WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Disaster risk mitigation – why human rights matter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Existing human rights obligations already require states totake measures to mitigate the risks of natural or man-madedisasters – including those due to climate change – and thusto prevent displacement.

Walter Kälin; Claudine Haenni Dale

2008-01-01

2

Faecal indicator pollution from a dairy farm in Ayrshire, Scotland: source apportionment, risk assessment and potential of mitigation measures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were (i) to apportion sources of faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS) loads from a dairy farm to a stream in the Irvine catchment; (ii) to assess efficacy of pollution mitigation measures installed on this farm; (iii) to assess frequency with which observed FC loads contribute to high risk of failure of coastal bathing water to meet microbial standards. FC and FS loads in a primary stream running through the farm were estimated at up to four stations (above the farm, above the steading, below the farm and below a pre-existing 0.6 ha area of open water/wetland), in summer 2004 and 2005. During this period, steading and field mitigation measures were being installed. We estimated that farm FC loads likely to cause bathing water failure were 8.9 x 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) ha(-1)d(-1) (guideline standards) and 1.7 x 10(10)cfu ha(-1)d(-1) (mandatory standards). In 2005, the guideline exceedance risk (42%) was associated about equally with field and steading sources, whereas the mandatory exceedance risk (11%) was mainly due to steading sources. The pond/wetland below the farm reduced these exceedance risks to 20% and <1%, respectively, but was a source of FS at high discharge. The exceedence curves below the farm were similar in 2004 and 2005, despite lower flows and installation of pollution mitigation measures. The results suggest that further mitigation efforts on this farm should be focused on improving management of the steading FC sources and that wetlands to receive steading runoff can be cost:effective mitigation tools for faecal indicator pollution. PMID:18001813

Vinten, A J A; Sym, G; Avdic, K; Crawford, Colin; Duncan, A; Merrilees, D W

2007-09-25

3

Faecal indicator pollution from a dairy farm in Ayrshire, Scotland: source apportionment, risk assessment and potential of mitigation measures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were (i) to apportion sources of faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS) loads from a dairy farm to a stream in the Irvine catchment; (ii) to assess efficacy of pollution mitigation measures installed on this farm; (iii) to assess frequency with which observed FC loads contribute to high risk of failure of coastal bathing water to meet microbial standards. FC and FS loads in a primary stream running through the farm were estimated at up to four stations (above the farm, above the steading, below the farm and below a pre-existing 0.6 ha area of open water/wetland), in summer 2004 and 2005. During this period, steading and field mitigation measures were being installed. We estimated that farm FC loads likely to cause bathing water failure were 8.9 x 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) ha(-1)d(-1) (guideline standards) and 1.7 x 10(10)cfu ha(-1)d(-1) (mandatory standards). In 2005, the guideline exceedance risk (42%) was associated about equally with field and steading sources, whereas the mandatory exceedance risk (11%) was mainly due to steading sources. The pond/wetland below the farm reduced these exceedance risks to 20% and <1%, respectively, but was a source of FS at high discharge. The exceedence curves below the farm were similar in 2004 and 2005, despite lower flows and installation of pollution mitigation measures. The results suggest that further mitigation efforts on this farm should be focused on improving management of the steading FC sources and that wetlands to receive steading runoff can be cost:effective mitigation tools for faecal indicator pollution.

Vinten AJ; Sym G; Avdic K; Crawford C; Duncan A; Merrilees DW

2008-02-01

4

QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS: DETERMINING UNIVERSITY RISK MITIGATION AND CONTROL MECHANISMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper seeks to examine adequacy of risk mitigation mechanisms by using methodologies derived from quantitative risk analysis in a University context. A questionnaire and an interview schedule were administered. The researchers used ‘risk modal’ responses model for the evaluation of the adequacy of risk mitigation. Furthermore, the researchers incorporated expert judgements, binomial distribution model and one way-repeated measure ANOVA into the risk mitigation analysis. The first category of findings revealed that (1) the University has no adequate control mechanisms to mitigate risk (2) the University does not take adequate account of key risks identified by key stakeholders and thirdly (3) the University’s overall approach to risk management, as assessed for one-academic year is not adequate for its strategic objectives. The second category from general perspective suggested there was a significant relationship between individual key risks been assigned to appropriate managers and risk mitigation. Moreover, there was good reason to suggest a relationship between various committees taking adequate account of key risks identified by key stakeholders and risk mitigation. Lastly the results revealed that there was enough evidence supporting a relationship between institution's overall approach to risk management, and its strategic objectives on risk mitigation.

Anass BAYAGA; Xoliswa MTOSE

2010-01-01

5

A methodological frame for assessing benzene induced leukemia risk mitigation due to policy measures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study relies on the development of a methodology for assessing the determinants that comprise the overall leukemia risk due to benzene exposure and how these are affected by outdoor and indoor air quality regulation. An integrated modeling environment was constructed comprising traffic emissions, dispersion models, human exposure models and a coupled internal dose/biology-based dose-response risk assessment model, in order to assess the benzene imposed leukemia risk, as much as the impact of traffic fleet renewal and smoking banning to these levels. Regarding traffic fleet renewal, several "what if" scenarios were tested. The detailed full-chain methodology was applied in a South-Eastern European urban setting in Greece and a limited version of the methodology in Helsinki. Non-smoking population runs an average risk equal to 4.1·10(-5) compared to 23.4·10(-5) for smokers. The estimated lifetime risk for the examined occupational groups was higher than the one estimated for the general public by 10-20%. Active smoking constitutes a dominant parameter for benzene-attributable leukemia risk, much stronger than any related activity, occupational or not. From the assessment of mitigation policies it was found that the associated leukemia risk in the optimum traffic fleet scenario could be reduced by up to 85% for non-smokers and up to 8% for smokers. On the contrary, smoking banning provided smaller gains for (7% for non-smokers, 1% for smokers), while for Helsinki, smoking policies were found to be more efficient than traffic fleet renewal. The methodology proposed above provides a general framework for assessing aggregated exposure and the consequent leukemia risk from benzene (incorporating mechanistic data), capturing exposure and internal dosimetry dynamics, translating changes in exposure determinants to actual changes in population risk, providing a valuable tool for risk management evaluation and consequently to policy support.

Karakitsios SP; Sarigiannis D?; Gotti A; Kassomenos PA; Pilidis GA

2013-01-01

6

Multiple sclerosis treatment: risk mitigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The growing number of disease-modifying medications approved for multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment is a significant step forward and provides new options for our patients. These medications, however, have differing efficacy and risk profiles. Although accurate predictors of efficacy are not available, treatment choices can be guided by patient-specific risk stratification. The use of risk mitigation strategies can help clinicians tailor MS treatment recommendations for individual patients.

Ontaneda D; Fox RJ

2013-08-01

7

Using acoustic monitoring to measure and mitigate the risk of bat-collisions at wind turbines in Central Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: We developed a 'bat-friendly' operational algorithm for wind turbines that trades off the reduction in collision risk against the loss in revenue resulting from mitigation. The algorithm was based on acoustic bat activity data from continuous sampling at the nacelle of 70 randomly selected wind turbines in 35 facilities in five different habitat types in Germany from May to October 2008. Additionally, the area under 30 of these turbines was searched for animal fatalities each day between July and September. First, we used a mixture model to relate acoustic bat activity to the number of fatalities found and to estimate the actual collision risk. Next, acoustic bat activity was modelled from the month, time of night, wind speed, temperature, and precipitation. Finally, using both models the collision risk was estimated from weather and temporal measurements alone and integrated in 'bat-friendly' operational algorithms. The number of bat fatalities found was highly correlated with the acoustic activity measured during the previous night. An estimated mean number of 6.0 bats per turbine had been killed during a period of 92 days from July to September. In most circumstances, to quantify the collision risk of bats at wind turbines from acoustic sampling will probably allow for a lower cost and higher precision of fatality numbers than conventional methods. During times of high collision risk, rotors may be stopped to avoid fatalities. For different mitigation scenarios (varying in the number of bats being killed and the parameters used to predict activity), we calculated the resulting loss in energy production and the reduction in bat mortality. For our data-set, the median loss of energy was significantly lower than 1 % of the yearly revenue for a threshold of two bats killed per year during 138 days from mid June to end of October. (Author)

Behr, Oliver; Brinkman, Robert; Korner-Nievergelt, Fraenzi; Niermann, Ivo

2011-07-01

8

Landslides risk mitigation along lifelines  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes an integrated, innovative and efficient solution to manage risk issues associated to landslides interfering with infrastructures. The research project was submitted for financial support in the framework of the Multi -regional Operational Programme 2007-13: Research and Competitiveness funded by the Ministry of Research (MIUR) and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project is aimed to developing and demonstrating an integrated system of monitoring, early warning and mitigation of landslides risk. The final goal is to timely identify potentially dangerous landslides, and to activate all needed impact mitigation measures, including the information delivery. The essential components of the system include monitoring arrays, telecommunication networks and scenario simulation models, assisted by a data acquisition and processing centre, and a traffic control centres. Upon integration, the system will be experimentally validated and demonstrated over ca. 200 km of three highway sections, crossing the regions of Campania, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily. Progress in the state of art is represented by the developments in the field of environmental monitoring and in the mathematical modeling of landslides and by the development of services for traffic management. The approach to the problem corresponds to a "systemic logics" where each developed component foresees different interchangeable technological solutions to maximize the operational flexibility. The final system may be configured as a simple to complex structure, including different configurations to deal with different scenarios. Specifically, six different monitoring systems will be realized: three "point" systems, made up of a network of locally measuring sensors, and three "area" systems to remotely measure the displacements of large areas. Each network will be fully integrated and connected to a unique data transmission system. Standardized and shared procedures for the identification of risk scenarios will be developed, concerning the surveys to be carried out, the procedures for each type of on-site testing and guidelines and dynamic templates for presentations of results, such as highway risk maps e.g. The setting up of data acquisition and processing centre and traffic control centre are the core of the integrated system. The DAC (data acquisition center, newly designed) will acquire and process data varying in intensity, dimensions, characteristics and information content. The Traffic Control Center (TCC) is meant to integrate the scientific and the management aspects of hydrological risk monitoring and early warning. The overall system is expected to benefit of the development of new, advanced mathematical models on landslide triggers and propagation. Triggering models will be empirical or hydrological, represented by simple empirical relationships, obtained by linking the antecedent rainfall and the landslide time occurrence, and complete models identified through more complex expressions that take into account different components as the specific site conditions, the mechanical, hydraulic and physical properties of soils and slopes, the local seepage conditions and their contribution to soil strength. The industrial partners of the University of Calabria are Autostrade Tech, Strago and TD Group, with the Universities of Firenze and Catania acting research Partners.

Capparelli, G.; Versace, P.; Artese, G.; Costanzo, S.; Corsonello, P.; Di Massa, G.; Mendicino, G.; Maletta, D.; Leone, S.; Muto, F.; Senatore, A.; Troncone, A.; Conte, E.; Galletta, D.

2012-04-01

9

Mitigation of Wildfire Risk by Homeowners.  

Science.gov (United States)

In-depth interviews conducted with homeowners in Larimer County's Wildland-Urban Interface revealed that homeowners face difficult decisions regarding the implementation of wildfire mitigation measures. Perceptions of wildfire mitigation options may be as...

H. Brenkert P. Champ N. Flores

2005-01-01

10

Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) Under ...  

Science.gov (United States)

... Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) Under Review for CellCept and Myfortic. ... The full REMS is currently under review by the FDA. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

11

Mycophenolate Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy ...  

Science.gov (United States)

Text VersionPage 1. Mycophenolate Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) Program a single shared system Current Application Holders ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

12

Innovations in optimizing mitigation and pipeline risk management for natural gas and hazardous liquid systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline risk management has been stimulated by pipeline ruptures throughout the world. This paper explores risk management and mitigation strategies for minimizing consequences from pipeline releases, and optimizing financial resources in response or in prevention of these events. More specifically, it examines private sector innovations which optimize mitigation activities in combination with public sector programs such as regulations and standards (i.e., ASME B31.S, API 1160). The mitigation of risk involves the implementation of measures to reduce the frequency of failure, the severity of consequences, or both these attributes of risk. A wide variety of risk mitigation measures are available to pipeline operators. Given the diversity of mitigation measures available, this paper proposes a framework that can assist operating companies in selecting risk mitigation strategies based on risk results, mitigation costs and benefits. (author)

Gloven, Michael P.; Hendren, Elaine S.; Zeller, Sherri A.; Ramirez, Pete V. [Bass-Trigon (United States)

2003-07-01

13

Coordination of short-term and long-term mitigation measures of hydro-meteorological risks: the importance of establishing a link between emergency management and spatial planning  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of natural hazards involves, as generally known, the four stages of the risk management cycle: Prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Accordingly, the mitigation of disasters can be performed in terms of short-term and long-term purposes. Whereas emergency management or civil protection helps to strengthen a community's capacity to be better prepared for natural hazards and to better respond in case a disaster strikes, thus addressing the short-term perspective, spatial planning serves long-term planning goals and can therefore implement long-term prevention measures. A purposefully applied risk mitigation strategy requires coordination of short-term and long-term mitigation measures and thus an effective coordination of emergency management and spatial planning. Several actors are involved in risk management and should consequently be linked throughout the whole risk management cycle. However, these actors, partly because of a historically fragmented administrative system, are hardly connected to each other, with spatial planning only having a negligible role compared to other actors1, a problem to which Young (2002) referred to as the "problem of interplay". In contrast, information transfer and decision-taking happen at the same time and are not coordinated among different actors. This applies to the prevention and preparedness phase as well as to the recovery phase, which basically constitutes the prevention phase for the next disaster2. Since investments in both risk prevention and emergency preparedness and response are considered necessary, a better coordination of the two approaches is required. In this regard, Decision Support Systems (DSS) can be useful in order to provide support in the decision-making aspect of risk management. The research work currently undertaken examines the problem of interplay in the four case study areas of the Marie Curie ITN, CHANGES3. The link between different risk management actors will be explored by means of exploratory questionnaires and interviews with government agencies, local administrations, community and research organizations on each study site. First results provided will address the general role of spatial planning in risk management. Additionally, preliminary observations are made in regard to the coordination of emergency preparedness and long-term spatial planning activities. The observations consider that integration facilitates proactive strategies that aim at preventing disaster occurrence and promote interaction between involved parties. Finally, consideration is given to the potential use of a DSS tool to cover both aspects of spatial planning and emergency management in the risk management cycle.

Prenger-Berninghoff, Kathrin; Cortes, V. Juliette; Aye, Zar Chi; Sprague, Teresa

2013-04-01

14

A tiered approach for wildlife risk mitigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efforts to reduce wildlife exposure to contaminants at point source locations such as agricultural fields or hazardous waste sites comprise steps of increasing complexity and ultimately increasing permanence. Although the primary goal of risk mitigation in wildlife management is reduction of population-level direct effects, an alternative ecosystem conservation goal of increasing available habitat for use by wildlife could be the long-term objective. First-tier mitigation would include short-term preventive actions focusing on application timing or placement of compounds. Second-tier mitigation would include intermediate steps such as moving animals out of the treated area or providing supplemental, temporary habitat. Third-tier mitigation would include development of permanent safe-sites near a treated area. Fourth-tier mitigation would involve replacement or banking of land types. Selection of mitigation methods requires prior identification of critical factors leading to exposure such as species affected, how the site is used in time and space, migratory or residential status of nontarget wildlife, and demographic features of the affected populations, as well as identification of objectives of a successful project.

Tiebout, H.M. III; Brugger, K.E. [West Chester Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

1994-12-31

15

Emerging Radiation Health-Risk Mitigation Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Past space missions beyond the confines of the Earth's protective magnetic field have been of short duration and protection from the effects of solar particle events was of primary concern. The extension of operational infrastructure beyond low-Earth orbit to enable routine access to more interesting regions of space will require protection from the hazards of the accumulated exposures of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). There are significant challenges in providing protection from the long-duration exposure to GCR: the human risks to the exposures are highly uncertain and safety requirements places unreasonable demands in supplying sufficient shielding materials in the design. A vigorous approach to future radiation health-risk mitigation requires a triage of techniques (using biological and technical factors) and reduction of the uncertainty in radiation risk models. The present paper discusses the triage of factors for risk mitigation with associated materials issues and engineering design methods.

2004-02-04

16

Investigations on damage mitigating measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For two event sequences leading to a complete core meltdown in case of no countermeasures, the efficiency of operator intervention with existing operational- and/or safety-systems to prevent severe core damage has been investigated. The advanced thermohydraulic code DRUFAN-02 was used to analyse two variations of an emergency power case. Exemplarily only interventions concerning the primary system were investigated. By a depressurization of the primary circuit initiated 0.5 to 1,5 hours after start of the sequence, core damage can be prevented or at least delayed sufficiently, to get time for additional countermeasures. Investigations performed to assessed the potential of constructive countermeasures to mitigate the consequences of a core melt accident with containment overpressurization showed that only controlled late containment venting should be investigated in more detail in the future. This measure has different advantages especially with respect to accident management actions. A cost effective realization of such a system seems to be possible. Containment venting is also a messure which is discussed intensely in France and in Sweden and shall be realized there in the near future. Sufficient safe measures to handle the H2-problem in the containment during severe accidents with core melt are still not available. A new measure based on absorption of H2 seems to have a great potential to contribute to the solution of the H2-problem. (orig./HP)

1988-01-01

17

Willingness of homeowners to mitigate climate risk through insurance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change is projected to increase flood risks in certain regions due to an increase in both precipitation and sea level rise. In addition, socio-economic scenarios project an increase in urbanization in flood prone areas, which results in a higher damage potential. The combined effect of climate and land use change on flood risks requires innovative adaptation policies to cope with rising risks. Increasingly, attention is paid to the role insurance can play in mitigating damage by providing incentives to policyholders to undertake damage reducing measures. The willingness of homeowners in the Netherlands to undertake measures that mitigate flood damage in exchange for benefits on hypothetical flood insurance policies is examined using surveys. The results indicate that many homeowners are willing to make investments in mitigation. In particular, approximately two-thirds are willing to invest in water barriers in exchange for a premium reduction and about a fifth are willing to replace floor types that are vulnerable to flooding with water resistant floor types. Furthermore, about a quarter are willing to move central heating installations to floors safe against flooding in favor of a reduction in the insurance premium. Estimates of the effectiveness of these mitigation measures to limit potential flood damage in the river delta indicate that prevented damage could be substantial, namely in the order of 1 billion euro or larger. Reductions in (absolute) flood risk due to mitigation are especially large under climate change. A probit model indicates that existing arrangements for compensating flood damage, risk awareness and perceptions, and geographical characteristics are important determinants in the decision to undertake mitigation. (author)

Botzen, W.J.W.; Aerts, J.C.J.H. [Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [ICREA, Department of Economics and Economic History, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

2009-06-15

18

Willingness of Homeowners to Mitigate Climate Risk through Insurance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change is projected to increase flood risks in certain regions due to an increase in both precipitation and sea level rise. In addition, socio-economic scenarios project an increase in urbanization in flood prone areas, which results in a higher damage potential. The combined effect of climate and land use change on flood risks requires innovative adaptation policies to cope with rising risks. Increasingly, attention is paid to the role insurance can play in mitigating damage by providing incentives to policyholders to undertake damage reducing measures. The willingness of homeowners in the Netherlands to undertake measures that mitigate flood damage in exchange for benefits on hypothetical flood insurance policies is examined using surveys. The results indicate that many homeowners are willing to undertake investments in mitigation. In particular, approximately two-thirds are willing to invest in water barriers in exchange for a premium reduction and about a fifth are willing to replace floor types that are vulnerable to flooding with water resistant floor types. Furthermore, about a quarter is willing to move central heating installations to floors safe against flooding in favor of a reduction in the insurance premium. Estimates of the effectiveness of these mitigation measures to limit potential flood damage in the river delta indicate that prevented damage could be substantial, namely in the order of 1 billion euro or larger. Reductions in (absolute) flood risk due to mitigation are especially large under climate change. A probit model indicates that responsibilities for compensating flood damage, risk perceptions, and geographical characteristics are important determinants in the decision to undertake mitigation.

Botzen, W.J.W.; Aerts, J.C.J.H. [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology and Department of Economics and Economic History, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

2009-01-15

19

Radon risk assessment and mitigation objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radon concentration in structures can be determined by several techniques which measure radon gas, its decay daughters or decay energy. Specific measuring protocols have been established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.E.P.A.) to assure consistent analytic results. The U.S.E.P.A. has also established a level of radon concentration in homes of 4 picoCuries/liter of radon as a guideline, based on studies of uranium mine workers in which the rate of lung cancer occurrences in miners was correlated to time of exposure in uranium mines. An estimated one million homes are characterized as having an indoor radon concentration of 8 picoCuries/liter. Current remediation techniques utilize readily available materials and familiar methods to reduce radon content and infiltration in structures. The paper suggests a diagnostician and resident of a structure establish an acceptable level of risk as an objective prior to remedial action. This objective should be used to determine mitigation strategy and performance

1987-01-01

20

Risk evaluation mitigation strategies: the evolution of risk management policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the primary regulatory responsibility to ensure that medications are safe and effective both prior to drug approval and while the medication is being actively marketed by manufacturers. The responsibility for safe medications prior to marketing was signed into law in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; however, a significant risk management evolution has taken place since 1938. Additional federal rules, entitled the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act, were established in 2007 and extended the government's oversight through the addition of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for certain drugs. REMS is a mandated strategy to manage a known or potentially serious risk associated with a medication or biological product. Reasons for this extension of oversight were driven primarily by the FDA's movement to ensure that patients and providers are better informed of drug therapies and their specific benefits and risks prior to initiation. This article provides an historical perspective of the evolution of medication risk management policy and includes a review of REMS programs, an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of REMS, and provides suggestions for planning and measuring outcomes. In particular, this publication presents an overview of the evolution of the REMS program and its implications. PMID:23113627

Hollingsworth, Kristen; Toscani, Michael

2012-10-31

 
 
 
 
21

Risk evaluation mitigation strategies: the evolution of risk management policy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the primary regulatory responsibility to ensure that medications are safe and effective both prior to drug approval and while the medication is being actively marketed by manufacturers. The responsibility for safe medications prior to marketing was signed into law in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; however, a significant risk management evolution has taken place since 1938. Additional federal rules, entitled the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act, were established in 2007 and extended the government's oversight through the addition of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for certain drugs. REMS is a mandated strategy to manage a known or potentially serious risk associated with a medication or biological product. Reasons for this extension of oversight were driven primarily by the FDA's movement to ensure that patients and providers are better informed of drug therapies and their specific benefits and risks prior to initiation. This article provides an historical perspective of the evolution of medication risk management policy and includes a review of REMS programs, an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of REMS, and provides suggestions for planning and measuring outcomes. In particular, this publication presents an overview of the evolution of the REMS program and its implications.

Hollingsworth K; Toscani M

2013-04-01

22

Mitigation of ineffective measures against radon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reasons of low effectiveness of radon remedial measures have been studied on several unsuccessfully remediated houses. Based on the thorough analysis, factors responsible for failures are clarified. The possibilities of how to improve the effectiveness of installed measures are also discussed. Experience in this field is documented by several examples of additionally mitigated houses. After application of additional measures, indoor radon concentration in the studied houses decreased in average 5.3 times. Costs for additional mitigation were at least four times cheaper compared with costs required for installation of original measures.

Jiránek M; Neznal M; Neznal M

2008-01-01

23

Mitigation of ineffective measures against radon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reasons of low effectiveness of radon remedial measures have been studied on several unsuccessfully remediated houses. Based on the thorough analysis, factors responsible for failures are clarified. The possibilities of how to improve the effectiveness of installed measures are also discussed. Experience in this field is documented by several examples of additionally mitigated houses. After application of additional measures, indoor radon concentration in the studied houses decreased in average 5.3 times. Costs for additional mitigation were at least four times cheaper compared with costs required for installation of original measures. PMID:18397929

Jiránek, M; Neznal, M; Neznal, M

2008-04-08

24

Mitigating Systemic Risks in Future Networks  

CERN Document Server

This paper elaborates about the potential risk of systemic instabilities in future networks and proposes a methodology to mitigate it. The starting concept is modeling the network as a complex environment (e.g. ecosystem) of resources and associated functional controllers in a continuous and dynamic game of cooperation - competition. Methodology foresees defining and associating utility functions to these controllers and elaborating a global utility function (as a function of the controllers' utility functions) for the overall network. It is conjectured that the optimization of the global utility function ensures network stability and security evaluations. Paper concludes arguing that self-governance (with limited human intervention) is possible provided that proper local, global control rules are coded into these utility functions optimization processes.

Manzalini, Antonio

2012-01-01

25

Phishing Techniques and Mitigating the Associated Security Risks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizations invest heavily in technicalcontrols for their Information Assurance (IA) infrastructure.These technical controls mitigate and reduce the risk of damage caused by outsider attacks. Mostorganizations rely on training to mitigate and reduce risk of non-technical attacks such as socialengineering. Organizations lump IA training into small modules that personnel typically rush throughbecause the training programs lack enough depth and creativity to keep a trainee engaged. The key toretaining knowledge is making the information memorable. This paper describes common and emergingattack vectors and how to lower and mitigate the associated risks.

Marc A. Rader; Syed (Shawon) M. Rahman

2013-01-01

26

Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

Molnar, S. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

1996-12-31

27

Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India  

Science.gov (United States)

In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the construction of cyclone shelters was being undertaken. The availability heuristics caused a perception of low probability of tsunami following an earthquake, as the last large similar event happened over a hundred years ago. Another led to a situation when decisions were taken on the basis of experience and not statistical evidence, namely, experience showed that the so-called "Ring of Fire" generates underground earthquakes and tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. This knowledge made decision-makers to neglect the numerical estimations about probability of underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean even though seismologists were warning about probability of a large underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The bounded rationality bias led to misperception of signals from the early warning center in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting limited concern resulted in risk mitigation measures that considered cyclone risks, but much less about tsunami. Under loss aversion considerations, the decision-makers perceived the losses connected with the necessary additional investment as being greater than benefits from mitigating a less probable hazard.

Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

2013-04-01

28

Mitigating corporate water risk: Financial market tools and supply management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A decision framework for business water-risk response is proposed that considers financial instruments and supply management strategies. Based on available and emergent programmes, companies in the agricultural, commodities, and energy sectors may choose to hedge against financial risks by purchasing futures contracts or insurance products. These strategies address financial impacts such as revenue protection due to scarcity and disruption of direct operations or in the supply chain, but they do not directly serve to maintain available supplies to continue production. In contrast, companies can undertake actions in the watershed to enhance supply reliability and/or they can reduce demand to mitigate risk. Intermediate strategies such as purchasing of water rights or water trading involving financial transactions change the allocation of water but do not reduce overall watershed demand or increase water supply. The financial services industry is playing an increasingly important role, by considering how water risks impact decision making on corporate growth and market valuation, corporate creditworthiness, and bond rating. Risk assessment informed by Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) measures is described, and the role of the financial services industry is characterised. A corporate decision framework is discussed in the context of water resources management strategies under complex uncertainties.

Wendy M. Larson; Paul L. Freedman; Viktor Passinsky; Edward Grubb; Peter Adriaens

2012-01-01

29

Development of an environmental protecting and radon mitigating coating and measurements of its radon mitigating efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: A series of measurements have been carried out to test the technical and environmental protective properties of a coating. Methods: By means of tests, laboratory and in site monitoring, the specifications, toxicity and radon mitigating efficiency of the coating were identified. Results: The technical specifications of the coating are up to the grade one of GB/T9756-1995. It is odourless and nontoxic. Its radon mitigating efficiency is over 80%, and is of long-term stability. Conclusion: The environmental protective and radon mitigating coating can be used as a mean of indoor radon mitigation, and can be applied widely

1999-01-01

30

Mitigation of surface reflection in PIV measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface reflections of high-intensity laser light are a common concern when conducting particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Consequences range from a poor signal-to-noise ratio (overexposure) in near-surface areas up to camera sensor damage. The severity depends on the interplay between three factors: surface properties, laser light intensity and relative camera position. In stereoscopic or tomographic PIV setups, material selection is often the only factor which can be adapted. We present a systematic comparative study, involving different materials and surface treatments. Their potential to mitigate surface reflections is quantified against the reference case of a flat black painted wooden surface. The largest reduction of surface reflection intensity is obtained by applying fluorescent paint on wood or by employing electropolished steel. The more widely used flat black painted wood shows poor behavior.

Paterna, E.; Moonen, P.; Dorer, V.; Carmeliet, J.

2013-05-01

31

Mitigating Epidemics through Mobile Micro-measures  

CERN Document Server

Epidemics of infectious diseases are among the largest threats to the quality of life and the economic and social well-being of developing countries. The arsenal of measures against such epidemics is well-established, but costly and insufficient to mitigate their impact. In this paper, we argue that mobile technology adds a powerful weapon to this arsenal, because (a) mobile devices endow us with the unprecedented ability to measure and model the detailed behavioral patterns of the affected population, and (b) they enable the delivery of personalized behavioral recommendations to individuals in real time. We combine these two ideas and propose several strategies to generate such recommendations from mobility patterns. The goal of each strategy is a large reduction in infections, with a small impact on the normal course of daily life. We evaluate these strategies over the Orange D4D dataset and show the benefit of mobile micro-measures, even if only a fraction of the population participates. These preliminary ...

Kafsi, Mohamed; Maystre, Lucas; Yartseva, Lyudmila; Grossglauser, Matthias; Thiran, Patrick

2013-01-01

32

Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

Hirsch, R.L. (SAIC); Bezdek, Roger (MISI); Wendling, Robert (MISI)

2005-02-01

33

Trying not to get burned: understanding homeowners' wildfire risk-mitigation behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three causes have been identified for the spiraling cost of wildfire suppression in the United States: climate change, fuel accumulation from past wildfire suppression, and development in fire-prone areas. Because little is likely to be performed to halt the effects of climate on wildfire risk, and because fuel-management budgets cannot keep pace with fuel accumulation let alone reverse it, changing the behaviors of existing and potential homeowners in fire-prone areas is the most promising approach to decreasing the cost of suppressing wildfires in the wildland-urban interface and increasing the odds of homes surviving wildfire events. Wildfire education efforts encourage homeowners to manage their property to decrease wildfire risk. Such programs may be more effective with a better understanding of the factors related to homeowners' decisions to undertake wildfire risk-reduction actions. In this study, we measured whether homeowners had implemented 12 wildfire risk-mitigation measures in 2 Colorado Front Range counties. We found that wildfire information received from local volunteer fire departments and county wildfire specialists, as well as talking with neighbors about wildfire, were positively associated with higher levels of mitigation. Firsthand experience in the form of preparing for or undertaking an evacuation was also associated with a higher level of mitigation. Finally, homeowners who perceived higher levels of wildfire risk on their property had undertaken higher levels of wildfire-risk mitigation on their property. PMID:23001246

Brenkert-Smith, Hannah; Champ, Patricia A; Flores, Nicholas

2012-09-22

34

Ecological mitigation measures in English Environmental Impact Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Built development is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss in the UK. Major built developments usually require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be conducted, which frequently includes an Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) chapter. By identifying the flaws in EcIA mitigation measure proposals and their implementation in completed developments, it may be possible to develop measures to reduce biodiversity loss and help meet the UK's EU obligation to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. A review of 112 English EcIAs from 2000 onwards was conducted to provide a broad-scale overview of the information provision and detail of ecological mitigation measures. Audits of seven EIA development case study sites provided finer-scale detail of mitigation measure implementation, and the effectiveness of their grassland and marginal habitat creation and management measures was assessed using standard NVC methodology. Despite higher than expected levels of mitigation measure implementation in completed developments, EcIA mitigation proposal information and detail has seen little improvement since a 1997 review, and the effectiveness of the habitat mitigation measures studied was poor. This suggests that measures to improve ecological mitigation measures are best targeted at ecological consultants. A recommendation for EcIA-specific training of Competent Authorities is also made. PMID:23474334

Drayson, Katherine; Thompson, Stewart

2013-03-05

35

Ecological mitigation measures in English Environmental Impact Assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Built development is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss in the UK. Major built developments usually require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be conducted, which frequently includes an Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) chapter. By identifying the flaws in EcIA mitigation measure proposals and their implementation in completed developments, it may be possible to develop measures to reduce biodiversity loss and help meet the UK's EU obligation to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. A review of 112 English EcIAs from 2000 onwards was conducted to provide a broad-scale overview of the information provision and detail of ecological mitigation measures. Audits of seven EIA development case study sites provided finer-scale detail of mitigation measure implementation, and the effectiveness of their grassland and marginal habitat creation and management measures was assessed using standard NVC methodology. Despite higher than expected levels of mitigation measure implementation in completed developments, EcIA mitigation proposal information and detail has seen little improvement since a 1997 review, and the effectiveness of the habitat mitigation measures studied was poor. This suggests that measures to improve ecological mitigation measures are best targeted at ecological consultants. A recommendation for EcIA-specific training of Competent Authorities is also made.

Drayson K; Thompson S

2013-04-01

36

Vrancea earthquakes. Specific actions to mitigate seismic risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Earthquakes have been known in Romania since Roman times, when Trajan's legionnaires began the colonization of the rich plains stretching from the Carpathian Mountains to the Danube River. Since readings from seismographic stations became available, after 1940, it has been established that the most frequent largest earthquakes arise from deep Vrancea sources at the bend of the Carpathians Earthquakes in the Carpathian-Pannonian region are confined to the crust, except for the Vrancea zone, where earthquakes with focal depth down to 200 km occur. For example, the ruptured area migrated in depth from 150 km to 180 km (November 10, 1940, Mw =7.7), from 90 to 110 km (March 4, 1977, Mw =7.4), from 130 to 150 km (August 30, 1986, Mw =7.1), and from 70 to 90 km (May 30, 1990, Mw =6.9). The depth interval between 110 km and 130 km has remained unruptured since 1802, October 26, when the strongest known earthquake occurred in this part of Central Europe. The magnitude is assumed to have been Mw =7.9 - 8.0, and this depth interval is a natural candidate for the next strong Vrancea event. The maximum intensity for strong deep Vrancea earthquakes is quite distant from the actual epicenter and greater than the epicentral intensity. For the 1977 strong earthquake (Mw =7.4), the estimated intensity at its Vrancea region epicenter was only VII (MMI scale), while some 170 km away, in the capital city of Bucharest, the estimated maximum intensity was IX1/2 -X (MMI). The intensely deforming Vrancea zone shows a quite enigmatic seismic pattern (peak ground accelerations/intensity one, characteristic response spectra with large periods of 1.5 seconds, no significant attenuations on Romanian territory, large amplifications away, etc.). While no country in the world is entirely safe, the lack of capacity to limit the impact of seismic hazards remains a major burden for all countries and while the world has witnessed an exponential increase in human and material losses due to natural disasters given by earthquakes, there is a need to reverse trends in seismic risk mitigation to future events. Main courses of specific action to mitigate the seismic risks from strong deep Vrancea earthquakes should be considered as key to future development projects, including: - Early warning system for industrial facilities; - Short and long term prediction program of strong Vrancea earthquakes; - Seismic hazard map of Romania; - Seismic microzonation of large populated cities; - Shake map; - Seismic tomography of dams for avoiding disasters. The quality of life and the security of infrastructure (including human services, civil and industrial structures, financial infrastructure, information transmission and processing systems) in every nation are increasingly vulnerable to disasters caused by events that have geological, atmospheric, hydrologic, and technological origins. As UN Secretary General Kofi Annan pointed out, 'Building a culture of prevention is not easy. While the costs of prevention have to be paid in the present, its benefits lie in a distant future'. In other words: Prevention pays off. This may not always become apparent immediately, but, in the long run, the benefits from prevention measures will always outweigh their costs by far. Romania is an earthquake prone area and these main specific actions are really contributing to seismic risk mitigation. These specific actions are provided for in Law nr. 372/March 18,2004 -'The National Program of Seismic Risk Management'. (authors)

37

Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T. [and others

1996-12-31

38

Mitigation technologies and measures in the energy sector of Kazakhstan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. COsub(2) as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakhstan can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakhstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in the energy sector of Kazakhstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. (author)

Pilofosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T.; Izdebsky, S. [Kazak Institute for Environmental Monitoring and Climate, Seifulina (Kazakhstan); Mandaria, T. [Energy Center (Kazakhstan)

1997-03-01

39

BLINSPOT DETECTION AND MITIGATION OF THE MARKET RISK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biggest dangers to any company are the ones that cannot be predicted. To understand these threats, one needs to have strong abilities in anticipating risks and it requires high-end peripheral vision. Past may not be the most reliable predictor of the future. But it can surely point out the blind spots in the respective company or the industry. Failing to learn the lessons will lead to poor detection of opportunities and threat detection which bluntly gives little-to-no strategic value to the company’s efforts to achieve competitive advantage. This overlooking of close threats and near-by opportunities is called blind spot. The result of any blind spot is an inability to contribute insights that help senior management to steer the company to attain and sustain competitive advantage. This paper hence, identifies and explores the blind spot effects in the present economy. The marketers never pay much heed to the past tends. They always seek the strategies to get the present work done. They rarely look back. They are busy keeping up with the current trends. They are more interested in what happened rather than why it happened. The study thus focuses on the loopholes while making the strategies especially with respect to the blind spots in competitiveintelligence.The objective of the study is to generate awareness amongst the professional bodies regarding the significance of blind spot detection and the importance of going deep into analyzing the traits of the competitive blind spots that might help in safeguarding the company’s risk.The paper also throws light on the significance of scenario planning with respect to the competitive blind spots and instituting measures to mitigate the risks associated with the competitive blind spots.

ARAVIND MUTHU; UDITA DASGUPTA, AMITY UNIVERSITY; DR. RENITA DUBEY

2013-01-01

40

Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies: a focus on belatacept.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To review the elements and components of the risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) for the costimulation blocker belatacept and associated implications for health care providers working with transplant recipients. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (January 1990 to March 2012) were searched by using risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, REMS, belatacept, and organ transplant as search terms (individual organs were also searched). Retrieved articles were supplemented with analysis of information obtained from the Federal Register, the Food and Drug Administration, and the manufacturer of belatacept. DATA SYNTHESIS: REMS are risk-management strategies implemented to ensure that a product's benefits outweigh its known safety risks. Although belatacept offers a novel strategy in maintenance immunosuppression and was associated with superior renal function compared with cyclosporine in phase 2 and 3 trials, belatacept is also associated with increased risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder and central nervous system infections. The Food and Drug Administration required development of a REMS program as part of belatacept's approval process to ensure safe and appropriate use of the medication and optimization of its risk-benefit profile. CONCLUSION: Elements of the belatacept REMS include a medication guide that must be dispensed with each infusion and a communication plan. In the management of a complex population of patients, it is essential that those who care for transplant recipients, and patients, recognize the implications of potential and known risks of belatacept. The REMS program aims to facilitate careful selection and education of patients and vigilant monitoring.

Sam T; Gabardi S; Tichy EM

2013-03-01

42

Land Use Scenario Modeling for Flood Risk Mitigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is generally accepted that flood risk has been increasing in Europe in the last decades. Accordingly, it becomes a priority to better understand its drivers and mechanisms. Flood risk is evaluated on the basis of three factors: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. If one of these factors increases, then so does the risk. Land use change models used for ex-ante assessment of spatial trends provide planners with powerful tools for territorial decision making. However, until recently this type of model has been largely neglected in strategic planning for flood risk mitigation. Thus, ex-ante assessment of flood risk is an innovative application of land use change models. The aim of this paper is to propose a flood risk mitigation approach using exposure scenarios. The methodology is applied in the Pordenone province in northern Italy. In the past 50 years Pordenone has suffered several heavy floods, the disastrous consequences of which demonstrated the vulnerability of the area. Results of this study confirm that the main driving force of increased flood risk is found in new urban developments in flood-prone areas.

José I. Barredo; Guy Engelen

2010-01-01

43

Cost-benefit analysis of alternative LNG vapor-mitigation measures. Topical report, September 14, 1987-January 15, 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A generalized methodology is presented for comparing the costs and safety benefits of alternative hazard mitigation measures for a large LNG vapor release. The procedure involves the quantification of the risk to the public before and after the application of LNG vapor mitigation measures. In the study, risk was defined as the product of the annual accident frequency, estimated from a fault tree analysis, and the severity of the accident. Severity was measured in terms of the number of people who may be exposed to 2.5% or higher concentration. The ratios of the annual costs of the various mitigation measures to their safety benefits (as determined by the differences between the risk before and after mitigation measure implementation), were then used to identify the most cost-effective approaches to vapor cloud mitigation.

1992-01-01

44

Exponential spectral risk measures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

risk measures that reflect their subjective risk-aversion. This paper examines spectral risk measures based on an exponential utility function, and finds that these risk measures have nice intuitive properties. It a...

