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Determinants of nodulation competitiveness in Rhizobium etli. Final report for period September 30, 1996--September 29, 1999  

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Nitrogen is a major limiting nutrient in crop production. Chemical fertilizers, which are used extensively to meet crop nitrogen requirements, contribute to the high energy inputs of modern agriculture and cause human health and environmental problems. Legumes and their bacterial associates have long been used in crop rotations to replenish soil nitrogen, but effective and reliable biological nitrogen fixation for beans is prevented by the lack of nodulation competitiveness of many Rhizobium strains used as inoculants. The result is that the inoculant strains will not occupy the host's nodules and no benefit will be derived from inoculation. Many indigenous soil strains of Rhizobium etli bv. phaseoli, the symbiont of bean, nodulate but fix little or no nitrogen, and therefore the nodulation competitiveness problem is significant for achieving maximum nitrogen benefit from bean crops. This project was directed toward developing an understanding of the basis of nodulation competitiveness.

Handelsman, Jo

2000-01-04

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The cin quorum sensing locus of Rhizobium etli CNPAF512 affects growth and symbiotic nitrogen fixation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobium etli CNPAF512 produces an autoinducer that inhibits growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 248 and activates the Agrobacterium tumefaciens tra reporter system. Production of this compound in R. etli is dependent on two genes, named cinR and cinI, postulated to code for a transcriptional regulator and an autoinducer synthase, respectively. NMR analysis of the purified molecule indicates that the R. etli autoinducer produced by CinI is a saturated long chain 3-hydroxy-acyl-homoserine lactone, abbreviated as 3OH-(slc)-HSL. Using cin-gusA fusions, expression of cinI and cinR was shown to be growth phase-dependent. Deletion analysis of the cinI promoter region indicates that a regulatory element negatively controls cinI expression. Mutational analysis revealed that expression of the cinI gene is positively regulated by the CinR/3OH-(slc)-HSL complex. Besides 3OH-(slc)-HSL, R. etli produces at least six other autoinducer molecules, for which the structures have not yet been revealed, and of which the synthesis requires the previously identified raiI and raiR genes. At least three different autoinducers, including a compound co-migrating with 3OH-(slc)-HSL, are produced in R. etli bacteroids isolated from bean nodules. This is further substantiated by the observation that cinI and cinR are both expressed under symbiotic conditions. Acetylene reduction activity of nodules induced by the cin mutants was reduced with 60-70% compared with wild-type nodules, indicating that the R. etli 3OH-(slc)-HSL is involved in the symbiotic process. This was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of nodules induced by the wild type and the cinI mutant. Symbiosomes carrying cinI mutant bacteroids did not fully differentiate compared with wild-type symbiosomes. Finally, it was observed that the cinR gene and raiR control growth of R. etli.

Daniels R; De Vos DE; Desair J; Raedschelders G; Luyten E; Rosemeyer V; Verreth C; Schoeters E; Vanderleyden J; Michiels J

2002-01-01

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Inhibition of Rhizobium etli Polysaccharide Mutants by Phaseolus vulgaris Root Compounds  

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Crude bean root extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris were tested for inhibition of the growth of several polysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium etli biovar phaseoli CE3. Mutants deficient only in exopolysaccharide and some mutants deficient only in the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide were no more sensiti...

Eisenschenk, Linda; Diebold, Ronald; Perez-Lesher, Jeanett; Peterson, Andrew C.; Kent Peters, N.; Noel, K. Dale

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Symbiosis-specific expression of Rhizobium etli casA encoding a secreted calmodulin-related protein  

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Symbiosis between Rhizobium and its leguminous host requires elaborate communication between the partners throughout the interaction process. A calmodulin-like protein, termed calsymin, was identified in Rhizobium etli; a calmodulin-related protein in a Gram-negative bacterium had not been desc...

Xi, Chuanwu; Schoeters, Eric; Vanderleyden, Jos; Michiels, Jan

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Roles of predicted glycosyltransferases in the biosynthesis of the Rhizobium etli CE3 O antigen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Rhizobium etli CE3 O antigen is a fixed-length heteropolymer. The genetic regions required for its synthesis have been identified, and the nucleotide sequences are known. The structure of the O antigen has been determined, but the roles of specific genes in synthesizing this structure are relatively unclear. Within the known O-antigen genetic clusters of this strain, nine open reading frames (ORFs) were found to contain a conserved glycosyltransferase domain. Each ORF was mutated, and the resulting mutant lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was analyzed. Tricine SDS-PAGE revealed stepwise truncations of the O antigen that were consistent with differences in mutant LPS sugar compositions and reactivity with O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies. Based on these results and current theories of O-antigen synthesis, specific roles were deduced for each of the nine glycosyltransferases, and a model for biosynthesis of the R. etli CE3 O antigen was proposed. In this model, O-antigen biosynthesis is initiated with the addition of N-acetyl-quinovosamine-phosphate (QuiNAc-P) to bactoprenol-phosphate by glycosyltransferase WreU. Glycosyltransferases WreG, WreE, WreS, and WreT would each act once to attach mannose, fucose, a second fucose, and 3-O-methyl-6-deoxytalose (3OMe6dTal), respectively. WreH would then catalyze the addition of methyl glucuronate (MeGlcA) to complete the first instance of the O-antigen repeat unit. Four subsequent repeats of this unit composed of fucose, 3OMe6dTal, and MeGlcA would be assembled by a cycle of reactions catalyzed by two additional glycosyltransferases, WreM and WreL, along with WreH. Finally, the O antigen would be capped by attachment of di- or tri-O-methylated fucose as catalyzed by glycosyltransferase WreB.

Ojeda KJ; Simonds L; Noel KD

2013-05-01

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Housekeeping genes essential for pantothenate biosynthesis are plasmid-encoded in Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A traditional concept in bacterial genetics states that housekeeping genes, those involved in basic metabolic functions needed for maintenance of the cell, are encoded in the chromosome, whereas genes required for dealing with challenging environmental conditions are located in plasmids. Exceptions to this rule have emerged from genomic sequence data of bacteria with multipartite genomes. The genome sequence of R. etli CFN42 predicts the presence of panC and panB genes clustered together on the 642 kb plasmid p42f and a second copy of panB on plasmid p42e. They encode putative pantothenate biosynthesis enzymes (pantoate-?-alanine ligase and 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase, respectively). Due to their ubiquitous distribution and relevance in the central metabolism of the cell, these genes are considered part of the core genome; thus, their occurrence in a plasmid is noteworthy. In this study we investigate the contribution of these genes to pantothenate biosynthesis, examine whether their presence in plasmids is a prevalent characteristic of the Rhizobiales with multipartite genomes, and assess the possibility that the panCB genes may have reached plasmids by horizontal gene transfer. Results Analysis of mutants confirmed that the panC and panB genes located on plasmid p42f are indispensable for the synthesis of pantothenate. A screening of the location of panCB genes among members of the Rhizobiales showed that only R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains carry panCB genes in plasmids. The panCB phylogeny attested a common origin for chromosomal and plasmid-borne panCB sequences, suggesting that the R. etli and R. leguminosarum panCB genes are orthologs rather than xenologs. The panCB genes could not totally restore the ability of a strain cured of plasmid p42f to grow in minimal medium. Conclusions This study shows experimental evidence that core panCB genes located in plasmids of R. etli and R. leguminosarum are indispensable for the synthesis of pantothenate. The unusual presence of panCB genes in plasmids of Rhizobiales may be due to an intragenomic transfer from chromosome to plasmid. Plasmid p42f encodes other functions required for growth in minimal medium. Our results support the hypothesis of cooperation among different replicons for basic cellular functions in multipartite rhizobia genomes.

Villaseñor Tomás; Brom Susana; Dávalos Araceli; Lozano Luis; Romero David; los Santos Alejandro

2011-01-01

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Regulatory proteins and cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional control of Rhizobium etli reiterated nifH genes.  

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In Rhizobium etli the nitrogenase reductase genes are reiterated. Strain CE3 has three copies; nifHa and nifHb form part of nifHDK operons with the nitrogenase structural genes, while nifHc is linked to a truncated nifD homolog. Their sequences are identical up to 6 residues upstream from a sigma54-...

Valderrama, B; Dávalos, A; Girard, L; Morett, E; Mora, J

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Role of trehalose in heat and desiccation tolerance in the soil bacterium Rhizobium etli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The compatible solute trehalose is involved in the osmostress response of Rhizobium etli, the microsymbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris. In this work, we reconstructed trehalose metabolism in R. etli, and investigated its role in cellular adaptation and survival to heat and desiccation stress under free living conditions. RESULTS: Besides trehalose as major compatible solute, R. etli CE3 also accumulated glutamate and, if present in the medium, mannitol. Putative genes for trehalose synthesis (otsAB/treS/treZY), uptake (aglEFGK/thuEFGK) and degradation (thuAB/treC) were scattered among the chromosome and plasmids p42a, p42c, p42e, and p42f, and in some instances found redundant. Two copies of the otsA gene, encoding trehalose-6-P-synthase, were located in the chromosome (otsAch) and plasmid p42a (otsAa), and the latter seemed to be acquired by horizontal transfer. High temperature alone did not influence growth of R. etli, but a combination of high temperature and osmotic stress was more deleterious for growth than osmotic stress alone. Although high temperature induced some trehalose synthesis by R. etli, trehalose biosynthesis was mainly triggered by osmotic stress. However, an otsAch mutant, unable to synthesize trehalose in minimal medium, showed impaired growth at high temperature, suggesting that trehalose plays a role in thermoprotection of R. etli. Desiccation tolerance by R. etli wild type cells was dependent of high trehalose production by osmotic pre-conditioned cells. Cells of the mutant strain otsAch showed ca. 3-fold lower survival levels than the wild type strain after drying, and a null viability after 4 days storage. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a beneficial effect of osmotic stress in R. etli tolerance to desiccation, and an important role of trehalose on the response of R. etli to high temperature and desiccation stress.

Reina-Bueno M; Argandoña M; Nieto JJ; Hidalgo-García A; Iglesias-Guerra F; Delgado MJ; Vargas C

2012-01-01

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Role of trehalose in heat and desiccation tolerance in the soil bacterium Rhizobium etli  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The compatible solute trehalose is involved in the osmostress response of Rhizobium etli, the microsymbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris. In this work, we reconstructed trehalose metabolism in R. etli, and investigated its role in cellular adaptation and survival to heat and desiccation stress under free living conditions. Results Besides trehalose as major compatible solute, R. etli CE3 also accumulated glutamate and, if present in the medium, mannitol. Putative genes for trehalose synthesis (otsAB/treS/treZY), uptake (aglEFGK/thuEFGK) and degradation (thuAB/treC) were scattered among the chromosome and plasmids p42a, p42c, p42e, and p42f, and in some instances found redundant. Two copies of the otsA gene, encoding trehalose-6-P-synthase, were located in the chromosome (otsAch) and plasmid p42a (otsAa), and the latter seemed to be acquired by horizontal transfer. High temperature alone did not influence growth of R. etli, but a combination of high temperature and osmotic stress was more deleterious for growth than osmotic stress alone. Although high temperature induced some trehalose synthesis by R. etli, trehalose biosynthesis was mainly triggered by osmotic stress. However, an otsAch mutant, unable to synthesize trehalose in minimal medium, showed impaired growth at high temperature, suggesting that trehalose plays a role in thermoprotection of R. etli. Desiccation tolerance by R. etli wild type cells was dependent of high trehalose production by osmotic pre-conditioned cells. Cells of the mutant strain otsAch showed ca. 3-fold lower survival levels than the wild type strain after drying, and a null viability after 4 days storage. Conclusions Our findings suggest a beneficial effect of osmotic stress in R. etli tolerance to desiccation, and an important role of trehalose on the response of R. etli to high temperature and desiccation stress.

Reina-Bueno Mercedes; Argandoña Montserrat; Nieto Joaquín J; Hidalgo-García Alba; Iglesias-Guerra Fernando; Delgado María J; Vargas Carmen

2012-01-01

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Effective Symbiosis between Rhizobium etli and Phaseolus vulgaris Requires the Alarmone ppGpp  

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The symbiotic interaction between Rhizobium etli and Phaseolus vulgaris, the common bean plant, ultimately results in the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. Many aspects of the intermediate and late stages of this interaction are still poorly understood. The R. etli relA gene was identified through a genome-wide screening for R. etli symbiotic mutants. RelA has a pivotal role in cellular physiology, as it catalyzes the synthesis of (p)ppGpp, which mediates the stringent response in bacteria. The synthesis of ppGpp was abolished in an R. etli relA mutant strain under conditions of amino acid starvation. Plants nodulated by an R. etli relA mutant had a strongly reduced nitrogen fixation activity (75% reduction). Also, at the microscopic level, bacteroid morphology was altered, with the size of relA mutant bacteroids being increased compared to that of wild-type bacteroids. The expression of the ?N-dependent nitrogen fixation genes rpoN2 and iscN was considerably reduced in the relA mutant. In addition, the expression of the relA gene was negatively regulated by RpoN2, the symbiosis-specific ?N copy of R. etli. Therefore, an autoregulatory loop controlling the expression of relA and rpoN2 seems operative in bacteroids. The production of long- and short-chain acyl-homoserine-lactones by the cinIR and raiIR systems was decreased in an R. etli relA mutant. Our results suggest that relA may play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in R. etli bacteroids and in the adaptation of bacteroid physiology.

Moris, Martine; Braeken, Kristien; Schoeters, Eric; Verreth, Christel; Beullens, Serge; Vanderleyden, Jos; Michiels, Jan

2005-01-01

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Enhanced expression of Rhizobium etli cbb? oxidase improves drought tolerance of common bean symbiotic nitrogen fixation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the involvement of Rhizobium etli cbb(3) oxidase in the response of Phaseolus vulgaris to drought, common bean plants were inoculated with the R. etli strain, CFNX713, overexpressing this oxidase in bacteroids (cbb(3)(+)) and subjected to drought conditions. The negative effect of drought on plant and nodule dryweight, nitrogen content, and nodule functionality was more pronounced in plants inoculated with the wild-type (WT) strain than in those inoculated with the cbb(3)(+) strain. Regardless of the plant treatment, bacteroids produced by the cbb(3)(+) strain showed higher respiratory capacity than those produced by the WT strain. Inoculation of plants with the cbb(3)(+) strain alleviated the negative effect of a moderate drought on the respiratory capacity of bacteroids and the energy charge of the nodules. Expression of the FixP and FixO components of the cbb(3) oxidase was higher in bacteroids of the cbb(3)(+) strain than in those of the WT strain under all experimental conditions. The decline in sucrose synthase activity and the decrease in dicarboxylic acids provoked by moderate drought stress were more pronounced in nodules from plants inoculated with the WT strain than in those inoculated with the cbb(3)(+) strain. Taken together, these results suggest that inoculation of plants with a R. etli strain having enhanced expression of cbb(3) oxidase in bacteroids reduces the sensitivity of P. vulgaris-R. etli symbiosis to drought and can modulate carbon metabolism in nodules.

Talbi C; Sánchez C; Hidalgo-Garcia A; González EM; Arrese-Igor C; Girard L; Bedmar EJ; Delgado MJ

2012-09-01

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Inhibition of Rhizobium etli Polysaccharide Mutants by Phaseolus vulgaris Root Compounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Crude bean root extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris were tested for inhibition of the growth of several polysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium etli biovar phaseoli CE3. Mutants deficient only in exopolysaccharide and some mutants deficient only in the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide were no more sensitive than the wild-type strain to the extracts, whereas mutants defective in both lipopolysaccharide and exopolysaccharide were much more sensitive. The inhibitory activity was found at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in stems or leaves. Inoculation with either wild-type or polysaccharide-deficient R. etli did not appear to affect the level of activity. Sequential extractions of the crude root material with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water partitioned inhibitory activity into each solvent except methanol. The major inhibitors in the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts were purified by C(18) high-performance liquid chromatography. These compounds all migrated very similarly in both liquid and thin-layer chromatography but were distinguished by their mass spectra. Absorbance spectra and fluorescence properties suggested that they were coumestans, one of which had the mass spectrum and nuclear magnetic resonances of coumestrol. These results are discussed with regard to the hypothesis that one role of rhizobial polysaccharides is to protect against plant toxins encountered during nodule development.

Eisenschenk L; Diebold R; Perez-Lesher J; Peterson AC; Kent Peters N; Noel KD

1994-09-01

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Rhizavidin from Rhizobium etli: the first natural dimer in the avidin protein family.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobium etli CFN42 is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris. The symbiotic plasmid p42d of R. etli comprises a gene encoding a putative (strept)avidin-like protein, named rhizavidin. The amino acid sequence identity of rhizavidin in relation to other known avidin-like proteins is 20-30%. The amino acid residues involved in the (strept)avidin-biotin interaction are well conserved in rhizavidin. The structural and functional properties of rhizavidin were carefully studied, and we found that rhizavidin shares characteristics with bradavidin, streptavidin and avidin. However, we found that it is the first naturally occurring dimeric protein in the avidin protein family, in contrast with tetrameric (strept)avidin and bradavidin. Moreover, it possesses a proline residue after a flexible loop (GGSG) in a position close to Trp-110 in avidin, which is an important biotin-binding residue. [3H]Biotin dissociation and ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry) experiments showed dimeric rhizavidin to be a high-affinity biotin-binding protein. Its thermal stability was lower than that of avidin; although similar to streptavidin, it was insensitive to proteinase K. The immunological cross-reactivity of rhizavidin was tested with human serum samples obtained from cancer patients exposed to (strept)avidin. No significant cross-reactivity was observed. The biodistribution of the protein was studied by SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) imaging in rats. Similarly to avidin, rhizavidin was observed to accumulate rapidly, mainly in the liver. Evidently, rhizavidin could be used as a complement to (strept)avidin in (strept)avidin-biotin technology.

Helppolainen SH; Nurminen KP; Määttä JA; Halling KK; Slotte JP; Huhtala T; Liimatainen T; Ylä-Herttuala S; Airenne KJ; Närvänen A; Jänis J; Vainiotalo P; Valjakka J; Kulomaa MS; Nordlund HR

2007-08-01

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Pleiotropic effects of a rel mutation on stress survival of Rhizobium etli CNPAF512  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The rel gene of Rhizobium etli (relRet), the nodulating endosymbiont of the common bean plant, determines the cellular level of the alarmone (p)ppGpp and was previously shown to affect free-living growth and symbiosis. Here, we demonstrate its role in cellular adaptation and survival in response to various stresses. Results Growth of the R. etli relRet mutant was strongly reduced or abolished in the presence of elevated NaCl levels or at 37°C, compared to the wild type. In addition, depending on the cell density, decreased survival of exponentially growing or stationary phase relRet mutant cells was obtained after H2O2, heat or NaCl shock compared to the wild-type strain. Survival of unstressed stationary phase cultures was differentially affected depending on the growth medium used. Colony forming units (CFU) of relRet mutant cultures continuously decreased in minimal medium supplemented with succinate, whereas wild-type cultures stabilised at higher CFU levels. Microscopic examination of stationary phase cells indicated that the relRet mutant was unable to reach the typical coccoid morphology of the wild type in stationary phase cultures. Assessment of stress resistance of re-isolated bacteroids showed increased sensitivity of the relRet mutant to H2O2 and a slightly increased resistance to elevated temperature (45°C) or NaCl shock, compared to wild-type bacteroids. Conclusion The relRet gene is an important factor in regulating rhizobial physiology, during free-living growth as well as in symbiotic conditions. Additionally, differential responses to several stresses applied to bacteroids and free-living exponential or stationary phase cells point to essential physiological differences between the different states.

Braeken Kristien; Fauvart Maarten; Vercruysse Maarten; Beullens Serge; Lambrichts Ivo; Michiels Jan

2008-01-01

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Analysis of Rhizobium etli and of its symbiosis with wild Phaseolus vulgaris supports coevolution in centers of host diversification  

Science.gov (United States)

Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) comprise three major geographic genetic pools, one in Mexico, Central America, and Colombia, another in the southern Andes, and a third in Ecuador and northern Peru. Species Rhizobium etli is the predominant rhizobia found symbiotically associated with beans in the Americas. We have found polymorphism in the common nodulation gene nodC among R. etli strains from a wide range of geographical origins, which disclosed three nodC types. The different nodC alleles in American strains show varying predominance in their regional distributions in correlation with the centers of bean genetic diversification (BD centers). By cross-inoculating wild common beans from the three BD centers with soils from Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Northwestern Argentina, the R. etli populations from nodules originated from Mexican soil again showed allele predominance that was opposite to those originated from Bolivian and Argentinean soil, whereas populations from Ecuadorian soil were intermediate. These results also indicated that the preferential nodulation of beans by geographically related R. etli lineages was independent of the nodulating environment. Coinoculation of wild common beans from each of the three BD centers with an equicellular mixture of R. etli strains representative of the Mesoamerican and southern Andean lineages revealed a host-dependent distinct competitiveness: beans from the Mesoamerican genetic pool were almost exclusively nodulated by strains from their host region, whereas nodules of beans from the southern Andes were largely occupied by the geographically cognate R. etli lineages. These results suggest coevolution in the centers of host genetic diversification.

Aguilar, O. Mario; Riva, Omar; Peltzer, Eitel

2004-01-01

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Varying the Abundance of O Antigen in Rhizobium etli and Its Effect on Symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris  

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Judged by migration of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in gel electrophoresis, the O antigen of Rhizobium etli mutant strain CE166 was apparently of normal size. However, its LPS sugar composition and staining of the LPS bands after electrophoresis indicated that the proportion of its LPS molecules that possessed O antigen was only 40% of the wild-type value. Its LPS also differed from the wild type by lacking quinovosamine (2-amino-2,6-dideoxyglucose). Both of these defects were due to a single genetic locus carrying a Tn5 insertion. The deficiency in O-antigen amount, but not the absence of quinovosamine, was suppressed by transferring into this strain recombinant plasmids that shared a 7.8-kb stretch of the R. etli CE3 lps genetic region ?, even though this suppressing DNA did not carry the genetic region mutated in strain CE166. Strain CE166 gave rise to pseudonodules on legume host Phaseolus vulgaris, whereas the mutant suppressed by DNA from lps region ? elicited nitrogen-fixing nodules. However, the nodules in the latter case developed slowly and were widely dispersed. Two other R. etli mutants that had one-half or less of the normal amount of O antigen also gave rise to pseudonodules on P. vulgaris. The latter strains were mutated in lps region ? and could be restored to normal LPS content and normal symbiosis by complementation with wild-type DNA from this region. Hence, the symbiotic role of LPS requires near-normal abundance of O antigen and may require a structural feature conferred by quinovosamine.

Noel, K. Dale; Forsberg, Lennart S.; Carlson, Russell W.

2000-01-01

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The mosaic structure of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42 and its relation to other symbiotic genome compartments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Symbiotic bacteria known as rhizobia interact with the roots of legumes and induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. In rhizobia, essential genes for symbiosis are compartmentalized either in symbiotic plasmids or in chromosomal symbiotic islands. To understand the structure and evolution of the symbiotic genome compartments (SGCs), it is necessary to analyze their common genetic content and organization as well as to study their differences. To date, five SGCs belonging to distinct species of rhizobia have been entirely sequenced. We report the complete sequence of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42, a microsymbiont of beans, and a comparison with other SGC sequences available. RESULTS: The symbiotic plasmid is a circular molecule of 371,255 base-pairs containing 359 coding sequences. Nodulation and nitrogen-fixation genes common to other rhizobia are clustered in a region of 125 kilobases. Numerous sequences related to mobile elements are scattered throughout. In some cases the mobile elements flank blocks of functionally related sequences, thereby suggesting a role in transposition. The plasmid contains 12 reiterated DNA families that are likely to participate in genomic rearrangements. Comparisons between this plasmid and complete rhizobial genomes and symbiotic compartments already sequenced show a general lack of synteny and colinearity, with the exception of some transcriptional units. There are only 20 symbiotic genes that are shared by all SGCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the notion that the symbiotic compartments of rhizobia genomes are mosaic structures that have been frequently tailored by recombination, horizontal transfer and transposition.

González V; Bustos P; Ramírez-Romero MA; Medrano-Soto A; Salgado H; Hernández-González I; Hernández-Celis JC; Quintero V; Moreno-Hagelsieb G; Girard L; Rodríguez O; Flores M; Cevallos MA; Collado-Vides J; Romero D; Dávila G

2003-01-01

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Engineering the nifH Promoter Region and Abolishing Poly-?-Hydroxybutyrate Accumulation in Rhizobium etli Enhance Nitrogen Fixation in Symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobium etli, as well as some other rhizobia, presents nitrogenase reductase (nifH) gene reiterations. Several R. etli strains studied in this laboratory showed a unique organization and contained two complete nifHDK operons (copies a and b) and a truncated nifHD operon (copy c). Expression analysis of lacZ fusion demonstrated that copies a and b in strain CFN42 are transcribed at lower levels than copy c, although this copy has no discernible role during nitrogen fixation. To increase nitrogenase production, we constructed a chimeric nifHDK operon regulated by the strong nifHc promoter sequence and expressed it in symbiosis with the common bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris), either cloned on a stably inherited plasmid or incorporated into the symbiotic plasmid (pSym). Compared with the wild-type strain, strains with the nitrogenase overexpression construction assayed in greenhouse experiments had, increased nitrogenase activity (58% on average), increased plant weight (32% on average), increased nitrogen content in plants (15% at 32 days postinoculation), and most importantly, higher seed yield (36% on average), higher nitrogen content (25%), and higher nitrogen yield (72% on average) in seeds. Additionally, expression of the chimeric nifHDK operon in a poly-?-hydroxybutyrate-negative R. etli strain produced an additive effect in enhancing symbiosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of increased seed yield and nutritional content in the common bean obtained by using only the genetic material already present in Rhizobium.

