rate of 7 cfs with the intake being located 100 yards upstream from the facility. Powell also has a pumped supply from White Sands Creek at 3 cfs. Water temperature ranges from 45.8 to 50.2 F from the Walton Creek intake and 41 to 65 F from the White Sands pump station. The facility consists of one rearing pond, a diversion and intake screen, two adult holding ponds, a floating weir, and an open bay spawning shelter. All facility units are in good condition.

Hutchison, Bill

1993-05-01

26

Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

Dorri G. J. te Boekhorst; Toine J. M. Smits; Xiubo Yu; Lifeng Li; Gang Lei; Chen Zhang

2010-01-01

27

Monitoring and evaluation of smolt migration in the Columbia Basin, Volume II: Evaluation of the 1996 predictions of the run-timing of wild migrant subyearling chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime.; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project was initiated in 1991 in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of this project include: (1)to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and identify future research and analysis needs; (2)to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to aid management in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; (3)to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4)to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community

1998-01-01

28

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume II : Evaluation of the 1996 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Subyearling Chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project was initiated in 1991 in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of this project include: (1)to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and identify future research and analysis needs; (2)to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to aid management in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; (3)to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4)to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community.

Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Yasuda, Dean

1998-07-01

29

Study on river regulation measures of dried-up rivers of Haihe River basin, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years, the ecological environment of plain rivers within Haihe River basin is questionable because of severe water shortages. Most of the rivers dry up regularly and it is therefore necessary to take measures to improve the river ecological environment. Meanwhile, flood control is the principal function for most of the dried-up rivers, so river regulation works for flood control also should be undertaken. In this paper, some measures of river regulation were selected applied to the Haihe River basin, taking these measures not only ensure the river security but also realize its ecological benefit. Examples of the application of selected measures for the representative rivers, Yongding River and Hutuo River, both located within the Haihe River basin, are also assessed. These measures provide practical solutions to ecological and flood control problems of dried-up rivers, are generic in nature, and could therefore be applied to other same type rivers.

Peng J; Li S; Qi L

2013-01-01

30

Geochemical Balance of the Salgado River Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Salgado River basin (Bahia State, Brazil) was studied from the point of view of present climatic and geochemical conditions: inappropriate exploitation, irregular rainfall and high evaporation rate resulting in a state of unbalanced geochemical condit...

L. M. Moreira-nordemann D. Nordemann

1980-01-01

31

Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume II, Oregon.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Big Creek Hatchery is located 16 miles east of Astoria, Oregon and is approximately 3 miles upstream from Big Creek`s confluence with the Columbia River. The site elevation is approximately 75 feet above sea level. The facility includes 2 adult holding ponds, 30 raceways, 1 rearing pond, 64 troughs and 8 stacks of egg incubators. The adult collection and holding ponds are in poor condition and are inadequate to meet current program objectives. There are four water sources for the hatchery: Big Creek, Mill Creek and two springs. Current water rights total 36,158 gpm plus an additional 4.2 cfs reservoir water right. All water supplies are delivered by gravity but can be pumped for reuse if required. The facility is staffed with 9.25 FTE`s. Current practices at the hatchery are described.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; US Fish and Wildlife Service

1996-06-01

32

CONTRIBUTIONS TO MOLDOVA RIVER’S INFERIOR BASIN VEGETATION KNOWLEDGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authors describes in this paper two vegetal associations (mesophyllus grasslands), Festuco rubrae-Agrostetum capillaris Horvati? 1951 and Trisetetum flavescentis R?bel 1911 from the inferior basin of Moldova river.

M?RIU?A CONSTANTIN; T. CHIFU

2004-01-01

33

Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of tritium through the Mississippi Basin and its tributaries was calculated during the years that tritium measurements were made. The cumulative fluxes, calculated in grams of 3II were: (i) 160 g for the Ohio (1961-1986), (ii) 98 g for the upper Missouri (1963-1997), (iii) 30 g for the Arkansas (1961-1997) and (iv) 780 g for the Mississippi (1961-1997). Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Michel, R. L.

2004-01-01

34

Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

1993-10-01

35

The silt carrying in Jerma river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The silt carrying in the upper part of Jerma river basin in amount of 82.3 t/km/year is relatively high, considering the situation in all Serbia. The specific silt carrying in the upper part of Crnica river basin is 23.9 t/km/year (Manojlovi? P.), while it is even lower in the basin of Crni Timok river (3.5 t/km/year; Manojlovi? P, Gavrilovi? Lj. 1991.). In the Kolubara river basin, the specific mechanical water erosion is between 4.6 t/km/year (Gradac) and 73.2 t/km/year in Tamnava basin (Dragicevic S. 2002). Greater erosion in the upper part of Jerma river basin is result of great part of metamorphic stones that intensively disintegrates and significant anthropogenic influence in Znepolje. The great slopes at the left side of the basin, under the Ruj mountain, should be considered, too. That doesn't mean that the erosion is strong, because, for example in the basin of Beli Timok, between Knjaževac and Zaje?ar, it is 186 t/km/year. Following regression, base on flow and silt concentration values can calculate the silt carrying very precisely: t/day=6251+26875 - C+1058 - Q Based on beta coefficients (0.73 for silt and 0.31 for flow) it could be concluded that concentration of silt has greater influence on erosion, than flow. More interesting is the influence of seasonal factor on the carrying of suspended silt. Months with the highest amount of carried suspended material are March, April and May. During these months 50.5 % of average yearly value is evacuated from a basin. Similar excessivity has been noticed in the other basins (Dragicevic S. 2002), only in other months.

Manojlovi? Predrag A.; Mustafi? Sanja; Dragi?evi? Slavoljub

2003-01-01

36

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, PRELIMINARY BASIN EVALUATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper was to provide a process and a plan by which the Environmental Protection Agency can insure that water quality goals established in the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 are met in the waters of the Upper Snake Basin (17040201, 17040206, 170...

37

Paraguay river basin response to seasonal rainfall  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of river flow as a surrogate to study climatic variability implies the assumption that changes in rainfall are mirrored and likely amplified in streamflow. This is probably not completely true in large basins, particularly those that encompass different climatic regions, like the Paraguay river basin. Not all the signals present in precipitation are reflected in river flow and vice versa. The complex relationship between precipitation and streamflow could filter some signals and introduce new oscillatory modes in the discharge series. In this study the whole basin (1 095 000 km2) was divided into two sub-basins. The upper basin is upstream of the confluence with the River Apa and the lower basin is between the Apa river confluence and the Puerto Bermejo measuring station. The rainfall contribution shows a clear wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September. A singular spectrum analysis (SSA) shows that there are trends in rainfall contributions over the upper and lower basins. Meanwhile, the lower basin only presents a near-decadal cycle (T 10 years). To determine the flow response to seasonal rainfall contributions, an SSA was applied to seasonal flow discharges at Puerto Bermejo. The seasonal flows, Q(t)O-M and Q(t)A-S, present high significant modes in the low-frequency band, like positive trends. In addition, Q(t)O-M presents a near-decadal mode, but only significant at the 77% level for short window lengths (M ? 15 years). Really, the Paraguay river flow is not a good surrogate to study precipitation variation. The low-frequency signals play an important role in the flow behaviour, especially during extreme events from the second half of the last century onwards.

Krepper, Carlos M.; García, Norberto O.; Jones, Phil D.

2006-07-01

38

Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume I Kootenai River (Overview, Report and Appendices).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

2001-10-01

39

Environmental overview of the Northern River Basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) series is the result of a partnership between the governments of Canada, Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The partnership was formed to gather and assess information relating to water and ecosystem quality, fish and fish habitat, vegetation, wildlife, hydrology and human in-stream uses of the aquatic resources of the Peace, Athabasca and the Slave River systems. The study was conducted to analyse the dynamics of the sediment-associated contaminants in these three rivers, with the view of understanding and characterizing the cumulative environmental impacts that urban development, agricultural development, forestry and petroleum have had on the water and aquatic environment of the NRBS area. The series of maps and narrative in this particular document, based on several previously published Northern River Basins Study technical contributions and the Study`s synthesis reports, provides a broad environmental and socio-economic picture of the Northern Rivers Basin, a background against which government decisions respecting the management of the three transboundary river basins can be understood and evaluated. Some of the changes that have occurred in the area since the beginning of the Study in September 1991 are also included in this report. Taken as a whole, these reports provide a panoramic view of the people and environmental setting of the river basin, including a description of the legislative authorities of the senior levels of government relevant to water resource management, and a summary of societal issues and concerns relating to economic development and basin management. 62 refs.,16 tabs., 52 figs.

MacLock, R.B.; Lyons, B.; Ellehoj, E. [Northern River Basins Study, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Gummer, W.D.; Ouellette, M.S.J. [eds.] [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Ecological Applications Research Div.

1997-03-01

40

The "normal" elongation of river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

Castelltort, Sebastien

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Water quality of world river basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contributing to the scientific investigation of global water resources, this publication summarizes the results of analysis and interpretation for 82 major river basins around the world. It is organized around major themes that have significance for managing the quality of the earth`s surface waters. It demonstrates how natural processes interact with anthropogenic factors to create certain water quality conditions.

NONE

1996-12-31

42

MEADOW ASSOCIATIONS IN VASLUI RIVER BASIN (II)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents two meadow associations in the basin of Vaslui river from classes Molinio-Arrhenatheretea Tx. 1937 em Tx. 1970 (Agrostideto capillaris – Festucetum rupicolae Csürös-Káptalan 64) and, respectively, Festuco-Brometea Br.-Bl. et R.Tx. ex Klika et Hadac 1944 (Taraxaco serotinae –Botriochloetum ischaemi (Burduja et al. 1956) Sârbu, Coldea et Chifu 1999).

IRINA BLAJ

2005-01-01

43

Climate change adaptation in European river basins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper contains an assessment and standardized comparative analysis of the current water management regimes in four case-studies in three European river basins: the Hungarian part of the Upper Tisza, the Ukrainian part of the Upper Tisza (also called Zacarpathian Tisza), Alentejo Region (includi...

Huntjens, P.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Grin, J.

44

OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: HEALTH ASPECTS  

Science.gov (United States)

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...

45

Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (?W = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) Mongolia capital Ulaanbaator, gold mine Zaamar and few other mines). The results provide evidence on a connection between increased heavy metal concentrations in water-sediment systems of transboundary rivers and pollutant source zones at industrial and mining centers, both as in-channel erosion and land use.

Belozerova, Ekaterina

2013-04-01

46

Environmental education for river-basin planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harmonious intervention in land use, a result of environmental education and good planning, can increase the social and economic benefits without precluding development. Modern river basin planning began as a US innovation in 1874 over the subject of water regulation in the west. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was devised as a state tool for comprehensive river basin planning and development. The TVA example was not repeated in the other 10 US basins by the Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, although the concept of unified development has survived as a three-part relationship of physical,biological, and human forces in which any malfunctioning of one subsystem affects the others. This is evident in problems of water transfer from agricultural to industrial functions and changes to drainage patterns. The potential damage from ignoring these relationships can be avoided with true interdisciplinary communications. 24 references, 2 tables. (DCK)

Saha, S.K.

1980-08-01

47

Water resources data for Ohio, water year 1992. Volume 2. St. Lawrence river basin and statewide project data. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. The volume covers the central and southern parts of Ohio and is comprised primarily of the Ohio River Basin.

Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1993-03-01

48

Hydrological characteristics of the Czerniejówka river basin  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is focused on an analysis of conditions of groundwaters occurrence in the Czerniejówka river basin. The paper also presents the outflow rate from the upper and middle course of the river, where the natural environment is only slightly influenced by human activity. The lower part of the catchment is under city impact, intensified since 1954, when the water intake Dziesi?ta has started exploitation of groundwater resources. The middle part of the catchment is influenced by exploitation of water resources in the water intake Wilczopole, since 1988. Ten-year (1979-1988) water gauge observations and discharge measurement and water levels in the upper and middle part of the catchment, in the period of documentation of water resources of the water intake Wilczopole, are the basis of analysis. The Czerniejówka river basin is under strong and diversified human impact. Two water intakes constructed in the catchment of the river assure the water for 40% of the city demand. Hydrogeological conditions, fissured rocks and low elevation of the water division, determine the possibilities of underground water flow from the left part of the catchment to the Bystrzyca river basin, which significantly influences the reduced water resources of the Czerniejówka river. Good permeability of rocks is favourable for retention of water that steadily inflows to the river channel. Surface runoff occurs sporadically, usually in the frozen ground period rather than in the summer, which determines the high share of the ground feeding in total runoff. Average specific runoff for the upper and middle part of the basin was estimated as 4.2 dm3·s-1·km-2 in the ten-year period. At present conditions of catchment land use and exploitation of Dziesi?ta and Wilczopole water intakes, the Czerniejówka river discharge will decrease with the only feeding from the upper part of the catchment. In dry periods, in the middle and lower course of the Czerniejówka river infiltration of river water to underground resources, as well as in the Skrzyniczanka river, will take place.

Michalczyk, Zdzis?aw; Bartoszewski, Stefan; G?owacki, S?awomir; Sposób, Joanna

2011-01-01

49

Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume V of V; 1992 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Virtually all fishery resources of the Columbia River Basin are affected by water resource development initiatives. Mitigation is an action taken to lessen or reduce impacts of projects on fishery resources. The Washington Department of Wildlife`s (WDW) mitigation goal has been one that replaces in-kind or substitutes fishery resources of equal value for those impacted. WDW mitigation efforts have focused on providing hatchery-reared fish of the proper strains needed to compensate for loss of naturally produced stocks. Stewardship of these resources is based on existing WDW policies. WDW policies are written statements designed to resolve a recurring management need or problem. They do not include program goals or organization statements. The existing policies which affect fish hatchery operations are described herein.

Weld, Enair

1993-04-01

50

Regionalization of River Basins Using Cluster Ensemble  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the wake of global water scarcity, forecasting of water quantity and quality, regionalization of river basins has attracted serious attention of the hydrology researchers. It has become an important area of research to enhance the quality of prediction of yield in river basins. In this paper, we analyzed the data of Godavari basin, and regionalize it using a cluster ensemble method. Cluster Ensemble methods are commonly used to enhance the quality of clustering by combining multiple clustering schemes to produce a more robust scheme delivering similar homogeneous basins. The goal is to identify, analyse and describe hydrologically similar catchments using cluster analysis. Clustering has been done using RCDA cluster ensemble algorithm, which is based on discriminant analysis. The algorithm takes H base clustering schemes each with K clusters, obtained by any clustering method, as input and constructs discriminant function for each one of them. Subsequently, all the data tuples are predicted using H discriminant functions for cluster membership. Tuples with consistent predictions are assigned to the clusters, while tuples with inconsistent predictions are analyzed further and either assigned to clusters or declared as noise. Clustering results of RCDA algorithm have been compared with Best of k-means and Clue cluster ensemble of R software using traditional clustering quality measures. Further, domain knowledge based comparison has also been performed. All the results are encouraging and indicate better regionalization of the Godavari basin data.

Sangeeta Ahuja

2012-01-01

51

Digital spatial data as support for river basin management: The case of Sotla river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many real-world spatially related problems, including river-basin planning and management, give rise to geographical information system based decision making, since the performance of spatial policy alternatives were traditionally and are still often represented by thematic maps. Advanced technologies and approaches, such as geographical information systems (GIS), offer a unique opportunity to tackle spatial problems traditionally associated with more efficient and effective data collection, analysis, and alternative evaluation. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of the use of digital spatial data and geographical information systems in river basis management. Spatial data on social, environmental and other spatial conditions for the study area of 451.77 km2, the Slovenian part of the Sotla river basin, are used to study the GIS capabilities of supporting spatial decisions in the framework of river basin management.

Prah Klemen; Lisec Andrej; Lisec Anka

2013-01-01

52

RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to understand and quantify the resource itself and to develop technologies that will permit commercial exploitation. This study is a contribution to that process.

Robert Caldwell

1998-04-01

53

Markets for southern Powder River Basin coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During its modern era, the southern Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming has grown from meager origins in the early 1970s to become one of the most important coal-producing regions in the United States. In 1993, production and sales of southern Powder River Basin coal exceeded 190 Mt (209 million st), or about 20% of the US coal industry. Despite the remote location of the PRB relative to its potential markets, most coal industry observers anticipate continued strong growth to meet utility compliance plans for Phase I and II of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). This article is an overview of supply and demand issues concerning the marketing of southern PRB coal. It reviews the events leading up to the recent run on spot coal and offers a forecast of demand and prices. 6 figs., 1 tab.

Vaninetti, G.E.; Worrall, C. (Resource Data International Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

1994-08-01

54

Hydrological analyses in Skrapež river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reasons for lack of hydrological studies in mountainous regions are: absence of hydrological measurements and the fact that measurements were not continuous. However, as mentioned areas are basic sources of fresh, unpolluted and useful water, it is necessary to carry out water regime researches and continuous measurements. Surface amount of water in Skrapež riverbed was analyzed, as well as its regime and water balance. Water management problems were pointed out as well. This paper discusses problems connected to decreasing of water amount in the last 20 years of analyzed period, variations of discharge, threats to economy in periods of both low and high water, and also points out the torrential character of the river. The possibilities of water usage from previously unstudied Skrapež sub basins are pointed out as well. Research and utilization of these sub basins provided that high water quality is preserved, would lead to high level of solving the problems of water supply, irrigation and torrential rivers.

Kova?evi?-Majki? Jelena

2008-01-01

55

Effective monitoring of small river basins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the transport of many pollutants occurs during high floods monitoring programs must focus on these intermittent events. In small rivers the pollutants start their travel as short pulses often associated with fine particles, but disperse on their way downstreams. Therefore the chemical data of a flood event are only representative of a small part of the basin adjacent to the monitoring station. This is usually not taken into account by evaluating water quality data.

Symader W; Bierl R; Gasparini F; Krein A

2002-04-01

56

Assessment of development and production potential of federal coal leases. Volume 2. Working papers. Part E, Vol. 1. Development and production potential of undeveloped federal coal leases and preference-right lease applications in the Powder River Basin and other Wyoming coal basins: Wyoming task force report. Working paper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was written for OTA and covers development and production potential of undeveloped federal coal leases and preference-right lease applications in the Powder River basin and other Wyoming coal basins: Wyoming task force report.

Boulding, J.R.; Pederson, D.L.

1984-06-01

57

Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú) current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) tools, using minimum temperature – 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April), when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence) were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l.), while the low (or null) probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.). Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke) in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l.), moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

G. Trasmonte; R. Chavez; B. Segura; J. L. Rosales

2008-01-01

58

Gallipolis Locks and Dam Ohio River Basin Mason County, West Virginia. Foundation Report. Volume 2. Foundation Drawings Construction of Two Parallel Locks and Canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

CONTENTS: River Wall Foundation Drawings; Middle Wall Foundation Drawings; Land Wall Foundation Drawings; River Wall Culvert Drawings; Middle Wall Culvert Drawings; Land Wall Culvert Drawings; Inlet Monolith Drawings; Outlet Monolith Drawings; Main Chambe...

1993-01-01

59

Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume IV of V; 1992 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Operational plans for Cowlitz, Elokomin, Grays River, Kalama Falls, Lewis River and Speelyai, Lower Kalama, Lyons Ferry, Methow, Priest Rapids, Ringold Springs, Rock Island, Toutle, Washougal, and Wells Salmon Hatcheries are individually described.

Peck, Larry

1993-04-01

60

Social Learning in European River-Basin Management: Barriers and Fostering Mechanisms from 10 River Basins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present and analyze 10 case studies of participatory river-basin management that were conducted as part of the European HarmoniCOP project. The main theme was social learning, which emphasizes the importance of collaboration, organization, and learning. The case studies show that social learning ...

Mostert, E.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Rees, Y.; Searle, B.; Tabara, D.; Tippett, J.

 
 
 
 
61

ANOMALOUSLY PRESSURED GAS DISTRIBUTION IN THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anomalously pressured gas (APG) assets, typically called ''basin-center'' gas accumulations, represent either an underdeveloped or undeveloped energy resource in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB). Historically, the exploitation of these gas resources has proven to be very difficult and costly. In this topical report, an improved exploration strategy is outlined in conjunction with a more detailed description of new diagnostic techniques that more efficiently detect anomalously pressured, gas-charged domains. The ability to delineate gas-charged domains occurring below a regional velocity inversion surface allows operators to significantly reduce risk in the search for APG resources. The Wind River Basin was chosen for this demonstration because of the convergence of public data availability (i.e., thousands of mud logs and DSTs and 2400 mi of 2-D seismic lines); the evolution of new diagnostic techniques; a 175 digital sonic log suite; a regional stratigraphic framework; and corporate interest. In the exploration scheme discussed in this topical report, the basinwide gas distribution is determined in the following steps: (1) A detailed velocity model is established from sonic logs, 2-D seismic lines, and, if available, 3-D seismic data. In constructing the seismic interval velocity field, automatic picking technology using continuous, statistically-derived interval velocity selection, as well as conventional graphical interactive methodologies are utilized. (2) Next, the ideal regional velocity/depth function is removed from the observed sonic or seismic velocity/depth profile. The constructed ideal regional velocity/depth function is the velocity/depth trend resulting from the progressive burial of a rock/fluid system of constant rock/fluid composition, with all other factors remaining constant. (3) The removal of the ideal regional velocity/depth function isolates the anomalously slow velocities and allows the evaluation of (a) the regional velocity inversion surface (i.e., pressure surface boundary); (b) detection and delineation of gas-charged domains beneath the velocity inversion surface (i.e., volumes characterized by anomalously slow velocities); and (c) variations within the internal fabric of the velocity anomaly (i.e., variations in gas charge). Using these procedures, it is possible to construct an anomalous velocity profile for an area, or in the case of the Wind River Basin, an anomalous velocity volume for the whole basin. Such an anomalous velocity volume has been constructed for the Wind River Basin based on 1600 mi of 2-D seismic data and 175 sonic logs, for a total of 132,000 velocity/depth profiles. The technology was tested by constructing six cross sections through the anomalous velocity volume coincident with known gas fields. In each of the cross sections, a strong and intense anomalously slow velocity domain coincided with the gas productive rock/fluid interval; there were no exceptions. To illustrate the applicability of the technology, six target areas were chosen from a series of cross sections through the anomalous velocity volume. The criteria for selection of these undrilled target areas were (1) they were characterized by anomalous velocity domains comparable to known gas fields; (2) they had structural, stratigraphic, and temporal elements analogous to one of the known fields; and (3) they were located at least six sonic miles from the nearest known gas field. The next step in the exploration evolution would be to determine if the detected gas-charged domains are intersected by reservoir intervals characterized by enhanced porosity and permeability. If, in any of these targeted areas, the gas-charged domains are penetrated by reservoir intervals with enhanced storage and deliverability, the gas-charged domains could be elevated to drillable prospects. Hopefully, the work described in this report (the detection and delineation of gas-charged domains) will enable operators in the Wind River Basin and elsewhere to reduce risk significantly and increase the rate an

Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

2003-03-31

62

Extreme rainfall indexes at Ebro River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Extreme rainfall events are a serious concern for regional hydrology and agriculture in the Ebro River Basin. Repeated anomalous rainfall in recent decades has had a devastating impact on this region, both socially and economically. Some studies developed in Italy and USA have shown that there is a change in seasonal patterns and an increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, whereas other studies have pointed out that no global behaviour could be observed in monthly trends due to high climatic variability. The aim of this work is to test which of these scenarios is the case for the Ebro River Basin. For this purpose, 14 meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic classification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station. First, classical climatic indexes were analysed with an autoregressive test to study possible trends in rainfall. The results can be explained following the evolution of the NAO and WeMO indexes, which indicate that the initial period should be subdivided in two periods (1957-1979 and 1980-2002) to assume stationarity and to analyse the rainfall distribution functions. The general results obtained in this study for both subperiods, through the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) parameters and the maximum expected return values, do not support the results previously obtained by other authors that affirm a positive trend in extreme rainfall indexes and point to a slight reduction indicated by others. Three extreme precipitation indexes show negative statistical significant trends. GPD-scale parameters decrease except for only one rain gauge, although this decrease is only statistically significant for two rain gauges. Another two locations show statistical significance decreased for maximum expected return values.

Valencia, Jose Luis; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; María Gascó, Jose

2013-04-01

63

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

2009-12-03

64

Updating river basin models with radar altimetry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hydrological models are widely used by water managers as a decision support tool for both real-time and long-term applications. Some examples of real-time management issues are the optimal management of reservoir releases, flood forecasting or water allocation in drought conditions. Long term-applications include the impact analysis of planned hydraulic structures or land use changes and the predicted impact of climate change on water availability. One of the obstacles hydrologists face in setting up river basin models is data availability, whether because the datasets needed do not exist or because of political unwillingness to share data which is a common problem in particular in transboundary settings. In this context, remote sensing (RS) datasets provide an appealing alternative to traditional in-situ data and much research effort has gone into the use of these datasets for hydrological applications. Many types of RS are now routinely used to set up and drive river basin models. One of the key hydrological state variables is river discharge. It is typically the output of interest for water allocation applications and is also widely used as a source of calibration data as it presents the integrated response of a catchment to meteorological forcing. While river discharge cannot be directly measured from space, radar altimetry (RA) can measure water level variations in rivers at the locations where the satellite ground track and river network intersect called virtual stations or VS. In this PhD study, the potential for the use of RA over rivers for hydrological applications in data sparse environments is investigated. The research focused on discharge estimation from RA as well as the use of RA for data assimilation to routing models with the objective of improving river discharge forecasts. In the first paper included in this PhD study, the potential for using altimetry for level and discharge monitoring in the Zambezi River basin was assessed. Altimetric levels were extracted using a detailed river mask at31 VS located on rivers down to 80 m wide. Root mean square errors relative to in-situ levels were found to be between 0.32 and 0.72 m. Discharge was estimated from the altimetric levels for three different data availability scenarios: availability of an in-situ rating curve at the VS, availability of one pair of simultaneous measurement of cross-section and discharge and availability of historical discharge data. For the few VS where in-situ data was available for comparison, the discharge estimates were found to be within 4.1 to 13.8% of mean annual gauged amplitude. One of the main obstacles to the use of RA in hydrological applications is the low temporal resolution of the data which has been between 10 and 35 days for altimetry missions until now. The location of the VS is also not necessarily the point at which measurements are needed. On the other hand, one of the main strengths of the dataset is its availability in near-real time. These characteristics make radar altimetry ideally suited for use in data assimilation frameworks which combine the information content from models and current observations to produce improved forecasts and reduce prediction uncertainty. The focus of the second and third papers of this thesis was therefore the use of radar altimetry as update data in a data assimilation framework. The approach chosen was to simulate reach storages using a simple Muskingum routing scheme driven by the output of a rainfall-runoff model and to carry out state updates using the Extended Kalman Filter. The data assimilation approach developed was applied in two case studies: the Brahmaputra and Zambezi River basins. In the Brahmaputra, data from 6 Envisat VS located along the main reach was assimilated. The assimilation improved model performance with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency increasing from 0.78 to 0.84 at the outlet of the basin. In the Zambezi River basin, data from 9 Envisat VS located within 2 distinct watersheds was assimilated. Because of the presence of the large Barotse floodplain in the

Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

2013-01-01

65

ICHTHYOLOGICAL FAUNA OF THE RIVER TUR BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The River Tur, a left-side tributary of Tisa, originates in the Oa?-Gutâi Mountains in Romania and empties into the Tisa in Hungary. The route of the river is regularized, closed between banks. Moreover, at C?line?ti-Oa? a barrage with an artificial lake has also been built. According to data from the literature and our research, 53 fish species have been found in this region. 10 of these were adventive originating from China, South-East Asia and North America. Out of the 43 autochthonous species 8 are endemic in the Danube basin. 15 of the caught species are included in the annexes of the Law 462/2001 referring to the protection of the environment in Romania.

Alexandru WILHELM

2008-01-01

66

Coalbed Methane Potential of the Greater Green River, Piceance, Powder River, and Raton Basins. Topical Report, January 1991-July 1991.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coalbed methane potential of the Greater Green River, Piceance, Powder River, and Raton Basins was evaluated in the context of geologic and hydrologic characteristics identified in the San Juan Basin, the nation's leading coalbed methane producing basin. ...

A. R. Scott R. Tyler W. A. Ambrose W. R. Kaiser

1991-01-01

67

Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and management. In the past, shared and unclear responsibilities, a spatial mismatch between administrative and river basin boundaries, the lack of relevant information, financial resources and implementation capacity resulted in an uncoordinated and partially uncontrolled exploitation of water resources (Livingstone et al. 2009; Horlemann et al. 2012). The recent decision of the Mongolian government to develop river basin management plans and to provide for their implementation through river basin councils and administrations, and the comparatively good data availability resulting from the R&D project, resulted in the decision to jointly develop a science-based river basin management plan for the KRB as a model region for other river basins of the country. References: Hartwig, M.; Theuring, P.; Rode, M. & Borchardt, D. (2012): Suspended sediments in the Kharaa River catchment (Mongolia) and its impact on hyporheic zone functions. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1535-1546. Hofmann, J.; Venohr, M.; Behrendt, H. & Opitz, D. (2010): Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Water Science and Technology 62(2):353-363. Horlemann, L. & Dombrowsky, I. (2012): Institutionalising IWRM in developing and transition countries: the case of Mongolia. Environmental Earth Sciences 65(5):1547-1559. Karthe, D.; Borchardt, D. & Hufert, F. (2012a): Implementing IWRM: Experiences from a Central Asian Model Region. In: Pandya, A.B. (Ed.) (2012): India Water Week 2012. Water, Energy and Food Security: Call for Solutions, Part A3, pp. 1-15. Delhi: Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. Karthe, D.; Sigel, K.; Scharaw, B. et al. (2012b): Towards an integrated concept for monitoring and improvements in water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in urban Mongolia. Water & Risk 20:1-5. Karthe, D.; Malsy, M.; Kopp, B. & Minderlein, S. (2013): Assessing Water Availibility and its Drivers in the Context of an Integrated Water Resources Man

Karthe, Daniel

2013-04-01

68

Time still to restore the polluted Piracicaba river basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last decades the acceleration of the industrialization and urbanization processes together with the intensive agricultural practices have resulted in an impact on the Piracicaba river basin, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The source rivers drain from an area of low population density, absence of heavy industries, non-significant agriculture, native forest and reforestation, the opposite is found in the middle part of the basin. Samples of riverbed sediments were collected along the basin for chemical analysis. Results showed that the source rivers still preserve their natural characteristics, while the Atibaia river in the middle part shows signs of pollution from the agricultural activity, industrial effluents and urban sewage. (author)

2004-01-01

69

Interannual variations of river water storage from a multiple satellite approach: A case study for the Rio Negro River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatiotemporal variations of water volume over inundated areas located in a large river basin have been determined using combined observations from a multisatellite inundation data set, the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) altimetry satellite, and in situ hydrographic stations for the water levels over rivers and floodplains. We computed maps of monthly surface water volume change over the period of common availability of T/P and the multisatellite data (1993-2000). The basin of the Negro River, the largest tributary in terms of discharge to the Amazon River, was selected as a test site. A strong seasonal signal is observed with minima in October and maxima in June. A strong interannual component is also present, particularly important during ENSO years. The surface water change was estimated to be 167 ± 39 km3 between October 1995 (low water) and June 1996 (high water). This result is consistent with previous estimates obtained for the 1995-1996 hydrological cycle over the same area using the JERS mosaic data. The surface water volume change is then compared to the total water volume change inferred from the GRACE satellite for an average annual cycle. The difference between the surface storage change and the total storage change derived from GRACE was computed to estimate the contribution of the soil moisture and groundwater to the total storage change. Our study supports the hypothesis that total water storage is almost equally partitioned between surface water and the combination of soil moisture and groundwater for the Negro River basin. The water volume changes are also evaluated using in situ discharge measurements and the GPCP precipitation product (correlation of 0.61). The results show the high potential for the new technique to provide valuable information to improve our understanding of large river basin hydrologic processes.

Frappart, FréDéRic; Papa, Fabrice; Famiglietti, James S.; Prigent, Catherine; Rossow, William B.; Seyler, FréDéRique

2008-11-01

70

River basin water quality monitoring network design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface water quality monitoring network design is no easy matter. Spatial design considerations include the number and location of monitoring stations and temporal design addresses frequency of sampling and duration of monitoring. This paradox or dilemma of network design exists because the statistical parameters controlling the optimality of a monitoring network are frequently the unknown that the network is being designed to estimate. The usual resolution of the paradox is to use an iterative approach. Initial design may be arbitrary or based on experience and is refined in successive 'iterations' as more information is gathered. This research discusses a procedure to be used in the 'next iteration' of network design. Multivariate linear regression techniques are used to assess monitoring network design and the regression corrected coefficient of determination, R/sup 2/, is used as a measure of network reliability. Spatial design is examined as regression analysis is used to determine how reliably water quality may be estimated at specified locations given water quality data at monitored locations in the basin. Temporal design is examined as regression analysis is used to determine how reliably water quality may be estimated given different sampling frequencies. The spatial and temporal analyses are combined to form the space-time trade-off for the river basin. In one example for the Millers River, MA, the trade-off for monitoring mean daily stream flow (a substitute for a water quality parameter) is developed. In a second example, for the Shoshone River, WY, the trade-off for the specific conductance quality parameter is developed. Network design is cast in an economic framework. Monitoring costs and monitoring benefits are discussed as functions of monitoring reliability. The optimum network design occurs at that reliability for which the difference between benefits and costs is a maximum.

Tirsch, F.S.

1983-01-01

71

Social Learning in European River-Basin Management: Barriers and Fostering Mechanisms from 10 River Basins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present and analyze 10 case studies of participatory river-basin management that were conducted as part of the European HarmoniCOP project. The main theme was social learning, which emphasizes the importance of collaboration, organization, and learning. The case studies show that social learning in river-basin management is not an unrealistic ideal. Resistance to social learning was encountered, but many instances of social learning were found, and several positive results were identified. Moreover, 71 factors fostering or hindering social learning were identified; these could be grouped into eight themes: the role of stakeholder involvement, politics and institutions, opportunities for interaction, motivation and skills of leaders and facilitators, openness and transparency, representativeness, framing and reframing, and adequate resources. Promising topics for further research include the facilitation of the social learning processes, the role of power, and interactions in political and institutional contexts.

Erik Mostert; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Yvonne Rees; Brad Searle; David Tàbara; Joanne Tippett

2007-01-01

72

Development of a Systemwide Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, 1992 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of the second year are reported of a basinwide program to harvest northern squawfish in an effort to reduce mortality due to squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids during their migration from natal streams to the ocean. Six papers are included in this report. They are entitled: feasibility investigation of a commercial longline fishery for northern squawfish in the Columbia River downstream from Bonneville dam; evaluation of the northern squawfish sport-reward fishery in the Columbia and Snake Rivers; controlled angling for northern squawfish at selected dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in 1992; evaluation of harvest technology for squawfish control in Columbia River reservoirs; effectiveness of predator-removal for protecting juvenile fall chinook salmon released from Bonneville Hatchery; and Northern squawfish sport-reward payments.

Ward, David L.

1994-06-01

73

Ohio River Basin energy study: health aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to produce electricity), and power transmission in the ORBES region, which consists of all of Kentucky, most of West Virginia, and substantial portions of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Pennsylvania. Also covered in the report are patterns of mortality and health services in the study region and baseline data on health aspects of coal and uranium extraction, of coal-fired and nuclear-fueled electrical generation, of transportation and electrical transmission.

Shapiro, M.A.; Sooky, A.A.

1980-11-01

74

The tritium balance of the Ems river basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For the Ems river basin, as a fine example of a Central European lowland basin, an inventory of the tritium distribution is presented for the hydrologic years 1951 to 1983. On the basis of a balance model, the tritium contents in surface waters and groundwater of the Ems river basin are calculated, using known and extrapolated tritium input data and comparing them with the corresponding values measured since 1974. A survey of tritium flows occurring in this basin is presented, taking meteorologic and hydrologic facts into account. (orig.)

1989-01-01

75

Incorporating safety into surface haulage in the Powder River basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Powder River Basin (PRB) coal deposit extends from southeast Montana to northeast Wyoming. This paper describes a number of haulage practices and tools in use at several mines of the southern PRB and the way in which safety has been designed into and implemented for surface haulage of coal and overburden. Experiences described herein focus on the northeastern corner of Wyoming. All the mines in this area rely on safe and efficient movement of enormous volumes of material, and the results achieved in safety underscore the planning and attention to detail present in the PRB. There are currently 12 large surface mines (those greater than 10.0MM tons/year) operating in this area. In 1995, these mines produced over 230.0MM tons of coal.

Jeffery, W.; Jennings, C.

1996-12-31

76

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976  

Science.gov (United States)

This package contains information for the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (170402, 17040104). The report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determini...

77

An indicator system for surface water quality in river basins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

on the water supplied by the natura environment. These water needs, the European Water Framework Directive requirements and the key surface water pollution problems identified at a River Basin scale, lead to the ...

Oliveira, R. E. S.; Lima, M. M. C. L.; Vieira, J. M. Pereira

78

NEW DATA OF VASCULAR FLORA FROM THE VASLUI RIVER BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the vascular plants found on the territory of Vaslui river basin, between 2000-2005. We identified 76 species of vascular plants that were not specified before in the consulted scientific literature.