Dowd, Kevin; Cotter, John

45

Fish habitat mitigation measures for hydrotechnical projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, the identification and mitigation of environmental impacts of hydrotechnical projects, particularly on fish and fish habitats, have become a major component of project planning and design. Potential impacts to fish and fish habitat may include increased fish mortality, decreased species diversity, and loss or decreases in fish production due to loss of habitat or alteration of its suitability. These impacts arise from flooding of riverine habitat, alteration of flow quantity and distribution, changes in morphology, and alteration of water quality, including suspended sediments, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and mercury. The results of a study for the Canadian Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans Central and Arctic Region, examining fish habitat mitigation techniques for their applicability to hydrotechnical projects in Canada are summarized. The requirements for achievement and verification of the no net loss policy for a project are discussed. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

1992-01-01

46

Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps  

Science.gov (United States)

Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches, as well as key challenges for the future are also discussed.

Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

2012-04-01

47

Current issues in dietary acrylamide: formation, mitigation and risk assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acrylamide (AA) is known as a neurotoxin in humans and it is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC, 1994). AA is produced as by-product of Maillard reaction in starchy foods processed at high temperatures (> 120?°C). This review includes the investigation of AA precursors, mechanisms of AA formation and AA mitigation technologies in potato, cereal and coffee products. Additionally most relevant issues of AA risk assessment are discussed. New technologies tested from laboratory to industrial scale face as a major challenge to diminish the AA content of browned food, still maintaining their attractive organoleptic properties. Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose are the major contributors to AA in potato based products. On the other hand, the limiting substrate of AA formation in cereals and coffee is the free amino acid asparagine. For some products the additions of glycine or asparaginase reduce the AA formation during baking. Since, for potatoes the limiting substrates is reducing sugars, increases in sugar contents in potatoes during storage then introduce some difficulties and potentially quite large variations in the AA content of the final products. Sugars in potatoes may be reduced by blanching. The levels of AA in different foods show large variations, and no general upper limits for content are easily practically to comply with since some formation will always occur. Current policy is that practical measures should be taken voluntarily to reduce AA formation in vulnerable foods since AA is considered as a health risk at the concentrations found in foods.

Pedreschi F; Mariotti MS; Granby K

2013-08-01

48

Analysing the external supply chain risk driver competitiveness: a risk mitigation framework and business continuity plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Innovation challenges for handling supply chain risks have become one of the most important drivers in business competitiveness and differentiation. This study analyses competitiveness at the external supply chain level as a driver of risks and provides a framework for mitigating these risks. The mitigation framework, also called the supply chain continuity framework, provides insight into six stages of the business continuity planning (BCP) process life cycle (risk mitigation management, business impact analysis, supply continuity strategy development, supply continuity plan development, supply continuity plan testing and supply continuity plan maintenance), together with the operational constructs: customer service, inventory management, flexibility, time to market, ordering cycle time and quality. The purpose of the BCP process life cycle and operational constructs working together is to emphasise the way in which a supply chain can deal with disruption risks and, consequently, bring competitive advantage. Future research will consider the new risk scenarios and analyse the consequences to promote the improvement of supply chain resilience. PMID:21177223

Blos, Mauricio F; Wee, Hui-Ming; Yang, Joshua

2010-11-01

49

Analysing the external supply chain risk driver competitiveness: a risk mitigation framework and business continuity plan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Innovation challenges for handling supply chain risks have become one of the most important drivers in business competitiveness and differentiation. This study analyses competitiveness at the external supply chain level as a driver of risks and provides a framework for mitigating these risks. The mitigation framework, also called the supply chain continuity framework, provides insight into six stages of the business continuity planning (BCP) process life cycle (risk mitigation management, business impact analysis, supply continuity strategy development, supply continuity plan development, supply continuity plan testing and supply continuity plan maintenance), together with the operational constructs: customer service, inventory management, flexibility, time to market, ordering cycle time and quality. The purpose of the BCP process life cycle and operational constructs working together is to emphasise the way in which a supply chain can deal with disruption risks and, consequently, bring competitive advantage. Future research will consider the new risk scenarios and analyse the consequences to promote the improvement of supply chain resilience.

Blos MF; Wee HM; Yang J

2010-11-01

50

Mitigation measures for the La Grande 1 hydroelectric development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Measures to mitigate environmental impacts of the La Grande 1 hydroelectric development are described. An overview is presented of the La Grande 1 project, its surrounding environment, and the principle environmental repercussions of the reservoir, hydrological changes between the dam and river mouth, construction activities and permanent and temporary structures, and presence of workers. Mitigation measures including compensation, corrective measures (deforestation, selective cutting, fish populations, wildlife populations, land rehabilitation, access roads, fisheries, and erosion control), protective measures, enhancement measures, and contract and employment opportunities for the Cree population are described. 10 refs., 2 figs

1992-01-01

51

Measurement method of radon mitigation efficiency for interior wall paint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To develop a effective measurement method of radon mitigation efficiency for interior wall paint. By using a local static method, the average radon flux rate of a measured material surface during the period of monitoring can be gotten. The method has been developed using organic glass to make radon cumulation chamber, lint board with a single smooth surface to make samples, PCMR-1 continuous radon monitor and GD-LI gas-through solid radon source. The same measurement conditions can be realized easily and the measurement results can be compared very well. The method can meet the need of radon mitigation efficiency measurement for interior wall paint

2001-01-01

52

Natural risk assessment and decision planning for disaster mitigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, decisional models are introduced aiming at defining a general framework for natural disaster mitigation. More specifically, an integrated approach based on system modelling and optimal resource assignment is presented in order to support the decision makers in pre-operational and real-time management of forest fire emergencies. Some strategies for pre-operative and real time risk management will be described and formalized as optimal resource assignment problems. To this end, some models capable to describe the resources dynamics will be introduced, both in pre-operative phase and in real-time phase.

P. Fiorucci; F. Gaetani; R. Minciardi; E. Trasforini

2005-01-01

53

Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A multidisciplinary and integrated approach to the flood mitigation decision making process should provide the best response of society in a flood hazard situation including preparation works and post hazard mitigation. In Slovenia, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. In this paper, two studies of flood perception in the Slovenian town Celje are represented. During its history, Celje was often exposed to floods, the most recent serious floods being in 1990 and in 1998, with a hundred and fifty return period and more than ten year return period, respectively. Two surveys were conducted in 1997 and 2003, with 157 participants from different areas of the town in the first, and 208 in the second study, aiming at finding the general attitude toward the floods. The surveys revealed that floods present a serious threat in the eyes of the inhabitants, and that the perception of threat depends, to a certain degree, on the place of residence. The surveys also highlighted, among the other measures, solidarity and the importance of insurance against floods.

M. Brilly; M. Polic

2005-01-01

54

Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS): educating the prescriber.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The US FDA Amendments Act of 2007 was signed into law on 27 September 2007. A provision of this law granted the FDA new powers to enhance drug safety by requiring the pharmaceutical industry to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). REMS are deemed necessary when a question exists as to whether the benefits of a drug outweigh its risks. REMS constitute a safety plan with several potential components, including a medication guide, a communication plan, elements to ensure safe use and an implementation system to help guide the prescribers, pharmacists and patients. This applies to existing drugs on the market, new drug applications (NDAs), abbreviated NDAs (generics) and biologics licence applications. REMS represent an 'upgrade' from previously required risk minimization action plans, based on the strengthening of FDA powers of authority and enforceability to incur monetary penalties against individuals representing the pharmaceutical industry who fail to comply. For illustrative purposes, we chose the drug romiplostim (Nplate®) to present an REMS, as all components were utilized to help assuage risks associated with the drug. Romiplostim is an FDA-approved drug used to treat thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura that has a significant adverse safety profile based on the risk of changes in bone marrow reticulin formation and bone marrow fibroses, and other associated risks. This review of current REMS policy is intended to provide the prescriber with a better understanding of current modalities in FDA-mandated drug safety programmes, which will impact day-to-day healthcare provider practices.

Nicholson SC; Peterson J; Yektashenas B

2012-02-01

55

"Landslide at sunuapa 401 (hydrocarbon exploration well). Risk reduction by mitigation measures: drainage, piles barrier and anchorages system, shotcrete and reforestation, Chiapas, México".  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a landslide of hydrocarbon exploration well "Sunuapa 401" located in Chiapas, Mexico. First were identified the determinants and triggers factors (morphology, geology, rain, seismic and volcanic activity, human activity, etc); second we assessed the threat, vulnerability and risk from geotechnical stability analysis (safety factor and critical failure surface); third, by using the methodology of valuation factors, stabilization processes were selected and designed, and finally they were built by Petróleos Mexicanos, in order to avoid a disaster (environmental, ecological and social). These construction processes included drainage elements, flattening and benching of slopes, piles barrier and anchors, shotcrete and reforestation.

Cuanalo, Oscar; Polanco, Gabriel; Rivera, Julio

2013-04-01

56

Global Warming. Risk Perception and Risk-Mitigating Behavior in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming is a major concern for the Japanese public. However, because the influence of global environmental risks, particularly global warming, is long-term and widespread, it seems difficult for the public to recognize it as a familiar and important problem that necessitates firm action. This study attempts to determine the causal structure promoting risk-mitigating behavior with regard to global warming, using Covariance Structure Analysis (CSA) with data from a survey of a subset of the Japanese population. There are four main stages in the process of decision-making for personal actions; concerns and values, risk perception, mitigating behavior intention, and personal actions. Support for environmental policies has three stages: concerns and values, risk perceptions, and mitigating behavior intentions. Our results suggest that improved access to information concerning the risks associated with global warming in particular, and environmental issues in general, will be sufficient to effectively accelerate the public's participation in policy decisions, by translating their intentions for risk-mitigating into practical actions. Increased knowledge through improved access to information should improve the interaction between the public and environmental policy-makers in Japan.

Ohe, M.; Ikeda, S. [School of Policy Studies, Kwansei Gakuin University (Japan)

2005-10-15

57

Mycophenolate fetal toxicity and risk evaluation and mitigation strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mycophenolic acid (MPA) preparations are one of the most commonly used immunosuppressants in the United States. However, these agents carry a black box warning regarding their use during pregnancy due to an association with increased risk of miscarriage and congenital defects. To ensure that the benefits of MPA outweigh the risks, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required all manufacturers of MPA products to propose risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS). Four years after initially calling for proposals, the FDA approved a single shared REMS system in September 2012. The elements of the MPA REMS include a medication guide and elements to assure safe use (ETASU). The medication guide, which was previously FDA-approved in 2008, should continue to be distributed to patients, and the ETASU requires physicians to complete training and obtain patient signatures on the "Patient-Prescriber Acknowledgement Form." A single, national, voluntary pregnancy registry is available, and pregnant patients should be encouraged to participate. Although the impact of the MPA REMS on clinical practice is not clear, it is a step toward increasing the understanding of fetal risks with MPA products among patients and possibly practitioners.

Kim M; Rostas S; Gabardi S

2013-06-01

58

Mycophenolate fetal toxicity and risk evaluation and mitigation strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mycophenolic acid (MPA) preparations are one of the most commonly used immunosuppressants in the United States. However, these agents carry a black box warning regarding their use during pregnancy due to an association with increased risk of miscarriage and congenital defects. To ensure that the benefits of MPA outweigh the risks, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required all manufacturers of MPA products to propose risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS). Four years after initially calling for proposals, the FDA approved a single shared REMS system in September 2012. The elements of the MPA REMS include a medication guide and elements to assure safe use (ETASU). The medication guide, which was previously FDA-approved in 2008, should continue to be distributed to patients, and the ETASU requires physicians to complete training and obtain patient signatures on the "Patient-Prescriber Acknowledgement Form." A single, national, voluntary pregnancy registry is available, and pregnant patients should be encouraged to participate. Although the impact of the MPA REMS on clinical practice is not clear, it is a step toward increasing the understanding of fetal risks with MPA products among patients and possibly practitioners. PMID:23617812

Kim, M; Rostas, S; Gabardi, S

2013-04-25

59

TSUNAMI RISK MITIGATION THROUGH STRATEGIC LAND-USE PLANNING AND EVACUATION PROCEDURES FOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES IN SRI LANKA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Safety measures against the future disaster risk are considered as the main aspect of post disaster reconstructions. The majority of post-disaster villages/settlements and due projects on Sri Lankan coastline are apparently lacking behind the proper safety measures and adequate evacuation procedures. Therefore the immediate necessities of proper safety measures have to be emphasized in order to mitigate future tsunami risks. This paper introduces a number of post disaster coastal villages/settlements, which are in future coastline hazard risk, mainly in a future tsunami event. These include their location risk, land uses and housing designs defects and shortcomings of other safety measures. Furthermore few tsunami risk mitigation measures through land use planning strategies, which could be applied more easily in community level, are introduced. In addition to those the strategic development methods of functional networks of evacuation routes and shelters in different topographies are examined.

Woharika Kaumudi Weerasinghe; Akihiko Hokugo; Yuko Ikenouchi

2011-01-01

60

Influence analysis of mitigative measures on evolution of SBO scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the full-range Station Black-out accident scenario for QINSHAN phase II 3 and 4 Unit NPP is performed and analyzed by application of MELCOR code 1.8.5. Effect of mitigative measures such as primary circuit depressurization, passive hydrogen recombination, on evolution of accident phenomena were compared in the calculation analysis. Radial and axial failure mode of fuel and cladding are simulated; Also axial and radial ablation trends of cavity induced by MCCI were quantitatively determined; For the late phase of scenario, production, distribution of hydrogen and its recombination by PAR system were evaluated and analyzed. The results indicate that timely depressurization of primary circuit by execution of pressurizer extended function can delay both core collapse and melt through of RPV for about 5 h, as well as eliminate the risk of early radioactive release through SG U-tube to the environment; Solution 3C indicates the 10 PARs have successfully recombined 667 kg of hydrogen within 24 h. As a result, maximum hydrogen concentration is as low as 3.12%, pressure inside the containment accumulates to about 0.4 MPa. (authors)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

Tichy, M. [Energy Efficiency Center, Prague (Czech Republic)

1996-12-31

62

Mitigating mountain hazards in Austria – legislation, risk transfer, and awareness building  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Embedded in the overall concept of integral risk management, mitigating mountain hazards is pillared by land use regulations, risk transfer, and information. In this paper aspects on legislation related to natural hazards in Austria are summarised, with a particular focus on spatial planning activities and hazard mapping, and possible adaptations focussing on enhanced resilience are outlined. Furthermore, the system of risk transfer is discussed, highlighting the importance of creating incentives for risk-aware behaviour, above all with respect to individual precaution and insurance solutions. Therefore, the issue of creating awareness through information is essential, which is presented subsequently. The study results in recommendations of how administrative units on different federal and local levels could increase the enforcement of regulations related to the minimisation of natural hazard risk. Moreover, the nexus to risk transfer mechanisms is provided, focusing on the current compensation system in Austria and some possible adjustments in order to provide economic incentives for (private) investments in mitigation measures, i.e. local structural protection. These incentives should be supported by delivering information on hazard and risk target-oriented to any stakeholder involved. Therefore, coping strategies have to be adjusted and the interaction between prevention and precaution has to be highlighted. The paper closes with recommendations of how these efforts could be achieved, with a particular focus on the situation in the Republic of Austria.

M. Holub; S. Fuchs

2009-01-01

63

Assessment of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in oncology: summary of the oncology risk evaluation and mitigation strategies workshop.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. THE WORKSHOP IDENTIFIED SEVERAL UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES RESULTING FROM CURRENT ONCOLOGY REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored-and therefore not accessible-to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication.

Frame JN; Jacobson JO; Vogel WH; Griffith N; Wariabharaj D; Garg R; Zon R; Stephens CL; Bialecki AM; Bruinooge SS; Allen SL

2013-03-01

64

Vrancea earthquakes. Courses for specific actions to mitigate seismic risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Earthquakes in the Carpathian-Pannonian region are confined to the crust, except the Vrancea zone, where earthquakes with focal depth down to 200 Km occur. For example, the ruptured area migrated from 150 km to 180 km (November 10,1940, Mw = 7.7) from 90 km to 110 km (March 4, 1977, Mw 7.4), from 130 km to 150 km (August 30, 1986, Mw = 7.1) and from 70 km to 90 km (May 30, 1990, Mw = 6.9) depth. The depth interval between 110 km and 130 km remains not ruptured since 1802, October 26, when it was the strongest earthquake occurred in this part of Central Europe. The magnitude is assumed to be Mw = 7.9 - 8.0 and this depth interval is a natural candidate for the next strong Vrancea event. While no country in the world is entirely safe, the lack of capacity to limit the impact of seismic hazards remains a major burden for all countries and while the world has witnessed an exponential increase in human and material losses due to natural disasters given by earthquakes, there is a need to reverse trends in seismic risk mitigation to future events. Main courses for specific actions to mitigate the seismic risk given by strong deep Vrancea earthquakes should be considered as key for development actions: - Early warning system for industrial facilities. Early warning is more than a technological instrument to detect, monitor and submit warnings. It should become part of a management information system for decision-making in the context of national institutional frameworks for disaster management and part of national and local strategies and programmers for risk mitigation; - Prediction program of Vrancea strong earthquakes of short and long term; - Hazard seismic map of Romania. The wrong assessment of the seismic hazard can lead to dramatic situations as those from Bucharest or Kobe. Before the 1977 Vrancea earthquake, the city of Bucharest was designed to intensity I = VII (MMI) and the real intensity was I = IX1/2-X (MMI); - Seismic microzonation of large populated cities. There are zones in Bucharest which have fundamental periods of the soil and geological structures very different and during August 30, 1986 Vrancea earthquake the variations of the recorded peak accelerations were from simple to triple ones; - Shake map. This shake map now under completion will allow us rapidly portray, in real time, the extent of shaking during of earthquake in a simplified form suitable for immediate post-earthquake decision-making; - Seismic tomography of dams for avoiding catastrophes. There are applications of seismic tomography and in general of seismic imaging like methods of investigation for mitigation of earthquake effects. (authors)

2005-05-27

65

Accident management measures for prevention or mitigation of severe accidents in light water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For further reduction of the residual risk of light water reactors, a concept has been realized which, based on the existing safety concept, provides for measures for the range beyond the design boundaries. These accident management measures for prevention or mitigation of severe accidents may utilize the reserves existing in plants or may require special backfittings. The development during the past few years is summarized. (orig.).

1990-01-01

66

Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

1996-12-31

67

Photochemical Smog Pollution and Its Mitigation Measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Photochemical smog is a unique type of air pollution. In the 1940s a new type of smog, known as photochemical smog, was firstdescribed in Los Angeles. Major Air Pollutants responsible for photochemical smog are carbon oxides (CO, CO2) , nitrogen oxides and nitric acid (NO, NO2, HNO3) , sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid (SO2, H2SO4), suspended particulate matter (SPM) ,ozone (O3) ,volatile organic compounds (VOCs).The reactions that lead to the formation of photochemical smog. Photochemical smog is a serious problem in many cities and continues to harmful for senior citizens, children, and people with heart and lung conditions such as emphysema, bronchitis and asthma. Vegetation is easily harmed main agents of damage are ozone and PAN. Smog can alsoaccelerate the deterioration of rubber, plastics, paints and dyes, damage to metals, stone, concrete, clothing, rubber and plastic is directly related to contaminants in the air. Photochemical ozone concentrations can be decreased by reduction in hydrocarbon and other VOC emissions and by reduction in NOx but there is a non-linear (and sometimes inverse) dependence of ozone production on precursor emissions have developed models to predict ozone concentrations and their response to different control measures.

Bina Rani, Upma Singh, A K Chuhan, Diwakar Sharma, Raaz Maheshwari

2011-01-01

68

Considerations on comprehensive risk assessment and mitigation planning of volcanic ash-fall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volcanic ash-fall is inevitable hazard throughout Japan, and causes wide range of effects due to its physical and chemical properties. Nuclear power plants in Japan face the necessity to assess the risk from volcanic ash-fall. Risk assessment of the volcanic ash-fall should include engineering solution and mitigation planning as well as the ash-fall hazard. This report points out the characteristics for reducing the various effects of volcanic ash-fall as follows. Large-scale eruptions produce prominent volcanic ash-falls that can approach power plants at a great distance. Aftermath hazards of ash-fall events, such as remobilization of fine ash particles and generation of lahars, require further assessments. The kind and extent of damages becomes greater whenever ash is wet. Wet ash requires separate assessments in contrast to dry ash. The mitigation and recovery measures at power plants involve quick cleanup operations of volcanic ash. Those operations should be prepared through comprehensive risk assessment, and by cooperation with authorities, during pre-eruption repose period. The comprehensive assessment for volcanic ash-fall hazards, however, has yet to be conducted. Development of risk communication method may result in increased implementation mitigation planning. Numerical analysis of the ash-fall hazards provides quantitative data on particle motions that can be used in the risk assessment. In order to implement the quantitative assessment method, the verification on the effect of ambient air condition to the altitude of volcanic ash cloud is necessary. We need to develop a three-dimensional model of volcanic ash cloud, and calculate motions of ash clouds under multiple conditions of ambient air. (author)

2010-01-01

69

Resilience mitigates the suicide risk associated with childhood trauma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We wished to examine whether resilience might be a protective factor in relation to suicidal behavior. METHOD: To do this resilience was examined in relation to childhood trauma, a well established risk factor for suicidal behavior, in two samples. In a preliminary sample 20 abstinent substance abuse patients who had attempted suicide were matched for age and their score on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) with 20 substance abuse patients who had never attempted suicide. The two age and CTQ matched attempter (N=20) and non-attempter (N=20) groups were then compared for their scores on the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). In the second sample 166 prisoners who had attempted suicide were matched for age and their scores on the CTQ with 166 prisoners who had never attempted suicide. These two age and CTQ matched attempter (N=166)and non-attempter (N=166) groups were similarly compared for their CD-RISC resilience scores. RESULTS: In the preliminary substance abuse sample, patients who had never attempted suicide (N=20) had significantly higher mean CD-RISC resilience scores than the age and CTQ matched patients who had attempted suicide (N=20). Similarly in the prisoner sample, those who had never attempted suicide (N=166) had significantly higher CD-RISC resilience scores than the age and CTQ matched prisoners who had attempted suicide (N=166). CONCLUSIONS: The results from these two studies suggest that resilience may be a protective factor mitigating the risk of suicidal behavior associated with childhood trauma.

Roy A; Carli V; Sarchiapone M

2011-10-01

70

Power Outage, Business Continuity and Businesses' Choices of Power Outage Mitigation Measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Power outage has been mentioned as one of the most experienced and perceived risks by various types of businesses and organizations. Thus, reducing the impacts of power outage has become a key agenda in business continuity planning. Back-up or stand-by generators are among the most well known measures taken by power consumers to tackle the power outage problem. Approach: A survey was conducted to understand various aspects of power outage and the impacts of power outrage on businesses. In addition a choice experiment method was used to derive businesses? preferences for different power outage mitigation measures that would have a range of prices, space requirements, air and noise pollution as well as mobility attributes using a sample of Canadian businesses located in the . Sample was drawn from businesses operating in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and surrounding communities in Ontario, Canada. Results: It was found that majority of businesses have experienced and unconvinced by power outage and consider it to be a major risk to their operations. Production loss, data loss, damage to equipment and loss of lighting are the most significant sources for inconveniences caused by the power outages. It was found that a considerable number of businesses have not taken appropriate measures to mitigate this risk. Estimations from the responses revealed that sample businesses had a positive willingness to pay for power outage reduction and that businesses prefer power outage mitigation measures that are least costly, have low levels of air and noise pollution and occupy smaller spaces respectively. Conclusion: An uninterrupted power supply is an important element of business continuity in today?s business world. Although many businesses are not fully prepared against power outages, they are willing to pay for low cost and low pollution power outage mitigation measures.

Ali Asgary; Yeganeh Mousavi-Jahromi

2011-01-01

71

Mitigative measures for the Laforge-2 hydroelectric development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrective, preventive and enhancement measures undertaken as part of the development of the Laforge-2 Hydroelectric Power Plant, were described. The environment into which the project has been integrated was also described. General background information and technical characteristics of the Laforge-2 and Caniapiscau-Laforge diversion were provided. The Laforge-2 Mitigative Master Plan's measures for improving wildlife potential, cleaning-up of tributaries, protecting wildlife habitats, seeding around ponds and humid zones, installing platforms to encourage and facilitate the nesting of ospreys, and promoting proper harvesting of the territory, were described as corrective measures that will promote sustainable development. Contractual obligations to protect the environment were outlined. Enhancement measures described included reclamation of areas disturbed during construction, landscaping around main structures and construction of scenic lookouts. It was fully expected that the mitigative measures described for the Laforge-2 project will minimize negative impacts of the project and will maximize positive ones by improving wildlife potential in areas near the reservoir. 5 figs.

1995-01-01

72

Mitigative measures for the Laforge-2 hydroelectric development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrective, preventive and enhancement measures undertaken as part of the development of the Laforge-2 Hydroelectric Power Plant, were described. The environment into which the project has been integrated was also described. General background information and technical characteristics of the Laforge-2 and Caniapiscau-Laforge diversion were provided. The Laforge-2 Mitigative Master Plan`s measures for improving wildlife potential, cleaning-up of tributaries, protecting wildlife habitats, seeding around ponds and humid zones, installing platforms to encourage and facilitate the nesting of ospreys, and promoting proper harvesting of the territory, were described as corrective measures that will promote sustainable development. Contractual obligations to protect the environment were outlined. Enhancement measures described included reclamation of areas disturbed during construction, landscaping around main structures and construction of scenic lookouts. It was fully expected that the mitigative measures described for the Laforge-2 project will minimize negative impacts of the project and will maximize positive ones by improving wildlife potential in areas near the reservoir. 5 figs.

Faucher, O.; Gagnon, R.

1995-12-31

73

Government audits in practice: how to mitigate RAC risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article discusses the current movement by Recovery Audit Contractors to target physician practices and recommends a variety of steps providers should take to mitigate the expense and staff inconvenience of audits.

Brocato L

2013-03-01

74

CFD analysis of dense gas dispersion in indoor environment for risk assessment and risk mitigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Environmental risks are inherent in the operation of any complex chemical process industry. The indoor release of hazardous chemicals that are denser than air is a topic of special concern, since dense clouds tend to persist at ground level or human breath level which leads to a magnification of their harmful potential. In the present work, we propose a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based model for indoor risk assessment considering accidental release of a sustained, small, undetected leak of a dense toxic gas (chlorine) in an industrial indoor environment. Results from simulations show that the denser chlorine gas spreads like a liquid and flows all along the floor. At the same time, its concentration at a point away from the ground level increases slowly, thus showing that both stratification and dilution effects are present as the dense gas spreads. The implications of this spreading pattern from a risk assessment and risk mitigation point of view are discussed.

Siddiqui M; Jayanti S; Swaminathan T

2012-03-01

75

Chrun risk mitigation models for student’s behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to prevent the phenomenon of abandonment (churn), the objective of this paper is to analyze university student’s careers. The results of our research will be used to plan activities of collective or single tutoring and to measure the efficiency and efficacy for specific courses. In particular, the analysis considers years of history for two faculties in the University of Pavia: psychology and biology. In order to estimate for each student a measure of churn risk, our methodological approach is based on a duration predictive model. Empirical evidences are given on the basis of a real data set.

Silvia Figini; Emanuele De Quarti; Paolo Giudici

2009-01-01

76

Modeling and Measurements for Mitigating Interface from Skyshine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skyshine, the radiation scattered in the air above a high-activity gamma-ray source, can produce interference with radiation portal monitor (RPM) systems at distances up to even many hundred meters. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been engaged in a campaign of measurements, design work and modeling that explore methods of mitigating the effects of skyshine on outdoor measurements with sensitive instruments. An overview of our work with shielding of skyshine is being reported by us in another paper at this conference. This paper will concentrate on two topics: measurements and modeling with Monte Carlo transport calculations to characterize skyshine from an iridium-192 source, and testing of a prototype louver system, designed and fabricated at PNNL, as a shielding approach to limit the impact of skyshine interference on RPM systems.

2009-01-01

77

Assessment of GHG mitigation technology measures in Ukraine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In June 1992 the representatives of 176 countries including Ukraine met in Rio de Janeiro at the UN Conference to coordinate its efforts in protecting and guarding the environment. Signature of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change by around 150 countries indicates that climate change is potentially a major threat to the world`s environment and economic development. The project {open_quotes}Country Study on Climate Change in Ukraine{close_quotes} coordinated by the Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENIA-ECO) and supported by the US Country Studies Program Support for Climate Change Studies. The aim of the project is to make the information related to climate change in Ukraine available for the world community by using the potential of Ukrainian research institutes for further concerted actions to solve the problem of climate change on the global scale. The project consists of four elements: (1) the development of the GHG Inventory in Ukraine; (2) assessments of ecosystems-vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options; and (3) mitigation options analysis; (4) public education and outreach activities. This paper contains the main results of the third element for the energy and non-energy sectors. Main tasks of the third element were: (1) to select, test and describe or develop the methodology for mitigation options assessment; (2) to analyze the main sources of GHG emissions in Ukraine; (3) to give the macro economic analysis of Ukrainian development and the development of main economical sectors industry, energy, transport, residential, forestry and agriculture; (4) to forecast GHG emissions for different scenarios of the economic development; and (5) to analyze the main measures to mitigate climate change.

Raptsoun, N.; Parasiouk, N.

1996-12-31

78

Atmospheric Effects on InSAR Measurements and Their Mitigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technology for observing the Earth surface, especially for mapping the Earth's topography and deformations. InSAR measurements are however often significantly affected by the atmosphere as the radar signals propagate through the atmosphere whose state varies both in space and in time. Great efforts have been made in recent years to better understand the properties of the atmospheric effects and to develop methods for mitigating the effects. This paper provides a systematic review of the work carried out in this area. The basic principles of atmospheric effects on repeat-pass InSAR are first introduced. The studies on the properties of the atmospheric effects, including the magnitudes of the effects determined in the various parts of the world, the spectra of the atmospheric effects, the isotropic properties and the statistical distributions of the effects, are then discussed. The various methods developed for mitigating the atmospheric effects are then reviewed, including the methods that are based on PSInSAR processing, the methods that are based on interferogram modeling, and those that are based on external data such as GPS observations, ground meteorological data, and satellite data including those from the MODIS and MERIS. Two examples that use MODIS and MERIS data respectively to calibrate atmospheric effects on InSAR are also given.

Xiao-li Ding; Zhi-wei Li; Jian-jun Zhu; Guang-cai Feng; Jiang-ping Long

2008-01-01

79

Effects of road mortality and mitigation measures on amphibian populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Road mortality is a widely recognized but rarely quantified threat to the viability of amphibian populations. The global extent of the problem is substantial and factors affecting the number of animals killed on highways include life-history traits and landscape features. Secondary effects include genetic isolation due to roads acting as barriers to migration. Long-term effects of roads on population dynamics are often severe and mitigation methods include volunteer rescues and under-road tunnels. Despite the development of methods that reduce road kill in specific locations, especially under-road tunnels and culverts, there is scant evidence that such measures will protect populations over the long term. There also seems little likelihood that funding will be forthcoming to ameliorate the problem at the scale necessary to prevent further population declines.

Beebee TJ

2013-08-01

80

Angular Impact Mitigation system for bicycle helmets to reduce head acceleration and risk of traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p<0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p<0.001), and a 22-32% reduction in neck loading (p<0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. PMID:23770518

Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M; Bottlang, Michael

2013-05-25

 
 
 
 
81

Angular Impact Mitigation system for bicycle helmets to reduce head acceleration and risk of traumatic brain injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p<0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p<0.001), and a 22-32% reduction in neck loading (p<0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required.

Hansen K; Dau N; Feist F; Deck C; Willinger R; Madey SM; Bottlang M

2013-10-01

82

Analysis of Contributing Factors to Desertification and Mitigation Measures in Basilicata Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil, vegetation, climate and management are the main factors affecting environmental sensitivity to degradation, through their intrinsic characteristics or by their interaction with the landscape. Different levels of degradation risks may be observed in response to particular combinations of the aforementioned factors. For instance, the combination of inappropriate management practices and intrinsically weak soil conditions will result in a degradation of the environment of a severe level, while the combination of the same type of management with better soil conditions may lead to negligible degradation. The objective of this study was to identify the factors responsible for land degradation processes in Basilicata and to simulate through the adoption of the SALUS soil-plant-atmosphere system model potential measures to mitigate the processes. Environmental sensitive areas to desertification were first identified using the Environmental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) procedure. An analysis for identifying the weight that each contributing factor (climate, soil, vegetation, socio-economic management) had on the ESA was carried out and successively the SALUS model was executed to identify the best agronomic practices. The best agronomic management practice was found to be the one that minimized soil disturbance and increased soil organic carbon. Two alternative scenarios with improved soil quality and subsequently improving soil water holding capacity were used as mitigation measures. The new ESA were recalculated and the effects of the mitigation suggested by the model were assessed.

Bruno Basso; Lorenzo De Simone; Agostino Ferrara; Davide Cammarano; Giovanni Cafiero; Mei-Ling Yeh; Tien-Yin Chou

2010-01-01

83

People are the problem and the solution: characterizing wildfire risk and risk mitigation in a wildland-urban intermix area in the Southern Gulf Islands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

People play an important role in both causing and mitigating risk in forest-urban intermix areas. We developed a wildfire risk assessment model that characterizes the nature and causes of wildfire risk and evaluates the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies for a wildland-urban intermix area i...

Tutsch, Matthew Stephen

84

Overview of mitigation policies and measures in the forestry sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the author addresses questions on how the forestry sector can make a contribution to the general problem of greenhouse gases in the environment. Primarily this is in the form of carbon conservation and sequestering. There is a potential land area for conservation and sequestration estimated to be 700 Mha. The total carbon that could be sequestered and conserved globally by 2050 on this land is 60 - 87 GtC. Slowing deforestation, assisting regeneration, forestation and agroforestry are the primary mitigation measures for carbon conservation and sequestration. For long term success, enforcement to halt deforestation has to be accompained by economic and/or other benefits to the deforesters that equal or exceed their current remuneration. Making plantations a significant fuel for utility electricity generation will require higher biomass yields and thermal efficiency matching that of conventional plants. Significant reduction of global carbon emissions requires national governments to institute measures that provide local, national, economic and other benefits while conserving and sequestering carbon.

Sathaye, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-12-31

85

Mercury mitigative measures related to hydroelectric reservoirs. The La Grande Complex experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Quebec Hydro's plan for mitigation of mercury contamination in fish and wildlife in the La Grande river basin was presented. The hazard and environmental threat posed by mercury contamination through flooding was described. Implications of mercury contamination for the Cree natives was discussed and provisions of the James Bay mercury agreement were described. Potential 'at source' remedial measures were described, including soil and vegetation removal, controlled burning of soils and vegetation, capping of flooded soils, lime or sulphite salt addition, sediment suspension, genetic manipulation of bacterial populations, selenium addition, nutrient addition, intensive fishing, and reservoir draining. Compensation measures were considered since no practical medium term remedial measures could be found. A case study of the Eastmain-1 Reservoir's $213 000 000 deforestation program was cited as a possible model. It was concluded that realistically, compensation produced the only feasible health risk reduction program, since none of the 'at source' remedial measure were technically or economically feasible. 24 refs

1995-01-01

86

Airflow measurement techniques applied to radon mitigation problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past decade a multitude of diagnostic procedures associated with the evaluation of air infiltration and air leakage sites have been developed. The spirit of international cooperation and exchange of ideas within the AIC-AIVC conferences has greatly facilitated the adoption and use of these measurement techniques in the countries participating in Annex V. But wide application of such diagnostic methods are not limited to air infiltration alone. The subject of this paper concerns the ways to evaluate and improve radon reduction in buildings using diagnostic methods directly related to developments familiar to the AIVC. Radon problems are certainly not unique to the United States, and the methods described here have to a degree been applied by researchers of other countries faced with similar problems. The radon problem involves more than a harmful pollutant of the living spaces of our buildings -- it also involves energy to operate radon removal equipment and the loss of interior conditioned air as a direct result. The techniques used for air infiltration evaluation will be shown to be very useful in dealing with the radon mitigation challenge. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

1989-01-01

87

Airflow measurement techniques applied to radon mitigation problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past decade a multitude of diagnostic procedures associated with the evaluation of air infiltration and air leakage sites have been developed. The spirit of international cooperation and exchange of ideas within the AIC-AIVC conferences has greatly facilitated the adoption and use of these measurement techniques in the countries participating in Annex V. But wide application of such diagnostic methods are not limited to air infiltration alone. The subject of this paper concerns the ways to evaluate and improve radon reduction in buildings using diagnostic methods directly related to developments familiar to the AIVC. Radon problems are certainly not unique to the United States, and the methods described here have to a degree been applied by researchers of other countries faced with similar problems. The radon problem involves more than a harmful pollutant of the living spaces of our buildings -- it also involves energy to operate radon removal equipment and the loss of interior conditioned air as a direct result. The techniques used for air infiltration evaluation will be shown to be very useful in dealing with the radon mitigation challenge. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Harrje, D.T.; Gadsby, K.J.

1989-01-01

88

INTERNAL AUDIT AND ITS APPROACH TO THE RISK MITIGATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This thesis is analyzing the modern role of the internal audit in corporate(mainly banking) structures. It describes the changes made in the social role ofauditing during the years and emphasizes the internal audit´s risk managementfunction, rather than just control function. Attention is given to the methodology used,especially to the currently most widespread risk-based auditing approach. Also one ofthe most recent approaches to auditing – so called continuous auditing - is brieflydescribed and the possibilities of its implementation into the risk-based framework areoutlined.

VADIM BENEŠ

2012-01-01

89

A NOVEL RISK ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION METHOD IN DISTRIBUTED BANKING SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper introduces a Fractional Reverse Banking like Distributed Banking System and the infrastructure is becoming more and more complex, and connected to large number of security issues and amount of risks to readiness assets are increasing. This is done to expand the economy by freeing up capital that can be loaned out to other parties. Most countries operate under this type of system. Hence, the process of identification, analysis, and mitigation of Information Security risks has assumed utmost importance. This quality paper grants combination of quantitative and qualitative information security risk analysis methodology for the system. The proposed methodology incorporates three approaches. Asset identifying approach identifies assets and their risk. Partitioned approach identifies risk factor for all the requirements in an asset depending on value. Exhaustive approach identifies the threat-vulnerability pair responsible for an asset associate with risk and computes a risk factor corresponding to each security property for every asset. The assets are classified into three different risk zones namely high, average and low risk zone. For utmost-risk assets, management may install high cost infrastructure to safeguard an asset; for average-risk assets, management may apply security policies, guidelines and procedures; for under risks management may invest very less for assets. In this paper a new method has been proposed to analyse and mitigate the potential problems in Distributed Banking System.

K. V. D. Kiran; L. S. S. Reddy; M. Seetharama Prasad

2013-01-01

90

Risk Contributions and Performance Measurement  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Risk adjusted performance measurement for a portfolio involves calculating the risk contribution of each single asset. We show that there is only one definition for the risk contributions which is suitable for performance measurement, namely as derivative of the underlying risk measure in direction of the considered asset. We also compute the derivatives for some popular risk measures including the quantile-based value at risk (VaR) in a rather general context. As a consequence we obtain a mean-quantile CAPM. Keywords: Performance measurement, portfolio selection, value at risk (VaR), quantile, shortfall, capital asset pricing model (CAPM).

Dirk Tasche

91

The minimum balance at risk: A proposal to mitigate the systemic risks posed by money market funds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper introduces a proposal for money market fund (MMF) reform that could mitigate systemic risks arising from these funds by protecting shareholders, such as retail investors, who do not redeem quickly from distressed funds. Our proposal would require that a small fraction of each MMF investor...

McCabe, Patrick E.; Cipriani, Marco; Holscher, Michael; Martin, Antoine

92

Hydraulic analysis of measures for flood mitigation in floodplain  

Science.gov (United States)

The question of possible flood control and flood mitigation measures and their effects is still challenging. While the effect of purely technical flood control measures such as dams or levees is sufficiently described by using any of widely spread or more specific models, the effectiveness of close-to-nature ones (river restoration, appropriate land use, landscape structure regeneration, etc.) is not adequately verified and quantified. On that account, the benefits and feasibility of integration of the natural potential of floodplains to absorb and transform flood wave is being discussed. In addition, there are many side benefits of close-to-nature measures which are hard to evaluate and include into decision making processes. This contribution presents a part of the study related to river and floodplain restoration and revitalization measures in catchments and their flood-control effect. In the study the possibilities of using one-dimensional (HEC-RAS) and two-dimensional hydraulic mathematical models (FAST2D, DIFEM2D) of steady and unsteady flow for estimation of transformation effects of a floodplain were compared. The comparison of used models was made with respect to computed results and also to the availability of input data, mathematical stability, processes and accuracy demands and time requirements. The above mentioned methods of hydraulic modelling were applied to three case study localities in the Czech Republic. The parts of river channels and their floodplain differ in terms of morphology, river channel form and training situation and land-use. Case study areas were selected to represent the main types of floodplains within the Czech Republic for their further classification related to flood wave transformation potential. The transformation effect is compared not only for the natural state of the floodplain, but also for various theoretical scenarios in each locality. Keywords Hydraulic modelling, flood control, floodplain, storage capacity, river restoration Acknowledgement This paper was created within the project NIVA "Water Retention in Floodplains and Ways of Increasing Water Retention" QH82078, and within Research Project No. MSM6840770002 "Revitalization of water system of the landscape and urban areas under heavy anthropogenic changes" and supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Technical University in Prague, grant No. SGS10/240/OHK1/3T/11.