Peralta, Humberto; Mora, Yolanda; Salazar, Emmanuel; Encarnacion, Sergio; Palacios, Rafael; Mora, Jaime

2004-01-01

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Basis for the competitiveness of rhizobium japonicum in nodulation of soybean. Final progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These studies were concerned with the determination of the characteristics of the soybean symbiont R. japonicum that are crucial to the inoculum competitiveness of one strain of the bacterium over other strains with respect to nodule formation. Our work has been focused on the initial infection events, such as attachment, which precede the development of a fully functional nodule because it is these primary events which determine the success or failure of a particular rhizobia to initiate infections. Experiments concerned with the attachment of R. japonicum to soybean roots have indicated that both soybean symbiotic and non-symbiotic species of rhizobia attach comparably well to soybean roots. There was no evidence of attachment mediated by soybean lectin, as previously claimed, but evidence was obtained for attachment mediated by pili on the Rhizobium cells. It was also found that the efficiency of infection varied substantially with culture age for certain strains while with other strains the efficiency of infection remained approximately constant during growth. We have utilized these observations to investigate the relationship between the efficiency of infection and competitiveness. An unexpected outcome of these studies was the finding that R. japonicum, and other slow-growing Rhizobium species, maintain both viability and symbiotic infectivity over prolonged periods of storage at ambient temperatures when suspended in water. The simplicity and cost-effectiveness of this storage procedure may provide an alternative method to the current practices employed in inoculum preparation. 2 figures, 3 tables.

Bauer, W.D.; Evans, W.R.

1984-07-30

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Characterization of the NifA-RpoN Regulon in Rhizobium etli in Free Life and in Symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris? †  

Science.gov (United States)

The NifA-RpoN complex is a master regulator of the nitrogen fixation genes in alphaproteobacteria. Based on the complete Rhizobium etli genome sequence, we constructed an R. etli CFN42 oligonucleotide (70-mer) microarray and utilized this tool, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis (transcriptomics), proteomics, and bioinformatics to decipher the NifA-RpoN regulon under microaerobic conditions (free life) and in symbiosis with bean plants. The R. etli NifA-RpoN regulon was determined to contain 78 genes, including the genes involved in nitrogen fixation, and the analyses revealed 42 new NifA-RpoN-dependent genes. More importantly, this study demonstrated that the NifA-RpoN regulon is composed of genes and proteins that have very diverse functions, that play fundamental and previously less appreciated roles in regulating the normal physiology of the cell, and that have important functions in providing adequate conditions for efficient nitrogen fixation in symbiosis. The R. etli NifA-RpoN regulon defined here has some components in common with other NifA-RpoN regulons described previously, but the vast majority of the components have been found only in the R. etli regulon, suggesting that they have a specific role in this bacterium and particular requirements during nitrogen fixation compared with other symbiotic bacterial models.

Salazar, Emmanuel; Diaz-Mejia, J. Javier; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Martinez-Batallar, Gabriel; Mora, Yolanda; Mora, Jaime; Encarnacion, Sergio

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Identification of a Plasmid-Borne Locus in Rhizobium etli KIM5s Involved in Lipopolysaccharide O-Chain Biosynthesis and Nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening of derivatives of Rhizobium etli KIM5s randomly mutagenized with mTn5SSgusA30 resulted in the identification of strain KIM-G1. Its rough colony appearance, flocculation in liquid culture, and Ndv? Fix? phenotype were indicative of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) defect. Electrophoretic analysis of cell-associated polysaccharides showed that KIM-G1 produces only rough LPS. Composition analysis of purified LPS oligosaccharides from KIM-G1 indicated that it produces an intact LPS core trisaccharide (?-d-GalA-1?4[?-d-GalA-1?5]-Kdo) and tetrasaccharide (?-d-Gal-1?6[?-d-GalA-1?4]-?-d-Man-1?5Kdo), strongly suggesting that the transposon insertion disrupted a locus involved in O-antigen biosynthesis. Five monosaccharides (Glc, Man, GalA, 3-O-Me-6-deoxytalose, and Kdo) were identified as the components of the repeating O unit of the smooth parent strain, KIM5s. Strain KIM-G1 was complemented with a 7.2-kb DNA fragment from KIM5s that, when provided in trans on a broad-host-range vector, restored the smooth LPS and the full capacity of nodulation and fixation on its host Phaseolus vulgaris. The mTn5 insertion in KIM-G1 was located at the N terminus of a putative ?-glycosyltransferase, which most likely had a polar effect on a putative ?-glycosyltransferase located downstream. A third open reading frame with strong homology to sugar epimerases and dehydratases was located upstream of the insertion site. The two glycosyltransferases are strain specific, as suggested by Southern hybridization analysis, and are involved in the synthesis of the variable portion of the LPS, i.e., the O antigen. This newly identified LPS locus was mapped to a 680-kb plasmid and is linked to the lps?2 gene recently reported for R. etli CFN42.

Vinuesa, Pablo; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Breton, Christelle; Werner, Dietrich

1999-01-01

22

Transcriptional and functional variation of NF-YC1 in genetically diverse accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris during the symbiotic association with Rhizobium etli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is an agronomic important legume crop native to America, where two centres of genetic diversification (GD) are recognised, one in Mesoamerica and the other in the south Andes. Mesoamerican bean accessions have preferential and more efficient nodulation with Rhizobium etli strains carrying the allele nodC type-?, which is predominant in soils of Mesoamerica. It was previously demonstrated that the host nuclear factor NF-YC1, which is involved in nodule formation and rhizobial infection, contributes to this preferential selection and enhances nodulation in the domesticated accession NAG12 from Mesoamerica. Here, we show that both domesticated and wild Mesoamerican beans exhibit higher nodulation performance with a nodC type-? than with a nodC type-? strain. Transcripts of NF-YC1 significantly increased in roots of these accessions 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) with the nodC type-? strain. On the other hand, accessions from the Andean GD centre formed a higher number of nodules with a strain carrying the nodC type-?, which is predominant in Andean soils. However, NF-YC1 transcript levels did not exhibit significant changes in Andean accessions upon inoculation with the nodC type-? strain, at least at 24 hpi. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing of NF-YC1 in the domesticated Andean accession Alubia showed that NF-YC1 or a closely related member of this family is required for nodule formation and bacterial infection, in agreement with observations in Mesoamerican common beans. Isolation and sequencing of the full-length ORF of NF-YC1 from Alubia revealed that it was identical to the sequence previously identified in the Mesoamerican accession NAG12. Interestingly, overexpression of NF-YC1 had a negative impact on nodule formation in the Alubia accession, independently of the R. etli lineage. Our findings suggest that transcriptional and functional variation of NF-YC1 occurs among genetically diverse bean accessions, which might positively or negatively contribute to the fine-tuning mechanisms that regulate nodule formation in the common bean-R. etli symbiosis.

Mazziotta L; Reynoso MA; Aguilar OM; Blanco FA; Zanetti ME

2013-09-01

23

Transcriptional and functional variation of NF-YC1 in genetically diverse accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris during the symbiotic association with Rhizobium etli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is an agronomic important legume crop native to America, where two centres of genetic diversification (GD) are recognised, one in Mesoamerica and the other in the south Andes. Mesoamerican bean accessions have preferential and more efficient nodulation with Rhizobium etli strains carrying the allele nodC type-?, which is predominant in soils of Mesoamerica. It was previously demonstrated that the host nuclear factor NF-YC1, which is involved in nodule formation and rhizobial infection, contributes to this preferential selection and enhances nodulation in the domesticated accession NAG12 from Mesoamerica. Here, we show that both domesticated and wild Mesoamerican beans exhibit higher nodulation performance with a nodC type-? than with a nodC type-? strain. Transcripts of NF-YC1 significantly increased in roots of these accessions 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) with the nodC type-? strain. On the other hand, accessions from the Andean GD centre formed a higher number of nodules with a strain carrying the nodC type-?, which is predominant in Andean soils. However, NF-YC1 transcript levels did not exhibit significant changes in Andean accessions upon inoculation with the nodC type-? strain, at least at 24 hpi. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing of NF-YC1 in the domesticated Andean accession Alubia showed that NF-YC1 or a closely related member of this family is required for nodule formation and bacterial infection, in agreement with observations in Mesoamerican common beans. Isolation and sequencing of the full-length ORF of NF-YC1 from Alubia revealed that it was identical to the sequence previously identified in the Mesoamerican accession NAG12. Interestingly, overexpression of NF-YC1 had a negative impact on nodule formation in the Alubia accession, independently of the R. etli lineage. Our findings suggest that transcriptional and functional variation of NF-YC1 occurs among genetically diverse bean accessions, which might positively or negatively contribute to the fine-tuning mechanisms that regulate nodule formation in the common bean-R. etli symbiosis. PMID:23126265

Mazziotta, L; Reynoso, M A; Aguilar, O M; Blanco, F A; Zanetti, M E

2012-11-05

24

(Genetics and biochemistry of Rhizobium meliloti acidic extracellular heteropolysaccharide and its role in nodulation): Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have been working with two polysaccharides secreted by Rhizobium meliloti that promote nodule invasion, succinoglycan and EPSb. R. meliloti mutants in succinoglycan synthesis are designated Exo-, and fail to invade alfalfa root nodules. Multiple forms of succinoglycan are produced by R. meliloti, and this raises the question, which form is involved in nodule invasion We observed that a low molecular weight oligosaccharide form is secreted by wild type R. meliloti as well as the high molecular weight polymer. The oligosaccharide, in turn, also has multiple forms. Recently we have found that multiple subfractions of the oligosaccharide are secreted that apparently differ in size. Although these fractions appeared identical by proton NMR spectroscopy, they migrated in at least three distinct fractions in anion exchange chromatography. Also, in a EPLC sizing system we have recently begun using, we observed distinct low molecular weight fractions. We are currently collaborating with Steve Levery and S. Hakomori of the Biomembrane Institute, Seattle, to measure the molecular weights of these fractions by mass spectrometry. One likely outcome is that the fractions represent one, two, three, and possibly greater numbers of subunits of succinoglycan. Recently we determined that the ratios of total sugar constituents to reducing ends is consistent with this interpretation.

Leigh, J.A.

1989-01-01

25

Effets de la fertilisation azotée, de l'inoculation par Rhizobium sp. et du régime des pluies sur la production de la biomasse et la teneur en azote du pois chiche  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of nitrogen fertilization, inoculation with Rhizobium sp. and precipitation on the biomass production and nitrogen content of chickpea. Water availability and soil fertility (especially soil N content) are the major factors affecting chickpea yield in Mediterranean regions, characterized by low rainfall, poorly distributed and rapid mineralization of organic matter. In order to study the effect of N-fertilization and inoculation with Rhizobium on chickpea biomass production and N-content, field experiment were carried out at two stations of INRAT in northern Tunisia during two consecutive years, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002. Results showed that N-fertilization significantly increased shoot biomass and N-content while decreasing nodule mass. Inoculation with both the two Rhizobium strains resulted in nodule mass increase but the shoot N-content was not significantly affected. Regardless of the stations and treatments, rainfall decrease between the two years of the experiment significantly reduced shoot and root biomass while improving nodulation, especially at Oued Beja. However, the nodule developed under water deficit conditions was correlated with a very high decrease of the nitrogen fixed. Nevertheless, the mineral nitrogen apply in soil improved the N-content of aerial parts in the two stations, especially in waterless season.

L'taief B.; Sifi B.; Zaman-Allah M.; Hajji M.; Lachaâl M.

2009-01-01

26

Change in land use alters the diversity and composition of Bradyrhizobium communities and led to the introduction of Rhizobium etli into the tropical rain forest of Los Tuxtlas (Mexico).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the Bradyrhizobium genus are major symbionts of legume plants in American tropical forests, but little is known about the effects of deforestation and change in land use on their diversity and community structure. Forest clearing is followed by cropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize as intercropped plants in Los Tuxtlas tropical forest of Mexico. The identity of bean-nodulating rhizobia in this area is not known. Using promiscuous trap plants, bradyrhizobia were isolated from soil samples collected in Los Tuxtlas undisturbed forest, and in areas where forest was cleared and land was used as crop fields or as pastures, or where secondary forests were established. Rhizobia were also trapped by using bean plants. Bradyrhizobium strains were classified into genospecies by dnaK sequence analysis supported by recA, glnII and 16S-23S rDNA IGS loci analyses. A total of 29 genospecies were identified, 24 of which did not correspond to any described taxa. A reduction in Bradyrhizobium diversity was observed when forest was turned to crop fields or pastures. Diversity seemed to recover to primary forest levels in secondary forests that derived from abandoned crop fields or pastures. The shifts in diversity were not related to soil characteristics but seemingly to the density of nodulating legumes present at each land use system (LUS). Bradyrhizobium community composition in soils was dependent on land use; however, similarities were observed between crop fields and pastures but not among forest and secondary forest. Most Bradyrhizobium genospecies present in forest were not recovered or become rare in the other LUS. Rhizobium etli was found as the dominant bean-nodulating rhizobia present in crop fields and pastures, and evidence was found that this species was introduced in Los Tuxtlas forest.

Ormeño-Orrillo E; Rogel-Hernández MA; Lloret L; López-López A; Martínez J; Barois I; Martínez-Romero E

2012-05-01

27

Phosphate solubilization by Rhizobium strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-six Rhizobium isolates from legume root and stem nodules were examined for their phosphate-solubilizing ability on Pikovskaya's agar medium. Rhizobium isolates from root nodules of Cassia absus, Vigna trilobata and three strains from Sesbania sesban showed zone of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization. The isolate from C. absus showed maximum solubilization (620 ?g/ml) after 12 d of incubation, while the Rhizobium sp. strain 26 (from S. sesban) showed the least amount (150 ?g/ml) of phosphate solubilization. Among the carbon sources tested for their ability to solubilize TCP, maximum solubilization (620 ?g/ml) was observed in glucose by Rhizobium isolate from C. absus. Phosphate solubilization increased with increase in glucose concentration steeply up to 2% and slowly above this concentration in four isolates. Among the nitrogen sources tested, maximum solubilization (620 ?g/ml) was observed in ammonium sulphate by Rhizobium isolate from C. absus. PMID:23100757

Sridevi, M; Mallaiah, K V

2009-04-21

28

Phosphate solubilization by Rhizobium strains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forty-six Rhizobium isolates from legume root and stem nodules were examined for their phosphate-solubilizing ability on Pikovskaya's agar medium. Rhizobium isolates from root nodules of Cassia absus, Vigna trilobata and three strains from Sesbania sesban showed zone of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization. The isolate from C. absus showed maximum solubilization (620 ?g/ml) after 12 d of incubation, while the Rhizobium sp. strain 26 (from S. sesban) showed the least amount (150 ?g/ml) of phosphate solubilization. Among the carbon sources tested for their ability to solubilize TCP, maximum solubilization (620 ?g/ml) was observed in glucose by Rhizobium isolate from C. absus. Phosphate solubilization increased with increase in glucose concentration steeply up to 2% and slowly above this concentration in four isolates. Among the nitrogen sources tested, maximum solubilization (620 ?g/ml) was observed in ammonium sulphate by Rhizobium isolate from C. absus.

Sridevi M; Mallaiah KV

2009-03-01

29

Novel Rhizobium lineages isolated from root nodules of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Andean and Mesoamerican areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomic affiliations of nineteen root-nodule bacteria isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil were investigated by analyses of 16S rRNA and of four protein-coding housekeeping genes. One strain from Mexico could be assigned to Rhizobium etli and two from Brazil to Rhizobium leucaenae, whereas another from Mexico corresponded to a recently described bean-nodulating species-level lineage related to R. etli and Rhizobium phaseoli. Ten strains isolated in Ecuador and Mexico corresponded to three novel Rhizobium lineages that fall into the R. phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade. One of those lineages, with representatives isolated mostly from Ecuador, seems to be dominant in beans from that Andean region. Only one of the Mexican strains clustered within the Rhizobium tropici clade, but as an independent lineage. Interestingly, four strains were affiliated with species within the Rhizobium radiobacter clade. The existence of yet non-described native Rhizobium lineages in both the Andean and Mesoamerican areas is discussed in relation to common-bean diversity and environmental conditions. PMID:23764913

Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Dall'agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Graham, Peter H; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

2013-06-11

30

Novel Rhizobium lineages isolated from root nodules of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Andean and Mesoamerican areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The taxonomic affiliations of nineteen root-nodule bacteria isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil were investigated by analyses of 16S rRNA and of four protein-coding housekeeping genes. One strain from Mexico could be assigned to Rhizobium etli and two from Brazil to Rhizobium leucaenae, whereas another from Mexico corresponded to a recently described bean-nodulating species-level lineage related to R. etli and Rhizobium phaseoli. Ten strains isolated in Ecuador and Mexico corresponded to three novel Rhizobium lineages that fall into the R. phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade. One of those lineages, with representatives isolated mostly from Ecuador, seems to be dominant in beans from that Andean region. Only one of the Mexican strains clustered within the Rhizobium tropici clade, but as an independent lineage. Interestingly, four strains were affiliated with species within the Rhizobium radiobacter clade. The existence of yet non-described native Rhizobium lineages in both the Andean and Mesoamerican areas is discussed in relation to common-bean diversity and environmental conditions.

Ribeiro RA; Ormeño-Orrillo E; Dall'agnol RF; Graham PH; Martinez-Romero E; Hungria M

2013-09-01

31

En route vers la nano stabilisation de CLIC faisceau principale et focalisation finale  

CERN Document Server

Pour atteindre la luminosité voulue de CLIC, la taille transversale du faisceau doit être de l?ordre du nanomètre. Ceci nécessite une stabilité vibratoire des quadripôles du faisceau principal de 1 nm et même 0.1 nm pour les doublets de la focalisation finale. La nano technologie et la nano stabilisation sont des activités qui évoluent rapidement dans l?industrie et centres de recherche pour des applications très variées comme l?électronique, l?optique, la chimie voire la médecine. Cette présentation décrit les avancées techniques nécessaires pour atteindre l?objectif de CLIC et les projets et collaborations R&D prévus pour démontrer la faisabilité de la nano stabilisation de CLIC en 2010.

Artoos, K; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, Claude; Lackner, F; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

2008-01-01

32

Denitrification by Rhizobium meliloti  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rhizobium meliloti strains were investigated for their denitrification activity as free-living cells and in nodules on lucerne (Medicago sativa) roots. They were also investigated for presence of nitrous oxide reductase (nos) activity and for genes using a nosZ probe derived from the Pseudomonas stutzeri. To decide whether R. meliloti strains used as inoculants contribute to the total denitrification activity in a lucerne ley, strains with different denitrifying capacities were used in field and laboratory experiments. The nitrate reduction activity of R. meliloti during anaerobic respiration was compared with that of a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A great diversity in the denitrification activity was found within strains of R. meliloti, and four of thirteen investigated strains showed an obvious denitrification activity. Two denitrifying bacteria were used as references, one strain each of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and P. aeruginosa. All but one of the R. meliloti strains hybridized to the PstI-fragment of the nosZ-gene from P. stutzeri. Two sizes of the hybridizing fragment, 5 and 7 kb, were noticed. Nos activity was only shown in three R. meliloti strains, and these were all characterized by a high denitrification activity. The potential denitrification activity was about 20, 40, and 80 times higher than the actual denitrification activity for lucerne, fallow, and grass, respectively. The potential denitrification activity was almost the same in lucerne and grass planted soils. Compared with the unplanted soil, the presence of lucerne roots in the soil increased the actual denitrification activity, while roots of both plant species, grass and lucerne, increased the potential denitrification activity in the soil. 32 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

Rosen, A.

1996-10-01

33

Ammonium assimilation in Rhizobium meliloti.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have characterized a mutant of Rhizobium meliloti strain 2011 which cannot use ammonium as a nitrogen source. This mutant, RTm2620, was found to have significantly altered glutamate synthase activity. Both the mutant and the wild-type strains had glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which, although ...

Osburne, M S; Signer, E R

34

76 FR 28080 - United States v. Unilever N.V., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement  

Science.gov (United States)

...OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Unilever N.V., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and...the District of Columbia, in United States v. Unilever N.V., Unilever PLC, Conopco, Inc. and Alberto-Culver...

2011-05-13

35

Conservation between coding and regulatory elements of Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium leguminosarum dct genes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complementation of Rhizobium leguminosarum dct mutants with a cosmid bank yielded Rhizobium meliloti homologs of the dctA, dctB, and dctD genes. The genes dctB and dctD are thought to form a two-component system which responds to the presence of C4-dicarboxylates to regulate expression of a transpor...

Jiang, J; Gu, B H; Albright, L M; Nixon, B T

36

Reclassification of Rhizobium tropici type A strains as Rhizobium leucaenae sp. nov.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobium tropici is a well-studied legume symbiont characterized by high genetic stability of the symbiotic plasmid and tolerance to tropical environmental stresses such as high temperature and low soil pH. However, high phenetic and genetic variabilities among R. tropici strains have been largely reported, with two subgroups, designated type A and B, already defined within the species. A polyphasic study comprising multilocus sequence analysis, phenotypic and genotypic characterizations, including DNA-DNA hybridization, strongly supported the reclassification of R. tropici type A strains as a novel species. Type A strains formed a well-differentiated clade that grouped with R. tropici, Rhizobium multihospitium, Rhizobium miluonense, Rhizobium lusitanum and Rhizobium rhizogenes in the phylogenies of the 16S rRNA, recA, gltA, rpoA, glnII and rpoB genes. Several phenotypic traits differentiated type A strains from all related taxa. The novel species, for which the name Rhizobium leucaenae sp. nov. is proposed, is a broad host range rhizobium being able to establish effective root-nodule symbioses with Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena esculenta, common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Gliricidia sepium. Strain CFN 299(T) (?=?USDA 9039(T)?=?LMG 9517(T)?=?CECT 4844(T)?=?JCM 21088(T)?=?IAM 14230(T)?=?SEMIA 4083(T)?=?CENA 183(T)?=?UMR1026(T)?=?CNPSo 141(T)) is designated the type strain of Rhizobium leucaenae sp. nov. PMID:21742822

Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Rogel, Marco A; López-López, Aline; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Martínez, Julio; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

2011-07-08

37

Reclassification of Rhizobium tropici type A strains as Rhizobium leucaenae sp. nov.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobium tropici is a well-studied legume symbiont characterized by high genetic stability of the symbiotic plasmid and tolerance to tropical environmental stresses such as high temperature and low soil pH. However, high phenetic and genetic variabilities among R. tropici strains have been largely reported, with two subgroups, designated type A and B, already defined within the species. A polyphasic study comprising multilocus sequence analysis, phenotypic and genotypic characterizations, including DNA-DNA hybridization, strongly supported the reclassification of R. tropici type A strains as a novel species. Type A strains formed a well-differentiated clade that grouped with R. tropici, Rhizobium multihospitium, Rhizobium miluonense, Rhizobium lusitanum and Rhizobium rhizogenes in the phylogenies of the 16S rRNA, recA, gltA, rpoA, glnII and rpoB genes. Several phenotypic traits differentiated type A strains from all related taxa. The novel species, for which the name Rhizobium leucaenae sp. nov. is proposed, is a broad host range rhizobium being able to establish effective root-nodule symbioses with Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena esculenta, common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Gliricidia sepium. Strain CFN 299(T) (?=?USDA 9039(T)?=?LMG 9517(T)?=?CECT 4844(T)?=?JCM 21088(T)?=?IAM 14230(T)?=?SEMIA 4083(T)?=?CENA 183(T)?=?UMR1026(T)?=?CNPSo 141(T)) is designated the type strain of Rhizobium leucaenae sp. nov.

Ribeiro RA; Rogel MA; López-López A; Ormeño-Orrillo E; Barcellos FG; Martínez J; Thompson FL; Martínez-Romero E; Hungria M

2012-05-01

38

Conserved nodulation genes in Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium trifolii  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasmids which contained wild-type or mutated Rhizobium meliloti nodulation (Nod) genes were introduced into Nod/sup -/ R. trifolii mutants ANU453 and ANU851 and tested for their ability to nodulate clover. Cloned wild-type and mutated R. meliloti Nod gene segments restored ANU851 to Nod/sup +/, with the exception of nodD mutants. Similarly, wild-type and mutant R. meliloti nod genes complemented ANU453 to Nod/sup +/, except for nod CII mutants. Thus, ANU851 identifies the equivalent of the R. meliloti nodD genes, and ANU453 specifies the equivalent of the R. meliloti nodCII genes. In addition, cloned wild-type R. trifolii nod genes were introduced into seven R. meliloti Nod/sup -/ mutants. All seven mutants were restored to Nod/sup +/ on alfalfa. Our results indicate that these genes represent common nodulation functions and argue for an allelic relationship between nod genes in R. meliloti and R. trifolii.

Fisher, R.F.; Tu, J.K.; Long, S.R.

1985-06-01

39

Succinate transport in Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transport of succinate was studied in an effective streptomycin-resistant strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum. High levels of succinate transport occurred when cells were grown on succinate, fumarate, or malate, whereas low activity was found when cells were grown on glucose, sucrose, arabinose, or pyruvate as the sole carbon source. Because of the rapid metabolism of succinate after transport into the cells, a succinate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant was isolated in which intracellular succinate accumulated to over 400 times the external concentration. Succinate transport was completely abolished in the presence of metabolic uncouplers but was relatively insensitive to sodium arsenate. Succinate transport was a saturable function of the succinate concentration, and the apparent Km and Vmax values for transport were determined in both the parent and the succinate dehydrogenase mutant. Malate and fumarate competitively inhibited succinate transport, whereas citrate and malonate had no effect. Succinate transport mutants were isolated by transposon (Tn5) mutagenesis. These mutants were unable to transport succinate or malate and were unable to grow on succinate, malate, or fumarate as the sole carbon source. The mutants grew normally on pyruvate, oxaloacetate, citrate, or arabinose, and revertants isolated on succinate minimal medium had regained the ability to grow on malate and fumarate. From these data, we conclude that R. leguminosarum possesses a C4-dicarboxylic acid transport system which is inducible and mediates the active transport of succinate, fumarate, and malate into the cell. PMID:7287623

Finan, T M; Wood, J M; Jordan, D C

1981-10-01

40

Succinate transport in Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The transport of succinate was studied in an effective streptomycin-resistant strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum. High levels of succinate transport occurred when cells were grown on succinate, fumarate, or malate, whereas low activity was found when cells were grown on glucose, sucrose, arabinose, or pyruvate as the sole carbon source. Because of the rapid metabolism of succinate after transport into the cells, a succinate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant was isolated in which intracellular succinate accumulated to over 400 times the external concentration. Succinate transport was completely abolished in the presence of metabolic uncouplers but was relatively insensitive to sodium arsenate. Succinate transport was a saturable function of the succinate concentration, and the apparent Km and Vmax values for transport were determined in both the parent and the succinate dehydrogenase mutant. Malate and fumarate competitively inhibited succinate transport, whereas citrate and malonate had no effect. Succinate transport mutants were isolated by transposon (Tn5) mutagenesis. These mutants were unable to transport succinate or malate and were unable to grow on succinate, malate, or fumarate as the sole carbon source. The mutants grew normally on pyruvate, oxaloacetate, citrate, or arabinose, and revertants isolated on succinate minimal medium had regained the ability to grow on malate and fumarate. From these data, we conclude that R. leguminosarum possesses a C4-dicarboxylic acid transport system which is inducible and mediates the active transport of succinate, fumarate, and malate into the cell.