IRINA IRIMIA

2010-01-01

79

Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

1970-01-01

80

Slope control on the aspect ratio of river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

River networks and their drainage basins have attracted a large attention due to their remarkable statistical properties (1-5). For example, although fluvial networks patterns seem to be influenced by diverse geological and climatic processes, the river basins that enclose them appear to mirror each other faithfully. Basin area A and length L of rivers from around the world consistently scale following L=cAexp(h) (2) with h often close to 0.5 (and c a constant) suggesting that river basins are self-similar (1, 6). Likewise, the main river basins that drain linear mountain ranges consistently manifest similar length-width aspect ratios between 1 and 5 (7). These observations question how the interplay between climate and tectonics is reflected in landscapes, and they highlight the challenge of inverting modern landscape records to reveal previous climates and tectonics. The invariance of river basins aspect-ratio is puzzling when compared against observations at smaller spatial scales (Schlunegger, J. Geophys. Res 108, 2300 (2003). 12.N. Schorghofer, D. H. Rothman, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1633 (2002).

Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Darrioulat, A.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Water resources data for Ohio, water year 1993. Volume 1. Ohio river basin excluding project data. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 335 wells, and 8 partial-record sites; and water levels at 365 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites.

Shindel, H.L.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1994-03-01

82

Water resources data for Illinois, water year 1992. Volume 1. Illinois except Illinois River Basin. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water resources data for the 1992 water year for Illinois consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and content of lakes and reservoirs; and water level and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge for 72 streamflow-gaging stations and for 8 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage for 7 streamflow-gaging stations; (3) stage and content for 3 lakes and reservoirs; (4) water-quality records for 9 streamflow-gaging stations, 3 of which include sediment discharge; (5) water-level records for 3 observation wells; and (6) water-quality records for 21 wells.

Maurer, J.C.; Richards, T.E.; LaTour, J.K.; Coupe, R.H.

1993-06-01

83

Water resources data for Minnesota, water year 1993. Volume 2. Upper Mississippi and Missouri River basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for Minnesota consists of records of stage, discharge and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells and springs. This volume contains discharge records for 58 gaging stations; stage and contents for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water quality 15 stream stations, 1 lakes station, 1 precipitation station, and water levels for 15 observation wells. Also included are 61 high-flow partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data collection program and are pulished as miscellaneous measurements.

Mitton, G.B.; Hess, J.H.; Guttormson, K.G.

1994-07-01

84

Airborne geophysical survey, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are reported of AEC-sponsored, high sensitivity, reconnaisance airborne gamma-ray survey of the Wind River Basin area, Wyoming. The objective of the survey was to define those areas showing surface indications of a generally higher uranium content (uraniferous provinces) and where detailed exploration for uranium would most likely be successful. For the data collection tasks, a TI high sensitivity gamma-ray system consisting of seven large-volume NaI detectors, two 400-channel analyzers, and ancillary geophysical and electronic equipment was used. Gamma-ray spectrometric data were processed to correct for variations in atmospheric and flight conditions and statistically evaluated to remove the effect of surface geologic variations. Data were then compared to regional geomorphic lineaments derived from ERTS-1 imagery. Aeromagnetic data were collected simultaneously with the airborne gamma-ray survey and interpreted in terms of regional structure. Ten major anomalous uranium areas and ten less strong anomalous areas were defined within the region surveyed. These anomalies and the known mining districts and uranium occurrences demonstrated good correlation with the ERTS lineaments. The basins were defined by the aeromagnetic data. It is suggested that gamma-ray spectrometer data be supplemented by both the ERTS and aeromagnetic data to best define the targets of greatest potential for further exploration. (U.S.)

1974-01-01

85

River Basin Water Assessment and Balance in fast developing areas in Viet Nam  

Science.gov (United States)

Uneven precipitation in space and time together with mismanagement and lack of knowledge about quantity and quality of water resources, have caused water shortages for water supply to large cities and irrigation areas in many regions of Viet Nam in the dry season. The rainy season (from June to October) counts for 80% of the total annual rainfall, while the water volume of dry season (from November to May of the following year) accounts for 20% only. Lack of sufficient water volumes occurs in some areas where the pressure of a fast increasing population (1.3% per year on average in the last decade in Viet Nam), intensive agricultural and industrial uses is one of the major problems facing sustainable development. For those areas an accurate water assessment and balance at the riverbasin scale is needed to manage the exploitation and appropriate use of water resources and plan future development. The paper describes the preliminary phase of the pilot development of the river basin water balance for the Day River Basin in the Red River delta in Viet Nam. The Day river basin includes a 7,897 km² area in the south-western part of the Red River in Viet Nam. The total population in the Day river basin exceeds 8 millions inhabitants, including the Hanoi capital, Nam Dinh and other large towns. Agricultural land covered 390,294 ha in 2000 and this area is going to be increased by 14,000 ha in 2010 due to land reclamation and expansion toward the sea. Agricultural uses exploit about 90% of surface water resources in the Day river basin but have to compete with industrial and civil needs in the recent years. At the background of the brief characterization of the Day River Basin, we concentrate on the application of a water balance model integrated by an assessment of water quality after consumptive uses for civil, agricultural and industrial needs to assist water management in the basin. In addition, future development scenarios are taken into account, considering less water-demanding crops, water treatment and recycling and other ‘best water management' practices.

Le, Van Chin; Ranzi, Roberto

2010-05-01

86

SUGGESTIONS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TUZLA RIVER BASIN (NW TURKEY)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural development consists of a wide variety of new activities such as organic farming and livestock, region-specific products, nature conservation and landscape management, rural tourism, and the development of short supply changes. This research aimed to use a SWOT analysis to identify strategies for rural development in the Tuzla River Basin.The Tuzla River Basin is located on the southern side of the Marmara Region and extends in northeast-southwest direction from the Aegean Sea to the western slope of Mt. Ida. This basin is divided into three sections, namely upper, middle and lower sections along the Tuzla River Basin. Some nine villages which represented three basins were selected from 35 villages using the methods of stratified sampling for this study. Some 200 surveys were performed in regard to the household number of each village and at 95% confidence level. According to the survey results, the investigated relation between the form of rural economic activity and the rural development characteristics was determined. SWOT and QSPM analysis techniques were used to explain poor conditions and future possibilities of rural development in the basin. In the rural areas of the basin, the form of agriculture, low-income animal husbandry carried out under natural & traditional conditions, emigration and traditional lifestyle are the causes of obstacles to rural development.

Selver ÖZÖZEN KAHRAMAN; Vedat ÇALI?KAN

2012-01-01

87

Tritium concentrations in the Yukon River Basin and their implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium transient, produced by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, has been used to determine timescales for large-scale hydrologic processes such as the movement of water through river basins. A long-term tritium data base is available from downstream stations on the Yukon River from 1961 to the present. This data has been analyzed using a lumped-sum parameter model to obtain estimates of fraction of base flow and timescales for flow of water through the basin. The data shows that 63% of the water exported by the Yukon River has been retained in the basin less than a year. The average residence time for the older water is approximately 17 years. (author)

88

Uncertainties in river basin data at various support scales – Example from Odense Pilot River Basin  

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Full Text Available In environmental modelling studies field data usually have a spatial and temporal scale of support that is different from the one at which models operate. This calls for a methodology for rescaling data uncertainty from one support scale to another. In this paper data uncertainty is assessed for various environmental data types collected for monitoring purposes from the Odense river basin in Denmark by use of literature information, expert judgement and simple data analyses. It is demonstrated how such methodologies can be applied to data that vary in space or time such as precipitation, climate variables, discharge, surface water quality, soil parameters, groundwater abstraction, heads and groundwater quality variables. Data uncertainty is categorised and assessed in terms of probability density functions and temporal or spatial autocorrelation functions. The autocorrelation length scales are crucial when support scale is changing and it is demonstrated how the assumption used when estimating the autocorrelation parameters may limit the applicability of these autocorrelation functions.

J. C. Refsgaard; P. van der Keur; B. Nilsson; D.-I. Müller-Wohlfeil; J. Brown

2006-01-01

89

The Geography of Conflict in International River Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

In most transboundary surface water sharing problems, allocation outcomes are not primarily determined by economic considerations but by the distribution of political and bargaining power. For this reason, we present a hydro--political model to formalize the notion that upstream countries are using water to gain more power whereas downstream countries use power to gain more water. The model incorporates hydrological, political and economic asymmetries between basin stakeholders. We show that equilibrium outcomes are biased towards the more powerful riparian coalition and that absolute upstream or downstream basin dominance emerge as limiting case of the general model. In contrast to obvious situations with a dominating riparian country as for the case of the Nile or Euphrates/Tigris rivers, the model is illustrated in an ambiguous hydro--political environment with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin. The model quantifies negative basin welfare outcomes in function of particular upstream/downstream configurations.

Beck, L.; Siegfried, T. U.

2010-12-01

90

Constructal view of scaling laws of river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

River basins are examples of naturally organized flow architectures whose scaling properties have been noticed long ago. Based on data of geometric characteristics, Horton [Horton, R.E., 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. EOS Trans. AGU 13, 350 361.], Hack [Hack, J.T., 1957. Studies of longitudinal profiles in Virginia and Maryland. USGS Professional Papers 294-B, Washington DC, pp. 46 97.], and Melton [Melton, M.A, 1958. Correlation structure of morphometric properties of drainage systems and their controlling agents. J. of Geology 66, 35 56.] proposed scaling laws that are considered to describe rather accurately the actual river basins. What we show here is that these scaling laws can be anticipated based on Constructal Theory, which views the pathways by which drainage networks develop in a basin not as the result of chance but as flow architectures that originate naturally as the result of minimization of the overall resistance to flow (Constructal Law).

Reis, A. Heitor

2006-08-01

91

Erosion and sediment budget of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A case study on Mianyuan River basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Wenchuan Earthquake caused a large number of avalanches and landslides at different scales. It is extremely significant to evaluate the sediment in the earthquake river basins. Along the 38 km long upper Mianyuan River 196 landslides and avalanches happened during the earthquake, which have formed 25 landslide dams and quake lakes. The total volume of sediment erosion due to earthquake was about 115 million m3, which is 75 times higher than the soil erosion in normal years. Only a part of the solid material could be transported by the river water flow as suspended load and bed load. The total volume of bed load deposit in the river and the quake lakes was 1.43 million m3. Moreover the quake lakes had also trapped 0.12 million m3 suspended load. Only 0.18 million m3 of fine sediment had been drifted through the quake lakes and transported into the lower reaches of the Mianyuan River. The wide range of size distributions of sediment from earthquake erosion caused the extreme difference in the amounts of sediment erosion and transportation. Most of the sediment from earthquake erosion can be only transported for a short distance by landslides and debris flows. Less than 0.2% of the total volume of sediment from earthquake erosion may be transported into large rivers. Therefore, earthquake erosion has little effect on the sediment transportation and fluvial processes in the large rivers.

Lijian Qi; ZhaoYin Wang; Xuzhao Wang

2012-01-01

92

Hydrological balance of Chicu River basin, using nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis made part of the ARCAL X III Project, referring to the groundwater study en the Bogota Plain (Sabana de Bogota, Colombia). In the Bogota plain, is found located the Chicu River basin, in such basin are located two towns Tabio and Tenjo, in this zone have been taken advantage the groundwater in the last years. The objective of this work was determined by means of isotopic techniques, the determination of the groundwater origin and its quality using physical and chemical parameters

1992-01-01

93

???(????)????????????? Analysis and Discussion of the Heilong River Basin Hydrogeology Regionalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ???(????)?????????????????????????????(????)?????????????????????????????????????(????)??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????(????)?????9???????????????????(????)??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Heilong River Basin is an important plate in China, it transnational spanned special geographical situation make Heilong River’s national boundaries, water rights, regional water resources development is-sues receives much concern. There are many experts and scholars conduct a study on the Heilong River Basin hydrology and water resources and hydro-geological. Very few groundwater characteristics analysis on this basin is available due to the difficulties of data collection etc. This article based on the comprehensive analy-sis of hydrogeological maps of Asia and topographic maps and the geographic map of China, Mongolia, and Russia. Gain from others’ experiences in the preparation of the relevant map, the Heilong River Basin hydro-geology regionalization map is given. Hydrological geological response in the partition map can be set in different parts of occurrence of groundwater and aquifers within the external characteristics and spatial dis-tribution, for more in-depth analysis on hydrogeological conditions in the future and to provide a basis for research on expertise and open up the roads.

???; ???; ???; ??

2012-01-01

94

Wetland river flow interaction in a sedimentary formation of the white Volta basin, Ghana  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater resources in the floodplain wetlands of the White Volta River basin of Ghana is a major source of water for irrigation activities of communities living around and baseflow to sustain the flow of the river. Hydrology of the floodplain wetlands in the basin are complex, characterized by temporally variable storage volumes with erratic contribution to streamflow. For the continual usage of groundwater resources in the floodplains there is a need to study the form of interaction between the main river and floodplain wetlands. The study, adopted the PM-WIN (MODFLOW) model for simulating the interaction between the wetland and stream. Additionally, the lower boundary discharge output from the HYDRUS-1D model is the estimated recharge. This input quantifies the temporal and spatial variations in sub-surfaces discharges in the floodplain wetland. The simulation of the sub-surface hydraulic head of the wetland indicates a systematic variation relative to the White Volta River response to changes in the rainfall pattern. The interaction conditions vary from season to season with March, April, and May showing the least leakage (estimated values of 0.03mm/day, 0.06mm/day, and 0.15 mm/day, respectively) from the river into the floodplain wetland. Notably, the interaction between the wetland and the river as simulated is bidirectional. With most of the flow coming out from the river into the floodplain wetland, this condition persists in the months of August and September.

Nyarko, B. K.; Diekkruger, B.; Van De Giesen, N.; Barry, B.

2011-12-01

95

Development of a System-Wide Program, Volume II : Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report their results of studies to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Three papers are included in this report. They are entitled: (1) Development of a Systemwide Predator Control Program: Indexing and Fisheries Evaluation; (2) Economic, Social and Legal Feasibility of Commercial Sport, and Bounty Fisheries on Northern Squawfish; (3) Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM): Modeling Approach for Evaluation of Control of Northern Squawfish Populations using Fisheries Exploitation.

Ward, David L.; Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife); Willis, Charles F. (S.P. Cramer and Associates., Gresham, OR)

1994-06-01

96

Evaluation of Water Quality Index in Lerma River Upper Basin  

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Full Text Available The Lerma River Upper Basin is located between Almoloya del Rio shallow lakes and Atlacomulco Municipality in the State of Mexico; is a natural resource essential to human activities in its surroundings and serves as a source of electricity and drinking water for Mexico City. However, this river is threatened by over-exploitation of its aquifers, disappearance of many of its wellsprings and uncontrolled discharges of wastewater from all sorts. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the water quality in the Upper Lerma River Basin using WQI proposed by the NSF and compare these results with those obtained by the National Water Commission of Mexico (CNA). WQI was calculated using seven parameters: dissolved oxygen, pH, DOB5, temperature change, total phosphates, nitrates, and total solids obtained in four different sampling campaigns carried out in 2005, 2006 and 2012. The results showed that water quality in the Upper Lerma River is bad, mainly associated with high levels of BOD5, nitrates and phosphates found. The results obtained with WQI yielded the same diagnosis that the studies carried out by the CNA, in which water quality was unacceptable. It is worth noting that there is a significant water quality deterioration in the Upper Lerma River Basin with the course of the years, because in 2012 were observed the lower index values regarding 2005 and 2006, so it is imperative to implement measures to restore and preserve the water quality of this important river.

Icela D. Barceló-Quintal; Mónica L. Salazar-Peláez; Julisa García-Albortante; Eloisa Domínguez-Mariani; Ulrico J. López-Chuken; Sergio Gómez-Salazar

2013-01-01

97

Preliminary evaluation of nominal drainage basin volume as a potentially useful morphometric parameter for small mountain basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Morphometric basin parameters have been used in quantitative geomorphic assessments since Horton's Hydrophysical Approach in 1945. A relationship between basin form and dominant process in small mountain basins in the western United States would be valuable for use in differentiating basins which produce deep-seated landslides from those which produce debris flows from debris slides. Drainage basin volume seems like it should be a parameter directly related to the dominant process operating in a basin. Consequently, it may be a potentially useful morphometric parameter. Nominal drainage basin volume is herein defined as the volume creates by the basin topography and linear projection of topographic contours across the basin. Incremental volume is computed from area encompassed by topographic contours and projections and the contour interval using the formula for the volume of the frustrum of a cone. Seven basins in the Wasatch Range and five in the Wasatch Plateau of Utah show strong relationship of log Basin Area to log Basin Volume (r/sup 2/ = 0.97). The relationship between average Basin Slope and log Basin Volume was poorer (r/sup 2/ = 0.78) than between Basin Slope and log Basin Area (r/sup 2/ = 0.87). This suggests that basin area may be a more useful parameter than basin volume, especially since area is more easily measured.

Keaton, J.R.

1985-01-01

98

Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

2003-03-01

99

Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of the Columbia River Basin Assessment Area. Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: Scientific Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms are key components of many terrestrial ecosystems; however, little is known of their ecology, distribution, and taxonomy in the eastern interior Columbia River basin assessment area (hereafter referred to as the basin assessment area). This rep...

S. James

2000-01-01

100

Fish, Salto Osório Reservoir, Iguaçu River basin, Paraná State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The Iguaçu River is a large tributary of the Paraná River, with a highly endemic ichthyofauna due to the geographic isolation imposed by the Iguaçu falls, located near its mouth. Fish were collected monthly in four sampling stations along the Salto Osório Reservoir, from July 2003 to June 2005, using gill nets, casting nets, and long lines. Considering the entire period, 41 fish species were colleted, which belong to six Orders, 17 Families, and 27 Genera. From these, 24 species are considered endemic. Comparisons with other surveys conducted in the Iguaçu River are provided, in addition to comments on the fish endemism, even within the basin.

Baumgartner, D.; Baumgartner, G.; Pavanelli, C. S.; Silva, P. R. L.; Frana, V. A.; Oliveira, L. C.; Michelon, M. R.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Planning the development of the Mekong river basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In planning to develop the vast potential of the Mekong river in Southeast Asia, a number of institutional aspects need to be addressed, and the sometimes diverging interests of the riparian countries need to be carefully balanced. The Mekong river is an extremely valuable natural resource: its potential for irrigation, hydropower, navigation, fisheries and related development is more than adequate to raise significantly the standards of living of the people of the lower Mekong basin and in the riparian countries outside the river's catchment area. The Mekong's catchment area of 795 000 km[sup 2] encompasses parts of China and Myanmar, the whole of Laos and Cambodia, one third of Thailand and one fifth of Viet Nam. The population of the Mekong basin is around 100 million, about half of whom live in the lower basin. It could be said that these impoverished inhabitants of the basin depend significantly on the Mekong for an improvement in their livelihood, and this places a heavy responsibility on those involved in developing its water resources. The Mekong Committee, since its establishment in 1957 and in its present interim status since 1977, is dedicated to the co-ordinated development of the basin's resources, on the basis of reasonable and equitable sharing between the riparian states as stated in the Committee's declaration of principles. With the establishment of the Mekon Committee, serious efforts have been made aimed at rational management of water resources use. (author).

Chomchai, P. (Mekong Secretariat, Bangkok (Thailand))

1992-10-01

102

Biomorphological structure of the flora of Vychegda River water basin  

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Full Text Available The annotated list and biomorphological analysis of water flora from the basin of Vychegda River are represented. Flora of water bodies is mostly represented by perennial herbaceous plants which have high expansion potential. A lot of species from these flora belong to the special biomorphological group of polycarpous long-lived plants.

Boris Yu. Teteryuk

2013-01-01

103

Priority targets for environmental research in the Sinos River basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sinos River Basin is often mentioned as a highly degraded watershed. A series of impacts on water quality, soil and air has been reported in this environment on a recurring basis over the years. This situation of environmental degradation has its origins in a process of huge economic development uncoupled from environmental conservation concerns. The intense consequent urbanization observed for the municipalities within the watershed was not preceded by urban planning proper zoning. The time has arrived for initiatives in scientific research in the Sinos River basin that are applicable to a more efficient and integrated management and recovery of the basin. In this article, a set of targets for research is suggested which the authors consider as the main priorities for the next few years, aiming for better knowledge and better management of the watershed. Some are still in course, while others have to be initiated as soon as possible. PMID:21225166

Spilki, F R; Tundisi, J G

2010-12-01

104

K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

1995-01-01

105

Estimation of environmental flow requirements for the river ecosystem in the Haihe River Basin, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The temporal and spatial environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for the river ecosystem of the Haihe River Basin were analyzed based mainly on the eco-functional regionalization of available water resources. The annual EFRs for the river ecosystem of the Haihe River Basin were 47.71 × 10(8) m(3), which accounted for 18% of the average annual flow (263.9 × 10(8) m(3)). The EFRs for river reaches, wetlands, and estuaries were 22.67, 15.32 and 9.72 × 10(8) m(3), respectively. Moreover, the EFRs for the river ecosystem during the wet (June to October), normal (April, May, November), and dry (December to March) periods were 29.99, 9.51 and 8.21 × 10(8) m(3), respectively. Thus, toward a more integrated water resource allocation in the Haihe River Basin, the primary effort should focus on meeting the EFRs for river systems located in protected areas during the dry period.

Yang T; Liu J; Chen Q; Zhang J; Yang Y

2013-01-01

106

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume VI : Evaluation of the 2000 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin, and Combined Wild Hatchery Salminids Migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams using Program RealTime.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2000 in season outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from nineteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Camas Creek (new), Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek (new), Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, East Fork Salmon River (new), South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for two stocks of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon, from Redfish Lake and Alturas Lake (new); for a subpopulation of the PIT-tagged wild Snake River fall subyearling chinook salmon; for all wild Snake River PIT-tagged spring/summer yearling chinook salmon (new) and steelhead trout (new)detected at Lower Granite Dam during the 2000 outmigration. The 2000 RealTime project began making forecasts for combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams on the mid-Columbia River and the mainstem Columbia River. Due to the new (in 1999-2000) Snake River basin hatchery protocol of releasing unmarked hatchery-reared fish, the RealTime forecasting project no longer makes run-timing forecasts for wild Snake River runs-at-large using FPC passage indices, as it has done for the previous three years (1997-1999). The season-wide measure of Program RealTime performance, the mean absolute difference (MAD) between in-season predictions and true (observed) passage percentiles, improved relative to previous years for nearly all stocks. The average season-wide MAD of all (nineteen) spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs dropped from 5.7% in 1999 to 4.5% in 2000. The 2000 MAD for the hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon ESU was the lowest recorded, at 6.0%, down from 6.7% in 1999. The MAD for the PIT-tagged ESU of wild Snake River fall sub-yearling chinook salmon, after its second season of run-timing forecasting, was 4.7% in 2000 compared to 5.5% in 1999. The high accuracy of season-wide performance in 2000 was largely due to exceptional Program RealTime performance in the last half of the season. Passage predictions from fifteen of the sixteen spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs available for comparison improved in 2000 compared to 1999. The last-half average MAD over all the yearling chinook salmon ESUs was 4.3% in 2000, compared to 6.5% in 1999. Program RealTime 2000 first-half forecasting performance was slightly worse than that of 1999 (MAD = 4.5%), but still comparable to previous years with a MAD equal to 5.1%. Three yearling chinook ESUs showed moderately large (> 10%) MADs. These stocks had larger-than-average recapture percentages in 2000, producing over-predictions early in the season, in a dynamic reminiscent of migration year 1998 (Burgess et al., 1999). The passage distribution of the new stock of hatchery-reared sockeye salmon from Alturas Lake was well-predicted by Program RealTime, based on only two years of historical data (whole-season MAD = 4.3%). The two new run-of-the-river PIT-tagged stocks of wild yearling chinook salmon and steelhead trout were predicted with very good accuracy (whole-season MADs were 4.8% for steelhead trout and 1.7% for yearling chinook salmon), particularly during the last half of the outmigration. First-half steelhead predictions were among the season's worst (MAD = 10.8%), with over-predictions attributable to the largest passage on record of wild PIT-tagged steelhead trout to Lower Granite Dam. The results of RealTime predictions of passage percentiles of combined wild and hatchery-reared salmonids to Rock Island and McNary were mixed. Some of these passage-indexed runs-at-large were predicted with exceptional accuracy (whole-season MADs for coho salmon outmigrating to Rock Island Dam and McNary Dam were, respectively, 0.58% and 1.24%; for yearling chinook t

Burgess, Caitlin

1998-07-01

107

Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

1982-02-01

108

Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and floods and torrents (especially in Kragujevac valley) by other cite. Particular problem is water quality and pollution in river basin. In this paper will be analyzed water quality of Lepenica river and artificial lakes, built in its river basin, according to the data of Republic Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia. Also, it will be present polluter cadastre in river basin.

Milanovi? Ana; Kova?evi?-Majki? Jelena

2007-01-01

109

Hydrochemistry of the Densu River Basin of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planned hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality have been carried out to understand the sources of dissolved ions in the aquifers supporting groundwater systems in the Densu River basin. The basin is underlain mainly by the proterozoic basin type granitoids with associated gnesis, with dominant mineral such as plagioclase feldspars. The groundwater is Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 facies, due to weathering and ion-exchange of minerals underlying the aquifers. The enrichment of the cation and anions are Na>Ca>Mg>K and HCO3>Cl>SO4>NO3 respectively. Some of the elevated values of both cations and anions may be due to seawater intrusions, ion-exchange, oxidation and anthropogenic activities. Based on these studies, proper management would be recommended to address groundwater quality in the basin. (au)

2007-01-01

110

Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these uncertainties, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize a phased approach for coho reintroductions. This Master Plan seeks authorization and funding to move forward to Step 2 in the Northwest Power and Conservation Council 3-Step review process to further evaluate Phase I of the coho reintroduction program, which would focus on the establishment of a localized coho salmon stock capable of enduring the migration to the Clearwater River subbasin. To achieve this goal, the Nez Perce Tribe proposes to utilize space at existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities in concert with the construction of two low-tech acclimation facilities, to capitalize on the higher survival observed for acclimated versus direct stream released coho. In addition, Phase I would document the natural productivity of localized coho salmon released in two targeted tributaries within the Clearwater River subbasin. If Phase I is successful at establishing a localized coho salmon stock in an abundance capable of filling existing hatchery space, the rates of natural productivity are promising, and the interspecific interactions between coho and sympatric resident and anadromous salmonids are deemed acceptable, then Phase II would be triggered. Phase II of the coho reintroduction plan would focus on establishing natural production in a number of Clearwater River subbasin tributaries. To accomplish this goal, Phase II would utilize existing Clearwater River subbasin hatchery facilities, and expand facilities at the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Site 1705 facility to rear approximately 687,700 smolts annually for use in a rotating supplementation schedule. In short, this document identifies a proposed alternative (Phase I), complete with estimates of capital, operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and permitting that is anticipated to raise average smolt replacement rates from 0.73 (current) to 1.14 using primarily existing facilities, with a limited capital investment for low-tech acclimation facilities. This increase in survival is expected to provide the opportunity for the

Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

2004-10-01

111

Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

2010-01-01

112

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVI : Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2005, the University of Washington developed a new statistical model to analyze the combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged salmon migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine), has been used to estimate survival and transportation effects on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin from 1996 to 2003. Those results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on both a systemwide basis, incorporating all transport dams analyzed, and a dam-specific basis. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 5,000 tagged smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few tagged hatchery steelhead were transported in these years, no transportation effects are estimated for steelhead. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.71% with a standard error (SE) of 0.18% for spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2003, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. For summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the estimates of annual SAR averaged 1.15% (SE=0.31%). Only for the release years 1999 and 2000 did the Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for hatchery steelhead from the Snake River Basin averaged 0.45% (SE=0.11%), including age-1-ocean returns, for release years 1996 through 2003. For release years when the ocean return probability from Bonneville back to Bonneville could be estimated (i.e., 1999 through 2003), it was estimated that on average approximately 86% of the total integrated mortality for nontransported, tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook, and 74% for steelhead, occurred during the ocean life stage (i.e., from Bonneville to Bonneville). This suggests that additional monitoring and research efforts should include the ocean and estuary environment. Annual estimates of the systemwide T/I are weighted averages of the dam-specific T/I ratios for each transport dam (with {ge} 5,000 tagged fish transported), weighted by the probabilities of being transported at each dam. The systemwide T/I compares the observed SAR under the existing transportation system with the expected SAR if the transportation system had not been operated. Estimates of 1.0 indicate that the systemwide transportation program has no effect on SAR, while estimates > 1.0 indicate that the transportation program increases SAR. Excluding the 2001 release group, the geometric mean of the systemwide T/I estimates for hatchery spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin was 1.15 (SE=0.03) for release years 1997 through 2003. The geometric mean of the systemwide T/I estimates for hatchery summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin was 1.28 (SE=0.13) for release years 1997 through 2000 and 2003. Estimates were much higher for the 2001 release groups. These estimates reflect transportation from Lower Granite and/or Little Goose for most release years, depending on the number of tagged smolts actually transported at each dam during each release year. Differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) is the ratio of post-Bonneville survival to Lower Granite Dam of transported fish to that of nontransported ('inriver') fish. Excluding the 2001 release year, the geometric mean of the D estimates for hatchery spring Chinook salmon from the Snake Ri

Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.

2007-12-07

113

33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.  

Science.gov (United States)

...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted...River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted...within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and adjacent waters of the Severn...

2010-07-01

114

Vegetation communities in estuarine tidal flats in the different river and basin environments of the four major rivers of Ise Bay (Suzuka, Tanaka, Kushida), Mie Prefecture, Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we compared and analysed vegetation communities in the estuarine tidal flats of the four major rivers of Ise Bay (Suzuka River, Tanaka River, Kushida River and Miya River) in Mie Prefecture, Japan. Along the Suzuka River, Eragrostis curvula of the exotic plant accounted for 60.0% or more of the entire surface area, and the plant volume was high. Along the Tanaka River, Suaeda maritima community occupied the sand-mud zone in the vicinity of the shoreline on gravel bars, while Phragmites australis community was distributed along a shallow lake upstream. In the Kushida River, a salt marsh plant community (a community type found in areas flooded at high tide) of Suaeda maritima, Phragmites australis and Artemisia scoparia was distributed on the sand-mud surface along the main river. A salt marsh plant community (a community type found in areas that do not flood at high tide) of Phacelurus latifolius accounted for least 50.0% of the entire surface area. Along the Miya River, the area covered by the annual salt marsh plant community type was larger than the area occupied by this community type along the other rivers. The flow volume of the Miya River was high in April, June and August-October of 2006, July and September of 2007 and April-June of 2008. The flow volume was especially high in July 2007, when it reached levels above 1500.0 m3/s; change in flow volume was also large. We suggest that a large-scale disturbance occurred in the estuary, resulting in the formation of a gravelly sandy surface where an annual salt marsh plant community of Suaeda maritime and Artemisia scoparia has been established and grown as the annual precipitation and catchment volume of the basin have increased.

Korehisa Kaneko; Seiich Nohara

2013-01-01

115

Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and by the year 2000. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier CBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. These research and education projects are particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy's programs aimed at addressing aquatic pollution problems associated with DOE National Laboratories. First year funding supported seven collaborative cluster projects and twelve initiation projects. This report summarizes research results for period December 1992--December 1993.

1992-12-00

116

Paleofloods in the Red River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes flooding of the Red River, which crosses the United States/Canadian Border at the Minnesota-North Dakota Boundary. It has sections on dendrochronology, past floods, climate change and related publications. The site also links to many other geologic sites.

117

A Review of Integrated River Basin Management for Sarawak River  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Sarawak River was a life-sustaining water source for the residents in Kuching City and surrounding areas. Raw water is treated at Batu Kitang Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP) that supplies more than 98% of the total water production in Kuching City. The raw water supply to BKWTP is not adequate to meet the ever increasing water demand. In order to overcome this problem, four projects had been implemented along Sarawak River for managing and securing water supply to BKWTP. Approach: These four projects are construction of 1.5m height storage weir across Sungai Sarawak Kiri river channel, Kuching Barrage and Shiplock, Bengoh Dam and Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS). In 2005, 1.5 m height submersible weir was constructed across Sungai Sarawak Kiri channel for increasing the safe yield that can last until year 2010. Kuching Barrage and Shiplock were commissioned in 2000 as barrier to avoid the saline intrusion reaching upper catchment. 24 telemetry stations were installed along Sarawak River for monitoring and regulating the water level. This will preserve high quality water storage at upper catchment of Sarawak River. In year 2010, Bengoh Dam was constructed to ensure adequate raw water will be supplied to BKWTP for meeting the increasing water demand from 2010-2030. This reservoir will store 144 million m3 of fresh water covering reservoir area of 8.77km2. Beyond 2030, the water supply shall not depend solely on fresh water. Results: Black and grey water in Sarawak Catchment was treated through Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS) and recycled for daily used. Conclusion: The treated water that comply Standard A water quality, can distribute for domestic, industrial and irrigation used in nearest future. This will reduce the water demand solely on raw water and create a sustainable living in Kuching City. Beyond 2030, a few alternatives are also proposed for conserving and securing water supply for Kuching city.

Kuok K. Kuok; Sobri Harun; Po-Chan Chiu

2011-01-01

118

Equations for estimating timber volume in the region of the River Basin of Ituxi, Lábrea, Amazon, Brazil Equações para estimativa de volume de madeira para a região da bacia do Rio Ituxi, Lábrea, AM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To quantify the stock of commercial timber in forests demands efficient methods, making possible to estimate efficiently and accurately the present and future timber volume. The aim of this work was to  adjust the mathematical models used to estimate timber volume, allowing the determination of the timber potential of a region with greater accuracy and lower cost. The study was conducted at Lábrea, State of  Amazonas, Brazil in an area of 6,000 ha, inserted in the Project Forest Management Seringal Iracema II. The forest is predominantly dense with emergent trees, also with the occurrence of open forest with bamboo and palms. For the process of adjusting the models to estimate the volume of commercial timber, 141 trees of commercial species were cubed by Smalian method. The equations developed for the Forest Management Project Seringal Iracema II are valid for diameters between 50 cm and 140 cm and for forests with similar structure; to standing trees due to its simplicity and accuracy, the best equation was Kopezki-Gehrardt (V = - 0.6870 + 0.00103 d²); for felling trees or for studies of biomass and carbon stock, the equation indicated is Schumacher-Hall (LnV = -9.5452 + 2.12837 Ln (d) + 0.72209Ln (h)).doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.64.283A necessidade de quantificação do estoque de matéria-prima florestal, em floresta nativa, conduz para a busca de métodos eficientes de estimativa do volume de madeira, que possibilitem quantificar o estoque presente e futuro de maneira eficiente e precisa. O objetivo desse trabalho foi ajustar modelos matemáticos, para estimativa de volume comercial de madeira, permitindo a determinação do potencial madeireiro de uma região, com maior precisão e menor custo. O estudo foi realizado no Município de Lábrea, AM, em uma área de 6 mil ha, inserida no Projeto de Manejo Florestal Seringal Iracema II. A floresta é predominantemente densa com árvores emergentes, também com ocorrência de Foresta Aberta com bambu e palmeiras. Foram cubadas pelo método Smalian 141 árvores de diferentes espécies comerciais para a estimativa do volume de madeira comercial. As equações obtidas são válidas para os diâmetros entre 50 cm e 140 cm e para florestas com estrutura semelhante; para árvores em pé, devido a sua simplicidade e precisão, a melhor equação foi a de Kopezki-Gehrardt (V=-0,6870 + 0,00103 d²). Para árvores derrubadas ou para estudos de biomassa e estoque de carbono, a equação indicada foi a de Schumacher-Hall (LnV = -9,5452 + 2,12837 Ln(d) + 0,72209 Ln(hc)). Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.64.283

Fabio Thaines; Evaldo Muñoz Braz; Patricia Povoa de Mattos; Andreia Aparecida Ribeiro Thaines

2010-01-01

119

US Gulf focus for Powder River Basin coal exports  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article profiles the export of coal through the US Gulf, specifically the Lower Mississippi River and Mobile. In 1990 coal exports for the Lower Mississippi River were 2.72 mst metallurgical coal and 10.07 mst steam coal. The article gives details of exports by destination and examines forecasts of export trends. The article also details the significant development of new international business, sub-bituminous coal from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, which is more than 1500 miles from the Gulf loaders, for export to Europe. The article profiles the producers, i.e. NERCO, Sun Coal, ARCO, Kerr McGee and AMAX. Efficient transport has played a major role in developing the export movement of Powder River Basin coal. The article examines the two railroads which serve the area: the Burlington Northern; and the Union Pacific working in conjunction with the Chicago and North Western. The article also profiles the activities of the various shareside and midstream terminals, particularly IMT and Electro-Coal on the Lower Mississippi River and the McDuffe Coal Terminal in Mobile. 6 figs.

Peckham, R.

1991-09-01

120

Petrophysical Characterization of Gongola Basin (Kolmani River1) Shaly-Sand Reservoir Using Dual Water Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative analysis were carried out in Kolmani River -1 exploratory wells to determine the shaly-sand reservoir petrophysical parameters such as: shale volume effective porosity, effective water saturation, free water resistivity and hydrocarbon saturation. The reservoir at depth between 6720ft and 7117ft contains a non associated gas and it occurs within the Yolde/Bima stratigraphic formations. The presence of igneous intrusive and the pressure and temperature observations from the well logs show that the basin has been subjected to high geothermal effects which have destroyed a substantial part of the hydrocarbon in place. The geothermal effects converted the hydrocarbon to a dry gas with an estimate of 680Mcf (six hundred and eighty thousand cubic feet) available for production. Also, the 12% effective water saturation shows that the well will not flow during production. The gas volume within the Gongola basin is insignificant.