Valentova, J.; Valenta, P.; Weyskrabova, L.; Dostal, T.

2012-04-01

93

Effects of radon mitigation vs smoking cessation in reducing radon-related risk of lung cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to provide smokers with information on the relative benefits of mitigating radon and quitting smoking in reducing radon-related lung cancer risk. METHODS: The standard radon risk model, linked with models characterizing residential radon exposure and patterns of moving to new homes, was used to estimate the risk reduction produced by remediating high-radon homes, quitting smoking, or both. RESULTS: Quitting smoking reduces lung cancer risk from radon more than does reduction of radon exposure itself. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers should understand that, in addition to producing other health benefits, quitting smoking dominates strategies to deal with the problem posed by radon.

Mendez D; Warner KE; Courant PN

1998-05-01

94

Risk Measures and Nonlinear Expectations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coherent and convex risk measures, Choquet expectation and Peng’s g-expectation are all generalizations of mathematical expectation. All have been widely used to assess financial riskiness under uncertainty. In this paper, we investigate differences amongst these risk measures and expectations. For this purpose, we constrain our attention of coherent and convex risk measures, and Choquet expectation to the domain of g-expectation. Some differences among coherent and convex risk measures and Choquet expectations are accounted for in the framework of g-expectations. We show that in the family of convex risk measures, only coherent risk measures satisfy Jensen’s inequality. In mathematical finance, risk measures and Choquet expectations are typically used in the pricing of contingent claims over families of measures. The different risk measures will typically yield different pricing. In this paper, we show that the coherent pricing is always less than the corresponding Choquet pricing. This property and inequality fails in general when one uses pricing by convex risk measures. We also discuss the relation between static risk measure and dynamic risk measure in the framework of g-expectations. We show that if g-expectations yield coherent (convex) risk measures then the corresponding conditional g-expectations or equivalently the dynamic risk measure is also coherent (convex). To prove these results, we establish a new converse of the comparison theorem of g-expectations.

Zengjing Chen; Kun He; Reg Kulperger

2013-01-01

95

Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies for older adults with persistent pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies for certain analgesic agents, but all medicines for older adults warrant risk-reduction considerations. Although not all older adults have pain, a higher prevalence of persistent pain exists in this population. Nursing actions are needed to minimize the negative impact persistent pain, analgesic agents, or both have on physical, mental, and social functioning. Practices vary considerably, ranging from failing to use analgesic agents for older adults with considerable pain to exposing them to potentially life-threatening toxicities, overdoses, or drug interactions. Older adults tend to be more vulnerable to side effects and drug interactions due to differences in drug distribution, metabolism, and elimination; thus, vigilant assessment and monitoring is needed to mitigate risks whenever analgesic agents are used. This review delineates these vulnerabilities while informing clinicians of the strategies needed to promote safe, effective use of medications when treating pain in older adults.

Arnstein P; Herr K

2013-04-01

96

Guide to Printed and Electronic Resources for Developing a Cost-Effective Risk Mitigation Plan for New and Existing Constructed Facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing a cost-effective risk mitigation plan involves assessing the risks associated with natural and man-made hazards, formulating combinations of mitigation strategies for constructed facilities exposed to those hazards, and using economic tools to ...

D. S. Thomas R. E. Chapman

2007-01-01

97

Risks evaluation and mitigation in the new energetic markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to evaluate the Brazilian electric power market risks and the their agents' relationship after the privatization advent

1999-12-02

98

Maturity-independent risk measures  

CERN Multimedia

The new notion of maturity-independent risk measures is introduced and contrasted with the existing risk measurement concepts. It is shown, by means of two examples, one set on a finite probability space and the other in a diffusion framework, that, surprisingly, some of the widely utilized risk measures cannot be used to build maturity-independent counterparts. We construct a large class of maturity-independent risk measures and give representative examples in both continuous- and discrete-time financial models.

Zariphopoulou, Thaleia

2007-01-01

99

Building damage classification and loss assessment for risk mitigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to present a uniform procedure for examining and reporting building damage both in urban and in rural areas so that a data bank on earthquake effects might be established and used for the effective estimation of economic losses. Assessment of direct economic losses is illustrated by a summary presentation of earthquake damage classification performed on 16,478 residential buildings and on all 57,640 buildings damaged by the earthquake of July 26, 1963 in Skopje and April 15, 1979 in Montenegro earthquakes, respectively. Use of these methods and procedures will yield an adequate volume of data to assist community and national authorities in the elaboration and performance of effective seismic risk reduction programmes. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

1992-01-01

100

An Efficient Approach towards Mitigating Soft Errors Risks  

CERN Multimedia

Smaller feature size, higher clock frequency and lower power consumption are of core concerns of today's nano-technology, which has been resulted by continuous downscaling of CMOS technologies. The resultant 'device shrinking' reduces the soft error tolerance of the VLSI circuits, as very little energy is needed to change their states. Safety critical systems are very sensitive to soft errors. A bit flip due to soft error can change the value of critical variable and consequently the system control flow can completely be changed which leads to system failure. To minimize soft error risks, a novel methodology is proposed to detect and recover from soft errors considering only 'critical code blocks' and 'critical variables' rather than considering all variables and/or blocks in the whole program. The proposed method shortens space and time overhead in comparison to existing dominant approaches.

Sadi, Muhammad Sheikh; Uddin, Md Nazim; Jürjens, Jan

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Measurement of risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Risk assessment is considered from philosophical, statistical, and comparative viewpoints. Assessment methods are examined and topics are discussed ranging from statistical inference or risks to such areas as cancer risks; comparative risks of energy sources; hazards of inhaled contaminants; and contaminated drinking water. (JMT)

Berg, G.G.; Maillie, H.D. (eds.)

1981-01-01

102

Analysis of the 2002 flood in Austria - facts, conclusions and mitigation measures  

Science.gov (United States)

In August 2002 Austria was affected - like other European countries e.g. Germany, Czech Republic or Romania - by an extreme flood event, which occurred in Central Europe and brought rainfall of extraordinary extent and flood recurrence intervals from several years to more than 1000 years. Losses of human life and livestock and damages of infrastructure, buildings, public and private properties rose the public awareness and the demand for improvement of future flood mitigation measures. The Centre of Natural Hazards and Risk Management of the BOKU-University for Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna startet as a first initiative with a summary and review of all reports and documents upon the regional impact of the event. The summary includes the description of the meteorological boundary conditions, the flood generation and their frequencies. A broad range of disciplinary aspects like river engineering, river ecology, vegetation and biology, soil science and soil mechanics, rural and urban planning were involved. The inventory and interpretation of the damages forms a base for assessment of shortcomings and requirements for a successful flood protection strategy for the future. The holistic approach will result in improved regional water management plans and assists in the development of a sustainable, catchment based flood mitigation strategy. Besides the review of the event the presentation will comment on some lacks and shortcomings in the collected data base and will give hints for future demands in online monitoring requirements, on establishment and improvement of forecasting tools and of the information transfer to the emergency services.

Formayer, H.; Habersack, H.; Holzmann, H.; Moser, A.; Seibert, P.

2003-04-01

103

VALUE AT RISK - CORPORATE RISK MEASUREMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The notion of 'risk' is used in a number of sciences. The Faculty of Law studies the risk depending on its legality. The Accident Theory applies this term to describe the damage and the disasters. One can find studies on the risks in the works of psychology, philosophy, medicine and within each of these areas the study of the risk is based on the given science subject and, of course, on their methods and approaches. Such a variety of risk study is explained by the diversity of this phenomenon. Under the market economy conditions, the risk is an essential component of any economic agent management policy, of the approach developed by this one, a strategy that depends almost entirely on individual ability and capacity to anticipate his evolution and to exploit his opportunities, assuming a so-called 'risk of business failure.' There are several ways to measure the risks in projects, one of the most used methods to measure this being the Value at Risk(VaR). Value at Risk (VaR) was made famous by JP Morgan in the mid 1990s, by introducing the RiskMetrics approach, and hence, by far, has been sanctioned by several Governing Bodies throughout the world bank. In short, it measures the value of risk capital stocks in a given period at a certain probability of loss. This measurement can be modified for risk applications through, for example, the potential loss values affirmation in a certain amount of time during the economic life of the project- clearly, a project with a lower VaR is better. It should be noted that it is not always possible or advisable for a company to limit itself to the remote analysis of each risk because the risks and their effects are interdependent and constitute a system .In addition, there are risks which, in combination with other risks, tend to produce effects which they would not have caused by themselves and risks that tend to offset and even cancel each other out.

Anis Cecilia-Nicoleta; Roth Anne-Marie; Apolzan (Angyal) Carmen-Maria

2011-01-01

104

Risk Contributions and Performance Measurement  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Risk adjusted performance measurement for a portfolio involves calculating the riskcontribution of each single asset. We show that there is only one definition for the riskcontributions which is suitable for performance measurement, namely as derivative of theunderlying risk measure in direction of the considered asset weight. We also compute thederivatives for some popular risk measures including the quantile-based value at risk (VaR)in a rather general context. As a consequence we obtain a mean-quantile CAPM.Keywords: Performance measurement, portfolio selection, value at risk (VaR), quantile,shortfall, capital asset pricing model (CAPM).1

Dirk Tasche

105

Risk mitigation in the implementation of AMTs: A guiding framework for future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fast industrial development increases different types of risks for the industries. Many risk factors are inherent in the implementation of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs). Industries are developing methodologies for risk prevention and protection. The present research focuses to identify various risks that could influence the implementation of AMTs, and develop a framework to mitigate them. For this framework, interpretive structural modeling(ISM) has been used to depict the relationship and priority among the various risks. This research provides a path for managers and indicates the dominant risks on the basis of higher driving power. Also, this research classifies the relationship among various risks in AMTs implementation according to their driving power and dependence. The risks have been categorized into four categories as autonomous risks, linkage risks, dependent risks and independent risks. The proposed hierarchal model would help the management to effectively handle and develop strategies against the risks and hence new and latest technologies can be adopted with ease and effectiveness.

Bhaskar Nagar; Tilak Raj

2012-01-01

106

Serious complications associated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy and strategies to mitigate the risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The clinical applications of stereotactic body radiotherapy or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for the treatment of primary and metastatic tumours of different organ sites have been expanding rapidly in the recent decade. SABR requires advanced technology in radiotherapy planning and image guidance to deliver a highly conformal ablative dose precisely to targets (or tumours) in the body. Although this treatment modality has shown promising results with regard to tumour control, some serious complications have been observed and reported. In order to achieve a favourable therapeutic ratio, strategies to mitigate the risk of complications must be in place. This overview will summarise the reported serious complications caused by SABR and strategies to mitigate the risk will be discussed.

Lo SS; Sahgal A; Chang EL; Mayr NA; Teh BS; Huang Z; Schefter TE; Yao M; Machtay M; Slotman BJ; Timmerman RD

2013-06-01

107

Cost-effective alternatives for mitigating Cryptosporidium risk in drinking water and enhancing ecosystem services  

Science.gov (United States)

Under the multibarrier paradigm, water quality management barriers that mitigate risk to consumers are required at multiple points from the catchment to the tap. We present a cost-effectiveness analysis of 13 catchment- and treatment-based management alternatives for mitigating Cryptosporidium risk in the Myponga water supply catchment, South Australia. A broad range of costs and benefits are identified and valued, including setup, operation and maintenance, and opportunity costs, and benefits for ecosystem services including water quality, biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and farm production services. The results suggest that the cost-effectiveness of investment in water quality management can be substantially enhanced by considering the costs of management and the benefits for ecosystem services, in addition to Cryptosporidium removal effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness of investment in management alternatives is dependent upon the desired level of Cryptosporidium removal effectiveness by both the catchment and treatment barriers. The combination of a spatially targeted 25% restriction in water course access of nondairy cattle and treatment by enhanced coagulation provides the most (net) cost-effective Cryptosporidium risk mitigation strategy. This combination may achieve 0.614 log removal at a net cost of A0.7 million and (net) cost-effectiveness of A1.14 million per log removal. Additional risk mitigation can be achieved through the addition of ultraviolet irradiation treatment, higher levels of water course access restriction for cattle, and the adoption of dung beetles in the catchment. Economic valuation of a range of costs and benefits of management priorities can support cost-effective water quality management investment decisions and inform elements of policy design such as cost-sharing arrangements and spatial targeting.

Bryan, B. A.; Kandulu, J. M.

2009-08-01

108

The sensing-based adaptive risk mitigation of leaking hydrogen in a partially open space  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study performs the numerical simulation of hydrogen dispersion in a partially open space. The space under investigation measures 2.9 m x 1.22 m x 0.74 m and a leak flow rate of 2 standard cubic feet per minute is assumed. The effects of various roof vent positions and their areas on the ability to recognize the dispersion and accumulation of hydrogen, and its natural ventilation, are shown and discussed. Based on the results, this paper proposes an innovative approach to the sensing-based adaptive risk mitigation control of hydrogen dispersion and accumulation in a partially open space. By adaptively opening roof vents near the leak source, and closing other neighboring roof vents, concentrated hydrogen is exhausted rapidly and efficiently. It is also shown that cases exist where sufficient area of the proposed adaptive roof vent can be determined by the finite-time sensing of hydrogen concentration near the roof. The effects of the delay time of a sensor, and a method to cancel these effects, are also discussed. (author)

Matsuura, Kazuo [International Advanced Research and Education Organization, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramakiaza, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8578 (Japan); Nakano, Masami; Ishimoto, Jun [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

2009-10-15

109

Outreach programs, peer pressure, and common sense: what motivates homeowners to mitigate wildfire risk?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years, altered forest conditions, climate change, and the increasing numbers of homes built in fire prone areas has meant that wildfires are affecting more people. An important part of minimizing the potential negative impacts of wildfire is engaging homeowners in mitigating the fire hazard on their land. It is therefore important to understand what makes homeowners more or less willing to take action. The research presented here comes from a study that interviewed a total of 198 homeowners in six communities in the western United States about the activities they had undertaken to mitigate their fire risk, the factors that contributed to their decisions, and their future intentions. The current paper reports on findings from the first half of the longitudinal study, after 3 years we will return to interview the current homeowner on the same properties to assess maintenance actions and facilitating and limiting factors. Overall we found a body of individuals who understand the fire risk, are taking numerous mitigation actions, and think that these actions have reduced their risk. These homeowners typically did not expect the government to do it for them: they wanted information about what to do and, in some cases, assistance with the work, but saw taking care of their property primarily as their responsibility. Responses also show that key information sources and motivating factors vary by location and that it is not inherently necessary to have relationships between community members to create defensible space.

McCaffrey SM; Stidham M; Toman E; Shindler B

2011-09-01

110

Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development

1992-01-01

111

Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development.

Majumdar, S.K.

1992-01-01

112

SILER: Seismic-Initiated events risk mitigation in Lead-cooled Reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SILER is a Collaborative Project, partially funded by the European Commission, aimed at studying the risk associated to seismic initiated events in Generation IV Heavy Liquid Metal reactors and developing adequate protection measures. The attention is focused on the evaluation of the effects of earthquakes (with particular regards to beyond design seismic events) and to the identification of mitigation strategies, acting both on structures and components design (as well as on the development of seismic isolation devices) which can also have positive effects on economics, leading to an high level of plant design standardization. Attention is also devoted to the identification of plant layout solutions able to avoid risks of radioactive release from both the core and other structures (i.e. the spent fuel storage pools). Specific effort is paid to the development of guidelines and design recommendations for addressing the seismic issue in next generation reactor systems. In addition, consideration will be devoted to transfer the knowledge developed in the project to Generation III advanced systems, in line with the objective of the SNE-TP SRA to support present and future Light Water Reactors and their further development, for which safety issues are key aspects to be addressed. Note, in this respect, that the benefits of base isolation in terms of response to design seismic actions are already widely recognized for Generation III LWRs, along with the possibility of a significant standardization of structural and equipment design. SILER activities started on October 1 st 2011 and are carried out by 18 partners: ENEA (Italy, Coordinator), AREVA NP SAS (France), SCK-CEN (Belgium), FIP Industriale (Italy), MAURER SOHENE (Germany), EC-JRC (Ispra (Italy)), SINTEC (Italy), KTH (Sweden), BOA-BKT (Germany), IDOM (Spain), ANSALDO (Italy), IPUL (Latvia), NUMERIA (Italy), VCE (Austria), SRS (Italy), CEA (France), EA (Spain), NUVIA (France). (authors)

Forni, M. [ENEA, Via Martin di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); De Grandis, S. [SINTEC, Via Santo Stefano 20, 40125 Bologna (Italy)

2012-07-01

113

Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one. Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro) and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo) are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme) resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress), using the EPP dollar exchange rate. Our conclusions with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a basin scale and through naturalistic (live) interventions are that they are not only socially and technically possible, even in hardship areas (by maximizing the contribution of the local labour force and minimizing the use of mechanical equipment), but also economically sustainable.

A. Petrone; F. Preti

2010-01-01

114

Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a basin scale and through naturalistic (live) interventions: not only are they socially and technically attainable, even in hardship areas (by maximizing the contribution of the local labor force and minimizing the use of mechanical equipment), but they are also economically sustainable.

A. Petrone; F. Preti

2009-01-01

115

Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one. Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro) and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo) are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme) resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress), using the EPP dollar exchange rate. Our conclusions with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a basin scale and through naturalistic (live) interventions are that they are not only socially and technically possible, even in hardship areas (by maximizing the contribution of the local labour force and minimizing the use of mechanical equipment), but also economically sustainable.

Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

2010-02-01

116

Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a basin scale and through naturalistic (live) interventions: not only are they socially and technically attainable, even in hardship areas (by maximizing the contribution of the local labor force and minimizing the use of mechanical equipment), but they are also economically sustainable.

Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

2009-07-01

117

Measuring Default Risk Premia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper estimates recent default risk premia for U.S. corporatedebt, based on a close relationship between default probabilities, asestimated by Moody's KMV EDFs, and default swap (CDS) marketrates. The default-swap data, obtained through CIBC from 22 banksand specialty dealers, allow us to establish a strong link between actualand risk-neutral default probabilities for the 69 firms in the threesectors that we analyze: broadcasting and entertainment, healthcare,and oil and gas. We find dramatic variation over time in risk premia,from peaks in the thrid quarter of 2002, dropping by roughly 50% tolate 2003.

Antje Berndt; Rohan Douglas; Darrell Due; Mark Ferguson; David Schranz

118

Global climate change: Implications, challenges and mitigation measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present volume discusses topics in the fields of natural climatic fluctuations, the greenhouse effect, climate modeling, the biophysical and socioeconomic impacts of climate change, climate-change effect mitigation and adaptation strategies, and domestic (US) and international perspectives on regulation of climate-affecting activities. Attention is given to past climates as a guide to the future, the certainty of contemporary global warming, the physics of the greenhouse effect, the global carbon cycle, general circulation model studies of global warming, the implications of sea-level rise, forests' role in global climate change, the ecological effects of rapid climate change, predicted effects of climate change on agriculture, the impact of global warming on human health, energy supply technologies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and the U.N.'s 1992 Earth Summit Conference.

Majumdar, S.K.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Yarnal, B.M.; Miller, E.W.; Rosenfeld, L.M.

1992-01-01

119

Uses of risk importance measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risk importance measures provide an understandable and practical way of presenting probabilistic safety analysis results which too often tend to remain abstract numbers without real insight into the content. The report clarifies the definitions, relationships and interpretations of the three most basic measures: Risk increase factor, risk decrease factor, and fractional contribution. The above three measures already cover the main types of risk importance measures. Many other importance measures presented in literature are close variants to some of these three measures. They are related in many cases so that, for a technical system considered, the two other measures can be derived from the one calculated first. However, the practical interpretations are different, and hence each three measures have their own uses and rights to existence. The fundamental aspect of importance measures is, that they express some specific influence of a basic event on the total risk. The basic failure or error events are the elements from which the reliability and risk models are constituted. The importance measures are relative, which is an advantage compared to absolute risk numbers, due to insensitivity with respect to quantification uncertainties. Therefore they are particularly adapted to give first hand guidance where to focus main interest from the system's risk and reliability point of view and wherefrom to continue the analysis with more sophisticated methods requiring more effort

1991-01-01

120

Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia: A Participative Workshop to Reduce Volcanic Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

Galeras has been in nearly constant activity during modern historic times (roughly the past 500 years). Approximately 10,000 people live within an area designated as the highest-hazard and nearly 400,000 people are within areas of potential harmful effects. A wide variety of stakeholders are affected by the hazards, including: farmers, indigenous villagers, and people in urban environments. Hazards assessment and volcano monitoring are the responsibility of the Colombian Geological Survey (INGEOMINAS), whereas decisions regarding mitigation and response procedures are the responsibility of various governmental offices and the national emergency system (SNPAD). According to the current plan, when the risk level rises to a high level the people in the highest risk zone are required to evacuate. The volcano currently is in a very active, but fluctuating, condition and a future large eruption in a medium time frame (years to decades) is possible. There is a growing level of discomfort among many of the affected groups, including indigenous communities, farmers, and urban dwellers, related to the risk assessment. The general opinion prior to July 2009 was quite polarized as the decision makers saw the people of the region as poorly prepared to understand this hazard, whereas the population felt that their views were not being heard. The result was that the people in the hazardous areas decided not to evacuate, even during the current period of explosive activity. To resolve this situation the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop named "Knowledge, Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia" that was held in Pasto (Colombia), between 6 and 11 July, 2009. The general objective of this workshop was to analyze the existing hazard maps and safety plans for Galeras and form a bridge connecting scientists, decision makers, and other stake holders to promote a better understanding of the hazards presented by Galeras and the measures needed for mutual understanding and protection of people and property in the potentially threatened areas. Progress towards developing trust was achieved by requiring all the parties, including technicians, scientists, administrators and even farmers and indigenous people to listen to each others’ perceptions thought the entire week of the workshop. On the final day of the meeting a roundtable dialogue between the conflicting parts was moderated by social scientists. This intercourse identified, in a consensual manner, points of agreement to serve as starting positions for finding solutions to the areas of conflict. Irresolvable points were also identified during this roundtable discussion. The workshop showed that by sharing information within the framework of a full and frank communication, accepting (or at least listening to) each others’ arguments and trying to understand different points of view and served as a framework for an ongoing process of dialogue focused on resolving conflicts between the various stakeholder groups, even though they had previously reached the point of radicalized positions and statements.

Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

CO? mitigation measures of power sector and its integrated optimization in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Power sector is responsible for about 40% of the total CO? emissions in the world and plays a leading role in climate change mitigation. In this study, measures that lower CO? emissions from the supply side, demand side, and power grid are discussed, based on which, an integrated optimization model of CO? mitigation (IOCM) is proposed. Virtual energy, referring to energy saving capacity in both demand side and the power grid, together with conventional energy in supply side, is unified planning for IOCM. Consequently, the optimal plan of energy distribution, considering both economic benefits and mitigation benefits, is figured out through the application of IOCM. The results indicate that development of demand side management (DSM) and smart grid can make great contributions to CO? mitigation of power sector in China by reducing the CO? emissions by 10.02% and 12.59%, respectively, in 2015, and in 2020.

Dai P; Chen G; Zhou H; Su M; Bao H

2012-01-01

122

Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies: a focus on the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To review the history of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mToR) inhibitors, evaluate their required REMS elements, and delineate the reasons for them being released from their REMS requirements. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION: Articles were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 2007-July 2012) using the search terms: risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, REMS, everolimus, sirolimus and organ transplant (individual organs also were searched). Information from the Federal Register, the Food and Drug Administration, and the manufacturers of the mToR inhibitors was also evaluated. DATA SYNTHESIS: REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product. The mToR inhibitors have been associated with several potential risks, including proteinuria, graft thrombosis, and wound-healing complications. The Food and Drug Administration approved REMS programs for both sirolimus and everolimus. The manufacturers of both medications complied with the components of their approved REMS, but after less than 2 years, both medications have been relieved of their REMS obligations. CONCLUSION: The only element of the sirolimus REMS was a medication guide, whereas the everolimus REMS consisted of a medication guide and a communication plan. The sirolimus REMS was implemented more than 10 years after its initial approval by the Food and Drug Administration, but was released from its REMS requirement within 7 months of its implementation. The everolimus REMS was instituted upon initial approval and was removed approximately 2 years later. Both medications' REMS were always intended to educate health care providers and patients about the potential risks associated with this transplant immunosuppressant. Transplant practitioners should be familiar with the mToR inhibitors' associated risks and properly educate patients regarding the inhibitors' risk-benefit profiles.

Gabardi S

2013-03-01

123

NPH Risk Assessment and Mitigation of a SRS Facility for the Safe Storage of Tritium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of the reduction in the nation`s stockpile of weapon systems a large amount of tritium is being returned to the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Due to the increased quantity of tritium returning to SRS, the SRS Tritium Facility was tasked to determine the most cost effective means to safely store the tritium gas in a short period of time. This paper presents results of the risk assessment developed to evaluate the safe storage of tritium at SRS, and highlights the structural design of the HIVES used as the cost-effective short term NPH mitigation solution.

Joshi, J.R.; Griffin, M.J.; Bjorkman, G.S.

1995-10-18

124

A guide to understanding and implementing risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in organ transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To review the components of the Congressional mandate for risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) managed by the Food and Drug Administration and assess their impact on health care providers practicing within the organ transplant arena. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION: A non-date-limited search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 2007-June 2012) was conducted by using the following search terms: risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, REMS, and organ transplant, including a query of the individual organs. Information from the Federal Register and the Food and Drug Administration was also evaluated. DATA SYNTHESIS: REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product. Elements of REMS programs may consist of 3 levels: a medication guide, communication plan, and elements to assure safe use. A medication guide is used to help prevent serious adverse events, aid in patients' decision making, and enhance medication adherence. Communication plans help educate health care providers and encourage adherence with REMS. The elements to assure safe use is a restrictive process implemented when it is deemed necessary to ensure safe access for patients to products with known serious risks. In transplant medicine, REMS currently exist for belatacept (medication guide and communication plan) and the mycophenolic acid derivatives (medication guide and elements to assure safe use). CONCLUSION: REMS are another step in the evolution of the development and marketing of pharmaceutical agents. Use of REMS in solid-organ transplant is becoming common. Transplant clinicians must provide required patient education and become involved with other aspects of REMS implementation to reduce the serious risks of pharmaceuticals and to improve patients' outcomes.

Gabardi S; Tichy EM

2013-03-01

125

Interactions between measures for the support of electricity from renewable energy sources and CO2 mitigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As Europe wants to move towards a secure, sustainable and competitive energy market, it has taken action, amongst other, to support electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and to mitigate CO2 emissions. This paper first qualitatively discusses price- and quantity-based measures for RES-E deployment as well as CO2 mitigation. Next, a simulation model is developed to quantitatively discuss the effects of a tradable green certificate system, a premium mechanism, a tradable CO2 allowance system and a CO2 tax on both RES-E deployment and CO2 mitigation. A three-regional model implementation representing the Benelux, France and Germany is used. In a first step of simulations, all measures are implemented separately. In a second step, combinations of both RES-E supporting and CO2 mitigating measures are simulated and discussed. Significant indirect effects are demonstrated, especially for RES-E supporting measures on the reduction of CO2 emissions. Interactions between different measures show that the price level of quantity-based measures can be strongly influenced.

2009-01-01

126

Shared risk evaluation mitigation strategy for all immediate-release transmucosal fentanyl dosage forms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Food and Drug Administration approved a single shared Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for transmucosal immediate-release fentanyl dosage forms in December 2011. This report describes the goals, elements, and restricted distribution system of the REMS designed to reduce risk of abuse, misuse, addiction, and overdose with the drugs. Questions and answers about REMS also are presented. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced a shared REMS for all immediate-release transmucosal fentanyl dosage forms on December 29, 2011, to become effective in March 2012. That announcement is accessible at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm285345.htm. Concurrently the FDA posted a series of questions and answers on this shared REMS at: http://http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/ucm284717.htm. Both documents are in the public domain.

2012-06-01

127

Technologies, policies and measures for mitigating climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Technical Paper provides an overview and analysis of technologies and measures to limit and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to enhance GHG sinks under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The paper focuses on technologies and measures for the countries listed in Annex I of the FCCC, while noting information as appropriate for use by non-Annex I countries. Technologies and measures are examined over three time periods - with a focus on the short term (present to 2010) and the medium term (2010-2020), but also including discussion of longer-term (e.g. 2050) possibilities and opportunities. For this analysis, the authors draw on materials used to prepare the IPCC Second Assessment Report (SAR) and previous IPCC assessments and reports. The Technical Paper includes discussions of the technologies and measures that can be adopted in three energy end-use sectors (commercial/residential/institutional buildings, transportation and industry), as well as in the energy supply sector and the agriculture, forestry and waste management sectors. Broader measures affecting national economies are discussed in a final section on economic instruments. A range of potential measures are analyzed, including market-based programs; voluntary agreements; regulatory measures; research, development and demonstration (RD & D); taxes on GHG emissions; and emissions permits/quotas. It should be noted that the choice of instruments could have economic impacts on other countries. 5 apps.

Watson, R.T.; Zinyowera, M.C.; Moss, R.H. [eds.] [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-11-01

128

Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

2010-01-01

129

Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

2010-03-01

130

Making the Handoff from Earthquake Hazard Assessments to Effective Mitigation Measures (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

This year has witnessed a barrage of large earthquakes worldwide with the resulting damages ranging from inconsequential to truly catastrophic. We cannot predict when earthquakes will strike, but we can build communities that are resilient to strong shaking as well as to secondary hazards such as landslides and liquefaction. The contrasting impacts of the magnitude-7 earthquake that struck Haiti in January and the magnitude-8.8 event that struck Chile in April underscore the difference that mitigation and preparedness can make. In both cases, millions of people were exposed to severe shaking, but deaths in Chile were measured in the hundreds rather than the hundreds of thousands that perished in Haiti. Numerous factors contributed to these disparate outcomes, but the most significant is the presence of strong building codes in Chile and their total absence in Haiti. The financial cost of the Chilean earthquake still represents an unacceptably high percentage of that nation’s gross domestic product, a reminder that life safety is the paramount, but not the only, goal of disaster risk reduction measures. For building codes to be effective, both in terms of lives saved and economic cost, they need to reflect the hazard as accurately as possible. As one of four federal agencies that make up the congressionally mandated National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops national seismic hazard maps that form the basis for seismic provisions in model building codes through the Federal Emergency Management Agency and private-sector practitioners. This cooperation is central to NEHRP, which both fosters earthquake research and establishes pathways to translate research results into implementation measures. That translation depends on the ability of hazard-focused scientists to interact and develop mutual trust with risk-focused engineers and planners. Strengthening that interaction is an opportunity for the next generation of earthquake scientists and engineers. In addition to the national maps, the USGS produces more detailed urban seismic hazard maps that communities have used to prioritize retrofits and design critical infrastructure that can withstand large earthquakes. At a regional scale, the USGS and its partners in California have developed a time-dependent earthquake rupture forecast that is being used by the insurance sector, which can serve to distribute risk and foster mitigation if the right incentives are in place. What the USGS and partners are doing at the urban, regional, and national scales, the Global Earthquake Model project is seeking to do for the world. A significant challenge for engaging the public to prepare for earthquakes is making low-probability, high-consequence events real enough to merit personal action. Scenarios help by starting with the hazard posed by a specific earthquake and then exploring the fragility of the built environment, cascading failures, and the real-life consequences for the public. To generate such a complete picture takes multiple disciplines working together. Earthquake scenarios are being used both for emergency management exercises and much broader public preparedness efforts like the Great California ShakeOut, which engaged nearly 7 million people.

Applegate, D.

2010-12-01

131

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE TAX BURDEN EFFECTS AND ITS MITIGATION MEASURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taxation need not be questioned. In the context of social development,the existence of public institutions is essential and intangible nature of their work, and thusunable to obtain the necessary revenue to cover its expenses necessarily determined, takingsome parts of the results in the material sphere through taxation. However, one important issueis represented by the size of the tax burden borne by taxpayers. Tax burden is a widely debatedissue considered at all times. It is important number taxes and mandatory contributions orgreater tax burden borne by all taxpayers? For tax burden can be determined with sufficientaccuracy is tolerable limits sizing math? What are the effects generated by the tax burden?These are questions to which answers can be drawn not always make full satisfaction truth. Thework reflected a number of issues relating to fiscal pressure sizing customization for Romaniaand its effects and measures to be taken to reduce it.

GABRIELA DOBROT?; MARIA FELICIA CHIRCULESCU

2009-01-01

132

Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

Chai, Wen-Chung (Taiwan Navy)

2003-05-01

133

RISK MANAGEMENT MEASURES IN CMMI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risk management is a continuous process that could endanger the objectives of a project or application.Risks are handled to reduce and avoid threats effects on the objectives of the project. The sources of riskare both internal and external to the project. This research will identify general measures for the specificgoal and its specific practices of Risk Management Process Area (PA) in Capability Maturity ModelIntegration (CMMI). CMMI is developed by Software Engineering Institute (SEI) in Carnegie MellonUniversity in USA. CMMI is a framework for improvement and assessment of computer informationsystems. The method we used to define the measures is to apply the Goal Questions Metrics (GQM)paradigm to the specific goals and its specific practices of Risk Management Process Area in CMMI.

Mahmoud Khraiwesh

2012-01-01

134

Assuring containment in reactor accidents: recent advances concerning the mitigation of the hydrogen risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the different programs led in laboratories concerning the mitigation of the hydrogen risk in nuclear power plants. 3 aspects are considered: the generation of hydrogen during a reactor major accident, the distribution of this gas inside the reactor containment building and the different combustion modes of hydrogen. Studies show that it is difficult to prevent at any time and place the formation of a combustible mixture despite the presence of hydrogen recombiners. Studies have led to the setting of criteria concerning flame acceleration and detonation-explosion transitions, it has been shown that a mixture whose expansion parameter stays below a limit value can not lead to a flame acceleration over 400 m/s. (A.C.)

2004-01-01

135

Effect of Wind Intermittency on the Electric Grid: Mitigating the Risk of Energy Deficits  

CERN Multimedia

Successful implementation of California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) mandating 33 percent renewable energy generation by 2020 requires inclusion of a robust strategy to mitigate increased risk of energy deficits (blackouts) due to short time-scale (sub 1 hour) intermittencies in renewable energy sources. Of these RPS sources, wind energy has the fastest growth rate--over 25% year-over-year. If these growth trends continue, wind energy could make up 15 percent of California's energy portfolio by 2016 (wRPS15). However, the hour-to-hour variations in wind energy (speed) will create large hourly energy deficits that require installation of other, more predictable, compensation generation capacity and infrastructure. Compensating for the energy deficits of wRPS15 could potentially cost tens of billions in additional dollar-expenditure for fossil and / or nuclear generation capacity. There is a real possibility that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions will miss the California ...

George, Sam O; Nguyen, Scott V

2010-01-01

136

Design of an expert system for mitigating trace element toxicity in cancer risk management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cancer risk management involves obliterating excess concentration of cancer causing trace elements by the natural immune system and hence intake of nutritious diet is of paramount importance. Human diet should consist of essential macronutrients that have to be consumed in large quantities and trace elements are to be consumed in very little amount. As some of these trace elements are causative factors for various types of cancer and build up at the expense of macronutrients, cancer risk management of these trace elements should be based on their initial concentration in the blood of each individual and not on their tolerable upper intake level. We propose an information theory based Expert System (ES) for estimating the lowest limit of toxicity association between the trace elements and the macronutrients. Such an estimate would enable the physician to prescribe required medication containing the macronutrients to annul the toxicity of cancer risk trace elements. The lowest limit of toxicity association is achieved by minimizing the correlated information of the concentration correlation matrix using the concept of Mutual Information (MI) and an algorithm based on a Technique of Determinant Inequalities (TDI) developed by the authors. The novelty of our ES is that it provides the lowest limit of toxicity profile for all trace elements in the blood not restricted to a group of compounds having similar structure. We demonstrate the superiority our algorithm over Principal Component Analysis in mitigating trace element toxicity in blood samples.

Krishna Kumar PT; Vinod PT; Phoha VV; Iyengar SS; Iyengar P

2013-01-01

137

Design of an expert system for mitigating trace element toxicity in cancer risk management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer risk management involves obliterating excess concentration of cancer causing trace elements by the natural immune system and hence intake of nutritious diet is of paramount importance. Human diet should consist of essential macronutrients that have to be consumed in large quantities and trace elements are to be consumed in very little amount. As some of these trace elements are causative factors for various types of cancer and build up at the expense of macronutrients, cancer risk management of these trace elements should be based on their initial concentration in the blood of each individual and not on their tolerable upper intake level. We propose an information theory based Expert System (ES) for estimating the lowest limit of toxicity association between the trace elements and the macronutrients. Such an estimate would enable the physician to prescribe required medication containing the macronutrients to annul the toxicity of cancer risk trace elements. The lowest limit of toxicity association is achieved by minimizing the correlated information of the concentration correlation matrix using the concept of Mutual Information (MI) and an algorithm based on a Technique of Determinant Inequalities (TDI) developed by the authors. The novelty of our ES is that it provides the lowest limit of toxicity profile for all trace elements in the blood not restricted to a group of compounds having similar structure. We demonstrate the superiority our algorithm over Principal Component Analysis in mitigating trace element toxicity in blood samples. PMID:23439401

Krishna Kumar, P T; Vinod, P T; Phoha, Vir V; Iyengar, S S; Iyengar, Puneeth

2013-02-04

138

Examination of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies and drug safety in the US.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Food and Drug Administration Amendment Act of 2007 (FDAAA 2007) enabled the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to require risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) for a drug or biologic to ensure that its benefits outweigh the risks. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate REMS approved and released by the FDA since the program inception in 2008, to assess the characteristics of REMS approved and to calculate the time lag between FDA drug application approval and REMS approval. METHODS: Data were derived from Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, Approved REMS and Drugs@FDA. Data included generic availability, application type and approval date, therapeutic class and FDA review class, orphan designation, priority review and market status. RESULTS: The FDA approved REMS for 259 marketing applications (217 new drug applications -NDAs, 10 abbreviated NDAs, and 32 biologic license applications) in the study period. The FDA granted orphan designation to 11.4% of active ingredients with REMS and priority review to 38.4% of the NDAs with REMS. The largest number of REMS approvals was for nervous system products (31.8% of total approved REMS) and antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents (15.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The FDA approved REMS for one in three biologics and one in thirteen chemical entities available in the market. A pharmaceutical product can be in the market for an average of 14 years before the FDA identifies and evaluates the risk problems that warrant the approval of a REMS.

Rodriguez-Monguio R; Spielberger K; Seoane-Vazquez E

2013-04-01

139

Understanding and Mitigating Direct Investment Risk in the Indian Real Estate Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper seeks to extend the findings regarding factors that affect Canadian propensity to undertake direct investment abroad byexamining the perception of risk factors that may hinder direct investment in the Indian real estate market. This study utilized surveyresearch (a non-experimental field study design). 226 Canadian investors were surveyed and reported their perceptions of variousrisk factors regarding investing in the Indian real estate market. The findings suggest that perceptions of political and legal nature,corruption, confiscation, and economic risk can hinder investments and may lead to capital losses on investments in the Indian realestate market. We also found that investors’ foreign direct investment behavior does not differ based on their age and the level ofeducation. This paper discusses several techniques by which investors can mitigate foreign direct investment risk in India. It alsopoints out how real estate investors can implement these techniques and the challenges that they might face through thisimplementation process. Finally, some suggestions to overcome these challenges are provided.

Amarjit Gill

2010-01-01

140

Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the associated environmental risks are acceptable or not to the public.

Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Implications of Climate Change Impacts on Regional Maize Production in the United States: Risk Mitigation Strategies and Food Security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analyzing the impacts of climate change on regional maize production in the North Central and the South regions of the United States and proposing risk mitigation strategies have significant implications in the context of national and global food security. Unlike most estimation, we use an interdisciplinary approach and combine climatic variables along with economic inputs and technological improvement in the adapted Cobb-Douglas production function model. The production function is simulated through 2030 under a variety of climate change scenarios, and the results indicate that under the climate change South region tends to have opposite impacts relative to the North Central, the major maize production region in the United States. The results imply that one region’s losses can be partially offset by the other region’s gains. The different responses imply that the South region could provide potential risk mitigation to climate change within the United States and could help the nation and the world maintain maize supply stability. The results gained from this research could be used as cost-efficient climate change risk mitigation strategies for other agricultural commodities in other countries. They can also be used for public policies and advanced risk mitigation and diversification programs, and are expected to contribute to the sustainability of agriculture and the stability of international crop market price in the United States and the world.