Finan TM; Wood JM; Jordan DC

1981-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

Pyruvate carboxylase is involved in metabolism of mimosine by Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the role of midK, which encodes a protein similar to pyruvate carboxylase, in mimosine degradation by Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145. The midK gene is located downstream of midR in the cluster of genes for mimosine degradation in Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145. The midK mutants of TAL1145 degraded mimosine slower than the wild-type. These mutants could utilize pyruvate as a source of carbon, indicating that there is another pyruvate carboxylase (pyc) gene in TAL1145. Two classes of clones were isolated from the library of TAL1145 by complementing a pyc mutant of Rhizobium etli, one class contained midK, while the other carried pyc. Both midK and pyc of TAL1145 complemented the midK mutant for mimosine degradation, and also the R. etli pyc mutant for pyruvate utilization. The midK-encoded pyruvate carboxylase was required for an efficient conversion of mimosine into 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (HP). PMID:18493742

Awaya, Jonathan D; Tittabutr, Panlada; Li, Qing X; Borthakur, Dulal

2008-05-21

42

Gluconate catabolism in Rhizobium japonicum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gluconate catabolism in Rhizobium japonicum ATCC 10324 was investigated by the radiorespirometric method and by assaying for key enzymes of the major energy-yielding pathways. Specifically labeled gluconate gave the following results for growing cells, with values expressed as per cent (14)CO(2) evolution: C-1 = 93%, C-2 = 57%, C-3 = 30%, C-4 = 70%, C-6 = 39%. The preferential release of (14)CO(2) from C-1 and C-4 indicate that gluconate is degraded primarily by the Entner-Doudoroff pathway but the inequalities between C-1 and C-4 and between C-3 and C-6 indicate that another pathway(s) also participates. The presence of gluconokinase and a system for converting 6-phosphogluconate to pyruvate also indicate a role for the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. The extraordinarily high yield of (14)CO(2) from C-1 labeled gluconate suggests that the other participating pathway is a C-1 decarboxylative pathway. The key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, could not be demonstrated. Specifically labeled 2-ketogluconate and 2,5-diketogluconate were oxidized by gluconate grown cells and gave ratios of C-1 to C-6 of 2.73 and 2.61, respectively. These compare with a ratio of 2.39 obtained with specifically labeled gluconate. Gluconate dehydrogenase, the first enzyme in the ketogluconate pathway found in acetic acid bacteria, was found. Oxidation of specifically labeled pyruvate, acetate, succinate, and glutamate by gluconate-grown cells yielded the preferential rates of (14)CO(2) evolution expected from the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. These data are consistent with the operation of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle as the primary pathways of gluconate oxidation in R. japonicum. An ancillary pathway for the initial breakdown of gluconate would appear to be the ketogluconate pathway which enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle at alpha-ketoglutarate.

Keele BB Jr; Hamilton PB; Elkan GH

1970-03-01

43

Un établissement rural de La Tène finale à Couesmes, La Tesserie (Indre-et-Loire) A rural settlement from the final La Tène in La Tesserie (Couesmes, Indre-et-Loire, France)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Découvert en 2007, lors du diagnostic archéologique du projet de déviation de la RD766 de Château-la-Vallière (Indre-et-Loire), l’établissement rural de La Tesserie (commune de Couesmes) a fait l’objet d’une fouille préventive par le Service de l’Archéologie du département d’Indre-et-Loire (SADIL), sous la direction scientifique de Bénédicte Quilliec, responsable d’opération durant l’hiver 2008-2009. Il s’agit d’un habitat de La Tène finale, organisé autour d’un enclos fossoyé quadrangulaire d’environ 60 m de côté et comprenant une douzaine de bâtiments de tailles et de fonctions différentes. Les connaissances sur ce type d’occupation sont encore lacunaires dans le département car elles sont soumises aux contraintes habituelles de l’archéologie préventive. Dans ces conditions, l’apport de la fouille de Couesmes est important car d’une part, toute la surface de l’établissement a été fouillée et la plupart des structures ont été fouillées intégralement et car, d’autre part, tout le mobilier a été étudié. Par ailleurs, certains aspects du site présentent un caractère suffisamment original pour contribuer à la caractérisation de l’habitat rural dans le centre de la Gaule à La Tène finale (architecture, dépôts d’objets).The La Tesserie site (Couesmes, Indre-et-Loire) was found during an archaeological evaluation in 2007. This site is a rural dwelling located on 2.5 ha on the route of a future departmental road (RD766, Château-la-Vallière). Excavations were carried out during the winter 2008-2009 by Indre-et-Loire’s Departmental Archaeological Service (SADIL), managed by Bénédicte Quilliec. The settlement from the end of La Tène is organized around a quadrangular ditch (about 60 m side) with different kinds of constructions (structures, functions, sizes)Knowledge of this kind of site is still lacking because it depends directly on the archaeological survey as in the remainder of the Indre-et-Loire department. Therefore the excavation of La Tesserie was a great opportunity because the entire surface covered by the settlement was excavated providing useful information. In the light of the new data resulting from the study of several assemblies coming from varied structures, it is possible to better define the architectural constructions and identify the ceramic, bronze and iron furnishings and also animal bones and seeds. In addition this study enabled comparison to be made with various similar sites in the north of France.

Bénédicte Quilliec; Jean-Marie Laruaz

2012-01-01

44

Rhizobium tropici chromosomal citrate synthase gene.  

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Two genes encoding citrate synthase, a key enzyme in the Krebs cycle, have been found in Rhizobium tropici. One of them is in the bacterial chromosome, while the other is in the symbiotic plasmid. We sequenced the chromosomal gene and found that it is very similar to the previously reported plasmidi...

Hernández-Lucas, I; Pardo, M A; Segovia, L; Miranda, J; Martínez-Romero, E

45

Housekeeping genes essential for pantothenate biosynthesis are plasmid-encoded in Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background A traditional concept in bacterial genetics states that housekeeping genes, those involved in basic metabolic functions needed for maintenance of the cell, are encoded in the chromosome, whereas genes required for dealing with challenging environmental conditions...

Villaseñor Tomás; Brom Susana; Dávalos Araceli; Lozano Luis; Romero David; los Santos Alejandro

46

Isolation and characterization of a pSym locus of Rhizobium sp. BR816 that extends nodulation ability of narrow host range Phaseolus vulgaris symbionts to Leucaena leucocephala.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction of a cosmid library of megaplasmid DNA of Rhizobium sp. BR816, a broad host range Rhizobium strain, into R. etli CE3, a narrow host range bean symbiont, resulted in the isolation of a transconjugant that could effectively nodulate Leucaena leucocephala. Analysis of the corresponding cosmid, pBRF2, revealed the presence of genes required for elicting nitrogen-fixing nodules on L. leucoephala. Subcloning and Tn5 tagging identified a locus responsible for the host range extension. Sequence analysis of this locus revealed an ORF that shows significant identity with NodO of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae.

van Rhijn P; Luyten E; Vlassak K; Vanderleyden J

1996-01-01

47

Effectiveness of Rhizobium Under Salinity Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research work was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Rhizobium trifolii in enhancing the salt tolerance of Trifolium alexandrinum (Berseem or Egyptian clover), protein value of fodder and nitrogen fixation in the soil. Three salinity levels (8,12, 16 dS m-1) were developed in a loamy soil in pots. A similar set of inoculated pots with Rhizobium trifolii was also arranged. Berseem crop was grown in both of the sets. The data indicated that total green and dry matter yield as well as root dry weight of berseem decreased consecutively with increase in salinity level while Rhizobium inoculation created a positive effect and these parameters remained significantly higher than the similar levels without inoculation. Nodulation and nodule dry weight was promoted markedly by inoculation and depressed significantly with consistent increase in salinity. Nitrogen percentage of berseem shoot increased with inoculation and decreased significantly at 8 dS m 1 but further increase in salinity had a little effect. Percent nitrogen of soil and nitrogen fixation in soil was enhanced significantly by inoculation and decreased significantly with increase in salinity. Inoculation was helpful to keep the protein content higher. Soil ECe and pH were lowered.

Nazir Hussain; Fakhar Mujeeb; M. Tahir; G. D. Khan; N. M. Hassan; Abdul Bari

2002-01-01

48

75 FR 5132 - United States v. Cameron International Corp., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...  

Science.gov (United States)

...States District Court for the District of Columbia in United States v. Cameron Int'l Corp., et al., No. 09-cv-02165-RMC. On November 17, 2009, the United States filed a Complaint alleging that the proposed acquisition by Cameron...

2010-02-01

49

(A structural assessment of the role of the cell surface carbohydrates of Rhizobium in the Rhizobium/legume symbiosis)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research continued on the study of cell surface carbohydrates of Rhizobium. Objectives include: To characterize, at a structural level, the differences between the lipopolysaccharides of a representative number of strains from different Rhizobium species to determine which features of LPS structure are species-specific and might, therefore, be determinants of host specificity. Determine the effect(s) of nod gene induction on the structure of Rhizobium lipopolysaccharides and determine whether synthesis of a modified LPS molecule or a new surface glycoconjugate is initiated by nod gene induction. Develop a non-chemical means for rapidly screening large numbers of bacterial strains in order to determine which glycoconjugate structural features are conserved between strains of the same species. Provide the necessary structural information which, when coupled with developments in the rapidly expanding field of Rhizobium genetics, should lead to a clear understanding of the role of Rhizobium surface glycoconjugates in host/symbiont interactions. Progress is discussed.

Hollingsworth, R.I.

1991-01-01

50

Rhizobium calliandrae sp. nov., Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. and Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov., rhizobial species nodulating the medicinal legume Calliandra grandiflora.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calliandra grandiflora has been used as a medicinal plant for thousands of years in Mexico. Rhizobial strains were obtained from root nodules of C. grandiflora collected from different geographical regions in Chiapas and characterized by BOX-PCR, amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Most isolates corresponded to members of the genus Rhizobium and those not related to species with validly published names were further characterized by recA, atpD, rpoB and nifH gene phylogenies, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. Three novel related species of the genus Rhizobium within the 'Rhizobium tropici group' share the same symbiovar that may be named sv. calliandrae. The names proposed for the three novel species are Rhizobium calliandrae sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE524(T)?=ATCC BAA-2435(T)?=CIP 110456(T)?=LBP2-1(T)), Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE526(T)?=ATCC BAA-2446(T)?=?CIP 110454(T)?=NSJP1-1(T)) and Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE525(T)?=ATCC BAA-2445(T)?=CIP 110453(T)?=SJP1-2(T)). PMID:23584283

Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Villalobos-Escobedo, José M; Rogel, Marco A; Martinez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

2013-04-12

51

Rhizobium calliandrae sp. nov., Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. and Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov., rhizobial species nodulating the medicinal legume Calliandra grandiflora.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Calliandra grandiflora has been used as a medicinal plant for thousands of years in Mexico. Rhizobial strains were obtained from root nodules of C. grandiflora collected from different geographical regions in Chiapas and characterized by BOX-PCR, amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Most isolates corresponded to members of the genus Rhizobium and those not related to species with validly published names were further characterized by recA, atpD, rpoB and nifH gene phylogenies, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. Three novel related species of the genus Rhizobium within the 'Rhizobium tropici group' share the same symbiovar that may be named sv. calliandrae. The names proposed for the three novel species are Rhizobium calliandrae sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE524(T)?=?ATCC BAA-2435(T)?=?CIP 110456(T)?=?LBP2-1(T)), Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE526(T)?=?ATCC BAA-2446(T)?=?CIP 110454(T)?=?NSJP1-1(T)) and Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE525(T)?=?ATCC BAA-2445(T)?=?CIP 110453(T)?=?SJP1-2(T)).

Rincón-Rosales R; Villalobos-Escobedo JM; Rogel MA; Martinez J; Ormeño-Orrillo E; Martínez-Romero E

2013-09-01

52

Legume agglutinins that bind to Rhizobium meliloti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A protein found in seeds and roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) was implicated in the specificity of the infection process, based on its binding to the symbiont Rhizobium meliloti. We found an agglutinin with similar properties in seeds and roots of sweet clover (Melilotis alba). The sweet clover differed from alfalfa in nodulation by a mutant strain of R. meliloti, but the agglutinins were indistinguishable by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Rhizobium agglutination, and cross-reactivity to antibodies. Similar agglutinins binding R. meliloti were found in seeds of legumes from different cross-inoculation groups, including soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), pea (Pisum sativum L), and mung bean (Vigna mungo). The agglutinins from these legumes were recognized by antibodies raised against the agglutinins of alfalfa and sweet clover. Seeds of corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) contained a protein similar to the legume agglutinin, but it did not react with the antibodies. We conclude that the alfalfa agglutinin is representative of a common legume protein and that there is no evidence for its role in specificity or nodule initiation.

Seegers R; LaRue TA

1985-05-01

53

Rhizobium leguminosarum mutants incapable of normal extracellular polysaccharide production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum which are deficient in normal polysaccharide production have been isolated and characterized. A correlation between diminished production of extracellular polysaccharide and reduced infection and nodulation efficiency has been observed. PMID:7364730

Napoli, C; Albersheim, P

1980-03-01

54

Rhizobium leguminosarum mutants incapable of normal extracellular polysaccharide production.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum which are deficient in normal polysaccharide production have been isolated and characterized. A correlation between diminished production of extracellular polysaccharide and reduced infection and nodulation efficiency has been observed.

Napoli, C; Albersheim, P

55

Rhizobium leguminosarum mutants incapable of normal extracellular polysaccharide production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum which are deficient in normal polysaccharide production have been isolated and characterized. A correlation between diminished production of extracellular polysaccharide and reduced infection and nodulation efficiency has been observed.

Napoli C; Albersheim P

1980-03-01

56

Conservation between coding and regulatory elements of Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium leguminosarum dct genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Complementation of Rhizobium leguminosarum dct mutants with a cosmid bank yielded Rhizobium meliloti homologs of the dctA, dctB, and dctD genes. The genes dctB and dctD are thought to form a two-component system which responds to the presence of C4-dicarboxylates to regulate expression of a transport protein encoded by dctA. DNA sequence analysis showed that dct coding and intergenic regions, including putative binding sites for the dctD protein and sigma 54-RNA polymerase, were highly conserved between these two Rhizobium species. Mutation of R. meliloti dctD showed that it was not essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation but was needed for growth on succinate and the expression of a dctA-lacZ fusion gene in free-living cells. Hybridization of R. meliloti genomic DNA with probes representing the central portion of dctD potentially identified more than 20 similar regulatory genes, all of which are likely to depend upon the alternative sigma factor encoded by rpoN and stimulate transcription in a manner very similar to ntrC activation of glnA in enteric bacteria.

Jiang J; Gu BH; Albright LM; Nixon BT

1989-10-01

57

Conservation between coding and regulatory elements of Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium leguminosarum dct genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complementation of Rhizobium leguminosarum dct mutants with a cosmid bank yielded Rhizobium meliloti homologs of the dctA, dctB, and dctD genes. The genes dctB and dctD are thought to form a two-component system which responds to the presence of C4-dicarboxylates to regulate expression of a transport protein encoded by dctA. DNA sequence analysis showed that dct coding and intergenic regions, including putative binding sites for the dctD protein and sigma 54-RNA polymerase, were highly conserved between these two Rhizobium species. Mutation of R. meliloti dctD showed that it was not essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation but was needed for growth on succinate and the expression of a dctA-lacZ fusion gene in free-living cells. Hybridization of R. meliloti genomic DNA with probes representing the central portion of dctD potentially identified more than 20 similar regulatory genes, all of which are likely to depend upon the alternative sigma factor encoded by rpoN and stimulate transcription in a manner very similar to ntrC activation of glnA in enteric bacteria. PMID:2793824

Jiang, J; Gu, B H; Albright, L M; Nixon, B T

1989-10-01

58

Optimization of Dairy Sludge for Growth of Rhizobium Cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study dairy sludge was evaluated as an alternative cultivation medium for Rhizobium. Growth of bacterial strains at different concentrations of Dairy sludge was monitored. Maximum growth of all strains was observed at 60% Dairy sludge concentration. At 60% optical density (OD) values are 0.804 for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC905), 0.825 for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC906), and 0.793 for Rhizobium meliloti (MTCC100). Growth pattern of strains was observed at 60% Dairy sludge along with different synthetic media (tryptone yeast, Rhizobium minimal medium and yeast extract mannitol). Growth in 60% Dairy sludge was found to be superior to standard media used for Rhizobium. Media were optimized using 60% dairy sludge along with different concentrations of yeast extract (1-7?g/L) and mannitol (7-13?g/L) in terms of optical density at different time intervals, that is, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Maximum growth was observed in 6?g/L of yeast extract and 12?g/L of mannitol at 48-hour incubation period in all strains. The important environmental parameters such as pH were optimized using 60% dairy sludge, 60% dairy sludge +6?g/L yeast extract, and 60% dairy sludge +12?g/L mannitol. The maximum growth of all strains was found at pH 7.0. The present study recommends the use of 60% dairy sludge as a suitable growth medum for inoculant production.

Singh AK; Singh G; Gautam D; Bedi MK

2013-01-01

59

Optimization of Dairy Sludge for Growth of Rhizobium Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study dairy sludge was evaluated as an alternative cultivation medium for Rhizobium. Growth of bacterial strains at different concentrations of Dairy sludge was monitored. Maximum growth of all strains was observed at 60% Dairy sludge concentration. At 60% optical density (OD) values are 0.804 for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC905), 0.825 for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC906), and 0.793 for Rhizobium meliloti (MTCC100). Growth pattern of strains was observed at 60% Dairy sludge along with different synthetic media (tryptone yeast, Rhizobium minimal medium and yeast extract mannitol). Growth in 60% Dairy sludge was found to be superior to standard media used for Rhizobium. Media were optimized using 60% dairy sludge along with different concentrations of yeast extract (1–7?g/L) and mannitol (7–13?g/L) in terms of optical density at different time intervals, that is, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Maximum growth was observed in 6?g/L of yeast extract and 12?g/L of mannitol at 48-hour incubation period in all strains. The important environmental parameters such as pH were optimized using 60% dairy sludge, 60% dairy sludge +6?g/L yeast extract, and 60% dairy sludge +12?g/L mannitol. The maximum growth of all strains was found at pH 7.0. The present study recommends the use of 60% dairy sludge as a suitable growth medum for inoculant production.

Singh, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Gauri; Gautam, Digvijay; Bedi, Manjinder Kaur

2013-01-01

60

Transfer of RP4 and R68.45 factors to Rhizobium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two R factor were introduced by conjugation into Rhizobium trifolii and Rhizobium meliloti strains at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-6). Plasmids RP4 from Escherichia coli J53 and R68.45 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.25 were maintained stably in Rhizobium hosts and could be retransferred to other Rhizobium recipients. Some of the transconjugants were able to mobilize chromosome and transfer his or met genes in intra-, and interspecies matings.

Kowalczuk E; Lorkiewicz Z

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Transfer of RP4 and R68.45 factors to Rhizobium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two R factor were introduced by conjugation into Rhizobium trifolii and Rhizobium meliloti strains at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-6). Plasmids RP4 from Escherichia coli J53 and R68.45 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.25 were maintained stably in Rhizobium hosts and could be retransferred to other Rhizobium recipients. Some of the transconjugants were able to mobilize chromosome and transfer his or met genes in intra-, and interspecies matings. PMID:92171

Kowalczuk, E; Lorkiewicz, Z

1979-01-01

62

Heterologous exopolysaccharide production in Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and consequences for nodule development.  

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Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 produces large amounts of acidic exopolysaccharide. Mutants that fail to synthesize this exopolysaccharide are also unable to nodulate the host plant Leucaena leucocephala. A hybrid strain of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 containing exo genes from Rhizobium meliloti was con...

Gray, J X; Zhan, H J; Levery, S B; Battisti, L; Rolfe, B G; Leigh, J A

63

Sobrevivência e nodulação do Rhizobium tropici em sementes de feijão tratadas com fungicidas/ Survival and nodulation of Rhizobium tropici on common bean seeds treated with fungicides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sobrevivência e a capacidade de nodulação do Rhizobium tropici em sementes de feijão tratadas com fungicidas. O estudo foi realizado em laboratório e em casa de vegetação. Sementes de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris) foram tratadas com seis diferentes fungicidas e inoculadas com Rhizobium tropici estirpe CIAT 899. A sobrevivência do Rhizobium nas sementes foi avaliada no tempo 0 e 24 horas após o tratamento com fungicidas e a i (more) noculação, utilizando o método do número mais provável (NMP). A nodulação do feijão, em plantio realizado no tempo 0 e 24 horas após o tratamento com fungicidas, e a inoculação foram avaliadas em solo com população estabelecida de Rhizobium nativo aos trinta dias após a emergência das plantas. A sobrevivência do Rhizobium inoculado nas sementes foi prejudicada pela aplicação dos fungicidas avaliados. A nodulação do feijoeiro foi reduzida pela aplicação dos fungicidas, quando o plantio foi realizado 24 horas após o tratamento das sementes. Entretanto, foram encontrados nódulos em todos os tratamentos, evidenciando que houve nodulação do Rhizobium nativo do solo. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and nodulation of Rhizobium tropici on common bean seeds treated with fungicides. The study was conduced out at laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds were treated with six fungicides and inoculated with Rhizobium tropici strain CIAT 899. The survival of Rhizobium on seeds was evaluated 0 and 24 hours after treatment with fungicides and inoculation, using the most probable number (MPN) (more) method. The nodulation of common bean thirty days after plant emergence, in plantation conduced 0 and 24 hours after seeds treatment with fungicides and inoculation, was evaluated in soil with population of native Rhizobium. The fungicides harmed the survival of inoculated Rhizobium on seeds and, in plantation conduced 24 hours after seeds treatment, reduced the nodulation of common bean. However, nodules were found in all plants, suggesting nodulation by native Rhizobium of soil.

Araújo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de; Araújo, Ricardo Silva

2006-06-01

64

Interference between Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium trifolii nodulation genes: genetic basis of R. meliloti dominance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transfer of an IncP plasmid carrying the Rhizobium meliloti nodFE, nodG, and nodH genes to Rhizobium trifolii enabled R. trifolii to nodulate alfalfa (Medicago sativa), the normal host of R. meliloti. Using transposon Tn5-linked mutations and in vitro-constructed deletions of the R. meliloti nodFE, nodG, and nodH genes, we showed that R. meliloti nodH was required for R. trifolii to elicit both root hair curling and nodule initiation on alfalfa and that nodH, nodFE, and nodG were required for R. trifolii to elicit infection threads in alfalfa root hairs. Interestingly, the transfer of the R. meliloti nodFE, nodG, and nodH genes to R. trifolii prevented R. trifolii from infecting and nodulating its normal host, white clover (Trifolium repens). Experiments with the mutated R. meliloti nodH, nodF, nodE, and nodG genes demonstrated that nodH, nodF, nodE, and possibly nodG have an additive effect in blocking infection and nodulation of clover. PMID:2848012

Debellé, F; Maillet, F; Vasse, J; Rosenberg, C; de Billy, F; Truchet, G; Dénarié, J; Ausubel, F M

1988-12-01

65

Rhizobium petrolearium sp. nov., isolated from oil-contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria, designated strains SL-1(T) and F11, which had the ability to decompose polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were isolated from soil samples contaminated by oil. The cells were motile by polar or lateral flagella. According to comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strains SL-1(T) and F11 were identical and showed the greatest degree of similarity (96.8%) to both Rhizobium oryzae Alt505(T) and Rhizobium mesosinicum CCBAU 25010(T); however, only Rhizobium oryzae with SL-1(T) and F11 formed a separate clade. There were low similarities (<90%) between the atpD and recA sequences of the two strains and those of the genus of Rhizobium. The bacteria grew at temperatures of 10-40 °C with an optimum of 30 °C. The pH range for growth was 6.0-10.0 and optimum pH was 7.0-8.0. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations up to 3.0% (w/v). They were catalase- and oxidase-positive. The main cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (18:1?7c and/or 18:1?6c) and 16:0. The DNA G+C content was 62.2 mol%. Strain SL-1(T) showed 29 and 0% DNA-DNA relatedness, respectively, with the most related strains R. oryzae Alt505(T) and R. mesosinicum CCBAU 25010(T) according to phylogenic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. According to physiological and biochemical characteristics and genotypic data obtained in this work, the bacteria represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, and the name Rhizobium petrolearium is proposed. The type strain is SL-1(T) (?=?ACCC 11238(T)?=?KCTC 23288(T)) and it could nodulate Medicago sativa in nodulation tests. PMID:21984664

Zhang, Xiaoxia; Li, Baoming; Wang, Haisheng; Sui, Xinhua; Ma, Xiaotong; Hong, Qing; Jiang, Ruibo

2011-10-07

66

Rhizobium petrolearium sp. nov., isolated from oil-contaminated soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria, designated strains SL-1(T) and F11, which had the ability to decompose polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were isolated from soil samples contaminated by oil. The cells were motile by polar or lateral flagella. According to comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strains SL-1(T) and F11 were identical and showed the greatest degree of similarity (96.8%) to both Rhizobium oryzae Alt505(T) and Rhizobium mesosinicum CCBAU 25010(T); however, only Rhizobium oryzae with SL-1(T) and F11 formed a separate clade. There were low similarities (<90%) between the atpD and recA sequences of the two strains and those of the genus of Rhizobium. The bacteria grew at temperatures of 10-40 °C with an optimum of 30 °C. The pH range for growth was 6.0-10.0 and optimum pH was 7.0-8.0. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations up to 3.0% (w/v). They were catalase- and oxidase-positive. The main cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (18:1?7c and/or 18:1?6c) and 16:0. The DNA G+C content was 62.2 mol%. Strain SL-1(T) showed 29 and 0% DNA-DNA relatedness, respectively, with the most related strains R. oryzae Alt505(T) and R. mesosinicum CCBAU 25010(T) according to phylogenic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. According to physiological and biochemical characteristics and genotypic data obtained in this work, the bacteria represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, and the name Rhizobium petrolearium is proposed. The type strain is SL-1(T) (?=?ACCC 11238(T)?=?KCTC 23288(T)) and it could nodulate Medicago sativa in nodulation tests.