E.E.Epuh; D. O.Olorode; P.C. Nwilo; C. U Ezeigbo

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Helminth parasites of freshwater fishes, Nazas River basin, northern Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper represents the first study of the helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from the Nazas River basinin northern Mexico. Between July 2005 and December 2008, 906 individual fish were collected and examined for helminthparasites in 23 localities along the river basin. Twenty-three species of fish were examined as a part of this inventory work.In total, 41 helminth species were identified: 19 monogeneans, 10 digeneans, seven cestodes, one acanthocephalan, andfour nematodes. The biogeographical implications of our findings are briefly discussed.

León, G. Pérez-Ponce; Rosas-Valdez, R.; Aguilar-Aguilar, R.; Mendoza-Garfias, B.; Mendoza-Palmero, C.; García-Prieto, L.; Rojas-Sánchez, A.; Briosio-Aguilar, R.; Pérez-Rodríguez, R.; Domínguez-Domínguez, O.

2010-01-01

122

Fish, Cubatão River basin, Atlantic Rainforest stream, Paraná, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The freshwater ichthyofauna of the Cubatão River basin was studied. This drainage belongs to the Atlantic rainforestbiome in Paraná state coastal region, southern Brazil. Considering fish collection data and extensive new collections, 41species were listed of the families Characidae, Erythrinidae, Crenuchidae, Curimatidae, Heptapteridae,Pseudopimelodidae, Callichthyidae, Trichomycteridae, Loricariidae, Gymnotidae, Cichlidae, Anablepidae, Poeciliidae,and Synbranchidae. The river studied showed the ichthyofaunistic pattern of the coastal drainages of the Atlanticrainforest biome of southeastern Brazil, characterized by a high degree of endemism. A key for species identification isprovided.

Abilhoa, V.; Bastos, L. P.

2009-01-01

123

Radioecological situation in the Syrdarya river basin of Kazakhstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of investigation of radioecological situation in the Syrdarya river basin at the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan are presented. The work is carried out under the International project Navruz. NAA, XRF and instrumental ?-spectrometry were used. The generalized results of investigations of element and radionuclide (137Cs, 40K and 238U, 235U, 232Th families) compositions of soil, water, bottom sediments and vegetation samples selected at 15 control points in Kazakhstan along Syrdarya river and its inflows during four expeditions (autumn 2000 and 2001, spring 2001 and 2002) have been presented. (author)

2003-09-00

124

Vascular plants of oxbow lakes of Turvo River, Upper Paraná River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vascular plants were investigated in oxbow lakes of Turvo River, Upper Paraná River basin, between Icémand Nova Granada municipalities, state of São Paulo, Brazil. In this region, six lagoons were sampled: Ganzella, Mustafá,Braço Morto, 45, Federal, and Parente. The survey showed a total of 54 species, 36 genera and 22 families. The speciesrichest families were Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Polygonaceae. Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) was the single speciesencountered in all the six lakes.

Araujo, R. B.; Langeani, F.; Ranga, N. T.

2010-01-01

125

Paleotopography and hydrocarbon accumulation: Williston, Powder River, and Denver basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent geomorphic analyses of 1:24,000 scale topographic maps in the three major basins of the northern Great Plains have disclosed a persistent system of basement paleotopographic features that trend north-northeast throughout the region. Superimposed across this system and subtly influenced by it, are the northwesterly trending Laramide structural features. Paleozoic depositional patterns have been strongly influenced by the paleoridge and trough system formed by the north-northeast features. Mesozoic deposition has also been affected by the ancient subsurface system but in a more subtle manner. Many of the Paleozoic and Mezoxoic hydrocarbon locations in the three basins appear to be the results of paleotopographic control on hydrocarbon accumulation sites. This affect ranges from Paleozoic reef sites in the Williston basin through paleotrough localization of Pennsylvanian Minnelusa production in the Powder River basin to fractured Cretaceous Niobrara production at the Silo field in the Denver basin. Basement paleotopography is the underlying factor in all deposition and subsequent hydrocarbon migration in any basin. As such, it should be considered a major factor in the exploration for oil and gas.

Thomas, G.E. (Thomas and Associates, Denver, CO (United States))

1991-06-01

126

The biogeochemistry of lipids in rivers of the Orinoco Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water samples from rivers in the Orinoco Basin were examined in order to assess the biogeochemistry of particle-associated and dissolved lipids. Lipid fractions were characterized so as to determine their origin, speciation, variability in individual rivers, and their flux to the lower Orinoco River. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, triterpenoids, and fatty acids were ubiquitous in the rivers, and a large proportion of these compounds were found to be autochthonous in origin. The relative loadings of particle-associated and dissolved lipids were of the same order of magnitude in most of the rivers, indicating the importance of the dissolved phase. Apparently, true equilibria between water and particulate phases were not reached, probably as a result of the high amounts of colloidal and humic materials associated with the dissolved phase in most of the rivers. Preliminary data indicate that there were considerable seasonal variabilities in the distributions and concentrations of lipids in some of the rivers, but that each of these showed different behavior. 76 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Jaffe, R. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Wolff, G.A. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cabrera, A.C. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)] [and others

1995-11-01

127

Computer models for monitoring groundwater in the Powder River Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive set of computer models has been developed to predict the impact of mining on groundwater. The models can be used to predict mine inflows, drawdowns in aquifers and groundwater quality. The models have been tested against theoretical solutions for accuracy. There has also been limited field testing in the Powder River Basin. The regional model was used to simulate the cumulative impact of coal mining on shallow groundwater and associated surface water flows. The sub-regional model was used to simulate the eastern Powder River Basin, where the heaviest coal development is expected. A third model was used in an evaluation of the probable total groundwater impacts caused by mining to the east of Gilleite, Wyoming.

1982-05-01

128

Experts predict clean air compliance strategies. [USA - Powder River Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article examines predictions for compliance with the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) made during a panel discussion at the American Mining Congress Convention, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, in October 1991. The major provisions of the CAAA include: the reduction of SO{sub 2} emission by 10 million tons from 1980 levels by 2000; reduction of approximately two million tons per year of NO{sub x} from 1980 levels by 2000; and a state-administered permit programme that will impose substantial annual permit fees. Various compliance options are available, including: buying emissions allowances from other sources; installing gas-scrubbing equipment; switching to low sulphur fuels; mixing low and high sulphur fuels; and introducing clean coal technology. It is predicted that many utilities will switch to low sulphur coal from the Powder River Basin. This will lead to an increase in coal production in the Powder River Basin. 1 tab.

Carter, R.

1991-11-01

129

Response operations on the Kolva River Basin 1995 oil recovery and mitigation project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The oil spill recovery efforts at the Kolva River Basin in Northern Russia, were discussed. A major crude oil spill occurred at six points along a pipeline which threatened the riverside communities. An overview of the spill and a description of the site was presented. Hartec Management Consultants Inc. was chosen to contain and recover the huge quantities of oil. To maximize the efficiency of the oil containment and recovery efforts, unique containment, herding, and recovery techniques were developed. Phase I focussed on the containment of the oil to prevent it from reaching the Kolva River, while phase II concentrated on the systematic recovery and removal of the oil. Phase I was completed within five months, with the result that no oil had reached the Kolva River from any of the six sites. In phase II, the removal of the oil was done by high volume skimmers. 1 tab., 6 figs

1996-01-01

130

Response operations on the Kolva River Basin 1995 oil recovery and mitigation project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil spill recovery efforts at the Kolva River Basin in Northern Russia, were discussed. A major crude oil spill occurred at six points along a pipeline which threatened the riverside communities. An overview of the spill and a description of the site was presented. Hartec Management Consultants Inc. was chosen to contain and recover the huge quantities of oil. To maximize the efficiency of the oil containment and recovery efforts, unique containment, herding, and recovery techniques were developed. Phase I focussed on the containment of the oil to prevent it from reaching the Kolva River, while phase II concentrated on the systematic recovery and removal of the oil. Phase I was completed within five months, with the result that no oil had reached the Kolva River from any of the six sites. In phase II, the removal of the oil was done by high volume skimmers. 1 tab., 6 figs.

Stillings, W.I. [Hartec Management Consultants Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1996-09-01

131

“Morphometric Analysis of Kurunda River Basin in Maharashtra, India”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the relationships between drainage characteristics and environmental aspects of Kurunda river basinusing the topographical maps on a scale of 1:50000. Environmental situations have affecting the morphometry of the basin. The combine outcomes have establishes the topographical and even recent developmental situations of the region. It will change the setup of the region also. It is therefore needs to analyze micro level parameters of drainage and environment for suitable planning and management of any developmental plan. The total area of Kurunda river basin is 102.17 sq km and it is divided into eight micro subbasins for in-depth analysis. Drainage pattern of this river is dendritic one. The Morphometric parameters of the stream have been analyzed and calculated by applying standard methods and techniques viz. Horton, 1945; Miller, 1953, Strahler, 1964. The results of primary leveled morphometric analysis have been correlated with soil and its physio-chemical characters. The Stream frequency and Stream length ratio of the basin is 1.55 and 8.39 respectively. The dimensional factors like Form factor (0.42), Elongation Ratio (0.36) and Circulatory Ratio (0.56) have also been calculated. In case of intensity of dissection, Drainage density, Drainage texture and Bifurcation ratio have calculated and it is 1.78 sq km, 0.98 and 13.61 with mean of 3.40 respectively. It is observed that the comparative analysis within the sub-basins have different types of situations and therefore it is recommended that micro-leveled analysis with environmental perspectives of the basin.

Balaji Avhad; Avinash Kadam; Bhosle A.B.; Yannawar V.B.

2013-01-01

132

Deforestation within the Higher Paraguay River Basin -- Brazilian Pantanal Wetland --  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

this article, representing thedecade of the 70s. Being this, the first of a series of three evaluations, that will include thedecades of the 80s and the 90s. In this context, the objective of this research is to map andquantify deforested areas in the Higher Paraguay river Basin (HPB), providing the resuls perState (MT and MS), Pantanal, plateau, sub-regions and counties

Edileuza Carlos; De Melo

133

Mississippi River Basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia  

Science.gov (United States)

This EPA site provides links to introductory information about the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. It offers answers to questions such as: what is the hypoxic zone, how did it form, what strategies are being implemented to remedy it, and what is the government doing. It also features links to various regions within the Mississippi River Basin, allowing users to explore issues in their own area.

Agency, Environmental P.

134

Institutional obstacles for the implementation of a River Basin Management concept in Western Ukraine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides results from a case study in Western Ukraine where a River Basin Management (RBM) concept for the Western Bug River has been initiated. Ukraine aims at the introduction of an integrated water resources management implemented through a river basin organizational structure based on...

Hagemann, Nina

135

Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the San Miguel River basin, southwestern Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The San Miguel River basin is an area of 4130 square kilometers, of which about two-thirds is in the southeastern part of the Paradox basin. The Paradox basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Evaporite beds consisting mostly of salt are both overlain and underlain by confining beds. Aquifers are present above and below the confining-bed sequence. The principal element of ground-water outflow from the upper aquifer is flow to the San Miguel River and its tributaries; this averages about 90 million cubic meters per year. The aquifers generally are isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little, if any, contact with the evaporites. No natural brine flows have been identified in the basin. Salt water has been reported in petroleum-exploration wells, but no active salt solution has been located. 23 references, 8 figures, 4 tables.

Ackerman, D.J.; Rush, F.E.

1984-01-01

136

Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month) forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) using the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecasting System (RFS) hydrologic model. While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force the NWS RFS utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates and contributes to a better understanding of how hydrologic processes change under varying climate conditions. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study. Additionally, the NWS RFS is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands resulted in a 6 % to 13 % average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the NWS RFS provided by the CBRFC resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10 % to 15 % average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5 % to 8 % increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

W. P. Miller; T. C. Piechota; S. Gangopadhyay; T. Pruitt

2011-01-01

137

Towards improving river discharge estimation in ungauged basins: calibration of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river flow width at basin outlet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff models are common tools for river discharge estimation in the field of hydrology. In ungauged basins, the dependence on observed river discharge data for calibration restricts applications of rainfall-runoff models. The strong correlation between quantities of river cross-sectional water surface width obtained from remote sensing and corresponding in situ gauged river discharge has been verified by many researchers. In this study, a calibration scheme of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river width at basin outlet is illustrated. One distinct advantage is that this calibration is independent of river discharge information. The at-a-station hydraulic geometry is implemented to facilitate shifting the calibration objective from river discharge to river width. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) is applied to model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The calibration scheme is demonstrated through a case study for simulating river discharge at Pakse in the Mekong Basin. The effectiveness of the calibration scheme and uncertainties associated with utilization of river width observations from space are examined from model input-state-output behaviour, capability of reproducing river discharge and posterior parameter distribution. The results indicate that the satellite observation of the river width is a competent surrogate of observed discharge for the calibration of rainfall-runoff model at Pakse and the proposed method has the potential for improving reliability of river discharge estimation in basins without any discharge gauging.

W. C. Sun; H. Ishidaira; S. Bastola

2010-01-01

138

Towards improving river discharge estimation in ungauged basins: calibration of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river flow width at basin outlet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff models are common tools for river discharge estimation in the field of hydrology. In ungauged basins, the dependence on observed river discharge data for calibration restricts applications of rainfall-runoff models. The strong correlation between quantities of river cross-sectional water surface width obtained from remote sensing and corresponding in situ gauged river discharge has been verified by many researchers. In this study, a calibration scheme of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river width at basin outlet is illustrated. One distinct advantage is that this calibration is independent of river discharge information. The at-a-station hydraulic geometry is implemented to facilitate shifting calibration objective from river discharge to river width. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation methodology is applied to model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The calibration scheme is demonstrated through a case study for simulating river discharge at Pakse in the Mekong Basin. The effectiveness of calibration scheme and uncertainties associated with utilization of river width observations from space are examined from model input-state-output behaviour, capability of reproducing river discharge, and posterior parameter distribution. The results indicate that the satellite observation of river width is a competent surrogate of observed discharge for the calibration of rainfall-runoff model at Pakse and the proposed method has the potential for improving reliability of river discharge estimation in basins without any discharge gauging.

Wenchao Sun; Hiroshi Ishidaira; Satish Bastola

2010-01-01

139

MORPHOMETRIC FEATURES OF RELIEF UNITS FROM BARLAD RIVER BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on previous research, the paper makes a brief characterization of the geomorphological units of Bârlad river basin, respectively of Moldavian Central Plateau, Tutovei Hills and F?lciului Hills (except the northern part of Tecuci Plain). Then, using the Horton-Strahler classification system, were obtained for each unit the morphometric models of drainage and of slopes of the stream segments of successively increasing orders; the laws that define them verify well also on relief units, not only at the scale of the river basins. Based on the aspects resulted from the classification, on measuring the length and elevation differences of successive growing order segments of the river, the determination of average slopes was conducted. The law of slopes checks better, being the most dynamic morphometric element that is quickly adapting to changes of matter and energy flows through the river channels. Using these laws, we can calculate a series of morphometrical parameters, with variations from one unit to another, which can be used to differentiate and characterize those units

Ion Z?voianu; Gheorghe Heri?anu; Nicolae Cruceru

2011-01-01

140

XXI Century Climatology of Snow Cover for the Western River Basins of the Indus River System  

CERN Multimedia

Under changing climate, freshwater resources of Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) region can be affected by changes in temperature and in amount, type and distribution of precipitation. This can have serious implications for the water supply and in turn threaten the food security and economic wellbeing of Indus basin. Using MODIS daily snow products (Terra & Aqua), this study focuses on the assessment of the 2000-2010 snow cover dynamics on seasonal/annual basis against geophysical parameters (aspect, elevation and slope) for the so called western river basins of Indus River System (IRS), namely Indus, Kabul, Jhelum, Astore, Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Shigar and Shyok basins. Results show that inputs from MODIS instrument provide unprecedented better opportunity to study by using GIS techniques the snow cover dynamics in the remote areas like HKH region at such hyper-temporal and finer planar resolution. Adapted non-spectral cloud filtering techniques have significantly reduced cloud coverage and improved sno...

Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Columbia River basin fish and wildlife program strategy for salmon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three species of Snake River salmon have been listed as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act. In response, the Northwest Power Planning Council worked with the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington, Indian tribes, federal agencies and interest groups to address the status of Snake River salmon runs in a forum known as the Salmon Summit. The Summit met in 1990 and 1991 and reached agreement on specific, short-term actions. When the Summit disbanded in April 1991, responsibility for developing a regional recovery plan for salmon shifted to the Council. The Council responded with a four-phased process of amending its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The first three phases. completed in September 1992, pertain to salmon and steelhead. Phase four, scheduled for completion in October 1993, will take up issues of resident fish and wildlife. This paper deals with the first three phases, collectively known as Strategy for Salmon

1993-01-01

142

Morphotectonic Analysis in the Ghezel Ozan River Basin, NW Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphotectonic analysis by the use of geomorphic indices serves as a tool of recognition in regions with active tectonic deformation. Landforms in active deformation area are created from interaction of tectonic and surficial processes. One of the most important landforms in ground are rivers that are very sensitive to tectonic movements especially uplift and tilting. Thus based on analysis of the rivers and related drainage networks by the use of geomorphic indices we will be able to attain valuable information about tectonic history of the area. In this article, determine of tectonic movements bye the use of geomorphic indices is surveyed in the Ghezel Ozan River basin between 2007 and 2010. After segmentation of the Ghezel Ozan River and preparation of digital elevation model (DEM) amounts of geomorphic indices per segments is separately attained. The attained amounts show that different segments of the Ghezel Ozan River vary from each other regarding the amount of tectonic activity and tectonic movements increase from west to east and also, the amount of tectonic tilting is negligible in a lot of the Ghezel Ozan River segments. This situation is completely in agreement with the trend of the seismicity of the area.

Vahid Hosseini Toudeshki; Mehran Arian

2011-01-01

143

Elevation-Derived Watershed Basins and Characteristics for Major Rivers of the Conterminous United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center Topographic Science Project has developed elevation-derived watershed basins and characteristics for major rivers of the conterminous United States. Watershed basins are delineated ...

B. B. Worstell S. K. Poppenga

2008-01-01

144

Occurrence and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane in sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concentrations and geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were investigated in 37 composite surface sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China, including Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Tarim River and Ertix River. The detection frequency of HBCD was 54%, with the concentrations ranged from below limit of detection (LOD) to 206 ng/g dry weight. In general, the geographical distribution showed increasing trends from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the rivers and from North China to Southeast China. Compared to other regions in the world, the average concentration of HBCD in sediments from Yangtze River drainage basin was at relatively high level, whereas those from other six river drainage basins were at lower or similar level. The highest HBCD concentration in sediment from Yangtze River Delta and the highest detection frequency of HBCD in Pearl River drainage basins suggested that the industrial and urban activities could evidently affect the HBCD distribution. HBCD diastereoisomer profiles showed that gamma-HBCD dominated in most of the sediment samples, followed by alpha- and beta-HBCD, which was consistent with those in the commercial HBCD mixtures. Further risk assessment reflected that the average inventories of HBCD were 18.3, 5.87, 3.92, 2.50, 1.77 ng/cm2 in sediments from Pearl River, Haihe River, Tarim River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, respectively.

Li H; Shang H; Wang P; Wang Y; Zhang H; Zhang Q; Jiang G

2013-01-01

145

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon release groups were pooled across the entire Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam for this report. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.92% with an estimated standard error (dSE) of 0.25% for wild spring and summer Chinook salmon for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2004, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. Only for the 1999 and 2000 release years did the wild Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for wild steelhead from the Snake River Basin averaged 0.63% (dSE = 0.15%), including age-1-ocean returns, for release years 1996 through 2004. For release years when the ocean return probability from Bonneville back to Bonneville could be estimated (i.e., 1999 through 2004), it was estimated that on average approximately 83% of the total integrated mortality for nontransported, tagged wild spring and summer Chinook, and 78% for steelhead (omitting the 2001 release year), occurred during the ocean life stage (i.e., from Bonneville to Bonneville). This suggests that additional monitoring and research efforts should include the ocean and estuary environment. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Lower Granite Dam were available for the 2003 and 2004 release years for both wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead. The estimated T/I for Lower Granite was significantly > 1.0 for Chinook in 2004 (P < 0.0001) and for steelhead in both 2003 (P < 0.0001) and 2004 (P < 0.0001), indicating that for these release years, wild fish transported at Lower Granite returned there in higher proportions than fish that were returned to the river at Lower Granite, or that passed Lower Granite without detection as juveniles. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Little Goose Dam were available for wild Chinook salmon for both 2003 and 2004. The estimated T/I for Little Goose was significantly > 1.0 for wild Chinook in 2004 (P = 0.0024), but not in 2003 (P = 0.1554). Differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) is the ra

Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

2008-12-03

146

Silver and thallium historical trends in the Seine River basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Records on pollution by metals of minor economic importance (e.g. silver and thallium) but which prove to be toxic are rarely documented in river sediment. This study used two sediment cores collected downstream of the Seine River to describe the temporal evolution of Ag and Tl concentrations in an urban catchment. Radionuclide analysis (i.e. Cs-137 and Pb-210) allowed dating sediment deposition within the cores (1933-2003). Ag concentration reached maximum values of 14.3-24.6 mg kg(-1) in the 1960s and 1970s, before gradually decreasing up to values which approximated 4 mg kg(-1) in 2003. In contrast, Tl concentrations remained roughly constant throughout the core (median value of 0.86 mg kg(-1)). Suspended solids was collected at upstream locations in the catchment to derive the background concentrations in Ag and Tl. Very high Ag concentrations were measured in the upstream Seine River sites (0.33-0.59 mg kg(-1)), compared to the values reported in the literature (0.055 mg kg(-1)). This suggests the presence of a widespread and ancient Ag pollution in the Seine River basin, as demonstrated by the very high Ag enrichment ratios recorded in the cores. Annual flux of particulate Ag in the Seine River was estimated at 1.7 t yr(-1) in 2003. In contrast, Tl concentrations remained in the same order of magnitude as the natural background signal (0.3-0.5 mg kg(-1)). This study suggests that the Seine River basin is free of Tl contamination. Future concerns should hence mostly rely on Ag contamination, in a context of increasing Ag uses and possible releases to the environment. PMID:20938543

Ayrault, Sophie; Priadi, Cindy Rianti; Evrard, Olivier; Lefèvre, Irène; Bonté, Philippe

2010-10-11

147

Sources of nitrate yields in the Mississippi River Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Riverine nitrate N in the Mississippi River leads to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Several recent modeling studies estimated major N inputs and suggested source areas that could be targeted for conservation programs. We conducted a similar analysis with more recent and extensive data that demonstrates the importance of hydrology in controlling the percentage of net N inputs (NNI) exported by rivers. The average fraction of annual riverine nitrate N export/NNI ranged from 0.05 for the lower Mississippi subbasin to 0.3 for the upper Mississippi River basin and as high as 1.4 (4.2 in a wet year) for the Embarras River watershed, a mostly tile-drained basin. Intensive corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] watersheds on Mollisols had low NNI values and when combined with riverine N losses suggest a net depletion of soil organic N. We used county-level data to develop a nonlinear model ofN inputs and landscape factors that were related to winter-spring riverine nitrate yields for 153 watersheds within the basin. We found that river runoff times fertilizer N input was the major predictive term, explaining 76% of the variation in the model. Fertilizer inputs were highly correlated with fraction of land area in row crops. Tile drainage explained 17% of the spatial variation in winter-spring nitrate yield, whereas human consumption of N (i.e., sewage effluent) accounted for 7%. Net N inputs were not a good predictor of riverine nitrate N yields, nor were other N balances. We used this model to predict the expected nitrate N yield from each county in the Mississippi River basin; the greatest nitrate N yields corresponded to the highly productive, tile-drained cornbelt from southwest Minnesota across Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. This analysis can be used to guide decisions about where efforts to reduce nitrate N losses can be most effectively targeted to improve local water quality and reduce export to the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:21043271

David, Mark B; Drinkwater, Laurie E; McIsaac, Gregory F

148

Sources of nitrate yields in the Mississippi River Basin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Riverine nitrate N in the Mississippi River leads to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Several recent modeling studies estimated major N inputs and suggested source areas that could be targeted for conservation programs. We conducted a similar analysis with more recent and extensive data that demonstrates the importance of hydrology in controlling the percentage of net N inputs (NNI) exported by rivers. The average fraction of annual riverine nitrate N export/NNI ranged from 0.05 for the lower Mississippi subbasin to 0.3 for the upper Mississippi River basin and as high as 1.4 (4.2 in a wet year) for the Embarras River watershed, a mostly tile-drained basin. Intensive corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] watersheds on Mollisols had low NNI values and when combined with riverine N losses suggest a net depletion of soil organic N. We used county-level data to develop a nonlinear model ofN inputs and landscape factors that were related to winter-spring riverine nitrate yields for 153 watersheds within the basin. We found that river runoff times fertilizer N input was the major predictive term, explaining 76% of the variation in the model. Fertilizer inputs were highly correlated with fraction of land area in row crops. Tile drainage explained 17% of the spatial variation in winter-spring nitrate yield, whereas human consumption of N (i.e., sewage effluent) accounted for 7%. Net N inputs were not a good predictor of riverine nitrate N yields, nor were other N balances. We used this model to predict the expected nitrate N yield from each county in the Mississippi River basin; the greatest nitrate N yields corresponded to the highly productive, tile-drained cornbelt from southwest Minnesota across Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. This analysis can be used to guide decisions about where efforts to reduce nitrate N losses can be most effectively targeted to improve local water quality and reduce export to the Gulf of Mexico.

David MB; Drinkwater LE; McIsaac GF

2010-09-01

149

Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River Basin headwaters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force a hydrologic model utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study. Additionally, the CBRFC hydrologic model is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands over the Gunnison resulted in a 6% to 13% average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the CBRFC's hydrologic model resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10% to 15% average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5% to 8% increase in basin runoff is projected through 2099. Evidence of nonstationary behavior is apparent over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins.

W. P. Miller; T. C. Piechota; S. Gangopadhyay; T. Pruitt

2010-01-01

150

Estimating flows in ungauged river basins in northern Mozambique  

Science.gov (United States)

In many regions across the globe, there are limited streamflow observations and therefore limited knowledge of availability of surface water resources. In many cases, these rivers lie in countries that would benefit from economic development and improved access to water and sanitation services, both of which are linked to water resources. Additional information about streamflow in these watersheds is critical to water resources planning and economic development strategies. In southeastern Africa, the remote Rovuma River lies on the border between Mozambique and Tanzania. There are limited historic measurements in the main tributary and no recent observations. Improved knowledge of the water resource availability and inter-annual variability of the Rovuma River will enhance transboundary river basin management discussions for this river basin. While major rivers farther south in the country are more closely monitored, those in the north have gauging stations with only scattered observations and have not been active since the early 1980's. Reliable estimates of historic conditions are fundamental to water resources planning. This work aims to provide estimates in these rivers and to quantify uncertainty and bounds on those estimates. A combination of methods is used to estimate historic flows: simple index gauge methods such as the drainage area ratio method and mean flow ratio method, a statistical regression method, a combination of an index gauge method and global gridded runoff data, and a hydrological model. These results are compared to in-situ streamflow estimates based on stage measurements and rating curves for the basins and time frames for which data is available. The evaluation of the methods is based on an efficiency ratio, bias, and representation of seasonality and inter-annual variability. Use of gridded global datasets, either with the mean flow ratio method or a hydrological model, appears to provide improved estimates over use of local observations alone. Verification of these results by local, in-situ measurements can increase our confidence in these methods. However, this work demonstrates the ability to establish a starting point for water resources planners in southern Africa and other regions with intermittent or sparse streamflow observations.

Minihane, M.

2011-12-01

151

Delineation of lakes and reservoirs in large river basins: An example of the Yangtze River Basin, China  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major impediments to water resources management in developing countries has been the fragmented nature of available data on the surface area, size and distribution of natural lakes and artificial reservoirs. In this study we used a parsimonious method based on remote sensing techniques to identify and extract water bodies in the Yangtze River Basin and classify them into three main categories: natural lakes, artificial reservoirs and rivers. This method combines data from the best available free sources, resulting in higher data quality. Using Landsat TM/ETM + images, we delineated nearly 43,600 reservoirs and 42,700 lakes and estimated a total quantity of 0.7 million smaller (surface area Lake Region. The greatest river flow impacts may occur in the Hanjiang tributary, where the reservoir capacity is equivalent to up to 90% of the mean annual runoff. The results of this study show that the Yangtze River Basin, which was previously dominated by natural lakes, has become dominated by reservoirs as a result of reservoir construction and the shrinkage of natural lakes.

Yang, Xiankun; Lu, X. X.

2013-05-01

152

Hydrological and geochemical studies on the Sahelo-Sudanian basin of the Niger River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

African drought and rainfall deficits observed during the last twenty years had important repercussions on the runoff of the Niger River (annual deficit of 20 % during the 70's and of 46 % during the 80's). A large reduction of the groundwater storage explains the persistent degradation of the hydrological resource. The inner Delta of the Niger River is a particular system submitted to Sahelian and sub-desertic climatic conditions, and is characterized by large flood plains. Time series of input water volumes in the inner Delta and of the water losses inside it show that the water losses, due to the intense evaporation, vary from 40 km3 to 6 km3. The water losses are maximum during the wettest years, up to 47 %, and minimum during the driest years, only 32 %, due to the reduction of the flooded area. Since 1990 the EQUANIS program associates hydrological and chemical measurements in the study of the dissolved and suspended matter flows in the Niger River's flows to the Sahel. The specific sediment load vary between 7 or 8 t dm2 year-1 for the upper Niger River and 3 t km2 year-1 for the Bani River. The specific dissolved load vary between 10 or 12 t km2 year-1 for the Niger River and 2,5 t km2 year-1 for the Bani River. The annual input in the inner Delta was about 2,2 Mt in 1992-1993. Seasonal variations of the matter fluxes are very different between the upper and the lower parts of the inner Delta, due to the breaking of the annual flood and to the more important flood plains in the upper Delta. The preliminary results indicate that both rivers have a low level in dissolved element concentration. The inner Delta is not an old sedimentary basin and the actual deposits of matter should characterize its working during the lasting deficit of the water resources of the Niger River. (author)

1998-01-01

153

Development of a systemwide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predation index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 -- Evaluation: 1993 Annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt was made to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Modeling simulations based on work in the John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that if northern squawfish larger than 250 mm fork length were exploited, at a rate of 10--20%, reductions in their numbers and restructuring of their populations could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50% or more. The authors evaluated the success of three test fisheries conducted in 1993--a sport-reward fishery, a dam-angling fishery, and a trap-net fishery, to achieve a 10--20% exploitation rate on northern squawfish. The authors also began evaluating the response of northern squawfish populations to sustained fisheries. In addition, the authors gathered information regarding the economic, social, and legal feasibility of sustaining each fishery, and report on the structure and function of the fish collection and distribution system.

1995-01-01

154

Thermal analysis of the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Temperature and geologic data from over 3,000 oil and gas wells within a 180 km x 30 km area that transect across the southern Powder River Basin in Wyoming, U.S.A., were used to determine the present thermal regime of the basin. Three-dimensional temperature fields within the transect, based on corrected bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs) and other geologic information, were assessed using: (1) A laterally constant temperature gradient model in conjunction with an L{sub 1} norm inversion method, and (2) a laterally variable temperature gradient model in conjunction with a stochastic inversion technique. The mean geothermal gradient in the transect is 29 C/km, but important lateral variations in the geothermal gradient exist. The average heat flow for the southern Powder River Basin is 52 mW/m{sup 2} with systematic variations between 40 mW/m{sup 2} and 60 mW/m{sup 2} along the transect. Extremely high local heat flow (values up to 225 mW/m{sup 2}) in the vicinity of the Teapot Dome and the Salt Creek Anticline and low heat flow of 25 mW/m{sup 2} occurring locally near the northeast end of the transect are likely caused by groundwater movement.

McPherson, B.J.O.L.; Chapman, D.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1996-11-01

155

Generation and expulsion of petroleum and gas from Almond Formation Coal, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petrographic and geochemical studies of coal from the Almond Formation in the Greater Green River basin demonstrate that the coal contains important volumes of stored liquid petroleum, as well as methane. Modeling indicates that at the basin center, most of the oil generated in the coal has been thermally cracked to gas, whereas at the basin flank the oil-to-gas reaction has barely proceeded. Several new concepts are presented about the mechanism of petroleum generation in coal based on (1) natural maturation trends gleaned form examination of Almond coal samples from different burial depths and (2) similar maturation trends observed in hydrous pyrolysis experiments using immature Almond coal samples. These new concepts show that the oil in the coal was generated during the alteration of desmocollinite and liptinite macerals to exsudatinite (waxy oil) and inertinite solid residue; that the waxy oil was initially stored in porous structures and subsequently in vesicles as the coal matured under increasing temperature; that primary migration of the oil occurred as the generation of a sufficient volume of exsudatinite microfractured the vitrinite-semifusinite vesicles, interconnecting vesicles and pores; and that the thermal cracking of exsudatinite generated a sufficient volume of gas to fracture the vesiculated coal as pore pressure increased and allowed migration of hydrocarbons out of the coal.

Garcia-Gonzalez, M. [Universidad industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Surdam, R.C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Lee, M.L. [Bringham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

1997-01-01

156

GIS-based River Flood Hazard Mapping in Urban Area (A Case Study in Kayu Ara River Basin, Malaysia)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past decades, thousands of lives have been lost, directly or indirectly, by flooding. In fact, of all natural hazards, floods pose the most widely distributed natural hazard to life today. Sungai Kayu Ara river basin which is located in the west part of the Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia was the case study of this research. In order to perform river flood hazard mapping HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS were utilized as hydrologic and hydraulic models, respectively. The generated river flood hazard was based on water depth and flow velocity maps whichwere prepared according to hydraulic model results in GIS environment. The results show that, magnitude of rainfall event (ARI) and river basin land-use development condition have significant influences on the river flood hazard maps pattern. Moreover, magnitude of rainfall event caused more influences on the river flood hazard map in comparison with land-use development condition for Sungai Kayu Ara river basin.

Sina Alaghmand,; Rozi bin Abdullah; Ismail Abustan; Behdokht Vosoogh

2010-01-01

157

Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB), a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr?1 in the HRB over 2004–2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production). The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" component of WF was 811 million m3 yr?1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than green WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

Z. Zeng; J. Liu; P. H. Koeneman; E. Zarate; A. Y. Hoekstra

2012-01-01

158

Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB), a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr?1 in the HRB over 2004–2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production). The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" (surface- and groundwater) component of WF was 811 million m3 yr?1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than "green" (soil water) WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

Z. Zeng; J. Liu; P. H. Koeneman; E. Zarate; A. Y. Hoekstra

2012-01-01

159

Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB), a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr-1 in the HRB over 2004-2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production). The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" (surface- and groundwater) component of WF was 811 million m3 yr-1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than "green" (soil water) WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

Zeng, Z.; Liu, J.; Koeneman, P. H.; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2012-08-01

160

Multi-linear model of transformation of runoff in river-basins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The component part of atmospheric precipitations-runoff model of Hron River is a individual model of transformation of flows in river network, too, which transforms runoff from separate partial catchment basin into terminal profile. This component of precipitations-runoff model can also be used as individual hydrologic transformation model of runoff waves in river-basin. Identification and calibration of this model is realised independently on precipitations-runoff model of Hron River, which is described in this chapter in detail.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira) subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed.

Gomiero, L. M.; Braga, F. M. S.

2006-01-01

162

The politics of model maintenance: The Murray Darling and Brantas River Basins compared  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores river basin management in two highly developed basins whose basin governance arrangements are currently undergoing transition: the Murray-Darling basin of Australia and the Brantas basin of Indonesia. Though basin-scale management has been longstanding in both of these cases and the respective models for carrying out integrated river basin management have been considered noteworthy for other countries looking to develop basin institutions, these basin-level arrangements are under flux. This paper indicates some of the difficulties that exist for even widely favoured 'textbook' cases to maintain institutional efficacy within their given shifting contexts. This paper explores drivers behind policy reform and change in scale at which authority is held, concluding with a discussion of the nature of institutional transition given political realities in these basins.

Anjali Bhat

2008-01-01

163

Hydrologic effects of climate change in the Delaware River basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Thornthwaite water balance and combinations of temperature and precipitation changes representing climate change were used to estimate changes in seasonal soil-moisture and runoff in the Delaware River basin. Winter warming may cause a greater proportion of precipitation in the northern part of the basin to fall as rain, which may increase winter runoff and decrease spring and summer runoff. Estimates of total annual runoff indicate that a 5 percent increase in precipitation would be needed to counteract runoff decreases resulting from a warming of 2C; a 15 percent increase for a warming of 4C. A warming of 2 to 4C, without precipitation increases, may cause a 9 to 25 percent decrease in runoff. The general circulation model derived changes in annual runoff ranged from {minus}39 to +9 percent. Results generally agree with those obtained in studies elsewhere. The changes in runoff agree in direction but differ in magnitude. In this humid temperate climate, where precipitation is evenly distributed over the year, decreases in snow accumulation in the northern part of the basin and increases in evapotranspiration throughout the basin could change the timing of runoff and significantly reduce total annual water availability unless precipitation were to increase concurrently.