Xiang Li; Nobuhiro Suzuki

2013-01-01

142

Debris Flow Risk mitigation by the means of flexible barriers. Experimental and field tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Debris flow risk mitigation using net barriers is an option that was not considered until few years ago, probably because of the lack of scientific evidences about their efficiency and solid guidelines for their design and construction. On site evidences (Segalini et al, 2008) showed that a rock fall deformable barrier can efficiently intercept the whole volume or just a portion of the mobilized debris without losing its stability and efficiency, actually performing a different task form that it was originally designed for. Although the final purpose of both types of barriers (rock fall and debris) is to reduce the impact energy of the moving mass by dissipating impact energy through the deformation of the net and of the dissipating elements, it is noteworthy that the physics of the impact is extremely different between the two phenomena. The rock fall barrier needs to dissipate the energy of a single block generally concentrated on the center of the net panel (design conditions). The debris flow barrier, generally installed inside a debris channel, should be able to dissipate the impact energy that the debris induces across the whole section of the channel. Moreover, the recurring characteristic of the debris flows will cause multiple impact on the barrier and therefore, the structure should be able to absorb a significant amount of energy even if partially filled and considerably deformed. In order to introduce useful guidelines for the design and production of debris flow net barriers, this paper describes: 1. Part of the results obtained from the laboratory experiment carried out in a scaled channel and aimed to estimate the most realistic thrust vs time relationship induced by a debris flow on a deformable and rigid structure; these results were partially presented last year at the EGU 2011; 2. A large scale field test carried out in a quarry located in Tambre d'Alpago (Belluno Province) on the Eastern Italian Dolomites for the analysis of the behavior of a real scale deformable net barrier subjected to recurring impacts of small volumes, substantially dry, debris flows until the complete filling up of the channel. Laboratory tests were carried out using a small scale channel (40 cm wide channel and 4 m long) designed and installed at University of Parma in which were triggered flows of water saturated sand impacting with different typologies of barriers installed in order to measure the impact force of the generated flow. The field test has been conducted by artificially mobilizing volumes of quarry debris along a 50 m long and 2 m wide channel at the end of which a real scale deformable net barrier was installed. The impacts were monitored using five high speed video cameras, the deformation progress of the barrier induced by the impacts was obtained using two high shutter speed cameras configured and synchronized for a stereoscopic restitution. Forces on the structural steel cables where measured by installing five load cells between the cable and its foundation. Results obtained are presented and compared with the relevant literature.

Canelli, L.; Ferrero, A. M.; Segalini, A.

2012-04-01

143

Some mitigative measures for protection of surface structures affected by ground subsidence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretical and analytical analyses of three mitigative measures- plane fitting method, trenching, and tension cable led to the development of a total protection plan to eliminate or reduce damages to the residential structures subjected to surface movements caused by underground longwall mining. The protection plan was applied to twelve residential houses and two external garages. The success rate is overwhelming. This paper describes the methods employed for protection and results of those case studies.

1992-01-01

144

Scientific Opinion on animal health risk mitigation treatments as regards imports of animal casings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salting with NaCl for 30 days is a well-established and accepted procedure in the casings industry and it has been the standard animal health risk mitigation treatment prescribed in EU legislation for many years. This opinion reviews (i) improvements in the NaCl treatment that would lead to an increased level of safety to avoid transmission of animal pathogens, (ii) alternative treatments that could have been developed giving equivalent or better results in the inactivation of relevant pathogens, and (iii) provides an assessment of the phosphate-salt treatment recommended by OIE for foot and mouth disease virus, in particular if it could be considered safe as regards the elimination of other animal pathogens. The rate of inactivation of viruses was highly dependent on temperature for both NaCl and phosphate-NaCl treatment. Treatment with phosphate-NaCl mixture leads to faster inactivation than treatment with NaCl salt alone. Brucella species are readily inactivated by NaCl salting, but mycobacteriamay survive beyond 30 days in intestines in conditions similar to those used for salting of casings. It is recommended that casings should be treated at 20 °C for 30 days to achieve effective inactivation of animal pathogens. Several other treatments have been applied to casings with the aim of inactivating infectious agents, but none of them have been extensively investigated with viruses relevant for animal health.

EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare

2012-01-01

145

Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies: assessment of a medical center's policies and procedures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The results of a hospital's initiative to evaluate and improve compliance with federally mandated risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) are presented. SUMMARY: Food and Drug Administration approved REMS plans are required for more than 145 drugs, but clear guidance on strategies for achieving REMS compliance is lacking. As a first step toward determining the extent of REMS compliance at a large medical center, a systematic assessment was conducted to ascertain existing policies and procedures for the use of drugs subject to REMS requirements applicable in the inpatient setting. About 123 drugs with such "inpatient-applicable" REMS requirements were identified; of those, 10 had been ordered by hospital providers during a specified 18-month time frame and were included in the assessment of policies and procedures. The assessment revealed that the hospital lacked a formal REMS policy and had no REMS-compliant procedures in place for 7 evaluated drugs (ambrisentan, buprenorphine-naloxone, darbepoetin alfa, epoetin alfa, oxycodone controlled-release tablets, prasugrel, and pregabalin). Pursuant to the compliance assessment, new procedures to help ensure the safe use of those 7 drugs were developed, and REMS-focused educational programs, order-entry system enhancements, and drug storage modifications were implemented. CONCLUSION: Quality-improvement initiatives including staff education, incorporation of REMS requirements into existing policy, development of an electronic resource, and creation of a separate storage section for drugs subject to REMS were implemented at a large academic medical center to help ensure compliance with inpatient-applicable REMS requirements.

Childs L; Alexander E; Duong MT

2012-05-01

146

Forced ventilation for sensing-based risk mitigation of leaking hydrogen in a partially open space  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study performs the numerical simulation of hydrogen dispersion in a partially open space with a single roof vent. The effects of various roof vent positions, leak positions, leak flow rates and exhaust flow rates on the forced ventilation of leaking hydrogen, are shown and discussed. Based on the results, a proper roof vent position and the disadvantage of ventilation with constant exhaust flow rates are established. To overcome the disadvantage, a new control strategy to change exhaust flow rates with the roof vent fixed at the proper position is proposed. First a plot is constructed to show acceptable exhaust flow rates to various inflow rates and leak positions. Assuming real-time sensing of hydrogen concentration and height-direction velocity, volume flow rates of leaking hydrogen are then estimated. Based on the estimated leak flow rates and hydrogen sensor information near the roof, control is conducted considering the plot of acceptable exhaust flow rates to various inflow rates and leak positions. The proposed method is validated against various leak positions, leak flow rates and leak modes. This paper proposes an innovative approach to sensing-based risk mitigation control of hydrogen dispersion and accumulation in a partially open space by forced ventilation. (author)

Matsuura, Kazuo [International Advanced Research and Education Organization, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramakiaza, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nakano, Masami; Ishimoto, Jun [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2010-05-15

147

Genetically Engineered Flax: Potential Benefits, Risks, Regulations, and Mitigation of Transgene Movement  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been grown for more than 6000 years, primarily for oil and fiber. Advances in plant biotechnology have resulted in flax cultivars with increased herbicides resistance and there is potential to produce transgenic flax with seed oil containing fatty acids with nutraceutical properties. Flax oil is a rich source of ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3(cis delta 9,12,15)), a precursor of the very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5(cis delta 5,8,11,14,17)), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6(cis delta 4,7,10,13,16,19)). Current research on medicinal applications of omega-3 fatty acids, especially to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer, suggests that genetic modification of flax may provide substantial health benefits. There are concerns, however, with the commercialization of genetically engineered (GE) flax (which includes the potential movement of transgenes by pollen and seed, and subsequent introgression with weedy and wild relatives, impact on non-target organisms, and changes in biodiversity). A prerequisite to the unconfined cultivation of transgenic flax is an environmental risk assessment analysis. In this paper, we discuss the history and current status of genetic transformations in flax, potential benefits and consequences of GE flax, and the government regulatory framework in Canada for regulating novel flax. Finally, we discuss the best management practices to mitigate transgene movement from transgenic flax. Our intent was to evaluate biology and agronomy to predict the environmental biosafety of GE flax before commercial cultivation.

Jhala AmitJ; Weselake RandallJ; Hall LindaM

2009-11-01

148

Harmonic Generation and Mitigation by Full-Scale Converter Wind Turbines: : Measurements and Simulations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper shows that wind turbine harmonic generation and mitigation assessment are complex tasks, and many aspects, such as measurements, data processing, modelling and validation, must be taken into consideration. The paper describes the measurement process and shows sophisticated analyses on representative harmonic measurements of the wind turbine generators at Avedøre Holme. The nature of generation and mitigation of harmonic components in the wind turbine generators are clearly presented and explained. The mechanism of harmonic generation, some dynamic behaviour aspects and interaction with the external network are considered. Measurement, data processing and simulation results are presented and compared. Different analysis methods, such as statistical analysis, harmonic calculation, and mathematical description are applied and described in detail. Some issues regarding commonly applied standards are also put forward in the paper. Based on measurements and simulations, it is shown that a general overview of the behaviour of a wind turbine generator cannot be fully observed only based on harmonic current analyses as suggested in the standards.

Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper

2011-01-01

149

Developing a scientific procedure for community based hazard mapping and risk mitigation  

Science.gov (United States)

As an international exchange student from the Geological Sciences Department at San Diego State University (SDSU), I joined the KKN-PPM program at Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in July 2011 for 12 days (July 4th to July 16th) of its two month duration (July 4th to August 25th). The KKN-PPM group I was attached was designated 154 and was focused in Plosorejo Village, Karanganyar, Kerjo, Central Java, Indonesia. The mission of KKN-PPM 154 was to survey Plosorejo village for existing landslides, to generate a simple hazard susceptibility map that can be understood by local villagers, and then to begin dissemination of that map into the community. To generate our susceptibility map we first conducted a geological survey of the existing landslides in the field study area, with a focus on determining landslide triggers and gauging areas for susceptibility for future landslides. The methods for gauging susceptibility included lithological observation, the presence of linear cracking, visible loss of structural integrity in structures such as villager homes, as well as collaboration with local residents and with the local rescue and response team. There were three color distinctions used in representing susceptibility which were green, where there is no immediate danger of landslide damage; orange, where transportation routes are at risk of being disrupted by landslides; and red, where imminent landslide potential puts a home in direct danger. The landslide inventory and susceptibility data was compiled into digital mediums such as CorelDraw, ArcGIS and Google Earth. Once a technical map was generated, we presented it to the village leadership for confirmation and modification based on their experience. Finally, we began to use the technical susceptibility map to draft evacuation routes and meeting points in the event of landslides, as well as simple susceptibility maps that can be understood and utilized by local villagers. Landslide mitigation projects that are being conducted alongside the community hazard map include marking evacuation routes with painted bamboo signs, creating a meaningful landslide awareness mural, and installing simple early warning systems that detect land movement and alert residents that evacuation routes should be used. KKN-PPM is scheduled to continue until August 25th, 2011. In the future, research will be done into using the model for community based hazard mapping outlined here in the Geological Sciences Department at SDSU to increase georisk awareness and improve mitigation of landslides in local areas of need such as Tijuana, Mexico.

Verrier, M.

2011-12-01

150

Engineering aspects of earthquake risk mitigation: Lessons from management of recent earthquakes, and consequential mudflows and landslides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Proceedings contain 30 selected presentations given at the Second and Third UNDRO/USSR Training Seminars: Engineering Aspects of Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Losses, held in Dushanbe, October 1988; and Lessons from Management of Recent Earthquakes, and Consequential Mudflows and Landslides, held in Moscow, October 1989. The annexes to the document provide information on the participants, the work programme and the resolution adopted at each of the seminars. Refs, figs and tabs

1992-01-01

151

FIELD NOTES: PEOPLE, PROGRAMS, & POLICIES Farmers' Market Produce Delivery Program for Mitigating Nutritional Risk in Older Adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-dwelling older adults in disadvantaged neighborhoods may face nutritional risks not mitigated by existing programs. The Senior Market Basket Program, administered by nonprofit organization P.E.E.R., Inc., is a unique approach to serving community-dwelling senior adults and a valuable model for integrating targeted social services into local food systems. The program ensures access to fresh produce during the growing season for a defined target population.

Dover SE; Buys DR; Allocca S; Locher JL

2013-01-01

152

Beam Coupling Impedance Measurement and Mitigation for a TOTEM Roman Pot  

CERN Multimedia

The longitudinal and transverse beam coupling impedance of the first final TOTEM Roman Pot unit has been measured in the laboratory with the wire method. For the evaluation of transverse impedance the wire position has been kept constant, and the insertions of the RP were moved asymmetrically. With the original configuration of the RP, resonances with fairly high Q values were observed. In order to mitigate this problem, RF-absorbing ferrite plates were mounted in appropriate locations. As a result, all resonances were sufficiently damped to meet the stringent LHC beam coupling impedance requirements.

Deile, M; Kroyer, T; Oriunno, M; Radermacher, E; Roncarolo, F; Soter, A

2008-01-01

153

Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Devices, Potential Navigational Hazards and Mitigation Measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies. A technical report addressing our findings is available on this Science and Technology Information site under the Product Title, "Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures". This product is a brochure, primarily for project developers, that summarizes important issues in that more comprehensive report, identifies locations where that report can be downloaded, and identifies points of contact for more information.

Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

2009-12-01

154

Physical Vulnerability Assessment Based on Fluid and Classical Mechanics to Support Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flood Risk Mitigation Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impacts of flood events that occurred in autumn 2011 in the Italian regions of Liguria and Tuscany revived the engagement of the public decision-maker to enhance the synergy of flood control and land use planning. In this context, the design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation critically relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the fixed and mobile elements exposed to flood hazard. In this paper we develop computation schemes enabling dynamic vulnerability and risk analyses for a broad typological variety of elements at risk. To show their applicability, a series of prime examples are discussed in detail, e.g. a bridge deck impacted by the flood and a car, first displaced and subsequently exposed to collision with fixed objects. We hold the view that it is essential that the derivation of the computational schemes to assess the vulnerability of endangered objects should be based on classical and fluid mechanics. In such a way, we aim to complement from a methodological perspective the existing, mainly empirical, vulnerability and risk assessment approaches and to support the design of effective flood risk mitigation strategies by defusing the main criticalities within the systems prone to flood risk.

Bruno Mazzorana; Laura Levaggi; Omar Formaggioni; Claudio Volcan

2012-01-01

155

Rockfall hazard assessment, risk quantification, and mitigation options for reef cove resort development, False Cape, Queensland, Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

GIS and 2-D rock fall simulations were used as the primary tools during a rock fall hazard assessment and analyses for a major resort and township development near Cairns, Queensland in Australia. The methods used included 1) the development of a digital elevation model (DEM); undertaking rock fall trajectory analyses to determine the end points of rockfalls, the distribution of kinetic energy for identified rock fall runout Zones, and 3) undertaking event tree analyses based on a synthesis of all data in order to establish Zones with the highest risk of fatalities. This paper describes the methodology used and the results of this work. Recommendations to mitigate the hazard included having exclusions zones with no construction, scaling (including trim blasting), construction of berms and rockfall catch fences. Keywords: GIS, rockfall simulation, rockfall runout Zones, mitigation options INTRODUCTION False Cape is located on the east side of the Trinity inlet near Cairns (Figure 1). Construction is underway for a multi-million dollar development close the beach front. The development will ultimately cover about 1.5 km of prime coast line. The granite slopes above the development are steep and are covered with a number of large, potentially unstable boulders. Sheet jointing is present in the in-situ bedrock and these combined with other tectonic joint sets have provided a key mechanism for large side down slope on exposed bedrock. With each rock fall (evidence by boulders strew in gullies, over the lower parts of the slope, and on the beach) the failure mechanism migrates upslope. In order for the Developer to proceed with construction he needs to mitigate the identified rock fall hazard. The method used to study the hazard and key finding are presented in this paper. Discussion is provided in the conclusion on mitigation options. KEY METHODS USED TO STUDY THE HAZARD In summary the methods used to study the hazard for the False Cape project include; 1. The development of a digital elevation model (DEM) used to delineate rock fall runout Zones [1] that included the spatial location of boulder fields mapped within Zones(Figure 2). A Zone is defined as an area above the development on steep sided slopes where falling rocks are channeled into gullies / and or are contained between topographic features such as ridges and spurs that extend down the mountainside. These natural barriers generally ensure that falling rocks do not fall or roll into adjacent Zones; 2. The use of ‘Flow Path Tracing Tool' in Arc GIS spatial analyst to confirm typical descents of boulders in Zones. These were shown to correlated strongly with the endpoints of boulders observed within the development and major clusters of boulders on the beach front; 3. The use of 2-D rockfall trajectory analyses [2] using sections cut along typical 3-D trajectory paths mapped out in ARC GIS per Zone. Sections along typical paths in Zones simulated, to some degree, the 3-D affect or path of rocks as they bounce roll down slope (Figure 3); 4. The calibration of rockfall input parameters (coefficients of normal and tangential restitution, slope roughness, friction angle, etc.) using field identified endpoints and size of fallen rock and boulder; and 5. Undertaking risk evolutions in order to quantify the potential risk for each independent rockfall Zone. KEY FINDINGS FROM THE STUDIES The key findings from the study include; 1. Multiple potentially unstable in-situ boulders (some in excess of several thousand tonnes) are present above the development. 2. Similar geological structures (dykes, jointing, etc.) are present in the boulders on the beach front and within the development exposed in-situ bedrock located above the development. Measurement and comparison of the orientation of these geological structures present in boulders with that observed in the in-situ bedrock provided strong evidence that that the boulders have mitigated down slope. 3. Eight discrete Rockfall Runout Zones were identified using the digital elevation model set up in ARC GIS (Figure 4). The bound

Schlotfeldt, P.

2009-04-01

156

Engineering aspects of earthquake risk mitigation: Lessons from management of recent earthquakes, and consequential mudflows and landslides. Proceedings of the UNDRO/USSR/UNDP training seminars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Proceedings contain 30 selected presentations given at the Second and Third UNDRO/USSR Training Seminars: Engineering Aspects of Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Losses, held in Dushanbe, October 1988; and Lessons from Management of Recent...

1992-01-01

157

Coherent Risk Measures in Inventory Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze an extension of the classical multi-period, single-item, linear cost inventory problem where the objective function is a coherent risk measure. Properties of coherent risk measures allow us to offer a unifying treatment of risk averse and min-max type formulations. For the single period n...

Ahmed, Shabbir; Cakmak, Ulas; Shapiro, Alexander

158

Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies, as summarized herein. The contract also required cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and two recipients of awards (Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision) in a sub-topic area to develop a protocol to identify streamlined, best-siting practices. Over the period of this contract, PCCI and our sub-consultants, David Basco, Ph.D., and Neil Rondorf of Science Applications International Corporation, met with USCG headquarters personnel, with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers headquarters and regional personnel, with U.S. Navy regional personnel and other ocean users in order to develop an understanding of existing practices for the identification of navigational impacts that might occur during construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. At these same meetings, “standard” and potential mitigation measures were discussed so that guidance could be prepared for project developers. Concurrently, PCCI reviewed navigation guidance published by the USCG and international community. This report summarizes the results of this effort, provides guidance in the form of a checklist for assessing the navigational impacts of potential marine and hydrokinetic projects, and provides guidance for improving the existing navigational guidance promulgated by the USCG in Navigation Vessel Inspection Circular 02 07. At the request of the USCG, our checklist and mitigation guidance was written in a generic nature so that it could be equally applied to offshore wind projects. PCCI teleconferenced on a monthly basis with DOE, Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision in order to share information and review work products. Although the focus of our effort was on marine and hydrokinetic technologies, as defined above, this effort drew upon earlier work by the USCG on offshore wind renewable energy installations. The guidance provided herein can be applied equally to marine and hydrokinetic technologies and to offshore wind, which are collectively referred to by the USCG as Renewable Energy Installations.

Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

2009-12-10

159

Calibration and Multipath Mitigation for Increased Accuracy of Time-of-Flight Camera Measurements in Robotic Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation entitled "Calibration and Multipath Mitigation for Increased Ac- curacy of Time-of-Flight Camera Measurements in Robotic Applications" discusses the systematic measurement errors of a Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera and introduces two approaches to compensate for these errors. ToF came...

Fuchs, Stefan

160

Induction motor voltage flicker analysis and its mitigation measures using custom power devices: A case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper suggests methods for estimating short time flicker (PST) severity on 22/3.3 kV network supplying induction motor loads of municipal integrated water pumping system. The impact of additional connection of induction motors to the same system has been analyzed. Measurements are done at the point of common coupling (PCC) to identify background short time flicker levels and the contribution of the already operating induction motors. The paper also analyses and compares different voltage flicker mitigation methodologies to assess their performance with change in line impedance phase angle for this particular application. Here, Matlab-7.01/PSB is used to present the detailed results of all voltage flickers compensating methodologies and to assess the impact of line impedance X/R sweep on effectiveness of custom power devices. It is observed that distribution static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM) is found more effective for compensating voltage flicker generated by the induction motor load.

SANJAY. A. DEOKAR,; Dr. L. M. WAGHMARE

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Radon mitigation in private dwellings. Summary of measures under the National Action Plan against Cancer in Norway 1999-2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report summarizes the remedial measurements carried out under the National Action Plan against Cancer in Norway in the period 1999-2003.The cost effectiveness of the state subsidized remedial measures against radon is evaluated. Other measurements under the National Action Plan against Cancer have also been evaluated, such as measurements of radon in 38.000 dwellings in 158 municipalities, information measures, and actions to increase radon mitigation competence in the building construction industry and in the municipalities. (Author)

162

Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other e nd states); risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities; comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs; ranking of programs or activities by risk; ranking of wastes/materials by risk; evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress; and integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

2002-01-01

163

Measurement requirements for a near-Earth asteroid impact mitigation demonstration mission  

CERN Multimedia

A concept for an Impact Mitigation Preparation Mission, called Don Quijote, is to send two spacecraft to a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA): an Orbiter and an Impactor. The Impactor collides with the asteroid while the Orbiter measures the resulting change in the asteroid's orbit, by means of a Radio Science Experiment (RSE) carried out before and after impact. Three parallel Phase A studies on Don Quijote were carried out for the European Space Agency: the research presented here reflects outcomes of the study by QinetiQ. We discuss the mission objectives with regards to the prioritisation of payload instruments, with emphasis on the interpretation of the impact. The Radio Science Experiment is described and it is examined how solar radiation pressure may increase the uncertainty in measuring the orbit of the target asteroid. It is determined that to measure the change in orbit accurately a thermal IR spectrometer is mandatory, to measure the Yarkovsky effect. The advantages of having a laser altimeter are discusse...

Wolters, Stephen D; Wells, Nigel; Saunders, Christopher; McBride, Neil

2011-01-01

164

Measurement requirements for a Near-Earth Asteroid impact mitigation demonstration mission  

Science.gov (United States)

A concept for an Impact Mitigation Preparation Mission, called Don Quijote, is to send two spacecrafts to a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA): an Orbiter and an Impactor. The Impactor collides with the asteroid while the Orbiter measures the resulting change in the asteroid's orbit, by means of a Radio Science Experiment (RSE) carried out before and after the impact. Three parallel Phase A studies on Don Quijote were carried out for the European Space Agency: the research presented here reflects the outcomes of the study by QinetiQ. We discuss the mission objectives with regard to the prioritisation of payload instruments, with emphasis on the interpretation of the impact. The Radio Science Experiment is described and it is examined how solar radiation pressure may increase the uncertainty in measuring the orbit of the target asteroid. It is determined that to measure the change in orbit accurately a thermal IR spectrometer is mandatory, to measure the Yarkovsky effect. The advantages of having a laser altimeter are discussed. The advantages of a dedicated wide-angle impact camera are discussed and the field-of-view is initially sized through a simple model of the impact.

Wolters, Stephen D.; Ball, Andrew J.; Wells, Nigel; Saunders, Christopher; McBride, Neil

2011-10-01

165

Mitigation of the Impact of Terrestrial Contamination on Organic Measurements from the Mars Science Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), which is planned to follow the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Phoenix lander to the surface of Mars, is to explore and assess quantitatively a site on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life. Specific goals include an assessment of the past or present biological potential of the target environment and a characterization of its geology and geochemistry. Included in the 10 investigations of the MSL rover is the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, which is designed to obtain trace organic measurements, measure water and other volatiles, and measure several light isotopes with experiment sequences designed for both atmospheric and solid-phase samples. SAM integrates a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer supported by sample manipulation tools both within and external to the suite. The sub part-per-billion sensitivity of the suite for trace species, particularly organic molecules, along with a mobile platform that will contain many kilograms of organic materials, presents a considerable challenge due to the potential for terrestrial contamination to mask the signal of martian organics. We describe the effort presently underway to understand and mitigate, wherever possible within the resource constraints of the mission, terrestrial contamination in MSL and SAM measurements.

ten Kate, Inge L.; Canham, John S.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Errigo, Therese; Katz, Ira; Mahaffy, Paul R.

2008-06-01

166

Mitigation of the impact of terrestrial contamination on organic measurements from the Mars Science Laboratory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), which is planned to follow the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Phoenix lander to the surface of Mars, is to explore and assess quantitatively a site on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life. Specific goals include an assessment of the past or present biological potential of the target environment and a characterization of its geology and geochemistry. Included in the 10 investigations of the MSL rover is the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, which is designed to obtain trace organic measurements, measure water and other volatiles, and measure several light isotopes with experiment sequences designed for both atmospheric and solid-phase samples. SAM integrates a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer supported by sample manipulation tools both within and external to the suite. The sub-part-per-billion sensitivity of the suite for trace species, particularly organic molecules, along with a mobile platform that will contain many kilograms of organic materials, presents a considerable challenge due to the potential for terrestrial contamination to mask the signal of martian organics. We describe the effort presently underway to understand and mitigate, wherever possible within the resource constraints of the mission, terrestrial contamination in MSL and SAM measurements.

ten Kate IL; Canham JS; Conrad PG; Errigo T; Katz I; Mahaffy PR

2008-06-01

167

New Risk Measure and Idiosyncratic Risk in Taiwan Stock Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under the model developed by Merton (1987), the idiosyncratic risk would be important to explain the expected stock return. We follow the approach of Daniel and Titman (1998), and use the risk measure developed by Jan and Wang (2012) to examine whether idiosyncratic risk can play an important role in explaining the expected return in Taiwan stock market. We find that beta can’t explain the expected return, and that idiosyncratic risk has a positive relation to expected returns for stocks with smaller beta portfolio. We also explore a weak evidence of the positive relationship between idiosyncratic risk and expected return for size-sorted portfolio.

Yin-Ching Jan; Su-Ling Chiu; Jerry M. C. Wang

2013-01-01

168

From Smile Asymptotics to Market Risk Measures  

CERN Document Server

The left tail of the implied volatility skew, coming from quotes on out-of-the-money put options, can be thought to reflect the market's assessment of the risk of a huge drop in stock prices. We analyze how this market information can be integrated into the theoretical framework of convex monetary measures of risk. In particular, we make use of indifference pricing by dynamic convex risk measures, which are given as solutions of backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs), to establish a link between these two approaches to risk measurement. We derive a characterization of the implied volatility in terms of the solution of a nonlinear PDE and provide a small time-to-maturity expansion and numerical solutions. This procedure allows to choose convex risk measures in a conveniently parametrized class, distorted entropic dynamic risk measures, which we introduce here, such that the asymptotic volatility skew under indifference pricing can be matched with the market skew.

Sircar, Ronnie

2011-01-01

169

Modern Portfolio Theory with Homogeneous Risk Measures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Modern Portfolio Theory for investments by Harry Markowitz isusually associated with mean-variance return-risk analysis. Nevertheless,even Markowitz himself suggested the use of semi-variance insteadof variance since the variance has the obvious weakness topenalize potentials for high gains to the same degree as potentials forhigh losses. Variance and standard deviation were preferred as riskmeasures mainly for their computational advantages. This reason becamemore and more obsolete over the years through the ever growingcomputer power now available to everyone. Management attentionturned to other risk measures, in particular to VaR (Value-at-Risk) andits relatives.This development motivates a revision of Modern Portfolio Theory. Weexamine which consequences of assuming variance or standard deviationas risk measure remain true when switching to other measures.It turns out that two-funds separation is linked to homogeneity of therisk measure. Therefore CAPMs (Capital Asset Pricing Models) canbe derived for differentiable, homogeneous risk measures. Concavityof the risk-return efficient frontier requires convexity of the underlyingrisk measure. Moreover, in case of an homogeneous and convex riskmeasure, there is a unique CAPM market portfolio.These observations point out once more the importance of homogeneityand convexity properties for risk measures. In this sense,CVaR (Conditional Value-at-Risk) is an optimal representative for thefamily of VaR-related risk measures.

Dirk Tasche

170

Risk evaluation of the alternate-3A modification to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR-4, Mark-II power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose of this paper is to present a risk evaluation of the ATWS Alternate 3A modification (ATWS-3A) proposed by NRC staff in NUREG-0460 to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR nuclear power plant. The evaluation is done relative to three risk indices: the frequency of core damage, the expected early fatalities, and the expected latent fatalities.

Papazoglou, I.A.; Karol, R.; Shiu, K.; Bari, R.A.

1983-01-01

171

Risk evaluation of the alternate-3A modification to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR-4, MARK-II power plant: Chapter 17  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to present a risk evaluation of the ATWS Alternate 3A modification (ATWS-3A) proposed by NRC staff in NUREG-0460 to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR nuclear power plant. The evaluation is done relative to three risk indices: the frequency of core damage, the expected early fatalities, and the expected latent fatalities

1983-09-01

172

Risk Evaluation of the Alternate-3A Modification to the ATWS (Anticipated Transient Without Scram). Prevention/Mitigation System in a BWR-4, Mark-II Power Plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose of this paper is to present a risk evaluation of the ATWS Alternate 3A modification (ATWS-3A) proposed by NRC staff in NUREG-0460 to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR nuclear power plant. The evaluation is done relative to three risk ...

I. A. Papazoglou R. Karol K. Shiu R. A. Bari

1983-01-01

173

Downgrading Complexity in the Exxon Valdez Crisis: Using Information as a Risk Mitigation Tool in Complex Adaptive Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  In a high-stakes crisis environment, trial and error can be too costly an approach. The Exxon Valdez oil spill provides an example of how complex adaptive systems can have simple, preventable problems and complex, unpredictable problems can come together with disastrous consequences. Not every possible contingency can be accounted for. However, research and experience can be applied to mitigate these types of risks by using information to reduce or "downgrade" the complexity of the contributing situations. The Cynefin contexts of complexity can be used to assess problems when they arise. Downgrading the level of complexity for a given problem can turn formerly complex or complicated situations into simple ones that require less knowledge and resources to resolve and can reduce the risk of failure. The possibility and consequences of failure may remain, but downgraded complexity can reduce the likelihood of this failure and make problems more manageable when they do occur.

Eric Snow

2010-01-01

174

Measuring social risk and determining its acceptability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implementation of a nuclear waste management technology raises several issues concerning the regulation of social risk. This paper presents a decision analytic approach to resolving some of those issues. A methodology for developing a radiological risk measure is presented, and several approaches to defining acceptable levels of that risk measure are considered. The methodology presented is oriented toward the development of radiological performance objectives for use as guidance in the drafting of regulations.

1978-05-04

175

Conditional and dynamic convex risk measures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We extend the definition of a convex risk measure to a conditional framework where additional information is available. We characterize these risk measures through the associated acceptance sets and prove a representation result in terms of conditional expectations. As an example we consider the cla...

Detlefsen, Kai; Scandolo, Giacomo

176

Conditional and dynamic convex risk measures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We extend the definition of a convex risk measure to a conditional framework where additional information is available. We characterize these risk measures through the associated acceptance sets and prove a representation result in terms of conditional expectations. As an example we consider the cl...

Detlefsen, Kai; Scandolo, Giacomo

177

Portfolio Optimization with Spectral Measures of Risk  

CERN Document Server

We study Spectral Measures of Risk from the perspective of portfolio optimization. We derive exact results which extend to general Spectral Measures M_phi the Pflug--Rockafellar--Uryasev methodology for the minimization of alpha--Expected Shortfall. The minimization problem of a spectral measure is shown to be equivalent to the minimization of a suitable function which contains additional parameters, but displays analytical properties (piecewise linearity and convexity in all arguments, absence of sorting subroutines) which allow for efficient minimization procedures. In doing so we also reveal a new picture where the classical risk--reward problem a la Markowitz (minimizing risks with constrained returns or maximizing returns with constrained risks) is shown to coincide to the unconstrained optimization of a single suitable spectral measure. In other words, minimizing a spectral measure turns out to be already an optimization process itself, where risk minimization and returns maximization cannot be disentan...

Carlo, A; Carlo, Acerbi; Prospero, Simonetti

2002-01-01

178

Analysis of hydrogen risk mitigation with passive autocatalytic recombiner system in CPR1000 NPP during a hypothetical station blackout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We analyze the hydrogen risk in CPR1000 during station blackout with GASFLOW code. ? Hydrogen detonation likely occurs during the accident. ? Application of PAR system could eliminate the hydrogen risk. ? The condensation model with McAdams correlation performs better in validation work. ? It predicts the hydrogen risk conservatively in some compartments. - Abstract: Hydrogen safety has attracted extensive concern in severe accident analysis especially after the Fukushima accident. In this study, a similar station blackout as happened in Fukushima accident is simulated for CPR1000 nuclear power plant (NPP) model, with the computational fluid dynamic code GASFLOW. The hydrogen risk is analyzed with the assessment of efficiency of passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) system. The numerical results show that the CPR1000 containment may be damaged by global flame acceleration (FA) and local detonation caused by hydrogen combustion if no hydrogen mitigation system (HMS) is applied. A new condensation model is developed and validated in this study for the consideration of natural circulation flow pattern and presence of non-condensable gases. The new condensation model is more conservative in hydrogen risk evaluation than the current model in some compartments, giving earlier starting time of deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). The results also indicate that the PAR system installed in CPR1000 could prevent the occurrence of the FA and DDT. Therefore, HMS such as PAR system is suggested to be applied in NPPs to avoid the radioactive leak caused by containment failure.

2011-01-01

179

The Measuring Method of Risk with Energy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since Harry. M. Markowitz published ‘portfolio Selection’ (1952), financial economists have proposed many methods to measure risk such as variant, downside-variant, averageabsolute deviation, maximum deviation, VaR and so on. However, these methods share a common limitation, which only consider moment of the price, not consider the influence of exchange quantity. In common situation, these methods and their financial theory models can help investors prevent and scatter the risks effectively, but they are no effective toprevent the financial crisis such as Southeast Asia financial in1997 and LTCM crisis in 1998. In this paper, a new method of measuring risk called energy-risk has been proposed. The aim to this method is to respond the usual risk as well as the risk caused by unexpected event and to prevent the risks under any circumstances effectively.

Xinshu Tu; Xin Lin

2009-01-01

180

Effects of Using Compost as a Preventive Measure to Mitigate Shoulder Cracking: Laboratory and Field Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compost materials, given their moisture affinity, fibrous and low permeability characteristics, could provide stabilization of natural expansive subgrades by mitigating shrinkage cracking. In order to understand possible mechanisms of this stabilization, ...

A. J. Puppala N. Intharasombat S. Qasim

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

The asteroid and comet impact hazard: risk assessment and mitigation options.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of extraterrestrial matter onto Earth is a continuous process. On average, some 50,000 tons of dust are delivered to our planet every year. While objects smaller than about 30 m mainly disintegrate in the Earth's atmosphere, larger ones can penetrate through it and cause damage on the ground. When an object of hundreds of meters in diameter impacts an ocean, a tsunami is created that can devastate coastal cities. Further, if a km-sized object hit the Earth it would cause a global catastrophe due to the transport of enormous amounts of dust and vapour into the atmosphere resulting in a change in the Earth's climate. This article gives an overview of the near-Earth asteroid and comet (near-Earth object-NEO) impact hazard and the NEO search programmes which are gathering important data on these objects. It also points out options for impact hazard mitigation by using deflection systems. It further discusses the critical constraints for NEO deflection strategies and systems as well as mitigation and evacuation costs and benefits. Recommendations are given for future activities to solve the NEO impact hazard problem.

Gritzner C; Dürfeld K; Kasper J; Fasoulas S

2006-08-01

182

Numerical investigation of mitigation measures of longwall mining impacts on groundwater resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Longwall mining potentially induces large strains in the overlying strata that in turn may result in a strongly heterogeneous and anisotropic hydraulic conductivity field. Effects of this complex hydromechanical coupling process may cause temporary or even permanent loss of groundwater resources due to drainage into the mine. A methodology is developed to define the impact of longwall mining on groundwater resources through evaluating changes in post-mining hydraulic conductivity field as a result of mining-induced strains. Relationships linking changes in hydraulic conductivity and mining-induced strain are defined through the assumption of an equivalent porous medium. A nonlinear finite element hydromechanical model, developed based on this methodology, is used to investigate the potential benefit of mitigation measures, including backstowing and shortwall mining. Numerical results indicate that longwall mining with backstowing may reduce the hydraulic conductivity by one to two orders of magnitude than longwall mining without backstowing, and that shortwall mining may actually increase the hydraulic conductivity by one to two orders of magnitude over conventional-width longwall mining. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Liu, J.; Elsworth, D.; Brady, B.H. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Mining, Minerals and Materials Engineering

1997-12-31

183

Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a basin scale and through naturalistic techniques: not only are they technically attainable, even in hardship areas (by maximizing the contribution of the local labor force and minimizing the use of mechanical equipment), but they are also economically sustainable.

Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

2009-04-01

184

Calculating risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The means of making quantitative risk assessments (QRA), using computer software, for processes involving the production and processing of petrochemicals is discussed. The article discusses: (a) the reasons for performing risk assessment; (b) how software is so useful in risk assessment -some software packages are mentioned; (c) QRA methods for onshore risk; (d) measures of risk -especially societal and individual risk; (e) risk criteria; (f) mitigation measures and the ALARP (As Low as Reasonably Possible) and (g) a case study of QRA at the Kuwait National Petroleum Company. Diagrams outline (i) the classic risk analysis method; (ii) ALARP framework for risk acceptability criteria; (iii) typical criteria for acceptable societal risk; (iv) risk contours for KNPC refineries and (v) risk contours with mitigation measures. The article extols the value of DNV risk management software.

Cavanagh, N. [DNV Risk Management Software (United Kingdom)

2001-06-01

185

Assessment and mitigation processes for disease risks associated with wildlife management and conservation interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the disease risk assessment procedure that is adopted for wildlife and conservation interventions controlled by wildlife legislation in England. A simple risk algorithm was developed that is used to identify and prioritise the procedures of most concern. The process provides a system that is intended to be practicable to implement, proportionate to the associated risks, and ensures that costs are not escalated so that the activity becomes unviable.

Hartley M; Gill E

2010-04-01

186

Assessment and mitigation processes for disease risks associated with wildlife management and conservation interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the disease risk assessment procedure that is adopted for wildlife and conservation interventions controlled by wildlife legislation in England. A simple risk algorithm was developed that is used to identify and prioritise the procedures of most concern. The process provides a system that is intended to be practicable to implement, proportionate to the associated risks, and ensures that costs are not escalated so that the activity becomes unviable. PMID:20400739

Hartley, M; Gill, E

2010-04-17

187

Mitigation of Insider Risks using Distributed Agent Detection, Filtering, and Signaling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An insider-robust approach to file integrity verification is developed using interacting strata of mobile agents. Previous approaches relied upon monolithic architectures, or more recently, agent frameworks using a centralized control mechanism or common reporting repository. However, any such distinct tampering-point introduces vulnerabilities, especially from knowledgeable insiders capable of abusing security-critical resources. In the Collaborative Object Notification Framework for Insider Defense using Autonomous Network Transactions (CONFIDANT), the mechanisms for tampering detection, decision-making, and alert signaling are distributed and corroborated by autonomous agents. In this paper, the CONFIDANT file integrity verification framework is presented focusing on insider defense aspects. User capability classes are defined and critical physical tampering points in intrusion detection architectures are identified. CONFIDANT mitigation techniques of insider tampering exposures and example scenarios are presented.

Adam J. Rocke; Ronald F. DeMara

2006-01-01

188

Measuring Risk Aversion and the Wealth Effect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Measuring risk aversion is sensitive to assumptions about the wealth in subjects’ utility functions. Data from the same subjects in low- and high-stake lottery decisions allow estimating the wealth in a pre-specified one-parameter utility function simultaneously with risk aversion. This paper first ...

Heinemann, Frank

189

Risk and mitigation in the privately financed hydropower project Birecik, Turkey; Privat finanzierte Wasserkraft, Birecik, Tuerkei - Risiken und Risikoverteilung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 627 MW Hydroelectric Power Plant Birecik, Turkey, is the largest privately financed hydropower project realized wordwide under a BOT (Build Operate Transfer) scheme. The total investment volume adds up to almost 1 Bll Euro. Ther financial structure of the project mostly relies on export credits, which have been arranged under an international consortium of 50 banks. A complex contractual structure between the government, the investors and the contractors succeeded in establishing a fair risk mitigation mechanism, which was a central factor for the overall success of the project. [German] Das 672 MW Wasserkraftwerk Birecik, Tuerkei, ist mit einem Investitionsvolumen von rund Euro 1 Mrd. das bisher weltweit groesste Wasserkraftprojekt, das nach dem BOT-Modell realisiert wurde. Die auf Exportkredite basierende Finanzierung wurde ueber ein internationales Konsortium von 50 Banken dargestellt. Eine komplexe Vertragsstruktur zwischen dem Staat, den Investoren und den Auftragsnehmern fuehrte zu einem ausgeglichenen Risikoverteilungsmechanismus, der ausschlaggebend fuer den Erfolg des Projektes war. (orig.)