Zhang X; Li B; Wang H; Sui X; Ma X; Hong Q; Jiang R

2012-08-01

67

Survival of Rhizobium inoculum in hydroseeding slurries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disturbed lands such as surface mined areas generally require fertilizer, lime, mulch, and seed for revegetation. Hydroseeding is the most widely used seeding method for mountainous terrain. Where legumes are included in the mixture, Rhizobium inoculum is recommended since disturbed areas are likely to lack indigenous rhizobia. The pH and viability of rhizobia cells in hydroseeder mix slurries were determined in order to establish recommendations for hydroseeding conditions. Of the fertilizer components commonly used for hydroseeding only those containing phosphorus influenced slurry pH. Varying concentrations of triple superphosphate (TSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) resulted in hydroseeder mixture pH values ranging from 2.9 to 7.7, respectively. Significant loss of viability of rhizobia occurred at pH values of less than 6.0. In practice, a hydroseeding slurry should contain enough DAP in the fertilizer blend to have a pH of 6.0 or greater which is equivalent to a ratio of DAP to TSP of 4 to 6. Thus, at least 40 of each 100 kg of phosphate should be supplied by DAP. Pulverized agriculture lime did not correct slurry acidity; however, hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) if added in sufficient amounts could be used to increase the pH to a level that does not significantly alter the viability of the rhizobia.

Brown, M.B.; Wolf, D.D.; Morse, R.D.; Neal, J.L.

1982-12-01

68

Widespread distribution and high abundance of Rhizobium radiobacter within Mediterranean subsurface sediments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eastern Mediterranean sediments are characterized by the occurrence of distinct, organic-rich layers, called sapropels. These harbour elevated microbial numbers in comparison with adjacent carbon-lean intermediate layers. A recently obtained culture collection from these sediments was composed of 20% of strains closely related to Rhizobium radiobacter, formerly classified as Agrobacterium tumefaciens. To prove and quantify the in situ abundance of R. radiobacter, a highly specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed. To convert quantification results into cell numbers, the copy number of rrn operons per genome was determined. Southern hybridization showed that our isolates contained four operons. Finally, quantitative PCR was applied to 45 sediment samples obtained across the eastern Mediterranean. Rhizobium radiobacter was present in 38 of 45 samples indicating an almost ubiquitous distribution. In total, 25-40 000 cells per gram of sediment were detected, corresponding to 0.001-5.1% of the bacterial cells. In general, the relative and absolute abundance of R. radiobacter increased with depth and was higher in sapropels than in intermediate layers. This indicates that R. radiobacter forms an active population in up to 200 000 years old sapropels. The present study shows for the first time that a cultivated subsurface bacterium is highly abundant in this environment.

Süss J; Schubert K; Sass H; Cypionka H; Overmann J; Engelen B

2006-10-01

69

Inoculação com Rhizobium e aplicação de nitrogênio em amendoim Comparison among Rhizobium strains inoculations and nitrogen applications on peanut, in field conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Existe, nas nossas condições, uma população autóctone de Rhizobium capaz de nodular o amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.), mas pouco se sabe da contribuição do nitrogênio fixado para esta planta. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios no campo, em solo de baixa fertilidade, um no período "da seca" e outro no "das águas", comparando o crescimento e a produção de plantas de amendoim inoculado com Rhizobium selecionado, com o de plantas noduladas pela população autóctone, adubadas ou não com nitrogênio. A nodulação das plantas inoculadas foi semelhante à observada nos tratamentos não inoculados, com ou sem nitrogênio. Na fase final do ciclo das plantas, houve maior acúmulo e maior taxa de absorção diária de nitrogênio nos tratamentos inoculados ou com adubação nitrogenada, do que no controle sem inoculação e sem nitrogênio. No ensaio da seca, não houve aumento de produção devido à adubação nitrogenada, ou à inoculação. No ensaio das águas, houve resposta à aplicação de nitrogênio no plantio. Os resultados de produção não foram coerentes com os da marcha de absorção de N. A produção de ensaio das águas foi equivalente a 3.400 kg/ha para o tratamento sem nitrogênio e sem inoculação.Two field experiments were carried out with peanut in the same area on a limed and fertilized "cerrado soil" (originally acidic and low fertility). The first experiment was carried out in the autumn/winter (dry season), and the second one in the subsequent spring/summer (wet season), in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Plant development and production of inoculated (three Rhizobium strains) and nitrogen fertilized treatments (at planting 25 and 45 days after planting) were compared with non-inoculated and non-N-fertilized control. Nodulation of inoculated plants was similar to those of non-inoculated, with or without nitrogen. Greater accumulations, and rates for average daily uptake of nitrogen were observed for inoculated as well as for nitrogen fertilized plants, as compared to the control. In the autumn/winter experiment there was no increase in pod production neither due to nitrogen or to inoculation. In the spring/summer experiment however, the pod production was higher with nitrogen (30kg/N/ha) at planting, although higher nitrogen accumulations in plant shoots (sampled 84 days after planting) were observed treatments with two of the three inoculated strains.

Antonio Roberto Giardini; Eli Sidney Lopes; Angelo Savy Filho; André Martin Louis Neptune

1985-01-01

70

Inoculação com Rhizobium e aplicação de nitrogênio em amendoim/ Comparison among Rhizobium strains inoculations and nitrogen applications on peanut, in field conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Existe, nas nossas condições, uma população autóctone de Rhizobium capaz de nodular o amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.), mas pouco se sabe da contribuição do nitrogênio fixado para esta planta. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios no campo, em solo de baixa fertilidade, um no período "da seca" e outro no "das águas", comparando o crescimento e a produção de plantas de amendoim inoculado com Rhizobium selecionado, com o de plantas noduladas pela população autóctone, a (more) dubadas ou não com nitrogênio. A nodulação das plantas inoculadas foi semelhante à observada nos tratamentos não inoculados, com ou sem nitrogênio. Na fase final do ciclo das plantas, houve maior acúmulo e maior taxa de absorção diária de nitrogênio nos tratamentos inoculados ou com adubação nitrogenada, do que no controle sem inoculação e sem nitrogênio. No ensaio da seca, não houve aumento de produção devido à adubação nitrogenada, ou à inoculação. No ensaio das águas, houve resposta à aplicação de nitrogênio no plantio. Os resultados de produção não foram coerentes com os da marcha de absorção de N. A produção de ensaio das águas foi equivalente a 3.400 kg/ha para o tratamento sem nitrogênio e sem inoculação. Abstract in english Two field experiments were carried out with peanut in the same area on a limed and fertilized "cerrado soil" (originally acidic and low fertility). The first experiment was carried out in the autumn/winter (dry season), and the second one in the subsequent spring/summer (wet season), in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Plant development and production of inoculated (three Rhizobium strains) and nitrogen fertilized treatments (at planting 25 and 45 days after plantin (more) g) were compared with non-inoculated and non-N-fertilized control. Nodulation of inoculated plants was similar to those of non-inoculated, with or without nitrogen. Greater accumulations, and rates for average daily uptake of nitrogen were observed for inoculated as well as for nitrogen fertilized plants, as compared to the control. In the autumn/winter experiment there was no increase in pod production neither due to nitrogen or to inoculation. In the spring/summer experiment however, the pod production was higher with nitrogen (30kg/N/ha) at planting, although higher nitrogen accumulations in plant shoots (sampled 84 days after planting) were observed treatments with two of the three inoculated strains.

Giardini, Antonio Roberto; Lopes, Eli Sidney; Savy Filho, Angelo; Neptune, André Martin Louis

1985-01-01

71

Positive selection of nodulation-deficient Rhizobium phaseoli.  

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A high proportion of Rhizobium phaseoli mutants that survived infection with phage F1 were found to be nodulation deficient. Two that were examined in detail had internal defects in addition to the expected surface defects. One internal defect was in the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase. The use of p...

Raleigh, E A; Signer, E R

72

[A structural assessment of the role of the cell surface carbohydrates of Rhizobium in the Rhizobium/legume symbiosis]. Progress report, June 1989--June 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research continued on the study of cell surface carbohydrates of Rhizobium. Objectives include: To characterize, at a structural level, the differences between the lipopolysaccharides of a representative number of strains from different Rhizobium species to determine which features of LPS structure are species-specific and might, therefore, be determinants of host specificity. Determine the effect(s) of nod gene induction on the structure of Rhizobium lipopolysaccharides and determine whether synthesis of a modified LPS molecule or a new surface glycoconjugate is initiated by nod gene induction. Develop a non-chemical means for rapidly screening large numbers of bacterial strains in order to determine which glycoconjugate structural features are conserved between strains of the same species. Provide the necessary structural information which, when coupled with developments in the rapidly expanding field of Rhizobium genetics, should lead to a clear understanding of the role of Rhizobium surface glycoconjugates in host/symbiont interactions. Progress is discussed.

Hollingsworth, R.I.

1991-12-31

73

Estirpes de Rhizobium tropici na inoculação do feijoeiro Rhizobium tropici strains for inoculation of the common bean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliando o comportamento do feijoeiro inoculado com cinco estirpes de Rhizobium tropici e a adubação mineral com nitrogênio, sobre alguns fatores relacionados à sua produtividade, utilizou-se um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos constituídos pela inoculação do feijoeiro cultivar IAC Carioca com cinco estirpes de Rhizobium tropici (CIAT 899 - estirpe referência; F35; F54; F81 e CM255), dois controles sem inoculação sendo um adubado com N na semeadura e em cobertura e outro sem adubação e um cultivar não nodulante (NORH 54) adubado; com seis repetições. Avaliaram-se: número de nódulos por planta; massa de material seco da parte aérea; teor de N nas folhas; número de vagens por planta; número de grãos por planta; número de grãos por vagem; peso de 100 grãos e produtividade de grãos. A inoculação de estirpes eficientes de Rhizobium em cultivar nodulante de feijoeiro, ou o cultivo deste em solos com população nativa eficiente, pode possibilitar a não utilização de nitrogênio em cobertura na cultura do feijoeiro, sem afetar a produtividade.To evaluate five Rhizobium tropici strains and N fertilization on the productivity components of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop, an experimental design of randomized blocks was used. The eight treatments consisted of five Rhizobium tropici strains (CIAT899; F35; F54; F81, and CM255), two controls without inoculation (30 kg ha-1 N with PK at sowing plus 30 kg ha-1 N as top dressing, and other without fertilization NPK) with the IAC Carioca cultivar and one non-nodulating cultivar (NORH54). Number of nodules per plant, shoot dry mass, leaf N content, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, number of grains per pod, 100 grain weight, and grain yield, were evaluated. The nodulating cultivar with inoculation or in soil with efficient native population can eliminate the N top dressing with no decrease in yield.

Alessandro Nunes Ferreira; Orivaldo Arf; Marco Antonio Camillo de Carvalho; Ricardo Silva Araújo; Marco Eustáquio de Sá; Salatiér Buzetti

2000-01-01

74

The Effect of Rhizobium spp. Inoculation on Seed Quality of Bean in Turkey  

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Full Text Available Rhizobium spp. (local isolate) was used to inoculate three bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties; Akman 98, Goynuk 98 and Sehirali 90, in a factorial field experiment. The objective of the experiment was to study effect of inoculation on seed yield, protein range, seed weight, non-soaker capacity and hydration index. Rhizobium spp. inoculation and nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased characters tested. This study revealed that inoculation with Rhizobium spp. improved seed quality.

Cigdem KuCuk; Merih KivanC

2008-01-01

75

The effect of exogenous rhizobial lipopolysaccharide on symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii with red clover  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effectivity of symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii with red clover in the presence of exogenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparation was measured as a yield of green mass of infected plants. The addition of complete LPS that had been obtained from homological Rhizobium strains influenced significantly the growth of plants. In the presence of defective LPS of Rhizobium mutant the effectivity of symbiosis did not change.

Maria G?owacka; Agnieszka St?pie?; Sylwia Szyprowska

1996-01-01

76

Glycerol utilization by Rhizobium leguminosarum requires an ABC transporter and affects competition for nodulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasmid curing has shown that the ability to use glycerol as a carbon source is plasmid-encoded in Rhizobium leguminosarum. We isolated the locus responsible for glycerol utilization from plasmid pRleVF39c in R. leguminosarum bv. viciae VF39. This region was analyzed by DNA sequencing and mutagenesis. The locus encompasses a gene encoding GlpR (a DeoR regulator), genes encoding an ABC transporter, and genes glpK and glpD, encoding a kinase and dehydrogenase, respectively. All the genes except the regulatory gene glpR were organized into a single operon, and were required for growth on glycerol. The glp operon was strongly induced by both glycerol and glycerol 3-phosphate, as well as by pea seed exudate. GlpR repressed the operon in the absence of inducer. Mutation of genes encoding the ABC transporter abolished all transport of glycerol in transport assays using radiolabelled glycerol. This confirms that, unlike in other organisms such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which use facilitated diffusion, glycerol uptake occurs by an active process in R. leguminosarum. Since the glp locus is highly conserved in all sequenced R. leguminosarum and Rhizobium etli strains, as well as in Sinorhizobium spp. and Agrobacterium spp. and other alphaproteobacteria, this process for glycerol uptake is probably widespread. Mutants unable to use glycerol were deficient in competitiveness for nodulation of peas compared with the wild-type, suggesting that glycerol catabolism confers an advantage upon the bacterium in the rhizosphere or in the infection thread.

Ding H; Yip CB; Geddes BA; Oresnik IJ; Hynes MF

2012-05-01

77

Effect of Rhizobium Inoculation on Seedling Growth of Albizia niopides (Spruce Ex Bnth) Burkart  

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Full Text Available Investigation was carried out on the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on the Seedling Growth and development of Albizia niopoides in a glass house at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan Nigeria. This involved isolation of Rhizobium from this species microbiologically. There were four treatments in all namely 1 mL Rhizobium inoculation; 5 mL Rhizobium inoculation; 10 mL Rhizobium inoculation and control (without Rhizobium inoculation). They were arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The parameters considered went height, collar diameter, leaf number and leaf area. Significant differences were recorded among the treatments with respect to plant height. 10 mL Rhizobium inoculation gave maximum height of 93.6 cm; Diameter increment of 0.77 mm (14 WAP), leaf number 14.7 and leaf area 193.4. The inoculated treatments produced nodule number ranging between 336.7 and 496.0 while uninoculated treatment gave 247.6 nodules dry matter production was directly proportional to the quantity of Rhizobium inoculation applied. 10 mL Rhizobium broth produced the highest nodule dry matter of 24.7 g which was significantly different from the control (13.97 g). No significant difference was recorded among the treatment vis-a-vis leaf and root dry matter production by seedlings of A. niopoides. it is recommended that Rhizobia inoculation should be adopted for the establishment of some nitrogen fixing tree where native Rhizobia is not available.

K. Okunomo; B.O. Bosah; A.U. Ofuoku; J.N. Okunomo

2007-01-01

78

Rhizobium as a Biological Agent for Preventing Heavy Metal Stress  

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Full Text Available In the present study, Rhizobium was used as soil fertilizer to prevent the stress of lead on growing Pisum sativum. Three concentrations of lead were used (50, 100 and 200 ppm.) for the irrigation of growing plants (two times). After sowing, M2 seeds were collected, then cytological and biochemical studies were carried out. The cytological analysis revealed that soil enriched with Rhizobium increased the rate of mitotic division. A significant increase in mitotic index was detected. The kind of chromosomal abnormalities observed were; disturbances, stickiness, diagonals, chromosome breakage and c-metaphases. Also, a significant reduction in the percentage of abnormalities was observed. Biochemical studies included the analysis of M2 seed proteins using SDS-PAGE, isozyme analysis for both esterase and peroxidase and element analysis of Pb and N.

S.M. Abbas; E.A. Kamel

2004-01-01

79

Regulation of phenolic catabolism in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In members of the family Rhizobiaceae, many phenolic compounds are degraded by the protocatechuate branch of the {beta}-ketoadipate pathway, In this paper the authors describe a novel pattern of induction of protocatechuate (pca) genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii. Isolation of pca mutant strains revealed that 4-hydroxybenzoate, quinate, and 4-coumarate are degraded via the protocatechuate pathway. At least three inducers govern catabolism of 4-hydroxybenzoate to succinyl coenzyme A and acetyl coenzyme A. The enzyme that catalyzes the initial step is induced by its substrate, whereas the catabolite {beta}-carboxy-cis, cis-muconate induces enzymes for the upper protocatechuate pathway, and {beta}-ketoadipate elicits expression of the enzyme for a subsequent step, {beta}-ketoadipate succinyl-coenzyme A transferase. Elucidation of the induction pattern relied in part on complementation of mutant Rhizobium strains by known subclones of Acinetobacter genes expressed off the lac promoter in a broad-host-range vector.

Parke, D. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)); Rynne, F.; Glenn, A. (Murdoch Univ. (Australia))

1991-09-01

80

Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. nodulates Vicia faba in several continents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several fast growing strains nodulating Vicia faba in Peru, Spain and Tunisia form a cluster related to R. leguminosarum. The 16S rRNA genes are identical to R. leguminosarum USDA 2370T, whereas recA and atpD genes were phylogenetically distant, with identities less than 97% and 94%, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed an average of 43% relatedness between strain FB206T and R. leguminosarum USDA 2370T. Phenotypic characteristics also differed from those of the closest related Rhizobium species. Therefore, based on the genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify this group of strains nodulating Vicia faba as a novel species named Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. (type strain FB206T = LMG 27434T= CECT 8280T).

Saïdi S; Ramírez-Bahena MH; Santillana N; Zúñiga D; Alvarez-Martínez E; Peix A; Mhamdi R; Velázquez E

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

1983-08-01

82

Galactose metabolism in Rhizobium meliloti L5-30.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data from previous studies of Rhizobium meliloti mutants have been consistent with the catabolism of hexoses via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. However, galactose metabolism was not impaired in those mutants. We show here by enzymatic assay and by identification of a galactose mutant lacking 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate aldolase that the De Ley-Doudoroff pathway is used for galactose metabolism. Mutants in this pathway have not been previously reported for any organism.

Arias A; Cerveñansky C

1986-09-01

83

Rhizobium rosettiformans sp. nov., isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane dump site, and reclassification of Blastobacter aggregatus Hirsch and Muller 1986 as Rhizobium aggregatum comb. nov.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, aerobic bacterial strain, W3(T), was isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-contaminated groundwater from Lucknow, India, and its taxonomic position was determined using a polyphasic approach. Strain W3(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.8 % with Rhizobium selenitireducens B1(T), followed by Rhizobium daejeonense L61(T) (97.7 %), Rhizobium radiobacter ATCC 19358(T) (97.5 %) and Blastobacter aggregatus IFAM 1003(T) (97.2 %). Strain W3(T) formed a monophyletic clade with Blastobacter aggregatus IFAM 1003(T) (?=?DSM 1111(T)) in the cluster of species of the genus Rhizobium. Phylogenetic analyses of strain W3(T) using atpD and recA gene sequences confirmed the phylogenetic arrangements obtained by using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Hence, the taxonomic characterization of B. aggregatus DSM 1111(T) was also undertaken. Strains W3(T) and B. aggregatus DSM 1111(T) contained summed feature 8 (18 : 1?7c and/or 18 : 1?6c; 65.4 and 70.8 %, respectively) as the major fatty acid, characteristic of the genus Rhizobium. DNA-DNA relatedness of strain W3(T) with Rhizobium selenitireducens LMG 24075(T), Rhizobium daejeonense DSM 17795(T), Rhizobium radiobacter DSM 30147(T) and B. aggregatus DSM 1111(T) was 42, 34, 30 and 34 %, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of strain W3(T) and B. aggregatus DSM 1111(T) were 62.3 and 62.7 mol%, respectively. A nifH gene encoding dinitrogenase reductase was detected in strain W3(T) but not in B. aggregatus DSM 1111(T). Based on the results obtained by phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analyses, phenotypic characterization and DNA-DNA hybridization, it is concluded that strain W3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium rosettiformans sp. nov. is proposed (type strain W3(T) ?=?CCM 7583(T) ?=?MTCC 9454(T)). It is also proposed that Blastobacter aggregatus Hirsch and Müller 1986 be transferred to the genus Rhizobium as Rhizobium aggregatum comb. nov. (type strain IFAM 1003(T) ?=?DSM 1111(T) ?=?ATCC 43293(T)).

Kaur J; Verma M; Lal R

2011-05-01

84

Estirpes de Rhizobium tropici na inoculação do feijoeiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliando o comportamento do feijoeiro inoculado com cinco estirpes de Rhizobium tropici e a adubação mineral com nitrogênio, sobre alguns fatores relacionados à sua produtividade, utilizou-se um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos constituídos pela inoculação do feijoeiro cultivar IAC Carioca com cinco estirpes de Rhizobium tropici (CIAT 899 - estirpe referência; F35; F54; F81 e CM255), dois controles sem inoculação sendo um adubado com N na semeadura e em cobertura e outro sem adubação e um cultivar não nodulante (NORH 54) adubado; com seis repetições. Avaliaram-se: número de nódulos por planta; massa de material seco da parte aérea; teor de N nas folhas; número de vagens por planta; número de grãos por planta; número de grãos por vagem; peso de 100 grãos e produtividade de grãos. A inoculação de estirpes eficientes de Rhizobium em cultivar nodulante de feijoeiro, ou o cultivo deste em solos com população nativa eficiente, pode possibilitar a não utilização de nitrogênio em cobertura na cultura do feijoeiro, sem afetar a produtividade.

Ferreira Alessandro Nunes; Arf Orivaldo; Carvalho Marco Antonio Camillo de; Araújo Ricardo Silva; Sá Marco Eustáquio de; Buzetti Salatiér

2000-01-01

85

Rhizobium pongamiae sp. nov. from Root Nodules of Pongamia pinnata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pongamia pinnata has an added advantage of N2-fixing ability and tolerance to stress conditions as compared with other biodiesel crops. It harbours "rhizobia" as an endophytic bacterial community on its root nodules. A gram-negative, nonmotile, fast-growing, rod-shaped, bacterial strain VKLR-01(T) was isolated from root nodules of Pongamia that grew optimal at 28°C, pH 7.0 in presence of 2% NaCl. Isolate VKLR-01 exhibits higher tolerance to the prevailing adverse conditions, for example, salt stress, elevated temperatures and alkalinity. Strain VKLR-01(T) has the major cellular fatty acid as C18:1?? ? 7c (65.92%). Strain VKLR-01(T) was found to be a nitrogen fixer using the acetylene reduction assay and PCR detection of a nifH gene. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic distinctiveness and molecular data (16S rRNA, recA, and atpD gene sequences, G + C content, DNA-DNA hybridization etc.), strain VKLR-01(T) = (MTCC 10513(T) = MSCL 1015(T)) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium for which the name Rhizobium pongamiae sp. nov. is proposed. Rhizobium pongamiae may possess specific traits that can be transferred to other rhizobia through biotechnological tools and can be directly used as inoculants for reclamation of wasteland; hence, they are very important from both economic and environmental prospects.

Kesari V; Ramesh AM; Rangan L

2013-01-01

86

Effects of culture age on symbiotic infectivity of Rhizobium japonicum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The infectivity of the soybean symbiont Rhizobium japonicum changed two- to fivefold with culture age for strains 110 ARS, 138 Str Spc, and 123 Spc, whereas culture age had relatively little effect on the infectivity of strains 83 Str and 61A76 Str. Infectivity was measured by determining the number of nodules which developed on soybean primary roots in the zone which contained developing and preemergent root hairs at the time of inoculation. Root cells in this region of the host root are susceptible to Rhizobium infection, but this susceptibility is lost during acropetal development and maturation of the root cells within a period of 4 to 6 h. Profiles of nodulation frequency at different locations on the root were not affected by the age of the R. japonicum cultures, indicating that culture age affected the efficiency of Rhizobium infection rather than how soon infections were initiated after inoculation. Inoculum dose-response experiments also indicated that culture age affected the efficiency of infection. Two strains, 61A76 Str and 83 Str, were relatively inefficient at all culture ages, particularly at low inoculum doses. Changes in infectivity with culture age were reasonably well correlated with changes in the proportion of cells in a culture capable of binding soybean lectin. Suspensions of R. japonicum in water were found to retain their viability and infectivity. 15 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Bhuvaneswari, T.V.; Mills, K.K.; Crist, D.K.; Evans, W.R.; Bauer, W.D.

1983-01-01

87

Effects of nano-TiO2 on the agronomically-relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of nano-TiO2 on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied using garden peas and the compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure to nano-TiO2 did not affect the germination of peas grown aseptically, nor did it impact the gross root structure. However, nano-...

88

GROWTH AND EXTRACELLULAR POLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION BY RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI IN DEFINED MEDIUM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dudman, W. F. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia). Growth and extracellular polysaccharide production by Rhizobium meliloti in defined medium. J. Bacteriol. 88:640–645. 1964.—A defined medium was developed in which Rhizobium meliloti grew well in shake...

Dudman, W. F.