McCabe, G.J., Jr.; Ayers, M.A. (Geological Survey, West Trenton, NJ (United States))

1989-12-01

164

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R-REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING -10499  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the 105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate it from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,384 cubic meters or 31,894 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were designed and tested for the reactor ISD project, and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and material flow considerations, maximum lift heights and differential height requirements were determined. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and approximately 3,900 cubic yards (2,989 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over about an eighteen month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.

2010-01-04

165

Mercury in the Tapajos River basin, Brazilian Amazon: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a review about mercury contamination and human exposure in the Tapajós River basin (Brazil), one of the major tributaries of the Amazon impacted by traditional gold mining from the mid 1980s. The most recent review in this region was published more than ten years ago and since then many articles about environment and especially human populations have revealed new aspects of mercury toxicology. Additionally, new biomarkers of mercury exposure and toxicity have been studied in these populations. However, there are still many open, about both mercury's biogeochemical cycle and mercury health risks. Further environmental and human risk research directions are proposed.

Berzas Nevado JJ; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios RC; Guzmán Bernardo FJ; Jiménez Moreno M; Herculano AM; do Nascimento JL; Crespo-López ME

2010-08-01

166

Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

1987-03-01

167

Identification of Flood Source Areas in Pahang River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The roles of upland watersheds in flood source contribution towards downstream areas in a river basin system are generally neglected in the inclusion of management strategy related to downstream flood management. In this study an assessment on the flood source area of Pahang river basin was attempted. The concept of unit flood response as an index of hydrologic response was used in identifying the flood source areas for the basin. The results indicated that among the 16 sub-basins of Pahang river basin, sub-basin of Sungai Pahang is ranked first in production of flood discharge while Sungai Perting sub-basin is ranked last in term of production of flood discharge. Comparison between maximum daily discharge of upper and lower segments of Pahang river basin indicated that up-stream watershed contributes significantly high and more flood (94.78%) than down-stream (5.22%). In addition, the upland watersheds were found to more efficient in producing surface runoff and send the floodwater to the lower receiving basin of Sungai Pahang. Considering that basin flood response is generally a nonlinear function of many factors, the sub-basins that are located nearest to and most distance from the basin outlet do not necessarily generate the highest and lowest contribution to the flood peak at the outlet. Similarly, sub-basins producing the highest or lowest absolute or specific discharge at their own outlet may not necessarily ranked first and last in flood index.

Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

2010-01-01

168

Umatilla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement : FY 1991 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the summer of 1991, construction continued on the Bonneville Power Administration funded anadromous fish habitat enhancement project in the Umatilla River sub-basin, Umatilla County, State of Oregon. 1991 was the final year of this five year project. Work started in May 1 and ended on November 31. Preconstruction activity consisted of final layout and design of the project, movement of approximately 600 cubic yards of large boulders and 12 log trucks loads of woody material to the construction site. A total of five rock weirs, five rock deflectors, 20 woody debris placements and 79 individual boulder placements were constructed in the South Fork and the main stem of the Umatilla River. A total of twelve log weirs, four rock weirs, two rock deflectors, and ten woody debris placements were placed in Meacham Creek. In addition, 47 weirs in Thomas Creek and the upper portion of the South Fork of the Umatilla River were repaired. Project monitoring consisted of sediment sampling above and below the Umatilla River construction project area, and mapping and photographing all structures.

Northrop, Michael

1992-01-01

169

River water quality assessment using environmentric techniques: case study of Jakara River Basin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Jakara River Basin has been extensively studied to assess the overall water quality and to identify the major variables responsible for water quality variations in the basin. A total of 27 sampling points were selected in the riverine network of the Upper Jakara River Basin. Water samples were collected in triplicate and analyzed for physicochemical variables. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship of water quality parameters and revealed a significant relationship between salinity, conductivity with dissolved solids (DS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nitrogen in form of ammonia (NH4). Partial correlation analysis (r p) results showed that there is a strong relationship between salinity and turbidity (r p=0.930, p=0.001) and BOD5 and COD (r p=0.839, p=0.001) controlling for the linear effects of conductivity and NH4, respectively. Principal component analysis and or factor analysis was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter in the Jakara Basin and identified three major factors explaining 68.11 % of the total variance in water quality. The major variations are related to anthropogenic activities (irrigation agricultural, construction activities, clearing of land, and domestic waste disposal) and natural processes (erosion of river bank and runoff). Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied on the dataset to maximize the similarities between group relative to within-group variance of the parameters. DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability using eight variables (DO, BOD5, COD, SS, NH4, conductivity, salinity, and DS) as the most statistically significantly responsible for surface water quality variation in the area. The present study, however, makes several noteworthy contributions to the existing knowledge on the spatial variations of surface water quality and is believed to serve as a baseline data for further studies. Future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of temporal variations of water quality in the basin.

Mustapha A; Aris AZ; Juahir H; Ramli MF; Kura NU

2013-08-01

170

Regionalization and spatial changing properties of droughts across the Pearl River basin, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Multivariate regional frequency analysis is used in evaluation of drought risk in the Pearl River basin. Joint probability behaviors of droughts are investigated using copula functions. Copula-based drought risk is statistically evaluated over the Pearl River basin, China. A case study is provided for copula-based drought risk evaluation in humid regions.

Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Li, Jianfeng

2012-11-01

171

Spatial and temporal variations of river nitrogen exports from major basins in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provincial-level data for population, livestock, land use, economic growth, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment rates were used to construct a river nitrogen (N) export model in this paper. Despite uncertainties, our results indicated that river N export to coastal waters increased from 531 to 1,244 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Changjiang River basin, 107 to 223 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Huanghe River basin, and 412 to 1,219 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Zhujiang River basin from 1980 to 2010 as a result of rapid population and economic growth. Significant temporal changes in water N sources showed that as the percentage of runoff from croplands increased, contributions of natural system runoff and rural human and livestock excreta decreased in the three basins from 1980 to 2010. Moreover, the nonpoint source N decreased from 72 to 58 % in the Changjiang River basin, 80 to 67 % in the Huanghe River basin, and 69 to 51 % in the Zhujiang River basin, while the contributions of point sources increased greatly during the same period. Estimated results indicated that the N concentrations in the Changjiang, Huanghe, and Zhujiang rivers during 1980-2004 were higher than those in the St. Lawrence River in Canada and lower than those in the Thames, Donau, Rhine, Seine, and Han rivers during the same period. River N export will reduce by 58, 54, and 57 % for the Changjiang River, Huanghe River, and Zhujiang River in the control scenario in 2050 compared with the basic scenario.

Ti C; Yan X

2013-09-01

172

Simulation of the effects of the alteration of the river basin land use on river water temperature using the multi-layer mesh-typed runoff model.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A model displaying river water temperatures was established, and applied to a small river basin. Based on the results, the effects of the alteration of the river basin on the budget and river water temperature were discussed. The model was a multi-layer mesh-typed runoff model, and the behavior of w...

Ozaki, Noriatsu; Fukushima, Takehiko; Kojiri, Toshiharu; ???, ????; ????, ????; ???, ????; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??

173

Simulation of Stream Flow in the Yantra River Basin,  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the simulation of stream flow in ungauged watersheds using the computermodel BISTRA (Basin Impacts of Simulated Transport from Rural Areas), developed by the PennsylvaniaState University in collaboration with the Institute of Water Problems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Themain purpose of this GIS-based model is the quantification of diffuse pollution loads at the catchment level.To achieve this, BISTRA contains a sub-model for simulating hydrology in a catchment based on genericclimate and landscape-related factors (e.g., daily precipitation and temperatures, soil, topography, land use,interdependence between surface and underground waters, etc.) which makes it possible to quantify monthlyrunoff, infiltration, and stream flow in areas where there are no gauge station records. The calibration andvalidation results for stream flow simulations conducted in the Yantra River basin in Bulgaria are given. Theconclusion is made that after calibration and validation, the model can be applied to determine the runoff andstream flow at different points of the river network where there are no gauge stations.

T. Hristov; B. Evans

174

The Amazon. Bio-geochemistry applied to river basin management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hydrochemical model, using hydrograph separation, developed for the Niger basin, has been proposed as a strategic tool for studying the watershed dynamics at any time and space scales. The model is applied to the Amazon basin, including the main channel and its major tributaries. The database corresponds to a sampling and analytical program developed over 8 cruises at 9 stations (about 70 samples), collected in the framework of the CAMREX Project (1982-1984). The model, based on a hydrograph separation of 3 reservoirs, is successful in extrapolating and predicting the geochemical and environmental behaviour of such large basins, naturally submitted to large secular or annual, regular or even catastrophic climatic oscillations. Several topics have been considered. (1) Coherence among the physico-chemical analyses: dissolved species (pH, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, DOC{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SiO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}), and inorganic or organic suspended load (fine and coarse fractions FSS, CSS, POCF, POCC). (2) Hydrograph separation in 3 reservoir contributions: R{sub S}, the superficial or rapid runoff, R{sub I}, the hypodermic or intermediate runoff, including the flood plain contributions, and R{sub B} the ground water or base flow. (3) Estimation of the isotopic and physico-chemical features of each of the 3 flow components: R{sub S}, R{sub I}, and R{sub B}. (4) Determination of the 3 hydrological parameters (size of the reservoir, drying up coefficient, and residence time of water), characterizing each of the 3 flow components (R{sub S}, R{sub I}, and R{sub B}), in each of the 9 basins considered. (5) Hydrological and geochemical balances for all the parameters analysed either (a) cruise by cruise for all tributaries and the Amazon River at Obidos, or (b) among each of the 3 river flow components. (6) Isotopic data set of {delta}{sup 18}O in waters, tests of coherence of the hydrograph separation model. (7) Relationships between isotopic signatures and morphological or hydroclimatical parameters characterizing the river-soil-vegetation systems. The developed procedure presents a new tool in environmental predictions, emphasizing the potentiality of geochemical interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

Tardy, Yves [Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INPT), Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique (ENSAT), 40 Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, BP 107, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex (France) and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR 6532 Hydrasa, Universite de Poitiers, 40, Avenue du Recteur Pineau, F-86022 Poitiers Cedex (France)]. E-mail: roquin@illite.u-strasbg.fr; Bustillo, Vincent [Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INPT), Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique (ENSAT), 40 Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, BP 107, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex (France); Domaine experimental Olivier de Serres, Lycee Agricole d' Aubenas, le Pradel, F-07170 Mirabel (France); Roquin, Claude [Centre de Geochimie de la Surface, EOST, UMR 7517, 1 rue Blessig, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Mortatti, Jefferson [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, CP: 96, CEP 13400 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Victoria, Reynaldo [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, CP: 96, CEP 13400 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

2005-09-15

175

The Amazon. Bio-geochemistry applied to river basin management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hydrochemical model, using hydrograph separation, developed for the Niger basin, has been proposed as a strategic tool for studying the watershed dynamics at any time and space scales. The model is applied to the Amazon basin, including the main channel and its major tributaries. The database corresponds to a sampling and analytical program developed over 8 cruises at 9 stations (about 70 samples), collected in the framework of the CAMREX Project (1982-1984). The model, based on a hydrograph separation of 3 reservoirs, is successful in extrapolating and predicting the geochemical and environmental behaviour of such large basins, naturally submitted to large secular or annual, regular or even catastrophic climatic oscillations. Several topics have been considered. (1) Coherence among the physico-chemical analyses: dissolved species (pH, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, HCO3-, Cl-, DOC-, SO42-, HPO42-, SiO2, O2 and CO2), and inorganic or organic suspended load (fine and coarse fractions FSS, CSS, POCF, POCC). (2) Hydrograph separation in 3 reservoir contributions: RS, the superficial or rapid runoff, RI, the hypodermic or intermediate runoff, including the flood plain contributions, and RB the ground water or base flow. (3) Estimation of the isotopic and physico-chemical features of each of the 3 flow components: RS, RI, and RB. (4) Determination of the 3 hydrological parameters (size of the reservoir, drying up coefficient, and residence time of water), characterizing each of the 3 flow components (RS, RI, and RB), in each of the 9 basins considered. (5) Hydrological and geochemical balances for all the parameters analysed either (a) cruise by cruise for all tributaries and the Amazon River at Obidos, or (b) among each of the 3 river flow components. (6) Isotopic data set of ?18O in waters, tests of coherence of the hydrograph separation model. (7) Relationships between isotopic signatures and morphological or hydroclimatical parameters characterizing the river-soil-vegetation systems. The developed procedure presents a new tool in environmental predictions, emphasizing the potentiality of geochemical interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

2005-01-01

176

Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin). The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out until now. Some of the potential solutions, aiming to achieve the effective flood control, are suggested as well.

Milanovi? Ana

2006-01-01

177

Summary of Hydrologic Data for the Tuscarawas River Basin, Ohio, with an Annotated Bibliography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tuscarawas River Basin drains approximately 2,600 square miles in eastern Ohio and is home to 600,000 residents that rely on the water resources of the basin. This report summarizes the hydrologic conditions in the basin, describes over 400 publicatio...

L. A. Simonson R. J. Haefner

2010-01-01

178

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices.

Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

2002-01-01

179

Thermal springs in the Salmon River basin, central Idaho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Salmon River basin within the study area occupies an area of approximately 13,000 square miles in central Idaho. Geologic units in the basin are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; however, granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith are predominant. Water from thermal springs ranges in temperature from 20.5/sup 0/ to 94.0/sup 0/ Celsius. The waters are slightly alkaline and are generally a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations are variable and range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. Estimated reservoir temperatures determined from the silicic acid-corrected silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 30/sup 0/ to 184/sup 0/ Celsius. Tritium concentrations in sampled thermal waters are near zero and indicate the waters are at least 100 years old. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely that a single hot-water reservoir supplies hot springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged at least 15,800 acre-feet of water in 1980. Associated convective heat flux is 2.7 x 10/sup 7/ calories per second.

Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

1982-02-01

180

Response of the Mackenzie River Basin lakes to climate variability  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mackenzie River Basin has experienced the highest year to year climate variability in the northern hemisphere during the winter months over the last 50 years. Lakes have special interest since they reflect the influence of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation oscillations (Teleconnections). Seasonal and composite lake water level anomalies for the negative and positive phases of North Pacific (NP), Pacific North American (PNA), Pacific Decadal (PDO), Arctic (AO), and El Nino Southern (ENSO) Oscillations, indicate PDO to have the largest influence on the amplitude of lake level anomalies across Mackenzie River Basin during 1950--2008. NP is more influential than ENSO in the southern part of the basin and during winter seasons. The response to the Arctic Oscillation (AO) effect is only recorded at Great Slave Lake during the spring. Squared coherence, the frequency domain equivalent of correlation, was used to evaluate the modes and frequencies of correlations between the above mentioned lake levels and teleconnection indexes. Great Bear Lake levels are sensitive to the variability of all considered teleconnections at the decadal (PDO) and interannual (ENSO, PNA, NP, AO) bands. The North Pacific followed by Pacific North American and Arctic Oscillations are the most influential teleconnections at interannual frequencies for the southern part of the basin. The influence of flow regulation on Great Slave Lake level variability mainly affects the coherence response at the (1.0--1.5) years' period, without an impact on the low-frequency climate signal, as reflected by significant correlations with ENSO at the 10 years' period and North Pacific and Arctic Oscillations at the 6.6 years' period. The Aleutian Low indexes indicate the highest interannual frequency, which is significant in the basin, corresponds to the (1.5--1.6) years' period. Differences in the slopes of Lake Altimetry Heights (LAH) across Great Slave Lake identifies deeper and colder areas as ideal to study interannual climate variability due to their minimal change in gradient through time, as compared to areas with higher gradient variability. Changes in lake level gradients are more related to surface water temperature distribution than wind effects.

Sarmiento, Sergio Eduardo

 
 
 
 
181

A spatial analysis of phosphorus in the Mississippi river basin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and impairs local water quality. We analyzed the spatial pattern of P in the MRB to determine the counties with the greatest January to June P riverine yields and the most critical factors related to this P loss. Using a database of P inputs and landscape characteristics from 1997 through 2006 for each county in the MRB, we created regression models relating riverine total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and particulate P (PP) yields for watersheds within the MRB to these factors. Riverine yields of P were estimated from the average concentration of each form of P during January to June for the 10-yr period, multiplied by the average daily flow, and then summed for the 6-mo period. The fraction of land planted in crops, human consumption of P, and precipitation were found to best predict TP yields with a spatial error regression model ( = 0.48, = 101). Dissolved reactive P yields were predicted by fertilizer P inputs, human consumption of P, and precipitation in a multiple regression model ( = 0.42, = 73), whereas PP yields were explained by crop fraction, human consumption of P, and soil bulk density in a spatial error regression model ( = 0.49, = 61). Overall, the Upper Midwest's Cornbelt region and lower Mississippi basin had the counties with the greatest P yields. These results help to point out specific areas where agricultural conservation practices that reduce losses to streams and rivers and point source P removal might limit the intensity or spatial occurrence of Gulf of Mexico hypoxia and improve local water quality.

Jacobson LM; David MB; Drinkwater LE

2011-05-01

182

A spatial analysis of phosphorus in the Mississippi river basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and impairs local water quality. We analyzed the spatial pattern of P in the MRB to determine the counties with the greatest January to June P riverine yields and the most critical factors related to this P loss. Using a database of P inputs and landscape characteristics from 1997 through 2006 for each county in the MRB, we created regression models relating riverine total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and particulate P (PP) yields for watersheds within the MRB to these factors. Riverine yields of P were estimated from the average concentration of each form of P during January to June for the 10-yr period, multiplied by the average daily flow, and then summed for the 6-mo period. The fraction of land planted in crops, human consumption of P, and precipitation were found to best predict TP yields with a spatial error regression model ( = 0.48, = 101). Dissolved reactive P yields were predicted by fertilizer P inputs, human consumption of P, and precipitation in a multiple regression model ( = 0.42, = 73), whereas PP yields were explained by crop fraction, human consumption of P, and soil bulk density in a spatial error regression model ( = 0.49, = 61). Overall, the Upper Midwest's Cornbelt region and lower Mississippi basin had the counties with the greatest P yields. These results help to point out specific areas where agricultural conservation practices that reduce losses to streams and rivers and point source P removal might limit the intensity or spatial occurrence of Gulf of Mexico hypoxia and improve local water quality. PMID:21546679

Jacobson, Linda M; David, Mark B; Drinkwater, Laurie E

183

River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

C. I. Michailovsky; S. McEnnis; P. A. M. Berry; R. Smith; P. Bauer-Gottwein

2012-01-01

184

River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

Michailovsky, C. I.; McEnnis, S.; Berry, P. A. M.; Smith, R.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

2012-07-01

185

River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; McEnnis, S.

2012-01-01

186

Chloride control and monitoring program in the Wichita River Basin, Texas, 1996-2009  

Science.gov (United States)

Water resources of the Wichita River Basin in north-central Texas are vital to the water users in Wichita Falls, Tex., and surrounding areas. The Wichita River Basin includes three major forks of the Wichita River upstream from Lake Kemp, approximately 50 miles southwest of Wichita Falls, Tex. The main stem of the Wichita River is formed by the confluence of the North Wichita River and Middle Fork Wichita River upstream from Truscott Brine Lake. The confluence of the South Wichita River with the Wichita River is northwest of Seymour, Tex. (fig. 1). Waters from the Wichita River Basin, which is part of the Red River Basin, are characterized by high concentrations of chloride and other salinity-related constituents from salt springs and seeps (hereinafter salt springs) in the upper reaches of the basin. These salt springs have their origins in the Permian Period when the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma areas were covered by a broad shallow sea. Over geologic time, evaporation of the shallow seas resulted in the formation of salt deposits, which today are part of the geologic formations underlying the area. Groundwater in these formations is characterized by high chloride concentrations from these salt deposits, and some of this groundwater is discharged by the salt springs into the Wichita River.

Haynie, M.M.; Burke, G.F.; Baldys, Stanley III

2011-01-01

187

Perspectives on sustainable development in the Moose River basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental, economic and sociocultural determinants of sustainable development in the Cree communities of the Mushkegowuk region of the Hudson and James Bay lowlands of Ontario were analyzed. The Cree perspectives on sustainable development versus the perspective of industrial developers such as Ontario Hydro, and the contrast between the two, were outlined. In 1990, Ontario Hydro released their long term demand and supply plan report. Their proposals included new generating stations and the development of existing sites in the Moose River drainage basin. Ontario Hydro`s perspective was that they were using an otherwise under-utilized resource, and creating employment at the same time. By contrast, the Cree demanded a thorough assessment of cumulative impacts of development of the Moose River region, the impact on the Cree communities, and the cumulative effects on the much larger Hudson Bay region. They drew attention to the vulnerability of the local land-based economy, and the damage caused by past hydroelectric and other industrial development projects. The situation is a good illustration of the basic dilemma for development planning in the Moose River region, and indeed for much of the Canadian north. It is the view of these authors that the recipe for a viable development strategy for the region should involve continued reliance on transfer payments and investments in renewable resource-based industry and local services, not as a transition stage, but as a culturally, economically and ecologically sustainable arrangement in its own right. 32 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

Preston, R.J.; George, P.J. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Berkes, F. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

1995-12-31

188

Umatilla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement : FY 1990 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the summer of 1990, construction continued on the Bonneville Power Administration funded anadromous fish habitat enhancement project in the Umatilla River sub-basin, Umatilla County, State of Oregon. Work started on 5/1/90 and ended 10/30/90. A total of five large log weirs, eight large rock weirs, 17 associated weir structures, 19 small to medium rock deflectors, four bank and island reinforcements, three rock flow controls, 19 woody debris placements, and 85 individual boulders were constructed in the South Fork of the Umatilla River. In addition, one large rock weir was constructed at the confluence of the North and South Forks of the Umatilla River, and repair work was completed on 33 structures in Thomas Creek. Also, 300 cubic yards of rock and some logs and woody material were moved on site for use in 1991. Preconstruction activity consisted of moving approximately 1,500 cubic yards of large boulders, and dive log truck loads of woody material to the construction site. Project monitoring consisted of sediment sampling above and below the project area and, mapping and photographing and structures. 7 figs.

Northrop, Michael

1990-01-01

189

Late quaternary geology in Desaguadero river basin, San Luis, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Absolute radiocarbon datings of the sedimentary successions have come to knowledge enabling us to distinguish the Pleistocene deposits from the supra-lying Holocene ones. A palaeo-environmental evolution is proposed considering climatic fluctuations at the time, their relation with the river unloadings of the Andean glaciers and that proposed for the palaeo-lake of Salina del Bebedero. Sediments are described on the basis of a detailed field sampling, textural analysis (sieved and Bouyoucos) and laboratory geo-chemicals. Their interpretation of the geologic evolution is considered to be very important since it is the only river course on this arid-semi-arid region linked to the reduction of glaciers in the Andes. The sedimentary succession is dominated by high percentages of laminated limes and with green-yellowish to greyish-brown-reddish tones deposited in watery environments of low energy such as lacustrine basins and extended plains of flood, which is why the evolution of the deposit is characterized by the contrast of the values of insolubles (clastic sediment and carbonate) versus solubles (insoluble saline). The climatic cycles dominant and proposed for the center-east Argentine region are identified considering the influence of Andean glaciers on the river systems and the water balances in plain semi-arid environments. (author)

2007-01-01

190

SWOT data assimilation for reservoir operations in the upper Niger river basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective is to evaluate the potential for swath altimetry (SWOT) data to improve reservoir operations in the upper Niger river basin where two reservoirs are (or will be) used to sustain water demand, mainly for irrigation. We coupled the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamics model to the VIC hydrology model to compute the "true" state of the system which we used with a SWOT simulator to provide synthetic water levels and surface extent for both the Niger River channel and the two reservoirs. The simulated states were obtained by running the models with perturbed inputs (meteorological forcings to the VIC model, and water level in the two reservoirs). We integrated a reservoir rule model with the river hydrodynamics and hydrology models in order to define dam releases for each reservoir depending on available water in the river reach and downstream water demand. We then assimilated in situ and SWOT data into the coupled models to correct for model and forcing errors. We considered four scenarios: no assimilation, assimilation of in situ data only, assimilation of SWOT data only, and assimilation of both data sources. We computed performance of each scenario from the total volume of released water and the ability of the system to satisfy water demand.

Munier, Simon; Lettenmaier, Dennis; Polebitski, Austin; Brown, Casey

2013-04-01

191

Retrieval of surface water storage in large river basins from multi-satellite and topographic data  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatio-temporal variations of water storage in surface water bodies (rivers channels, lakes, floodplains and inundation areas) are still widely unknown for large areas. In this study, we present a technique to estimate surface water volumes for large river basins by the combination of (1) a global data set of inundation areas with a resolution of about 25km generated with a multi-satellite method using passive microwave (SSM/I), scatterometer (ERS) and visible and near-IR (AVHRR), and (2) topographic data from global Digital Elevation Models such as SRTM or ACE. We derived time series of monthly surface water storage for the period 1993-2004 based on a hypsographic curve approach. The average water level and volume per month and grid cell was estimated by intersecting the cumulative distribution function of elevation values in each grid cell with the inundation area extent. The focus of the study was the Amazon basin. For the Rio Negro sub-basin, results where compared to complementary methods that used altimetry-based and in-situ water level data. Additionally, results where compared to total water storage variations as derived from time-variable gravity fields of the GRACE satellite mission, highlighting the large contribution of surface water to total storage variations. The results are also discussed with respect to simulated surface water storage of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM). Parameter values in WGHM have been constrained by using water storage from GRACE and the additional benefit of incorporating the surface water information into the calibration process is evaluated.

Güntner, A.; Werth, S.; Papa, F.; Frappart, F.

2009-04-01

192

Surface Water Pollution Control by Appropriate Effluent Taxation: The Thachin River Basin Study, Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research aims to determine the appropriate effluent tax scheme and construct an optimized mathematical decision making model in order to maximize profits while bearing economic and environmental constraints in the Thachin River basin. The Thachin River is ranked as the most polluted river in Th...

Rachasak Klayklung; Charit Tingsabadh; Nantana Gajaseni

193

Taxonomic revision of the Rineloricaria species (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Paraguay River basin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As espécies do gênero Rineloricaria da bacia do rio Paraguai foram revisadas, as seguintes espécies e padrões de distribuição foram encontradas: R. aurata, bacia do rio Paraguai no Brasil e Paraguai, rio Guaporé no Brasil; R. cacerensis, rio Paraguai perto de Cáceres no Brasil; R. lanceolata, bacia do rio Paraguai no Brasil e Paraguai, rios Guaporé, Ji-Paraná, Purus, Solimões e Araguaia no Brasil, rios Marañón e Madre de Dios no Peru; R. parva, bacia do rio P (more) araguai no Brasil e Paraguai, rio Paraná na Argentina, rio Uruguai no Brasil. Loricaria hoehnei é proposta como novo sinônimo júnior de R. lanceolata. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies de Rineloricaria da bacia do rio Paraguai é fornecida. Abstract in english Species of the genus Rineloricaria from the Paraguay River basin were revised, the following species and geographic distributional patterns were found: R. aurata, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, rio Guaporé in Brazil; R. cacerensis, Paraguay River near Cáceres in Brazil; R. lanceolata, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, Guaporé, Ji-Paraná, Purus, Solimões, and Araguaia rivers in Brazil, Marañón and Madre de Dios rivers in Peru; R. parva, Para (more) guay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, Paraná River in Argentina, Uruguay River in Brazil. Loricaria hoehnei is proposed as a new junior synonym of R. lanceolata. A key to the species of Rineloricaria from the Paraguay River basin is provided.

Vera-Alcaraz, Héctor S.; Pavanelli, Carla S.; Zawadzki, Cláudio H.

2012-01-01

194

Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

Eash, David A.

2006-01-01

195

Taxonomic revision of the Rineloricaria species (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Paraguay River basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Species of the genus Rineloricaria from the Paraguay River basin were revised, the following species and geographic distributional patterns were found: R. aurata, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, rio Guaporé in Brazil; R. cacerensis, Paraguay River near Cáceres in Brazil; R. lanceolata, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, Guaporé, Ji-Paraná, Purus, Solimões, and Araguaia rivers in Brazil, Marañón and Madre de Dios rivers in Peru; R. parva, Paraguay River basin in Brazil and Paraguay, Paraná River in Argentina, Uruguay River in Brazil. Loricaria hoehnei is proposed as a new junior synonym of R. lanceolata. A key to the species of Rineloricaria from the Paraguay River basin is provided.As espécies do gênero Rineloricaria da bacia do rio Paraguai foram revisadas, as seguintes espécies e padrões de distribuição foram encontradas: R. aurata, bacia do rio Paraguai no Brasil e Paraguai, rio Guaporé no Brasil; R. cacerensis, rio Paraguai perto de Cáceres no Brasil; R. lanceolata, bacia do rio Paraguai no Brasil e Paraguai, rios Guaporé, Ji-Paraná, Purus, Solimões e Araguaia no Brasil, rios Marañón e Madre de Dios no Peru; R. parva, bacia do rio Paraguai no Brasil e Paraguai, rio Paraná na Argentina, rio Uruguai no Brasil. Loricaria hoehnei é proposta como novo sinônimo júnior de R. lanceolata. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies de Rineloricaria da bacia do rio Paraguai é fornecida.

Héctor S. Vera-Alcaraz; Carla S. Pavanelli; Cláudio H. Zawadzki

2012-01-01

196

A Synoptic Survey of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Tributary Streams and Great Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

We combined stream chemistry and hydrology data from surveys of 467 tributary stream sites and 447 great river sites in the Upper Mississippi River basin to provide a regional snapshot of baseflow total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, and to investigate th...

197

Spatial distribution of runoff in Temštica river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The values of specific runoff are defined by model of multi factorial analyses combined with method of "grid" system. Elemental unit is presented by unit field of 0.5 x 0.5 km. Such multi regression model of high statistical significance enables analyses of specific runoff from many aspects. First aspect is establishing the amount and distribution of water for every altitude zone in total runoff creating. Second is presented in its altitude distribution in dependence of altitude existing of some lithologic-hydrologic complex; at the and from aspect from spatial regionalization it is possible to perceive water distribution within the river basin. By that we could realize water condition of some differential and contrast areas. Application of above mentioned methods as well as processing of each relevant parameter for studying these kinds of problems are carried out in GEOMEDIA program.

Mustafi? Sanja

2006-01-01

198

Integrated landscape management of the Ipel river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the Ipel river basin, examining its sustainable development. It  devises methodology for integrated landscape management as a basic tool for the implementation of its sustainable development in actual practice. The main objective of this case study is to define the socio-economic and environmental problems, to design measures to eliminate these problems and/or to prevent new problems arising. The ultimate goal is to achieve management practices which are in harmony with this area’s potential, to the greatest possible extent. Thus, basic principles are applied to landscape-ecological optimization of  landscape organisation, including nature protection, biodiversity, landscape stability and the protection of its natural resources. These involve its water and soil and the air/atmosphere in its forests. The protection of its cultural-historical resources is extremely important, including, inter alia, the protection of cultural monuments, protection of historical landscape structures and protection of the entire environment

Zita IZAKOVI?OVÁ; Július OSZLÁNYI

2013-01-01

199

Mercury pollution in the upper Beni River, Amazonian Basin: Bolivia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small-scale gold mining is an environmental problem of increasing concern, particularly in tropical regions like the Amazon, where a new boom of such gold mining started in the 1970s. In Brazil, research into these problems has been carried out for many years, but there is no available data for Bolivia. The present paper surveys mercury contamination of a Bolivian river system in the Amazon drainage basin, measured in water, fish, and human hair. High concentrations in fish and human hair from consumers of carnivorous fish species are reported. The potential health risk from fish consumption was evident in people living downstream of gold-mining activities, but not in the mining population itself 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

Maurice-Bourgoin, L. [ORSTOM, French Scientific Research Inst. for Development by Cooperation, La Paz (Bolivia); Quiroga, Irma [Univ. Mayor de San Andres, La Paz (Bolivia). Chemical Research Inst.; Guyot, J.L. [ORSTOM, French Scientific Research Inst. for Development by Cooperation, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Malm, O. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica

1999-06-01

200

Distribution of chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) in polluted rivers of the Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of physical and chemical parameters on the abundance and diversity of chironomids was studied in six rivers with moderate to highly polluted water in the Juru River Basin. The rivers: Ceruk Tok Kun (CTKR) as reference site, and polluted rivers of Pasir (PR), Juru (JR), Permatang Rawa (PRR), Ara (AR) and Kilang Ubi (KUR) were sampled over a period of five months (November 2007-March 2008). Nine chirnomid species: Chironimus kiiensis, C. javanus, Polypedilum trigonus, Microchironomus sp., Dicrotendipes sp., Tanytarsus formosanus, Clinotanypus sp., Tanypus punctipennis and Fittkauimyia sp. were identified. Assessment of their relationships with several environmental parameters was performed using the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Tanytarsus formosanus was the most dominant in the relatively clean CTKR and moderately polluted JR with mean densities of 19.66 and 25.32 m(-2), respectively while C. kiiensis was abundant in more polluted rivers. Tanytarsus formosanus, Dicrotendipes sp. and Microchironomus sp. were grouped under moderate to high water temperature, total organic matter (TOM), total suspended solids (TSS), velocity, pH, phosphates and sulphates. However, Tanypus punctipennis, Fittkauimyia sp., and Clinotanypus sp. were associated with high contents of river sediment such as TOM, Zn and Mn and water ammonium-N and nitrate-N and they were associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) content in the water. Chironomus kiiensis, C. javanus and P. trigonus showed positive relationships with TOM, ammonium-N and nitrate-N as well as trace metals of Zn, Cu and Mn. These three species could be considered as tolerant species since they have the ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions with low DO and high concentrations of pollutants. Based on the water parameter scores in all rivers, the highest diversity of chironomid larvae was reported in CTKR. With higher concentrations of organic and/or inorganic pollutants as reported in PPR, KUR and AR, the chironomid larval diversity decreased, and the abundance of tolerant species, mainly Chironomus spp., increased. PMID:21235159

Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; HassanAhmad, Abu; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Guidebook to the coal geology of the Powder River coal basin, Wyoming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This survey of Wyoming's Powder River Coal Basin was done in June 1980, with emphasis on coal geology and specifically environments of coal deposition. A geologic map explanation was included. The survey included: (1) the regional depositional framework of the uranium- and coal-bearing Wasatch (Eocene) and Fort Union (Paleocene) Formations, Powder River Basin; (2) the Lake De Smet Coal Seam: the product of active basin-margin sedimentation and tectonics in the Lake De Smet Area, Johnson County, Wyoming, during Eocene Wasatch time; (3) fluvial coal settings of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Clear Creek Area; (4) coal resources of the Powder River Coal basin; (5) survey of chemical and petrographic characteristics of Powder River Basin coals; and (6) the Rawhide Coal Mine, Campbell County, Wyoming. The depositional framework of the Fort Union and Wasach formations is characterized by a northward-flowing intermountain basinal fluvial system. The paleogeographic reconstruction of the fluvial settings of the Tongue River Member deposits in the Powder River-Clear Creek area sugges two important subenvironments of coal accumulation. The thickest and most important coals are found in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and the Eocene Wasatch Formation. Each section was discussed in detail. (DP)

Glass, G.B. (ed.)

1980-01-01

202

Copula-based risk evaluation of droughts across the Pearl River basin, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Daily precipitation data for the period of 1960-2005 from 42 precipitation gauging stations in the Pearl River basin were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall trend test and copula functions. The standardized precipitation index method was used to define drought episodes. Primary and secondary return periods were also analyzed to evaluate drought risks in the Pearl River basin as a whole. Results indicated that: (1) in general, the drought tendency was not significant at a 95 % confidence level. However, significant drought trends could be found in November, December, and January and significant wetting trends in June and July. The drought severity and drought durations were not significant at most of the precipitation stations across the Pearl River basin; (2) in terms of drought risk, higher drought risk could be observed in the lower Pearl River basin and lower drought risk in the upper Pearl River basin. Higher risk of droughts of longer durations was always corresponding to the higher risk of droughts with higher drought severity, which poses an increasing challenge for drought management and water resources management. When drought episodes with higher drought severity occurred in the Pearl River basin, the regions covered by higher risk of drought events were larger, which may challenge the water supply in the lower Pearl River basin. As for secondary return periods, results of this study indicated that secondary return periods might provide a more robust evaluation of drought risk. This study should be of merit for water resources management in the Pearl River basin, particularly the lower Pearl River basin, and can also act as a case study for determining regional response to drought changes as a result of global climate changes.

Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong

2013-01-01

203

Determination of perfluorinated compounds in the upper Mississippi river basin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite ongoing efforts to develop robust analytical methods for the determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in surface water, comparatively little has been published on method performance, and the environmental distribution of these materials remains poorly described worldwide. In this study, an existing method was improved and applied in a large-scale evaluation of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, one of the largest watersheds in the world. Samples were collected in 2008 in an effort that involved multiple sample sites and collection teams, long-range transport, and storage of up to 4 weeks before analysis. Ninety-four percent of the resulting 177 samples had quantifiable PFC concentrations, with 80% of the individual target compounds below 10 ng/L. The most abundant PFCs were perfluorobutanoic acid (C4; 77% above the limit of quantitation, LOQ), perfluorooctanoic acid (C8; 73%), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; 71%), perfluorohexanoic acid (C6; 70%), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (C7; 69%), with the remaining target compounds occurring above the LOQ in less than 50% of the samples. The highest concentrations recorded include C4 at 458 ng/L, PFOS at 245 ng/L, and C8 at 125 ng/L, suggesting various point source inputs within the Basin.