Koselleck, F.; Ishay, D. [PH Ventures GmbH, Neu-Isenburg (Germany)

2003-07-01

190

Registries Help Moms Measure Medication Risks  

Science.gov (United States)

... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Registries Help Moms Measure Medication Risks Search the Consumer Updates Section Printer-friendly ... or epilepsy, pregnant women must often take prescription medication—usually while worrying about the potential impact on ...

191

Measuring Idiosyncratic Risk : Implications for Capital Flows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper offers two refinements of the traditional risk measure based on the volatility of growth. First, we condition GDP growth on structural characteristics of the host country that move only slowly and therefore can be partly predicted by an investor. Second, we adjust conditional risk for the systematic components due to the global and regional interdependence between alternative investment locations. The decomposition of conditional risk into its systematic and idiosyncratic components reveals that not only are African countries on average characterised by a larger conditional risk than Asian and Latin American countries, but the idiosyncratic risk factor also represents a larger share than in other developing countries. As a final contribution, we search the empirical literature on foreign direct investment and risk in order to determine which of the suggested risk measures provide the best description of idiosyncratic risk. Using a general-to-specific methodology, we find that both economic and political risk factors are important elements in the investment decision. We also find that commercial

Sunesen, Eva Rytter

2006-01-01

192

Predictability of repeated carnivore attacks on livestock favours reactive use of mitigation measures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Predation on livestock is one of the main reasons for low tolerance against large carnivores in many parts of the world. Measures to reduce the conflicts have been developed, but resources for using them are often scarce. If wildlife managers as well as farmers learn more about when the risk of predation on livestock is higher, they will be able to make more effective use of resources for reducing predation. 2. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the risk of predation on livestock immediately after an attack is higher on the affected farm compared with other farms in the same area. Data on sheep predation by brown bear Ursus arctos, lynx Lynx lynx and wolf Canis lupus in Sweden 1998-2006 were used in the analysis. 3. On depredated farms there was approximately a 55 times higher risk for a repeat predation event within 12 months compared to any other farm in the same area. During the first 5 weeks, 63%, 60% and 50% of the repeat attacks had occurred. 4. We suggest that the main mechanism behind repeat attacks on livestock is that carnivores return to the kill site to feed on carrion. Where livestock are still present and unprotected at the kill site when the carnivore returns, the farms will suffer a higher likelihood of a further attack compared to livestock on other farms. This study uses data from Sweden but we argue that the pattern will be the same in any part of the world where the ranges of livestock and large carnivores overlap. 4.Synthesis and applications. As the risk of an attack is higher directly after an initial attack, it will be more cost-effective to implement measures designed to reduce livestock predation by large carnivores at that time, i.e. within the following 5 weeks. Temporary proactive measures are usually simpler and cheaper than permanent deterrents and we recommend their use wherever resources are limited.

Karlsson Jens; Johansson Örjan

2010-02-01

193

Mitigation Measures Following a Loss-of-Residual-Heat-Removal Event During Shutdown  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transient following a loss-of-residual-heat-removal event during shutdown was analyzed to determine the containment closure time (CCT) to prevent uncontrolled release of fission products and the gravity-injection path and rate (GIPR) for effective core cooling using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. The plant conditions of Yonggwang Units 3 and 4, a pressurized water reactor (PWR) of 2815-MW(thermal) power in Korea, were reviewed, and possible event sequences were identified. From the CCT analysis for the five cases of typical plant configurations, it was estimated for the earliest CCT to be 40 min after the event in a case with a large cold-leg opening and emptied steam generators (SGs). However, the case with water-filled SGs significantly delayed the CCT through the heat removal to the secondary side. From the GIPR analysis for the six possible gravity-injection paths from the refueling water storage tank (RWST), the case with the injection point and opening on the other leg side was estimated to be the most suitable path to avoid core boiling. In addition, from the sensitivity study, it was evaluated for the plant to be capable of providing the core cooling for the long-term transient if nominal RWST water is available. As a result, these analysis methods and results will provide useful information in understanding the plant behavior and preparing the mitigation measures after the event, especially for Combustion Engineering-type PWR plants. However, to directly apply the analysis results to the emergency procedure for such an event, additional case studies are needed for a wide range of operating conditions such as reactor coolant inventory, RWST water temperature, and core decay heat rate

2000-01-01

194

Standards and experience in radon measurement and regulation of radon mitigation in Austria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past 15 years scientific research and application-oriented research were carried out in Austria to resolve the radon problem. In this paper, the strategy and progression of radon research in Austria and experience gained by practical implementation of the main findings are shown and discussed comprehensively. The overview includes the results of the national radon survey, radon mitigation and precaution studies, indoor-air studies at kindergartens and schools, soil-gas radon research, and the establishment of national radon precaution and mitigation standards.

Maringer, F.J. [Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (BEV), Arltgasse 35, 1160 Wien (Austria); University of Natural Resources and Applied Live Science (BOKU), Low-level Counting Laboratory Arsenal, Faradaygasse 3, Arsenal 214, 1030 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: franz-josef.maringer@bev.gv.at; Kaineder, H.; Nadschlaeger, E.; Sperker, S. [Office of the Upper Austrian Government, Department Environmental Protection, Kaerntnerstrasse 10-12, 4020 Linz (Austria)

2008-11-15

195

Standards and experience in radon measurement and regulation of radon mitigation in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past 15 years scientific research and application-oriented research were carried out in Austria to resolve the radon problem. In this paper, the strategy and progression of radon research in Austria and experience gained by practical implementation of the main findings are shown and discussed comprehensively. The overview includes the results of the national radon survey, radon mitigation and precaution studies, indoor-air studies at kindergartens and schools, soil-gas radon research, and the establishment of national radon precaution and mitigation standards.

2008-01-01

196

Human Factor Analysis to Mitigate Fall Risk Factors in an Aerospace Environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation reviews the study done to quanitfy the risks from falls from three locations (i.e., Shuttle Landing Facility Launch Complex Payloads and Vehicle Assembly Building) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)...

J. H. Ware

2010-01-01

197

Recommendations for practical measures to mitigate the impact of aquaculture on the environment in three areas of the Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An assessment of the severity and extent of aquaculture impact and the estimation of sustainable carrying capacity were undertaken in three areas of the Philippines - Bolinao (marine site), Dagupan, (brackishwater) and Taal Lake (freshwater). This paper describes the potential mitigating measures that could be taken to reduce nutrient release from aquaculture, increase nutrient uptake using extractive species, and possible early warning systems for critical states of the tide when there is reduced flushing.

Patrick White; Rune Palerud; Guttorm Christensen; Tarzan Legovi?; Regie Regpala

2008-01-01

198

Residents in a high radon potential geographic area: Their risk perception and attitude toward testing and mitigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Boone County, Indiana was identified by the EPA as one of the high radon potential geographic areas. Health education campaigns are needed to prevent resident`s unnecessary radon exposure. In order to design suitable programs, a questionnaire mail survey was conducted to measure socio-demographic characteristics of County resident`s knowledge about radon, attitude toward radon testing and mitigation, support of education campaigns, and the best media to deliver radon education campaigns. A stratified random sampling method was applied for a total of 400 samples. The number of samples from each township/city was a proportion of their taxable parcels. The survey return rate was 39.8%. The data were analyzed by Epi Info and SPSS. The statistical significant level was set at {alpha} = 0.05. The results showed that resident`s knowledge about radon was at a relatively superficial level. There was no association identified between the knowledge of radon and gender, age, family income, or education, except that females more frequently believed in false effects caused by radon. A significant correlation between radon knowledge and home radon tests was observed. Also found in this study was that respondents with better knowledge about diseases caused by radon had more confidence in radon mitigation actions. Newspaper was chosen by respondents as the most favorite media to deliver radon health education campaigns. Health education campaigns for the residents of Boone County might be conducted by local governments and/or other organizations.

Ferng, S.F. [Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, IN (United States). Dept. of Health and Safety; Lawson, J.K.

1996-01-01

199

Joint System Prognostics For Increased Efficiency And Risk Mitigation In Advanced Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation and Control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The science of prognostics is analogous to a doctor who, based on a set of symptoms and patient tests, assesses a probable cause, the risk to the patient, and a course of action for recovery. While traditional prognostics research has focused on the aspect of hydraulic and mechanical systems and associated failures, this project will take a joint view in focusing not only on the digital I&C aspect of reliability and risk, but also on the risks associated with the human element. Model development will not only include an approximation of the control system physical degradation but also on human performance degradation. Thus the goal of the prognostic system is to evaluate control room operation; to identify and potentially take action when performance degradation reduces plant efficiency, reliability or safety.

Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Tuan Q. Tran; Ronald L. Boring; Bruce P. Hallbert

2006-08-01

200

Mitigation of Natural Hazards and Disasters. International Perspectives. Improving Access to Water Resources through Rainwater Harvesting as A Mitigation Measure. The Case of the Brazilian Semi-Arid Region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on the importance of rainwater harvesting to mitigate the scarcity of water in the semi-arid region of Brazil. It is a case study about the Million Cisterns Project, an initiative developed by NGOs with the support of Brazilian Federal Government Institutions and international funding organizations. The project is innovative in a series of ways when compared to mitigation measures previously implemented by the government. Instead of focussing on short-term, top-down, palliative measures based on the construction of dams and wells, it focuses on low cost, bottom-up, long-term measures and, most importantly, it involves an educational component. Thus, the provision of water is closely related to the empowerment of the most destitute population and this leads to the sustainability of the actions. The case study serves to illustrate the relevance of the partnership between grassroots organizations and governmental institutions in the context of mitigation.

De Melo Branco, A.; Suassuna, J.; Adler Vainsencher, S. [Independent Consultant, Rua Cardeal Arcoverde, 100/701, Gracas, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

2005-07-15

 
 
 
 
201

Risk evaluation of the alternate-3A modification to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR-4, Mark-II power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Purpose of this paper is to present a risk evaluation of the ATWS Alternate 3A modification (ATWS-3A) proposed by NRC staff in NUREG-0460 to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR nuclear power plant. The evaluation is done relative to three risk indices: the frequency of core damage, the expected early fatalities, and the expected latent fatalities

1983-09-01

202

Analysis of mitigating measures during steam/hydrogen distributions in nuclear reactor containments with the 3D field code gasflow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper reports on the recent model additions to the 3D field code GASFLOW and on validation and application analyses for steam/hydrogen transport with inclusion of mitigation measures. The results of the 3D field simulation of the HDR test E11.2 are summarized. Results from scoping analyses that simulate different modes of CO2 inertization for conditions from the HDR test T31.5 are presented. The last part discusses different ways of recombiner modeling during 3D distribution simulations and gives the results from validation calculations for the HDR recombiner test E11.8.1 and the Battelle test MC3. The results demonstrate that field code simulations with computer codes like GASFLOW are feasible today for complex containment geometries and that they are necessary for a reliable prediction of hydrogen/steam distribution and mitigation effects. (author)

1997-01-01

203

Two dimensional CFD analysis of shock wave propagation for developing mitigation measures of severe accident explosive loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After Fukushima accident, a new need is raised for preserving integrity of vital components and structures in a nuclear power plant against blast waves from hydrogen and steam explosion during a severe accident. A research is underway for developing hydrodynamic and/or mechanical measures for mitigating such shock waves. For the research, an analysis methodology and its validation for shock wave propagation through diverse media of air, water or mixture and reflection/damping via such measures is important. As a starting point of the development, CFD method is applied for prediction of shock wave propagation in an existing shock tube experiment. And the results are discussed by comparing with previous analyses

2012-01-01

204

The reordering urban community participation. A strategy for the prevention and mitigation of risk by geological phenomena: Case of implementation in Medellin, Colombia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article, it is showed the fulfilled methodology by the municipality of Medellin-Colombia and its results, at the Picacho sector, for the risk prevention and mitigation of rock fall It is formulated and developed a project for urban rearrangement, in which the community participation is the transverse component at the planning- management, risk prevention- mitigation, legalization of land's possession, housing improvement- relocation, and urban infrastructure. The most important results were a) the improvement of quality's life for residents, benefiting directly about 2,500 people and indirectly about 24,000, with one investment near 3.6 dollar millions; b) construction of social web and membership sense; c) better governance and better state-community relation; and d) risk reduction of rock fall As the main conclusion it is expounded that the community participation at all stages of the project and the concept that the risk is non resolved problem of the development are two determining elements so that urban rearrangement may be, in many cases, the better option for the risk prevention and mitigation of geological phenomena in urban areas of unmannerly development, rather than one massive relocation of the population.

2007-01-01

205

The carbon management strategic priority. Leading firms reap cost savings, risk mitigation and revenue rewards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbon management is moving up the corporate agenda and many companies now understand the need to handle their emissions. But what makes the management of carbon strategically important for business and will it grow as a priority? The outcome of this qualitative report shows us that carbon management is an issue on which to act; it is a matter of key strategic importance and one that will grow over the next ten years. As leading firms force broad action on carbon management in their markets and value chains, those companies that ignore the issue risk being left behind.

Lee, L. [Carbon Disclosure Project CDP, London (United Kingdom); Beresford, J. [Verdantix, London (United Kingdom)

2010-09-15

206

MicroRNA-based strategy to mitigate the risk of gain-of-function influenza studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent gain-of-function studies in influenza A virus H5N1 strains revealed that as few as three-amino-acid changes in the hemagglutinin protein confer the capacity for viral transmission between ferrets. As transmission between ferrets is considered a surrogate indicator of transmissibility between humans, these studies raised concerns about the risks of gain-of-function influenza A virus research. Here we present an approach to strengthen the biosafety of gain-of-function influenza experiments. We exploit species-specific endogenous small RNAs to restrict influenza A virus tropism. In particular, we found that the microRNA miR-192 was expressed in primary human respiratory tract epithelial cells as well as in mouse lungs but absent from the ferret respiratory tract. Incorporation of miR-192 target sites into influenza A virus did not prevent influenza replication and transmissibility in ferrets, but did attenuate influenza pathogenicity in mice. This molecular biocontainment approach should be applicable beyond influenza A virus to minimize the risk of experiments involving other pathogenic viruses.

Langlois RA; Albrecht RA; Kimble B; Sutton T; Shapiro JS; Finch C; Angel M; Chua MA; Gonzalez-Reiche AS; Xu K; Perez D; García-Sastre A; Tenoever BR

2013-09-01

207

MicroRNA-based strategy to mitigate the risk of gain-of-function influenza studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent gain-of-function studies in influenza A virus H5N1 strains revealed that as few as three-amino-acid changes in the hemagglutinin protein confer the capacity for viral transmission between ferrets. As transmission between ferrets is considered a surrogate indicator of transmissibility between humans, these studies raised concerns about the risks of gain-of-function influenza A virus research. Here we present an approach to strengthen the biosafety of gain-of-function influenza experiments. We exploit species-specific endogenous small RNAs to restrict influenza A virus tropism. In particular, we found that the microRNA miR-192 was expressed in primary human respiratory tract epithelial cells as well as in mouse lungs but absent from the ferret respiratory tract. Incorporation of miR-192 target sites into influenza A virus did not prevent influenza replication and transmissibility in ferrets, but did attenuate influenza pathogenicity in mice. This molecular biocontainment approach should be applicable beyond influenza A virus to minimize the risk of experiments involving other pathogenic viruses. PMID:23934176

Langlois, Ryan A; Albrecht, Randy A; Kimble, Brian; Sutton, Troy; Shapiro, Jillian S; Finch, Courtney; Angel, Matthew; Chua, Mark A; Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana Silvia; Xu, Kemin; Perez, Daniel; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Tenoever, Benjamin R

2013-08-11

208

The Measuring Method of Risk with Energy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since Harry. M. Markowitz published ‘portfolio Selection’ (1952), financial economists have proposed many methods to measure risk such as variant, downside-variant, average
absolute deviation, maximum deviation, VaR and so on. However, these methods share a common limitation, which only c...

Xinshu Tu; Xin Lin

209

Monitoring and mitigating measures to reduce potential impacts of oil and gas exploration and development on bears in the Inuvik region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Inuvik Region consists of the Northwest Territories portion of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and the Gwich'in Settlement Area. The range of grizzly bears, polar bears and black bears extends to different parts of the region. The potential impact of development depends on the season of the development and the species of bear found in the footprint. As such, monitoring and mitigation measures should take this into consideration. This presentation focused on the potential impacts and current practices to monitor and mitigate the impacts in the region. Mitigation measures currently used include: communication with stakeholders; waste management guidelines; use of wildlife monitors to identify key habitat and den sites and to deter bears; minimum flight altitudes; and safety training. Suggestions for additional mitigation measures were also presented. figs.

Branigan, M. [Government of the Northwest Territories, Inuvik, NT (Canada). Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources

2007-07-01

210

Measurement of stainer bath contamination and evaluation of common mitigation strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods relative to the staining of tissues using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) have largely not evolved beyond linear batch staining processes. The batching of slides in the histopathology laboratory inherently leads to the sharing of the various reagents among those specimens being processed through the baths. Studies analyzing the effects of reagent sharing during the common H&E linear staining method are limited. This study assessed rates of extraneous tissue contamination found in selected stainer bath containers from the deparaffinization portion of the H&E linear staining procedure. The impact of common mitigation strategies on those rates of contamination was evaluated.

Cahill A; Pearson J

2012-09-01

211

Measurement of stainer bath contamination and evaluation of common mitigation strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods relative to the staining of tissues using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) have largely not evolved beyond linear batch staining processes. The batching of slides in the histopathology laboratory inherently leads to the sharing of the various reagents among those specimens being processed through the baths. Studies analyzing the effects of reagent sharing during the common H&E linear staining method are limited. This study assessed rates of extraneous tissue contamination found in selected stainer bath containers from the deparaffinization portion of the H&E linear staining procedure. The impact of common mitigation strategies on those rates of contamination was evaluated.

Cahill, Angie; Pearson, Jeff

2012-01-01

212

Mitigating Reputational Risks - A Proposal With A Knowledge-Based Stakeholder Information Leitstand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Internet plays a crucial role in the communication strategy of organizations. However, information is often distributed at the "wrong" time and does not always satisfy the particular requirements of key customers, suppliers, governments, shareholders or financial analysts. Serious mistakes might not only create negative sequela, for example, stakeholders remain unsatisfied, downgrade their opinions about products and companies, and subsequently make 'wrong' decisions. Such mistakes could also have tremendous effects on the primary objectives of an enterprise, e.g., the reputation suffers and subsequently the share price plunges. In this paper, we present how companies can take advantage of actively providing targeted information with a knowledge-based Stakeholder Information Leitstand (information planning and control center). It helps executives stabilize relationships with key customers, journalists, politicians, investors, and assists in promoting trust and enhancing reputation, especially in times of risk situations. We focus on the design phase of the system, and propose that current decision support systems could be enriched with "business content", i.e. predefined situation-oriented and individualized information categories and messages.

Martin Stö?lein

2009-01-01

213

Risk mitigation and production flexibility in integrated forest biorefinery - JoBi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Implementation of an integrated forest biorefinery complicates the existing pulp and paper processes, but offers also possibilities to increase the flexibility of production. To exploit these possibilities, production structure planning (time scale: 6 months - life cycle) and production planning (time scale: 1 day - 6 months) need to be conducted in conjunction in the early-stage pre-screening of alternative investment strategies. The target of this project was to develop methodologies to assist decision-making in choosing a competitive production structure, e.g. product mix and the processes for it. The methods should consider flexibility of production, uncertainties of supply, demand and prices of raw materials and products as well as capital investment cost estimates. The developed production structure planning method for retrofit biorefinery implementation is based on traditional design and risk analysis methods: techno-economic analysis using linear input-output mass and energy balance models and factorial capital cost estimation methods, and multivariate stochastic analysis (Monte-Carlo analysis). Production flexibility was considered to be achieved through combinations of the alternative process designs to produce same product and through parallel production lines. This method was developed and demonstrated using a North-American case study focusing on many biofuel production alternatives with wide range of design capacities but considering only non-flexible systems, and using a hypothetical Finnish case study looking at one biofuel only but comparing flexible and non-flexible cases.

Manninen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: jussi.manninen@vtt.fi

2012-07-01

214

Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various {open_quotes}constraint levels{close_quotes} have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the {open_quotes}costs{close_quote} of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria.

Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L. [and others

1996-09-01

215

Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various open-quotes constraint levelsclose quotes have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the open-quotes costs close-quote of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria

1996-01-01

216

Evaluating the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures: The case of Xiamen city, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures, a detailed Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model is developed and applied to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in Xiamen city. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future energy strategies in relation to the development of Xiamen city. The 'Business as Usual' scenario assumes that the government will do nothing to influence the long-term trends of urban energy demand. An 'Integrated' scenario, on the other hand, is generated to assess the cumulative impact of a series of available reduction measures: clean energy substitution, industrial energy conservation, combined heat and power generation, energy conservation in building, motor vehicle control, and new and renewable energy development and utilization. The reduction potentials in energy consumption and GHG emissions are estimated for a time span of 2007-2020 under these different scenarios. The calculation results in Xiamen show that the clean energy substitution measure is the most effective in terms of energy saving and GHG emissions mitigation, while the industrial sector has the largest abatement potential.

2010-01-01

217

Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gases mitigation measures in the European agro-forestry sector: a literature survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last 20 years, climate change has become an increasing concern for scientists, public opinions and policy makers. Due to the pervasive nature of its impacts for many important aspects of human life, climate change is likely to influence and be influenced by the most diverse policy or management choices. This is particularly true for those interventions affecting agriculture and forestry: they are strongly dependent on climate phenomena, but also contribute to climate evolution being sources of and sinks for greenhouse gases (GHG). This paper offers a survey of the existing literature assessing cost-effectiveness and efficiency of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies or the effects of broader economic reforms in the agricultural and forestry sectors. The focus is mainly on European countries. Different methodological approaches, research questions addressed and results are examined. The main findings are that agriculture can potentially provide emissions reduction at a competitive cost, mainly with methane abatement, while carbon sequestration seems more cost-effective with appropriate forest management measures. Afforestation, cropland management and bioenergy are less economically viable measures due to competition with other land use. Mitigation policies should be carefully designed either to balance costs with expected benefits in terms of social welfare. Regional variability is one of the main drawbacks to fully assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures. Integration of models to take into account both social welfare and spatial heterogeneity seems to be the frontier of the next model generation.

2007-01-01

218

Investigation of radon entry and effectiveness of mitigation measures in seven houses in New Jersey: Midproject report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed radon mitigation study is in progress in 14 homes in the New Jersey Piedmont area. The principal goals are the refinement of diagnostic measurements for selection and implementation of mitigation systems, and the reduction of radon concentrations to acceptable levels inside the study houses. Monitoring stations were installed in each home in October, 1986. Instrumented measurements included: basement and upstairs radon; differential pressures across the basement/subslag, basement/upstairs and basement/outdoor interfaces; temperatures at basement, upstairs and outdoor locations; and central air handler usage. A weather station was located at one house, monitoring wind speed and direction; barometric pressure; precipitation; soil temperature; and outdoor temperature and relative humidity. A time-averaged value of all of the above parameters was recorded every 30 min. Several additional parameters were monitored on an intermittent basis in all or selected homes. These include multizone air infiltration rates which have been measured in all homes using passive perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and in two homes using a constant concentration tracer gas system (CCTG). Total radon progeny, soil gas radon concentration and permeability characteristics, and gamma radiation levels were also monitored periodically in all study homes. 10 refs., 53 figs

1987-01-01

219

Risk evaluation of the alternate-3A modification to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR-4, MARK-II power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present a risk evaluation of the ATWS Alternate 3A modification proposed by NRC staff in NUREG-0460 to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR nuclear power plant. The evaluation is done relative to three risk indices: the frequency of core damage, the expected early fatalities, and the expected latent fatalities. The ATWS prevention tree includes: the mechanical subsystem of the reactor protection system, the electrical subsystem of the reactor protection system, the recirculation pump trip and the Alternate Rod Insertion System. The mitigation tree includes: standby liquid control system, opening of the relief valves, reclosing the relief valves, failure of coolant injection, inadvertent actuation of the automatic depressurization system, inadvertent operation of high-pressure injection system and containment heat removal

1983-09-01

220

Mitigation Action Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

1994-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

A process-based model for the definition of hydrological alert systems in landslide risk mitigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The definition of hydrological alert systems for rainfall-induced landslides is strongly related to a deep knowledge of the geological and geomorphological features of the territory. Climatic conditions, spatial and temporal evolution of the phenomena and characterization of landslide triggering, together with propagation mechanisms, are the key elements to be considered. Critical steps for the development of the systems consist of the identification of the hydrological variable related to landslide triggering and of the minimum rainfall threshold for landslide occurrence. In this paper we report the results from a process-based model to define a hydrological alert system for the Val di Maso Landslide, located in the northeastern Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto region, NE Italy). The instability occurred in November 2010, due to an exceptional rainfall event that hit the Vicenza Province and the entire NE Italy. Up to 500 mm in 3-day cumulated rainfall generated large flood conditions and triggered hundreds of landslides. During the flood, the Soil Protection Division of the Vicenza Province received more than 500 warnings of instability phenomena. The complexity of the event and the high level of risk to infrastructure and private buildings are the main reasons for deepening the specific phenomenon occurred at Val di Maso. Empirical and physically-based models have been used to identify the minimum rainfall threshold for the occurrence of instability phenomena in the crown area of Val di Maso landslide, where a retrogressive evolution by multiple rotational slides is expected. Empirical models helped in the identification and in the evaluation of recurrence of critical rainfall events, while physically-based modelling was essential to verify the effects on the slope stability of determined rainfall depths. Empirical relationships between rainfall and landslide consist of the calculation of rainfall Depth-Duration-Frequency (DDF) curves, which allow one to determine rainfall depth (or intensity) as a function of duration for given return periods or probabilities of exceedance (frequencies). Physically-based modelling was performed through coupled seepage and slope stability analyses. Combining results from empirical and physically-based modelling, the minimum alert threshold for a reactivation of the phenomenon was found in rainfall cumulated up to 60 days with a return period of 2 yr. These results were used to set up a hydrological alert system based on the calibration of DDF curves which can be used as a sort of abacus to plot in real time rainfall depths and to set increasing levels of alert on the basis of the degree of exceptionality of rainfall. The alert system for Val di Maso was successfully tested by the rainfall events that produced displacements which have been recorded by extensometers placed in the crown area after the November 2010 landslide. However, further tests are recommendable to improve the process-based model that led to the implementation of the alert system. To this end, a monitoring system is currently being realized. In the near future, monitoring data will help in testing and improving landslide evolution and alert models. The proposed hydrological alert system proves to be effective mainly because it can be applied to different scales of investigation and geological and geomorphological contexts. In fact, it might also be applicable to territorial scale analyses, as showed by the brief example provided in this paper on how the alert system could be used for landslide early warning in the area surrounding Val di Maso. Furthermore, it is easy to set up. The needed components are a rain gauge station, a software that compares rainfall data to rainfall events with different return periods and degree of alert, and a transmission system of the warning levels to authorities.

M. Floris; A. D'Alpaos; A. De Agostini; G. Stevan; G. Tessari; R. Genevois

2012-01-01

222

A process-based model for the definition of hydrological alert systems in landslide risk mitigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The definition of hydrological alert systems for rainfall-induced landslides is strongly related to a deep knowledge of the geological and geomorphological features of the territory. Climatic conditions, spatial and temporal evolution of the phenomena and characterization of landslide triggering, together with propagation mechanisms, are the key elements to be considered. Critical steps for the development of the systems consist of the identification of the hydrological variable related to landslide triggering and of the minimum rainfall threshold for landslide occurrence. In this paper we report the results from a process-based model to define a hydrological alert system for the Val di Maso Landslide, located in the northeastern Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto region, NE Italy). The instability occurred in November 2010, due to an exceptional rainfall event that hit the Vicenza Province and the entire NE Italy. Up to 500 mm in 3-day cumulated rainfall generated large flood conditions and triggered hundreds of landslides. During the flood, the Soil Protection Division of the Vicenza Province received more than 500 warnings of instability phenomena. The complexity of the event and the high level of risk to infrastructure and private buildings are the main reasons for deepening the specific phenomenon occurred at Val di Maso. Empirical and physically-based models have been used to identify the minimum rainfall threshold for the occurrence of instability phenomena in the crown area of Val di Maso landslide, where a retrogressive evolution by multiple rotational slides is expected. Empirical models helped in the identification and in the evaluation of recurrence of critical rainfall events, while physically-based modelling was essential to verify the effects on the slope stability of determined rainfall depths. Empirical relationships between rainfall and landslide consist of the calculation of rainfall Depth-Duration-Frequency (DDF) curves, which allow one to determine rainfall depth (or intensity) as a function of duration for given return periods or probabilities of exceedance (frequencies). Physically-based modelling was performed through coupled seepage and slope stability analyses. Combining results from empirical and physically-based modelling, the minimum alert threshold for a reactivation of the phenomenon was found in rainfall cumulated up to 60 days with a return period of 2 yr. These results were used to set up a hydrological alert system based on the calibration of DDF curves which can be used as a sort of abacus to plot in real time rainfall depths and to set increasing levels of alert on the basis of the degree of exceptionality of rainfall. The alert system for Val di Maso was successfully tested by the rainfall events that produced displacements which have been recorded by extensometers placed in the crown area after the November 2010 landslide. However, further tests are recommendable to improve the process-based model that led to the implementation of the alert system. To this end, a monitoring system is currently being realized. In the near future, monitoring data will help in testing and improving landslide evolution and alert models. The proposed hydrological alert system proves to be effective mainly because it can be applied to different scales of investigation and geological and geomorphological contexts. In fact, it might also be applicable to territorial scale analyses, as showed by the brief example provided in this paper on how the alert system could be used for landslide early warning in the area surrounding Val di Maso. Furthermore, it is easy to set up. The needed components are a rain gauge station, a software that compares rainfall data to rainfall events with different return periods and degree of alert, and a transmission system of the warning levels to authorities.

Floris, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; De Agostini, A.; Stevan, G.; Tessari, G.; Genevois, R.

2012-11-01

223

Risk measures in living probabilistic safety assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objectives of the study are: to define risk measures and suggested uses of them in various living PSA applications for the operational safety management and to describe specific model features required for living PSA applications. The report is based on three case studies performed within the Nordic research project Safety Evaluation by Use of Living PSA and Safety Indicators. (48 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.)

1993-01-01

224

Design measures for prevention and mitigation of severe accidents at advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Over 8500 reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with the current nuclear energy systems. New generations of nuclear power plants are being developed, building upon this background of experience. During the last decade, requirements for equipment specifically intended to minimize releases of radioactive material to the environment in the event of a core melt accident have been introduced, and designs for new plants include measures for preventing and mitigating a range of severe accident scenarios. The IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Impact of Severe Accidents on Plant Design and Layout of Advanced Water Cooled Reactors was jointly organized by the Department of Nuclear Energy and the Department of Nuclear Safety to review measures which are being incorporated into advanced water cooled reactor designs for preventing and mitigating severe accidents, the status of experimental and analytical investigations of severe accident phenomena and challenges which support design decisions and accident management procedures, and to understand the impact of explicitly addressing severe accidents on the cost of nuclear power plants. This publication is intended to provide an objective source of information on this topic. It includes 14 papers presented at the Technical Committee meeting held in Vienna between 21-25 October 1996. It also includes a Summary and Findings of the Working Groups. The papers were grouped in three sections. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

1998-01-01

225

Construction and measurements of a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the 222Rn decay chain on (and near) detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay, and in screening detectors. In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto the wires of the Beta Cage during its assembly, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at Syracuse University using a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system. The radon filter shows ~20× reduction at its output, from 7.47+/-0.56 to 0.37+/-0.12 Bq/m3, and the cleanroom radon activity meets project requirements, with a lowest achieved value consistent with that of the filter, and levels consistently < 2 Bq/m3.

Schnee, R. W.; Bunker, R.; Ghulam, G.; Jardin, D.; Kos, M.; Tenney, A. S.

2013-08-01

226

NITRATE TOXICITY IN GROUNDWATER: ITS CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS, PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Groundwater pollution has become a drastic problem principally because of nature and wide spread use of modern chemicals viz. pesticides and fertilizers. Excessive application of fertilizers as well as organic wastes and sewage has been implicated in the nitrogen pollution of groundwater. Therefore, the issue of rising nitrate concentration in groundwater has become a subject of extensive research in India and Rajasthan in particular. In natural water, nitrate ((NO3-) N is usually 100ppm) and in organic matters (amine and /or amides) resulting in the production of nitrosamines (carcinogens). Number of cases (human and livestock), suffering from gastric cancer have been observed. Reverse osmosis (RO) process has great potential in the mitigation of nitrate ion containing waters. Generally, the presence of particular substances may affect the removal of specific ions. The presence of di-hydrogen phosphate ions (DHP-ions) in the feed solution enhances the nitrate removal efficiency of the polyamide RO membrane. In this present research work, a Flmtec TW30, polyamide thin-film composite, RO membrane was used for nitrate removal through RO set up. The rejection of individual nitrate was found to be around 76%. After addition of KH2¬PO4 to the feed containing nitrate ions the rejection was improved up to 84. This high level of increment in rejection of nitrate ion indicates the possible usage of KH2¬PO4 in RO for nitrate removal. This fact of removal is due to the K+ ions binding to the electronic lone-pairs of polyamide membrane holding di-hydrogen phosphate ions. This establishes a negative layer on the surface of the membrane. The diffusion of nitrate through the membrane is diminished by the formed layer. Present manuscript delineates clinical manifestations of nitrate toxicity and mitigation of nitrate ion by means of state-of-the-art reverse osmosis technology.

Raaz K. Maheshwari; A.K. Chauhan; Bhanwar Lal; A.K . Sharma

2013-01-01

227

CO{sub 2}-mitigation measures through reduction of fossil fuel burning in power utilities. Which road to go?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five conditions, at minimum, should be examined in the comparative analysis of CO{sub 2}-mitigation options for the power sector. Under the continuing constraint of scarce financial resources for any private or public investment in the power sector, the following combination of requirements characterise a successful CO{sub 2}-mitigation project: (1) Financial attractiveness for private or public investors. (2) Low, or even negative, long range marginal costs per ton of `CO{sub 2} saved`. (3) High impact on CO{sub 2}-mitigation, which indicates a large market potential for the measure. (4) The number of individual investments required to achieve the impact is relatively small. In other words, logistical difficulties in project implementation are minimised. (5) The projects are `socially fair` and have minimal negative impact on any segment of the society. This paper deals with options to reduce carbonaceous fuel burning in the power sector. Part I explains how projects should be selected and classified. Part II describes the technical options. Since reduction of carbonaceous fuel burning may be achieved through Demand Side Management (DSM) and Supply Side Management (SSM) both are treated. Within the context of this paper SSM does not mean to expand power supply as demand grows. It means to economically generate and distribute power as efficiently as possible. In too many instances DSM has degenerated into efficient lighting programs and utility managed incentives and rebate programs. To what extent this is a desirable situation for utilities in Developing Countries that face totally different problems as their counterparts in highly industrialised countries remains to be seen. Which road to go is the topic of this paper.

Kaupp, A. [Energetica International Inc., Suva (Fiji)

1996-12-31

228

An evaluation of asthma medication utilization for risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) in the United States: 2005-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess drug utilization patterns of fluticasone propionate (FP)/salmeterol (SAL) combination (FSC) and SAL over the 7-year period of 2005-2011 in patients with asthma as part of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). Methods: A descriptive, retrospective observational study utilizing national pharmacy data and employer-based claims data to characterize drug utilization patterns. Results: For patients with asthma, the total number of FSC and SAL dispensings and users of FSC and SAL has declined between 2005 and 2011. During this period, FSC and SAL dispensing for asthma decreased 24% and 76%, respectively, with a more pronounced decline between 2010 and 2011 relative to other years. The total number of patients with asthma who were dispensed FSC has decreased by 10% among adults and by 40% in children and adolescents. While SAL-containing medications decreased, dispensing of FP monotherapy increased 39% during the same 7-year period. The number of patients dispensed FP for asthma has increased 47% in children 4-11 years of age, 72% in adolescents 12-17 years of age, and 6% in adults. SAL use without a controller was infrequent and decreasing, reported by 1.7% and 0.5% of patients with asthma in 2005 and 2011, respectively. Conclusions: In patients with asthma, use of FSC and SAL decreased between 2005 and 2011, while the use of FP increased. Use of SAL monotherapy was infrequent and declined during the study period. The data suggest that the substantial communication activities have encouraged appropriate prescribing of long-acting ?2-adrenergic agonist (LABA). PMID:23663008

Disantostefano, Rachael L; Yeakey, Anne M; Raphiou, Ibrahim; Stempel, David A

2013-07-18

229

An evaluation of asthma medication utilization for risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) in the United States: 2005-2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess drug utilization patterns of fluticasone propionate (FP)/salmeterol (SAL) combination (FSC) and SAL over the 7-year period of 2005-2011 in patients with asthma as part of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). Methods: A descriptive, retrospective observational study utilizing national pharmacy data and employer-based claims data to characterize drug utilization patterns. Results: For patients with asthma, the total number of FSC and SAL dispensings and users of FSC and SAL has declined between 2005 and 2011. During this period, FSC and SAL dispensing for asthma decreased 24% and 76%, respectively, with a more pronounced decline between 2010 and 2011 relative to other years. The total number of patients with asthma who were dispensed FSC has decreased by 10% among adults and by 40% in children and adolescents. While SAL-containing medications decreased, dispensing of FP monotherapy increased 39% during the same 7-year period. The number of patients dispensed FP for asthma has increased 47% in children 4-11 years of age, 72% in adolescents 12-17 years of age, and 6% in adults. SAL use without a controller was infrequent and decreasing, reported by 1.7% and 0.5% of patients with asthma in 2005 and 2011, respectively. Conclusions: In patients with asthma, use of FSC and SAL decreased between 2005 and 2011, while the use of FP increased. Use of SAL monotherapy was infrequent and declined during the study period. The data suggest that the substantial communication activities have encouraged appropriate prescribing of long-acting ?2-adrenergic agonist (LABA).

Disantostefano RL; Yeakey AM; Raphiou I; Stempel DA

2013-09-01

230

Mitigation Monitoring Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

1992-09-01

231

Mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis) infection in North American wildlife: current status and opportunities for mitigation of risks of further infection in wildlife populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been identified in nine geographically distinct wildlife populations in North America and Hawaii and is endemic in at least three populations, including members of the Bovidae, Cervidae, and Suidae families. The emergence of M. bovis in North American wildlife poses a serious and growing risk for livestock and human health and for the recreational hunting industry. Experience in many countries, including the USA and Canada, has shown that while M. bovis can be controlled when restricted to livestock species, it is almost impossible to eradicate once it has spread into ecosystems with free-ranging maintenance hosts. Therefore, preventing transmission of M. bovis to wildlife may be the most effective way to mitigate economic and health costs of this bacterial pathogen. Here we review the status of M. bovis infection in wildlife of North America and identify risks for its establishment in uninfected North American wildlife populations where eradication or control would be difficult and costly. We identified four common risk factors associated with establishment of M. bovis in uninfected wildlife populations in North America, (1) commingling of infected cattle with susceptible wildlife, (2) supplemental feeding of wildlife, (3) inadequate surveillance of at-risk wildlife, and (4) unrecognized emergence of alternate wildlife species as successful maintenance hosts. We then propose the use of integrated and adaptive disease management to mitigate these risk factors to prevent establishment of M. bovis in susceptible North American wildlife species.

Miller RS; Sweeney SJ

2013-07-01

232

Aircrew radiation exposure: sources-risks-measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A short review is given on the actual aircrew exposure and its sources. The resulting risks for harmful effects to the health and discuss methods for in-flight measurements of exposure is evaluated. An idea for a fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, airborne active dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is presented. The exposure of civil aircrew to cosmic radiation, should not be considered a tremendous risk to the health, there is no reason for panic. However, being significantly higher than the average exposure to radiation workers, it can certainly not be neglected. As recommended by ICRP, aircrew exposure has to be considered occupational radiation exposure and aircrews are certainly entitled to the same degree of protection, as other ground-based radiation workers have obtained by law, since long time. (author)

1994-05-09

233

The instability of downside risk measures  

CERN Multimedia

We study the feasibility and noise sensitivity of portfolio optimization under some downside risk measures (Value-at-Risk, Expected Shortfall, and semivariance) when they are estimated by fitting a parametric distribution on a finite sample of asset returns. We find that the existence of the optimum is a probabilistic issue, depending on the particular random sample, in all three cases. At a critical combination of the parameters of these problems we find an algorithmic phase transition, separating the phase where the optimization is feasible from the one where it is not. This transition is similar to the one discovered earlier for Expected Shortfall based on historical time series. We employ the replica method to compute the phase diagram, as well as to obtain the critical exponent of the estimation error that diverges at the critical point. The analytical results are corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations.