89

Rhizobium lusitanum sp. nov. a bacterium that nodulates Phaseolus vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

The species Phaseolus vulgaris is a promiscuous legume nodulated by several species of the family Rhizobiaceae. During a study of rhizobia nodulating this legume in Portugal, we isolated several strains that nodulate P. vulgaris effectively and also Macroptilium atropurpureum and Leucaena leucocephala, but they form ineffective nodules in Medicago sativa. According to phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strains from this study belong to the genus Rhizobium, with Rhizobium rhizogenes and Rhizobium tropici as the closest related species, with 99.9 and 99.2% similarity, respectively, between the type strains of these species and strain P1-7T. The nodD and nifH genes carried by strain P1-7T are phylogenetically related to those of other species nodulating Phaseolus. This strain does not carry virulence genes present in the type strain of R. rhizogenes, ATCC 11325T. Analysis of the recA and atpD genes confirms this phylogenetic arrangement, showing low similarity with respect to those of R. rhizogenes ATCC 11325T (91.9 and 94.1% similarity, respectively) and R. tropici IIB CIAT 899T (90.6% and 91.8% similarity, respectively). The intergenic spacer (ITS) of the strains from this study is phylogenetically divergent from those of R. rhizogenes ATCC 11235T and R. tropici CIAT 899T, with 85.9 and 82.8% similarity, respectively, with respect to strain P1-7T. The tRNA profile and two-primer random amplified polymorphic DNA pattern of strain P1-7T are also different from those of R. rhizogenes ATCC 11235T and R. tropici CIAT 899T. The strains isolated in this study can be also differentiated from R. rhizogenes and R. tropici by several phenotypic characteristics. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization showed means of 28 and 25% similarity between strain P1-7T and R. rhizogenes ATCC 11235T and R. tropici CIAT 899T, respectively. All these data showed that the strains isolated in this study belong to a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which we propose the name Rhizobium lusitanum sp. nov.; the type strain is P1-7T (=LMG 22705T=CECT 7016T). PMID:17082403

Valverde, Angel; Igual, José M; Peix, Alvaro; Cervantes, Emilio; Velázquez, Encarna

2006-11-01

90

Rhizobium pisi sv. trifolii K3.22 harboring nod genes of the Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii cluster.  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomic status of the Rhizobium sp. K3.22 clover nodule isolate was studied by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 16S rRNA and six housekeeping chromosomal genes, as well as by a subsequent phylogenic analysis. The results revealed full congruence with the Rhizobium pisi DSM 30132(T) core genes, thus supporting the same taxonomic position for both strains. However, the K3.22 plasmid symbiosis nod genes demonstrated high sequence similarity to Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii, whereas the R. pisi DSM 30132(T)nod genes were most similar to R. leguminosarum sv. viciae. The strains differed in the host range nodulation specificity, since strain K3.22 effectively nodulated red and white clover but not vetch, in contrast to R. pisi DSM 30132(T), which effectively nodulated vetch but was not able to nodulate clover. Both strains had the ability to form nodules on pea and bean but they differed in bean cultivar specificity. The R. pisi K3.22 and DSM 30132(T) strains might provide evidence for the transfer of R. leguminosarum sv. trifolii and sv. viciae symbiotic plasmids occurring in natural soil populations. PMID:23507586

Marek-Kozaczuk, Monika; Leszcz, Agnieszka; Wielbo, Jerzy; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Skorupska, Anna

2013-03-16

91

Rhizobium pisi sv. trifolii K3.22 harboring nod genes of the Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii cluster.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The taxonomic status of the Rhizobium sp. K3.22 clover nodule isolate was studied by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 16S rRNA and six housekeeping chromosomal genes, as well as by a subsequent phylogenic analysis. The results revealed full congruence with the Rhizobium pisi DSM 30132(T) core genes, thus supporting the same taxonomic position for both strains. However, the K3.22 plasmid symbiosis nod genes demonstrated high sequence similarity to Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii, whereas the R. pisi DSM 30132(T)nod genes were most similar to R. leguminosarum sv. viciae. The strains differed in the host range nodulation specificity, since strain K3.22 effectively nodulated red and white clover but not vetch, in contrast to R. pisi DSM 30132(T), which effectively nodulated vetch but was not able to nodulate clover. Both strains had the ability to form nodules on pea and bean but they differed in bean cultivar specificity. The R. pisi K3.22 and DSM 30132(T) strains might provide evidence for the transfer of R. leguminosarum sv. trifolii and sv. viciae symbiotic plasmids occurring in natural soil populations.

Marek-Kozaczuk M; Leszcz A; Wielbo J; Wdowiak-Wróbel S; Skorupska A

2013-06-01

92

Evidence of an American Origin for Symbiosis-Related Genes in Rhizobium lusitanum ?  

Science.gov (United States)

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to investigate the diversity of 179 bean isolates recovered from six field sites in the Arcos de Valdevez region of northwestern Portugal. The isolates were divided into 6 groups based on the fingerprint patterns that were obtained. Representatives for each group were selected for sequence analysis of 4 chromosomal DNA regions. Five of the groups were placed within Rhizobium lusitanum, and the other group was placed within R. tropici type IIA. Therefore, the collection of Portuguese bean isolates was shown to include the two species R. lusitanum and R. tropici. In plant tests, the strains P1-7, P1-1, P1-2, and P1-16 of R. lusitanum nodulated and formed nitrogen-fixing symbioses both with Phaseolus vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala. A methyltransferase-encoding nodS gene identical with the R. tropici locus that confers wide host range was detected in the strain P1-7 as well as 24 others identified as R. lusitanum. A methyltransferase-encoding nodS gene also was detected in the remaining isolates of R. lusitanum, but in this case the locus was that identified with the narrow-host-range R. etli. Representatives of isolates with the nodS of R. etli formed effective nitrogen-fixing symbioses with P. vulgaris and did not nodulate L. leucocephala. From sequence data of nodS, the R. lusitanum genes for symbiosis were placed within those of either R. tropici or R. etli. These results would support the suggestion that R. lusitanum was the recipient of the genes for symbiosis with beans from both R. tropici and R. etli.

Valverde, Angel; Velazquez, Encarna; Cervantes, Emilio; Igual, Jose M.; van Berkum, Peter

2011-01-01

93

Evidence of an American origin for symbiosis-related genes in Rhizobium lusitanum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to investigate the diversity of 179 bean isolates recovered from six field sites in the Arcos de Valdevez region of northwestern Portugal. The isolates were divided into 6 groups based on the fingerprint patterns that were obtained. Representatives for each group were selected for sequence analysis of 4 chromosomal DNA regions. Five of the groups were placed within Rhizobium lusitanum, and the other group was placed within R. tropici type IIA. Therefore, the collection of Portuguese bean isolates was shown to include the two species R. lusitanum and R. tropici. In plant tests, the strains P1-7, P1-1, P1-2, and P1-16 of R. lusitanum nodulated and formed nitrogen-fixing symbioses both with Phaseolus vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala. A methyltransferase-encoding nodS gene identical with the R. tropici locus that confers wide host range was detected in the strain P1-7 as well as 24 others identified as R. lusitanum. A methyltransferase-encoding nodS gene also was detected in the remaining isolates of R. lusitanum, but in this case the locus was that identified with the narrow-host-range R. etli. Representatives of isolates with the nodS of R. etli formed effective nitrogen-fixing symbioses with P. vulgaris and did not nodulate L. leucocephala. From sequence data of nodS, the R. lusitanum genes for symbiosis were placed within those of either R. tropici or R. etli. These results would support the suggestion that R. lusitanum was the recipient of the genes for symbiosis with beans from both R. tropici and R. etli.

Valverde A; Velázquez E; Cervantes E; Igual JM; van Berkum P

2011-08-01

94

Evidence of an American origin for symbiosis-related genes in Rhizobium lusitanum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to investigate the diversity of 179 bean isolates recovered from six field sites in the Arcos de Valdevez region of northwestern Portugal. The isolates were divided into 6 groups based on the fingerprint patterns that were obtained. Representatives for each group were selected for sequence analysis of 4 chromosomal DNA regions. Five of the groups were placed within Rhizobium lusitanum, and the other group was placed within R. tropici type IIA. Therefore, the collection of Portuguese bean isolates was shown to include the two species R. lusitanum and R. tropici. In plant tests, the strains P1-7, P1-1, P1-2, and P1-16 of R. lusitanum nodulated and formed nitrogen-fixing symbioses both with Phaseolus vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala. A methyltransferase-encoding nodS gene identical with the R. tropici locus that confers wide host range was detected in the strain P1-7 as well as 24 others identified as R. lusitanum. A methyltransferase-encoding nodS gene also was detected in the remaining isolates of R. lusitanum, but in this case the locus was that identified with the narrow-host-range R. etli. Representatives of isolates with the nodS of R. etli formed effective nitrogen-fixing symbioses with P. vulgaris and did not nodulate L. leucocephala. From sequence data of nodS, the R. lusitanum genes for symbiosis were placed within those of either R. tropici or R. etli. These results would support the suggestion that R. lusitanum was the recipient of the genes for symbiosis with beans from both R. tropici and R. etli. PMID:21705533

Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Cervantes, Emilio; Igual, José M; van Berkum, Peter

2011-06-24

95

Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials, phase 2. Final report, 9 May 1988-9 May 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report presents work done under a Phase 2 SBIR contract for demonstrating large area detector planes utilizing Quantex electron trapping materials as a film medium for storing high-energy nuclide impingement information. The detector planes utilize energy dissipated by passage of the high-energy nuclides to produce localized populations of electrons stored in traps. Readout of the localized trapped electron populations is effected by scanning the ET plane with near-infrared, which frees the trapped electrons and results in optical emission at visible wavelengths. The effort involved both optimizing fabrication technology for the detector planes and developing a readout system capable of high spatial resolution for displaying the recorded nuclide passage tracks

1988-05-09

96

Estirpes de Rhizobium tropici na inoculação do feijoeiro/ Rhizobium tropici strains for inoculation of the common bean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliando o comportamento do feijoeiro inoculado com cinco estirpes de Rhizobium tropici e a adubação mineral com nitrogênio, sobre alguns fatores relacionados à sua produtividade, utilizou-se um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos constituídos pela inoculação do feijoeiro cultivar IAC Carioca com cinco estirpes de Rhizobium tropici (CIAT 899 - estirpe referência; F35; F54; F81 e CM255), dois controles sem inoculação sendo um aduba (more) do com N na semeadura e em cobertura e outro sem adubação e um cultivar não nodulante (NORH 54) adubado; com seis repetições. Avaliaram-se: número de nódulos por planta; massa de material seco da parte aérea; teor de N nas folhas; número de vagens por planta; número de grãos por planta; número de grãos por vagem; peso de 100 grãos e produtividade de grãos. A inoculação de estirpes eficientes de Rhizobium em cultivar nodulante de feijoeiro, ou o cultivo deste em solos com população nativa eficiente, pode possibilitar a não utilização de nitrogênio em cobertura na cultura do feijoeiro, sem afetar a produtividade. Abstract in english To evaluate five Rhizobium tropici strains and N fertilization on the productivity components of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop, an experimental design of randomized blocks was used. The eight treatments consisted of five Rhizobium tropici strains (CIAT899; F35; F54; F81, and CM255), two controls without inoculation (30 kg ha-1 N with PK at sowing plus 30 kg ha-1 N as top dressing, and other without fertilization NPK) with the IAC Carioca cultivar and one no (more) n-nodulating cultivar (NORH54). Number of nodules per plant, shoot dry mass, leaf N content, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, number of grains per pod, 100 grain weight, and grain yield, were evaluated. The nodulating cultivar with inoculation or in soil with efficient native population can eliminate the N top dressing with no decrease in yield.

Ferreira, Alessandro Nunes; Arf, Orivaldo; Carvalho, Marco Antonio Camillo de; Araújo, Ricardo Silva; Sá, Marco Eustáquio de; Buzetti, Salatiér

2000-09-01

97

Contribution of the Rhizobium Inoculation on Plant Growth and Productivity of Two Cultivars of Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) in Saline Soil  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken on the interactive effect of Rhizobium seed culture treatment and saline irrigation on the plant growth and productivity (fodder/biological yield) in two cultivars (WARDAN and BB 2) of berseem. The experiment was conducted following completely randomized block design method considering three replicates and data were subjected to statistical analysis of variance using three factorial randomized design method. Two sets of plots were maintained in which one set contained non-inoculated while another set contained inoculated seeds with Rhizobium culture, which were irrigated with saline waters of different electrical conductivities (0, 3, 6, 7.2, 10, 12 and 14 dS m-1). The observations were recorded at two durations i.e., 90 and 120 DAS. The plant growth has been enhanced at lower levels of salinity (3 to 7.2 dS m-1) and invariably inhibited at 10 dS m-1 and beyond. Inoculation with Rhizobium culture had expressed synergistic effects on growth and productivity at both durations particularly at lower EC levels and also minimized the deleterious effect of salinity at 10 to 14 dS m-1 to some extent. The yield characteristics (biological and fodder yield) had been differentially affected in berseem. Cv. WARDAN had registered maximum yield at the final harvest in Rhizobium inoculated sets at 3, 6 and 7.2 dS m-1. Similar findings were recorded for total green and dry weight fodder yield/plot (kg m-2). Our findings proves that cv. WARDAN might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass.

S. Agarwal; Z. Ahmad

2010-01-01

98

Fast induction of biosynthetic polysaccharide genes lpxA, lpxE, and rkpI of Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 by common bean seed exudates is indicative of a key role in symbiosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobial surface polysaccharides (SPS) are, together with nodulation (Nod) factors, recognized as key molecules for establishment of rhizobia-legume symbiosis. In Rhizobium tropici, an important nitrogen-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), molecular structures and symbiotic roles of the SPS are poorly understood. In this study, Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 genes, belonging to the R. tropici group, were investigated: lpxA and lpxE, involved in biosynthesis and modification of the lipid-A anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and rkpI, involved in synthesis of a lipid carrier required for production of capsular polysaccharides (KPS). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed, for the first time, that inducers released from common bean seeds strongly stimulated expression of all three SPS genes. When PRF 81 cells were grown for 48 h in the presence of seed exudates, twofold increases (p < 0.05) in the transcription levels of lpxE, lpxA, and rkpI genes were observed. However, higher increases (p < 0.05) in transcription rates, about 50-fold for lpxE and about 30-fold for lpxA and rkpI, were observed after only 5 min of incubation with common bean seed exudates. Evolutionary analyses revealed that lpxA and lpxE of PRF81 and of the type strain of R. tropici CIAT899(T)clustered with orthologous Rhizobium radiobacter and were more related to R. etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum, while rkpI was closer to the Sinorhizobium sp. group. Upregulation of lpxE, lpxA, and rkpI genes suggests that seed exudates can modulate production of SPS of Rhizobium sp. PRF81, leading to cell wall changes necessary for symbiosis establishment. PMID:23652766

Oliveira, Luciana Ruano; Rodrigues, Elisete Pains; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar Corrêa; Oliveira, André Luiz Martinez; Hungria, Mariangela

2013-05-08

99

Fast induction of biosynthetic polysaccharide genes lpxA, lpxE, and rkpI of Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 by common bean seed exudates is indicative of a key role in symbiosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobial surface polysaccharides (SPS) are, together with nodulation (Nod) factors, recognized as key molecules for establishment of rhizobia-legume symbiosis. In Rhizobium tropici, an important nitrogen-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), molecular structures and symbiotic roles of the SPS are poorly understood. In this study, Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 genes, belonging to the R. tropici group, were investigated: lpxA and lpxE, involved in biosynthesis and modification of the lipid-A anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and rkpI, involved in synthesis of a lipid carrier required for production of capsular polysaccharides (KPS). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed, for the first time, that inducers released from common bean seeds strongly stimulated expression of all three SPS genes. When PRF 81 cells were grown for 48 h in the presence of seed exudates, twofold increases (p < 0.05) in the transcription levels of lpxE, lpxA, and rkpI genes were observed. However, higher increases (p < 0.05) in transcription rates, about 50-fold for lpxE and about 30-fold for lpxA and rkpI, were observed after only 5 min of incubation with common bean seed exudates. Evolutionary analyses revealed that lpxA and lpxE of PRF81 and of the type strain of R. tropici CIAT899(T)clustered with orthologous Rhizobium radiobacter and were more related to R. etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum, while rkpI was closer to the Sinorhizobium sp. group. Upregulation of lpxE, lpxA, and rkpI genes suggests that seed exudates can modulate production of SPS of Rhizobium sp. PRF81, leading to cell wall changes necessary for symbiosis establishment.

Oliveira LR; Rodrigues EP; Marcelino-Guimarães FC; Oliveira AL; Hungria M

2013-06-01

100

La plaquette à chevaux hypertrophiques de Lumentxa (Biscaye) et les styles du Magdalénien supérieur/final dans le Pays Basque.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se ofrece un análisis de la plaqueta de hematites de la cueva de Lumentxa, fechada tradicionalmente en el Magdaleniense superior/final, desde el punto de vista formal y macroscópico. El examen del trazo y del desplazamiento o de la mano de las figuras del anverso, así como la identidad de estilo y forma, lleva al autor a sugerir la hipótesis de la misma autoría para las dos figuras, así como las diferencias de trazo y mano, así como la tendencia a la exageración de los caracteres estilísticos le conduce a suponer que el prótomo del reverso es atribuible a otro autor. El análisis formal permite atribuir esta obra a una corriente de carácter expresionista que se entrecruza con el estilo esquemático, uno de los más comunes del Magdaleniense superior/final. El autor, que ha sugerido la hipótesis del origen de la tendencia expresionista en la escuela de grabadores de La Madeleine (Tursac) en otro trabajo, pone la plaqueta de Lumentxa en relación con aquella corriente y en concreto con un segundo momento del esquematismo expresionista que observa en ella. Considera la obra como un eco a punto de extinguirse de la corriente expresionista, de la que en el Cantábrico no quedan muchos recuerdos.

Juan Mª Apellaniz

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The impact of the EU ETS on electricity prices. Final report to DG Environment of the European Commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] On February 2, 2009, a revised edition of the report has been released, including some adjustments and editorial corrections particularly in Section 2.2 and Appendix A. The present study analyses the impact of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) on electricity prices, in particular on wholesale power markets across the EU. To study this impact, a variety of methodological approaches is used, including theoretical, empirical, model, literature and policy analyses. The study shows that a significant part of the costs of freely allocated CO2 emission allowances is passed through to power prices, resulting in higher electricity prices for consumers and additional ('windfall') profits for power producers. In addition, it discusses some policy implications of the pass-through of these costs. It concludes that the pass-through of CO2 costs to electricity prices is a rational, carbon-efficient policy, while the issue of windfall profits can be addressed by either taxing these profits or auctioning - rather than free allocations - of the emission allowances

2008-01-01

102

Structures of the lipopolysaccharides from Rhizobium leguminosarum RBL5523 and its UDP-glucose dehydrogenase mutant (exo5).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required to establish an effective symbiosis with its host plant. An exo5 mutant of Rhizobium leguminosarum RBL5523, strain RBL5808, is defective in UDP-glucose (Glc) dehydrogenase that converts UDP-Glc to UDP-glucuronic acid (GlcA). This mutant is unable to synthesize either UDP-GlcA or UDP-galacturonic acid (GalA) and is unable to synthesize extracellular and capsular polysaccharides, lacks GalA in its LPS and is defective in symbiosis (Laus MC, Logman TJ, van Brussel AAN, Carlson RW, Azadi P, Gao MY, Kijne JW. 2004. Involvement of exo5 in production of surface polysaccharides in Rhizobium leguminosarum and its role in nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra. J Bacteriol. 186:6617-6625). Here, we determined and compared the structures of the RBL5523 parent and RBL5808 mutant LPSs. The parent LPS core oligosaccharide (OS), as with other R. leguminosarum and Rhizobium etli strains, is a Gal(1)Man(1)GalA(3)Kdo(3) octasaccharide in, which each of the GalA residues is terminally linked. The core OS from the mutant lacks all three GalA residues. Also, the parent lipid A consists of a fatty acylated GlcNGlcNonate or GlcNGlcN disaccharide that has a GalA residue at the 4'-position, typical of other R. leguminosarum and R. etli lipids A. The mutant lipid A lacks the 4'-GalA residue, and the proximal glycosyl residue was only present as GlcNonate. In spite of these alterations to the lipid A and core OSs, the mutant was still able to synthesize an LPS containing a normal O-chain polysaccharide (OPS), but at reduced levels. The structure of the OPS of the mutant LPS was identical to that of the parent and consists of an O-acetylated ?4)-?-d-Glcp-(1?3)-?-d-QuipNAc-(1? repeating unit.

Muszynski A; Laus M; Kijne JW; Carlson RW

2011-01-01

103

Structures of the lipopolysaccharides from Rhizobium leguminosarum RBL5523 and its UDP-glucose dehydrogenase mutant (exo5).  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required to establish an effective symbiosis with its host plant. An exo5 mutant of Rhizobium leguminosarum RBL5523, strain RBL5808, is defective in UDP-glucose (Glc) dehydrogenase that converts UDP-Glc to UDP-glucuronic acid (GlcA). This mutant is unable to synthesize either UDP-GlcA or UDP-galacturonic acid (GalA) and is unable to synthesize extracellular and capsular polysaccharides, lacks GalA in its LPS and is defective in symbiosis (Laus MC, Logman TJ, van Brussel AAN, Carlson RW, Azadi P, Gao MY, Kijne JW. 2004. Involvement of exo5 in production of surface polysaccharides in Rhizobium leguminosarum and its role in nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra. J Bacteriol. 186:6617-6625). Here, we determined and compared the structures of the RBL5523 parent and RBL5808 mutant LPSs. The parent LPS core oligosaccharide (OS), as with other R. leguminosarum and Rhizobium etli strains, is a Gal(1)Man(1)GalA(3)Kdo(3) octasaccharide in, which each of the GalA residues is terminally linked. The core OS from the mutant lacks all three GalA residues. Also, the parent lipid A consists of a fatty acylated GlcNGlcNonate or GlcNGlcN disaccharide that has a GalA residue at the 4'-position, typical of other R. leguminosarum and R. etli lipids A. The mutant lipid A lacks the 4'-GalA residue, and the proximal glycosyl residue was only present as GlcNonate. In spite of these alterations to the lipid A and core OSs, the mutant was still able to synthesize an LPS containing a normal O-chain polysaccharide (OPS), but at reduced levels. The structure of the OPS of the mutant LPS was identical to that of the parent and consists of an O-acetylated ?4)-?-d-Glcp-(1?3)-?-d-QuipNAc-(1? repeating unit. PMID:20817634

Muszynski, Artur; Laus, Marc; Kijne, Jan W; Carlson, Russell W

2010-09-02

104

Relations between Rhizobium and radiostimulation treatments of seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In field experiments the effects of irradiation with 60Co isotope the seeds of round seeded peas (Pisum sativum L.), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), soybeans (Glycine max. L./Merr.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa) were investigated. Rhizobium bacteria inoculation was carried out with the inoculator ''Rhizonit''. The green mass yield was determined for lucerne and the grain yield for the other plants. Irradiation induced flowering of peas 4-5 days earlier. The bean yields increased significantly on the influence of 1000 rad irradiation plus Rhizonit inoculation. For soybeans the yield response to Rhizonit proved to be significant. (author)

1979-03-16

105

studies On Legume-rhizobium And Mycorrihizal Interaction Withspecial Reference To Phaseolusradiatusl. And Phaseolus Aconitifoliusjacq.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was initiated to determine the influence of VAM fungi on a Rhizobium- legume interaction. The pot culture experiment was conducted during rabbi season with seed of Phaseolu sradiatus.L.and PhaseolusaconitifoliusJacq.and Leonard jar experiment was conducted for Phaseolusa conitifolius.The different inoculations of Rhizobium and Mycorrihizawere incorporated. During the period of experiment, samples were analysed for nodule numbers, dry weight of nodules,freshweight, dry weight of plant, yield of pods, and length of plant and percentage of Mycorrihizalcolonization. The results revealed that dual inoculation of Rhizobium with VAM enhanced seed yield of chickpea and golden- green gram.

Sunil A. Gosavi

2013-01-01

106

Role of Rhizobium Inoculation in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Under Water Stress Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two chickpea varieties viz., 90122 and 93081 were subjected to Rhizobium inoculation with BioPower under water stress conditions, imposed by withholding water. Stress reduced all the parameters including yield components and this effect was more pronounced by stress at reproductive stage as compared with vegetative stage. Rhizobium inoculation enhanced yield under both normal and stressed conditions, but its performance was better under normal than under stress. Rhizobium inoculation proved ineffective to recover loss caused by water stress. The two varieties exhibited statistically non-significant differences.

Rahat Parveen; M. Sadiq; Muzammil Saleem

1999-01-01

107

Antimicrobial activity of Rhizobium sp. strains against Pseudomonas savastanoi, the agent responsible for the olive knot disease in Algeria  

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Full Text Available In the present investigation, six Rhizobium strains isolated from Algerian soil were checked for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas savastanoi, the agent responsible for olive knot disease. Rhizobium sp. ORN 24 and ORN 83 were found to produce antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas savastanoi. The antimicrobial activity produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN24 was precipitable with ammonium sulfate, between 1,000 and 10,000 KDa molecular weight, heat resistant but sensitive to proteases and detergents. These characteristics suggest the bacteriocin nature of the antimicrobial substance produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN24, named rhizobiocin 24. In contrast, the antimicrobial activity produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN83 was not precipitable with ammonium sulfate; it was smaller than 1,000 KDa molecular weight, heat labile, and protease and detergent resistant. These characteristics could indicate the relationship between the antimicrobial substance produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN 83 and the “small” bacteriocins described in other rhizobia.En la presente investigación, seis cepas de Rhizobium aisladas de suelos argelinos fueron estudiadas para conocer su actividad antimicrobiana contra Pseudomonas savastanoi, el agente causante de la tuberculosis del olivo. Rhizobium sp. ORN 24 y ORN 83 produjeron actividad antimicrobiana contra Pseudomonas savastanoi. La actividad antimicrobiana producida por Rhizobium sp. ORN 24 precipitó con sulfato amónico, tuvo un peso molecular entre 1000 y 10000 KDa, fue resistente al calor pero sensible a proteasas y detergentes. Estas características sugieren que la sustancia antimicrobial producida por Rhizobium sp. ORN 24 es la bacteriocina natural conocida como rizobiocina 24. Por el contrario, la actividad antimicrobiana producida por Rhizobium sp. ORN83 no fue precipitable con sulfato amónico, y tuvo un peso molecular menor de 1000 KDa, fue lábil al calor y resistente a detergentes y proteasas. Estas características podrían indicar una relación de la sustancia antimicrobiana producida por Rhizobium sp. ORN83 con la “pequeña” bacteriocina descrita en otros Rhizobium.

Kacem, Mourad; Kazouz, Fadhila; Merabet, Chahinez; Rezki, Meriem; de Lajudie, Philippe; Bekki, Abdelkader

2009-01-01

108

Action of metabolites of isolated plant tissues on the nitrogenase activity of Rhizobium vigna and Rhizobium meliloti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The dependence of the nitrogenase activity of Rhizobium meliloti on the strain peculiarities of the cultures, the composition of the media used, and the metabolites of legume tissue cultures was demonstrated by the acetylene method. The nitrogenase activity is significantly higher in R. vigna than in R. meliloti, under the same experimental conditions. Enrichment of the Murashige-Skoog medium with arabinose (25 mM), succinate (25 mM), glutamine (2 mM nitrogen), and yeast extract (0.1%) substantially stimulated the nitrogenase activity of a pure culture of R. vigna. The maximum nitrogenase activity on this medium was noted when metabolites of sweet clover tissue were introduced.