Nakayama SF; Strynar MJ; Reiner JL; Delinsky AD; Lindstrom AB

2010-06-01

204

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume V : Evaluation of the 1999 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 1999 inseason outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from sixteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, South Fork Salmon River, and Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for a stock of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake and for the runs-at-large of Snake River wild yearling chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. The 1999 RealTime project began making forecasts for a new stock of PIT-tagged wild fall subyearling chinook salmon, as a substitute for forecasts of the wild run-at-large, discontinued June 6. Forecasts for the run-at-large were discontinued when a large release of unmarked hatchery fish into the Snake River made identification of wild fish impossible. The 1999 Program RealTime performance was comparable to its performance in previous years with respect to the run-at-large of yearling chinook salmon (whole season MAD=3.7%), and the run of hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon (whole season MAD=6.7%). Season-wide performance of program RealTime predictions for wild Snake River yearling chinook salmon ESUs improved in 1999, with mean MADs from the first half of the outmigrations down from 15.1% in 1998 to 4.5% in 1999. RealTime performance was somewhat worse for the run-at-large of steelhead trout in 1999, compared to 1998, particularly during the last half of the outmigration when the MAD increased from 2.7% in 1998 to 6.1% in 1999. A pattern of over-predictions was observed in half of the yearling chinook salmon ESUs and the steelhead run-at-large during the month of May. Lower-than-average outflows were observed at Lower Granite dam during the first half of May, the only period of low flows in an year with otherwise higher-than-average-flows. The passage distribution of the stock new to the RealTime forecasting project, the PIT tagged stock of fall subyearling chinook salmon, was predicted with very good accuracy (whole season MAD=4.7%), particularly during the last half of the outmigration (MAD=3.6%). The RealTime project reverted to a pre-1998 method of adjusting PIT-tagged smolt counts at Lower Granite Dam because of its superior performance during the last half of the outmigration.

Burgess, Caitlin

1998-07-01

205

Predicting Natural Channel Typology for River Restoration in the Columbia River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of geomorphological target conditions for river restoration is typically based on locally measured reference conditions, yet few reference sites remain in much of the 630,000 km2 Columbia River basin, USA. Therefore, we predict reference conditions throughout the basin based on key reach-scale variables, which we empirically derived from a limited number of reference sites. Our typology predicts channel type based primarily on channel slope in confined reaches (floodplain width less than 4 times the bankfull channel width) and on slope, drainage area, precipitation, and relative transport capacity in unconfined reaches (floodplain width greater than 4 times channel width). Channel types are cascade, step-pool, plane-bed, and pool-riffle in confined reaches, and braided, island-braided, meandering, and straight in unconfined reaches. Accuracy of channel type prediction in confined reaches is generally high compared to prediction accuracy in unconfined reaches. Lower accuracy in the unconfined reaches is largely due to vertical accuracy of the 10- m DEM, which is insufficient to accurately estimate channel slope in low relief areas. However, lack of sediment supply information also limits our ability to predict floodplain channel type accurately. Therefore, we evaluate the effect of incorporating an estimate of relative transport capacity to help separate single thread channels (straight and meandering) from multi-thread channels (braided and island-braided) and increase prediction accuracy. Finally, we use existing ecoregion maps to show how channel type distributions vary among geologic regions, and suggest analysis options for mapping reference condition across large river basins.

Beechie, T.; Imaki, H.

2008-12-01

206

Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was developed using GAMS 2.25 software. Application of the model to the Akbura River basin indicated efficiencies in the proposed institutional rules especially in low water years.

Akmal Karimov; Murat Yakubov; Andrew Noble; Kahramon Jumabaev; Oyture Anarbekov; Jusipbek Kazbekov; Nazir Mirzaev; Ahmad Alimdjanov

2010-01-01

207

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume III : Evaluation of the 1997 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Yearling and Subyearling Chinook and Sockeye in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the 1994 outmigration, program RealTime has been applied to provide in-season predictions of smolt outmigration timing for individual and aggregates of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon stocks. Results from the 1997 smolt outmigrations of wild Snake River yearling and subyearling chinook show prediction of run-timing can be accurately forecasted. The number of release sites meeting previous years criteria for RealTime forecasts dropped to five for the wild spring/summer chinook parr PIT-tagged in 1996: Catherine Creek, Imnaha, Lostine, Minam and South Fork Salmon Rivers. An experiment in lessening previous RealTime requirements for forecasting a outmigration in progress added three release sites of chinook: Lake Creek, Secesh and South Fork Wenaha Rivers; and one release of age 1+ sockeye at Redfish Lake. Passage indices provided by the Fish Passage Center for Lower Granite Dam were monitored for the wild subyearling chinook outmigration. Investigation continued into basing predictions on historical years with similar flows as a way to improve forecasting performance for the wild subyearling outmigration. Program RealTime's output is a series of estimated percentages of the status of the smolt outmigration throughout the season. To compare the performance the program from year to year, or to compare various assumptions used set up the forecasting, the mean absolute deviance (MAD) of the daily predicted outmigration-proportion from the actual outmigration-proportion is calculated post-season. Furthermore, these MAD's are considered for three periods of the season: the first 50% of the season, the second 50%, and the entire season.

Townsend, Richard L.

1998-07-01

208

Taconic foreland basin evolution: Sedimentology and cement stratigraphy of the Black River Group limestones in the Champlain Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Black River Group (Middle Ordovician, Mohawkian Series) limestones in the Champlain Basin record the transition between the shallow deposits of the underlying Chazy Group limestones and the shale-limestone couplets of the overlying Trenton Group which record rapid deepening of the foreland basin. The Black River Group was deposited in a subsiding foreland basin during the early stages of the Taconic Orogeny. Syn-depositional block faulting as a result of thrust loading has been demonstrated to affect Chazy and Trenton Group deposition. Abrupt lithofacies changes within the Black River Group record the dynamic bathymetry present in the Champlain Basin during its deposition. The Black River Group helps refine the timing of extensional block faulting during the Taconic Orogeny. The Black River Group in the Champlain Basin is a relatively thin unit, approximately 80 feet thick at Crown Point, New York. Exposures between Crown Point, NY and South Hero Island, VT record deposition of the Black River Group limestones in a protected lagoonal environment, with an evolving fringing pellet shoal barrier complex. Eight lithofacies are defined, grading from a basal sandstone and/or a sandy dolomite, to a micrite to biomicrite, to an intra-pelsparite of a shoal environment. Intraclast horizons and broken, rounded marine allochems suggest the influence of storm activity as a modifier of depositional history. Rapid deepenings into the normal marine subtidal environment, as well as micro-karst textures and fossil beach rock exposures are interpreted to represent sudden bas level changes, possibly from syndepositional block fault movement. Although dynamic bathymetry influences the stratigraphy within the Black River Group, a macro-scale deepening upwards on a formation scale is present, representing subsidence of the foreland basin.

Bechtel, S.C.; Mehrtens, C.J. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

209

Parameterization of Compartmental Models for Nutrient Transport From River Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

A key aspect of modeling the transport of solutes in a river basin is how the model handles the retention processes along the distribution of flow paths. One way to imitate the natural delay is to describe the retention thorough an exchange between the main channel and a transient storage zone. The retention characteristics and hence the mathematical description of the exchange, will be crucial for the models ability to describe different hydrological events (e.g. variation in the water flow) correctly. This study explores a methodology to translate parameters from a 1-dimensional advection-dispersion network model with transient storage to a compartmental model, with special emphasis on effects of the river network and parameter variability in the watershed. Temporal moments expressions for both models are used as a theoretical framework for translating transport properties of the more complex model to the compartmental model. The fundamental constructions of the models are compared through derivation of the temporal moments associated with a unit pulse and convolution methods that allows consideration of parameter heterogeneity. Numerical discretisation of the models are done in order to investigate the model error and to study the criteria for resolution scales and the importance of individual parameters, e.g. water flow.

Riml, J.; Worman, A.

2008-12-01

210

Herbicide and degradate flux in the Yazoo River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1996-1997, water samples were collected from five sites in the Yazoo River Basin and analysed for 14 herbicides and nine degradates. These included acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, metribuzin, molinate, norflurazon, prometryn, propanil, propazine, simazine, trifluralin, three degradates of fluometuron, two degradates of atrazine, one degradate of cyanazine, norflurazon, prometryn, and propanil. Fluxes generally were higher in 1997 than in 1996 due to a greater rainfall in 1997 than 1996. Fluxes were much larger from streams in the alluvial plain (an area of very productive farmland) than from the Skuna River in the bluff hills (an area of small farms, pasture, and forest). Adding the flux of the atrazine degradates to the atrazine flux increased the total atrazine flux by an average of 14.5%. The fluometuron degradates added about 10% to the total fluometuron flux, and adding the norflurazon degradate flux to the norflurazon flux increased the flux by 82% in 1996 and by 171% in 1997. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis.

Coupe, R. H.; Welch, H. L.; Pell, A. B.; Thurman, E. M.

2005-01-01

211

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

2003-03-01

212

The use of remote sensing and geographic information systems for the evaluation of river basins: a case study for Turkey, Marmara River Basin and Istanbul.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine sensitive river basins and specific areas that urgently need planning activities for sustainable resource and environmental management. In this context, a combination of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) were employed. For that purpose, a comprehensive overview of the current situation of Turkish river basins in terms of existing spatial data was provided and all tabular data gathered from the national authorities on regional basis was assessed in combination with the geometric data of Turkish river basins in a GIS environment. Considering the GIS studies that covered all 26 Turkish basins, the Marmara River Basin was selected as the model sensitive region and was studied in more detail by using 2000 dated Landsat 7 ETM mosaic satellite image. Results of this comprehensive study indicated that Istanbul, which is located in the basin under study and the largest metropolitan of Turkey, was determined as the most populated and urbanized area of the region. Istanbul was further examined to determine the expansion of urban areas over a time period of 16 years using Landsat images dated 1984, 1992 and 2000. Finally, interpretations were done by combining the demographic and statistical data on urban wastewater treatment plants to present the prevailing situation of the water treatment facilities in Istanbul. Our study not only delineated the importance of applying environmental policies correctly for the efficient installation and operation of urban wastewater treatment plants in Istanbul but also demonstrated that effective urban wastewater management is a nationwide problem in Turkey.

Ulugtekin N; Balcik FB; Dogru AO; Goksel C; Alaton IA; Orhon D

2009-03-01

213

UPPER SNAKE RIVER PRIORITY BASIN ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN, APRIL 1973  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Snake Accomplishment Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) is defined as the Idaho and Oregon portions of 2 STORET Basins, the Upper Snake Basin and the Central Snake Basin. The Basin drains approximately 62,100 square miles in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon. Four ...

214

River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. In this study, retracked Envisat altimetry data was extracted over the Zambezi River Basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 5.5 to 7.4 % terms of high flow estimation relative to in situ gauge measurements. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 8.2 and 25.8 % of the high flow estimates.

C. I. Michailovsky; S. McEnnis; P. A. M. Berry; R. Smith; P. Bauer-Gottwein

2012-01-01

215

A BASELINE ASSESSMENT OF COAL INDUSTRY STRUCTURE IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY REGION  

Science.gov (United States)

This analysis is in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed information is provided on coal production and employment by county, the consumption and distribution o...

216

Selected Water Resources Data, Clarion River and Redbank Creek Basins, Northwestern Pennsylvania - Part 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents selected basic data collected during a study of the water resources of the Clarion River and Redbank Creek basins in northwestern Pennsylvania. Hydrologic information including data on aquifers, water levels, and yields is presented f...

T. F. Buckwalter C. H. Dodge G. R. Schiner

1979-01-01

217

Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screens Evaluations. Annual Report, January 2006-December 2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program lists fish protection through effective screening of irrigation diversions as an essential element in its plan to restore declining steelhead and salmon run...

C. Tunnicliffe M. Chamness S. Abernethy

2007-01-01

218

Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program: Issue Paper 9B, resident fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The issue discussed is whether the Northwest Power Planning Council should add, delete, or modify measures in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program on resident fish hatcheries, habitat improvement, water purchases, enhancement opportunities and project operations. (ACR)

1984-01-01

219

Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

2004-01-01

220

The Challenges of Integrated Management of Mekong River Basin in Terms of People’s Livelihood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mekong River Basin is a life for many people in six south East Asian countries. The river basin is very productive and has crucial activities like: fishing, agriculture, hydroelectric power, transportation, biodiversity and so on. However, due to mismanagement, political intentions and one way interest only for development, the river basin has already started experiencing complications. The major challenges found out were, huge hydroelectric dam constructions and other projects, high population pressure, lack of cooperation among riparian states (especially upper Mekong region and lower one), and lack of proper management system. This leads to inequitable resource use, impact on water quality, biodiversity loss, and disasters like flooding. It is a high time to make a joint venture among riparian countries for sustainable use of the resource. Multi lateral cooperation and commitment among user countries by consulting all stakeholders will benefit all to use this precious resource equitably without major ecological impacts on the river basin.

Alebel Abebe BELAY; Shah Md. Atiqul HAQ; Vuong Quoc CHIEN; Badandi ARAFAT

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Temporal & Spatial Variation and Benefit Analysis of Farmers Fertilizer at Tarim River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with the continuous development of the fertilizer industry, it provides a large extent of impetus to cultivation. This paper analyzes based on the temporal & spatial variation and planting efficiency of farmers fertilizer at Tarim River Basin, it finds that farmers fertilizer provides a large extent of impetus to cultivation. Therefore, using cointegration method to analyze influence of planting efficiency with farmers fertilizer at Tarim River Basin, the model results show that farmers fertilization amount with planting efficiency at Tarim River Basin and prefectures exists a positive correlation, and the influence of the order is same as the fertilization amount with planting efficiency growth. On this basis, it proposes suggestions on farmers reasonable fertilization.Key words: Tarim River Basin; Fertilization; Plant production value

Lu YAN; HuiLan MA; Yang SU

2012-01-01

222

Transport and Retention of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon in North America’s Largest River Swamp Basin, the Atchafalaya River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004) river discharge and water quality records from an upriver and a downriver location of the Atchafalaya River to quantify the inflow, outflow, and inflow–outflow mass balance of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN = organic nitrogen + ammonia nitrogen), nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (NO3 + NO2), total phosphorous (TP), and total organic carbon (TOC) through the largest river swamp basin in North America. The study found that, over the past 27 years, the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB) acted as a significant sink for TKN (annual retention: 24%), TP (41%), and TOC (12%), but a source for NO3 + NO2 nitrogen (6%). On an annual basis, ARB retained 48,500 t TKN, 16,900 t TP, and 167,100 t TOC from the river water. The retention rates were closely and positively related to the river discharge with highs during the winter and spring and lows in the late summer. The higher NO3 + NO2 mass outflow occurred throughout spring and summer, indicating an active role of biological processes on nitrogen as water and air temperatures in the basin rise.

Y. Jun Xu

2013-01-01

223

Spatio-Temporal Variations of Precipitation Extremes in the Yangtze River Basin (1960-2002), China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Daily precipitation data during 1960-2002 from 150 stations in the Yangtze River basin were analyzed with the help of linear trend analysis. Highest 5-day and 10-day precipitation amount (R5D and R10D) and percentile daily precipitation maxima (prec95p for 95th percentile and prec99p for 99th percentile) were accepted as the precipitation extreme index. The frequency of the R5D and R10D was in downward trend, this phenomenon is more obvious in the middle Yangtze River basin; The stations with total precipitation of R5D and R10D are in significant upward trend (> 95% confidence level) are mostly located in the lower Yangtze River basin and the south-western part of the Yangtze River basin; 2) the spatial distribution of the frequency of total precipitation of the percentile daily precipitation maxima is similar to that of R5D and R10D. However the frequency of prec95p and prec99p is in significant upward trend. The upward trend of total precipitation changes of prec95p and prec99p is more obvious than that of frequency of prec95p and prec99p. The regions dominated by upward trend of frequency/total precipitation of prec95p and prec99p are also the lower Yangtze River basin and south-western part of the Yangtze River basin. Therefore the occurrence probability of the flash floods in the lower Yangtze River basin and south-western part of the Yangtze River basin will be greater.

Qiang Zhang; Xiaohong Chen; Becker Stefan

2011-01-01

224

Impact of energy development in the Tongue River basin, Southeastern Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Southeastern Montana's Tongue River basin is experiencing rapid development of its extensive coal deposits. This development has a significant impact on the basin's hydrologic systems. Ground water flow is disrupted by mining and its quality degraded. Mine mouth conversion of the coal involves consumption of large amounts of water at the expense of downstream users, creating several water conflicts. Allocation of Tongue River water has favoured agricultural users, and reallocation is difficult.

Hickcox, D.H.

1982-12-01

225

The impact of energy development in the Tongue River Basin, southeastern Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Southeastern Montana's Tongue River basin is experiencing rapid development of its extensive coal deposits. This development has a significant impact on the basin's hydrologic systems. Ground water flow is disrupted by mining and its quality degraded. Mine mouth conversion of the coal involves consumption of large amounts of water at the expense of downstream users, creating several water conflicts. Allocation of Tongue River water has favored agricultural users, and reallocation is difficult.

Hickcox, D.H.

1982-12-01

226

Uranium isotopic investigations and radiocarbon measurements of river-groundwater systems, Sabarmati Basin, Gujarat, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Measurements of uranium concentrations, and 234U/238U activity ratios along the Sabarmati River and adjacent phreatic aquifers, and radiocarbon in confined aquifers in the Watrak-Shedi sub-basin, part of the Sabarmati basin, have been carried out. The uranium isotope distributions show marked seasonal variations in river waters, whereas they are within experimental uncertainties in the groundwaters adjacent to the river bed. The observed seasonal variations indicate the presence of a groundwater component in the Sabarmati River, and its contribution to the total river flow appears to be maximum during summer. Apparent radiocarbon ages of confined aquifers in the Watrak-Shedi sub-basin show that the groundwater flow is in the NE-SW direction with a velocity of 6-7m/a. (author)

1978-06-23

227

Uranium isotopic investigations and radiocarbon measurements of river-groundwater systems, Sabarmati basin, Gujarat, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of uranium concentrations, 234U/238U activity ratios along the Sabarmati river and adjacent phreatic aquifers and radiocarbon in confined aquifers in the Watrak-Shedi sub-basin, part of Sabarmati basin, have been carried out. The uranium isotope distributions show marked seasonal variations in river waters, whereas they are within experimental uncertainties in the groundwaters adjacent to the river bed. The observed seasonal variations indicate the presence of a groundwater component in Sabarmati river, and its contribution to the total river flow appears to be maximum during summer. Apparent radiocarbon ages of confined aquifers in Watrak-Shedi sub-basin show that the groundwater flow is in the NE-SW direction with a velocity of 6-7 m/a. (orig.)

1978-06-23

228

Assessment of heavy metals in sediments of the Sinos river basin, southern Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study aimed to evaluate the content of Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn and their geochemical partitioning in sediments of the Sinos river basin in southern Brazil. This basin has a high population density and a great number of industries, especially metallurgy, electroplating works, steel mills, pet...

Schneider I. L.; Teixeira E. C.; Rodrigues M. L. K.; Rolim S. B. A.

229

POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON RAINFALL EROSIVITY IN THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN OF CHINA 1723  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe soil erosion in the Yellow River basin is a significant obstruction to the sustainable management of soil and water resources. Any changes in soil erosion will have great effects on long-term planning of soil and water conservation in such a severely eroded basin. Rainfall erosivity describes...

230

Fish fauna in Iberian mediterranean river basins : biodiversity, introduced species and damming impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We used a basin approximation to analyse distribution patterns of different components of biodiversity (taxonomic richness, endemicity, taxonomic singularity, rarity) and conservation status of freshwater fish fauna in 27 Mediterranean Iberian rivers. Basin area alone explained more than 80% of var...

Clavero Pineda, Miguel; Blanco Garrido, Francisco; Prenda Marín, José

231

An Ecologic Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Humboldt River Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Humboldt River Basin covers a large part of northern Nevada. Very little is known about the water quality of the entire Basin. The people living in this area depend on clean water. Not knowing about water quality is a concern because people will need to manage the negative...

232

Snow modeling in the Klamath River Basin: understanding the factors controlling snow distribution and melt  

Science.gov (United States)

Point and spatially distributed models have been applied to the 4053 km2 Sprague River Basin which is one of three main tributaries to the Upper Klamath Basin in Southern Oregon, USA. The simulations cover entire water years to understand the physics controlling snow distribution during the accumul...

233

The cathedral and the bazaar: Monocentric and polycentric river basin management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two contemporary theories of river basin management are compared. One is centralised 'regulatory river basin management' with an apex authority that seeks hydrometric data and nationally agreed standards and procedures in decisions over water quality and allocation. This model is commonplace and can be identified in many water training curricula and derivatives of basin management policy. The other, 'polycentric river basin management', is institutionally, organisationally and geographically more decentralised, emphasising local, collective ownership and reference to locally agreed standards. The polycentric model is constructed from the creation of appropriate managerial subunits within river basins. This model emphasises the deployment of hydrologists, scientists and other service providers as mediating agents of environmental and institutional transformation, tackling issues arising within and between the basin subunits such as water allocation and distribution, productivity improvement and conflict resolution. Significantly, it considers water allocation between subunits rather than between sectors and to do this promulgates an experimental, step-wise pragmatic approach, building on local ideas to make tangible progress in basins where data monitoring is limited, basin office resources are constrained and regulatory planning has stalled. To explore these issues, the paper employs the 'Cathedral and Bazaar' metaphor of Eric Raymond. The discussion is informed by observations from Tanzania, Nigeria and the UK.

Bruce Lankford; Nick Hepworth

2010-01-01

234

Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume VIII; New Model for Estimating Survival Probabilities and Residualization from a Release-Recapture Study of Fall Chinook Salmon Smolts in the Snake River, 1995 Technical Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake River fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging.

Lowther, Alan B.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Fisheries Research Institute, Seattle, WA)

1997-09-01

235

Isotope hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in Purna river basin, Maharashtra, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two sets of water samples from Purna river (Surface water), Dug wells (Shallow aquifer) and tube wells (Deep aquifer) and six piezometer samples were collected from different parts of the Purna river basin and analysed for environmental isotopes as well as major, minor, and trace ions. The interpretation of the results was carried out in the light of other geological information to decipher cause of salinity and delineating recharge and discharge zones of the fresh groundwater in the area. The Piper trilinear plots for fresh waters and saline waters showed that fresh waters are generally Na-HCO3 type whereas saline samples are predominantly Na-Cl type. The hydrochemical facies in saline waters change from HCO3 to Cl type. The deep aquifers of the area have saline, brackish and fresh waters. The ? D - ? 18O plot indicates evaporative enrichment. The fresh waters fall near GMWL with a slope of about 8. Brackish waters, falling between saline and fresh waters seems to be mixture of the two waters. This is further inferred as well by the 3H values of the waters. ? 18O - Cl -1 plot showed that the salinity in the deep aquifers could be due to leaching of salts from the formation as well. The 3H values of the samples showed that the saline aquifers are isolated and not getting modern recharge. However, the brackish water aquifers do get partial recharge from a distant source. The 14C results of the highly saline groundwater samples suggested their uncorrected ages about 4 - 7 ka BP. The ? 34S values of the aqueous sulphate samples indicated their non-marine origin. From the study it was concluded that, the deeper saline waters are old waters; their salinity is predominantly Na-Cl type. The mechanism of salinisation appears to be owing to evaporation, dissolution, and leaching of salts from formation. The isotope study also indicates their non-marine origin of salinity

2004-01-01

236

THIRTY-FIVE YEARS OF UPPER MISSOURI RIVER BASIN PALEOPATHOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wet Bones project consisted of speech/hearing evaluations performed on the Native Americans. The Dry Bones project were studies conducted on bones recovered from the region. During 35 years we examined skeletal remnants representing several cultures who existed in Dakota Territory during two millennia. The study of paleopathology was enhanced by salvage archaeology projects conducted before closure of dams across the River in the Upper Missouri River Basin (UMRB). Climatic conditions were unfavorable to mummification, limiting the study to bones. We were stimulated by a symposium on paleopathology at National Science Foundation, chaired by S. Jarcho (Yale University) (1966). There emphasis was placed on demography and epidemiology. Additional motivation by T.A. Cockburn (Detroit) (1977), who questioned whether ear disease, mastoiditis, and its complications, existed in proto United States, focused our attention on the Dry Bones study. The results of the Dry Bones project are presented hereEl proyecto Huesos Mojados consistía en las evaluaciones de hablar/escuchar a y con los nativos de Norteamérica. El proyecto Huesos Secos consistía en estudios conducidos en los huesos recuperados de la región. Durante 35 años, examinamos los restos esqueletales que representan varias culturas diferentes que vivían en el Territorio Dakota durante 2000 años. Un factor que mejora la paleopatología en esta región eran los proyectos arqueológicos de rescate conducidos antes de cerrar las represas que cruzan el Río Missouri en Dakota del Sur. Las condiciones climáticas no eran favorables para momificación, así que el estudio fue limitado a los huesos. En 1966, participamos en y recibimos mucho estímulo del simposio de paleopatología en la Fundación Nacional de Ciencia. En 1977, T.A. Cockburn cuestionó si la mastoiditis y sus complicaciones existían en los Estados Unidos, y eso estimuló nuestro entusiasmo. Los resultados del proyecto Huesos Secos son el tema de este trabajo

John B. Gregg

2000-01-01

237

Determination of Design Width for Medium Streams in the Han River Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the empirical formulas for determining the design-width for medium rivers in the Han river basin. The design flood, the watershed area, and the channel slope of 216 medium rivers in the Han river basin are collected. The design width formulas are then determined by 1) the least squares (LS) method, 2) the least median squares (LMS) method, and 3) the reweighed least squares method based on the LMS (RLS). The six types of formulas are considered to determine the acceptable type for medium streams in the Han river basin. The root mean squared errors (RMSE), the absolute mean (AME) errors, and the mean errors (ME) are computed to test the formulas derived by three regression methods. It is found that the equation related stream width to the watershed area and the channel slope is acceptable for determining the design-width for medium streams in the Han river basin. It is expected that the equations proposed by this study be used an index for determining the design-width for medium streams in the Han river basin. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

Jeon, Se Jin [Dohwa Consulting Engineers Co., Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Tae Jin [Ansung National University of Industry, Ansung(Korea); Park, Jung Eung [Seoul National University of Industry, Seoul (Korea)

1998-12-31

238

Frequency analysis of daily rainfall in Han River basin based on regional L-moments algorithm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At-site and regional frequency analyses of annual maximum 1-, 2-, and 3-days rainfall in Han River basin was performed and compared based on the regional L-moments algorithm. To perform regional frequency analysis, Han River basin was subdivided into 3 sub-basins such as South Han River, North Han River, and downstream regions. For each sub-basin, the discordancy and homogeneity tests were performed. As the results of goodness of fit tests, lognormal model was selected as an appropriate probability distribution for both South Han River and downstream regions and gamma-3 model for North Han River region. From Monte Carlo simulation, RBIAS and RRMSE of the estimated quantiles from regional frequency analysis and at-site frequency analysis were calculated and compared each other. Regional frequency analysis shows less RRMSE of the estimated quantiles than at-sites frequency analysis in overall return periods. The differences of RRMSE between two approaches increase as the return period increases. As a result, it is shown that regional frequency analysis performs better than at-site analysis for annual maximum rainfall data in Han River basin. (author). 21 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs.

Lee, Dong-Jin; Heo, Jun-Haeng [Yonsei University, Seoul(Korea)

2001-04-30

239

Use of Precipitation - Runoff Models to Generate Hydrologic Scenarios in a High-altitude Andean Basin of the Ecuadorian Amazon Region. Case study of the Quijos River Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known of the hydrology and meteorology of the expansive Andean Amazon region in South America, which extends for approximately 600.000 Km2 and represents around the 10% of the total Amazon region. Climatic processes that occur in the Andean part of the Amazon influence the middle and lower parts of the Amazon Region. Consequently, there is a need to understand the hydro-climatic characteristics in the high lands of the Andean Amazon. Understanding hydrologic processes in the Andean Amazon is challenged by the lack of hydro meteorological data at all levels. Especially challenging is the absence of data at the appropriate scale for adequate calibration and verification of mathematical models, mainly for understanding precipitation - runoff of high altitude watersheds located on the western most part of the Amazon. The study area is located on the upper part of the Napo River named the Quijos river basin after the junction of the Oyacachi River with a surface area of about 2.500,00 Km2. It is composed mainly of high altitude lands named Paramo, Andean grass lands, primary cloudy forest known for their high water retention and regulatory capacity. The models used in the Quijos river basin in the upper part of the Amazon region of Ecuador are precipitation-runoff models widely used around the world. The Simulator for Water Resources in Rural Basins - Water Quality (SWRRBWQ ) (Arnold et. al. 1990, Williams et. al. 1985), works on a daily time steps basis with daily values of meteorological data both observed in the field or generated by the model, and by sub diving the main basin into a suitable number of sub basins with a meteorological station in it The second model used is the Hydrologic Modeling System from the Hydrologic Engineering Center which is a precipitation - runoff model run at a daily basis as well. Input data sets are basic climate data as precipitation, evapotranspiration, temperature, relative humidity basin wide at daily basis; land cover, soil type, soil characteristics, hydrographic characteristics, as well as registered discharge information in several control points of the basin, that were used for calibration purposes. Several runs of the models were done in order to assess parameter sensibility of the models using appropriate parameter for each case. Calibration for the two models were done for a period where enough information exists even though the time record for verification purposes is well ahead of time so it is assumed that basin wide conditions have not change in time. Three hydrologic scenarios for future discharge prediction based on conservation policies, urbanization, deforestation, or land use change on the area were generated by using HEC-HMS model for the January 1984 - December 1987 period because of its better performance in comparison to the SWRRBWQ model. Scenarios one and two showed almost no difference with the original discharge but scenario three showed an increase in water discharge with time. Results show that in high altitude basins the HEC-HMS performs better than SWRRBWQ model in determining mainly peak discharges but differed in reproducing the total volume of run-off, keeping a good agreement to reproduce seasonality patterns of water discharge. Better information of basin wide characteristics like soil antecedent moisture conditions, land cover, and surface albedo during the calibration period is needed in order to improve model results mainly in volume discharge.

Galarraga, R.; McClain, M.; Ortega, F.; Estacio, A.; Febres, A.

2007-05-01

240

Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

Science.gov (United States)

The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screens Evaluations, 2006 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated Gardena Farms, Little Walla Walla, and Garden City/Lowden II Phase II fish screen facilities and provided underwater videography beneath a leaking rubber dam in the Walla Walla River basin in 2006. Evaluations of the fish screen facilities took place in early May 2006, when juvenile salmonids are generally outmigrating. At the Gardena Farms site, extended high river levels caused accumulations of debris and sediment in the forebay. This debris covered parts of the bottom drum seals, which could lead to early deterioration of the seals and drum screen. Approach velocities were excessive at the upstream corners of most of the drums, leading to 14% of the total approach velocities exceeding 0.4 feet per second (ft/s). Consequently, the approach velocities did not meet National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design criteria guidelines for juvenile fish screens. The Little Walla Walla site was found to be in good condition, with all approach, sweep, and bypass velocities within NMFS criteria. Sediment buildup was minor and did not affect the effectiveness of the screens. At Garden City/Lowden II, 94% of approach velocities met NMFS criteria of 0.4 ft/s at any time. Sweep velocities increased toward the fish ladder. The air-burst mechanism appears to keep large debris off the screens, although it does not prevent algae and periphyton from growing on the screen face, especially near the bottom of the screens. In August 2006, the Gardena Farm Irrigation District personnel requested that we look for a leak beneath the inflatable rubber dam at the Garden City/Lowden II site that was preventing water movement through the fish ladder. Using our underwater video equipment, we were able to find a gap in the sheet piling beneath the dam. Erosion of the riverbed was occurring around this gap, allowing water and cobbles to move beneath the dam. The construction engineers and irrigation district staff were able to use the video footage to resolve the problem within a couple weeks. We had hoped to also evaluate the effectiveness of modifications to louvers behind the Nursery Bridge screens when flows were higher than 350 cubic feet per second, (cfs) but were unable to do so. Based on the one measurement made in early 2006 after the modified louvers were set, it appears the modified louvers may help reduce approach velocities. The auxiliary supply water system gates also control water through the screens. Evaluating the effect of different combinations of gate and louver positions on approach velocities through the screens may help identify optimum settings for both at different river discharges.

Chamness, Mickie; Abernethy, Scott; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2007-01-01

242

Upper and Middle Tiete River Basin dam-hydraulic system, travel time and temperature modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

A 1D Lagrangian model for Upper and Middle Tiete River Basin is developed. The numerical treatment of flow through dams and hydraulic jump is described. The model predicts spatial and seasonal variation of flow and temperature well. The model can be an ideal tool for river/water management decision making.

Devkota, Bishnu; Imberger, Jörg

2012-12-01

243

Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and f...

Milanovi? Ana; Kova?evi?-Majki? Jelena

244

Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1998.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River.

Blanton, S.L.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Neitzel, D.A.

1999-12-01

245

Pyomyositis in the upper Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazonia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pyomyositis remains poorly documented in tropical Latin America. We therefore performed a retrospective review of cases admitted to a hospital in the upper Negro river basin during 2002-2006. Seasonality was assessed by the cosinor model and independent predictors of outcome were identified by logistic regression. Determinants of time-to-fever resolution were analysed using Cox regression. No seasonal trend was observed (p=0.284) among 82 hospitalised patients. The disease predominated in young males and the most commonly affected part of the body was the lower limb (68 [63.5%] out of 107 lesions). Staphylococcus aureus was the only identified infecting organism (18 of 20 culture results, 90%). Complications occurred in 17 patients (20.7%) and the case fatality rate was 2.4%. Children were more likely to present with eosinophilia than adults (OR= 4.20, 95% CI 1.08-16.32, p=0.048), but no other significant differences regarding clinical presentation and outcomes were observed. The time-to-fever resolution was the only independent determinant of poor outcome (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.92, p

Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Faragher, Brian

2012-01-01

246

Rail haulage challenges in the Powder River Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Burlington Northern (BN) railroad anticipates that it and the Chicago North, Western (CNW) railroad will move 230 million st (209 Mt) of coal out of the southern Powder River Basin in 1994, the equivalent of approximately 54 train loads a day. Congestion on the railroads is already a problem, and growth in railroad coal transport is conservatively predicted at 3-5% per year, meaning that BN and CNW may be hauling 300 million st (272 Mt) of coal out of the PRB by the year 2003, or earlier. This article describes railroad developments being put into place or planned which will help to lessen the problem of congestion in the future. These include more track, the use of aluminium cars which weigh less than steel railcars and can therefore carry more coal, the use of trough trains made up of extended cars with 13 articulated sections that can increase train coal carrying capacity by 30-40% without increasing train length, new ac locomotives which will increase the locomotive fleet size, and high speed ontrack weighing scales. BN is also planning to hire new trainmen and engineers and is beginning to train its new employees, something it has neglected in the past, as have other railroad companies. 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 photos.

Willis, D. (Burlington Northern Railroad, Gillette, WY (United States))

1994-08-01

247

REGIONAL GROUNDWATER FLOW MODELLING OF GASH RIVER BASIN, SUDAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The three-dimensional groundwater flow model was performed to evaluate the groundwater potentiality and assess the effect of groundwater withdrawal to the regional water level and flow direction in the Gash River basin of Sudan. Data used include periodic water level measurements, meteorological data, digital elevation data and well logs from scientific test wells and domestic water wells drilled in the study area. Transient visual MODFLOW model code was calibrated. Numerical simulation indicated that, a sharp drop of hydraulic head can be observed at the center of the model area, generated cone of depressions and a continuous decline of head with respect to the time as a result of heavy groundwater abstraction. The central part of the area, represent relatively high permeability zone and the model confirmed it to be the most productive region in the area and can be used for storing additional groundwater. Observation wells elaborate the reasonable match between the observed and calculated heads through the entire simulation period.

ADIL BALLA ELKRAIL; ABDALLA E. IBRAHIM

2008-01-01

248

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

2004-05-01

249

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

2004-01-01

250

Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

2008-08-01

251

Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL) is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

Ilke Borowski; Jean-Pierre Le Bourhis; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Bernhard Barraqué

2008-01-01

252

Depositional systems of a synorogenic continental deposit. The upper paleocene and lower Eocene Wasatch formation in the Powder River basin, northeast Wyoming (chapter H). Evolution of sedimentary basins, Powder River Basin. Bulletin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synorogenic fluvial and paludal rocks of the upper Paleocene and lower Eocene Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin contain large deposits of coal and uranium. These rocks also record the culmination of Laramide tectonic events marked by subsidence in the basin and uplift of the bounding structures. The study establishes the early Eocene plaeogeography of the basin using a two-part approach consisting of (1) sedimentary particle-shape and -size analysis, and (2) paleocurrent studies.