Varga-Haszonits, Istvan

2008-01-01

234

Assessing the effect of nutrient mitigation measures in the watersheds of the Southern Bight of the North Sea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Seine, Somme, and Scheldt Rivers (France, Belgium, and Netherlands) are the major delivering rivers flowing into the continental coastal zone of the Southern Bight of the North Sea, an area regularly affected by eutrophication problems. In the present work, the Seneque-Riverstrahler model was implemented in a multi-regional case study in order to test several planned mitigation measures aimed at limiting stream nutrient contamination and restoring balanced nutrient ratios at the coastal zone. This modeling approach, which is spatially distributed at the basin scale, allows assessing the impact of any change in human activities, which widely differ over the three basins. Here, we define realistic scenarios based on currently proposed measures to reduce point and non-point sources, such as the upgrading of wastewater treatment, the introduction of catch crops, and the development of extensive farming. An analysis of the current situation showed that a 47-72% reduction in P point-source emissions within the three basins could be reached if the intended P treatment was generalized to the largest treatment plants. However, only an overall 14-23% reduction in N could be achieved at the outlet of the three basins, by combining improved wastewater treatment and land use with management measures aimed at regulating agricultural practices. Nonetheless, in spite of these efforts, N will still be exported in large excess with respect to the equilibrium defined by the Redfield ratios, even in the most optimistic hypothesis describing the long-term response of groundwater nitrate concentrations. A comprehensive assessment of these mitigation measures supports the need for additional reductions of nutrient losses from agriculture to control harmful algae development. It also stresses the relevance of this mechanistic approach, in which nutrient transfers from land to sea can be calculated, as an integrated strategy to test policy recommendations.

Thieu V; Garnier J; Billen G

2010-02-01

235

Radon mitigation survey among New York State residents living in high radon homes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of New York State Department of Health's efforts to increase public awareness about radon risk and to promote radon testing and mitigation in compliance with EPA's guideline, a statewide radon mitigation survey was conducted between September 1995 and January 1996 among New York State residents whose homes had radon levels equal to or greater than 148 Bq m-3 on the first floor (or above) living areas. The survey found that about 60% of 1,113 participants had taken actions for radon mitigation. The percentage of respondents who took actions to reduce radon levels in their homes increased with increasing education level as well as household income level. The method of installing a powered system to provide more ventilation was a more effective mitigation method than opening windows/doors or sealing cracks/openings in the basement. Mitigation performed by contractors was more effective in reducing radon levels than mitigation performed by residents. The reasons for performing radon mitigation given by the majority of respondents were those strongly related to radon health risk. High home radon level was an important motivational factor to stimulate radon mitigation. On the other hand, the cost of radon mitigation was a major barrier in decision making for performing radon mitigation and for selecting mitigation measures.

1999-01-01

236

Cash Sub-additive Risk Measures and Interest Rate Ambiguity  

CERN Multimedia

A new class of risk measures called cash sub-additive risk measures is introduced to assess the risk of future financial, nonfinancial and insurance positions. The debated cash additive axiom is relaxed into the cash sub additive axiom to preserve the original difference between the numeraire of the current reserve amounts and future positions. Consequently, cash sub-additive risk measures can model stochastic and/or ambiguous interest rates or defaultable contingent claims. Practical examples are presented and in such contexts cash additive risk measures cannot be used. Several representations of the cash sub-additive risk measures are provided. The new risk measures are characterized by penalty functions defined on a set of sub-linear probability measures and can be represented using penalty functions associated with cash additive risk measures defined on some extended spaces. The issue of the optimal risk transfer is studied in the new framework using inf-convolution techniques. Examples of dynamic cash su...

Karoui, Nicole El

2007-01-01

237

Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

2012-01-01

238

Comprehensive assessments of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas; Heat shinku wo riyoshita daikibo reibo system no kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes actual condition and measures against heat island (HI) phenomena in large urban areas with buildings. Tokyo was selected as a model. To extract typical pattern of daily change of air temperature, statistic analysis was conducted using the existing air temperature data at 100 points in and near the city of Tokyo. As a result, five patterns were obtained, i.e., central city, sea/land water affecting zone, thickly settled suburbs, garden city, and countryside. Each one point was selected in each pattern, to measure the underground temperature. It was found that the effect of HI can be easily evaluated from the underground temperature. It was suggested that the HI effect in the central city is estimated to be around 3.6 {degree}C. The measures mitigating HI were divided into the thermal balance improvement in the whole district and the temperature improvement of living space by homogenization or inhomogenization. Energy conservation was investigated for improving the thermal balance which can be practically conducted. According to the measures, it was found that the air temperature in the central city can be decreased by about 0.5 {degree}C at maximum. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Ishitani, H.; Yamada, K.; Yamaji, K.; Matsuhashi, T.; Iizuka, E.; Suzuki, T.; Genchi, H.; Komiyama, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

1997-02-01

239

Economic study on CO2 mitigating measures of power generation systems; Hatsuden gijutsu no kankyo taisaku cost bunseki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports discussions on measures to mitigate CO2 emission from the power generation systems. The paper presents the result of deriving the unit requirement in CO2 emission that expresses the degree of global warming effect by different power generation plants. This is the amount of CO2 generated during the 30-year period as the life of the plants (a sum of the CO2 amount emitted directly and indirectly from all of the processes of mining, transporting and refining the fuel, generating the power, and disposing of wastes) divided by the amount of electric power generated during that period of time. A result is also presented that has derived the cost paid by the power plants for measures to prevent global warming. This is an increment of cost required to reduce CO2 emission (difference between a power generation cost when emission preventing technologies are used and an average power generation cost) divided by reduction amount of CO2 (the CO2 unit requirement when the emission preventing technologies are used is deducted from the average CO2 unit requirement). The paper makes clear that nuclear, hydro and geothermal power plants have smaller effect on the global warming, and the cost for environmental measures gives greater effect in reducing the CO2 emission. 3 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Uchiyama, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-07-31

240

The Efficiency of Irradiated Garlic Powder in Mitigation of Hypercholesterolemic Risk Factor in High cholesterol Fed Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was conducted to explore the efficiency of radiation processed dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy on the average daily body gain, internal organ weights, certain hematological and biochemical parameters; including total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. Experimental rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 g kg-1) with and without raw or radiation processed dried garlic powder at the above-mentioned doses for 6 weeks. Control rats were fed a casein diet (C). 20 g kg-1 dietary raw or irradiated dried garlic powder was used to supplemented cholesterol diet (Ch). It was observed that cholesterol-fed (Ch) animals had a significant increase in relative liver weight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, AST and ALT activities and a significant decrease in HDL-C level compared to the control group of rats fed on a Casein diet (C). However, when the rats were fed with a high cholesterol diet mixed with 20 g kg-1 raw (ChRG) or irradiated dried garlic powder at 10 (ChG10), 15 (ChG15), and 20 kGy (ChG20), there was a significant reduction in their relative liver weight, hemoglobin, haematocrit, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, and increased HDL level and amended AST and ALT activities levels as compared with the group which was on a diet containing high cholesterol without garlic powder (Ch). No significant changes were observed in relative spleen, kidney, lung, heart and testes weights, as well as, the total plasma protein, albumin, globulin concentrations in all of treated groups. These results show that the dietary 20 g kg-1 irradiated dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy are beneficial in reducing plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C levels, El-Neily and El-Shennawy, J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1272 4, No. 4(B)(2011) LDL/HDL ratio, AST and ALT activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. Irradiated dried garlic powder supplementation, also, increased HDL. In conclusion, irradiated dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy improved the plasma lipid levels in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets and increased the plasma HDL-C and reduced LDL/HDL ratio in groups of rats fed cholesterol-diets. The higher dose used (20 kGy) did not impair the bioactive compounds of dried garlic powder, and it can be used as an additive in cooking and as a protective pharmaceutical supplement for mitigation of hypercholesterolemic risk factor

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Beyond Value-at-Risk: GlueVaR Distortion Risk Measures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We propose a new family of risk measures, called GlueVaR, within the class of distortion risk measures. Analytical closed-form expressions are shown for the most frequently used distribution functions in financial and insurance applications. The relationship between GlueVaR, value-at-risk, and tail value-at-risk is explained. Tail subadditivity is investigated and it is shown that some GlueVaR risk measures satisfy this property. An interpretation in terms of risk attitudes is provided and a discussion is given on the applicability in nonfinancial problems such as health, safety, environmental, or catastrophic risk management.

Belles-Sampera J; Guillén M; Santolino M

2013-06-01

242

Dynamical properties measurements for asteroid, comet and meteorite material applicable to impact modeling and mitigation calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe methods for measuring dynamical properties for two material categories of interest in understanding large-scale extraterrestrial impacts: iron-nickel and underdense materials (e.g. snow). Particular material properties measured by the present methods include Hugoniot release paths and constitutive properties (stress vs. strain). The iron-nickel materials lend themselves well to conventional shock and quasi-static experiments. As examples, a suite of experiments is described including six impact tests (wave profile compression/release) over the stress range 2--20 GPa, metallography, quasi-static and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) mechanical testing, and ultrasonic mapping and sound velocity measurements. Temperature sensitivity of the dynamic behavior was measured at high and low strain rates. Among the iron-nickel materials tested, an octahedrite was found to have behavior close to that of Armco iron under shock and quasi-static conditions, while an ataxite exhibited a significantly larger quasi-static yield strength than did the octahedrite or a hexahedrite. The underdense materials pose three primary experimental difficulties. First, the samples are friable; they can melt or sublimate during storage, preparation and testing. Second, they are brittle and crushable; they cannot withstand such treatment as traditional machining or launch in a gun system. Third, with increasing porosity the calculated Hugoniot density becomes rapidly more sensitive to errors in wave time-of-arrival measurements. Carefully chosen simulants eliminate preservation (friability) difficulties, but the other difficulties remain. A family of 36 impact tests was conducted on snow and snow simulants at Sandia, yielding reliable Hugoniot and reshock states, but limited release property information. Other methods for characterizing these materials are discussed.

Furnish, M.D.; Boslough, M.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gray, G.T. III [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Remo, J.L. [Quantametrics, Inc., St. James, NY (United States)

1994-07-01

243

Cash sub-additive risk measures and interest rate ambiguity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new class of risk measures called cash sub-additive risk measures is introduced to assess the risk of future financial, nonfinancial and insurance positions. The debated cash additive axiom is relaxed into the cash sub-additive axiom to preserve the original difference between the numeraire of the...

El Karoui, Nicole; Ravanelli, Claudia

244

Risk measures in practical use: risk reduction has its price, but is it known?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different risk measures are discussed in order to decide which to use to best express the risk workers are exposed to. A new risk measure is introduced and advantages and disadvantages are presented. The need for a new risk measure (Expected Number of Fatalities Rate ENFR), is discussed and explained with the help of an example. The example also contains a comparison with the well-known FAR-value. Also some problems and benefits of introducing a measure of the kind: ?RISK/?$ are discussed and conclusions made. The question of what amount of money should be used on risk reducing activities is also addressed.

1995-01-01

245

Risk measures in practical use: risk reduction has its price, but is it known?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different risk measures are discussed in order to decide which to use to best express the risk workers are exposed to. A new risk measure is introduced and advantages and disadvantages are presented. The need for a new risk measure (Expected Number of Fatalities Rate ENFR), is discussed and explained with the help of an example. The example also contains a comparison with the well-known FAR-value. Also some problems and benefits of introducing a measure of the kind: {delta}RISK/{delta}$ are discussed and conclusions made. The question of what amount of money should be used on risk reducing activities is also addressed.

Reinertsen, Rune

1995-07-01

246

Evaluation of environmental impacts caused by hydroelectric power plants in native forest areas and mitigation measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The following work has the intention of demonstrating the importance of native forest to the human life, not only through its inherent qualities as something to preserve, but also as a source of great resources, and in particular hydroelectric resource that, by today's necessities are bounded to be explored. The negative effects caused by the implementation of a hydroelectric plant are shown together with the necessity of adoption of measures that would soften the environment impact of it. For the adoption of those measures, many forest studies were proposed in the search for its complete characterization. Each of these studies are duly defined and presented in their general and specific goals. The most adequate methodology is finally recommended. (author). 14 refs

1992-01-01

247

Energy saving by improving efficiency - most important measures for GHG mitigation in Vietnam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper identifies the low energy efficiencies achieved in Vietnam in thermal power plants, power transmission and distribution, and coking appliances. Efficiency of coal consumption in thermal processes is estimated at 45.5%, fuel oil 45.8% and fuel wood 11%. Potential energy saving measures that could be implemented through an energy policy in the short term, medium term and long term, are itemised. Vietnam currently has a low emission of greenhouse gases but the ratio of greenhouse gas emission per unit of product is very high mainly because of outdated technologies and energy end-use. Energy demand will increase at a high rate and so there is a large scope for implementing energy saving measures and opportunities for `Activities implemented jointly` projects.

Le Nguyen Tuong

1998-08-01

248

Charge measurement and mitigation for the main test masses of the GEO 600 gravitational wave observatory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spurious charging of the test masses in gravitational wave interferometers is a well-known problem. Typically, concern arises due to the possibility of increased thermal noise due to a lowering of the quality factor of modes of the test-mass suspension, or due to the potential for increased displacement noise arising from charge migration on the surface of the test masses. Recent experience gained at the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector has highlighted an additional problem. GEO 600 uses electrostatic actuators to control the longitudinal position of the main test masses. The presence of charge on the test masses is shown to strongly affect the performance of the electrostatic actuators. This paper reports on a measurement scheme whereby the charge state of the GEO 600 test masses can be measured using the electrostatic actuators. The resulting measurements are expressed in terms of an effective bias voltage on the electrostatic actuators. We also describe attempts to remove the charge from the test masses and we show that the use of UV illumination was the most successful. Using UV illumination we were able to discharge and re-charge the test masses.

Hewitson, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) und Universitaet Hannover, Aussenstelle Hannover, Callinstr 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) und Universitaet Hannover, Aussenstelle Hannover, Callinstr 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Grote, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) und Universitaet Hannover, Aussenstelle Hannover, Callinstr 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Hild, S [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) und Universitaet Hannover, Aussenstelle Hannover, Callinstr 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Hough, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Lueck, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) und Universitaet Hannover, Aussenstelle Hannover, Callinstr 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Rowan, S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Smith, J R [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) und Universitaet Hannover, Aussenstelle Hannover, Callinstr 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Strain, K A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) und Universitaet Hannover, Aussenstelle Hannover, Callinstr 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Willke, B [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) und Universitaet Hannover, Aussenstelle Hannover, Callinstr 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2007-12-21

249

Cost–Benefit Analyses of Mitigation Measures Aimed at Reducing Collisions with Large Ungulates in the United States and Canada: a Decision Support Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wildlife–vehicle collisions, especially with deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and moose (Alces alces) are numerous and have shown an increasing trend over the last several decades in the United States and Canada. We calculated the costs associated with the average deer–, elk–, and moose–vehicle collision, including vehicle repair costs, human injuries and fatalities, towing, accident attendance and investigation, monetary value to hunters of the animal killed in the collision, and cost of disposal of the animal carcass. In addition, we reviewed the effectiveness and costs of 13 mitigation measures considered effective in reducing collisions with large ungulates. We conducted cost–benefit analyses over a 75-year period using discount rates of 1%, 3%, and 7% to identify the threshold values (in 2007 U.S. dollars) above which individual mitigation measures start generating benefits in excess of costs. These threshold values were translated into the number of deer–, elk–, or moose–vehicle collisions that need to occur per kilometer per year for a mitigation measure to start generating economic benefits in excess of costs. In addition, we calculated the costs associated with large ungulate–vehicle collisions on 10 road sections throughout the United States and Canada and compared these to the threshold values. Finally, we conducted a more detailed cost analysis for one of these road sections to illustrate that even though the average costs for large ungulate–vehicle collisions per kilometer per year may not meet the thresholds of many of the mitigation measures, specific locations on a road section can still exceed thresholds. We believe the cost–benefit model presented in this paper can be a valuable decision support tool for determining mitigation measures to reduce ungulate–vehicle collisions.

Marcel P. Huijser; John W. Duffield; Anthony P. Clevenger; Robert J. Ament; Pat T. McGowen

2009-01-01

250

The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences

2006-01-01

251

Major transport mechanisms of pyrethroids in residential settings and effects of mitigation measures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The major pathways for transport of pyrethroids were determined in runoff studies conducted at a full scale test facility in central California. The six replicate house lots were typical of front lawns and house fronts of California residential developments and consisted of stucco walls, garage doors, driveways, and residential lawn irrigation sprinkler systems. Each of the six lots also included a rainfall simulator to generate artificial rainfall events. Different pyrethroids were applied to five surfaces-driveway, garage door and adjacent walls, lawn, lawn perimeter (grass near the house walls), and house walls above grass. The volume of runoff water from each house lot was measured, sampled, and analyzed to determine the amount of pyrethroid mass lost from each surface. Applications to three of the house lots were made using the application practices typically used prior to recent label changes, while applications were made to the other three house lots according to the revised application procedures. Results from the house lots using the historic application procedures showed that losses of the compounds applied to the driveway and garage door (including the adjacent walls) were 99.75 percent of total measured runoff losses. The highest losses were associated with significant rainfall events rather than lawn irrigation events. However, runoff losses were 40 times less using the revised application procedures recently specified on pyrethroid labels. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC.

Davidson PC; Jones RL; Harbourt CM; Hendley P; Goodwin GE; Sliz BA

2013-10-01

252

Distortion risk measures for sums of dependent losses  

CERN Multimedia

We discuss two distinct approaches, for distorting risk measures of sums of dependent random variables, which preserve the property of coherence. The first, based on distorted expectations, operates on the survival function of the sum. The second, simultaneously applies the distortion on the survival function of the sum and the dependence structure of risks, represented by copulas. Our goal is to propose risk measures that take into account the fluctuations of losses and possible correlations between risk components.

Brahimi, Brahim; Necir, Abdelhakim

2011-01-01

253

Identification studies about take measures for mitigate of gas emissions greenhouse effect in energy Sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the Unit Nations Convention about Climatic change has get stability of greenhouse effects in atmosphere concentrations. In the framework to Uruguay Project URU/95/631 have been defined the need to identify, measures, practices, process and technologies for reduce some emissions furthermore in Energy sector. Emission impact, cost-benefit, direct or iundirect, national programs, factibility such as social, politics and Institutional agreements was considered in the present work. It was given emissions proyected for 15 years period 1999-2013 of the following atmospheric pollutants: carbon dioxide,carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and methane.Eight stages was applied the emission evaluation: natural gas; without natural gas; transport; industrial; Montevidean bus- car demand; natural gas uses in bus-taxi; nitrogen oxides control in thermic centrals; catalytic converters in gasoline cars

1999-01-01

254

Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha(-1) in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age (< 25 years vs. > or = 25 years), stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen), tree species origin (native vs. exotic) of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation) and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt), and study regions (tropic vs. temperate). The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

Liao C; Luo Y; Fang C; Li B

2010-01-01

255

Comprehensive assessments of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas; Heat shinku wo riyoshita daikibo reibo system no kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the assessment method of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas. The heat island phenomena were classified into meso-scale with 100 km-scale, block-scale with several km-scale, and building-scale with 100 m-scale. Urban thermal environment simulation model was developed in response to each scale. For the development, regional data using aircraft and artificial satellite observations, surface observation and thermal environment observation at Shinjuku new central city of Tokyo, and artificial waste heat actual survey data in the southern Kanto district were utilized. Results of the urban thermal environment simulation were introduced as an application of this model. Temperature distributions of the heat island in the Kanto district were simulated with considering urban conditions near Tokyo and without considering it. Daily changes of wall surfaces of high buildings and road surface were calculated. Increase in the air temperature in the back stream of building roofs with increased temperature was determined. 4 figs.

Mizuno, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yoshikado, H.; Kondo, H.; Kaneho, N.; Saegusa, N.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Inoue, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

1997-02-01

256

Measurement and pricing of risk in insurance markets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The theory and practice of risk measurement provides a point of intersection between risk management, economic theories of choice under risk, financial economics, and actuarial pricing theory. This article provides a review of these interrelationships, from the perspective of an insurance company seeking to price the risks that it underwrites. We examine three distinct approaches to insurance risk pricing, all being contingent on the concept of risk measures. Risk measures can be interpreted as representations of risk orderings, as well as absolute (monetary) quantifiers of risk. The first approach can be called an "axiomatic" one, whereby the price for risks is calculated according to a functional determined by a set of desirable properties. The price of a risk is directly interpreted as a risk measure and may be induced by an economic theory of price under risk. The second approach consists in contextualizing the considerations of the risk bearer by embedding them in the market where risks are traded. Prices are calculated by equilibrium arguments, where each economic agent's optimization problem follows from the minimization of a risk measure. Finally, in the third approach, weaknesses of the equilibrium approach are addressed by invoking alternative valuation techniques, the leading paradigm among which is arbitrage pricing. Such models move the focus from individual decision takers to abstract market price systems and are thus more parsimonious in the amount of information that they require. In this context, risk measures, instead of characterizing individual agents, are used for determining the set of price systems that would be viable in a market.

Tsanakas A; Desli E

2005-12-01

257

Address to the international workshop on greenhouse gas mitigation, technologies and measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Netherlands has a long history in combatting natural forces for it`s mere survival and even creation. Around half of the country was not Yet existent around 2000 years ago: it was still below sea level that time. Building dikes and the discovery of eolic energy applied in windmills, allowing to pump water from one side of the dike to the other, are technologies that gradually shaped the country into its current form, a process that continues to materialize till the present day. Water has not always been an enemy of the country. In the Hundred Year War with Spain, during which the country was occupied territory for most of the time, the water was used to drive the Spanish armies from the country. As large parts are well below sea level breaking the dikes resulted in flooding the country which made the armoury of the Spanish army useless. In this way they had to give up the siege of several major Dutch cities that time. These events marked the gradual liberation of the Dutch territory. Consequently, in the discussion on adaption and prevention of the greenhouse effect the Netherlands has a clear stand. The greenhouse effect will occur anyway, even if countries deploy all possible counter measures at once. So their aim is to prevent the occurrence of the greenhouse effect to the highest extent possible, and to protect the most vulnerable areas meanwhile, especially the coastal zones. In order to reach these goals the Dutch government has established a Joint Implementation Experimental Programme in accordance with the provisions made by the Conference of Parties in Berlin (1995).

Kant, A.

1996-12-31

258

The Price of Dynamic Inconsistency for Distortion Risk Measures  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper, we investigate two different frameworks for assessing the risk in a multi-period decision process: a dynamically inconsistent formulation (whereby a single, static risk measure is applied to the entire sequence of future costs), and a dynamically consistent one, obtained by suitably composing one-step risk mappings. We characterize the class of dynamically consistent measures that provide a tight approximation for a given inconsistent measure, and discuss how the approximation factors can be computed. For the case where the consistent measures are given by Average Value-at-Risk, we derive a polynomial-time algorithm for approximating an arbitrary inconsistent distortion measure. We also present exact analytical bounds for the case where the dynamically inconsistent measure is also given by Average Value-at-Risk, and briefly discuss managerial implications in multi-period risk-assessment processes. Our theoretical and algorithmic constructions exploit interesting connections between the study of...

Huang, Pu; Petrik, Marek; Subramanian, Dharmashankar

2011-01-01

259

What risk measures are time consistent for all filtrations?  

CERN Multimedia

We study coherent risk measures which are time-consistent for multiple filtrations. We show that a coherent risk measure is time-consistent for every filtration if and only if it is one of four main types. Furthermore, if the risk measure is strictly monotone it is linear, and if the reference probability space is not atomic then it is either linear or an essential supremum.

Cohen, Samuel N

2010-01-01

260

Bank Risk Measurement: A Critical Evaluation at a European Bank  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article assesses bank management’s perspective on the use and effectiveness of the risk measurement system under Basel II that setcapital requirements for banks. These requirements encouraged the use of risk measurement. Semi-structured interviews with various bank managers at Viking Bank (a fictitious name) provide the empirical data for this research. These interviews were conducted after the global financial crisis that led, among other events, to the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers. Viking Bank was an important European bank that embraced Basel II and risk measurement. In its efforts to implement risk measurement, the bank’s management accounting department was reduced and subordinated to the risk measurement department. Risk measurement information became the bank’s primary source of information for some loans. However, in their decision-making, managers showed mixed support for risk measurement that had, in some instances, become disconnected from operations. For other loans, they preferred to use their so-called Expert Judgement. The narrow and limited career paths available for the risk measurement specialists also reflected the decreased influence of risk measurement on decision-making at the bank.

Gunnar Wahlström

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Measuring the value of reduced health risks: the hedonic price technique applied on the case of radon radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to estimate the value of reduced health risks due to decreased radon radiation in single-family houses. The presence of radon - a radioactive gas - in houses is a serious health problem in Sweden. It is estimated that radon radiation will cause about 1100 cases of lung cancer each year during the 1990's. Estimates of the value of reducing radon radiation risks may be useful for cost-benefit analyses regarding, for instance, governmental policies concerning measures against radon radiation. By the aid of the hedonic price technique, the maximum willingness to pay of a household for a change from a radiation level higher than the former Swedish standard for radon radiation (400 Becquerel per cubic metre of air, Bq/m[sup 3]) to a radiation level below this standard is estimated. The hedonic price technique is one of the methods designed for estimation of peoples valuation of non-market goods. It is argued that this study provides a good opportunity to try the usefulness of this valuation method. The estimation procedure employed in this study is based on a simplified version of a theoretical model described by Epple. The conclusion drawn after this comparison is that households that are not mitigating are likely to be those who think that the mitigation costs are high. It is also noted that if the existing governmental grants to mitigating households become more popular, they should have a large influence on the amount of mitigations, since they, in many cases, decrease mitigation costs to a level below households maximum willingness to pay for reduced radon radiation. (56 refs.) (au).

Soederqvist, T. (Stockholm School of Economics, (Sweden))

1991-09-01

262

Measuring the value of reduced health risks: the hedonic price technique applied on the case of radon radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to estimate the value of reduced health risks due to decreased radon radiation in single-family houses. The presence of radon - a radioactive gas - in houses is a serious health problem in Sweden. It is estimated that radon radiation will cause about 1100 cases of lung cancer each year during the 1990's. Estimates of the value of reducing radon radiation risks may be useful for cost-benefit analyses regarding, for instance, governmental policies concerning measures against radon radiation. By the aid of the hedonic price technique, the maximum willingness to pay of a household for a change from a radiation level higher than the former Swedish standard for radon radiation (400 Becquerel per cubic metre of air, Bq/m3) to a radiation level below this standard is estimated. The hedonic price technique is one of the methods designed for estimation of peoples valuation of non-market goods. It is argued that this study provides a good opportunity to try the usefulness of this valuation method. The estimation procedure employed in this study is based on a simplified version of a theoretical model described by Epple. The conclusion drawn after this comparison is that households that are not mitigating are likely to be those who think that the mitigation costs are high. It is also noted that if the existing governmental grants to mitigating households become more popular, they should have a large influence on the amount of mitigations, since they, in many cases, decrease mitigation costs to a level below households maximum willingness to pay for reduced radon radiation. (56 refs.) (au).

1991-01-01

263

Comparative and qualitative robustness for law-invariant risk measures  

CERN Document Server

When estimating the risk of a P&L from historical data or Monte Carlo simulation, the robustness of the estimate is important. We argue here that Hampel's classical notion of qualitative robustness is not suitable for risk measurement and we propose and analyze a refined notion of robustness that applies to tail-dependent law-invariant convex risk measures on Orlicz space. This concept of robustness captures the tradeoff between robustness and sensitivity and can be quantified by an index of qualitative robustness. By means of this index, we can compare various risk measures, such as distortion risk measures, in regard to their degree of robustness. Our analysis also yields results that are of independent interest such as continuity properties and consistency of estimators for risk measures, or a Skorohod representation theorem for {\\psi}-weak convergence.

Krätschmer, Volker; Zähle, Henryk

2012-01-01

264

Convex Risk Measures: Lebesgue Property on one Period and Multi Period Risk Measures and Application in Capital Allocation Problem  

CERN Multimedia

In this work we study the Lebesgue property for convex risk measures on the space of bounded c\\`adl\\`ag random processes ($\\mathcal{R}^\\infty$). Lebesgue property has been defined for one period convex risk measures in \\cite{Jo} and earlier had been studied in \\cite{De} for coherent risk measures. We introduce and study the Lebesgue property for convex risk measures in the multi period framework. We give presentation of all convex risk measures with Lebesgue property on bounded c\\`adl\\`ag processes. To do that we need to have a complete description of compact sets of $\\mathcal{A}^1$. The main mathematical contribution of this paper is the characterization of the compact sets of $\\mathcal{A}^p$ (including $\\mathcal{A}^1$). At the final part of this paper, we will solve the Capital Allocation Problem when we work with coherent risk measures.

Assa, Hirbod

2008-01-01

265

An Assessment of Nigerian Stakeholders’ the Perception of Environmental Offset as Mitigation Measures and Its’ Implication for Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An important tool for sustainable development in any country is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and an important component of EIA is impact mitigation. In most cases, certain unwanted impacts of development projects are left without mitigation thereby reducing the gains of such developments. Thus, emerging in current literature is the concept of Environmental offset which provides a leeway for residual impacts of development projects. This study therefore assesses the perception and level of application of the environmental offset strategy by EIA Practitioners and other stakeholders in the mitigation of negative environmental impacts of developments in the Niger Delta, Nigeria as that would have significant implication for sustainable development efforts in Nigeria. The study found out that there is negative perception among the host communities about the suitability of offset as mitigation measure. Even though the EIA practitioners considers Environmental offset as a viable option, its adoption has been marred by the misgiving of the local people. This misgiving could be attributed to the long period of neglect and abandonment which has led to abject poverty in the region and loss of confidence in any institutional frameworks. Thus, this study concludes that the drive towards sustainable Development in Nigeria would remain a mirage unless the local people are properly integrated in the scheme of things.

P.C. Mmom; C.F. Igwe

2011-01-01

266

Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 'Risk of damage' and 'exposure risk' are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the 'exposure risk' on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Basing upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high 'exposure risk'. As a consequence the following recommendations are given for discussion: (a) occupationally exposed persons with small 'exposure risk' should be monitored using only a long-term dosimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence dosimeter), (b) in the case of internal exposure the surface and, if necessary, air contamination should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed. (author)

1975-01-01

267

Dynamic portfolio managment based on complex quantile risk measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article focuses on effectiveness evaluation combined measures of financial risks, which are convex combinations of measures VaR, CVaR and their analogues for the right distribution tail functions of a portfolio returns.

Ekaterina V. Tulupova

2011-01-01

268

Real-valued conditional convex risk measures in Lp(?, R)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The numerical representation of convex risk measures beyond essentially bounded financial positions is an important topic which has been the theme of recent literature. In other direction, it has been discussed the assessment of essentially bounded risks taking explicitly new information into account, i.e., conditional convex risk measures. In this paper we combine these two lines of research. We discuss the numerical representation of conditional convex risk measures which are defined in a space Lp(?, R), for p ? 1, and take values in hbox{$L^1(mg,R)$}L1(

Erick Treviño-Aguilar

2011-01-01

269

MEASURING OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS IN TOURISM COMPANIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper focuses on a particular methodology for measuring the occupational health and safety risks in tourism companies by numerical risk coefficients. The methodology is based on the achievements of several US and international research and innovation development programs, such as: “SSP”, “ISSP”, “F/A-18” and “AFMC”. Under this methodology, the occupational health and safety risks are regarded as a function of three variable factors: the likelihood of occurrence of a negative, risk event; the consequences from the realization of this very same risk event and the immediacy of occurrence of the risk event in respect of time. The values of each of these three variables are being measured by the help of score card estimation tables and are being presented as per a zero-referent scale of 1 to 10 or of 1 to 100. Thus a final estimation of the value of a certain occupational health and safety risk can be achieved. The advantages and the opportunities for improving of this methodology on an enterprise level are reviewed as well. The main advantage which is pointed out is that the methodology could by used even by inexperienced tourism company which has small or small or no past record of health and safety risk measurement.In the addition to the risk measurement and quantification methodology, a set of criteria for acceptance of the occupational health and safety risks are also presented. This includes: the usage of risk matrixes, the “f-N” curves and the “ALARP” principle.

Preslav DIMITROV

2009-01-01

270

Rapid cholesterol measurement: patient classification in heart risk evaluation clinics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma cholesterol levels of patients attending a heart risk evaluation clinic were measured both in the clinic at the time of attendance, and later in a reference laboratory. The workflow of evaluation clinics may be improved, and patient satisfaction enhanced, by in situ measurement, since more than 60% of patients can be given a complete risk score at the time of attendance. PMID:470690

Fraser, C G; Peake, M J; Calvert, G D

1979-05-19

271

Rapid cholesterol measurement: patient classification in heart risk evaluation clinics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasma cholesterol levels of patients attending a heart risk evaluation clinic were measured both in the clinic at the time of attendance, and later in a reference laboratory. The workflow of evaluation clinics may be improved, and patient satisfaction enhanced, by in situ measurement, since more than 60% of patients can be given a complete risk score at the time of attendance.

Fraser CG; Peake MJ; Calvert GD

1979-05-01

272

Bank Risk Measurement: A Critical Evaluation at a European Bank  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article assesses bank management’s perspective on the use and effectiveness of the risk measurement system under Basel II that setcapital requirements for banks. These requirements encouraged the use of risk measurement. Semi-structured interviews with various bank managers at Viking Bank (a...

Gunnar Wahlström

273

Fuel consumption and life cycle GHG emissions by China’s on-road trucks: Future trends through 2050 and evaluation of mitigation measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We established a bottom-up model to deliver the future trends of fuel consumption and life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by China's on-road trucks. The mitigation measures of mileage utilization rate (MUR) improvement, fuel consumption rate (FCR) improvement, and penetration of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled trucks were evaluated. With no mitigation measures implemented, in the year 2050, the total fuel consumption and life cycle GHG emissions by China's on-road trucks were projected to reach 498 million toe and 2125 million tons, respectively, approximately 5.2 times the level in 2010. If the MUR of trucks in China is increased from the current status as those of the developed countries, a 13% reduction of total fuel consumption can be achieved after 2020. If the FCR of trucks is reduced by 10% in 2011, 2016, 2021, and 2026, a 30% reduction of total fuel consumption can be achieved after 2030. Moreover, if the share of LNG fueled trucks in all newly registered semi-trailer towing trucks and heavy-duty trucks is increased to 20% in 2030, an estimate of 7.9% and 10.9% of the total diesel consumption by trucks will be replaced by LNG in 2030 and 2050, respectively. - Highlights: ? We establish a bottom–up model to deliver the fuel consumption and GHG emissions by China's trucks. ? Without mitigation measures, the truck fuel consumption in 2050 will be 5.2 times the level in 2010. ? Fuel conservation and GHG reduction effects of three mitigation measures were evaluated.

274

Irradiation embrittlement mitigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mitigation methods for reducing the irradiation damage on pressure vessel materials are reviewed: load leakage loading schemes are commonly used in PWRs to mitigate reactor pressure vessel embrittlement; dummy assemblies have been applied in WWER 440-type and in some old western power plants, when exceptional fast embrittlement has been encountered; shielding of the pressure vessel has been developed, but is not in common use; pre-stressing the pressure vessel has been proposed for preventing PTS failures, but its applicability is not yet demonstrated. The large number of successful annealing treatments performed in WWER 440 type reactors as well as research on the effects of annealing treatments suggest applications for western PWRs. The emergency core cooling systems have been modified in WWER 440-type reactors in connection with other mitigation measures. (authors). 37 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

1993-01-01

275

Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

276

The changing landscape of opioid prescribing: long-acting and extended-release opioid class-wide Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jeffrey A GudinEnglewood Hospital and Medical Center, Englewood, NJ, USAAbstract: Prescriptions for opioid analgesics to manage moderate-to-severe chronic noncancer pain have increased markedly over the last decade, as have postmarketing reports of adverse events associated with opioids. As an unintentional consequence of greater prescription opioid utilization, there has been the parallel increase in misuse, abuse, and overdose, which are serious risks associated with all opioid analgesics. In response to these concerns, the Food and Drug Administration announced the requirement for a class-wide Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for long-acting and extended-release (ER) opioid analgesics in April 2011. An understanding of the details of this REMS will be of particular importance to primary care providers. The class-wide REMS is focused on educating health care providers and patients on appropriate prescribing and safe use of ER opioids. Support from primary care will be necessary for the success of this REMS, as these clinicians are the predominant providers of care and the main prescribers of opioid analgesics for patients with chronic pain. Although currently voluntary, future policy will likely dictate that providers undergo mandatory training to continue prescribing medications within this class. This article outlines the elements of the class-wide REMS for ER opioids and clarifies the impact on primary care providers with regard to training, patient education, and clinical practice.Keywords: long-acting opioid, extended-release opioid, risk, REMS, FDA, primary care

Gudin JA

2012-01-01

277

FOLLOW-UP DURABILITY MEASUREMENTS AND MITIGATION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT TESTS IN 38 EASTERN PENNSYLVANIA HOUSES HAVING INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of follow-up tests in 38 difficult- to-mitigate Pennsylvania houses where indoor radon reduction systems had been installed 2 to 4 years earlier. bjectives were to assess system durability, methods for improving performance, and methods for reducing insta...

278

Analysis of Hydrogen Risk Mitigation System for Severe Accidents of EU-APR1400 Using MAAP4 code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the EUR (European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants), it is mandatory that the HMS (Hydrogen Mitigation System) of the Eu-APR1400 should be equipped with a passive or automatic hydrogen control system. Considering this requirement, a PAR (Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner) system was adopted for the HMS of the Eu-APR1400. This passive HMS should be evaluated carefully in order to ensure that the HMS has adequate capacity to control hydrogen concentrations during severe accident conditions and to show that the system can satisfy the design requirements of the EUR. In this paper, analyses were carried out to examine the effectiveness of the HMS incorporated into the Eu- APR1400 design. These analyses were performed using the MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program) 4 code. in order to identify whether the HMS could control the average hydrogen concentrations in the containment, such that the concentration would not exceed 10 percent by volume: the analyses also considered whether there was the possibility of inadvertent hydrogen combustion in such processes as FA (Flame Acceleration) and DDT (Deflagration to Detonation Transition)

Kim, Mun Soo; Suh, Jung Soo; Bae, Byoung Hwan [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15

279

Analysis of Hydrogen Risk Mitigation System for Severe Accidents of EU-APR1400 Using MAAP4 code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the EUR (European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants), it is mandatory that the HMS (Hydrogen Mitigation System) of the Eu-APR1400 should be equipped with a passive or automatic hydrogen control system. Considering this requirement, a PAR (Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner) system was adopted for the HMS of the Eu-APR1400. This passive HMS should be evaluated carefully in order to ensure that the HMS has adequate capacity to control hydrogen concentrations during severe accident conditions and to show that the system can satisfy the design requirements of the EUR. In this paper, analyses were carried out to examine the effectiveness of the HMS incorporated into the Eu- APR1400 design. These analyses were performed using the MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program) 4 code. in order to identify whether the HMS could control the average hydrogen concentrations in the containment, such that the concentration would not exceed 10 percent by volume: the analyses also considered whether there was the possibility of inadvertent hydrogen combustion in such processes as FA (Flame Acceleration) and DDT (Deflagration to Detonation Transition)

2011-01-01

280

Risk assessment and national measure plan for oil and HNS spill accidents near Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many oil and HNS spill accidents occur in the waters surrounding the Korean Peninsula because Korea is one of the biggest trading partners in the world. In this study, we analyzed the oil and HNS spill accidents that occurred between 1994 and 2005 and created risk matrices to assess these accidents. The worst scenarios of future oil and HNS spill accidents were established, and the maximum spill amounts were estimated using historic accident data and a correlation from IPIECA. The maximum spill amounts are estimated to be between 77,000 and 10,000 tons of oil and HNS, respectively. One third of the spill materials should be removed using recovery equipment within three days of the spill event, according to the national measure plan. The capability of recovery equipment to remove spill materials can be estimated, and the equipment should then be prepared to mitigate the harmful effects of future oil and HNS accidents on humans and marine ecosystems.

Lee M; Jung JY

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Reducing transfusion-related acute lung injury risk: evidence for and approaches to transfusion-related acute lung injury mitigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a major cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. Although the pathogenesis of TRALI is incompletely understood, substantial data from hemovigilance systems, large case series, clinical trials, and animal models have identified antileukocyte antibodies as a major precipitant and have contributed to the development of concrete interventions to reduce the risk of TRALI. This review presents the clinical data supporting specific donor management strategies to reduce TRALI risk and their observed clinical efficacy. Novel strategies that use the donor health questionnaire combined with testing are discussed, and important challenges that remain going forward are explored.