Bonartseva GA; Shemakhanova NM

1978-09-01

109

Ação de herbicidas sobre o crescimento de estirpes de Rhizobium tropici Herbicide action on the growth of Rhizobium tropici strains  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento das estirpes de Rhizobium tropici BR 322 e BR 520, utilizadas como inoculantes na cultura do feijoeiro no Brasil, em meio de cultura à base de manitol e extrato de levedura (YM) adicionado de diferentes herbicidas (bentazon, metolachlor, imazamox, fluazifop-p-butil, fomesafen e paraquat). Os herbicidas fluazifop-p-butil e fomesafen foram avaliados puros e em mistura comercial, em concentrações variando entre 0,0 e 49,23 mg L-1. O crescimento das estirpes de Rhizobium foi avaliado em espectrofotômetro ao longo de 100 horas de incubação, por meio da leitura da densidade ótica, a 560 nm, sendo, posteriormente, convertido em unidades formadoras de colônia por mL. Observou-se que o paraquat foi o herbicida com maior inibição do crescimento das estirpes avaliadas, seguido pela mistura comercial de fomesafen e fluazifop-p-butil. Para os demais herbicidas, a redução do crescimento não foi significativa. De modo geral, a estirpe BR 520 mostrou-se mais tolerante aos herbicidas testados, com exceção do paraquat. No ensaio de concentrações crescentes do fomesafen, isolado ou em mistura com fluazifop-p-butil, não foi possível determinar o I50 (concentração do herbicida que reduz em 50% o crescimento do rizóbio); a maior redução, de 31,1%, foi observada para a estirpe BR 322 na máxima concentração testada (49,23 mg L-1) da mistura comercial.This work aimed to evaluate the growth of Rhizobium tropici BR322 and BR 520 strains, used as inoculant on common bean in Brazil, in yeast extract manitol (YM) medium supplemented with different herbicides (bentazon, metolachlor, imazamox, fluazifop-p-butyl, fomesafen and paraquat). Fluazifop-p-butyl and fomesafen were evaluated pure and in a commercial mixture with concentration varying from 0.0 to 49.23 mg L-1. Cell growth was assessed by optic density readings in a spectrophotometer at 560 nm, being later converted to colony forming units per mL. Paraquat caused higher inhibition of cell growth, followed by the commercial mixture fomesafen and fluazifop-p-butyl. For the other herbicides, growth reduction was not significant. In general, BR 520 strain was more tolerant to the tested herbicides, except to paraquat. The herbicide concentration I50, (which decreased Rhizobium growth in 50%) could not be determined in the fomesafen concentrations tested, isolated or mixed to fluazifop-p-butyl. The highest reduction of 31.1% was observed in BR322 at the maximum tested concentration of the commercial mixture.

J.B. Santos; A.A. Silva; M.D. Costa; A. Jakelaitis; R. Vivian; E.A. Santos

2006-01-01

110

Oligogalacturonides: novel signaling molecules in Rhizobium-legume communications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oligogalacturonides are pectic fragments of the plant cell wall, whose signaling role has been described thus far during plant development and plant-pathogen interactions. In the present work, we evaluated the potential involvement of oligogalacturonides in the molecular communications between legumes and rhizobia during the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Oligogalacturonides with a degree of polymerization of 10 to 15 were found to trigger a rapid intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Accumulation of H(2)O(2), detected by both 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate-based fluorescence and electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxides, was transient and did not affect bacterial cell viability, due to the prompt activation of the katG gene encoding a catalase. Calcium measurements carried out in R. leguminosarum transformed with the bioluminescent Ca(2+) reporter aequorin demonstrated the induction of a rapid and remarkable intracellular Ca(2+) increase in response to oligogalacturonides. When applied jointly with naringenin, oligogalacturonides effectively inhibited flavonoid-induced nod gene expression, indicating an antagonistic interplay between oligogalacturonides and inducing flavonoids in the early stages of plant root colonization. The above data suggest a novel role for oligogalacturonides as signaling molecules released in the rhizosphere in the initial rhizobium-legume interaction. PMID:22835276

Moscatiello, Roberto; Baldan, Barbara; Squartini, Andrea; Mariani, Paola; Navazio, Lorella

2012-11-01

111

Oligogalacturonides: novel signaling molecules in Rhizobium-legume communications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oligogalacturonides are pectic fragments of the plant cell wall, whose signaling role has been described thus far during plant development and plant-pathogen interactions. In the present work, we evaluated the potential involvement of oligogalacturonides in the molecular communications between legumes and rhizobia during the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Oligogalacturonides with a degree of polymerization of 10 to 15 were found to trigger a rapid intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Accumulation of H(2)O(2), detected by both 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate-based fluorescence and electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxides, was transient and did not affect bacterial cell viability, due to the prompt activation of the katG gene encoding a catalase. Calcium measurements carried out in R. leguminosarum transformed with the bioluminescent Ca(2+) reporter aequorin demonstrated the induction of a rapid and remarkable intracellular Ca(2+) increase in response to oligogalacturonides. When applied jointly with naringenin, oligogalacturonides effectively inhibited flavonoid-induced nod gene expression, indicating an antagonistic interplay between oligogalacturonides and inducing flavonoids in the early stages of plant root colonization. The above data suggest a novel role for oligogalacturonides as signaling molecules released in the rhizosphere in the initial rhizobium-legume interaction.

Moscatiello R; Baldan B; Squartini A; Mariani P; Navazio L

2012-11-01

112

[Infective endocarditis by Rhizobium radiobacter. A case report].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobium radiobacter is a Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, which is found mainly on the ground. It rarely causes infections in humans. It has been associated with bacteremia, secondary to colonization of intravascular catheters, in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this paper was to report the case of an infective endocarditis caused by R. radiobacter, in a 47-year-old male, diagnosed with chronic kidney disease stage 5, on replacement therapy with hemodialysis and who attended the medical center with fever of two weeks duration. The patient was hospitalized and samples of peripheral blood were taken for culture. Empirical antibiotic therapy was started with cefotaxime plus vancomycin. The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed fusiform vegetation on the tricuspid valve, with grade III-IV/IV regurgitation. On the seventh day after the start of antibiotic therapy, the patient had a clinical and paraclinical improvement. The bacterium identified by blood culture was Rhizobium radiobacter, ceftriaxone-resistant and sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam. Because of the clinical improvement, it was decided to continue treatment with vancomycin and additionally, with imipenem. At 14 days after the start of antibiotic therapy, the patient was discharged with outpatient treatment with imipenem up to six weeks of treatment. The control echocardiogram showed the absence of vegetation on the tricuspid valve. This case suggests that R. radiobacter can cause endocarditis in patients with intravascular catheters.

Piñerúa Gonsálvez JF; Zambrano Infantinot Rdel C; Calcaño C; Montaño C; Fuenmayor Z; Rodney H; Rodney M

2013-03-01

113

Pré-seleção de estirpes de Rhizobium sp. para amendoim/ Preliminary selection of peanut Rhizobium sp. strains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com solução nutritiva isenta de N, com o objetivo de selecionar estirpes de Rhizobium eficientes fixadoras de N2, quando associadas com amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivar Tatu. Foram testadas 35 estirpes de Rhizobium sp., isoladas de quinze diferentes espécies de leguminosas tropicais, e incluído um tratamento de inoculação com solo previamente cultivado com amendoim. Das 35 estirpes testadas, doze formaram nódul (more) os e, entre essas, sete foram eficientes fixadoras de nitrogênio. Das doze estirpes que nodularam, sete foram isoladas de leguminosas da tribo Hedysareae (à qual pertence o género Arachis) e, destas, apenas quatro foram eficientes fixadoras de nitrogênio. O peso e o número de nódulos não se mostraram como critérios adequados para avaliação da eficiência. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out in Leonard jars, in the greenhouse, with nitrogen-free nutrient solution to test the efficiency of 35 strains of rhizobia isolated from 15 species of tropical legumes. Twelve of the tested strains were capable of nodule formation in peanut. Seven of those strains were isolated from the trible Hedysareae, which includes the genus Arachis. Only four of the rhizobia strains with inducing nodulation were effective. Dry weight and number of nodules were not good criteria for evaluating effectiveness.

Giardini, Antonio Roberto; Lopes, Eli Sidney; Neptune, André Martin Louis

1984-01-01

114

Effect of Rhizobium sp., on Growth of Pathogenic Fungi under in vitro Conditions  

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Full Text Available In a laboratory study chickpea root nodulating bacterium Rhizobium sp., strain Thal-8 significantly inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Fusarium sp. Ascochyta rabiei, Drechslera sp. and Curvularia sp.) in potato dextrose agar media. The inhibition rate displayed differences in accordance with different fungi cultures. However, the inhibitory effect of Rhizobium sp., strain Thal-8 occurred most on pure cultures growth of Alternaria alternata and Drechslera sp. (54 and 45%, respectively) and least on Curvularia sp. (3%).

Tabassam Sharif; Samina Khalil; Shahbaz Ahmad

2003-01-01

115

Rhizobium vallis sp. nov., isolated from nodules of three leguminous species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, Mimosa pudica and Indigofera spicata plants grown in the Yunnan province of China were identified as a lineage within the genus Rhizobium according to the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, sharing most similarity with Rhizobium lusitanum P1-7(T) (99.1 % sequence similarity) and Rhizobium rhizogenes IAM 13570(T) (99.0 %). These strains also formed a distinctive group from the reference strains for defined species of the genus Rhizobium in a polyphasic approach, including the phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping genes (recA, atpD, glnII), DNA-DNA hybridization, BOX-PCR fingerprinting, phenotypic characterization, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, and cellular fatty acid profiles. All the data obtained in this study suggested that these strains represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium vallis sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G+C content (mol%) of this species varied between 60.9 and 61.2 (T(m)). The type strain of R. vallis sp. nov. is CCBAU 65647(T) ( = LMG 25295(T) =HAMBI 3073(T)), which has a DNA G+C content of 60.9 mol% and forms effective nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris. PMID:21131504

Wang, Fang; Wang, En Tao; Wu, Li Juan; Sui, Xin Hua; Li, Ying; Chen, Wen Xin

2010-12-03

116

Rhizobium vallis sp. nov., isolated from nodules of three leguminous species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, Mimosa pudica and Indigofera spicata plants grown in the Yunnan province of China were identified as a lineage within the genus Rhizobium according to the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, sharing most similarity with Rhizobium lusitanum P1-7(T) (99.1 % sequence similarity) and Rhizobium rhizogenes IAM 13570(T) (99.0 %). These strains also formed a distinctive group from the reference strains for defined species of the genus Rhizobium in a polyphasic approach, including the phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping genes (recA, atpD, glnII), DNA-DNA hybridization, BOX-PCR fingerprinting, phenotypic characterization, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, and cellular fatty acid profiles. All the data obtained in this study suggested that these strains represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium vallis sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G+C content (mol%) of this species varied between 60.9 and 61.2 (T(m)). The type strain of R. vallis sp. nov. is CCBAU 65647(T) ( = LMG 25295(T) =HAMBI 3073(T)), which has a DNA G+C content of 60.9 mol% and forms effective nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris.

Wang F; Wang ET; Wu LJ; Sui XH; Li Y Jr; Chen WX

2011-11-01

117

Les structures et le mobilier du site d’habitat Hallstatt final-La Tène ancienne d'Allaines Mervilliers (Eure-et-Loir) Buildings and effects from the hallstatt D-Early La Tène site of Allaines Mervilliers (Eure-et-Loir)  

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Full Text Available Découverte de structures d’habitat sur poteaux et d’une fosse Hallstatt final-La Tène ancienne dans le cadre d’une opération d’archéologie préventive en 1998, à Allaines Mervilliers (Eure-et-Loir). Il s’agit de deux bâtiments rectangulaires à six trous de poteau, d’un bâtiment rectangulaire à trois nefs et d’un bâtiment circulaire. Ces deux derniers sont inédits pour cette époque en région Centre. Le bâtiment rectangulaire à trois nefs est composé de deux rangées centrales de trois trous de poteau et de deux rangées latérales de quatre trous de poteau. Les trous de poteau centraux présentent un remplissage stratifié dont la couche supérieure a livré l’essentiel de l’abondant mobilier découvert. On décompte par exemple dans les vestiges en céramique 56 individus-vases différents. Le bâtiment circulaire est composé d’une couronne de neuf trous de poteau présentant également un remplissage stratifié. On a découvert moins de mobilier dans cette structure que dans le bâtiment précédent, mais il se singularise aussi par la présence d’ossements humains.The discovery of settlement structureson posts and of a pit Hallstatt D-early La Tène during a rescue archaeology operation in 1998, in Allaines Mervilliers (Eure-et-Loir). It concerned two rectangular buildings of six post holes, a rectangular building in three naves and a circular building. The latter two are new for this period in the Centre region.The rectangular building in three naves consisted of two central rows of three post holes and two lateral rows of four post holes. The central holes of post introduce a stratified fill, the upper layer of which produced the majority of the abundant finds. From the ceramic remains it was estimated that there were fifty-six individuals in different vases. The circular building consisted of a ring of nine post holes also producing a stratified fill. Fewer articles were discovered in this structure than in the previous building, but it too was notable for the presence of human ossuaries.

Diane Casadei; Richard Cottiaux; Hervé Sellès

2006-01-01

118

Bouvard et Pécuchet et le désir amoureux  

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Full Text Available L’article propose une étude de genèse du chapitre 7 de Bouvard et Pécuchet, consacré à l’amour, qui forme une étape encyclopédique a priori un peu surprenante. Flaubert s’amuse à écrire ces aventures de Bouvard et Pécuchet, dans un pays qui n’est pas si tendre. L’étude de genèse porte sur le travail de l’écriture de plusieurs temps forts du chapitre (dans l’incipit, et les scènes de duos, notamment la scène entre Mme Castillon et Gorgu). Elle permet de montrer l’effacement de détails érotiques, mais aussi du politique et de l’histoire, qui se trouvent condensés dans le texte final. Elle révèle aussi le rôle concerté de ce chapitre dans la construction du roman et l’itinéraire des personnages. Anodin en apparence, ce chapitre est emblématique d’une poétique fondée sur l’ellipse, et qui mêle le jeu et le sérieux.This article presents a textual genetics study of Bouvard et Pécuchet’s 7th chapter, about love, which appears to be a surprising encyclopedic stage of the novel. Flaubert has fun writing these adventures in a not so tender country. This genetics study focuses on the writing of several key moments of the chapter (in the beginning and the duo scenes, such as the one between Mme Castillon and Gorgu). It reveals the erasure of erotic details, as well as politics and history, which end up condensed in the final text. It also shows this chapter’s concerted role in the construction of the novel and the characters’ development. Apparently minor, this chapter is emblematic of a poetics founded on the ellipsis, mingling play and seriousness.

Anne Herschberg Pierrot

2010-01-01

119

Signal transduction in the Rhizobium meliloti dicarboxylic acid transport system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene products of the Rhizobium meliloti dctB and dctD genes, which control the expression of the C4-dicarboxylic acid transporter DctA, were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified sensor protein, DctB, was shown to have autophosphorylation activity in vitro and could subsequently phosphorylate the transcriptional activator, DctD. The presence of C4-dicarboxylic acids did not affect either reaction. In vitro experiments aimed at investigating 'crosstalk' between cognate components demonstrated that the phospho-transfer activity was specific between DctB and DctD. Studies on truncated versions of the DctB protein in vitro revealed that the cytoplasmic domain of DctB had strong autophosphorylation activity. Data from gel retardation experiments demonstrated that once the activator protein, DctD, was phosphorylated it had increased affinity for binding to the dctA promoter DNA. PMID:7896073

Giblin, L; Boesten, B; Turk, S; Hooykaas, P; O'Gara, F

1995-02-01

120

Signal transduction in the Rhizobium meliloti dicarboxylic acid transport system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The gene products of the Rhizobium meliloti dctB and dctD genes, which control the expression of the C4-dicarboxylic acid transporter DctA, were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified sensor protein, DctB, was shown to have autophosphorylation activity in vitro and could subsequently phosphorylate the transcriptional activator, DctD. The presence of C4-dicarboxylic acids did not affect either reaction. In vitro experiments aimed at investigating 'crosstalk' between cognate components demonstrated that the phospho-transfer activity was specific between DctB and DctD. Studies on truncated versions of the DctB protein in vitro revealed that the cytoplasmic domain of DctB had strong autophosphorylation activity. Data from gel retardation experiments demonstrated that once the activator protein, DctD, was phosphorylated it had increased affinity for binding to the dctA promoter DNA.

Giblin L; Boesten B; Turk S; Hooykaas P; O'Gara F

1995-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

Induced plasmid-genome rearrangements in Rhizobium japonicum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The P group resistance plasmids RP1 and RP4 were introduced into Rhizobium japonicum by polyethylene-glycol-induced transformation of spheroplasts. After cell wall regeneration, transformants were recovered by selecting for plasmid determinants. Plant nodulation, nitrogen fixation, serological, and bacterial genetics studies revealed that the transformants were derived from the parental strains and possessed the introduced plasmid genetic markers. Agarose gel electrophoresis, restriction enzyme analysis, and DNA hybridization studies showed that many of the transformant strains had undergone genome rearrangements. In the RP1 transformants, chromosomal DNA was found to have transposed into a large indigenous plasmid of R. japonicum, producing an even larger plasmid, and the introduced R plasmid DNA was found to be chromosomally integrated rather than replicating autonomously or integrated into the endogenous plasmid. Seemingly, a similar section of chromosomal DNA was involved in all the genomic rearrangements observed in the R. japonicum RP1 and RP4 transformant strains. PMID:6360996

Berry, J O; Atherly, A G

1984-01-01

122

Induced plasmid-genome rearrangements in Rhizobium japonicum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The P group resistance plasmids RP1 and RP4 were introduced into Rhizobium japonicum by polyethylene-glycol-induced transformation of spheroplasts. After cell wall regeneration, transformants were recovered by selecting for plasmid determinants. Plant nodulation, nitrogen fixation, serological, and bacterial genetics studies revealed that the transformants were derived from the parental strains and possessed the introduced plasmid genetic markers. Agarose gel electrophoresis, restriction enzyme analysis, and DNA hybridization studies showed that many of the transformant strains had undergone genome rearrangements. In the RP1 transformants, chromosomal DNA was found to have transposed into a large indigenous plasmid of R. japonicum, producing an even larger plasmid, and the introduced R plasmid DNA was found to be chromosomally integrated rather than replicating autonomously or integrated into the endogenous plasmid. Seemingly, a similar section of chromosomal DNA was involved in all the genomic rearrangements observed in the R. japonicum RP1 and RP4 transformant strains.

Berry JO; Atherly AG

1984-01-01

123

High lipid productivity of an Ankistrodesmus-Rhizobium artificial consortium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae have great potential as alternative productive platforms for sustainable production of bioenergy, food, feed and other commodities. Process optimization to realize the claimed potential often comprises strains selection and improvement and also developing of more efficient cultivation, harvesting and downstream processing technology. In this work we show that inoculation with the bacterium Rhizobium strain 10II resulted in increments of up to 30% in chlorophyll, biomass and lipids accumulation of the oleaginous microalgae Ankistrodesmus sp. strain SP2-15. Inoculated cultures have reached a high lipid productivity of up to 112mgL(-1)d(-1) after optimization. The resulting biomass presented significant levels of ?3 fatty acids including stearidonic acid, suggesting potential as an alternative land-based source of essential fatty acids. PMID:23948276

Do Nascimento, Mauro; Dublan, Maria de Los Angeles; Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Curatti, Leonardo

2013-07-26

124

High lipid productivity of an Ankistrodesmus-Rhizobium artificial consortium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microalgae have great potential as alternative productive platforms for sustainable production of bioenergy, food, feed and other commodities. Process optimization to realize the claimed potential often comprises strains selection and improvement and also developing of more efficient cultivation, harvesting and downstream processing technology. In this work we show that inoculation with the bacterium Rhizobium strain 10II resulted in increments of up to 30% in chlorophyll, biomass and lipids accumulation of the oleaginous microalgae Ankistrodesmus sp. strain SP2-15. Inoculated cultures have reached a high lipid productivity of up to 112mgL(-1)d(-1) after optimization. The resulting biomass presented significant levels of ?3 fatty acids including stearidonic acid, suggesting potential as an alternative land-based source of essential fatty acids.

Do Nascimento M; Dublan Mde L; Ortiz-Marquez JC; Curatti L

2013-10-01

125

Dechlorination of Atrazine by a Rhizobium sp. Isolate  

Science.gov (United States)

A Rhizobium sp. strain, named PATR, was isolated from an agricultural soil and found to actively degrade the herbicide atrazine. Incubation of PATR in a basal liquid medium containing 30 mg of atrazine liter(sup-1) resulted in the rapid consumption of the herbicide and the accumulation of hydroxyatrazine as the only metabolite detected after 8 days of culture. Experiments performed with ring-labeled [(sup14)C]atrazine indicated no mineralization. The enzyme responsible for the hydroxylation of atrazine was partially purified and found to consist of four 50-kDa subunits. Its synthesis in PATR was constitutive. This new atrazine hydrolase demonstrated 92% sequence identity through a 24-amino-acid fragment with atrazine chlorohydrolase AtzA produced by Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP.

Bouquard, C.; Ouazzani, J.; Prome, J.; Michel-Briand, Y.; Plesiat, P.

1997-01-01

126

Dechlorination of Atrazine by a Rhizobium sp. Isolate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Rhizobium sp. strain, named PATR, was isolated from an agricultural soil and found to actively degrade the herbicide atrazine. Incubation of PATR in a basal liquid medium containing 30 mg of atrazine liter(sup-1) resulted in the rapid consumption of the herbicide and the accumulation of hydroxyatrazine as the only metabolite detected after 8 days of culture. Experiments performed with ring-labeled [(sup14)C]atrazine indicated no mineralization. The enzyme responsible for the hydroxylation of atrazine was partially purified and found to consist of four 50-kDa subunits. Its synthesis in PATR was constitutive. This new atrazine hydrolase demonstrated 92% sequence identity through a 24-amino-acid fragment with atrazine chlorohydrolase AtzA produced by Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP.

Bouquard C; Ouazzani J; Prome J; Michel-Briand Y; Plesiat P

1997-03-01

127

Physiology of Ex Planta Nitrogenase Activity in Rhizobium japonicum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty-nine wild-type strains of Rhizobium japonicum have been studied for their ability to synthesize nitrogenase ex planta in defined liquid media under microaerobic conditions. Twenty-one produced more than trace amounts of acetylene reduction activity, but only a few of these yielded high activity. The oxygen response curves were similar for most of the nitrogenase-positive strains. The strains derepressible for activity had several phenotypic characteristics different from non-derepressible strains. These included slower growth and lower oxygen consumption under microaerobic conditions and lower extracellular polysaccharide production. Extracellular polysaccharide production during growth on gluconate in every nitrogenase-positive strain assayed was lower under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions than the non-derepressible strains. These phenotypic characteristics may be representative of a genotype of a subspecies of R. japonicum. These studies were done in part to enlarge the base number of strains available for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of nitrogen fixation.

Agarwal AK; Keister DL

1983-05-01

128

[Actinomycetes antagonistic to fungi and not affecting Rhizobium meliloti  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of 481 actinomycetes isolated from agricultural soils supporting good growth of alfalfa or clover on two efficient strains of Rhizobium meliloti A2 and S14 were studied. Strain A2 was inhibited by 28% of the isolates and strain S14 was inhibited by 31% of them. No significant difference was found between the resistance of both actinomycete strains. The effects of the 288 isolates not affecting R. meliloti on six fungi were also studied. The most sensitive fungus was Stemphylium sarcinaeforme inhibited by 20% of the isolates, while Fusarium culmorum was the most resistant fungus and was inhibited by only 6% of the isolates. Thirteen isolates inhibited four to six fungi. In an autoclaved greenhouse soil, isolate 181 which inhibited the six fungi tested significantly reduced the population of the phytopathogenic fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis and eliminated the inhibitory effect showed by this fungus on strain A2 of R. meliloti.

Antoun H; Bordeleau LM; Gagnon C; Lachance RA

1978-05-01

129

Action of metabolites of isolated plant tissues on the nitrogenase activity of Rhizobium vigna and Rhizobium meliloti.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dependence of the nitrogenase activity of Rhizobium meliloti on the strain peculiarities of the cultures, the composition of the media used, and the metabolites of legume tissue cultures was demonstrated by the acetylene method. The nitrogenase activity is significantly higher in R. vigna than in R. meliloti, under the same experimental conditions. Enrichment of the Murashige-Skoog medium with arabinose (25 mM), succinate (25 mM), glutamine (2 mM nitrogen), and yeast extract (0.1%) substantially stimulated the nitrogenase activity of a pure culture of R. vigna. The maximum nitrogenase activity on this medium was noted when metabolites of sweet clover tissue were introduced. PMID:754814

Bonartseva, G A; Shemakhanova, N M

130

Oxamate is an alternative substrate for pyruvate carboxylase from Rhizobium etli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oxamate, an isosteric and isoelectronic inhibitory analogue of pyruvate, enhances the rate of enzymatic decarboxylation of oxaloacetate in the carboxyl transferase domain of pyruvate carboxylase (PC). It is unclear, though, how oxamate exerts a stimulatory effect on the enzymatic reaction. Herein, we report direct (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) evidence that oxamate acts as a carboxyl acceptor, forming a carbamylated oxamate product and thereby accelerating the enzymatic decarboxylation reaction. (13)C NMR was used to monitor the PC-catalyzed formation of [4-(13)C]oxaloacetate and subsequent transfer of (13)CO(2) from oxaloacetate to oxamate. In the presence of oxamate, the apparent K(m) for oxaloacetate is artificially suppressed (from 15 to 4-5 ?M). Interestingly, the steady-state kinetic analysis of the initial rates determined at varying concentrations of oxaloacetate and fixed concentrations of oxamate revealed initial velocity patterns inconsistent with a simple ping-pong-type mechanism. Rather, the patterns suggest the existence of an alternate decarboxylation pathway in which an unstable intermediate is formed. The steady-state kinetic analysis coupled with the normal (13)(V/K) kinetic isotope effect observed on C-4 of oxaloacetate [(13)(V/K) = 1.0117 ± 0.0005] indicates that the transfer of CO(2) from carboxybiotin to oxamate is the partially rate-limiting step of the enzymatic reaction. The catalytic mechanism proposed for the carboxylation of oxamate is similar to that proposed for the carboxylation of pyruvate, which occurs via the formation of an enol intermediate.