Seeland, D.

1992-01-01

253

Analysis of river regime and water balance in the ?etinja River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water regime and water balance of the ?etinja River were analysed in this paper on the basis of a thirty-year data series on water level and discharge in the period from 1978 to 2008. The analysis of the ?etinja water level showed the mean annual water level of 53 cm in the mentioned period, whereas the lowest mean monthly water levels were in August, and the maximum mean monthly water levels in March and April. The average mean annual discharge of the ?etinja near Šengolj was 5.60 m3/s of the observation period 1978-2008. The annual value of the average discharges was similar to the annual value of the mean monthly low and high waters. It has been concluded that the ?etinja River belongs to the moderate-continental variance of the pluvial-nival regime. The results of the research have shown that about 5.60 m3/s of water is formed in the ?etinja Basin with specific runoff of 10.95 l/s/km2. Even though precipitation is not so low and ranges around 875 mm per year, the amount of the river inflow is smaller due to high evaporation of over 60%. Considering that the Šengolj hydrological station has been situated at 8.2 km from the mouth, and the station Stapari stopped working in 2002, there is an opinion that it would be significant to put the hydrological station in the part of the river course, as well as on larger tributaries. .

Milijaševi? Dragana; Milanovi? Ana

2010-01-01

254

Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin. Volume III, Experiment Designs and Statistical Models to Estimate the Effect of Transportation on Survival of Columbia River System Salmonids.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiment designs to estimate the effect of transportation on survival and return rates of Columbia River system salmonids are discussed along with statistical modeling techniques. Besides transportation, river flow and dam spill are necessary components in the design and analysis, otherwise questions as to the effects of reservoir drawdowns and increased dam spill may never be satisfactorily answered. Four criteria for comparing different experiment designs are: (1) feasibility; (2) clarity of results; (3) scope of inference; and (4) time to learn. A controlled experiment with treatments that are a combination of transport status (transported or left in-river), river flow level, and dam spill level should provide the clearest results of transport effect. The potential for bias due to interactions between year effects and the treatments is minimized by running as many treatments as possible within a single outmigration year. Relatedly, the most rapid learning will occur if several different treatments are implemented at randomly chosen time periods within thesame outmigration season. If the range of flow and dam manipulation includes scenarios of interest to managers, the scope of inference should be satisfactory. On the other hand these designs may be the least feasible; trying to manage the river system under a sequence of deliberately chosen flow regimes within a single season, for example, may be quite impractical. At the other end of the spectrum are designs that simply have two treatment combinations, transportation and being left in-river, and the influence of flow and spill are controlled for, if possible, in after-the-fact statistical analysis. Because of possible confounding influences of flow and spill on the transportation effect, these designs could yield the most ambiguous results and require the most years of experimentation to learn. If flows and spill are not manipulated in a planned, well defined, and impartial manner the scope and quality of inference may not be satisfactory. On the other hand, these designs are the simplest to implement. Implementation issues are: (1) The nature of flow and spill level manipulations will need clear definition, either in absolute terms, cfs, or relative terms, such as spilling 10% of the water. (2) Relatedly, system wide implementation of flow and spill levels will provide simpler interpretation of results than will mixing spill rates, for instance, between dams. Transporting fish from just one location will also simplify interpretation. (3) Tagging of experimental fish should be done well upstream of the dams with random assignment to transport or in-river groups done later, near the dams, to minimize biases from delayed tagging mortality. (4) Tagging with PIT tags and CWTs in combination will provide evidence of any potential homing problems. (5) High PIT tag retention rates are important to minimizing potential analysis problems (thus on-going research to improve retention is vital). (6) Approximate sample sizes to achieve a desired level of precision can be calculated fairly easily using formulas provided in the report.

Newman, Ken

1997-06-01

255

Mapping and Assessment of Degraded Land in the Heihe River Basin, Arid Northwestern China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the aridinland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects ofenvironmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resourceutilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, suchas its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based onfield observations and TM images from the year 2003, this study provides classificationand evaluation information concerning the degraded land in the basin of the Heihe River.There are five types of degraded land types in the Heihe River Basin: water eroded in thesouthern mountains, sandified and vegetation degraded near the oases, aridized in the lowreaches, and salinized in the lowlands. The total degraded area covers 29,355.5 km2,22.58% of the land in the study area. Finally, degraded land in the Heihe River Basin wasevaluated according to changes in the physical structure and chemical components of soils,land productivity, secondary soil salt, and water conditions.

Shanzhong Qi; Yumin Cai

2007-01-01

256

Fish, Taquara river basin, northern of the state of Paraná, Brazil.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taquara River is situated in an agriculturist region, on the northern portion of the Tibagi river basin, state ofParaná. Fish fauna was collected in five stretches of the Taquara River and in nine headwaters of its tributaries, in theperiod of May to December 2006. Six orders, 22 families, and 74 species were collected, in a sum of 2,389 individuals.The orders Characiformes and Siluriformes were dominant.

Galves, W.; Shibatta, O. A.; Jerep, F. C.

2007-01-01

257

ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCE ON FLOW AND SEDIMENT REGIME OF A RIVER BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Brahmaputra river basin in India is at present undergoing rapid agricultural, industrial and economic development with more than 30 million people living within this part of the major basin. The presentstudy examines impacts of some of the anthropogenic activities that are responsible for the disturbances to the flow and sediment regime as well as to the biogeochemical flux of nutrients through the river. The study also throws light on some aspects of the climatic change of the north-eastern region of India in particular, because of the considerable effect of the monsoon over the flow regime of the river.

BALESHWAR SINGH; R. K. GOSWAMI

2012-01-01

258

Using remotely sensed imagery to estimate potential annual pollutant loads in river basins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Land cover changes around river basins have caused serious environmental degradation in global surface water areas, in which the direct monitoring and numerical modeling is inherently difficult. Prediction of pollutant loads is therefore crucial to river environmental management under the impact of climate change and intensified human activities. This research analyzed the relationship between land cover types estimated from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery and the potential annual pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. Then an empirical approach, which estimates annual pollutant loads directly from satellite imagery and hydrological data, was investigated. Six water quality indicators were examined, including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), suspended sediment (SS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The pollutant loads of TN, TP, SS, BOD, COD, and DO were then estimated for 30 river basins in Japan. Results show that the proposed simulation technique can be used to predict the pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. These results may be useful in establishing total maximum annual pollutant loads and developing best management strategies for surface water pollution at river basin scale.

He B; Oki K; Wang Y; Oki T

2009-01-01

259

Malheur River Basin cooperative bull trout/redband trout research project, annual report FY 1999; ANNUAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99

2000-01-01

260

Regional Cooperation Efforts in the Mekong River Basin: Mitigating river-related security threats and promoting regional development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of international rivers is often perceived as leading to conflicts or even water wars. However, as the development of the Mekong River shows, cooperation has not only prevailed in the last decades, but River Basin Organizations (RBOs), established to mitigate river-related conflicts and/or develop the river basin, have also contributed to the emergence of more general cooperation structures, mainly by creating spill-over effects in other issue-areas, bringing cooperation to policy fields beyond the river itself. This article assesses the contribution of the Mekong River Commission (MRC) and the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS) to the sustainable development of the Mekong Region as well as to the promotion of regional cooperation in mainland South-East Asia in general. --- Die Entwicklung grenzu?berschreitender Flu?sse wird oft mit Konflikten oder gar Kriegen um Wasser assoziiert. Wie jedoch die Entwicklung im Mekong-Becken zeigt, waren die vergangenen Jahrzehnte nicht nur von Kooperation gezeichnet, sondern Flussbeckenorganisationen konnten außerdem dazu beitragen, weitreichendere Kooperationsstrukturen zu entwickeln, die sich auf andere Politikfelder ausdehnen. Dieser Artikel bescha?ftigt sich mit dem Beitrag der Mekong River Commission (MRC) und der Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS) zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung in der Mekong Region sowie zur Fo?rderung allgemeiner regionaler Kooperation im Festla?ndischen Su?dostasien.

Susanne Schmeier

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Anomalously Pressured Gas Distribution in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anomalously pressured gas (APG) assets, typically called 'basin-center' gas accumulations, represent either an underdeveloped or undeveloped energy resource in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB). Historically, the exploitation of these gas resource...

R. C. Surdam

2003-01-01

262

Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

Kammerud, Terje Andre

1997-12-31

263

Progress, challenges and prospects of eco-hydrological studies in the Tarim river basin of Xinjiang, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eco-hydrological research in arid inland river basins has been a focus of geologists and ecologists as it is crucial for maintaining the sustainable development of socio-economy, particularly in ecologically vulnerable areas. Based on the research work carried out in the Tarim River basin of Xinjiang, northwestern China, this paper summarizes synthetically the climate change and associated responses of water resources in the mountainous area, land use and land cover in the oasis, and plants responding to environmental stresses in the desert area of the river basin. Research gaps, challenges, and future perspectives in the eco-hydrological studies of the Tarim River basin are also discussed.

Chen Y; Xu C; Chen Y; Liu Y; Li W

2013-01-01

264

Distribution and dispersal of two invasive crayfish species in the Drava River basin, Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to explore the current distribution and dispersal rates of two nonindigenous crayfish species (NICS) recorded in Croatia: the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) and spiny-cheek crayfish(Orconectes limosus). Both NICS have been recorded in the Drava River basin, with signal crayfish spreading downstream from the north-west along the Drava’s tributary the Mura River, and spiny-cheek crayfish spreading upstream from the east from the Danube River throughout the Drava River. Signal crayfish distribution in the Mura River has been recorded up to 3 km from the confluence with the Drava River. Based on literature data and the current recorded distribution front, the downstream dispersal rate was between 18 and 24.4 km·yr?1. Spiny-cheek crayfish distribution has been recorded 15 km upstream of the Drava River mouth into the Danube River. Its upstream dispersal in the Drava River has been calculated at 2.5 km·yr ?1. Both NICS could have an impact on native crayfish populations recorded within the Drava River basin in Croatia: the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) and the narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus). In the Mura River no noble crayfish have been recorded since 2007, and the watercourse is at the moment dominated by the signal crayfish. Spiny-cheek crayfish populations have been found in coexistence with narrow-clawed crayfish populations, with O. limosus dominating by 16:1.

S. Hudina; M. Faller; A. Luci?; G. Klobu?ar; I. Maguire

2009-01-01

265

Quality of dredged material in the river Seine basin (France). II. Micropollutants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dredging rivers is needed to ensure safe navigable waters, rivers and waterways. To anticipate the management of dredged materials in the case of the river Seine basin, the quality of the sediments in the river is checked every 3 years before dredging operations. The river Seine Basin is heavily submitted to pollution pressure from nearby industrial activities and urban expansion of Paris and its region. Here, the micropollutant content of the sediment sampled in 1996, 1999 and 2000 before dredging is discussed compared to regulatory standards. The results indicate that most of the sediment samples from the river Seine basin are lightly to moderately contaminated with organic and inorganic micropollutants (heavy metals, PAH, PCB), which makes the management after dredging easier. This pollution is strongly correlated with the organic matter content and to the fine fraction (<50 microm) of the sediment. These results can lead to other management options than the ones already used in the river Seine basin: (1) dumping of lightly to moderately polluted sediments in quarries; and (2) physical treatment (sieving, hydrocycloning) of contaminated sediments issued from 'hot spots'.

Carpentier S; Moilleron R; Beltran C; Hervé D; Thévenot D

2002-11-01

266

Irrigation Depletions 1928-1989 : 1990 Level of Irrigation, Snake Yakima and Deschutes River Basins.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vast amount of irrigation in relation to the available water and extensive system of reservoirs located in the Snake River Basin above Brownlee reservoir precludes this area from using methods such as Blaney-Criddle for estimating irrigation depletions. Also the hydrology, irrigation growth patterns, and water supply problems are unique and complex. Therefore regulation studies were utilized to reflect the net effect on streamflow of the changes in irrigated acreage in terms of corresponding changes in storage regulation and in the amount of water depleted and diverted from and returned to the river system. The regulation study for 1990 conditions was conducted by the Idaho Department of Water Resources. The end product of the basin simulation is 61 years of regulated flows at various points in the river system that are based on 1990 conditions. Data used by the Idaho Department of Water Resources is presented in this section and includes natural gains to the river system and diversions from the river system based on a 1990 level of development and operation criteria. Additional information can be obtained for an Idaho Department of Water Resources Open-File Report ``Stream Flows in the Snake River Basin 1989 Conditions of Use and Management`` dated June 1991. Similar considerations apply to the Yakima and Deschutes river basins.

United States. Bonneville Power Administation; A.G. Crook Company

1993-07-01

267

The design and analysis of salmonid tagging studies in the Columbia basin. Volume 8: A new model for estimating survival probabilities and residualization from a release-recapture study of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) smolts in the Snake River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake river fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging. These models do not utilize available capture history data from this second year and, thus, produce negatively biased estimates of survival probabilities. A new multinomial likelihood model was developed that results in biologically relevant, unbiased estimates of survival probabilities using the full two years of capture history data. This model was applied to 1995 Snake River fall chinook hatchery releases to estimate the true survival probability from one of three upstream release points (Asotin, Billy Creek, and Pittsburgh Landing) to Lower Granite Dam. In the data analyzed here, residualization is not a common physiological response and thus the use of CJS models did not result in appreciably different results than the true survival probability obtained using the new multinomial likelihood model

1997-01-01

268

Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition) with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS)" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R–squared value) indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the model including descriptions of the various components and the results of its application on two case study areas.

M. A. Kabir; D. Dutta; S. Hironaka

2011-01-01

269

Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition) with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different surface grids and river nodes are modeled using one-dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS)" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R-squared value) indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the model including descriptions of the various components and the results of its application on case study areas.

M. A. Kabir; D. Dutta; S. Hironaka

2010-01-01

270

The Balearic current and volume transports in the Balearic basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Balearic basin is a semi-enclosed basin located in the western Mediterranean Sea, connecting the Gulf of Lions and the Alboran basin. While the characteristics and circulation of the water masses have been rather well established, the exchanges with adjacent basins, essential to our understandin...

Garcialadona, E; Castellon, A; Font, J; Tintore, J

271

Multiple scale flood simulation in the Delaware River Basin: Hurricane Ivan  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical cyclones shape the upper tail of flood peak distributions in the Delaware River Basin, as well as other major drainage basins of the eastern US. During Hurricane Ivan (Sept, 2004) peak flows ranking in the upper 10% of the peak flow distribution were observed in many sites. In this study we apply a fully-distributed, physically-based, and calibration-free hydrological model (CUENCAS) to simulate inland flooding caused by Ivan for basin scales ranging from one to thousands of square kilometers. As input to the hydrological model we use the Stage IV rainfall fields produced by The National Weather Service. Stage IV is a post-processed product based on the merging of radar and gauge rainfall data. We show that simulation uncertainties decrease as basin scales increase. Small basin hydrological simulations are strongly affected by rainfall space-time variability, hydrological response heterogeneities due to natural (infiltration and basin shape) and artificial basin properties (dams), and by input and model structural uncertainties. These small-scale heterogeneities and uncertainties are averaged out by the effect of the river network that links different areas in the basin and organizes flow transport. Consequently, good results are obtained for basins larger than 1,000 km2.

Kindl da Cunha, Luciana; Smith, James; Lynn, Mary

2013-04-01

272

Geographical information system-based morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin, Kerala, India  

Science.gov (United States)

A morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler's system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. The Bharathapuzha drainage basin is sprawled over an area of 5,988.56 km2. The study area was designated as seventh-order basin and lower order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 1.07 km/km2. The slope of basin varied from 0° to 70° and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The elongation ratio of the basin is 0.57 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The drainage texture of the basin is 7.78 which indicates an intermediate texture that exists over the region. Hence, from the study, it can be concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM-DEM) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool in morphometric analysis and the data can be used for basin management and other hydrological studies in future.

Magesh, N. S.; Jitheshlal, K. V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Jini, K. V.

2013-06-01

273

Development of a Systemwide Predator Control Program, Volume I : Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, 1993 annual report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modified Merwin trap nets were tested by an experimental fishery in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam to determine their effectiveness in selectively harvesting northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) over 11 inches in total length. The fishery was evaluated for its potential to supplement exploitation rates of the sportreward and dam-angling fisheries to achieve the objectives of the northern squawfish management program. Special consideration was given to the potential for, and impact on, incidental catches of adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) listed as threatened and endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preseason site and data surveys identified suitable fishing locations where physical parameters are favorable to trap-net deployment and northern squawfish habitat was present. A total of 16 floating trap nets were operated from June 2 through August 4, 1993. We made 1,392 sets with a mean soak time of 2.9 hours. The total catch was 45,803 fishes including 10,440 (23% of the total catch) northern squawfish of which 1,688 (4% of the total catch) were large (greater than 11 inches in total length). Mean catch rate was 0.3 large northern squawfish per hour of soak time. Nearly all incidentally captured fishes were released alive and in good condition. Bycatch of adult salmonids totaled 1,036 fishes (2% of the total catch). Operational criteria, designed to limit incidental take of salmonids, restricted the fishing time, dates, and locations. In addition, lack of prior operating experience with the gear type and limited gear effectiveness in high velocities found in the free-flowing river below Bonneville Dam contributed to the low harvest rate for northern squawfish. We determined that a large scale floating trap-net fishery outside the boat restricted zones (BRZs) of hydropower projects would not significantly improve the exploitation rate of northern squawfish either above or below Bonneville Dam.

Willis, Charles F.; Ward, David L.

1995-06-01

274

Inorganic arsenic speciation at river basin scales: The Tinto and Odiel Rivers in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tinto and Odiel rivers are heavily affected by acid mine drainage from mining areas in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. In this work we have conducted a study along these rivers where surface water samples have been collected. Field measurements, total dissolved metals and Fe and inorganic As speciation analysis were performed. The average total concentration of As in the Tinto river (1975 {mu}g L{sup -1}) is larger than in the Odiel river (441 {mu}g L{sup -1}); however, the mean concentration of As(III) is almost four times higher in the Odiel. In wet seasons the mean pH levels of both rivers (2.4 and 3.2 for the Tinto and Odiel, respectively) increase slightly and the amount of dissolved total arsenic tend to decrease, while the As(III)/(V) ratio strongly increase. Besides, the concentration of the reduced As species increase along the water course. As a result, As(III)/(V) ratio can be up to 100 times higher in the lower part of the basins. An estimation of the As(III) load transported by both rivers into the Atlantic Ocean has been performed, resulting in about 60 kg yr{sup -1} and 2.7 t yr{sup -1} by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, respectively. - Total arsenic concentration decreases along the water basins, however the As(III)/(V) ratio increases.

Sarmiento, A.M. [Department of Geology, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: aguasanta.miguel@dgeo.uhu.es; Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Casiot, C.; Elbaz-Poulichet, F.; Egal, M. [Laboratoire Hydrosciences, UMR 5569, Universite Montpellier 2, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05 (France)

2009-04-15

275

Allozyme comparison of two populations of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Ivaí River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Two allopatric morphotypes of the genus Rinelocaria were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique: one morphotype, R. pentamaculata, from the Keller River in the middle stretch of the Ivaí River basin and the other, R. aff. pentamaculata, from the São João River in the upper portion of the Ivaí River basin. The morphotype from the São João River was collected upstream from the São João waterfall, which is about 80 m deep. Twelve enzymatic systems (A (more) AT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD) were analyzed, which allowed to score 22 loci. Only loci Aat-2, Est-3 and Mdh-C showed polymorphism. The two samples differed in allele frequencies at the three polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity for all loci was 0.0806 ± 0.0447 in the Keller River sample. For the São João River morphotype, this value was 0.0489 ± 0.0350. Nei' s genetic identity and distance between the two populations were respectively 0.9789 and 0.0213. Wright's F IS, F IT and F STover all loci were estimated as 0.3121, 0.4021 and 0.1309, respectively. We consider that the two morphotypes represent species in statu nascendi.

Limeira, Daniel M.; Renesto, Erasmo; Zawadzki, Cláudio H.

2009-01-01

276

Allozyme comparison of two populations of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Ivaí River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two allopatric morphotypes of the genus Rinelocaria were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique: one morphotype, R. pentamaculata, from the Keller River in the middle stretch of the Ivaí River basin and the other, R. aff. pentamaculata, from the São João River in the upper portion of the Ivaí River basin. The morphotype from the São João River was collected upstream from the São João waterfall, which is about 80 m deep. Twelve enzymatic systems (AAT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD) were analyzed, which allowed to score 22 loci. Only loci Aat-2, Est-3 and Mdh-C showed polymorphism. The two samples differed in allele frequencies at the three polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity for all loci was 0.0806 ± 0.0447 in the Keller River sample. For the São João River morphotype, this value was 0.0489 ± 0.0350. Nei' s genetic identity and distance between the two populations were respectively 0.9789 and 0.0213. Wright's F IS, F IT and F STover all loci were estimated as 0.3121, 0.4021 and 0.1309, respectively. We consider that the two morphotypes represent species in statu nascendi.

Daniel M. Limeira; Erasmo Renesto; Cláudio H. Zawadzki

2009-01-01

277

Allozyme comparison of two populations of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Ivai River, upper Parana River basin, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two allopatric morphotypes of the genus Rinelocaria were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique: one morphotype, R. pentamaculata, from the Keller River in the middle stretch of the Ivaí River basin and the other, R. aff. pentamaculata, from the São João River in the upper portion of the Ivaí River basin. The morphotype from the São João River was collected upstream from the São João waterfall, which is about 80 m deep. Twelve enzymatic systems (AAT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD) were analyzed, which allowed to score 22 loci. Only lociAat-2, Est-3 and Mdh-C showed polymorphism. The two samples differed in allele frequencies at the three polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity for all loci was 0.0806 ± 0.0447 in the Keller River sample. For the São João River morphotype, this value was 0.0489 ± 0.0350. Nei' s genetic identity and distance between the two populations were respectively 0.9789 and 0.0213. Wright's F(IS) , F(IT) and F(ST) over all loci were estimated as 0.3121, 0.4021 and 0.1309, respectively. We consider that the two morphotypes represent species in statunascendi.

Limeira DM; Renesto E; Zawadzki CH

2009-04-01

278

Allozyme comparison of two populations of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Ivaí River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two allopatric morphotypes of the genus Rinelocaria were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique: one morphotype, R. pentamaculata, from the Keller River in the middle stretch of the Ivaí River basin and the other, R. aff. pentamaculata, from the São João River in the upper portion of the Ivaí River basin. The morphotype from the São João River was collected upstream from the São João waterfall, which is about 80 m deep. Twelve enzymatic systems (AAT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD) were analyzed, which allowed to score 22 loci. Only lociAat-2, Est-3 and Mdh-C showed polymorphism. The two samples differed in allele frequencies at the three polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity for all loci was 0.0806 ± 0.0447 in the Keller River sample. For the São João River morphotype, this value was 0.0489 ± 0.0350. Nei' s genetic identity and distance between the two populations were respectively 0.9789 and 0.0213. Wright's F(IS) , F(IT) and F(ST) over all loci were estimated as 0.3121, 0.4021 and 0.1309, respectively. We consider that the two morphotypes represent species in statunascendi. PMID:21637702

Limeira, Daniel M; Renesto, Erasmo; Zawadzki, Cláudio H

2009-01-30

279

Allozyme comparison of two populations of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Iva? River, upper Paran? River basin, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Two allopatric morphotypes of the genus Rinelocaria were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique: one morphotype, R. pentamaculata, from the Keller River in the middle stretch of the Ivaí River basin and the other, R. aff. pentamaculata, from the São João River in the upper portion of the Ivaí River basin. The morphotype from the São João River was collected upstream from the São João waterfall, which is about 80 m deep. Twelve enzymatic systems (AAT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD) were analyzed, which allowed to score 22 loci. Only lociAat-2, Est-3 and Mdh-C showed polymorphism. The two samples differed in allele frequencies at the three polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity for all loci was 0.0806 ± 0.0447 in the Keller River sample. For the São João River morphotype, this value was 0.0489 ± 0.0350. Nei' s genetic identity and distance between the two populations were respectively 0.9789 and 0.0213. Wright's FIS , FIT and FST over all loci were estimated as 0.3121, 0.4021 and 0.1309, respectively. We consider that the two morphotypes represent species in statunascendi.

2009-01-01

280

Spatial and temporal variations of Terrestrial Water Storage in five major Africa river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial and temporal distributions of continental hydrologic water balances are poorly understood despite recent advances in remote sensing and modeling techniques applicable to continental river basins. The African continent has particularly interesting surface water dynamics due to strong precipitation gradients, and it’s a large number of lakes and wetlands. However, it lacks hydrologic measurements that would help to understand its terrestrial water balance. We use Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements and the Variable Infiltration Capacity land surface model to characterize terrestrial water dynamics over five major African river basins (Nile , Congo, Zambezi, Niger and Oranje). Temporal variations in the gravitational field obtained from GRACE are used to reveal the total terrestrial water storage changes over the selected river basins. Recent advances in filtering and leakage error corrections near the coasts enable us to obtain total water storage changes at finer spatial resolution than has previously been possible. These satellite measurements are then used to constrain the hydrologic- modeling results over river basins where in situ data are sparse. Comparison of the GRACE observations for the period April 2002 to Jan 2010, i.e., the mass variability extracted from temporal gravity variations, with the VIC water balance components suggests that, when filtered with an averaging radius of 750 km, the hydrological signals generated at the selected river basin scale are clearly recovered by GRACE. Keywords: Remote sensing; gravity field; GRACE; hydrology; VIC; spatio-temporal

Beyene, T.; Kabat, P.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Ludwig, F.

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Impact of Impervious Surface on River Discharge in Lake Kasumigaura Basin, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Impervious Surface Area (ISA) is defined as the constructed surface that prevents water from infiltrating into the soil. The ISA has emerged not only as an indicator of the degree of urbanization, but also as a major indicator of environmental quality for drainage basin management. This study focused on the relation between ISA ratio calculated by remote sensing technology and river discharge in Lake Kasumigaura Basin, Japan. ISA ratio was estimated by satellite image using Prescreened and Normalized Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (PNMESMA) developed for drainage basin with the estimating error smaller than 10%. Three types (vegetation, impervious surface, soil) of endmember were selected from the image, and the fraction of each endmember was calculated based on linear mixing model. River discharge dataset was collected from Kasumigaura River Office. Since the monitoring sites do not locate in the down stream, the up stream river basins of the monitoring sites were extracted by hydrological model in Geographic Information System (GIS) instead of the existing basin map. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data with spatial resolution of 10m was collected from Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) to estimate the area of drainage. For the extracted drainage basins, the statistical relation between ISA ratio and river discharge were studied in 2000 and 2007 since the Landsat images used to estimate the fraction of ISA were in good image quality. The long-term change of river discharge was also investigated to provide the background value of this research. Results of spatial analysis suggested that the increase of the ISA raised the discharge in the rainy season, and reduced the discharge in the period of water shortage in Lake Kasumigaura Basin.

Yang, F.; Matsushita, B.; Fukushima, T.; Lab of Environmental Modeling; Creation

2011-12-01

282

[Spatial heterogeneity and classified control of agricultural non-point source pollution in Huaihe River Basin].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Agricultural non-point source pollution is of importance in river deterioration. Thus identifying and concentrated controlling the key source-areas are the most effective approaches for non-point source pollution control. This study adopts inventory method to analysis four kinds of pollution sources and their emissions intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in 173 counties (cities, districts) in Huaihe River Basin. The four pollution sources include livestock breeding, rural life, farmland cultivation, aquacultures. The paper mainly addresses identification of non-point polluted sensitivity areas, key pollution sources and its spatial distribution characteristics through cluster, sensitivity evaluation and spatial analysis. A geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS were used to carry out this study. The results show that: the COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural non-point sources were 206.74 x 10(4) t, 66.49 x 10(4) t, 8.74 x 10(4) t separately in Huaihe River Basin in 2009; the emission intensity were 7.69, 2.47, 0.32 t.hm-2; the proportions of COD, TN, TP emissions were 73%, 24%, 3%. The paper achieves that: the major pollution source of COD, TN and TP was livestock breeding and rural life; the sensitivity areas and priority pollution control areas among the river basin of non-point source pollution are some sub-basins of the upper branches in Huaihe River, such as Shahe River, Yinghe River, Beiru River, Jialu River and Qingyi River; livestock breeding is the key pollution source in the priority pollution control areas. Finally, the paper concludes that pollution type of rural life has the highest pollution contribution rate, while comprehensive pollution is one type which is hard to control.

Zhou L; Xu JG; Sun DQ; Ni TH

2013-02-01

283

Pollutant sources investigation and remedial strategies development for the Kaoping River Basin, Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Kaoping River Basin, located in southern Taiwan, flows through approximately 171 km and drains towards the South Taiwan Strait. It is the largest and the most intensively used river basin in Taiwan. Based on the results from the pollutant sources investigation and water quality analysis, the main water pollution sources of the Kaoping River were livestock wastewater from hog farms, municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, leachate from riverbank landfills, and non-point source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas in the upper catchment. Concern about the deteriorating condition of the river led the Government of Taiwan to amend the relevant legislation and strengthen the enforcement of the discharge regulations to effectively manage the river and control the pollution. The following remedial strategies have been taken to improve the river water quality since 2001: (1) hog ban in the upper catchment of the Kaoping River Basin, thus, 510 thousand hogs have been removed/relocated; (2) removal of riverbank landfills; (3) enforcement of the industrial wastewater discharge standards; (4) sewer system construction in five cities along the river corridor; (5) application of best management practices for NPS pollutant control; (6) application of natural wastewater treatment systems (e.g. land treatment, constructed wetland, overland flow, riverbank sedimentation/aeration pond) for domestic wastewater treatment in rural areas; and (7) construction of the watershed geographical information system (GIS) and real time water quality monitoring system to effectively monitor and manage the watershed. Recent water quality investigation results indicate that the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient loadings to the Kaoping River have been significantly reduced and the water quality has been improved after the implementation of the remedial strategies described above. Results and experience obtained from this study will be helpful in designing the watershed management strategies for other similar river basins.

Kao CM; Wu FC; Chen KF; Lin TF; Yen YE; Chiang PC

2003-01-01

284

Water resources data for Minnesota, water year 1991. Volume 1. Great Lakes and souris-red-rainy river basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1990-30 September 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Minnesota consist of records of stage, discharge and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells and springs. The volume contains discharge records for 46 gaging stations; stage-only records for 1 gaging station; stage and contents for 5 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 13 stream stations; and water levels for 12 observation wells. Also included are 27 high-flow partial-record station. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

Gunard, K.T.; Hess, J.H.; Zirbel, J.L.

1992-09-01

285

Water resources data for Ohio, water year 1993. Volume 2. St. Lawrence River Basin and statewide project data. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-resources data for 1993 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 335 wells, and 8 partial-record sites; and water levels at 365 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses.

Shindel, H.L.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1994-03-01

286

Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently (2011) completed an assessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of grade, in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Greater Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah. Green River Formation oil shale also is present in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado, and the results of these assessments are published separately. No attempt was made to estimate the amount of oil that is economically recoverable because there has not yet been an economic method developed to recover the oil from Green River Formation oil shale.

Johnson, R. C.; Mercier, T. J.; Brownfield, M. E.

2011-01-01

287

Regional hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation pattern of Cretaceous strata, Powder River Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cell of abnormally high fluid pressure in the deep part of the Powder River basin is centered in an area where oil-generation-prone source rocks in the Skull Creek (oldest), Mowry, and Niobrara (youngest) formations are presently at their maximum hydrocarbon-volume generation rate. The overpressures are believed to be caused by the high conversion rate of solid kerogen in the source rocks to an increased volume of potentially expellable fluid hydrocarbons. In this area, hydrocarbons appear to be the principal mobile fluid species present in reservoirs within or proximal to the actively generating source rocks. Maximum generation pressures within the source rocks have caused vertical expulsion through a pressure-induced microfracture system and have charged the first available underlying and/or overlying sandstone carrier-reservoir bed. Hydrocarbons generated in the Skull Creek have been expelled downward into the Dakota Sandstone and upward into the Muddy Sandstone. Hydrocarbons generated in the Mowry have been expelled downward into the Muddy or upward into lower Frontier sandstones. Hydrocarbons generated in the Niobrara have been expelled downward into upper Frontier sandstones or upward into the first available overlying sandstone in the Upper Cretaceous. The first chargeable sandstone overlying the Niobrara, in ascending order, may be the (1) Shannon, (2) Sussex, (3) Parkman, (4) Teapot, or (5) Tekla, depending on the east limit of each sandstone with respect to vertical fracture migration through the Cody Shale from the underlying area of mature overpressured Niobrara source rocks.

Meissner, F.F.

1985-05-01

288

Spatial Patterns of Suspended Sediment Yield in the Upper Indus River Basin, Northern Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indus River is one of the world`s largest rivers in term of water discharge and sediment loads, and the backbone of Pakistan`s economy for agriculture and hydropower. Much of its flow originates in the mountains of the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush. The suspended sediment load, which constitutes the main portion of the total load in mountain rivers, creates major water resources management problems such as siltation of reservoirs, damage to turbines, and a reduction in water quality. An understanding of the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the upper Indus River basin is, therefore, essential for effective water resources development in northern Pakistan. Discharge and suspended sediment concentration records are available for 17 active and discontinued hydrological stations (with drainage areas ranging from 600 to 166,000 km2) operated by the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority. The objective of this study is to delineate the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the basin by analyzing the available hydrological database. Sediment yields have been calculated by constructing sediment rating curves. Physiographic characteristics, hydrologic regimes and climatic patterns of the basin have also been investigated. The results show that the upper Indus River basin can be subdivided into three regions based on suspended sediments yield. This division reflects the contrasting hydrological regimes of the basin. Region 1 comprises the high elevation, glacierized areas of the Karakoram Mountains in the northernmost part of the basin. This region extends downstream to Partab Bridge on the Indus River, and excludes areas around Nanga Parbat, which acts as a barrier to the monsoon. The sediments are mainly derived from the Shyok, Shigar, Hunza and Gilgit sub-basins during the period of increasing summer runoff in June. This runoff is caused by the melt of glaciers and permanent snow pack, and peaks in July and August, when almost the entire annual sediment load is transported. The mean annual sediment yield is greatest in the 28% glaciated Hunza River basin which accounts for more than 2800 t km-2 year-1. Region 2 is characterized by the sediment yields that result from an interaction of monsoon rains and glacier-melt. This region extends from Partab Bridge to Besham Qila. The Astore River produces the highest specific discharges in the basin, which are from southwest flanks of Nanga Parbat. Region 3 includes the area between Besham Qila and Tarbela Dam with the Gorband, Siran and Brandu tributaries. This part of the basin is mainly rain fed with little snow, and experience two types of rainfall: summer monsoon rains, and late winter and early spring rainfall produced by disturbances coming from the west that derive sediment on the hill slopes. This results in two separate peaks in the sediment loads, in March and July, respectively. This study can be further extended to construct a sediment budget for the upper Indus River. A sediment budget would result in a better understanding of the sediment dynamics by providing an accounting of the fluxes and fate of sediment in the drainage basin. The upper Indus exists in natural basin conditions without significant human impacts. As the sparse gauging network in this large basin is rapidly decreasing in density, the upper Indus basin represents a good case study for investigating the sediment dynamics in a data-sparse river as a contribution to the Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) program.

Ali, K.; de Boer, D. H.; Martz, L. W.

2004-05-01

289

ASSESSING THE AVERAGE MULTI-ANNUAL RUNOFF IN THE TUR RIVER BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Assessing the average multi-annual runoff in the Tur River Basin. The rivers multiannual runoff is the mean parameter for evaluating the rivers water resources and represents an important characteristic in the rivers water utilization research. The inventory methods to asses the average multi-annual runoffs are various, depending mostly from the available database. In this study we used data from eight hydrometrical stations representing data between the years 1979 and 2007. We present in this study a base method of assessing the average multiannual runoff resolved with traditional and modern GIS methods.

Oana POP; Csaba Horváth

2009-01-01

290

Paramecium species of the upper and lower Volga River basin, Russia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Volga, which is the largest river in Europe (3690 km long), flows from the north (Tver' region) to the south (Caspian Sea), and its extensive basin (1380 km2) includes very different biotopes. Thus, analysis ofthe occurrence of Paramecium species along this large river basin may significantly enhance our understanding of species distribution according to temperature regime, food richness and other possible factors. The present paper concerns the occurrence of species of the P. aurelia complex in the sampling areas of the Upper Volga River, and a comparison with the occurrence of species of the P. aurelia complex in the Lower Volga region. In the Upper Volga basin, P. biaurelia was the most abundant among species of the complex recorded (among P. triaurelia, P. decaurelia, P. dodecaurelia), in the Lower Volga region eight species of the complex were recorded (P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, P. triaurelia, P. pentaurelia, P. sexaurelia, P. septaurelia, P. novaurelia, P. decaurelia).

Potekhin A; Przybo? E; Rautian M

2008-01-01

291

Climate change and the origin and development of rice cultivation in the Yangtze River basin, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The forest hunter-gatherers of the middle Yangtze River basin, who were the first to invent pottery and led a sedentary lifestyle, may have begun to cultivate rice during the Bølling-Allerød interstadial global warming period. The earliest rice cultivation may have dated back to 14,000 calibrated (cal.) years before present (YBP). The global warming at 9000 cal. YBP in the early Holocene brought the development of the rice cultivation to the middle Yangtze River basin. On the other hand, ancient rice-cultivating and piscatorial society met a crisis at 4200-4000 cal. YBP that was characterized by a significant cooling of the climate. This climate deterioration led the northern wheat/barley-cultivating pastoral people to migrate to the south and invade, ultimately bringing about the collapse of the rice-cultivating and piscatorial society in the Yangtze River basin.