Makar RS; Powers A; Stowell CP

2012-10-01

282

Relative Hazard and Risk Measure Calculation Methodology Rev 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Documentation of the methodology used to calculate relative hazard and risk measure results for the DOE complex wide risk profiles. This methodology is used on major site risk profiles. In February 1997, the Center for Risk Excellence (CRE) was created and charged as a technical, field-based partner to the Office of Science and Risk Policy (EM-52). One of the initial charges to the CRE is to assist the sites in the development of ''site risk profiles.'' These profiles are to be relatively short summaries (periodically updated) that present a broad perspective on the major risk related challenges that face the respective site. The risk profiles are intended to serve as a high-level communication tool for interested internal and external parties to enhance the understanding of these risk-related challenges. The risk profiles for each site have been designed to qualitatively present the following information: (1) a brief overview of the site, (2) a brief discussion on the historical mission of the site, (3) a quote from the site manager indicating the site's commitment to risk management, (4) a listing of the site's top risk-related challenges, (5) a brief discussion and detailed table presenting the site's current risk picture, (6) a brief discussion and detailed table presenting the site's future risk reduction picture, and (7) graphic illustrations of the projected management of the relative hazards at the site. The graphic illustrations were included to provide the reader of the risk profiles with a high-level mental picture to associate with all the qualitative information presented in the risk profile. Inclusion of these graphic illustrations presented the CRE with the challenge of how to fold this high-level qualitative risk information into a system to produce a numeric result that would depict the relative change in hazard, associated with each major risk management action, so it could be presented graphically. This report presents the methodology developed to produce the graphic illustrations showing the relative hazard and risk reductions that occur as a result of a site's projected risk management actions. The evaluation of relative hazard values is described and illustrated first (Sections 2 and 3) followed by the risk measure evaluations (Sections 4 and 5).

2000-01-01

283

Index to Measure a System's Performance Risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) are traditionally defined and evaluated to assess how well a system is achieving its performance requirements. Typically dozens of TPMs are defined for a system. Although they generate useful information and data abou...

P. R. Garvey C. Cho

2003-01-01

284

Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's 4. annual oil sands supply and infrastructure conference : maximizing opportunity and mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference addressed the challenges facing oil sands development, with particular reference to supply and infrastructure issues. Updates on oil sands markets and opportunities were presented along with strategies for mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market. The best practices for supplying a demanding market through supply shortages and high prices were identified along with policies that should be implemented to help overcome labour shortages. Some presentations expressed how commodities pricing and trends can impact business. Others showed how markets in China and the United States are prepared for oilsands products. The views of other international companies on oil sands was also discussed along with proposed plans to eliminate the infrastructure congestion and risks caused by expanding oil sands development. The challenges and benefits of investing in Alberta's oil sands were reviewed along with strategies to enhance upgrading and refining capacity in the province. Economic drivers and the creation of new markets were examined, and various export opportunities were reviewed along with industry management challenges concerning human resources, labour supply, training and education. The conference featured 10 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

2006-01-01

285

An empirical comparison of different risk measures in portfolio optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risk is one of the important parameters in portfolio optimization problem. Since the introduction ofthe mean-variance model, variance has become the most common risk measure used by practitionersand researchers in portfolio optimization. However, the mean-variance model relies strictly on theassumptions that assets returns are multivariate normally distributed or investors have a quadratic utilityfunction. Many studies have proposed different risk measures to overcome the drawbacks of variance.The purpose of this paper is to discuss and compare the portfolio compositions and performancesof four different portfolio optimization models employing different risk measures, specifically thevariance, absolute deviation, minimax and semi-variance. Results of this study show that the minimaxmodel outperforms the other models. The minimax model is appropriate for investors who have a strongdownside risk aversion.

Lam Weng Hoe; Jaaman Saiful Hafizah; Isa Zaidi

2010-01-01

286

Hawaiian cultural influences on support for lava flow hazard mitigation measures during the January 1960 eruption of Ki??lauea volcano, Kapoho, Hawai'i  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1960, Ki??lauea volcano in Hawaii erupted, destroying most of the village of Kapoho and forcing evacuation of its approximately 300 residents. A large and unprecedented social science survey was undertaken during the eruption to develop an understanding of human behavior, beliefs, and coping strategies among the adult evacuees (n = 160). Identical studies were also performed in three control towns located at varying distances from the eruption site (n = 478). During these studies data were collected that characterized ethnic grouping and attitudes toward Hawaiian cultural issues such as belief in Pele and two lava flow mitigation measures-use of barriers and bombs to influence the flow of lava, but the data were never published. Using these forgotten data, we examined the relationship between Hawaiian cultural issues and attitudes toward the use of barriers and bombs as mitigation strategies to protect Kapoho. On average, 72% of respondents favored the construction of earthen barriers to hold back or divert lava and protect Kapoho, but far fewer agreed with the military's use of bombs (14%) to protect Kapoho. In contrast, about one-third of respondents conditionally agreed with the use of bombs. It is suggested that local participation in the bombing strategy may explain the increased conditional acceptance of bombs as a mitigation tool, although this can not be conclusively demonstrated. Belief in Pele and being of Hawaiian ethnicity did not reduce support for the use of barriers, but did reduce support for bombs in both bombing scenarios. The disparity in levels of acceptance of barriers versus bombing and of one bombing strategy versus another suggests that historically public attitudes toward lava flow hazard mitigation strategies were complex. A modern comparative study is needed before the next damaging eruption to inform debates and decisions about whether or not to interfere with the flow of lava. Recent changes in the current eruption of Ki??lauea make this a timely topic. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Paton, D.; Swanson, D. A.; Lachman, R.; Bonk, W. J.

2008-01-01

287

Application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to mitigate operating and maintenance cost increases for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Operating nuclear power generation facilities face increased pressure from state utility commissions to improve the cost effectiveness of operations and maintenance programs. Some costs are not allowed for inclusion in the current rate base and represent an operating loss to the utility. State regulators seem more willing to use operating and maintenance cost comparisons of competing technologies, such as existing fossil and cogeneration facilities. In contrast to these pressures are the requirements applied by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to improve the ''quality'' of operations. The NRC, as a regulator, sometimes uses conflicting parameters to judge the effectiveness of operations, and often issues regulations that significantly impact operating costs. As Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) are completed and submitted to the NRC for review, numerous additional opportunities exist for application of PRA methodology and plant specific results to address the risk impact of recent regulations. Quadrex Corporation is currently performing research for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to investigate the application of risk analysis to improve the cost effectiveness of operations and maintenance programs for nuclear plants. The project is being performed with the cooperation of two participating utilities. The focus of the investigation is the use of the plant specific risk analysis to improve the cost effectiveness of efforts associated with utility response to NRC Generic Letter 89-10; a program that can significantly increase the requirements for motor-operated valve testing and surveillance programs. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

1994-01-01

288

Risks evaluation and mitigation in the new energetic markets; Avaliacao e mitigacao de riscos nos novos mercados energeticos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to evaluate the Brazilian electric power market risks and the their agents' relationship after the privatization advent.

Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Vieira, Daniela Calazans; Krause, Gilson Galvao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

1999-07-01

289

The importance of risk-aversion as a measurable psychological parameter governing risk-taking behaviour  

Science.gov (United States)

A utility function with risk-aversion as its sole parameter is developed and used to examine the well-known psychological phenomenon, whereby risk averse people adopt behavioural strategies that are extreme and apparently highly risky. The pioneering work of the psychologist, John W. Atkinson, is revisited, and utility theory is used to extend his mathematical model. His explanation of the psychology involved is improved by regarding risk-aversion not as a discrete variable with three possible states: risk averse, risk neutral and risk confident, but as continuous and covering a large range. A probability distribution is derived, the "motivational density", to describe the process of selecting tasks of different degrees of difficulty. An assessment is then made of practicable methods for measuring risk-aversion.

Thomas, P. J.

2013-09-01

290

Dynamic monetary risk measures for bounded discrete-time processes  

CERN Multimedia

We study time-consistency questions for processes of monetary risk measures that depend on bounded discrete-time processes describing the evolution of financial values. The time horizon can be finite or infinite. We call a process of monetary risk measures time-consistent if it assigns to a process of financial values the same risk irrespective of whether it is calculated directly or in two steps backwards in time, and we show how this property manifests itself in the corresponding process of acceptance sets. For processes of coherent and convex monetary risk measures admitting a robust representation with sigma-additive linear functionals, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for time-consistency in terms of the representing functionals.

Cheridito, P; Kupper, M; Cheridito, Patrick; Delbaen, Freddy; Kupper, Michael

2004-01-01

291

Minimising mortality in endangered raptors due to power lines: the importance of spatial aggregation to optimize the application of mitigation measures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electrocution by power lines is one of the main causes of non-natural mortality in birds of prey. In an area in central Spain, we surveyed 6304 pylons from 333 power lines to determine electrocution rates, environmental and design factors that may influence electrocution and the efficacy of mitigation measures used to minimise electrocution cases. A total of 952 electrocuted raptors, representing 14 different species, were observed. Electrocuted raptors were concentrated in certain areas and the environmental factors associated with increased electrocution events were: greater numbers of prey animals; greater vegetation cover; and shorter distance to roads. The structural elements associated with electrocutions were shorter strings of insulators, one or more phases over the crossarm, cross-shaped design and pylon function. Of the 952 carcasses found, 148 were eagles, including golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) and Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata). Electrocuted eagles were clustered in smaller areas than other electrocuted raptors. The factors associated with increased eagle electrocution events were: pylons function, shorter strings of insulators, higher slopes surrounding the pylon, and more numerous potential prey animals. Pylons with increased string of insulators had lower raptor electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, although this technique was unsuccessful for eagles. Pylons with cable insulation showed higher electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, both for raptors and eagles, despite this is the most widely used and recommended mitigation measure in several countries. To optimize the application of mitigation measures, our results recommend the substitution of pin-type insulators to suspended ones and elongating the strings of insulators.

Guil F; Fernández-Olalla M; Moreno-Opo R; Mosqueda I; Gómez ME; Aranda A; Arredondo A; Guzmán J; Oria J; González LM; Margalida A

2011-01-01

292

Minimising mortality in endangered raptors due to power lines: the importance of spatial aggregation to optimize the application of mitigation measures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrocution by power lines is one of the main causes of non-natural mortality in birds of prey. In an area in central Spain, we surveyed 6304 pylons from 333 power lines to determine electrocution rates, environmental and design factors that may influence electrocution and the efficacy of mitigation measures used to minimise electrocution cases. A total of 952 electrocuted raptors, representing 14 different species, were observed. Electrocuted raptors were concentrated in certain areas and the environmental factors associated with increased electrocution events were: greater numbers of prey animals; greater vegetation cover; and shorter distance to roads. The structural elements associated with electrocutions were shorter strings of insulators, one or more phases over the crossarm, cross-shaped design and pylon function. Of the 952 carcasses found, 148 were eagles, including golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) and Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata). Electrocuted eagles were clustered in smaller areas than other electrocuted raptors. The factors associated with increased eagle electrocution events were: pylons function, shorter strings of insulators, higher slopes surrounding the pylon, and more numerous potential prey animals. Pylons with increased string of insulators had lower raptor electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, although this technique was unsuccessful for eagles. Pylons with cable insulation showed higher electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, both for raptors and eagles, despite this is the most widely used and recommended mitigation measure in several countries. To optimize the application of mitigation measures, our results recommend the substitution of pin-type insulators to suspended ones and elongating the strings of insulators. PMID:22140549

Guil, Francisco; Fernández-Olalla, Mariana; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Mosqueda, Ignacio; Gómez, María Elena; Aranda, Antonio; Arredondo, Angel; Guzmán, José; Oria, Javier; González, Luis Mariano; Margalida, Antoni

2011-11-28

293

Assessment of the Seismic Risk in the City of Yerevan and its Mitigation by Application of Innovative Seismic Isolation Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

It is obvious that the problem of precise assessment and/or analysis of seismic hazard (SHA) is quite a serious issue, and seismic risk reduction considerably depends on it. It is well known that there are two approaches in seismic hazard analysis, namely, deterministic (DSHA) and probabilistic (PSHA). The latter utilizes statistical estimates of earthquake parameters. However, they may not exist in a specific region, and using PSHA it is difficult to take into account local aspects, such as specific regional geology and site effects, with sufficient precision. For this reason, DSHA is preferable in many cases. After the destructive 1988 Spitak earthquake, the SHA of the territory of Armenia has been revised and increased. The distribution pattern for seismic risk in Armenia is given. Maximum seismic risk is concentrated in the region of the capital, the city of Yerevan, where 40% of the republic's population resides. We describe the method used for conducting seismic resistance assessment of the existing reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings. Using this assessment, as well as GIS technology, the coefficients characterizing the seismic risk of destruction were calculated for almost all buildings of Yerevan City. The results of the assessment are presented. It is concluded that, presently, there is a particularly pressing need for strengthening existing buildings. We then describe non-conventional approaches to upgrading the earthquake resistance of existing multistory R/C frame buildings by means of Additional Isolated Upper Floor (AIUF) and of existing stone and frame buildings by means of base isolation. In addition, innovative seismic isolation technologies were developed and implemented in Armenia for construction of new multistory multifunctional buildings. The advantages of these technologies are listed in the paper. It is worth noting that the aforementioned technologies were successfully applied for retrofitting an existing 100-year-old bank building in Irkutsk (Russia), for retrofit design of an existing 177-year-old municipality building in Iasi (Romania) and for construction of a new clinic building in Stepanakert (Nagorno Karabakh). Short descriptions of these projects are presented. Since 1994 the total number of base and roof isolated buildings constructed, retrofitted or under construction in Armenia, has reached 32. Statistics of seismically isolated buildings are given in the paper. The number of base isolated buildings per capita in Armenia is one of the highest in the world. In Armenia, for the first time in history, retrofitting of existing buildings by base isolation was carried out without interruption in the use of the buildings. The description of different base isolated buildings erected in Armenia, as well as the description of the method of retrofitting of existing buildings which is patented in Armenia (M. G. Melkumyan, patent of the Republic of Armenia No. 579), are also given in the paper.

Melkumyan, Mikayel G.

2011-03-01

294

Nuclear Proliferation Risk Mitigation Approaches and Impacts in the Recycle of Used Nuclear Fuel in the USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EnergySolutions and its team partners, which include the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL), are one of four industry teams to have received an award from the US Department of Energy to carry out design studies in support of the US Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). This team has developed a detailed scenario model for a future US nuclear fuel cycle based on a closed used nuclear fuel recycle as an alternative to the current once-though-and-store system. This scenario enables the uranium and plutonium in Light Water Reactor (LWR) used fuel from the current reactor fleet, and from a fleet of replacement LWRs, to be recycled as both Uranium Oxide and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel using reprocessing plants that conform to the requirements of GNEP. There is also a provision for 'burning' in thermal reactors certain long-lived transuranics (Np, Am, Cm) formed into targets. The residual fission product waste, without these long-term heat emitters, will be vitrified and consigned to the US National Geologic repository. Later in the scenario a fleet of Advanced Recycle Reactors (ARR), based on sodium cooled fast reactor technology, are introduced to enable full transmutation of all transuranics and thus attain the GNEP sustainability goal. The recycle scenario avoids the need for the Yucca Mountain repository to receive unprocessed used nuclear fuel and is effective at prolonging its lifetime and delaying the need for a second repository. This paper explains the process by which EnergySolutions selected the U-Pu and U-Pu-Np MOX products and the technological requirements for the recycle plants and describes materials flow analysis that has been carried for the US nuclear fuel cycle scenario using NNL's ORION scenario modelling program. One of the prime requisites of GNEP is to ensure that the risk of proliferation is minimized and the paper describes NNL's approach to objectively assessing the proliferation risk of the scenario relative to that of a conventional recycle scheme. (authors)

2009-01-01

295

Fugitive emission inventory from Brazilian oil and gas industry (2000-2005) and discussion of mitigation measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this work is to evaluate current emissions of GHGs within the Brazilian oil and gas industry, specifically the fugitive emissions arising from exploration and production. Besides, projects for mitigating these emissions and opportunities for the national industry are investigated. Results show that N{sub 2}O contributes little to fugitive emissions from the oil and gas industry, principally from gas sector. NMVOC emissions are significant, principally from the oil sector. In relation to CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions, the oil sector emits more CO{sub 2} while the gas sector contributes more to CH{sub 4} emissions. In both sectors flaring is the activity that emits most CO{sub 2}. In relation to CH{sub 4} the principal contribution to emissions are from exploration and production onshore, although offshore activities as a whole play a greater part in the national industry. The results make it clear that the use of gas from flaring activity is a great opportunity for emission mitigation projects. From a business point of view, methane emissions could mean lost opportunities in selling natural gas. The Kyoto Protocol mechanisms, as the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation actions, provide the opportunity to stimulate investments in projects for reducing flaring and venting of associated gas. (author)

Carloni, Flavia A.; D' Avignon, Alexandre; La Rovere, Emilio L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Centro Clima

2008-07-01

296

Carbon emission mitigation measures in Brazil-case study of biomass policy for a ferroalloy plant in Ceara State  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work aims at discussing the possibilities of atmospheric carbon emissions mitigation in the scope of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in the forest sector using a case study in the Northeast of Brazil. Taking Ceara State as an example and based on the Ceara State Energy Balances for 1980, 1984 and 1987, the Carbon (C-CO{sub 2}) Emission Balances were drawn up covering these same years. An exercise was carried out in order to draw up carbon emissions mitigation proposals through both Environmental Education and reforestation policies replacing forest clearing. The first, environmental education and forest management practices, involves more efficient practices in the woody sector. The second, reforestation policies, instead of felling native forests for fuel-wood burned to produce charcoal, is discussed from the economic point of view. An estimate was drawn up of the carbon abatement costs, using a case study for charcoal production based on reforestation instead of deforestation, for a ferroalloy plant in Ceara State. (author)

De Araujo, Maria Silvia Muylaert; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Centro de Tecnologia, bloco I, sala 129, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2006-12-15

297

Feasibility of Portfolio Optimization under Coherent Risk Measures  

CERN Multimedia

It is shown that the axioms for coherent risk measures imply that whenever there is an asset in a portfolio that dominates the others in a given sample (which happens with finite probability even for large samples), then this portfolio cannot be optimized under any coherent measure on that sample, and the risk measure diverges to minus infinity. This instability was first discovered on the special example of Expected Shortfall which is used here both as an illustration and as a prompt for generalization.

Kondor, Imre

2008-01-01

298

Minimizing risks and monitoring safety of an antenatal care intervention to mitigate domestic violence among young Indian women: The Dil Mil trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic violence - physical, psychological, or sexual abuse perpetrated against women by one or more family members – is highly prevalent in India. However, relatively little research has been conducted on interventions with the potential to mitigate domestic violence and its adverse health consequences, and few resources exist to guide safety planning and monitoring in the context of intervention research. Dil Mil is a promising women’s empowerment-based intervention developed in India that engages with young women (daughters-in-law) and their mothers-in-law to mitigate domestic violence and related adverse health outcomes. This paper describes the design of a randomized controlled trial of Dil Mil in Bengaluru, India, with a focus on strategies used to minimize study-related risks and monitor safety. Methods/design A phase 2 randomized controlled trial using a parallel comparison of the Dil Mil intervention versus standard care will be implemented in three public primary health centers in Bengaluru. Young pregnant women in the first or second trimester of pregnancy will be recruited from antenatal services at study health centers and through community outreach. If eligible and willing, their mother-in-law will also be recruited. Once enrolled, dyads will participate in a baseline interview and then randomized either to the control arm and receive standard care or to the intervention arm and receive standard care plus the Dil Mil intervention. Additional evaluations will be conducted at 3 months and 6 months postpartum. Data will be analyzed to examine the feasibility and safety of the intervention and the effect of the intervention on intermediary outcomes (the empowerment of daughters-in-law and mothers-in-law), incidence of domestic violence among daughters-in-law, and health outcomes including perceived quality of life, psychosocial status and maternal and infant health outcomes. Discussion This study offers approaches that may help guide safety planning and monitoring in other domestic violence intervention trials in similar settings. Moreover, given the staggeringly high prevalence of domestic violence against young women in India (and indeed globally) and the dearth of data on effective interventions, this study is poised to make an important contribution to the evidence-base for domestic violence prevention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01337778

Krishnan Suneeta; Subbiah Kalyani; Chandra Prabha; Srinivasan Krishnamachari

2012-01-01

299

From Stochastic Dominance to Mean-Risk Models: Semideviations as Risk Measures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two methods are frequently used for modeling the choice among uncertain outcomes:stochastic dominance and mean--risk approaches. The former is based on an axiomaticmodel of risk-averse preferences but does not provide a convenient computational recipe.The latter quantifies the problem in a lucid form of two criteria with possible tradeo# analysis, but cannot model all risk-averse preferences. In particular, if variance isused as a measure of risk, the resulting mean--variance (Markowitz) model is, in general,not consistent with stochastic dominance rules. This paper shows that the standardsemideviation (square root of the semivariance) as the risk measure makes the mean--riskmodel consistent with the second degree stochastic dominance, provided that the trade-o#coe#cient is bounded by a certain constant. Similar results are obtained for the absolutesemideviation, and for the absolute and standard deviations in the case of symmetric orbounded distributions. In the analysis we...

Andrzej Ruszczy Nski; Gordon J. Macdonald

300

Conditional risk measure modeling for Latvian insurance companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the current economical situation on the Latvian market insurance companies are forced to consider other possibilities of income generation. One of such opportunities could be seen in cash flows from investment operations, while managing stocks' portfolios. The process of portfolio management is tightly connected with adequate risk management. In the current paper we have used copula approach for estimating portfolio’s conditional risk measures and though to contribute to the discussion about appropriate risk management in the insurance companies.

Jekaterina Kuzmina; Gaida Pettere; Irina Voronova

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Evaluation of buffer zone effectiveness in mitigating the risks associated with agricultural runoff in Prince Edward Island.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To minimize the risk posed by runoff from row crops, Prince Edward Island introduced buffer legislation in 2000. The legislation mandates 10-m and 20-m buffers, respectively, for moderate sloped (i.e. <5%) and steep sloped (i.e. >5%) agricultural fields that border streams. Since 2001, Environment Canada has been evaluating the effectiveness of various buffer widths on operational farms in reducing toxicity and contaminant concentrations in runoff. Sample collectors, placed in 44 fields at the field edge (0m), 10m and at distances out to 30m, collected overland flow following rainfall-induced runoff events. Samples were collected within 24 hours of an event and analysed for seven pesticides (endosulfan, chlorothalonil, carbofuran, linuron, metribuzin, metalaxyl, mancozeb), water quality parameters and Daphnia magna toxicity. The 10-m buffer required for moderate sloped fields was effective at reducing contaminant concentrations but not always to less than lethal concentrations to Daphnia magna. Limited data beyond 10m for fields of both slope types precluded making recommendations on a suitable buffer width for shallow sloped fields and evaluating the effectiveness of 20-m buffers for steep sloped fields. When paired data were combined and statistically tested for all fields, the studied pesticides underwent a 52-98% and 68-100% reduction in aqueous and particulate concentrations within 10m and 30m, respectively. In addition, by 10m, soluble phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen and total suspended solids were reduced by 34%, 38% and 64%, respectively. Results suggest buffer zones on operational farms are capable of achieving contaminant reductions comparable to those reported for controlled experiments. Inconsistent siting of sample collectors beyond 10m limited the evaluation of the effects of field slope and buffer width on buffer effectiveness on working farms. Future studies on buffer efficiency on operational farms should focus on building the data set beyond 10m and evaluating load reductions.

Dunn AM; Julien G; Ernst WR; Cook A; Doe KG; Jackman PM

2011-02-01

302

Environmental factors driving the effectiveness of European agri-environmental measures in mitigating pollinator loss--a meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Europe, agri-environmental schemes (AES) have been introduced in response to concerns about farmland biodiversity declines. Yet, as AES have delivered variable results, a better understanding of what determines their success or failure is urgently needed. Focusing on pollinating insects, we quantitatively reviewed how environmental factors affect the effectiveness of AES. Our results suggest that the ecological contrast in floral resources created by schemes drives the response of pollinators to AES but that this response is moderated by landscape context and farmland type, with more positive responses in croplands (vs. grasslands) located in simple (vs. cleared or complex) landscapes. These findings inform us how to promote pollinators and associated pollination services in species-poor landscapes. They do not, however, present viable strategies to mitigate loss of threatened or endangered species. This indicates that the objectives and design of AES should distinguish more clearly between biodiversity conservation and delivery of ecosystem services.

Scheper J; Holzschuh A; Kuussaari M; Potts SG; Rundlöf M; Smith HG; Kleijn D

2013-07-01

303

Importance measures for use in PRAs and risk management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] There are many quantities estimated in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) to index the level of plant safety. If the PRA is to be used as a risk management tool to assist in the safe operation of the plant, it is essential that those elements of the plant design and its mode of operation that have the greatest impact on plant safety be identified. These elements may be identified by performing importance calculations. There are certain decisions that must be made before the importance calculation is carried out. The first is the definition of the events for which importance is to be evaluated; that is, to what level of resolution the analysis is to be performed. The second decision that must be made--and the major subject of this paper--is the choice of importance measure. Many measures of importance have been proposed; this discussion is restricted to three: the risk achievement (or degradation) worth, the risk reduction worth, and criticality importance. In the paper these measures of importance are defined, their interrelationships are discussed, and a generalized importance measure is introduced. The use of these three measures is compared and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed

1985-03-01

304

Full structural weld overlay application as a repair or mitigation measure for PWSCC susceptible alloy 82/182 DM welds in PWR plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In recent years, cracking due to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) have been observed in Alloy 82/182 dissimilar metal (DM) welds both in the United States and abroad. These DM welds are used to connect stainless steel piping to low alloy steel or carbon steel components in Pressurizer Water Reactor (PWR) plants. Full Structural weld overlay (FSWOL) was implemented in some cases as a repair technique to mitigate PWSCC at these welds. Such repair technique is an acceptable ASME Code repair method and has already been successfully used to repair Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) at the stainless steel pipe welds in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plants in the United States for over twenty years. FSWOL is a repair technique that can be used to reinforce nozzle safe end regions and pipes in PWR plants susceptible to PWSCC with cracks present. Such technique can also be used as a mitigation technique at locations without any cracking but are susceptible to PWSCC. The technique involves the application of a specified thickness and length of PWSCC resistant weld material over the region of interest in a configuration that maintains structural integrity and meets the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI Code margins with cracks present. The reinforcement material forms a structural barrier to PWSCC and produces a compressive residual stress condition at the inner portion of the pipe that mitigates future crack initiation and/or propagation due to PWSCC. In addition, full structural weld overlay improves inspectability of the nozzle safe end weld regions and facilitates volumetric examinations by minimizing discontinuities in the nozzle safe end weld regions. Purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and criteria for applying FSWOL as either a repair or mitigation measure for PWSCC susceptible Alloy 82/182 DM welds in PWR plants. It is planned by KHNP to have the methodology and criteria be implemented for the Pressurizer nozzles of Kori Unit 1. To implement the Kori Unit 1 FSWOL three major tasks have to be performed together to make the project successful in addition to good planning, and training. Three major tasks are: 1) SWOL design and qualification 2) Welding process technique development and qualifications 3) Ultrasonic examination method and qualifications To illustrate these three major tasks Figures or photos of each task are included. Each task and associated Figures and photos will be presented in the conference

2009-01-01

305

Full structural weld overlay application as a repair or mitigation measure for PWSCC susceptible alloy 82/182 DM welds in PWR plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, cracking due to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) have been observed in Alloy 82/182 dissimilar metal (DM) welds both in the United States and abroad. These DM welds are used to connect stainless steel piping to low alloy steel or carbon steel components in Pressurizer Water Reactor (PWR) plants. Full Structural weld overlay (FSWOL) was implemented in some cases as a repair technique to mitigate PWSCC at these welds. Such repair technique is an acceptable ASME Code repair method and has already been successfully used to repair Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) at the stainless steel pipe welds in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plants in the United States for over twenty years. FSWOL is a repair technique that can be used to reinforce nozzle safe end regions and pipes in PWR plants susceptible to PWSCC with cracks present. Such technique can also be used as a mitigation technique at locations without any cracking but are susceptible to PWSCC. The technique involves the application of a specified thickness and length of PWSCC resistant weld material over the region of interest in a configuration that maintains structural integrity and meets the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI Code margins with cracks present. The reinforcement material forms a structural barrier to PWSCC and produces a compressive residual stress condition at the inner portion of the pipe that mitigates future crack initiation and/or propagation due to PWSCC. In addition, full structural weld overlay improves inspectability of the nozzle safe end weld regions and facilitates volumetric examinations by minimizing discontinuities in the nozzle safe end weld regions. Purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and criteria for applying FSWOL as either a repair or mitigation measure for PWSCC susceptible Alloy 82/182 DM welds in PWR plants. It is planned by KHNP to have the methodology and criteria be implemented for the Pressurizer nozzles of Kori Unit 1. To implement the Kori Unit 1 FSWOL three major tasks have to be performed together to make the project successful in addition to good planning, and training. Three major tasks are: 1) SWOL design and qualification 2) Welding process technique development and qualifications 3) Ultrasonic examination method and qualifications To illustrate these three major tasks Figures or photos of each task are included. Each task and associated Figures and photos will be presented in the conference.

Yoo, Sung Soo [KHNP, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Tae [KPS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Charlie [WEC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2009-04-15

306

Measuring and hedging financial risks in dynamical world  

CERN Multimedia

Financial markets have developed a lot of strategies to control risks induced by market fluctuations. Mathematics has emerged as the leading discipline to address fundamental questions in finance as asset pricing model and hedging strategies. History began with the paradigm of zero-risk introduced by Black & Scholes stating that any random amount to be paid in the future may be replicated by a dynamical portfolio. In practice, the lack of information leads to ill-posed problems when model calibrating. The real world is more complex and new pricing and hedging methodologies have been necessary. This challenging question has generated a deep and intensive academic research in the 20 last years, based on super-replication (perfect or with respect to confidence level) and optimization. In the interplay between theory and practice, Monte Carlo methods have been revisited, new risk measures have been back-tested. These typical examples give some insights on how may be used mathematics in financial risk manageme...

Karoui, N E

2003-01-01

307

Epidemiologic measures of risk as a basis for legal compensation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scientific basis for compensation of persons developing cancer who have a documented history of exposure to radiation or other carcinogens is an important legal issue. The measure Relative Attributable Risk (RAR) has been proposed as a basis for determining eligibility for compensation. The purpose of this report is to present results of an analysis of the magnitude and sources of uncertainty in the RAR measure. The range of 1/10/sup 6//rad-year to 6/10/sup 6//rad-year was chosen as a reasonable range of excess-risk estimates for thyroid cancer based on published estimates. The use of such a range in risk estimates produces very wide variability in RAR estimates. Uncertainty in underlying incidence levels and in dosimetry are other major factors contributing to large variability in estimated RAR levels.

Zeighami, E.A.; Walsh, P.J.; Morris, M.D.; Jones, T.D.

1983-01-01

308

General acceptance sets, risk measures and optimal capital injections  

CERN Multimedia

We consider financial positions belonging to the Banach lattice of bounded measurable functions on a given measurable space. We discuss risk measures generated by general acceptance sets allowing for capital injections to be invested in a pre-specified eligible asset with an everywhere positive payoff. Risk measures play a key role when defining required capital for a financial institution. We address the three critical questions: when is required capital a well-defined number for any financial position? When is required capital a continuous function of the financial position? Can the eligible asset be chosen in such a way that for every financial position the corresponding required capital is lower than if any other asset had been chosen? In contrast to most of the literature our discussion is not limited to convex or coherent acceptance sets and allows for eligible assets that are not necessarily bounded away from zero. This generality uncovers some unexpected phenomena and opens up the field for applicatio...

Farkas, Walter; Munari, Cosimo-Andrea

2012-01-01

309

Chain Risk Model for quantifying cost effectiveness of phytosanitary measures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Chain Risk Model (CRM) was developed for a cost effective assessment of phytosanitary measures. The CRM model can be applied to phytosanitary assessments of all agricultural product chains. In CRM, stages are connected by product volume flows with which pest infections can be spread from one stage...

Benninga, J.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Schans, J., van de

310

Deforestation carbon dynamics and sustainable mitigation measures in Costa Rica: the Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The definition of mitigation policies and implementation projects in developing countries must be based on solid scientific knowledge foundations. This knowledge basis must not only provide information on the response of physical systems, but must consider, besides, the social forces that induce the response of natural systems. In the present article, the role played by science and technology in the definition of abatement policies is analyzed by means of a case-study in the Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui area, in Costa Rica. Satellite information and geographical information systems are combined in order to understand the forces generating a change in the use of land in this area, as well in the building of a data-base which may permit the definition of long-term policies. It is concluded in this article that the success of any policy or program will only be achieved if these are included within a referential framework which is related to a strategy for a country`s coherent and sustainable development. 20 refs., 3 figs.

Sanchez-Azofeifa, G.A.; Quesade-Mateo, C. [Unidersidad de Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica). Centro para Investigaciones en Desarrollo Sostenible

1995-11-01

311

Riscos e controles internos: uma metodologia de mensuração dos níveis de controle de riscos empresariais Internal risks and controls: a methodology to measure business risk control levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma metodologia de mensuração do nível de controle de riscos inerentes aos processos de qualquer entidade, a partir da construção de um índice de desempenho definido em função da capacidade dos controles mitigarem os riscos e da eficácia dos controles implantados. O modelo possibilita ao gestor de riscos identificar para quais riscos são necessárias ações de melhoria de controle, quais possuem níveis de controles adequados e quais controles em excesso, contribuindo, assim, para a otimização da aplicação dos recursos disponíveis para a gestão de riscos e controles internos nas empresas. A metodologia foi aplicada a um estudo de caso e mostrou-se satisfatória do ponto de vista de avaliação e identificação dos níveis de controle.This paper presents a control measurement methodology applied in the processes performed by any entity. The methodology is derived from the analysis of the mitigation capabilities of the controls currently in use by the entity. The method enables risk managers to identify which risks require urgent actions to improve the control levels, which risks are already adequately controlled and which ones are in a situation of excessive control. This kind of information can play an important role to improve the application of available internal risk and control management resources in companies. The methodology was applied to a case study and revealed to be a satisfactory tool to assess and identify control levels.

Wanderlei de Lima De Paulo; Francisco Carlos Fernandes; Luciana Gavazzi Barragan Rodrigues; Jorge Eidit

2007-01-01

312

VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR). Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR) is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR) calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario) on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

Ion Stancu; Florentina Balu

2006-01-01

313

Measuring the risk of an Iranian banking system using Value at Risk (VaR) Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measuring risk of financial institutes and banks plays an important role on managing them. Recent financial turmoil in United States banking system has motivated banking industry to monitor risk factors more closely. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the risk of some private banks in Iran called Bank Mellat using Value at Risk (VaR) method. The proposed study collects the necessary information for the fiscal year of 2010 and analyses them using regression analysis. The study divides the financial data into two groups where the financial data of the first half of year is considered in the first group and the remaining information for the second half of year 2010 is considered in the second group. The implementation of VaR method indicates that financial risks increase during the time horizon. The study also uses linear regression method where independent variable is time, dependent variable is the financial risk, and the results confirm what we have found in the previous part of the survey.

Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee; Zahra Houshmand Neghabi; Ali Feizollahei

2012-01-01

314

Radon mitigation in private dwellings. Summary of measures under the National Action Plan against Cancer in Norway 1999-2003; Tiltak mot radon i privatboliger. Oppsummering av tiltak mot radon under Nasjonal kreftplan 1999-2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report summarizes the remedial measurements carried out under the National Action Plan against Cancer in Norway in the period 1999-2003.The cost effectiveness of the state subsidized remedial measures against radon is evaluated. Other measurements under the National Action Plan against Cancer have also been evaluated, such as measurements of radon in 38.000 dwellings in 158 municipalities, information measures, and actions to increase radon mitigation competence in the building construction industry and in the municipalities. (Author)

Aanestad, K.; Strand, T.; Hoegmo, T.; Skjennem, M.; Jensen, C. L.; Hoelsbrekken, S.

2006-07-01

315

Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the ''unattached'' fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

1990-01-01

316

Interest rate risk measurement in Brazilian sovereign markets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fixed income emerging markets are an interesting investment alternative. Measuring market risks is mandatory in order to avoid unexpected huge losses. The most used market risk measure is the Value at Risk, based on the profit-loss probability distribution of the portfolio under consideration. Estimating this probability distribution requires the prior estimation of the probability distribution of term structures of interest rates. An interesting possibility is to estimate term structures using a decomposition of the spread function into a linear combination of Legendre polynomials. Numerical examples from the Brazilian sovereign fixed income international market illustrate the practical use of the methodology.Os mercados emergentes de renda fixa são alternativas interessantes para investimentos. Devido ao elevado nível de incerteza existente em tais mercados, a mensuração dos riscos de mercado de uma carteira de investimentos é fundamental para que se evite um nível elevado de perdas. Uma das medidas de risco de mercado mais utilizadas é o Value at Risk, baseado na distribuição de probabilidades de perdas-ganhos da carteira sob análise. A estimação desta distribuição requer, no entanto, a estimação prévia da distribuição de pro-babilidades das variações da estrutura a termo da taxa de juros. Uma possibilidade interessante para a estimação de tal distribuição é efetuar uma decomposição da função de spread da estrutura a termo em uma combinação linear de Polinômios de Legendre. Exemplos numéricos do mercado internacional de títulos soberanos brasileiros são apresentados para ilustrar o uso prático desta nova metodologia.

Caio Ibsen Rodrigues de Almeida; Antonio Marcos Duarte Júnior; Cristiano Augusto Coelho Fernandes

2004-01-01

317

Accounting based risk measures for not-for-profit hospitals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper discusses the issues involved with determining an appropriate discount rate for not-for-profit hospitals and develops a method for computing measures of systematic risk based on a hospital's own accounting data. Data on four hospital management companies are used to demonstrate the method. Results indicate the need for sensitivity analysis in the selection of estimation methods and in the final determination of a discount rate.

Smith DG; Wheeler JR

1989-11-01

318

Performance experience with radon mitigation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Both passive and active radon mitigations were installed in four houses with slab-on-grade or combined crawlspace/slab-on-grade basements. Passive mitigation reduced indoor radon by 40 to 80%. Combined passive and active mitigation was necessary for reducing radon levels to below 150 Bq m-3. Active mitigation employed sub vapor-barrier and/or subslab depressurization. The number of subslab mitigation pits needed at each house was determined by diagnostic measurements of permeability and pressure-field extension. Performances of the mitigation systems at three houses were stable over one year. Increasing permeability in the hard-packed clay beneath the slab of one house may result in decreased effectiveness of the subslab depressurization. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

1990-08-03

319

Measurement of risk of sexual violence through phallometric testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of phallometric testing to determine risk of sexual violence is becoming more widely recognized throughout the world. This technique involves the precise measurement of circumferential change in the penis from flaccidity to erection in response to both 'normal' and deviant sexual stimuli. Phallometric testing is the only pure measure of sexual arousal, and unlike other physiological measures such as heart rate and GSR it is not influenced by arousal states such as fear and anger. The current published research compares the phallometric testing profiles of incarcerated sexual offenders with those of incarcerated nonsexual offenders. Specifically, the sexual arousal of 100 convicted rapists, pedophiles, and nonsexual offenders is examined. This research identifies what differentiates these groups and what best predicts risk of sexual aggression. Implications of these results include the possibility of using phallometric testing as a screening tool for those who work with vulnerable populations (e.g., child care workers, teachers). The principal benefit of phallometric testing, however, lies in the identification of those incarcerated men who are at greatest risk to sexually reoffend and who should thus be denied release from jail. PMID:19362036

Howes, Richard J

2009-04-09

320

Measurement of risk of sexual violence through phallometric testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of phallometric testing to determine risk of sexual violence is becoming more widely recognized throughout the world. This technique involves the precise measurement of circumferential change in the penis from flaccidity to erection in response to both 'normal' and deviant sexual stimuli. Phallometric testing is the only pure measure of sexual arousal, and unlike other physiological measures such as heart rate and GSR it is not influenced by arousal states such as fear and anger. The current published research compares the phallometric testing profiles of incarcerated sexual offenders with those of incarcerated nonsexual offenders. Specifically, the sexual arousal of 100 convicted rapists, pedophiles, and nonsexual offenders is examined. This research identifies what differentiates these groups and what best predicts risk of sexual aggression. Implications of these results include the possibility of using phallometric testing as a screening tool for those who work with vulnerable populations (e.g., child care workers, teachers). The principal benefit of phallometric testing, however, lies in the identification of those incarcerated men who are at greatest risk to sexually reoffend and who should thus be denied release from jail.

Howes RJ

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Importance measures in reliability, risk, and optimization principles and applications  

CERN Document Server

This unique treatment systematically interprets a spectrum of importance measures to provide a comprehensive overview of their applications in the areas of reliability, network, risk, mathematical programming, and optimization. Investigating the precise relationships among various importance measures, it describes how they are modelled and combined with other design tools to allow users to solve readily many real-world, large-scale decision-making problems.  Presenting the state-of-the-art in network analysis, multistate systems, and application in modern systems, this book offers a c

Kuo, Way

2012-01-01

322

Superhedging and Dynamic Risk Measures under Volatility Uncertainty  

CERN Multimedia

We consider dynamic sublinear expectations (i.e., time-consistent coherent risk measures) whose scenario sets consist of singular measures corresponding to a general form of volatility uncertainty. We derive a c\\`adl\\`ag nonlinear martingale which is also the value process of a superhedging problem. The superhedging strategy is obtained from a representation similar to the optional decomposition. Furthermore, we prove an optional sampling theorem for the nonlinear martingale and characterize it as the solution of a second order backward SDE. The uniqueness of dynamic extensions of static sublinear expectations is also studied.