Marlier JF; Cleland WW; Zeczycki TN

2013-04-01

131

Oxamate is an alternative substrate for pyruvate carboxylase from Rhizobium etli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxamate, an isosteric and isoelectronic inhibitory analogue of pyruvate, enhances the rate of enzymatic decarboxylation of oxaloacetate in the carboxyl transferase domain of pyruvate carboxylase (PC). It is unclear, though, how oxamate exerts a stimulatory effect on the enzymatic reaction. Herein, we report direct (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) evidence that oxamate acts as a carboxyl acceptor, forming a carbamylated oxamate product and thereby accelerating the enzymatic decarboxylation reaction. (13)C NMR was used to monitor the PC-catalyzed formation of [4-(13)C]oxaloacetate and subsequent transfer of (13)CO(2) from oxaloacetate to oxamate. In the presence of oxamate, the apparent K(m) for oxaloacetate is artificially suppressed (from 15 to 4-5 ?M). Interestingly, the steady-state kinetic analysis of the initial rates determined at varying concentrations of oxaloacetate and fixed concentrations of oxamate revealed initial velocity patterns inconsistent with a simple ping-pong-type mechanism. Rather, the patterns suggest the existence of an alternate decarboxylation pathway in which an unstable intermediate is formed. The steady-state kinetic analysis coupled with the normal (13)(V/K) kinetic isotope effect observed on C-4 of oxaloacetate [(13)(V/K) = 1.0117 ± 0.0005] indicates that the transfer of CO(2) from carboxybiotin to oxamate is the partially rate-limiting step of the enzymatic reaction. The catalytic mechanism proposed for the carboxylation of oxamate is similar to that proposed for the carboxylation of pyruvate, which occurs via the formation of an enol intermediate. PMID:23560609

Marlier, John F; Cleland, W W; Zeczycki, Tonya N

2013-04-18

132

Analysis of the proteome of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots after inoculation with Rhizobium etli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proteomics techniques were used to identify the underlying mechanism of the early stage of symbiosis between the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and bacteria. Proteins from roots of common beans inoculated with bacteria were separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified using mass spectrometry. From 483 protein spots, 29 plant and 3 bacterial proteins involved in the early stage of symbiosis were identified. Of the 29 plant proteins, the expression of 19 was upregulated and the expression of 10 was downregulated. Upregulated proteins included those involved in protein destination/storage, energy production, and protein synthesis; whereas the downregulated proteins included those involved in metabolism. Many upregulated proteins involved in protein destination/storage were chaperonins and proteasome subunits. These results suggest that defense mechanisms associated with induction of chaperonins and protein degradation regulated by proteasomes occur during the early stage of symbiosis between the common bean and bacteria.

Salavati A; Taleei A; Bushehri AA; Komatsu S

2012-08-01

133

Analysis of the proteome of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots after inoculation with Rhizobium etli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteomics techniques were used to identify the underlying mechanism of the early stage of symbiosis between the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and bacteria. Proteins from roots of common beans inoculated with bacteria were separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified using mass spectrometry. From 483 protein spots, 29 plant and 3 bacterial proteins involved in the early stage of symbiosis were identified. Of the 29 plant proteins, the expression of 19 was upregulated and the expression of 10 was downregulated. Upregulated proteins included those involved in protein destination/storage, energy production, and protein synthesis; whereas the downregulated proteins included those involved in metabolism. Many upregulated proteins involved in protein destination/storage were chaperonins and proteasome subunits. These results suggest that defense mechanisms associated with induction of chaperonins and protein degradation regulated by proteasomes occur during the early stage of symbiosis between the common bean and bacteria. PMID:22762188

Salavati, Afshin; Taleei, Alireza; Bushehri, Ali Akbar Shahnejat; Komatsu, Setsuko

2012-08-01

134

Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov., from nodules of Dalea leporina, Leucaena leucocephala and Clitoria ternatea, and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, siratro, cowpea and Mimosa pudica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two novel related Rhizobium species, Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., were identified by a polyphasic approach using DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization including nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris (bean). As similar bacteria were found in the Los Tuxtlas rainforest in Mexico and in Central America, we suggest the existence of a Mesoamerican microbiological corridor. The type strain of Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. is CCGE 502(T) (= ATCC BAA-2124(T) = CFN 242(T) = Dal4(T) = HAMBI 3152(T)) and that of Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov. is CCGE 501(T) (= ATCC BAA-2123(T) = HAMBI 3151(T) = CIP 110148(T) = 1847(T)).

López-López A; Rogel-Hernández MA; Barois I; Ortiz Ceballos AI; Martínez J; Ormeño-Orrillo E; Martínez-Romero E

2012-09-01

135

Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov., from nodules of Dalea leporina, Leucaena leucocephala and Clitoria ternatea, and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, siratro, cowpea and Mimosa pudica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two novel related Rhizobium species, Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., were identified by a polyphasic approach using DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization including nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris (bean). As similar bacteria were found in the Los Tuxtlas rainforest in Mexico and in Central America, we suggest the existence of a Mesoamerican microbiological corridor. The type strain of Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. is CCGE 502(T) (= ATCC BAA-2124(T) = CFN 242(T) = Dal4(T) = HAMBI 3152(T)) and that of Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov. is CCGE 501(T) (= ATCC BAA-2123(T) = HAMBI 3151(T) = CIP 110148(T) = 1847(T)). PMID:22081714

López-López, Aline; Rogel-Hernández, Marco A; Barois, Isabelle; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I; Martínez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

2011-11-11

136

Genome sequence of Rhizobium grahamii CCGE502, a broad-host-range symbiont with low nodulation competitiveness in Phaseolus vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we present the genome sequence of Rhizobium grahamii CCGE502. R. grahamii groups with other newly described broad-host-range species, which are not very efficient Phaseolus vulgaris symbionts, with a wide geographic distribution and which constitutes a novel Rhizobium clade. PMID:23144400

Althabegoiti, M Julia; Lozano, Luis; Torres-Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco A; González, Víctor; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

2012-12-01

137

Identification and Characterization of the Rhizobium sp. Strain GIN611 Glycoside Oxidoreductase Resulting in the Deglycosylation of Ginsenosides  

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Using enrichment culture, Rhizobium sp. strain GIN611 was isolated as having activity for deglycosylation of a ginsenoside, compound K (CK). The purified heterodimeric protein complex from Rhizobium sp. GIN611 consisted of two subunits with molecular masses of 63.5 kDa and 17.5 kDa. In the genome, t...

Kim, Eun-Mi; Kim, Juhan; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Park, Jun-Seong; Kim, Duck-Hee; Kim, Byung-Gee

138

Rhizobium tarimense sp. nov., isolated from soil in the ancient Khiyik River.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Gram-negative, non-motile, pale-yellow, rod-shaped bacterial strain, PL-41(T), was isolated from Populus euphratica forest soil at the ancient Khiyik River valley in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. Strain PL-41(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0-8.0. The major quinone was Q-10. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain PL-41(T) were summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1?7c and C18 : 1?6c), C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo ?8c. Polar lipids of strain PL-41(T) include two unidentified aminophospholipids (APL1, 2), two unidentified phospholipids (PL1, 2), phosphatidylcholine and three unidentified lipids (L1-3). Strain PL-41(T) showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.0-97.5 % to the type strains of recognized species of the genus Rhizobium. Phylogenetic analysis of strain PL-41(T) based on the sequences of housekeeping genes recA and atpD confirmed (similarities are less than 90 %) its position as a distinct species of the genus Rhizobium. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain PL-41(T) and the type strains of Rhizobium huautlense S02(T), Rhizobium alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T), Rhizobium vignae CCBAU 05176(T) and Rhizobium loessense CCBAU 7190B(T) were 33.4, 22.6, 25.5 and 45.1 %, respectively, indicating that strain PL-41(T) was distinct from them genetically. Strain PL-41(T) also can be differentiated from these four phylogenetically related species of the genus Rhizobium by various phenotypic properties. On the basis of phenotypic properties, phylogenetic distinctiveness and genetic data, strain PL-41(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium tarimense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PL-41(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2011011(T) =?NRRL B-59556(T)). PMID:23203621

Turdahon, Maripat; Osman, Ghenijan; Hamdun, Maryam; Yusuf, Khayir; Abdurehim, Zumret; Abaydulla, Gulsumay; Abdukerim, Muhtar; Fang, Chengxiang; Rahman, Erkin

2012-11-30

139

Rhizobium kunmingense sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of Camptotheca acuminata Decne.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Strain LXD30(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil of a plant of the species Camptotheca acuminata Decne which is native to warm, humid stream banks in southern China. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium fell within the realm of the genus Rhizobium and was most closely related to Rhizobium huautlense SO2(T) (96.4% sequence similarity) and Rhizobium cellulosilyticum LMG 23642(T) (96.4%). The isolate grew optimally at pH7.0 and 25-28 degrees C in the presence of 0-1% (w/v) NaCl. Major fatty acids were C16:0 (17.5%) and summed feature 7 (C18:1omega7c/omega9t/omega12t, 58.3%). Unequivocally low 16S rRNA (<97%), recA (<92%) and atpD (<90%) gene sequence similarities to all existing species of the genus and phenotypic characteristics all suggested that strain LXD30(T) (=KCTC 22609(T)=CGMCC 1.8903(T)) represents a novel Rhizobium species, for which the name Rhizobium kunmingense sp. nov. is proposed.

Shen L; Zheng LP; Liu H; Liu R; Zhang KY; Lai R

2010-04-01

140

Rhizobium kunmingense sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of Camptotheca acuminata Decne.  

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Strain LXD30(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil of a plant of the species Camptotheca acuminata Decne which is native to warm, humid stream banks in southern China. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium fell within the realm of the genus Rhizobium and was most closely related to Rhizobium huautlense SO2(T) (96.4% sequence similarity) and Rhizobium cellulosilyticum LMG 23642(T) (96.4%). The isolate grew optimally at pH7.0 and 25-28 degrees C in the presence of 0-1% (w/v) NaCl. Major fatty acids were C16:0 (17.5%) and summed feature 7 (C18:1omega7c/omega9t/omega12t, 58.3%). Unequivocally low 16S rRNA (<97%), recA (<92%) and atpD (<90%) gene sequence similarities to all existing species of the genus and phenotypic characteristics all suggested that strain LXD30(T) (=KCTC 22609(T)=CGMCC 1.8903(T)) represents a novel Rhizobium species, for which the name Rhizobium kunmingense sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:20513962

Shen, Lei; Zheng, Long-Peng; Liu, Huan; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Ke-Yun; Lai, Ren

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Host specificity and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium strains nodulating Leucaena, Acacia, and Sesbania in Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phenotypic diversity was studied among 13 Rhizobium strains selected from a total of 160 Rhizobium isolates from root nodules of Leucaena leucocephala. Two strains from Acacia saligna and two strains from Sesbania sesban plants were included in the examination for host range in the greenhouse. The Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena) strains were different from the reference strains and fell into three distinct groups for the utilization of 95 different carbon sources. Four of the best symbionts constituted a group, the majority of the strains fell into a second group, and strain DS 91 was the only member of the third group. Strains were effective symbionts for their original hosts. Nine strains were tolerant to elevated temperature (>42 degrees C), and three strains were resistant to high salinity (>3% NaCl). All Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena) strains effectively nodulated L. leucocephala and L. culensii, but nitrogen fixation was greater with L. leucocephala than with L. culensii. These strains failed to form effective symbioses with two other species of Leucaena (L. retusa and L. diversifolia or with alfalfa, Medicago sativa. Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena) strains DS 65, DS 78, and DS 158 nodulated and efficiently fixed nitrogen with Phaseolus vulgaris, with DS 65 showing the highest symbiotic capability. Strain DS 65 also nodulated and fixed nitrogen with Glycine max and Vigna sinensis. Nodulation of Leucaena by two Bradyrhizobium sp. (Acacia) strains was sparse. Strain DS 101 from Sesbania formed nodules on Leucaena, whereas the other strain from Sesbania, DS 110, tailed to nodulate this genus.

Swelim DM; Hashem FM; Kuykendall LD; Hegazi NI; Abdel-Wahab SM

1997-01-01

142

The isolation, enumeration, and characterization of Rhizobium bacteria of the soil in Wamena Biological Garden  

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Full Text Available The eleven soil samples have been isolated and characterized. The aims of the study were to get the pure culture and some data which described about enumeration and especially their characters in relation to the acids and bases reaction in their growth. The isolation of the bacteria use Yeast Extract Mannitol Agar medium (YEMA) while the characterization by using YEMA medium mixed with Brom Thymol Blue and Congo Red indicators respectively. The results showed that eighteen isolates have been isolated which consisted of three low growing and fifteen fast growing bacteria. Two isolates were not indicated Rhizobium and sixteen were Rhizobium. Density of Rhizobium enumeration was varied which related to soil organic matter content. The enumeration bacteria in YEMA medium were in the range of 0.6 x 105 and 11.6 x 105 CFU /g soil. The highest population was found in soil sample of Wieb vegetation.

SRI PURWANINGSIH

2005-01-01

143

Rhizobium nepotum sp. nov. isolated from tumors on different plant species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from galls on different plant species in Hungary: strain 39/7(T) from Prunus cerasifera Myrobalan, strain 0 from grapevine var. Ezerjó, strain 7/1 from raspberry var. Findus and in Poland, strain C3.4.1 from Colt rootstock (Prunus avium × Prunus pseudocerasus) and strain CP17.2.2 from Prunus avium. Only one of these isolates, strain 0, is able to cause crown gall on different plant species. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strains cluster together and belong to the genus Rhizobium and their closest relative is Rhizobium radiobacter (99.1%). Phylogenetic analysis of the novel strains using housekeeping genes atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB revealed their distinct position separate from other known Rhizobium species and confirmed their relation to Rhizobium radiobacter. The major cellular fatty acids are 18:1 w7c, 16:0, 16:0 3OH, summed feature 2 (comprising 12:0 aldehyde, 16:1 iso I and/or 14:0 3OH) and summed feature 3 (comprising 16:1 w7c and/or 15 iso 2OH). DNA-DNA hybridization of strain 39/7(T) with the type strain of R. radiobacter LMG 140(T) revealed 45% DNA-DNA hybridization. Phenotypic and physiological properties differentiate the novel isolates from other closely related species. On the basis of the results obtained, the five isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium nepotum sp. nov. (type strain 39/7(T)=LMG 26435(T)=CFBP 7436(T)) is proposed.

Pu?awska J; Willems A; De Meyer SE; Süle S

2012-06-01

144

Modular structure of the Rhizobium meliloti DctB protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the modular structure of the Rhizobium meliloti dicarboxylic acid sensor protein, DctB, three truncated DctB proteins (DctB4, DctB5 and DctB4G) were constructed, overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. The DctB4G protein was composed of 446 amino acids of the DctB C-terminus and displayed strong autophosphorylation activity in vitro. This activity was sustained when a further 120 amino acids at the N-terminus of the polypeptide were deleted (DctB5). This protein which has an intact transmitter domain exhibits specific but inefficient phospho-transfer capabilities. Removal of 58 amino acids from the DctB4G C-terminus which included blocks F and G2 of the transmitter domain, rendered the resultant protein (DctB4) incompetent in autophosphorylation. Phosphorylation activity was restored to DctB4 through intramolecular complementation with DctB. Therefore, it would appear that the R. meliloti DctB protein is active as a dimer (or higher order oligomer). Furthermore, the intramolecular complementation experiments indicate that the amino acids 171-291, a predicted periplasmic stretch, play an important role in the dimerization process. PMID:8647370

Giblin, L; Archdeacon, J; O'Gara, F

1996-05-15

145

Modular structure of the Rhizobium meliloti DctB protein.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the modular structure of the Rhizobium meliloti dicarboxylic acid sensor protein, DctB, three truncated DctB proteins (DctB4, DctB5 and DctB4G) were constructed, overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. The DctB4G protein was composed of 446 amino acids of the DctB C-terminus and displayed strong autophosphorylation activity in vitro. This activity was sustained when a further 120 amino acids at the N-terminus of the polypeptide were deleted (DctB5). This protein which has an intact transmitter domain exhibits specific but inefficient phospho-transfer capabilities. Removal of 58 amino acids from the DctB4G C-terminus which included blocks F and G2 of the transmitter domain, rendered the resultant protein (DctB4) incompetent in autophosphorylation. Phosphorylation activity was restored to DctB4 through intramolecular complementation with DctB. Therefore, it would appear that the R. meliloti DctB protein is active as a dimer (or higher order oligomer). Furthermore, the intramolecular complementation experiments indicate that the amino acids 171-291, a predicted periplasmic stretch, play an important role in the dimerization process.

Giblin L; Archdeacon J; O'Gara F

1996-05-01

146

Physiology of Ex Planta Nitrogenase Activity in Rhizobium japonicum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-nine wild-type strains of Rhizobium japonicum have been studied for their ability to synthesize nitrogenase ex planta in defined liquid media under microaerobic conditions. Twenty-one produced more than trace amounts of acetylene reduction activity, but only a few of these yielded high activity. The oxygen response curves were similar for most of the nitrogenase-positive strains. The strains derepressible for activity had several phenotypic characteristics different from non-derepressible strains. These included slower growth and lower oxygen consumption under microaerobic conditions and lower extracellular polysaccharide production. Extracellular polysaccharide production during growth on gluconate in every nitrogenase-positive strain assayed was lower under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions than the non-derepressible strains. These phenotypic characteristics may be representative of a genotype of a subspecies of R. japonicum. These studies were done in part to enlarge the base number of strains available for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of nitrogen fixation. PMID:16346295

Agarwal, A K; Keister, D L

1983-05-01

147

Physiology of ex planta nitrogenase activity in Rhizobium japonicum  

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Thirty-nine wild-type strains of Rhizobium japonicum have been studied for their ability to synthesize nitrogenase ex planta in defined liquid media under microaerobic conditions. Twenty-one produced more than trace amounts of acetylene reduction activity, but only a few of these yielded high activity. The oxygen response curves were similar for most of the nitrogenase-positive strains. The strains derepressible for activity had several phenotypic characteristics different from non-derepressible strains. These included slower growth and lower oxygen consumption under microaerobic conditions and lower extracellular polysaccharide production. Extracellular polysaccharide production during growth on gluconate in every nitrogenase-positive strain assayed was lower under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions than the non-depressible strains. These phenotypic characteristics may be representative of a genotype of a subspecies of R. japonicum. These studies were done in part to enlarge the base number of strains available for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of nitrogen fixation. (35 Refs.)

Agarwal, A.K.; Keister, D.L.

1983-05-01

148

Studies on mutation and repair in Rhizobium japonicum  

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[en] In the presence of NTG, Rhizobium japonicum loses viability very rapidly. 50% survival is achieved within 4 mins using 50 ?gm/ml. When a constant time of 30 min is maintained then a concentration of 18 ?gm/ml gives 50% survival. The low doses of NTG did not yield any auxotrophs. The antibiotics like penicillion, ampicillin and streptopenicillin were used as agents for enrichment of mutants, ampicillin was quite effective. A fairly efficient mechanism for repair from U.V. damage appears to exist. A greater part of this repair is due to the prevalence of dark repair mechanism. Mutants with increased sensitivity to U.V. repair failed to transform normally suggesting that the two processes of U.V. repair and genetic recombination may be related. The levels of deoxyribonucleases increased at the competent state. The activity at pH 7.5 and 8.4 but not at 5.5 was greater towards irradiated DNA, a prerequisite for any enzyme involved in U.V. repair. (author)

1975-12-06

149

Low temperature impact on protein content and peroxidase activity during pea inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum  

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Full Text Available The study was focused on changes in protein content and peroxidase activity in pea roots subjected to infection with Rhizobium leguminosarum and to low temperature. The amount of protein and peroxidase activity were shown to change in the course of interaction with nodular bacteria and to depend on the temperature and root zones susceptibility to rhizobia. It was concluded that changes in the content of soluble protein and peroxidase activity witness adaptation changes in pea seedlings, hich facilitate normal course of metabolic processes and ensure regulation of plant interaction with Rhizobium in hypothermal conditions.

Akimova G.P.; Sokolova M.G.

2010-01-01

150

Rhizobium multihospitium sp. nov., isolated from multiple legume species native of Xinjiang, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-one rhizobial strains isolated from nodules of legumes native of Xinjiang, China, were characterized. These strains were classified as belonging to the genus Rhizobium based on amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The strains were distinguished from recognized Rhizobium species using analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacers (IGS-RFLP), SDS-PAGE analysis of whole proteins and BOX-PCR; the test strains always formed a distinct cluster with patterns that were quite different from those of the reference rhizobial strains used. According to the phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, the test strains belonged to the genus Rhizobium, with Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium rhizogenes and Rhizobium lusitanum as the closest related species, with 99.6, 99.2 and 99.4 % sequence similarities, respectively, between the type strains of the three Rhizobium species and strain CCBAU 83401(T). Phylogenetic analyses of the representative strains using IGS and atpD, recA and glnII genes all confirmed the phylogenetic arrangements obtained using the 16S rRNA gene. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain CCBAU 83401(T) and strains CCBAU 83364, CCBAU 83345 and CCBAU 83523 ranged from 80.8 to 100 %, showing that they belong to the same species. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CCBAU 83401(T) and R. tropici IIB CIAT 899(T), R. tropici IIA CFN 299, R. rhizogenes LMG 150(T) and R. lusitanum P1-7(T) were 26.9, 27.7, 38.2 and 22.6 %, respectively, clearly indicating that strain CCBAU 83401(T) represents a novel species. Phenotypic characterization of four representative strains, CCBAU 83401(T), CCBAU 83364, CCBAU 83345 and CCBAU 83523, showed several distinctive features that differentiated them from closely related species. The 31 strains had identical nodD and nifH genes, which were very similar to those of the bean-nodulating R. lusitanum, Devosia neptuniae and R. tropici IIB. Based upon these results, the strains from this study are considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Rhizobium multihospitium sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G+C content ranged from 65.3 to 66.0 mol% (T(m)). The type strain is CCBAU 83401(T) (=LMG 23946(T)=HAMBI 2975(T)), which nodulates Robinia pseudoacacia, but not Leucaena leucocephala, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum or Medicago sativa. PMID:18599718

Han, Tian Xu; Wang, En Tao; Wu, Li Juan; Chen, Wen Feng; Gu, Jin Gang; Gu, Chun Tao; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Xin

2008-07-01

151

Genetic characterization and nitrogen fixation capacity of Rhizobium strains on common bean Caracterização genética e capacidade de fixação de nitrogênio de estirpes de Rhizobium em feijoeiro  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to genetically characterize four new Rhizobium strains, and to evaluate their nodulation and fixation capacity compared to commercial strains and to native rhizobia population of a Brazilian Rhodic Hapludox. Two experiments were carried out in randomized blocks design, under greenhouse conditions, in 2007. In the first experiment, the nodulation and nitrogen fixation capacity of new strains were evaluated, in comparison to the commercial strains CIAT-899 and PRF-81 and to native soil population. It was carried out in plastic tubes filled with vermiculite. DNA extractions and PCR sequencing of the intergenic space were made from the isolated pure colonies, in order to genetically characterize the strains and the native rhizobia population. In the second experiment, the nodulation and productivity of common beans Perola cultivar were determined, with the use of evaluated strains, alone or in mixture with PRF-81 strain. It was carried out in pots filled with soil. The native soil population was identified as Rhizobium sp. and was inefficient in nitrogen fixation. Three different Rhizobium species were found among the four new strains. The LBMP-4BR and LBMP-12BR new strains are among the ones with greatest nodulation and fixation capacity and exhibit differential responses when mixed to PRF-81.O objetivo deste trabalho foi a caracterização genética de quatro novas estirpes de Rhizobium e a avaliação de sua capacidade de fixação de N2 e nodulação, comparadas a estirpes comerciais e à população nativa de rizóbios de um Latossolo Vermelho. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em blocos ao acaso, em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, conduzido em tubetes com vermiculita, avaliaram-se a nodulação e a capacidade de fixação das novas estirpes, em comparação com as estirpes comerciais CIAT-899 e PRF-81 e com a população nativa do solo. Das colônias puras isoladas, extraiu-se o DNA genômico e realizou-se o seqüenciamento do espaço intergênico, para a caracterização genética das estirpes e da população nativa de rizóbios. O segundo experimento foi realizado em vasos com solo, para determinação da produtividade e da nodulação do feijoeiro, cultivar Pérola, com o uso das estirpes isoladamente ou em mistura com a PRF-81. A população nativa do solo foi identificada como Rhizobium sp. e se mostrou ineficiente na fixação de nitrogênio. Foram encontradas três espécies de Rhizobium entre as quatro novas estirpes. As estirpes LBMP-4BR e LBMP-12BR estão entre as que têm maior capacidade de nodulação e fixação de N2, e apresentam respostas diferenciadas quando misturadas à PRF-81.

Tehuni Orlando González; João Carlos Campanharo; Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo Lemos

2008-01-01

152

Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium leguminosarum dctD gene products bind to tandem sites in an activation sequence located upstream of sigma 54-dependent dctA promoters.  

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Free-living rhizobia transport external C4-dicarboxylates to use as sole carbon sources, and uptake of these compounds is essential for nitrogen fixation by rhizobial bacteroids. In both Rhizobium leguminosarum and Rhizobium meliloti, the genes dctB and dctD are believed to form an ntrB/ntrC-like two-component system which regulates the synthesis of a C4-dicarboxylate transport protein encoded by dctA. Here we confirm the identity of sigma 54-dependent promoters previously hypothesized for the R. leguminosarum and R. meliloti dctA genes and demonstrate that repeated, partial dyad symmetry elements located about 75 base pairs upstream of each promoter are essential for fully regulated transcription. Furthermore, we show that both repeats bound dctD protein and that together they resulted in succinate-sensitive transcription when placed upstream of another sigma 54 consensus promoter, that of R. meliloti nifH. PMID:2193923

Ledebur, H; Gu, B; Sojda, J; Nixon, B T

1990-07-01

153

Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium leguminosarum dctD gene products bind to tandem sites in an activation sequence located upstream of sigma 54-dependent dctA promoters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Free-living rhizobia transport external C4-dicarboxylates to use as sole carbon sources, and uptake of these compounds is essential for nitrogen fixation by rhizobial bacteroids. In both Rhizobium leguminosarum and Rhizobium meliloti, the genes dctB and dctD are believed to form an ntrB/ntrC-like two-component system which regulates the synthesis of a C4-dicarboxylate transport protein encoded by dctA. Here we confirm the identity of sigma 54-dependent promoters previously hypothesized for the R. leguminosarum and R. meliloti dctA genes and demonstrate that repeated, partial dyad symmetry elements located about 75 base pairs upstream of each promoter are essential for fully regulated transcription. Furthermore, we show that both repeats bound dctD protein and that together they resulted in succinate-sensitive transcription when placed upstream of another sigma 54 consensus promoter, that of R. meliloti nifH.