Yasuda Y

2008-11-01

292

Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation: Review of River Basin Management Planning in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By the end of 2009, programmes of measures and river basin management plans under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) had for the first time been set up for all 10 river basin districts inGermany. They provide the water management planning tools for achieving good status of surface and groundwater by 2015. Since a good ecological status for many water bodies cannot be attained by this deadline, the Directive provides for two supplementary planning cycles running to 2021 and 2027 respectively. Owing to its ecological approach, the WFD has much in common with nature conservation. The project “Water Framework Directive and Nature Conservation” sought to discover how the aims of the WFD and nature conservation are linked in the practice of river basin management planning and what possibilities there are for optimisation from a nature conservation point of view. On this basis, proposals were made for updating and implementing plans.

ALBRECHT J.; STRATMANN L.; WENDLER W.; SCHMIDT C.; HOFMANN M.

2012-01-01

293

K East basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides estimates of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel elements and in the fuel storage canisters in K East Basin. The original estimates were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. Revision 1 revised the volume estimates of sludge from processing of the fuel elements based on additional data from evaluations of material from the KE Basin fuel subsurface examinations. A nominal Working Estimate and an upper level Working Bound is developed for the canister sludge and the fuel wash sludge components in the KE Basin

1998-01-01

294

K West Basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides estimates of the volume of sludge (1) expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel elements and (2) in the fuel storage canisters in K West Basin. The original estimates were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of KE canister sludge density. Revision 1 revised the volume estimates of sludge based on additional data from evaluations of material from the KW Basin fuel subsurface examinations and KW canister sludge characterization data. A nominal Working Estimate and an upper level Working Bound is developed for the canister sludge and the fuel wash sludge components in the KW Basin

1998-01-01

295

Herbicide concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin - The importance of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradates  

Science.gov (United States)

The proportion of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradates, specifically the ethane sulfonic (ESA) and oxanilic (OA) acids, averaged 70% of the total herbicide concentration in samples from the Upper Mississippi River. In samples from the Missouri River and the Ohio River, the proportion of chloroacetanilide degradates in the total herbicide concentration was much less, 24% and 41%, respectively. The amount of tile drainage throughout the Mississippi River Basin appeared to be related to the occurrence and distribution of chloroacetanilide degradates in water samples. Pesticide concentrations in streams of the Mississippi River Basin have been well characterized. However, recent research demonstrates that in order to more fully understand the fate and transport of pesticides, the major pesticide degradates need to be included in the analysis. From March 1999 through May 2001, water samples from four major junctures of the Mississippi River Basin were collected and analyzed for a suite of herbicides and their degradate compounds. Each sampling site was selected to represent a major part of the Mississippi River: upper and lower Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio Rivers. Each basin has unique landscape variables, geology, hydrology, precipitation, and land use, which is reflected in the pesticide content at the most downstream sample site near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Atrazine was the most frequently detected herbicide (detected in 97% of the samples), followed by metolachlor (60%), and acetochlor (31%). The most frequently detected degradates were metolachlor ESA (69%), followed by deethylatrazine (62%), metolachlor OA (37%), and alachlor ESA (37%). Metolachlor ESA was detected more frequently than its parent compound (69 vs. 60%), as was alachlor ESA (37 vs. 9%). After an improvement was made in the analytical method, metolachlor ESA was detected in every sample, metolachlor OA in 89% of the samples, alachlor ESA in 84%, acetochlor ESA in 71%, and acetochlor OA in 66%. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rebich, R. A.; Coupe, R. H.; Thurman, E. M.

2004-01-01

296

?????????????? Analysis of Runoff Evolution Law of Tarim River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Kp???Morlet?????????(kendall)?????????????????????(1958~2007)???????????????????????????????????????????26%??????????????17????????????????????????????? The uncertainty of runoff rules of Tarim River’s headwaters leads to the great change of composi-tion of Tarim River’s main stream. To analyze the runoff rules of Tarim River’s headwaters and trunk stream, and provide the basis for sustainable development of water resources, this study selects modulus coefficient Kp method, Morlet wavelet analysis method and Kendall rank test model to analyze the abundance, cycle and trends annual runoff rules of headwaters and Alar hydrological station (1958-2007) at main stream of Tarim River. The results show that, the frequency synchronization of abundance of headwaters and main stream is 26%. The existing cycles is 17-year cycle, the runoff trend of headwaters are increasing or decreasing, while decreasing at main stream.

???; ??; ???

2012-01-01

297

Thermal maturity of organic matter in Green River formation, Piceance Creek basin, Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal maturity of organic matter in the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek basin was determined by vitrinite reflectance on coalified logs in the otherwise alginite-rich oil shale, marlstone, and sandstone. Only vitrinite from logs in sandstone and marlstone was used to determine thermal maturity because reflectance of vitrinite from alginite-rich oil shale generally is lower than that in associated other rock types. Mean random vitrinite reflectance (R/sub 0/) at the top of the Green River Formation ranges from about 0.30% around the perimeter of the basin, where maximum burial depth of the rocks was less than 1000 m (3300 ft), to 0.55% in the structurally lowest part of the basin, where maximum burial depth of the upper part of the Green River Formation is almost 1200 m (3900 ft) thick in the structurally lowest part of the basin, suggesting that the lower part of the formation in this area may have reached an R/sub 0/ of 0.7%, generally accepted as the threshold for oil generation in alginitic rocks. Bitumin filled fractures observed in core from this area of the basin support this conclusion. A lithologically similar lacustrine section of the Green River Formation in the adjacent Uinta basin, where maximum burial was as great as 5600 m (18,400 ft), is producing large quantities of oil from over-pressured, fracture-controlled reservoirs. Present-day maximum temperatures in the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek basin are between 55 and 70/sup 0/C (131 and 158/sup 0/F). This temperature seems too low for hydrocarbon generation. However, temperatures in the past probably were high enough for hydrocarbon generation. Oil generated during this earlier, hotter period could have migrated into conventional stratigraphic and structural traps.

Johnson, R.; Nuccio, V.F.

1984-04-01

298

The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron re (more) colectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y Synbranchiformes por una especie. Entre estas, se encontró 2 especies exóticas. Las especies más abundantes fueron Astyanax fasciatus y Hypostomus ancistroides. En relación con el peso total, la especie más representativas fueron Hoplias malabaricus y Hypostomus ancistroides. En tanto que, Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus y Hoplias malabaricus fueron las más representativas en relación al preso promedio. Las longitudes estandar más grandes fue encontradas en Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens y Cyprinus carpio Abstract in english A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen (more) families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpio

Senteio Smith, Welber; Petrere, Miguel; Barrella, Walter

2003-09-01

299

Relation between environmental variables and the fish community structure in streams of das Mortes and Xingu river basins – MT, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental variables may determine and structure the composition of fish fauna. Studies comparing differences between physical and chemical variables of water between close river basins are few. This paper aimed to check which limnological variables are related to the distribution of fish species in two river basins. For this, 20 streams were sampled, divided between das Mortes and Xingu river basins. At each point one measured a total of 8 environmental variables. Fishes were collected through trawl. Total richness was 57 species, 29 of them from Xingu river basin, 35 from das Mortes river basin, and 7 species common to both river basins. The analyses showed that the streams in these two basins have distinct limnological and faunal features. The streams in Xingu river basin had lower pH values which may have been influenced by the high rates of organic decomposition. The streams of das Mortes river showed higher values of suspended matter and chlorophyll, probably due to higher degradation of streams and lower vegetation cover levels.

Priscylla Rodrigues Matos; Carolina Mancini do Carmo; Cesar Enrique de Melo

2013-01-01

300

Walking a dragline across the Wyoming prairie. [USA - Powder River Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In February - March 1991 the Thunder Basin Co., walked a Bucyrus-Erie model 1300-W walking dragline 45 km (28 miles) from the Coal Creek Mine to the Black Thunder Mine. Both mines are in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. The article profiles the move covering aspects such as: dragline size and walk requirements; geotechnical investigations; operational logistics; and reclamation of soil compacted by the passing dragline. 5 photos.

Miller, K.R.; Scott, T.R. (Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (USA))

1993-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Channel Slopes on Amazon Basin Rivers From the SRTM DEM  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in surface water storage (S) and discharge (Q) are poorly known globally but are critical for constraining the terrestrial branch of the water cycle. To date, only the SRTM mission provides global measurements of both surface water area and elevation. However, little is known about the instrument performance for collecting delta-S and Q. The Amazon Basin is a particularly appealing target given its sparse gauge density, lack of continuous and reliable slope data that can be used in the estimation of discharge, and complexity of flow hydraulics. We have used SRTM elevation data in conjunction with flow distance to estimate water surface slope for the area 0S-8S, 72W-54W. Using a 3rd order polynomial fit to the distance-elevation data, slope values of the mainstem Amazon range from less than 0.5 cm km-1 downstream of Obidos to 4.10 cm km-1 3000 km upstream of this location. The central Amazon slope ranges from 1.86 cm km-1 to 3.10 cm km-1 from Manaus to the Rio Japura (about 800 km upstream). Local slopes for specific gauge locations were achieved using both a linear fit to the data and the polynomial fit. The slope value at Itapeua, about 430 km upstream of Manaus, was found to be 3.22 cm km-1 using a linear fit, and 2.65 - 2.79 cm km-1 using a 3rd order polynomial fit, for a reach of 24 km. The slope value for Manacapuru, about 90 km upstream of Manaus, was determined to be 3.56 cm km-1 using a linear fit and 1.97 - 2.12 cm km-1 for a reach of 70 km centered on the local gauge. This slope is used in the Manning equation (n = 0.03) with depth values from navigation charts and river width measured from JERS-1 SAR imagery to yield discharge values for Manacapuru of 93,500 m3 sec-1and for Itapeua of 81,900 m3 sec-1. The observed discharge value at the Manacapuru gauge is 96,300 m3 sec-1 over an 11-day average in February for the years 1973-1991. The average observed discharge value for Itapeua is 83,100 m3 sec-1 for the same time period.

Hendricks, G.; Alsdorf, D. E.

2004-12-01

302

Quaternary colluvial episodes (Upper Paraná River Hydrographic Basin, Brazil)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Depósitos coluviais ocorrem extensivamente na Bacia Hidrográfica do Alto Rio Paraná, no sudeste, sul e centro-oeste do Brasil. Esses depósitos foram reconhecidos como uma unidade aloestratigráfica, e são interpretados como depósitos formados por processos de rastejo durante o Quaternário. Cada perfil coluvial estudado é muito homogêneo, e indica relativamente períodos longos de estabilidade da paisagem, suficiente para desenvolvimento de espessa cobertura. Este (more) s depósitos foram datados por luminescência para estabelecer cronologicamente períodos de deposição coluvial mais intensa entre 6 e 220 ky B.P. Estes eventos correspondem aproximadamente às transições entre os estágios de isótopos do oxigênio 2-3-4 e 5-6, sugerindo que essa agradação esteve influenciada por mudanças climáticas. Desenvolvimento aluvionar foi correlacionado ao Peniglacial médio a superior da Glaciação Wisconsiana. Os períodos de intensidade ou frequência maior de precipitação que ocorre durante as transições climáticas estão provavelmente correlacionados com os eventos de agradação. A regularidade do registro coluvionar sugere constante soerguimento acompanhado de deposição sedimentar por toda UPRHB devido à atividade neotectônica durante o último milhão de anos. Abstract in english Colluvial deposits occur extensively in the Upper Paraná River Hydrographic Basin (UPRHB) in Southeastern,Southern, and Western central Brazil. These deposits were recognized as an allostratigraphic unit and related to creeping during the Quaternary. Every studied colluvial profile is homogeneous, which indicates relatively long periods of landscape stability that is sufficient for the development of a thick soil cover. The deposits were dated by luminescence and indicat (more) e periods of more intense colluvial deposition between 6 and 220 ky B.P. These events correspond approximately to the transitions between the oxygen isotope stages 2-3-4 and 5-6, suggesting that this aggradation was influenced by climatic changes. However, the most important alluviation episode was tentatively correlated with the Middle to Upper Pleniglacial of the Wisconsin glaciation. The most intensive and frequent periods of precipitation that occurred during climate transitions are probably correlated with aggradation events. The regularity of the colluvial deposits suggests continuous uplift accompanied by sediment deposition throughout the UPRHB due to neotectonic activity during the last million years.

Sallun, Alethea E.M.; Suguio, Kenitiro

2010-09-01

303

Use of isotopes to study floodplain wetland and river flow interaction in the White Volta River basin, Ghana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Floodplain wetlands influence the timing and magnitude of stream responses to rainfall. In managing and sustaining the level of water resource usage in any river catchment as well as when modelling hydrological processes, it is essential that the role of floodplain wetlands in stream flows is recognised and understood. Existing studies on hydrology within the Volta River basin have not adequately represented the variability of wetland hydrological processes and their contribution to the sustenance of river flow. In order to quantify the extent of floodwater storage within riparian wetlands and their contribution to subsequent river discharges, a series of complementary studies were conducted by utilising stable isotopes, physical monitoring of groundwater levels and numerical modelling. The water samples were collected near Pwalugu on the White Volta River and at three wetland sites adjacent to the river using the grab sampling technique. These were analysed for (18)O and (2)H. The analysis provided an estimate of the contribution of pre-event water to overall stream flow. In addition, the variation in the isotopic composition in the river and wetland water samples, respectively, revealed the pattern of flow and exchange of water between the wetlands and the main river system.

Nyarko BK; Kofi Essumang D; Eghan MJ; Reichert B; van de Giesen N; Vlek P

2010-03-01

304

Demarcation of Groundwater Prospective Zones in Humid Tropical River Basin: A Geospatial Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available roundwater, being a vital resource, needs to be developed with proper understanding about its occurrence in time and space. Unscientific sand mining is a dominant environmental issue in this humid tropical river basin namely Bharathapuzha river basin geographically on central part of Kerala state, southwest part of India. The sandy layers along the river course declines its water holding capacity due to indiscriminate sand mining throughout the river basin. For a sustainable development of water resources, it is imperative to make a quantitative estimation of the available water resources. The purpose of the study is to identify the groundwater potential zones in the Bharathapuzha river basin in Kerala state, India based on Remote Sensing and GIS technology. Thematic layers considered in the study are geomorphology, land use, and lineament derived from IRS P6 LISS IV digital data; drainage network contour and slope maps are generated using toposheets; geology from GSI geology maps, with the help of Arc GIS Software and Erdas Software. Storativity and transmissivity of the study area was prepared using pumping test data. The thematic layers were over layered by weighted overlay method using Arc GIS. Four groundwater potential zones were identified in the study area represented as very good, good, moderate and poor potential zones.

Girish Gopinath; Sreela Reghu; Reji Srinivas; Rajesh Regunath; Kurian Sajan

2013-01-01

305

THE PECULIARITIES OF THE SEASONAL AND MONTHLY FLOW REGIME OF THE RIVERS IN THE UPPER RIVER BASIN OF MURE?  

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Full Text Available The peculiarities of the seasonal and monthly flow regime of the rivers in the upper river basin of Mure?. The study is based upon the processing and the interpretation of data from eight gauging stations. In order to emphasize the peculiarities of the flow regime year-round there has been taken into account the common period, namely 1986-2010. The features of the geographic cover characterizing the central eastern part of Eastern Carpathians, especially those regarding the slopes and the climatic elements are reflected accurately in the river water flow regime. Thus, the dominant flow of all rivers occurs during the spring season and the lowest share of the total annual average season is winter. The month with the richest flow is April, and the low flow occurs during the months of January and February. The seasonal and monthly flow variation in multi profile was highlighted by the coefficients of variation.

NICOLETA DANIELA GORON

2012-01-01

306

Cross-Comparison of Climate Change adaptation Strategies Across Large River Basins in Europe, Africa and Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and ...

Krysanova, V.; Dickens, Ch.; Timmerman, J.; Varela Ortega, C.; Schlüter, M.; Roest, C.W.J.; Huntjens, P.; Jaspers, A.M.J.

307

Cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across large river basins in Europe, Africa and Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across regions was performed, considering six large river basins as case study areas. Three of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, and Rhine, are located in Europe, the Nile Equatorial Lakes region and the Orange basin are in Africa, and ...

Krysanova, Valentina; Dickens, Chris; Timmerman, Jos; Varela Ortega, Consuelo; Schlüter, Maja; Roest, Koen; Huntjens, Patrick

308

Reconstructing the Santa Tecla flash flood in the Ondara River (Ebro Basin, NE Spain)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Santa Tecla flood may be considered the most catastrophic rainfall event in the modern history of Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula), and one of the most important in the Western Mediterranean Basin. This event took place during the night between 22nd and 23rd September 1874, in which torrential convective rainfalls generated significant flash floods in most of the small streams in the southern half of Catalonia (i.e. Ondara, Corb, Francolí and Siurana catchments). More than 570 people died, 150 of which in the town of Tàrrega, by the Ondara River. Despite being one of the last huge floods of the pre-instrumental era and, consequently, without any precipitation or flow data, the event was reconstructed both hydraulically and hydrologically for the Ondara River at Tàrrega (150 km2). Thus, the maximum water level and the temporal evolution of the flood were obtained, respectively, from several epigraphic limnimarks found in Tàrrega and from the event description recorded in historical documents. Additionally, the information from local archaeological sites allowed the reconstruction of the fluvial section at Tàrrega at the end of the 19th century. Finally, some old cellars flooded during the event provided information about sediment concentration at the peak flow. The methodology put into practice for the event reconstruction had two stages. The first stage was the hydraulic modelling, which estimated the peak flow. The input data used were the maximum water level given by the limnimetric marks, a digital terrain model of the river bed shape, and the stream and floodplain roughness and channel slope (which were considered similar to the present ones, according to archaeological data). The hydraulic model used was the unidimensional HEC-RAS (USACE), applied in several cross sections of the Ondara River at Tàrrega. The second stage was the hydrological modelling. The objective of this stage was to derive the event hyetograph from the above calculated peak flow and the hydrologic response of the basin. This hydrologic behaviour, that is the relation between the hyetograph and the hydrograph, was estimated taking into account rainfall duration (6-8 hours according to historical documents), basin characteristics, soil type, soil land use and cover and the antecedent soil moisture, using SCS Curve Number method. After that, a transfer Synthetic Unitary Hydrograph function and a wave propagation method (Muskingum) were applied to describe the discharge evolution and the water routing into the stream channel. The software used in this stage was the HEC-HMS (USACE). The results of the hydraulic simulation at the Sant Agustí street cross section were the following: a) a maximum water depth of 6.16 m above the original river bed, b) a mean water velocity of about 2 m•s-1, c) a peak flow of 996 m3•s-1 (increased by 480 m3•s-1 from the Cercavins River downstream Tàrrega), and d) a specific peak discharge of the event of 6.6 m3•s-1•km-2, which exceeds the values of the 500-year return period floods compiled from the Ebro drainage basin systematic database. From the information obtained in the flooded cellars, the sediment concentration during the peak flow was estimated in 11.2% (in volume), characteristic of a hyperconcentrated flow. The water level reached in the abovepresented cross section is partly explained by the recently discovered Sant Agustí Bridge, buried until now in the river bed. The results of the hydrologic modelling were: a) a surface runoff total volume of 12 hm3, b) a runoff coefficient of about 35.5%, c) a lagtime of 2.5-3 hours, and d) if the previous soil humidity for the Curve Number method was low (situation I), a total rainfall of 225 mm with a peak intensity higher than 100 mm•h-1 is needed; if the previous soil humidity for the Curve Number method was medium (situation II), a total rainfall of 156 mm with a peak intensity of about 70 mm•h-1 occurs. Rainfall values for medium previous moisture condition (II) represent a 1000-year return period according to the regional systematic data.

Balasch, J. C.; Tuset, J.; Ramos, M. C.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

2009-09-01

309

Change and persistence in land surface phenologies of the Don and Dnieper river basins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991 produced major socio-economic and institutional dislocations across the agricultural sector. The picture of broad scale patterns produced by these transformations continues to be discovered. We examine here the patterns of land surface phenology (LSP) within two key river basins-Don and Dnieper-using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 1982 to 2000 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data from 2001 to 2007. We report on the temporal persistence and change of LSPs as summarized by seasonal integration of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series using accumulated growing degree-days (GDDI NDVI). Three land cover super-classes-forest lands, agricultural lands, and shrub lands-constitute 96% of the land area within the basins. All three in both basins exhibit unidirectional increases in AVHRR GDDI NDVI between the Soviet and post-Soviet epochs. During the MODIS era (2001-2007), different socio-economic trajectories in Ukraine and Russia appear to have led to divergences in the LSPs of the agricultural lands in the two basins. Interannual variation in the shrub lands of the Don river basin has increased since 2000. This is due in part to the better signal-to-noise ratio of the MODIS sensor, but may also be due to a regional drought affecting the Don basin more than the Dnieper basin.

2009-01-01

310

Soil loss prediction in Guaraíra river experimental basin, Paraíba, Brazil based on two erosion simulation models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, two hydrological models to estimate soil losses and sediment yield due to sheet and channel erosion, at the basin outlet, are applied to Guaraíra River Experimental Basin, located in Paraíba State, northeastern Brazil. The soil erosion models are (a) the classical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), which is used to simulate annual and monthly soil losses; and (b) Kineros model, which is used to simulate the sediment yield within the basin. Kineros model is a physically-based distributed model that uses a cascade of planes and channels to represent the basin and to describe the processes of interception, infiltration, surface runoff and erosion within the basin. The USLE is computed using land use, soil erodibility, topographic digital maps, as well as observed rainfall data. It was found that Guaraíra river experimental basin has a low potential for soil losses; however, specific areas which are susceptible to the erosion process in the basin could be detected by the modeling techniques coupled to a GIS (Geographic Information System).

Richarde Marques da Silva; Celso Augusto Guimarães Santos; Leonardo Pereira e Silva; Jorge Flávio Cazé B. da Costa Silva

2007-01-01

311

Cytogenetic and morphological diversity in populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) from Brazilian northeastern river basins  

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Full Text Available In the present work, morphometric and cytogenetic analyses were carried out in populations of the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae) from Contas and Recôncavo Sul River basins (State of Bahia, Brazil), providing new data on the genetic structure of this species along the region. Based on morphologic measurements, we observed that populations from the same hydrographic basin were more similar to each other (Contas and Preto do Costa Rivers), and remarkably divergent from Recôncavo Sul (Mineiro Stream), as indicated by clustering analysis. Cytogenetic data revealed a same diploid number for all populations (2n = 48), but distinct karyotype formulae (8M+24SM+12ST+4A, FN = 92 in Contas River, 8M+24SM+10ST+6A, FN = 90 in Preto do Costa River, and 8M+18SM+16ST+6A, FN = 90 in Mineiro Stream). Ag-NORs were identified at telomeres on a subtelocentric chromosome pair, although multiple ribosomal sites have been detected in some specimens from Contas River. These results show that A. fasciatus populations from northeastern river basins are well differentiated and present peculiar cytogenetic features when compared to populations from other regions. Therefore, the apparent chromosomal plasticity of this species, likely to represent a complex of cryptic forms, is corroborated. Finally, we demonstrated that morphological features can be successfully used to support other sources of genetic information.

Aline Souza Medrado; Alba Vivian Amaral Figueiredo; Ana Maria Waldschmidt; Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello Affonso; Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro

2008-01-01

312

Cytogenetic and morphological diversity in populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) from Brazilian northeastern river basins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In the present work, morphometric and cytogenetic analyses were carried out in populations of the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae) from Contas and Recôncavo Sul River basins (State of Bahia, Brazil), providing new data on the genetic structure of this species along the region. Based on morphologic measurements, we observed that populations from the same hydrographic basin were more similar to each other (Contas and Preto do Costa Rivers), and remarkably divergent fro (more) m Recôncavo Sul (Mineiro Stream), as indicated by clustering analysis. Cytogenetic data revealed a same diploid number for all populations (2n = 48), but distinct karyotype formulae (8M+24SM+12ST+4A, FN = 92 in Contas River, 8M+24SM+10ST+6A, FN = 90 in Preto do Costa River, and 8M+18SM+16ST+6A, FN = 90 in Mineiro Stream). Ag-NORs were identified at telomeres on a subtelocentric chromosome pair, although multiple ribosomal sites have been detected in some specimens from Contas River. These results show that A. fasciatus populations from northeastern river basins are well differentiated and present peculiar cytogenetic features when compared to populations from other regions. Therefore, the apparent chromosomal plasticity of this species, likely to represent a complex of cryptic forms, is corroborated. Finally, we demonstrated that morphological features can be successfully used to support other sources of genetic information.

Medrado, Aline Souza; Figueiredo, Alba Vivian Amaral; Waldschmidt, Ana Maria; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza

2008-01-01

313

Patterns and drivers of vegetation degradation in Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia, China  

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Full Text Available Aims Overgrazing is a key factor driving grassland degradation in arid and semiarid regions. In this study, we explored how spatial and temporal patterns of grassland degradation were linked to vegetation sensitivity and socioeconomic drivers in the Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia, China.Methods We categorized grassland degradation by species composition and community characteristics by comparing a 1980’s vegetation map with data from field surveys done in 1984 and 2004 across the Xilin River Basin. Five types of grasslands were distinguished: non-degraded, slightly degraded, moderately degraded, heavily degraded,and extremely degraded. We also classified two additional types of grasslands based on their conditions 20 years ago: salinized and restored grasslands.Important findings The distribution of degraded grasslands exhibited an obvious spatial pattern across the Xilin River Basin. In general, the degree of grassland degradation increased from upstream in the southeast to downstream in the northwest of the basin. Moderately degraded grasslands were distributed mostly in the southeast, andheavily degraded and salinized grasslands were located in areas close to the river and over much of the Hunshandak sandland. Extremely degraded grasslands were distributed throughout the northern part of the basin where ecosystems were more vulnerable to over grazing. Non-degraded and slightly degraded grasslands were scattered patchily across the basin. In contrast, some abandoned farmlands and fenced pastures rested from grazing showed restoration over the past two decades. Grassland degradation in the basin also showed vegetation-type specific characteristics. About 43% of the shrubland was slightly degraded. More than 50% of Festuca ovina and Ulmus pumila dominated grasslands were moderately degraded, and half of the Stipa baicalensis and Bromus inermis dominated grasslands were heavily degraded. For both Stipa krylovii and Caragana microphylla dominated grasslands, more than 50% of the total areas were extremely degraded. For Leymus chinensis grassland, only small part of the total area had been degraded. Based on our analysis, overgrazing is the most important socioeconomic factor driving grassland degradation in the Xilin River Basin. The grassland degradation was positively correlated with increasing stocking rate from the 1970’s to 2004. Other factors, such as shifts in the density of villages and network of roads, were also attributed to the widespread grassland degradation in the Xilin River Basin.

JIANG Ye; BI Xiao-Li; HUANG Jian-Hui; BAI Yong-Fei

2010-01-01

314

Governing Water as a Common Good in the Mekong River Basin: issues of scale  

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Full Text Available Transboundary water governance has received special attention in the wake of the World Bank vice-president Ismail Serageldin’s famous prediction in 1995 that, “if the wars of this century were fought over oil, the wars of the next century will be fought over water”. The water wars scenario ensures that in the world’s more than 260 river basins that flow across national boundaries, primary attention is given to managing water as an international commons. A framework for such transboundary management has been in place more or less continuously in the Mekong for half a century, and it would appear that water has indeed been a force for cooperation even when brutal conflict has torn at the region. Despite the appearance of successful basin-scale management, inter-governmental management of water as an international commons in a transboundary river basin context can also hide some troubling ways in which water as a commons is eroded in the process of development. This paper considers common property dimensions of water and the livelihood systems that they support at multiple scales within the Mekong. It goes on to look at ways in which these are impacted upon by bureaucratisation, infrastructure and commodification processes. Ironically, basin organisations can both enhance and undermine governance for the common good, depending on how they deal with commonality of interest in freshwater at various scales. The paper draws on brief case studies of current trends in water governance including river basin organisations in the Mekong (the Mekong River Commission and River Basin Committees at national levels), of infrastructure (Thailand’s proposed Water Grid and Laos’ Nam Theun 2 dam) and of commodified notions of water (as a development resource and as a scarce commodity to be managed through market mechanisms).

Philip Hirsch

2006-01-01

315

Water quality and supply issues in the Nakdong River Basin in the Republic of Korea.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A framework for evaluating alternative management strategies for the Nakdong River Basin in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was developed and applied jointly by Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois, USA, and the Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology in Pohang, South Korea. Water from this basin, the second largest in South Korea, supports a total population of more than 13 million people. Rapid industrial expansion, urbanization, and population growth have dramatically increased the demand for water and have severely degraded water quality, particularly near large industrial complexes and in the lower portion of the basin. Management strategies for the entire basin through to the year 2011 were evaluated with a computer model for basin-wide predictions of water flow and quality (HSPF). This continuous-event model was developed and calibrated using site-specific data for the basin over a two-year period (1994-1995) that included periods of both high (monsoonal) and low (drought) flows. Water quality impacts for different wastewater treatment strategies were assessed in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) levels. The results of the study indicate that BOD levels in the main stem of the Nakdong River below the Kumhogang (a major tributary with low flow and heavy pollution loads) cannot be significantly improved by reducing direct BOD loads from point sources along the river. To reduce main stem BOD levels, the nutrient loading to the river must be reduced. In order to reduce these loads, additional advanced treatment methods (i.e., tertiary treatment) must be incorporated in the treatment facilities to remove N and P. The discharge inventory data further suggest that a large portion of N and P loads are derived from non-point agricultural practices. Reduction of these loads is difficult to accomplish and may require extensive modifications in agricultural and land-use practices. The modeling framework developed provides a means to evaluate these and other basin management strategies.

Chun, K. C.; Chang, R.-W.; Williams, G. P.; Chang, Y.-S.; Tomasko, D.; LaGory, K. E.; Ditmars, J. D.; Chun, H.-D.; Lee, B.-Y.; Environmental Assessment; Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technol.; Korea Environment Inst.

2001-01-01

316

Pacific freshwater, river water and sea ice meltwater across Arctic Ocean basins: Results from the 2005 Beringia Expedition  

Science.gov (United States)

Pacific water, sea ice meltwater, and river water are the primary sources of freshwater in the Arctic Ocean. We have determined their relative fractions on a transect across the Arctic Ocean Section 2005 Expedition onboard IB Oden, which took place from 21 August to 23 September 2005. The transect began north of Alaska, continued through the central Canada Basin to the Alpha Ridge and into the Makarov Basin, and ended in Amundsen Basin. Pacific freshwater and river water were the major sources of freshwater throughout the central Canada Basin and into Makarov Basin, with river water fractions sometimes considerably higher than Pacific water in the top ˜50 m. Pacific freshwater extended to depths of about 200 m. Pacific water found over the Alpha Ridge and in the Amundsen Basin is suggested to have been transported there in the Transpolar Drift. The inventories of Pacific freshwater and river water were roughly constant along the section through most of the Canada and Makarov basins. River water fractions were greater than those of Pacific freshwater in the Amundsen Basin. Sea ice meltwater fractions were negative (reflecting net ice formation) or near zero throughout most of the section. A comparison of freshwater inventories with those at stations occupied during expeditions in 1991, 1994, and 1996 indicated an increase in river water inventories in the Makarov and Amundsen basins on the Eurasian side of the Arctic Ocean.

Jones, E. Peter; Anderson, Leif G.; JutterströM, Sara; Mintrop, Ludger; Swift, James H.

2008-08-01

317

Loss of macronutrients (N, P, K) in the hydrographic basin of the River Ivaí, an affluent of the River Paraná  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influence of some environmental variables in the loss of macronutrients N, P, K, from the hydrographic basin of the River Ivaí were analysed. Water samples of the river were monthly collected for five consecutive days during a year. In terms of total intervals of average monthly values and total average values experiment results, in mg L-1, were: N (0.32-3.22 and 1.65); K (0.73-2.69 and 1.38); P (not detected-0.39 and 0.076); COD (0.21-36.0 and 12.8); O2(dis) (1.89-8.40 and 5.43); and temperature (ºC) (16.0-30.8 and 24.6); pH (5.18-8.50 and 7.15). Statistical analysis of data showed that quantity of macronutrient (N, K, P) carried off from the hydrographic basin of the River Ivaí were directly correlated to fluviometric levels (caused by rainfall and floodings) at 5% level of significance. Carried off quantities, in t a-1, were N = 25,136.0; K = 21,010.0 and P = 1,161.2.Neste estudo foram analisadas algumas variáveis ambientais que influenciam a perda de macronutrientes (N, P e K) na bacia hidrográfica do rio Ivaí, afluente do rio Paraná. As amostras compostas de água foram coletadas mensalmente, em 5 dias consecutivos, durante um ano. No ato da coleta foram medidos, o pH, a temperatura, o O2(dissolvido) e os níveis fluviométricos. O N total foi determinado pelo método de Kjeldahl. Após a digestão das amostras com redução de volume foram determinados, o P total, pelo método espectrofotométrico do UV-Vis com ácido ascórbico e o K total pela técnica da espectrometria da absorção atômica. O DQO foi determinado pelo método da oxidação da matéria orgânica pelo K2Cr2O7, em excesso, em ácido sulfúrico concentrado. Em termos de intervalos das médias mensais, média global, os resultados experimentais foram os seguintes, em mg L-1: N (0,32-3,22 e 1,65); K (0,73-2,69 e 1,38); P (não detectado-0,39 e 0,076); COD (0,21-36,0 e 12,8); O2(diss) (1,89-8,40 e 5,43); e, temperatura (ºC) (16,0-30,8 e 24,6); pH (5,18-8,50 e 7,15). A análise estatística dos dados mostrou que a quantidade de cada macronutriente levada pelas águas do rio Ivaí é diretamente correlacionada aos níveis fluviométricos do rio, em nível de 5% de confiança. As quantidades perdidas em t a-1 foram: N = 25.136,0; K = 21,010,0 e P = 1,161,2, respectivamente.

Deborah Maria Corrêa Guiraud; Ervim Lenzi; Eduardo Bernardi Luchese; Luzia Otília Bortotti Fávero

2004-01-01

318

Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fsh Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla River Basin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Habitat enhancement projects continued to be maintained on 44 private properties, four riparian easements and one in-stream enhancement agreement were secured, two new projects implemented and two existing projects improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities in the Umatilla River Basin. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River and Buckaroo Creek. Improvements were implemented at existing project sites on the upper Umatilla River and Wildhorse Creek. A stream bank stabilization project was implemented at approximately River Mile 37.4 Umatilla River to stabilize 760 feet of eroding stream bank and improve in-stream habitat diversity. Habitat enhancements at this site included construction of six rock barbs with one large conifer root wad incorporated into each barb, stinging approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings, planting 195 tubling willows and 1,800 basin wildrye grass plugs, and seeding 40 pounds of native grass seed. Staff time to assist in development of a subcontract and fence materials were provided to establish eight spring sites for off-stream watering and to protect wetlands within the Buckaroo Creek Watershed. A gravel bar was moved and incorporated into an adjacent point bar to reduce stream energy and stream channel confinement within the existing project area at River Mile 85 Umatilla River. Approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings were stung and trenched into the stream channel margins and stream banks, and 360 basin wildrye grass plugs planted and 190 pounds of native grass seed broadcast on terraces between River Mile 10 and 12.5 within the existing Wildhorse Creek Project Area. Approximately 70 pounds of native grasses were seeded in the existing McKay Creek Project Area at approximately River Mile 21.5. Financial and in-kind cost share assistance was provided by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Fish and Wildlife Federation and the Umatilla National Forest for the enhancements at River Mile 37.4 Umatilla River and within the Buckaroo Creek Watershed. Monitoring continued to quantify effects of habitat enhancements in the upper basin. Maximum, minimum and average daily stream temperatures were collected from June through September at 22 sites. Suspended sediment samples were obtained at three gage stations to arrive at daily sediment load estimates. Photographs were taken at 94 existing and two newly established photo points to document habitat recovery. Umatilla Basin Watershed Assessment efforts were continued under a subcontract with Washington State University. This endeavor involves compiling existing information, identifying data gaps, determining habitat-limiting factors and recommending actions to improve anadromous fisheries habitat. This watershed assessment document and working databases will be completed in fiscal year 2002 and made available to assist project personnel with sub-watershed prioritization of habitat needs.

Shaw, R. Todd

2001-12-31

319

K West Basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Estimates were made of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel and in the fuel storage canisters in K West Basin. These were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. These estimates, made in early 1997, are reviewed and the basic assumptions used discussed

1998-01-01

320

K West Basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Estimates were made of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel and in the fuel storage canisters in K West Basin. These were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. These estimates, made in early 1997, are reviewed and the basic assumptions used discussed.

Pitner, A.L.