Nutz, Marcel

2010-01-01

323

Steps in preparing and biodiversity section of climate change action plan. Development and evolution of forestry and biodiversity mitigation measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Methodic for drawing up of national action plans on prevention of unfavorable consequences of climate change in forestry is described. Approaches to development and measures evolution in these fields on greenhouse effect reduce are considered. (author)

1997-10-10

324

Biological invasions: deriving the regions at risk from partial measurements  

CERN Multimedia

We consider the problem of forecasting the regions at higher risk for newly introduced invasive species. Favourable and unfavourable regions may indeed not be known a priori, especially for exotic species whose hosts in native range and newly-colonised areas can be different. Assuming that the species is modelled by a logistic-like reaction-diffusion equation, we prove that the spatial arrangement of the favourable and unfavourable regions can theoretically be determined using only partial measurements of the population density: 1) a local "spatio-temporal" measurement, during a short time period and, 2) a "spatial" measurement in the whole region susceptible to colonisation. We then present a stochastic algorithm which is proved analytically, and then on several numerical examples, to be effective in deriving these regions.

Cristofol, Michel

2009-01-01

325

Zebra mussel mitigation; overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zebra mussels cause a number of problems to industrial raw water users as well as having serious impact on civil structures exposed to mussel infested waters. The largest volume of water (up to 90% of the total) drawn into most industrial and power generating plants, is for cooling and heat transfer. The rest of the volume is used for other plant processes, such as make-up in steam systems, and service systems used for cleaning, air conditions, fire protection and human consumption. All raw water systems are vulnerable to zebra mussel infestation to greater or lesser degree. To-date, many different chemical and non-chemical techniques for zebra mussel control have been investigated. However, the treatment of choice for most facilities is based on chemical control. This has been the common practice in Europe and so far it has been the case in North America. This is likely to change as the environmental constraints on release of chemicals into natural water bodies continue to increase. This paper deals with the different steps raw water users should take when deciding on a mitigation strategy, the mitigation measures available to-date and those that have been proposed for the control of zebra mussels in industrial systems.

Claudi, R. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1995-06-01

326

Long term performance of radon mitigation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

2002-07-05

327

Long term performance of radon mitigation systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

2002-03-01

328

Renewable Energies and Enhanced Energy Efficiencies: Mitigation/Adaptation Measures to Climate Change Impacts on Cyprus and in the Eastern Mediterranean  

Science.gov (United States)

The Eastern Mediterranean in general and Cyprus in particular are considered "hot spots" of future climate change. This will become manifest through an increase in the number and duration of drought events and extended hot-spells. The need to cope with the impacts of climate change will lead to enhanced requirements for cooling of private and public housing and growing demands for potable water derived from seawater desalination. This in turn will cause increasing pressures on electricity production and will result in additional strain on the energy sector in the region. For Cyprus, the current electricity production is entirely based on fossil-fuel fired power plants. However, the use of conventional energy sources is clearly an undesirable option. It enhances the economic burden on energy consumers and at the same time increases Cyprus' dependency on external providers of petroleum products. Moreover, it leads to growing emissions of carbon dioxide and thereby worsens Cyprus' already challenged greenhouse gas emission budget. While current emissions amount to about 9.9 Mill. t of CO2, the total allowance according to EU regulations lies at 5.5 Mill. t. The current building stock on Cyprus lacks basic measures for energy efficiency. This is particularly noteworthy with regard to insufficient insulation of buildings, which causes significant amounts of energy to be expanded for cooling. In light of these facts, an increased use of renewable energies and measures to enhance energy efficiencies in the built environment constitute important elements of a stringent and effective mitigation/adaptation strategy to climate change. The Eastern Mediterranean is among the most suitable location for the utilization of solar energy in Europe. A global direct normal irradiance of more than 1 800 kWh/m2 on Cyprus offers a renewable electricity potential of app. 20 to 23 TWh/yr when concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is employed. With regard to enhanced energy efficiency in buildings, new and innovative materials will have to be introduced. This includes advanced materials based on nanotechnology aimed to increase reflectivity and decrease heat absorption of external walls in order to reduce heat uptake by the building and thereby reduce cooling loads. This paper will give more detail on possible mitigation/adaptation strategies to climate change and will explore their possible synergistic potentials. While focusing on Cyprus, the conclusions will be readily applicable to neighboring countries in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Lange, Manfred

2010-05-01

329

Radon-mitigation in buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the indoor radon problem arises a great challenge for the radiation protection of the population. The soil can be considered as the only source for high radon concentrations in buildings. The contribution of common building materials to high indoor concentrations with a range of 30 Bq/m3 is negligible low. Therefore building materials for radon mitigation should be judged by their tightness against diffusive radon and not by their radon exhalation rate. Also isolation materials for mitigation should be radon tight. The radon diffusion coefficient describes the physical processes in relatively homogeneous samples. The diffusion coefficient D and the diffusion length R are very exactly determined by a self engineered measuring method. The range of D reaches from D = (0.0005 to 2.35) . 10-6 m2/s for building materials and from D = (0.07 to -6) . 10-6 m2/s for isolation materials. Applicable mitigation measures like increased ventilation rates, isolation and sealing, subslab ventilation or radon wells have been examined according to their cost-benefit-ratio. The practice showed that suitable mitigation measures can normally reduce the indoor radon level to 1% of the original values and in special cases even to less than 0.1%. (orig.).

1993-01-01

330

Measuring Value at Risk for Mortgage Backed Securities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper investigates the computation of Value-at-Risk (VaR) measures for mortgage backed securities (MBSs) using data for the Danish MBS market. The current RiskMetrics proposal from J.P. Morgan is used as a reference point throughout, but the study diverge somewhat from their proposal, especially with respect to the estimation of zero coupon yield curves as well as in the choice of mapping techniques. The MBS-valuation is done by a model developed in Jakobsen(1992,1994), which includes burn-out effects without the need for Monte Carlo simulation. The mapping of deltaequivalent cash flows uses the mapping technique proposed by Ho(1992). The resulting procedure can be employed even for large portfolios of MBS issues with the use of standard computing equipment. The paper compares the MBS VaR estimates for a daily horizon to actual profits and losses for the period January 1993 to March 1995. The results seem to indicate that our method underestimates the variance of actual returns. However, as discussed in the paper this might be due to the fact that the correlation structure of zero coupon rates was estimated without any a priory restrictions. A study which uses the correlations provided in the RiskMetrics dataset might yield better results.

Jakobsen, Svend

1996-01-01

331

Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines. PMID:23588136

Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

2013-04-12

332

Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines.

Gilbuena R Jr; Kawamura A; Medina R; Amaguchi H; Nakagawa N; Bui DD

2013-07-01

333

Follow-up durability measurements and mitigation-performance improvement tests in 38 Eastern Pennsylvania houses having indoor radon-reduction systems. Final report, Oct 89-Feb 90  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The report gives results of follow-up tests in 38 difficult-to-mitigate Pennsylvania houses where indoor radon reduction systems had been installed 2 to 4 years earlier. Objectives were to assess system durability, methods for improving performance, and methods for reducing installation and operating costs. The durability tests indicated that the 38 systems have not experienced any significant degradation in indoor radon levels or in system flows/suctions, except in 6 houses where system fans failed, and in houses where homeowners turned off the systems. Tests to improve performance indicated that nearly all of the elevated residual radon levels are due to re-entrainment back into the house of very-high-radon exhaust gas from the soil depressurization systems, and to radon release from well water. Tests to reduce system costs showed that premitigation sub-slab suction field measurements can help prevent installation of too many suction pipes when communication is good, but suggest a need for too many pipes when communication is poor. Soil depressurization fans could not be turned down to the extent expected in some systems that were over-designed. Between 6 and 42% of the exhausted air was withdrawn from the house

1991-01-01

334

Mitigation of Malicious Attacks on Networks  

CERN Document Server

Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against a malicious attack? We introduce a unique measure for robustness and use it to devise a method to mitigate economically and efficiently this risk. We demonstrate its efficiency on the European electricity system and on the Internet as well as on complex networks models. We show that with small changes in the network structure (low cost) the robustness of diverse networks can be improved dramatically while their functionality remains unchanged. Our results are useful not only for improving significantly with low cost the robustness of existing infrastructures but also for designing economically robust network systems.

Schneider, Christian M; Andrade, Jose S; Havlin, Shlomo; Herrmann, Hans J; 10.1073/pnas.1009440108

2011-01-01

335

Mitigation policy: Health co-benefits  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to tackle climate change have met significant financial and political barriers that have been difficult to overcome. Research now shows that such measures are justified on grounds other than mitigation of climate change.

Thurston, George D.

2013-10-01

336

[Exposure to the risk of traffic accidents, a fundamental epidemiological parameter, and one difficult to measure  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a review of the literature dealing with exposure to the risk of traffic accidents. We present the principal definitions of this concept, the different measures of risk exposure, indicators of the risk of traffic accidents, and the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used for the collection of data. The validity of the measure of exposure to risk is analyzed as well. We conclude that while distance travelled is the principal measure of exposure to risk accepted by the research community, it is necessary to use a composite measure which also takes into account the risk associated with the driver.

Joly MF; Joly P; Bergeron J; Desjardins D; Ekoe JM; Ghadirian P; Gravel S; Hamet P; Laberge-Nadeau C

1991-01-01

337

Assessing the cost-effectiveness of seismic risk reduction options in oil industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An integrated probabilistic methodology for cost-efficiency estimation of different sort of seismic risk management measures are introduced by adding Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) module to an integrated seismic risk assessment model. An oil refinery in Iran has been selected for case study and cost-efficiency of software and hardware mitigation measures are evaluated. The results have shown that: (1) software mitigation measures have more benefit than hardware ones, (2) considering indirect loss in CBA lead to more benefit-cost ratio and (3) although increase of discount ratio decreases the benefit-cost ratio, the arrangement of mitigation measures from benefit-cost viewpoint are constant. (authors)

2007-01-01

338

Evaluating the RiskMetrics Methodology in Measuring Volatility and Value-at-Risk in Financial Markets  

CERN Multimedia

We analyze the performance of RiskMetrics, a widely used methodology for measuring market risk. Based on the assumption of normally distributed returns, the RiskMetrics model completely ignores the presence of fat tails in the distribution function, which is an important feature of financial data. Nevertheless, it was commonly found that RiskMetrics performs satisfactorily well, and therefore the technique has become widely used in the financial industry. We find, however, that the success of RiskMetrics is the artifact of the choice of the risk measure. First, the outstanding performance of volatility estimates is basically due to the choice of a very short (one-period ahead) forecasting horizon. Second, the satisfactory performance in obtaining Value-at-Risk by simply multiplying volatility with a constant factor is mainly due to the choice of the particular significance level.

Pafka, S; Pafka, Szilard; Kondor, Imre

2001-01-01

339

Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes – a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland. In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha?1yr?1, respectively. However, all landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with landless large-scale poultry farming. So, whereas the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha?1yr?1, the landscape average was similar to those of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha?1yr?1, respectively) when landless poultrywere included. However, the challenge remains how to account for indirect N surpluses and emissions from such farms with a large export of manure out of the landscape. We conclude that farm N balances are a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate levels in soils and groundwater, measured during the landscape data collection campaign from 2007–2009. This indicates that farm N surpluses may be used as an independent dataset for validation of measured and modelled N emissions in agricultural landscapes. However, no significant correlation was found to N measured in surface waters, probably because of the short time horizon of the study. A case study of the development in N surplus from the landscape in DK from 1998–2008 showed a 22 % reduction, related to statistically significant effects (p < 0.01) of measures targeted at reducing N emissions from livestock farms. Basedon the large differences between the average and the most modern and N-efficient farms, it was concluded that N-surplus reductions of 25–50 % as compared to the present level were realistic in all landscapes. The implemented N-surplus method was thus effective at comparing and synthesizing results on farm N emissions and the potentials of mitigation options, and is recommended for use in combination with other methods for the assessment of landscape N emissions and farm N efficiency, including more detailed N sink and N source hotspot mapping, measurements and modelling.

Dalgaard, Tommy; Bienkowski, J.

2012-01-01

340

U.S. regional greenhouse gas emissions analysis comparing highly resolved vehicle miles traveled and CO2 emissions: mitigation implications and their effect on atmospheric measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas and projections of fossil fuel energy demand show CO2 concentrations increasing indefinitely into the future. After electricity production, the transportation sector is the second largest CO2 emitting economic sector in the United States, accounting for 32.3% of the total U.S. emissions in 2002. Over 80% of the transport sector is composed of onroad emissions, with the remainder shared by the nonroad, aircraft, railroad, and commercial marine vessel transportation. In order to construct effective mitigation policy for the onroad transportation sector and more accurately predict CO2 emissions for use in transport models and atmospheric measurements, analysis must incorporate the three components that determine the CO2 onroad transport emissions: vehicle fleet composition, average speed of travel, and emissions regulation strategies. Studies to date, however, have either focused on one of these three components, have been only completed at the national scale, or have not explicitly represented CO2 emissions instead relying on the use of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) as an emissions proxy. National-level projections of VMT growth is not sufficient to highlight regional differences in CO2 emissions growth due to the heterogeneity of vehicle fleet and each state’s road network which determines the speed of travel of vehicles. We examine how an analysis based on direct CO2 emissions and an analysis based on VMT differ in terms of their emissions and mitigation implications highlighting potential biases introduced by the VMT-based approach. This analysis is performed at the US state level and results are disaggregated by road and vehicle classification. We utilize the results of the Vulcan fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventory which quantified emissions for the year 2002 across all economic sectors in the US at high resolution. We perform this comparison by fuel type,12 road types, and 12 vehicle types for US census regions and individual states. At the national level, rural roads show a 5% higher CO2 relative fraction compared to the VMT relative fraction, mostly due to a 15% higher CO2 fraction on rural interstates as a result of a higher proportion of heavy-duty vehicles such as large trucks. The diesel vehicle fleet has a 62% higher CO2 fraction compared to VMT with the largest contributors being buses and the heaviest truck classes. The differences become larger when analyzed at the state level. For example, Tennessee has 30% higher CO2 fractions compared to VMT on rural interstates and New York has 175% higher CO2 fractions compared to VMT for the bus vehicle class. Using VMT as a proxy for CO2 emissions results in incorrect estimations of CO2 emissions because of the strong space and time variations in fleet composition and road type. At the national scale the differences among the two methods are very small, but the spatial signature of CO2 emitted by onroad traffic is very strong and highly dependent on the region which can be confirmed with atmospheric measurements from aircraft and flux towers.

Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Possibilities of hydrogen removal phase III/3: Concluding evaluation of the potential of deliberate ignition as hydrogen mitigation measure for hypothetical severe accidents in pressurized water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The report deals with the method of ''Deliberate Ignition'', which was selected as the hydrogen mitigation measure with comparable fewest disadvantages. The method still includes some relevant in terms of safety-open questions, which were dealt with in the light of most recent research results (especially from the USA). The safety-relevance of the questions has been reduced further, but there was no final consens achieved among the experts. For a final release of this method some more investigations, especially experimental investigations, seem to be necessary. These were defined in detail. They include mainly the problem of the mode of hydrogen combustion in a multi-compartment-geometry (the interaction between combustion and distribution, effects of multiple ignition). When the results of those investigations are submitted, a new evaluation of the Deliberate Ignition may be performed, e.g. a consideration of the possible safety benefits compared to the status-quo is possible. Independent of this, there has to be the discussion whether counter-measures for the control of hypothetical severe accidents are reasonable and necessary. The total project SR 212/SR 365 is already now available as a basis for a later re-assessment of measures to control the hydrogen-problem during hypothetical severe accidents. (orig./HP)[de] Der Bericht behandelt die Methode der ''Gesteuerten Zuendung'', die im Verlauf der frueheren Arbeiten als die Wasserstoff-Gegenmassnahme mit den vergleichsweise geringsten Nachteilen ausgewaehlt worden war. Die Methode beinhaltete noch einige sicherheitstechnisch wichtige offene Fragen, die anhand aktueller Forschungsergebnisse (vor allem aus den USA) vertieft behandelt wurden. Die Fragen konnten in ihrer sicherheitstechnischen Bedeutung relativiert werden, es bestand jedoch noch kein endgueltiger Konsens im Expertenkreis. Fuer einen endgueltigen sicherheitstechnischen Unbedenklichkeitsnachweis erscheinen deshalb noch weitere, vor allem experimentelle Untersuchungen erforderlich. Diese wurden naeher definiert. Sie betreffen vor allem die Frage nach dem Ablauf der Verbrennung in einer Mehrraumgeometrie (Wechselwirkung zwischen Verbrennung und Gasverteilung, Auswirkung von Mehrfachzuendungen). Liegen die Ergebnisse hierzu vor, so kann eine Neubewertung der Gesteuerten Zuendung vorgenommen werden, d.h. es kann eine Abwaegung des moeglichen Sicherheitsgewinns gegenueber dem Status-quo durchgefuehrt werden. Unabhaengig davon bleibt die Diskussion zu fuehren, ob Gegenmassnahmen fuer hypothetische schwere Unfaelle ueberhaupt sinnvoll und notwendig sind. Das Gesamtvorhaben SR 212/SR 365 steht jetzt jedoch als Basis fuer eine spaetere Neubewertung von Massnahmen zur Beherrschung des Wasserstoffproblems bei hypothetischen schweren Unfaellen zur Verfuegung. (orig./HP)

1986-01-01

342

How effective are slurry storage, cover or catch crops, woodland creation, controlled trafficking or break-up of compacted layers, and buffer strips as on-farm mitigation measures for delivering an improved water environment?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Agriculture has intensified over the last 50 years resulting in increased usage of fertilizers and agrochemicals, changes in cropping practices, land drainage and increased stocking rates. In Europe, this has resulted in declines in the quality of soils and waters due to increased run off and water pollution. Fifty percent of nitrates in European rivers are derived from agricultural sources in the UK this value is as high as 70%, where agriculture also contributes to approximately 28% of phosphates and 76% of sediments recorded in rivers. Catchments dominated by agricultural land use have increased levels of pesticides and bacterial pathogens. European member states have a policy commitment to tackle water pollution through the Water Framework Directive. An analysis of the effectiveness of water pollution mitigation measures should enable decision makers and delivery agencies to better facilitate catchment planning. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of slurry storage, cover/catch crops, woodland creation, controlled trafficking/break-up of compacted layers and buffer strips, as on farm mitigation measures, for delivering an improved water environment. Methods The systematic review will consist of a searchable systematic map database for all the named interventions. Where possible, quantitative analysis will be used to assess the effectiveness of interventions. Electronic databases, the internet, and organisational websites will be searched, and stakeholders will be contacted for studies that investigate the impact of the on-farm mitigation measures on water quality. All studies found will be assessed for suitability for inclusion in the next stage. Inclusion criteria will be based on subject, intervention, comparator and outcome. The details of included studies will be incorporated into the systematic map database, and studies scored for effectiveness of intervention and study design. Where there is suitable data available, meta-analysis will be carried out to test the effectiveness of individual mitigation measures. A report will summarise the evidence, highlight any gaps in the available research, and provide recommendations for future research.

Randall Nicola P; Donnison Louise M; Lewis Paul J

2012-01-01

343

Measuring fall risk and predicting who will fall: clinimetric properties of four fall risk assessment tools for residential aged care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to describe the clinimetric evaluation of four fall risk assessment tools (FRATs) recommended in best practice guidelines for use in residential aged care (RAC). METHODS: Eighty-seven residents, mean age 81.59 years (SD +/-10.69), participated. The Falls Assessment Risk and Management Tool (FARAM), Peninsula Health Fall Risk Assessment Tool (PHFRAT), Queensland Fall Risk Assessment Tool (QFRAT), and Melbourne Fall Risk Assessment Tool (MFRAT) were completed at baseline, and 2 and 4 months, and falls occurring in the 6 months after the baseline assessment were recorded. Interrater agreement (kappa), predictive accuracy (survival analysis and Youden Index), and fit to the Rasch model were examined. Twelve-month fall history formed the predictive accuracy reference. RESULTS: Interrater risk classification agreement was high for the PHFRAT (small ka, Cyrillic = .84) and FARAM (small ka, Cyrillic = .81), and low for the QFRAT (small ka, Cyrillic = .51) and MFRAT (small ka, Cyrillic = .21). Survival analysis identified that 43%-66% of risk factors on each tool had no (p > .10) association with falls. No tool had higher predictive accuracy (Youden index) than the question, "has the resident fallen in past 12 months?" (p > .05). All tools did not exhibit fit to the Rasch model, invalidating summing of risk factor scores to provide an overall risk score. CONCLUSION: The studied tools have poor clinimetric properties, casting doubt about their usefulness for identifying fall risk factors for those most at risk for falling and measuring fall risk in RAC.

Barker AL; Nitz JC; Low Choy NL; Haines T

2009-08-01

344

On effect-measure modification: Relationships among changes in the relative risk, odds ratio, and risk difference.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is well known that the presence or absence of effect-measure modification depends upon the chosen measure. What is perhaps more disconcerting is that a positive change in one measure may be accompanied by a negative change in another. Therefore, research demonstrating that an effect is 'stronger' in one population when compared with another, but based on only one measure, for example, the odds ratio, may be difficult to interpret for researchers interested in another measure. The present article investigates relationships among changes in the relative risk, odds ratio, and risk difference from one stratum to another. Monte Carlo integration shows that the three measures change in the same direction for 78 or 89 per cent of the volume of the geometric space defined by the four underlying proportions, depending on whether the strata are presumed to share the same direction of effect or not. Analytic results are presented concerning necessary and sufficient conditions for the measures to change in opposite directions. In general, the conditions are seen to be quite complicated, though they do give way to some interesting results. For example, when exposure increases risk but all risks are less than 0.5, it is impossible for the relative risk and risk difference to change in the same direction but opposite to that of the odds ratio. Both data-analytic and hypothetical examples are presented to demonstrate circumstances under which the measures change in opposite directions.

Brumback B; Berg A

2008-08-01

345

On effect-measure modification: Relationships among changes in the relative risk, odds ratio, and risk difference.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that the presence or absence of effect-measure modification depends upon the chosen measure. What is perhaps more disconcerting is that a positive change in one measure may be accompanied by a negative change in another. Therefore, research demonstrating that an effect is 'stronger' in one population when compared with another, but based on only one measure, for example, the odds ratio, may be difficult to interpret for researchers interested in another measure. The present article investigates relationships among changes in the relative risk, odds ratio, and risk difference from one stratum to another. Monte Carlo integration shows that the three measures change in the same direction for 78 or 89 per cent of the volume of the geometric space defined by the four underlying proportions, depending on whether the strata are presumed to share the same direction of effect or not. Analytic results are presented concerning necessary and sufficient conditions for the measures to change in opposite directions. In general, the conditions are seen to be quite complicated, though they do give way to some interesting results. For example, when exposure increases risk but all risks are less than 0.5, it is impossible for the relative risk and risk difference to change in the same direction but opposite to that of the odds ratio. Both data-analytic and hypothetical examples are presented to demonstrate circumstances under which the measures change in opposite directions. PMID:18335568

Brumback, Babette; Berg, Arthur

2008-08-15

346

Subgradients of Law-Invariant Convex Risk Measures on L1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce a generalised subgradient for law-invariant closed convex risk measures on L1 and establish its relationship with optimal risk allocations and equilibria. Our main result gives sufficient conditions ensuring a non-empty generalised subgradient.

Svindland, Gregor

347

Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

Redus, Kenneth, S.

2003-02-26

348

Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R and D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

2003-01-01

349

Novel genetic markers improve measures of atrial fibrillation risk prediction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with adverse outcome. Whether recently discovered genetic risk markers improve AF risk prediction is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We derived and validated a novel AF risk prediction model from 32 possible predictors in the Women's Health Study (WHS), a cohort of 20 822 women without cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline followed prospectively for incident AF (median: 14.5 years). We then created a genetic risk score (GRS) comprised of 12 risk alleles in nine loci and assessed model performance in the validation cohort with and without the GRS. The newly derived WHS AF risk algorithm included terms for age, weight, height, systolic blood pressure, alcohol use, and smoking (current and past). In the validation cohort, this model was well calibrated with good discrimination [C-index (95% CI) = 0.718 (0.684-0.753)] and improved all reclassification indices when compared with age alone. The addition of the genetic score to the WHS AF risk algorithm model improved the C-index [0.741 (0.709-0.774); P = 0.001], the category-less net reclassification [0.490 (0.301-0.670); P < 0.0001], and the integrated discrimination improvement [0.00526 (0.0033-0.0076); P < 0.0001]. However, there was no improvement in net reclassification into 10-year risk categories of <1, 1-5, and 5+% [0.041 (-0.044-0.12); P = 0.33]. CONCLUSION: Among women without CVD, a simple risk prediction model utilizing readily available risk markers identified women at higher risk for AF. The addition of genetic information resulted in modest improvements in predictive accuracy that did not translate into improved reclassification into discrete AF risk categories.

Everett BM; Cook NR; Conen D; Chasman DI; Ridker PM; Albert CM

2013-08-01

350

Geotechnical engineering for disaster mitigation and rehabilitation  

CERN Document Server

Presents the developments and case studies in the field. This book includes contributions that cover the developments in disasters related to earthquakes, landslides and slopes, soil dynamics, risk assessment and management, disaster mitigation and rehabilitation, and others. It is suitable for geotechnical scientists, and engineers.

Liu, Han-Long; Chu, Jian

2009-01-01

351

Risk Measures on $\\mathcal{P}(\\mathbb{R})$ and Ambiguity for the Value At Risk: $\\Lambda V@R$  

CERN Document Server

We propose a generalization of the classical notion of the $V@R_{\\lambda}$ that takes into account not only the probability of the losses, but the balance between such probability and the amount of the loss. This is obtained by defining a new class of law invariant risk measures based on an appropriate family of acceptance sets. The $V@R_{\\lambda}$ and other known law invariant risk measures turn out to be special cases of our proposal.

Frittelli, Marco; Peri, Ilaria

2012-01-01

352

Mitigation win-win  

Science.gov (United States)

Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

2013-07-01

353

The use of questionnaires for acquiring information on public perception of natural hazards and risk mitigation – a review of current knowledge and practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Questionnaires are popular and fundamental tools for acquiring information on public knowledge and perception of natural hazards. Questionnaires can provide valuable information to emergency management agencies for developing risk management procedures. Although many natural hazards researchers desc...

D. K. Bird

354

Measuring risk profile with a multidimensional Rasch analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we propose an evaluation of investors’ risk profiles such as to meet the minimal requirements that Italian financial institutions must satisfy by law (d. lgs. 164, 2007). Thus we investigate all aspects specific to so-called risk profiles: an investor’s knowledge and his financial expe...

CAVIEZEL, VALERIA; BERTOLI BARSOTTI, LUCIO; ORTOBELLI LOZZA, SERGIO

355

Ultrasonic mitigation investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The suggestion was made that the introduction of ultrasound into Tank 101-SY might serve to release the hydrogen bubbles trapped in the slurry. This would cause a continuous release of bubbles and thereby prevent the turnover phenomenon. Two major considerations were (1) the method for delivering the energy into the slurry and (2) the effective volume of action. In this study, we attached the former by designing and testing a liquid-filled waveguide and radiator, and the latter by making ultrasonic property measurements on synthetic waste. Our conclusion is that ultrasonic mitigation may not be feasible, primarily because of the very high attenuation (1000 to 50000 dB/m) factor to 10 to 30 kHz. Such a high attenuation would restrict the action volume to such a low value as to make the method impractical. Further investigations are recommended to identify the cause of this effect and determine if this same effect will be seen in real 101-SY waste.

Hildebrand, B.P.; Shepard, C.L.

1993-04-01

356

Survey for the advertising effectiveness measurement of the website 'risk information navigator' and the risk message materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risk communication activities are important for promoting mutual understanding between local communities and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (hereinafter referred to as JNC). The Risk Communication Study Team of JNC Tokai Works has started practical studies to promote further mutual understanding with the local communities. Several communication tools such as poster panels, slide materials, videos, website contents and newsletters were developed as part of its risk communication activities. This paper describes the survey of the internet users in prefectures where nuclear power stations are located, for the advertising effectiveness measurement of nuclear risk information provided on the web site 'Risk Information Navigator' (http://ricotti.jnc.go.jp/risknavi/) and the risk message materials jointly produced by Tokai village's people and JNC. (author)

2005-01-01

357

Final Report. SFAA No. DEFC02-98CH10961. Technical assistance for joint implementation and other supporting mechanisms and measures for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IIEC, a division of CERF, has developed an extensive base of experience implementing activities that support climate action by developing USIJI projects in transitional countries within Asia, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, and southern Africa. IIEC has been able to provide a range of technical and policy assistance to governments and industry in support of sustainable energy use. IIEC continues to work in key countries with local partners to develop and implement energy efficiency policies and standards, develop site-specific projects, and assist governing bodies to establish national priorities and evaluation criteria for approving GHG-mitigation projects. As part of this project, IIEC focused on promoting a series of activities in Thailand and South Africa in order to identify GHG mitigation projects and work within the national approval process of those countries. The sections of this report outline the activities conducted in each country in order to achieve that goal.

Knight, Denise

2001-10-15

358

Colorado Wildlife Commission approves wildlife mitigation banking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Colorado Wildlife Commission accepted in principle a new draft of a proposed Wildlife Mitigation Policy. In essence the policy suggests that any industrial development which impacts wildlife in the state should develop mitigating or offsetting measures. The policy statement defines mitigation as a mechanism for addressing undesirable impacts on fish and wildlife resources. It can be accomplished in several ways, including reducing, minimizing, rectifying, compensating, or avoiding impacts. Where a project can be reasonably modified to avoid or minimize specific impacts, while still accomplishing the purposes of the project, that course is preferable. Mitigation measures proposed by the Colorado Division of Wildlife are advisory recommendations to project proponents and permitting agencies. Mitigation banking, a method of crediting a project sponsor for its activities that benefit wildlife and wildlife habitat in other areas, is an innovative concept that should allow greater flexibility in meeting the State's wildlife needs. The Division was specifically directed by the Commission to investigation the concept of mitigation banking to put the concept in a workable form as soon as practicable.

1986-12-01

359

Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to express in monetary terms.

Rickson RJ

2013-06-01

360

Is energy imparted a good measure of the radiation risk associated with CT examinations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dose distribution in a Rando phantom has been measured for typical EMI 5005 CT scans of the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. These dose distributions have been used to generate quantitative estimates of the somatic and genetic radiation risks associated with these CT examinations and also to measure the total energy imparted during each scan. A comparison has been made between the radiation risk estimates and the energy imparted measurements. The energy imparted measurements are not a good indicator of the somatic and/or genetic risks when one type of CT scan is compared with another. However, for a given type of scan, the energy imparted may be a reasonable indicator of the relative somatic risks associated with different CT examinations. Considerable care should be taken when interpreting and using any measured value of energy imparted in a radiological examination since published values of the risk per unit energy imparted can significantly underestimate the radiation risk. (author).

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

SDDP for multistage stochastic linear programs based on spectral risk measures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider risk-averse formulations of multistage stochastic linear programs. For these formulations, based on convex combinations of spectral risk measures, risk-averse dynamic programming equations can be written. As a result, the Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) algorithm can be use...

Guiges, Vincent; Römisch, Werner

362

The Measure and Control of Enterprise Marketing Risk in the E-business Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, through analyzing the change of enterprise marketing mode and the characters of marketing risk in the e-business environment, we establish the 3D embedded random measure model which suits for the e-business enterprise marketing risk, define the combination rules of the risk index system of this model, establish the theoretical base to measure the marketing risk for e-business enterprises, and analyze the warning and control of enterprise marketing risk under the model.

Lingbing Hu; Baoyin Zhang; Yu Wu

2009-01-01

363

The Basel II Accord on Measuring and Managing a Bank's Risks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The abundance of risk metrics stems from the effort to measure the difference between the expected and actual returns, under a hypothesis of normality. Under the assumption of risk aversion, investors are likely to quantify risk using metrics which measure returns lower than the expected average. These include the semi-variance of returns smaller than the average, the risk of loss – a return under a chosen level, usually 0%, and value-at-risk, for the greatest losses, with a probability of less than 1-5% in a given period of time. The Basel II accord improves on the way risks are measured, by allowing banks greater flexibility. There is an increase in the complexity of measuring credit risks, the market risks measurement methods remain the same, and the measurement of operational risk is introduced for the first time. The most advanced (and widely-used) risk metrics are based on VaR. However, it must be noted that VaR calculations are statistical, and therefore unlikely to forecast extraordinary events. So the quality of a VaR calculation must be checked using back-testing, and if the VaR value fails in a percentage of 1-5% of the cases, then the premises of the model must be changed.

Ion Stancu; Andrei Tinca

2007-01-01

364

Efficient calculation of risk measures by importance sampling -- the heavy tailed case  

CERN Multimedia

Computation of extreme quantiles and tail-based risk measures using standard Monte Carlo simulation can be inefficient. A method to speed up computations is provided by importance sampling. We show that importance sampling algorithms, designed for efficient tail probability estimation, can significantly improve Monte Carlo estimators of tail-based risk measures. In the heavy-tailed setting, when the random variable of interest has a regularly varying distribution, we provide sufficient conditions for the asymptotic relative error of importance sampling estimators of risk measures, such as Value-at-Risk and expected shortfall, to be small. The results are illustrated by some numerical examples.

Hult, Henrik

2009-01-01

365

Risk indicators. A systematization and discussion of risk measurements and risk comparisons; Risikoindikatoren. Eine Systematisierung und Diskussion von Risikomassen und Risikovergleichen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The starting point was the observation that controversies about technology-associated risks always present themselves also as controversies about numbers, measurements, and quantities of reference and comparison. The point in question are indicators of risks. The work discusses risk measurements. By this is understood a quantitative element indicating the presence of a more or less sizeable risk. There exists not only an `objective` definition of risk but a multitude of risk measurements, all of which are in principle legitimate indicators. - Furthermore, risk comparisons are dealt with. By risk comparison is understood the demonstration of two or more risks in order to indicate their relative significance. One realizes that comparisons of risks are a useful yet problematic venture. - As a consequence, a comparison of risks rarely is the `proper` or `adequate` or even `rational` one. It is necessary to verify empirically which comparison is appropriate for which interested party in which situations. (orig./HSCH). [Deutsch] Ausgangspunkt war die Beobachtung, dass Kontroversen um technikbedingte Risiken sich immer auch als Auseinandersetzungen um Zahlen, Masse, Bezugs- und Vergleichsgroessen darstellen. Es geht um Indikatoren von Risiko. Es werden Risikomasse behandelt. Darunter wird eine quantitative Groesse verstanden, die das Vorliegen eines mehr oder weniger grossen Risikos indizieren soll. Es gibt nicht die eine `objektive` Definition von Risiko, sondern eine Vielzahl von Risikomassen, die alle im Prinzip legitime Indikatoren darstellen. Ferner werden Risikovergleiche behandelt. Unter einem Risikovergleich wird verstanden, wenn zwei oder mehr Risiken dargestellt werden, um ihre relative Bedeutung zu indizieren. Es zeigt sich, dass Vergleiche zwischen Risiken ein nuetzliches und gleichzeitig problematisches Unterfangen sind. Die Konsequenz lautet, dass es nur selten den einen `richtigen` oder `angemessenen` oder gar `rationalen` Vergleich von Risiken gibt. Es muss empirisch geprueft werden, welcher Vergleich fuer welchen Adressaten in welchen Situationen angemessen ist. (orig./HSCH).

Femers, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Programmgruppe Mensch, Umwelt, Technik (MUT); Jungermann, H. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Psychologie

1991-05-01

366

Prediction of Ungauged River Basin for Hydro Power Potential and Flood Risk Mitigation; a Case Study at Gin River, Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The most of the primary civilizations of the world emerged in or near river valleys or floodplains. The river channels and floodplains are single hydrologic and geomorphic system. The failure to appreciate the integral connection between floodplains and channel underlies many socioeconomic and environmental problems in river management today. However it is a difficult task of collecting reliable field hydrological data. Under such situations either synthetic or statistically generated data were used for hydraulic engineering designing and flood modeling. The fundamentals of precipitation-runoff relationship through synthetic unit hydrograph for Gin River basin were prepared using the method of the Flood Studies Report of the National Environmental Research Council, United Kingdom (1975). The Triangular Irregular Network model was constructed using Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine hazard prone zones. The 1:10,000 and 1:50,000 topography maps and field excursions were also used for initial site selection of mini-hydro power units and determine flooding area. The turbines output power generations were calculated using the parameters of net head and efficiency of turbine. The peak discharge achieves within 4.74 hours from the onset of the rainstorm and 11.95 hours time takes to reach its normal discharge conditions of Gin River basin. Stream frequency of Gin River is 4.56 (Junctions/ km2) while the channel slope is 7.90 (m/km). The regional coefficient on the catchment is 0.00296. Higher stream frequency and gentle channel slope were recognized as the flood triggering factors of Gin River basin and other parameters such as basins catchment area, main stream length, standard average annual rainfall and soil do not show any significant variations with other catchments of Sri Lanka. The flood management process, including control of flood disaster, prepared for a flood, and minimize it impacts are complicated in human population encroached and modified floodplains. Thus modern GIS technology has been productively executed to prepare hazard maps based on the flood modeling and also it would be further utilized for disaster preparedness and mitigation activities. Five suitable hydraulic heads were recognized for mini-hydro power sites and it would be the most economical and applicable flood controlling hydraulic engineering structure considering all morphologic, climatic, environmental and socioeconomic proxies of the study area. Mini-hydro power sites also utilized as clean, eco friendly and reliable energy source (8630.0 kW). Finally Francis Turbine can be employed as the most efficiency turbine for the selected sites bearing in mind of both technical and economical parameters.

Ratnayake, A. S.

2011-12-01

367

Banking activity. Management by the risk assessment and measurement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid innovations in financial markets and the internationalization of the financial flows have created opportunities for developing some new products and supplying a wider product and service range to the banks. Liberalization of the financial markets , the severe competition and the diversification of the offered products expose banks to new risks and provocations. This new approach confirms the fact that the banking management generally and the risk management especially represents essential concern for the security and the stability both of each bank and the entire bankingsystem.

Vasile Gotcu

2009-01-01

368

Banking activity. Management by risk assessment and measurement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid innovations in financial markets and the internationalization of the financial flows have created opportunities for developing some new products and supplying a wider product and service range to the banks. Liberalization of the financial markets , the severe competition and the diversification of the offered products expose banks to new risks and provocations. This new approach confirms the fact that the banking management generally and the risk management especially represents essential concern for the security and the stability both of each bank and the entire bankingsystem.

Vasile Gotcu

2009-01-01

369

JIT Spraying and Mitigations  

CERN Document Server

With the discovery of new exploit techniques, novel protection mechanisms are needed as well. Mitigations like DEP (Data Execution Prevention) or ASLR (Address Space Layout Randomization) created a significantly more difficult environment for exploitation. Attackers, however, have recently researched new exploitation methods which are capable of bypassing the operating systemâ??s memory mitigations. One of the newest and most popular exploitation techniques to bypass both of the aforementioned security protections is JIT memory spraying, introduced by Dion Blazakis. In this article we will present a short overview of the JIT spraying technique and also novel mitigation methods against this innovative class of attacks. An anti-JIT spraying library was created as part of our shellcode execution prevention system.

Bania, Piotr

2010-01-01

370

The residual risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury at the American Red Cross (2008-2011): limitations of a predominantly male-donor plasma mitigation strategy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The American Red Cross began preferentially distributing plasma from male donors in 2007 and subsequently observed an 80% decrease in reported cases of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) after plasma transfusion. Plasma distributions from male donors now exceed 99% for groups A, B, and O, but only approximately 60% for group AB. We evaluated the ongoing risk of TRALI and the ABO blood group of involved plasma donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The rate of suspected TRALI per distributed components before (2006) and after (2008-2011) implementing the predominantly male-donor plasma strategy is compared. RESULTS: The risk of TRALI from the general inventory of distributed plasma decreased significantly from 18.6 cases per million units in 2006 to 4.2 cases per million units in 2008 to 2011 (p < 0.0001). However, the risk from AB plasma did not change (26.3 cases per million units) and was significantly greater than group A, B, and O plasma in 2008 to 2011 (1.8 per million units; odds ratio 14.5; 95% confidence interval, 6.8-30.9). Group AB plasma from female donors with HLA or HNA antibodies accounted for 14 of 28 (50%) of TRALI cases but less than 4% of all plasma units distributed in 2008 to 2011. CONCLUSION: The risk of TRALI after plasma transfusion has been markedly reduced for blood groups A, B, and O but not for AB, reflecting continued reliance on group AB plasma from female donors to meet increasing demand.

Eder AF; Dy BA; Perez JM; Rambaud M; Benjamin RJ

2013-07-01

371