1998-08-12

 
 
 
 
321

Inorganic arsenic speciation at river basin scales: the Tinto and Odiel rivers in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tinto and Odiel rivers are heavily affected by acid mine drainage from mining areas in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. In this work we have conducted a study along these rivers where surface water samples have been collected. Field measurements, total dissolved metals and Fe and inorganic As speciation analysis were performed. The average total concentration of As in the Tinto river (1975 microg L(-1)) is larger than in the Odiel river (441 microg L(-1)); however, the mean concentration of As(III) is almost four times higher in the Odiel. In wet seasons the mean pH levels of both rivers (2.4 and 3.2 for the Tinto and Odiel, respectively) increase slightly and the amount of dissolved total arsenic tend to decrease, while the As(III)/(V) ratio strongly increase. Besides, the concentration of the reduced As species increase along the water course. As a result, As(III)/(V) ratio can be up to 100 times higher in the lower part of the basins. An estimation of the As(III) load transported by both rivers into the Atlantic Ocean has been performed, resulting in about 60 kg yr(-1) and 2.7t yr(-1) by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, respectively. PMID:19135765

Sarmiento, A M; Nieto, J M; Casiot, C; Elbaz-Poulichet, F; Egal, M

2009-01-09

322

GIS-based models for water quantity and quality assessment in the Jucar River Basin, Spain, including climate change effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes two different GIS models - one stationary (GeoImpress) and the other non-stationary (Patrical) - that assess water quantity and quality in the Júcar River Basin District, a large river basin district (43,000km(2)) located in Spain. It aims to analyze the status of surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) bodies in relation to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and to support measures to achieve the WFD objectives. The non-stationary model is used for quantitative analysis of water resources, including long-term water resource assessment; estimation of available GW resources; and evaluation of climate change impact on water resources. The main results obtained are the following: recent water resources have been reduced by approximately 18% compared to the reference period 1961-1990; the GW environmental volume required to accomplish the WFD objectives is approximately 30% of the GW annual resources; and the climate change impact on water resources for the short-term (2010-2040), based on a dynamic downscaling A1B scenario, implies a reduction in water resources by approximately 19% compared to 1990-2000 and a reduction of approximately 40-50% for the long-term (2070-2100), based on dynamic downscaling A2 and B2 scenarios. The model also assesses the impact of various fertilizer application scenarios on the status of future GW quality (nitrate) and if these future statuses will meet the WFD requirements. The stationary model generates data on the actual and future chemical status of SW bodies in the river basin according to the modeled scenarios and reflects the implementation of different types of measures to accomplish the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive and the WFD. Finally, the selection and prioritization of additional measures to accomplish the WFD are based on cost-effectiveness analysis.

Ferrer J; Pérez-Martín MA; Jiménez S; Estrela T; Andreu J

2012-12-01

323

GIS-based models for water quantity and quality assessment in the Júcar River Basin, Spain, including climate change effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes two different GIS models - one stationary (GeoImpress) and the other non-stationary (Patrical) - that assess water quantity and quality in the Júcar River Basin District, a large river basin district (43,000km(2)) located in Spain. It aims to analyze the status of surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) bodies in relation to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and to support measures to achieve the WFD objectives. The non-stationary model is used for quantitative analysis of water resources, including long-term water resource assessment; estimation of available GW resources; and evaluation of climate change impact on water resources. The main results obtained are the following: recent water resources have been reduced by approximately 18% compared to the reference period 1961-1990; the GW environmental volume required to accomplish the WFD objectives is approximately 30% of the GW annual resources; and the climate change impact on water resources for the short-term (2010-2040), based on a dynamic downscaling A1B scenario, implies a reduction in water resources by approximately 19% compared to 1990-2000 and a reduction of approximately 40-50% for the long-term (2070-2100), based on dynamic downscaling A2 and B2 scenarios. The model also assesses the impact of various fertilizer application scenarios on the status of future GW quality (nitrate) and if these future statuses will meet the WFD requirements. The stationary model generates data on the actual and future chemical status of SW bodies in the river basin according to the modeled scenarios and reflects the implementation of different types of measures to accomplish the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive and the WFD. Finally, the selection and prioritization of additional measures to accomplish the WFD are based on cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:22959072

Ferrer, Javier; Pérez-Martín, Miguel A; Jiménez, Sara; Estrela, Teodoro; Andreu, Joaquín

2012-09-07

324

Major and trace elements of river-borne material: The Congo Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Congo river Basin is the second largest drainage basin in the world, after the Amazon. The materials carried by its main rivers provide the opportunity to study the products of denudation of a large fraction of the upper continental crust of the African continent. This paper presents the chemical composition of the different phases carried in the Congo rivers and is followed by a companion paper, devoted to the modelling of major and trace elements. The Congo river between Bangui and Brazzaville as well as its main tributaries, including a few organic-rich rivers, also called Black Rivers, were sampled during the 1989 high water stage. The three main phases (suspended load, dissolved load, and bedload) were analysed for twenty-five major and trace elements. Concentrations normalized to the upper continental crust show that in each river, suspended sediments and dissolved load are chemical complements for the most soluble elements (Ca, Na, Sr, K, Ba, Rb, and U). While these elements are enriched in the dissolved loads, they are considerably depleted in the corresponding suspended sediments. This is consistent with their high mobility during weathering. Another type of complementarity is observed for Zr and Hf between suspended sediments and bedload, related to the differential velocity of suspended sediments and zircons which are concentrated in bedloads. Compared to other rivers, absolute dissolved concentrations of Ca, Na, Sr, K, Ba, Rb, and U are remarkably low. Surprisingly, high dissolved concentrations are found in the Congo waters for other trace elements (e.g., REEs), especially in the Black rivers. On a world scale, these concentrations are among the highest measured in rivers and are shown to be pH dependent for a number of dissolved trace elements. The dissolved loads are systematically normalized to the suspended loads for each river, in order to remove the variations of the element abundances owing to source rock variations.

Dupre, B.; Rousseau, D. [CNES/GRGS, Toulouse (France); Gaillardet, J.; Allegre, C.J. [Universite de Paris (France)

1996-04-01

325

??????????????????? Water Resources Management and Decision Supporting System of the Yangtze River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????–??–??–??(??)???????????????????????????????????? The current weakness of water resource management in the YangtzeRiver basinwas discussed, and future necessity and key function of supporting system based on water resource model for integrated management were analyzed in this paper. The system should take into account of climate-change pushed hydrological cycle, water demanding prediction, water resource optimal allocation and emergent water diversion, etc. The pilot system will be developed firstly for water resource simulation, prediction, allocation and optimization in the Han River, and then extend to Yangtze River basin.

??

2012-01-01

326

Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Matter in Amazon Basin: Insights into Negro River Contribution  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of global carbon cycle requires a precise knowledge of spatial and temporal distributions and exportation from continents to oceans. Organic carbon fluxes represent approximately half of the total carbon budget carried by rivers. Tropical rivers transport two third of the total organic carbon discharged into the world oceans but important gaps still exist in the knowledge of the tropical river carbon biochemistry. The Amazon River is responsible for 10% of the annual amount of organic carbon transported from rivers to oceans. The most important portion of total organic matter transported in the Amazon Basin is the dissolved fraction (between 80% and 95%). Amazonian annual flux of dissolved organic matter is directly related to hydrological variations. All rivers in the Amazon basin are characterized by monomodal hydrograms, with a low water period in october/november and a high water period in may/june. Temporal variations in Amazon dissolved organic carbon (3.0 to 9.1 mg l^{- 1}) are mainly controled by Negro River inputs. DOC and DON contributions from the Negro River can vary between 120 kgC s-1 and 520 kg C s-1, and between 5 kgN s--1 and 15 kgN s-1, during low and high water period, respectivelly. In the Negro River, during high water stages, while DOC concentrations are stable from the upstream stations to the downstream ones (about 11 mg l-1), discharge increases from 16000 to 46000 m3 s-1 and NOD can quintuple from upstream (0.071 mg l-1) to downstream (0.341 mg l-1). Then the nature of dissolved organic matter is variable (C/N ratio varied from 33 to 120 from upstream to downstream). During low water stages DOC concentrations are lower (mean DOC of 8.1 mg l-1) while DON is in the same range, discharge is about 10000 m3 s-1 at downstream stations of Negro River and the C/N ratio is lower and steadier along the River. Finaly, despite a low basin surface (12%) compared with the two other main Amazon tributaries, Solimões and Madeira Rivers, and a mean annual water input to Amazonas of 15%, the Negro River contributes with about 38% of the total organic dissolved carbon transported by the Amazon River.

Moreira-Turcq, P.; Perez, M. P.; Benedetti, M.; Oliveira, M. A.; Lagane, C.; Seyler, P.; Oliveira, E.

2006-12-01

327

Design review report for the 105 K-East Basin dose reduction concept. Volume 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiological surveys in the 105 K-East Fuel Storage Basin show average dose rates of 4 to 50 mrem/hr. A major source of the dose is the radionuclides that have been absorbed into the concrete wall of the basin. This reports documents the design review of the concept for reducing the dose from the walls. Volume 1 comprises the Design Review Report and Volume 2 comprises the Design Review Package.

Dearing, J.I.

1995-03-30

328

LAND USE CHANGE DUE TO URBANIZATION FOR THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN  

Science.gov (United States)

The Urban Growth Model (UGM) was applied to analysis of land use change in the Neuse River Basin as part of a larger project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization. UGM is based on cellular automation (CA) simulation techniques developed at the University...

329

ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY: THE SAN JUAN RIVER BASIN  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents an evaluation of surface water quality in the San Juan River Basin and discusses the impact of energy development upon water quality and water availabilty. The water quality data collected and presented in this report may be considered baseline in nature and ...

330

Physically-based Flood Modeling Driven by Radar Rainfall in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin, Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

The upstream portion of the Guadalupe River Basin (Upper Guadalupe River Basin) is prone to frequent flooding due to its physiographic properties (thin soils, exposed bedrock, and sparse vegetation). The Upper Guadalupe River watershed above Comfort, Texas drains an area of 2,170 square kilometers. This watershed is located at the central part of the Texas Hill Country. This study presents hydrologic analysis of the June 2002, November-2004, and August-2007 flood events that occurred in Upper Guadalupe River Basin. The physically based, distributed-parameter Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) hydrologic model was used to simulate the above flooding events. The first event was used in model while the other two were used for validation. GSSHA model was driven by both rain gauge and Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) rainfall inputs. Differences in simulation results were compared in terms of the hydrographs at different locations in the basin as well as the spatial distribution of hydrologic processes. GSSHA simulations driven by MPE rainfall match very well the USGS observed hydrograph. GSSHA simulation driven by rain gauge rainfall for June-2002 storm event underestimated the peak flow.

Sharif, H. O.; Chintalapudi, S.; El Hassan, A.

2011-12-01

331

Analysis of Inorganic Nitrogen Leaching in a Boreal River Basin in Northern Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study the dynamic, semi-distributed INCA-N model was applied to the boreal Simojoki river basin in northern Finland to outline inorganic nitrogen (N) leaching patterns and N processes in catchment scale. Special emphasis was paid to the quality assurance of the modelling work. The dominant h...

Rankinen, Katri

332

ENDEMIC SPECIES AND SPECIES OF FLORISTIC INTEREST IDENTIFIED IN THE CERNA OF OLTET RIVER BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper refers to several taxa, which were not known to belong to Oltenia flora, and to a part of the endemic species identified in the Cerna of Oltet River Basin. Our goal is to demonstrate the diversity of the flora in this region and the necessity of protection for some taxa.

RADUTOIU DANIEL

2006-01-01

333

HYDROLOGIC SENSITIVITIES OF THE SACRAMENTO-SAN JOAQUIN RIVER BASIN, CA TO GLOBAL WARMING  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrologic sensitivities of four medium-sized mountainous catchments in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins to long-term global warming were analyzed. he hydrologic response of these catchments, all of which are dominated by spring snowmelt runoff, were simulated by t...

334

Cooperative Water-Resources Monitoring in the St. Clair River/Lake St. CLair Basin, Michigan.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project, this report describes numerous cooperative water-resources monitoring efforts conducted in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin over the last 100 years. Cooperative monitoring is a tool used t...

B. P. Neff S. J. Rheaume S. P. Blumer

2007-01-01

335

Economic Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Powder River Basin Coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unminable coalbeds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this paper is to study the economic feasibility of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can effectively sequester over 86,000 tons (78,200 tonne) of CO2 per acre while recovering methane to offset costs. The cost to separate CO2 from flue gas was identified as the major cost driver associated with CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams. Improvements in separations technology alone are unlikely to drive costs low enough for CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin to become economically viable. Breakthroughs in separations technology could aid the economics, but in the Powder River Basin they cannot achieve the necessary cost reductions for breakeven economics without incentives.

Eric P. Robertson

2009-01-01

336

A MODEL OF MIGRATION IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY REGION  

Science.gov (United States)

The report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. It examines the impact of regional energy development scenarios and policies on the internal movements of population and industry within the project study re...

337

Health Risk Associated with Pesticide Contamination of Fish from the Densu River Basin in Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Densu River Basin constitutes one of the largest agricultural areas in Ghana. The practice of using pesticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids and several others in agriculture and public health programs has raised concerns about potentially adverse effects on ...

J. R. Fianko; A. Donkor; S. T. Lowor; P. O. Yeboah; E.T. Glover; T. Adom; A. Faanu

338

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF MEADOWS VEGETATION FROM THE SUPERIOR BASIN OF PUTNA RIVER (VRANCEA COUNTY)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents two vegetal associations identified on moderately inclined slopes of the superior basin of Putna river: Festuco rubrae – Agrostietum capillaris Horvat 1951, Festucetum rupicolae Burduja et al. 1956. Each association is described in a phytocoenological table and analysed from the point of view of bioforms, floristic elements and ecological indices.

RAMONA ROTARU; T. CHIFU

2009-01-01

339

Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

1984-11-01

340

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 1998 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

1999-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

A contribution to drinking water sources protection strategies in a portuguese river basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The need and growing interest on raw water sources protection is a great concern in river basin planning and management. Problems related to drinking water sources can range from shortage of water to water quality degradation mainly due to intensive urbanisation and industrial policies as well as un...

Vieira, J. M. Pereira; Duarte, António A. L. Sampaio; Pinho, José L. S.; Boaventura, Rui A. Rocha

342

ALIEN SPECIES IMPORTANTANCE IN NATIVE VEGETATION ALONG WADEABLE STREAMS, JOHN DAY RIVER BASIN, OREGON, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the importance of alien species in existing vegetation along wadeable streams of a large, topographically diverse river basin in eastern Oregon, USA; sampling 165 plots (30 Ã? 30 m) across 29 randomly selected 1-km stream reaches. Plots represented eight streamside co...

343

Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability and Use in the Limpopo River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of climate change on water availability and use in the Limpopo River Basin of Southern Africa, using a linked modeling system consisting of a semi-distributed global hydrological model and the Water Simulation Module (WSM) of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT). Although the WSM simulates all major water use sectors, the focus of this study is to evaluate the implications of climate change on irrigation water supply in the catchments of the Limpopo River Basin within the four riparian countries: Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The analysis found that water resources of the Limpopo River Basin are already stressed under today’s climate conditions. Projected water infrastructure and management interventions are expected to improve the situation by 2050 if current climate conditions continue into the future. However, under the climate change scenarios studied here, water supply availability is expected to worsen considerably by 2050. Assessing hydrological impacts of climate change is crucial given that expansion of irrigated areas has been postulated as a key adaptation strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa. Such expansion will need to take into account future changes in water availability in African river basins.

Tingju Zhu; Claudia Ringler

2012-01-01

344

[Age structure and genetic diversity of Homatula pycnolepis in the Nujiang River basin].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the age structure of the Loach, Homatula pycnolepis through the otolith growth rings in 204 individual specimens collected from the Xiaomengtong River of the Nujiang River (Salween River) basin in April, 2008. There were only two different age classes, 1 and 2 years of age-no 3 year olds were detected. The age structure of H. pycnolepis was simple. The complete mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences (1140) of 80 individuals from 4 populations collected in the Nujiang River drainage were sequenced and a total of 44 variable sites were found among 4 different haplotypes. The global haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (Pi) were calculated at 0.7595, 0.0151 respectively, and 0, 0 in each population, indicating a consistent lack of genetic diversity in each small population. There was obvious geographic structure in both the Nujiang River basin (NJB) group, and the Nanding River (NDR) group. The genetic distance between NJB and NDR was calculated at 0.0356, suggesting that genetic divergence resulted from long-term isolation of individual population. Such a simple age structure and a lack of genetic diversity in H. pycnolepis may potentially be due to small populations and locale fishing pressures. Accordingly, the results of this study prompt us to recommend that the NJB, NDR and Lancang River populations should be protected as three different evolutionary significant units or separated management units.

Yue XJ; Liu SP; Liu MD; Duan XB; Wang DQ; Chen DQ

2013-08-01

345

Mercury and methylmercury in fish and human hair from the Tapajós river basin, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury is being released in the Amazon in an abusive way due to goldmining activities. The Tapajós river basin was the first to be intensively exploited in the modern Amazon gold rush. Fish and hair samples as the best indicators of human methylmercury contamination were investigated in the main cities and villages along the Tapajós river basin. The upper basin has typical fish fauna with much larger carnivorous fish with higher mercury levels reaching an average value of 0.69 microgram.g-1 wet wt. in 43 fish. This was accompanied by high levels in hair of the human population living in the same area. The maximum hair value reach 151 micrograms.g-1 dry wt. with two villages presenting an average value close to 25 micrograms.g-1 dry wt. An analytical laboratory intercalibration exercise was performed between Japanese and Brazilian laboratories for total mercury analysis. Critical fish, areas, and more exposed human groups are identified. PMID:8560242

Malm, O; Branches, F J; Akagi, H; Castro, M B; Pfeiffer, W C; Harada, M; Bastos, W R; Kato, H

1995-12-11

346

Mercury and methylmercury in fish and human hair from the Tapajos river basin, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mercury is being released in the Amazon in an abusive way due to goldmining activities. The Tapajós river basin was the first to be intensively exploited in the modern Amazon gold rush. Fish and hair samples as the best indicators of human methylmercury contamination were investigated in the main cities and villages along the Tapajós river basin. The upper basin has typical fish fauna with much larger carnivorous fish with higher mercury levels reaching an average value of 0.69 microgram.g-1 wet wt. in 43 fish. This was accompanied by high levels in hair of the human population living in the same area. The maximum hair value reach 151 micrograms.g-1 dry wt. with two villages presenting an average value close to 25 micrograms.g-1 dry wt. An analytical laboratory intercalibration exercise was performed between Japanese and Brazilian laboratories for total mercury analysis. Critical fish, areas, and more exposed human groups are identified.

Malm O; Branches FJ; Akagi H; Castro MB; Pfeiffer WC; Harada M; Bastos WR; Kato H

1995-12-01

347

Radioecological study of the interest zones in Somes river hydrographic basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our research refers to the transfer of radioelements from water and mud to talophitae and unicellular algae organisms. The measurement of these elements was done for delimiting the radioactive zones of interest in the hydrographic basin of Somes. We demonstrated that the algae are biological indicators of the radioactivity in a river basin. A series of samples were examined by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy in our laboratory and at VUB Cyclotron Brussels with a Ge-Re detector for intercomparing. Uranium and its descendants were analyzed, as well as 137 Cs resulting from the Chernobyl fallout, which we found again accumulated in the mud of mountain lakes. A migration of the radionuclides from old barren gangue deposits of old polymetallic mines in the Somes river basin was noticed. (authors)

2000-01-01

348

Primary oil-shale resources of the Green River Formation in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Resources of potential oil in place in the Green River Formation are measured and estimated for the primary oil-shale resource area east of the Green River in Utah's Uinta Basin. The area evaluated (Ts 7-14 S, Rs 19-25 E) includes most of, and certainly the best of Utah's oil-shale resource. For resource evaluation the principal oil-shale section is divided into ten stratigraphic units which are equivalent to units previously evaluated in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. Detailed evaluation of individual oil-shale units sampled by cores, plus estimates by extrapolation into uncored areas indicate a total resource of 214 billion barrels of shale oil in place in the eastern Uinta Basin.

Trudell, L.G.; Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Mason, G.M.

1983-04-01

349

Evaluation of Groundwater Chemistry of a Central Kerala River Basin, India using Multivariate Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statistical processing of data was necessary to arrive at a reasonable conclusion regarding the chemical behavior of groundwater in a river basin. Multivariate analysis was done to elucidate the groundwater chemistry of a Central Kerala River basin. Hydrochemical parameters like EC, pH, TDS, TH, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, F, HCO 3 +CO 3 , SO 4 , total Fe were estimated in the pre- monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Factor and cluster analysis differentiated two distinct contributing components to the groundwater in the basin indicating that there is considerable mixing of the groundwater and surface water in the post-monsoon season whereas such a process is not significant during the pre-monsoon period. Different geochemical controls of the investigated parameters were also assessed

Girish Gopinath; Resmi T. R.

2011-01-01

350

Using radar altimetry to update a routing model of the Zambezi River Basin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Satellite radar altimetry allows for the global monitoring of lakes and river levels. However, the widespread use of altimetry for hydrological studies is limited by the coarse temporal and spatial resolution provided by current altimetric missions and the fact that discharge rather than level is needed for hydrological applications. To overcome these limitations, altimetry river levels can be combined with hydrological modeling in a dataassimilation framework. This study focuses on the updating of a river routing model of the Zambezi using river levels from radar altimetry. A hydrological model of the basin was built to simulate the land phase of the water cycle and produce inflows to a Muskingum routing model. River altimetry from the ENVISAT mission was then used to update the storages in the reaches of the Muskingum model using the Extended Kalman Filter. The method showed improvements in modeled flows relative to the baseline.

Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

2012-01-01

351

Copper speciation in Iguaçu river basin, at Curitiba's metropolitan region, Brazil, by ligand competition using DPASV  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper concentrations and speciation in two different sites located in the Iguaçu River Basin, Brazil, were evaluated during a 10-months period, in this work. Results showed a seasonal influence on copper levels with a major contribution of non-point sources during the rainy season, when concentrations of copper were similar in both Irai and Iguaçu Rivers. During the dry season the discharge of raw sewage was the primary source of copper for the sampling point located downstream the city of Curitiba, in the Iguaçu River, which exhibited higher metal concentrations. Speciation results also showed different patterns. Higher copper contents were found in the particulate phase in Iguaçu River, whereas labile copper concentrations were relatively greater in Irai River waters.

Tadeu Grassi, M.; Sodré, F. F.

2003-05-01

352

Controls on surface water chemistry in the upper Merced River basin, Yosemite National Park, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface water draining granitic bedrock in Yosemite National Park exhibits considerable variability in chemical composition, despite the relative homogeneity of bedrock chemistry. Other geological factors, including the jointing and distribution of glacial till, appear to exert strong controls on water composition. Chemical data from three surface water surveys in the upper Merced River basin conducted in August 1981, June 1988 and August 1991 were analysed and compared with mapped geological, hydrological and topographic features to identify the solute sources and processes that control water chemistry within the basin during baseflow. Water at most of the sampling sites was dilute, with alkalinities ranging from 26 to 77 ??equiv. 1-1. Alkalinity was much higher in two subcatchments, however, ranging from 51 to 302 ??equiv. 1-1. Base cations and silica were also significantly higher in these two catchments than in the rest of the watershed. Concentrations of weathering products in surface water were correlated to the fraction of each subcatchment underlain by surficial material, which is mostly glacial till. Silicate mineral weathering is the dominant control on concentrations of alkalinity, silica and base cations, and ratios of these constituents in surface water reflect the composition of local bedrock, Chloride concentrations in surface water samples varied widely, ranging from <1 to 96 ??equiv. 1-1. The annual volume-weighted mean chloride concentration in the Merced River at the Happy Isles gauge from 1968 to 1990 was 26 ??equiv. 1-1, which was five times higher than in atmospheric deposition (4-5 ??equiv. 1-1), suggesting that a source of chloride exists within the watershed. Saline groundwater springs, whose locations are probably controlled by vertical jointing in the bedrock, are the most likely source of the chloride. Sulphate concentrations varied much less than most other solutes, ranging from 3 to 14 ??equiv. 1-1. Concentrations of sulphate in quarterly samples collected at the watershed outlet also showed relatively little variation, suggesting that sulphate may be regulated to some extent by a within-watershed process, such as sulphate adsorption.

Clow, D. W.; Mast, M. A.; Campbell, D. H.

1996-01-01

353

Simulation and economics of coalbed methane production in the Powder River basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that coalbed methane has emerged as a significant resource for natural gas production in the United States, with estimates of gas-in-place of 400 trillion cubic feet. In Wyoming the largest coalbed methane resources occur in the Greater Green River, Powder River, and Wind River Basins. Very little of the gas has been exploited. This paper examines the potential of coalbed methane production in the Powder River basin by history matching early production from five gas wells in the Rawhide Butte field using a commercially available coalbed methane simulator, COALGAS. Sensitivity studies showed the most important parameters for establishing production were permeability, initial desorption pressure and drainage area. Langmuir constants, desorption time, porosity, well-bore diameter and skin were comparatively less important for long term production. An economic analysis showed that, based on current capital and operating costs obtained from industrial companies, the development of coalbed methane in the Powder River Basin may be economic if the gas sales price is greater than approximately $1/Mscf

1992-01-01

354

Heavy Metal Distribution in the Bottom Sediments Along Tietê River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of heavy metals in fluvial sediments has been used to better understand the potential hazards and criticaltoxicity of heavy metals mainly related to the anthropogenic influences of urban sewage, industrial effluents and agriculturalactivity. The present study analyzed the heavy metals, such as Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb, in the bottom sediments along the TietêRiver basin, a polluted watershed in the Southeast region of Brazil. The distribution of the concentrations of heavy metals inthe upper basin decreased in the following order: Zn > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu, whereas, in the middle part of the basin (whichis under strong urban and industrial influences), high concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cr were observed, measuring 648, 200and 183 ?g g-1, respectively. The sequential chemical extraction in relation to the total concentration was used to assessthe potential bioavailability of heavy metals. In the upper part of the basin, the heavy metals extracted from the bottomsediments were mainly related to the residual fraction, whereas, in the middle part of the basin, the bioavailability of Zn, Crand Ni was higher than 60%, and these metals were mainly related to the iron oxide phase. The high concentration of heavymetals observed in the middle basin of the Tietê river (after the metropolitan area of São Paulo), when compared with theaverage concentration found in the geochemical bottom, showed that, in terms of enrichment factor and geoaccumulationindex, the degree of pollution by Zn is high and by Ni is high to moderate in the downstream direction.

Jefferson Mortatti; Christophe Hissler; Jean-Luc Probst

2010-01-01

355

Helminth parasites in freshwater fish from the Papaloapan river basin, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A checklist based on previously published records and original data is presented for the helminth parasites reported in 35 fish species from nine families from the Rio Papaloapan basin, east Mexico. The checklist contains 85 taxa from 39 helminth families. Trematodes and nematodes were the most abundant taxonomic groups. The helminth fauna in the fish of the Papaloapan River basin predominantly consists of Neotropical species that are largely autogenic. The introduced species Centrocestus formosanus was the most widely distributed helminth, infecting 16 host species. Ten of the recorded helminth species have only been found in fish from the Papaloapan. This inventory contributes 157 new host records, and reports the presence of 30 helminth species in the Papaloapan for the first time . This inventory shows the richness of helminth parasite species in the fish of the Papaloapan River basin in comparison with the other hydrological basins in Mexico. It also demonstrates that this fauna is typically Neotropical and quite similar to that from the neighboring basins of the Grijalva-Usumacinta system and the Yucatan Peninsula. The data also suggest highly effective transmission between environments within the same basin and that the regional parasite fauna is strongly influenced by fish community composition.

Salgado-Maldonado G; Aguilar-Aguilar R; Cabañas-Carranza G; Soto-Galera E; Mendoza-Palmero C

2005-05-01

356

On the contribution of groundwater storage to interannual streamflow anomalies in the Colorado River basin  

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Full Text Available We assess the significance of groundwater storage for seasonal streamflow forecasts by evaluating its contribution to interannual streamflow anomalies in the 29 tributary sub-basins of the Colorado River. Monthly and annual changes in total basin storage are simulated by two implementations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model – the standard release of the model, and an alternate version that has been modified to include the SIMple Groundwater Model (SIMGM), which represents an unconfined aquifer underlying the soil column. These estimates are compared to those resulting from basin-scale water balances derived exclusively from observational data and changes in terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. Changes in simulated groundwater storage are then compared to those derived via baseflow recession analysis for 72 reference-quality watersheds. Finally, estimates are statistically analyzed for relationships to interannual streamflow anomalies, and predictive capacities are compared across storage terms. We find that both model simulations result in similar estimates of total basin storage change, that these estimates compare favorably with those obtained from basin-scale water balances and GRACE data, and that baseflow recession analyses are consistent with simulated changes in groundwater storage. Statistical analyses reveal essentially no relationship between groundwater storage and interannual streamflow anomalies, suggesting that operational seasonal streamflow forecasts, which do not account for groundwater conditions implicitly or explicitly, are likely not detrimentally affected by this omission in the Colorado River basin.

E. A. Rosenberg; E. A. Clark; A. C. Steinemann; D. P. Lettenmaier

2013-01-01

357

On the contribution of groundwater storage to interannual streamflow anomalies in the Colorado River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

We assess the significance of groundwater storage for seasonal streamflow forecasts by evaluating its contribution to interannual streamflow anomalies in the 29 tributary sub-basins of the Colorado River. Monthly and annual changes in total basin storage are simulated by two implementations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model - the standard release of the model, and an alternate version that has been modified to include the SIMple Groundwater Model (SIMGM), which represents an unconfined aquifer underlying the soil column. These estimates are compared to those resulting from basin-scale water balances derived exclusively from observational data and changes in terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. Changes in simulated groundwater storage are then compared to those derived via baseflow recession analysis for 72 reference-quality watersheds. Finally, estimates are statistically analyzed for relationships to interannual streamflow anomalies, and predictive capacities are compared across storage terms. We find that both model simulations result in similar estimates of total basin storage change, that these estimates compare favorably with those obtained from basin-scale water balances and GRACE data, and that baseflow recession analyses are consistent with simulated changes in groundwater storage. Statistical analyses reveal essentially no relationship between groundwater storage and interannual streamflow anomalies, suggesting that operational seasonal streamflow forecasts, which do not account for groundwater conditions implicitly or explicitly, are likely not detrimentally affected by this omission in the Colorado River basin.

Rosenberg, E. A.; Clark, E. A.; Steinemann, A. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2013-04-01

358

On the contribution of groundwater storage to interannual streamflow anomalies in the Colorado River basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We assess the significance of groundwater storage for seasonal streamflow forecasts by evaluating its contribution to interannual streamflow anomalies in the 29 tributary sub-basins of the Colorado River. Monthly and annual changes in total basin storage are simulated by two implementations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model – the standard release of the model, and an alternate version that has been modified to include the SIMple Groundwater Model (SIMGM), which represents an unconfined aquifer underlying the soil column. These estimates are compared to those resulting from basin-scale water balances derived exclusively from observational data and changes in terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. Changes in simulated groundwater storage are then compared to those derived via baseflow recession analysis for 72 reference-quality watersheds. Finally, estimates are statistically analyzed for relationships to interannual streamflow anomalies, and predictive capacities are compared across storage terms. We find that both model simulations result in similar estimates of total basin storage change, that these estimates compare favorably with those obtained from basin-scale water balances and GRACE data, and that baseflow recession analyses are consistent with simulated changes in groundwater storage. Statistical analyses reveal essentially no relationship between groundwater storage and interannual streamflow anomalies, suggesting that operational seasonal streamflow forecasts, which do not account for groundwater conditions implicitly or explicitly, are likely not detrimentally affected by this omission in the Colorado River basin.

E. A. Rosenberg; E. A. Clark; A. C. Steinemann; D. P. Lettenmaier

2012-01-01

359

Environmental sensitivity mapping for oil spills in the Canhanduba River Basin, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available Oil spills may cause serious damage to natural resources and anthropogenic activities. In order to mitigate such adverse impacts, contingency planning based on environmental sensitivity mapping has been developed, encompassing potential areas, where such situation may occur. Recently, an oil distribution company, TRANSPETRO, put into operation a new facility in the Canhanduba River Basin, in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. This facility receives and sends off diverse pipelines containing a great variety of oil products, crossing over the main stretch of the river and its tributaries. Canhanduba River supplies water to part of the city of Itajaí and the oil distribution facility, as well as all pipelines are located up river of water collecting point to supply that town. Therefore, environmental sensitivity maps of Canhanduba drainage were done in order to support decision makers in case of manage any oil spill episode in that area. Firstly, rapid environmental assessment protocols - RAPs to evaluate physical river habitats were conducted to portrait their integrity in distinct stretches along the river basin. Finally, environmental sensitivity maps attributes like ecosystem sensitivity, natural resources, and anthropogenic activities were identified nearby pipelines crossings and graded according to its intensity in each observation site, in order to estimate environmental sensitivity indexes (ESI) and make up the maps. RAPs’ results indicated that in the great majority of river stretches, environmental integrity varies between bad and fair, while ESIs were relatively high, varying from 6 to 9. An environmental sensitivity map (1:50.000 scale) was generated to this area displaying the major attributes and the distinct ESIs along the river basin.

Morgana F. Francini; Antonio C. Beaumord

2009-01-01

360

A new species of Tyttocharax (Characiformes: Characidae: Stevardiinae) from the Güejar river, Orinoco river Basin, Colombia  

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Full Text Available A new Tyttocharax species from the Güejar River system, near the Macarena Mountains in Colombia is described. This is the first record for the genus from the Orinoco basin. The combination of the following characters distinguish Tyttocharax metae from its congeners: presence of bony hooks on the pectoral and caudal-fin rays; bony hooks on the anal-fin rays larger than those on the pelvic-fin rays; pectoral-fin rays i,5-6,i; presence of three unbranched dorsal-fin rays; absence of an adipose fin; four scales rows between the anal-fin origin and the lateral line; and four scale rows between the pelvic-fin and the lateral line. Ecological characteristics of the habitat of the new species are also presented.Una nueva especie de Tyttocharax se describe para la cuenca del río Güejar, Serranía de La Macarena en Colombia. Tyttocharax metae es un nuevo registro del género para la cuenca del río Orinoco. La combinación de los siguientes caracteres distingue a Tyttocharax metae de sus congéneres: presencia de ganchos óseos en los radios de las aletas pectorales y caudal; ganchos óseos en los radios de la aleta anal de mayor tamaño que los de las aletas pélvicas; radios de las aletas pectorales i,5-6,i; tres radios simples en la aleta dorsal; ausencia de una aleta adiposa; cuatro escamas entre la línea lateral y el origen de la aleta anal, y cuatro escamas entre la línea lateral y las aletas pélvicas. Se incluyen datos ecológicos del hábitat propio del nuevo taxón

César Román-Valencia; Carlos A. García-Alzate; Raquel I Ruiz-C; C Donald; B Taphorn

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Uncertainty in climate change projections of discharge for the Mekong River Basin  

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Full Text Available The Mekong River Basin comprises a key regional resource in Southeast Asia for sectors that include agriculture, fisheries and electricity production. Here we explore the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater resources within the river basin. We quantify uncertainty in these projections associated with GCM structure and climate sensitivity, as well as from hydrological model parameter specification. This is achieved by running pattern-scaled GCM output through a semi-distributed hydrological model (SLURP) of the basin. These pattern-scaled GCM outputs allow investigation of specific thresholds of global climate change including the postulated 2 ºC threshold of "dangerous" climate change as simulated using outputs from seven different GCMs. Detailed analysis of results based on HadCM3 climate scenarios reveals a relatively small but non-linear response of annual river discharge to increasing global mean temperature, ranging from a 5.4% decrease to 4.5% increase. Intra-annual (monthly) changes in river discharge are greater (from ?16% to +55%, with greatest decreases in July and August, greatest increases in May and June) and result from complex and contrasting intra-basin changes in precipitation, evaporation and snow storage/melt. Whilst overall results are highly GCM dependent (in both direction and magnitude), this uncertainty is primarily driven by differences in GCM projections of future precipitation. In contrast, there is strong consistency between GCMs in terms of both increased potential evapotranspiration and a shift to an earlier and less substantial snowmelt season. Indeed, in the upper Mekong (Lancang sub-basin), the temperature-related signal in discharge is strong enough to overwhelm the precipitation-related uncertainty in the direction of change in discharge, with scenarios from all GCMs leading to increased river flow from April–June, and decreased flow from July–August.

D. G. Kingston; J. R. Thompson; G. Kite

2010-01-01

362

Incorporation of GIS Based Program into Hydraulic Model for Water Level Modeling on River Basin  

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Full Text Available Water resources management usually requires that hydraulic, ecological, and hydrological models be linked. The Hy- drologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) hydraulic model and the Hydrologic Engineering Center Geospatial River Analysis System (HEC-GEORAS), imitates flow and water profiles in the Neka river basin’s downstream flood plain. Hydrograph phases studied during the flood seasons of 1986-1999 and from 2002-2004 were used to calibrate and verify the hydraulic model respectively. Simulations of peak flood stages and hydrographs’ evaluations are congruent with studies and observations, with the former showing mean square errors between 4.8 - 10 cm. HECRAS calculations and forecast flood water levels. Nash-Sutcliffe effectiveness (CR3) is more than 0.92 along with elevated levels of water which were created with some effectiveness (CR5) of 0.94 for the validation period. The coupled two models show good performance in the water level modeling.