Ledebur H; Gu B; Sojda J 3rd; Nixon BT

1990-07-01

154

Analysis of C4-dicarboxylate transport genes in Rhizobium meliloti.  

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A 5.1 kbp DNA fragment was isolated which complemented C4-dicarboxylate transport mutants (dct) of Rhizobium meliloti. Characterization of this fragment by subcloning, transposon mutagenesis, and complementation analysis revealed three loci, designated dctA, dctB, and dctD. TnphoA-generated alkaline phosphatase fusions to dctA suggested that this gene encodes the structural transport protein and allowed the determination of its direction of transcription. Analysis of the fusions in various mutant backgrounds demonstrated that dctB, dctD, and ntrA products are required for dctA expression. The dctA fusion was constitutively expressed in a dctA mutant background, but was not expressed in dctA dctB or dctA dctD double mutants. This suggests that the constitutive expression in a dctA mutant background is mediated through dctB and dctD. Three independent second-site Dct+ revertant mutations in ntrA mutant strains mapped to the dct locus. Succinate transport in these revertant strains was constitutive, whereas in the wild type, succinate transport was inducible. These results are consistent with the direct requirement of the ntrA gene product for dctA expression. Alfalfa plants inoculated with the dctB and dctD mutants showed reduced nitrogen-fixing activity. Nodules induced by dctA mutants failed to fix nitrogen. These symbiotic phenotypes are consistent with previous suggestions that dctA expression in bacteroids can occur independently of dctB and dctD. PMID:2546011

Yarosh, O K; Charles, T C; Finan, T M

1989-06-01

155

Analysis of C4-dicarboxylate transport genes in Rhizobium meliloti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 5.1 kbp DNA fragment was isolated which complemented C4-dicarboxylate transport mutants (dct) of Rhizobium meliloti. Characterization of this fragment by subcloning, transposon mutagenesis, and complementation analysis revealed three loci, designated dctA, dctB, and dctD. TnphoA-generated alkaline phosphatase fusions to dctA suggested that this gene encodes the structural transport protein and allowed the determination of its direction of transcription. Analysis of the fusions in various mutant backgrounds demonstrated that dctB, dctD, and ntrA products are required for dctA expression. The dctA fusion was constitutively expressed in a dctA mutant background, but was not expressed in dctA dctB or dctA dctD double mutants. This suggests that the constitutive expression in a dctA mutant background is mediated through dctB and dctD. Three independent second-site Dct+ revertant mutations in ntrA mutant strains mapped to the dct locus. Succinate transport in these revertant strains was constitutive, whereas in the wild type, succinate transport was inducible. These results are consistent with the direct requirement of the ntrA gene product for dctA expression. Alfalfa plants inoculated with the dctB and dctD mutants showed reduced nitrogen-fixing activity. Nodules induced by dctA mutants failed to fix nitrogen. These symbiotic phenotypes are consistent with previous suggestions that dctA expression in bacteroids can occur independently of dctB and dctD.

Yarosh OK; Charles TC; Finan TM

1989-06-01

156

Mutational analysis of the Rhizobium meliloti nifA promoter.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nifA gene of Rhizobium meliloti, the bacterial endosymbiont of alfalfa, is a regulatory nitrogen fixation gene required for the induction of several key nif and fix genes. Transcription of nifA is strongly induced in planta and under microaerobic conditions ex planta. Induction of nifA, in turn, is positively controlled by the fixL and fixJ genes of R. meliloti, the sensor and regulator, respectively, of a two-component system responsible for oxygen sensing by this bacterium. This system is also responsible for the positive induction of fixK. Here, we report that chemical and oligonucleotide site-directed mutageneses of the nifA promoter (nifAp) were conducted to identify nucleotides essential for induction. Nineteen mutants, including 14 single-point mutants, were analyzed for microaerobic induction of nifAp in R. meliloti. Critical residues were identified in an upstream region between base pairs -54 and -39 relative to the transcription start site. Attempts at separating the upstream and downstream regions of the nifA promoter so as to maintain fixJ-dependent activity were unsuccessful. A 5' deletion of the fixK promoter (fixKp) to -67 indicates that sequences upstream of this position are not required for microaerobic induction. A sequence comparison of the -54 to -39 region of nifAp with the upstream sequences of fixKp does not reveal a block of identical nucleotides that could account for the fixJ-dependent microaerobic induction of both promoters. Many of the defective nifAp mutants in this region, however, are in residues with identity to fixKp in an alignment of the promoters according to their transcription start sites. Therefore, it is possible that there is a common sequence motif in the -54 to -39 region of the two promoters that is required for fixLJ-dependent microaerobic induction.

Agron PG; Ditta GS; Helinski DR

1992-06-01

157

Sodium stimulation of uptake hydrogenase activity in symbiotic Rhizobium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Initial observations showed a 100% increase in H(2)-uptake (Hup) activity of Rhizobium leguminosarum strain 3855 in pea root nodules (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) on plants growing in a baked clay substrate relative to those growing in vermiculite, and an investigation of nutrient factors responsible for the phenomenon was initiated. Significantly greater Hup activity was first measured in the clay-grown plants 24 days after germination, and higher activity was maintained relative to the vermiculite treatment until experiments were terminated at day 32. The increase in Hup activity was associated with a decrease in H(2) evolution for plants with comparable rates of acetylene reduction. Analyses of the clay showed that it contained more Na(+) (29 versus 9 milligrams per kilogram) and less K(+) (6 versus 74 milligrams per kilogram) than the vermiculite. Analyses of plants, however, showed a large increase in Na(+) concentration of clay-grown plants with a much smaller reduction in K(+) concentration. In tests with the same organisms in a hydroponic system with controlled pH, 40 millimolar NaCl increased Hup activity more than 100% over plants grown in solutions lacking NaCl. Plants with increased Hup activity, however, did not have greater net carbon or total nitrogen assimilation. KCl treatments from 5 to 80 millimolar produced slight increased in Hup activity at 10 millimolar KCl, and tests with other salts in the hydroponic system indicated that only Na(+) strongly promoted Hup activity. Treating vermiculite with 50 millimolar NaCl increased Na(+) concentration in pea plant tissue and greatly promoted Hup activity of root nodules in a manner analogous to the original observation with the clay rooting medium. A wider generality of the phenomenon was suggested by demonstrating that exogenous Na(+) increased Hup activity of other R. leguminosarum strains and promoted Hup activity of R. meliloti strain B300 in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

Kapulnik Y; Phillips DA

1986-10-01

158

Modulating DNA bending affects NodD-mediated transcriptional control in Rhizobium leguminosarum  

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Rhizobium leguminosarum NodD binds to the nod box of the inducible nod gene nodA as a V-shaped tetramer and bends the nod box. In this work, we show that the nod gene inducer naringenin decreased gel mobility of nod box DNA–NodD complexes by sharpening the NodD-induced DNA bend, which correlated wit...

Chen, Xiao-Chun; Feng, Jie; Hou, Bi-He; Li, Feng-Qing; Li, Qiang; Hong, Guo-Fan

159

Intra- and interspecies transfer and expression of Rhizobium japonicum hydrogen uptake genes and autotrophic growth capability  

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Cosmids containing hydrogen uptake genes have previously been isolated in this laboratory. Four new cosmids that contain additional hup gene(s) have now been identified by conjugal transfer of a Rhizobium japonicum 122DES gene bank into a Tn5-generated Hup- mutant and screening for the acquisition o...

Lambert, Grant R.; Cantrell, Michael A.; Hanus, F. Joe; Russell, Sterling A.; Haddad, Karen R.; Evans, Harold J.

160

Purification and Characterization of an ?-Glucosidase from Rhizobium sp. (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) Strain USDA 4280  

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A novel ?-glucosidase with an apparent subunit mass of 59 ± 0.5 kDa was purified from protein extracts of Rhizobium sp. strain USDA 4280, a nodulating strain of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L), and characterized. After purification to homogeneity (475-fold; yield, 18%) by ammonium sulfate prec...

Berthelot, Karine; Delmotte, Francis M.

 
 
 
 
161

Coexistence of Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium sp. Nodule Bacteria on two Mimosa spp. in Costa Rica  

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rRNA gene sequencing and PCR assays indicated that 215 isolates of root nodule bacteria from two Mimosa species at three sites in Costa Rica belonged to the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium. This is the first report of Cupriavidus sp. nodule symbionts for Mimosa populations within the...

Barrett, Craig F.; Parker, Matthew A.

162

Genome Sequence of Rhizobium lupini HPC(L) Isolated from Saline Desert Soil, Kutch (Gujarat).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Rhizobium lupini strain HPC(L) was isolated from saline desert soil. It grows on minimal media supplemented with CaCO(3) as a carbon source. It can also grow under both oligotrophic and heteroptrophic conditions. We report the annotated genome sequence of this strain in a 5.27-Mb scaffold.

Agarwal L; Purohit HJ

2013-01-01

163

Characterization of the anomalous infection and nodulation of subterranean clover roots by Rhizobium leguminosarum 1020.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anomalous nodulation of Trifolium subterraneum (subterranean clover) roots by Rhizobium leguminosarum 1020 was examined as a model of modified host-specificity in a Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Consistent with previous reports, these nodules (i) appeared most often at sites of secondary root emergence, (ii) were ineffective in nitrogen fixation and (iii) were as numerous as nodules formed by an effective Rhizobium trifolii strain. R. leguminosarum 1020, grown on agar plates or in the clover root environment, did not bind the white clover lectin, trifoliin A. This strain did not attach in high numbers, and did not induce shepherd's crooks or infection threads, in subterranean clover root hairs. However, R. leguminosarum 1020 did cause branching, moderate curling and other deformations of root hairs. The bacteria probably entered the clover root through breaks in the epidermis at sites of lateral root emergence. The anomalous nodulation was inhibited by nitrate. Only trace amounts of leghaemoglobin were detected in the nodules by Western blot analysis. The nodules were of the meristematic type and initially contained well-developed infection, bacteroid and senescent zones. Infection threads were readily found in the infection zone of the nodule. However, the bacteroid-containing tissue senesced more rapidly than in the effective symbiosis between subterranean clover and R. trifolii 0403. This anomalous nodulation of subterranean clover by R. leguminosarum 1020 suggests a naturally-occurring alternative route of infection that allows Rhizobium to enlarge its host range. PMID:3831234

Hrabak, E M; Truchet, G L; Dazzo, F B; Govers, F

1985-12-01

164

Role of ubiquinone in hydrogen-dependent electron transport in Rhizobium japonicum.  

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Direct evidence for the involvement of ubiquinone in H2 oxidation by Rhizobium japonicum was demonstrated; H2 reduced ca. 80% of the extractable ubiquinone. The inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide blocked electron transport at a site between ubiquinone and the cytochromes. The results sh...

O'Brian, M R; Maier, R J

165

Role of ubiquinone in hydrogen-dependent electron transport in Rhizobium japonicum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Direct evidence for the involvement of ubiquinone in H2 oxidation by Rhizobium japonicum was demonstrated; H2 reduced ca. 80% of the extractable ubiquinone. The inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide blocked electron transport at a site between ubiquinone and the cytochromes. The results showed that no cytochrome component mediates electron flow from hydrogen to ubiquinone.

O'Brian MR; Maier RJ

1985-02-01

166

Monoclonal antibodies to Rhizobium meliloti and surface mutants insensitive to them.  

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Monoclonal antibodies were produced to the surface of the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium meliloti. Bacterial lysis in the presence of complement or cycles of agglutination and growth were used to select mutants no longer recognized by the antibodies. The mutants were used to produce n...

Johansen, E; Finan, T M; Gefter, M L; Signer, E R

167

Genetic analysis and cellular localization of the Rhizobium host specificity-determining NodE protein.  

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The nucleotide sequence of the nodE gene of Rhizobium trifolii strain ANU843 was determined. Like the nodE gene of R. leguminosarum strain 248 it encodes a protein with a predicted mol. wt of 42.0 kd. The predicted NodE proteins of R.trifolii and R.leguminosarum have a homology of 78%. Using antibod...

Spaink, H P; Weinman, J; Djordjevic, M A; Wijffelman, C A; Okker, R J; Lugtenberg, B J

168

Nodulation of Sesbania Species by Rhizobium (Agrobacterium) Strain IRBG74 and Other Rhizobia  

Science.gov (United States)

Concatenated sequence analysis with 16S rRNA, rpoB and fusA genes identified a strain (IRBG74) isolated from root nodules of the aquatic legume Sesbania cannabina as a close relative of the plant pathogen Rhizobium radiobacter (syn. Agrobacterium tumefaciens). However, DNA:DNA hybridisation with R. ...

169

Rhizobium meliloti swims by unidirectional, intermittent rotation of right-handed flagellar helices.  

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The 5 to 10 peritrichously inserted complex flagella of Rhizobium meliloti MVII-1 were found to form right-handed flagellar bundles. Bacteria swam at speeds up to 60 microns/s, their random three-dimensional walk consisting of straight runs and quick directional changes (turns) without the vigorous ...

Götz, R; Schmitt, R

170

Fungicide Enhancement of Nitrogen Fixation and Colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris by Rhizobium phaseoli  

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The number and weight of pods and the weight and nitrogen content of the tops of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) derived from seeds inoculated with a thiram-resistant strain of Rhizobium phaseoli were increased if the seeds were treated with thiram before sowing in soil. A greater percentage of the nodul...

Lennox, Linda B.; Alexander, Martin

171

Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation Efficacy of Rhizobium fredii with Phaseolus vulgaris Genotypes  

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Phaseolus plant introduction (PI) genotypes (consisting of 684 P. vulgaris, 26 P. acutifolius, 39 P. lunatus, and 5 P. coccineus accessions) were evaluated for their ability to form effective symbioses with strains of six slow-growing (Bradyrhizobium) and four fast-growing (Rhizobium fredii) soybean...

Sadowsky, Michael J.; Cregan, Perry B.; Keyser, Harold H.

172

Characterization of heat resistant mutant strains of Rhizobium sp. [Cajanus] for growth, survival and symbiotic properties  

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Fourteen heat resistant mutant strains were isolated from a wild-type strain (PP201, Nod+ Fix+) of Rhizobium sp. (Cajanus) by giving it a heat shock of 43°C. These mutant strains showed a greater increase in optical density (O.D.) and a higher viable cell count in both rhizospheric and non-rhizosphe...

Nehra, Kiran; Yadav, Attar S.; Sehrawat, Anita R.; Vashishat, R. K.

173

The Rhizobium meliloti ExoK and ExsH glycanases specifically depolymerize nascent succinoglycan chains  

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The Rhizobium meliloti ExoK and ExsH glycanases have been proposed to contribute to production of low molecular weight (LMW) succinoglycan by depolymerizing high molecular weight succinoglycan chains in R. meliloti cultures. We expressed and purified ExoK and ExsH and determined that neither enzyme ...

York, Gregory M.; Walker, Graham C.

174

Efficacy of Various Rhizobium Strains to Different Varieties of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.)  

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Groundnut variety BARD-699 produced significantly the most promising yield than that of variety BARI-89 at Attock, Fatehjang and NARC, Islamabad. Rhizobium strains, NC-92 was found to be less efficient as compared to TAL-1000; TAL-1371. Nodule dry mass and number of pods per plant were much h...

M. Aslam; S. Ahmad; I.A. Mahmood; T. Sultan

175

[Primary study on acid tolerance mechanism of a wild aciduric Rhizobium strain isolated from Pueraria lobata].  

Science.gov (United States)

An aciduric Rhizobium strain, named as PR389, was isolated from the nodule of wild Pueraria lobata which grew in yellow soil (pH 4.6) on the Jin-yun Mountain in Bei-bei, Chong-qing city. The isolated strain, which could grow under pH 4.6 distinct from the optimal pH 6.5-7.5 for rhizobium, showed some typical features of aciduric rhizobium. This was also confirmed by the proton flux assay. Compared to the acid-sensitive Rhizobium strain PR21, the cell membrane of PR389 could hold back excessive H entering cell. This feature can protect PR389 from harm of acid. In the test of acid tolerance, the aciduric ability of strain PR389 under low acidic (pH 3.8) was restrained by antibiotic chloramphenicol. It was speculated that special proteins in the cells of PR389 could be induced and synthesized in acidic environment. PMID:17037073

Gu, Jian-ping; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Shi-qing; Zhang, Qin; Fang, De-hua

2006-08-01

176

[Primary study on acid tolerance mechanism of a wild aciduric Rhizobium strain isolated from Pueraria lobata].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An aciduric Rhizobium strain, named as PR389, was isolated from the nodule of wild Pueraria lobata which grew in yellow soil (pH 4.6) on the Jin-yun Mountain in Bei-bei, Chong-qing city. The isolated strain, which could grow under pH 4.6 distinct from the optimal pH 6.5-7.5 for rhizobium, showed some typical features of aciduric rhizobium. This was also confirmed by the proton flux assay. Compared to the acid-sensitive Rhizobium strain PR21, the cell membrane of PR389 could hold back excessive H entering cell. This feature can protect PR389 from harm of acid. In the test of acid tolerance, the aciduric ability of strain PR389 under low acidic (pH 3.8) was restrained by antibiotic chloramphenicol. It was speculated that special proteins in the cells of PR389 could be induced and synthesized in acidic environment.

Gu JP; Zhang L; Wei SQ; Zhang Q; Fang DH

2006-08-01

177

Exopolysaccharide II Production Is Regulated by Salt in the Halotolerant Strain Rhizobium meliloti EFB1  

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The halotolerant strain Rhizobium meliloti EFB1 modifies the production of extracellular polysaccharides in response to salt. EFB1 colonies grown in the presence of 0.3 M NaCl show a decrease in mucoidy, and in salt-supplemented liquid medium this organism produces 40% less exopolysaccharides. We is...

Lloret, Javier; Wulff, Brande B. H.; Rubio, Jose M.; Downie, J. Allan; Bonilla, Ildefonso; Rivilla, Rafael

178

Thermophilic, Reversible ?-Resorcylate Decarboxylase from Rhizobium sp. Strain MTP-10005: Purification, Molecular Characterization, and Expression  

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We found the occurrence of thermophilic reversible ?-resorcylate decarboxylase (?-RDC) in the cell extract of a bacterium isolated from natural water, Rhizobium sp. strain MTP-10005, and purified the enzyme to homogeneity. The molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be about 151 kDa by gel fi...

Yoshida, Masahiro; Fukuhara, Nobuhiro; Oikawa, Tadao

179

Foliar Chlorosis in Symbiotic Host and Nonhost Plants Induced by Rhizobium tropici Type B Strains  

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Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 induced chlorosis in the leaves of its symbiotic hosts, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb.), and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Chlorosis induction by strains CIAT899 and CT9005, an exopolysaccharide-deficient mutant of CIAT8...

O'Connell, Kevin P.; Handelsman, Jo

180

Symbiotic Characteristics and Rhizobium Requirements of a Leucaena leucocephala × Leucaena diversifolia Hybrid and Its Parental Genotypes  

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In 56-day-old plants, Leucaena leucocephala and its hybrid with L. diversifolia showed 100% more total N than did L. diversifolia. Significant (P < 0.01) host-inoculation interaction in total N was 14.4% of the total phenotypic variation. The most effective and competitive Rhizobium sp. for the leuc...

Somasegaran, P.; Martin, R. B.

 
 
 
 
181

Competition Among Rhizobium spp. for Nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala in Two Tropical Soils †  

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The successful nodulation of legumes by a Rhizobium strain is determined by the competitive ability of that strain against the mixture of other native and inoculant rhizobia. Competition among six Leucaena rhizobial strains in single and multistrain inoculants were studied. Field inoculation trials ...

Moawad, H.; Bohlool, B. B.

182

Une fosse du Bronze final IIb dans le Val d’Orléans à Sandillon (Loiret) : données archéologiques et contexte environnemental A Late Bronze Age pit IIb in the Val d’Orléans at Sandillon (Loiret): archaeological data and environmental context  

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Full Text Available Un diagnostic archéologique réalisé en 2004 à Sandillon (Loiret) a permis la découverte d’une occupation du Bronze final IIb dans la plaine alluviale de la Loire. Les structures sont peu nombreuses, mais une fosse se distingue par un ensemble céramique exceptionnel par sa richesse, sa conservation et la présence de formes encore inconnues en région Centre. Ce corpus céramique, corrélé par une datation par radiocarbone, offre désormais un jalon fiable pour la région. Par ailleurs, ces vestiges ont pu être replacés dans leur environnement immédiat grâce à une étude géomorphologique et à l’analyse des restes carpologiques contenus dans la fosse. Ainsi, le croisement des données permet de tenter une approche paléo environnementale sur une occupation en contexte fluviatile et de préciser les relations entre l’homme et son milieu durant cette période chronologique.An archaeological diagnostic carried out in 2004 at Sandillon (Loiret) enabled the discovery of a final Bronze Age IIb occupation in the alluvial Loire valley. There are few structures but one pit is noteworthy for a ceramic collection, exceptional in its abundance, its preservation and the presence of previously unknown forms in the Centre region. This ceramic corpus, dated by radiocarbon, henceforth provides a reliable standard for the region. Moreover, these relics could be set in their immediate environment thanks to a geomorphological study and to the analysis of carpological remains contained in the pit. So, the crossing of data allows us to attempt an environmental paleolithic approach to an occupation in a freshwater context and to clarify the relationship between man and his environment in this chronological period.

Hélène Froquet; Cyril Castanet; Stéphane Joly; Bénédicte Pradat

2008-01-01

183

Rhizobium subbaraonis sp. nov., an endolithic bacterium isolated from beach sand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two strains (JC85(T) and JC108) of Gram-stain-negative, motile bacteria were isolated from endolithic beach sand samples on an oligotrophic medium. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains were identified as belonging to the genus Rhizobium. Strain JC108 had 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 100?% with Rhizobium pusense NRCPB10(T) and formed a cluster with this strain. Strain JC85(T) had 96.9?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and was 18?% related (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) to Rhizobium borbori DN316(T). With other strains of the genus Rhizobium, the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was less than 96.3?%. Strain JC85(T) could tolerate up to 3?% salinity, fix N(2), was resistant to ampicillin (10 µg) and was positive for catalase and oxidase. The major fatty acid was C(18?:?1)?7c (69?%) with minor amounts of C(19?:?0) cyclo ?8c (8.9?%), C(16?:?0) (6.9?%), C(12?:?0) (5.7?%) and C(19?:?1)?7c/C(19?:?1)?6c (2.2?%). Polar lipids of strain JC85(T) include two unidentified aminophospholipids (APL1,2), two unidentified phospholipids (PL1,2), phosphatidylcholine and four unidentified lipids (L1-4). Q-10 is the major quinone of strain JC85(T). Based on polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strain JC85(T) represents a novel species for which, the name Rhizobium subbaraonis JC85(T) is proposed. The type strain is JC85(T) (?=?DSM 24765(T)?=?KCTC 23614(T)).

Ramana ChV; Parag B; Girija KR; Ram BR; Ramana VV; Sasikala Ch

2013-02-01

184

Rhizobium strains competitiveness on bean nodulation in Cerrado soils/ Capacidade competitiva de estirpes de Rhizobium na nodulação do feijoeiro em solos de Cerrado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as estirpes de Rhizobium mais efetivas e competitivas, a fim de maximizar a produtividade do feijoeiro por meio da fixação de nitrogênio, como alternativa à adubação nitrogenada. Foram conduzidos testes de competitividade em condições axênicas, em vasos com solo do Cerrado e em três experimentos de campo, com estirpes de Rhizobium nativas, previamente selecionadas quanto à efetividade e à variabilidade genética. A ide (more) ntificação das estirpes nos nódulos foi efetuada por meio das técnicas de aglutinação e ensaio imunoabsorvente de ligação de enzimas (Elisa), em condições de casa de vegetação, e pela técnica de DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD), em solo de Cerrado. A produtividade das plantas foi determinada pela produção de matéria seca, teor de N e produção de grãos (condições de campo). A estirpe nativa SLA 2.2 e a estirpe comercial CIAT 899 foram dominantes nos nódulos das plantas das parcelas mais produtivas, com índices de produtividade iguais ou superiores aos obtidos nos tratamentos em que foram aplicados 20 kg ha-1 de N. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify the most competitive and effective Rhizobium strains in order to increase common bean yield by nitrogen fixation as alternative or complementation to the nitrogen fertilization. Competitiveness tests were lead in axenic conditions, in Cerrado soil pots and in three field experiments, with native Rhizobium strains that were previously identified, according to their effectiveness and genetic variability. The identification of strai (more) ns in nodules was performed using serological tests (axenic conditions) - agglutination and enzyme linked immunosorbent (Elisa) assays - and random amplified polymorfic DNA (RAPD) (Cerrado soil). Plant yield was determined using the dry weight (greenhouse conditions), total N and grain yield (field experiments). Among the analyzed Rhizobium strains, native strain SLA 2.2 and commercial strain CIAT 899 were the dominant nodules in plants of the most productive plots, presenting yield productivity similar or higher to those obtained in treatments where 20 kg ha-1 of N were applied.

Raposeiras, Ruy; Marriel, Ivanildo Evódio; Muzzi, Maria Rita Scotti; Paiva, Edilson; Pereira Filho, Israel Alexandre; Carvalhais, Lilia Costa; Passos, Raul Vinícius Magalhães; Pinto, Patrícia Pereira; Sá, Nadja Maria Horta de

2006-03-01

185

Rhizobium phenanthrenilyticum sp. nov., a novel phenanthrene-degrading bacterium isolated from a petroleum residue treatment system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Strain F11(T), a phenanthrene-degrading bacterium, was isolated from a petroleum residue treatment system, and classified under the genus Rhizobium based on the similarity analysis of its 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences. Strain F11(T) falls into the same phylogenetic clade with Rhizobium oryzae Alt 505(T) (96.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Rhizobium pseudoryzae J34A-127(T) (96.2%). Major cellular fatty acids of strain F11(T) are C(16:0) (6.24%) and summed feature 8 (C(18:1?7c) and/or C(18:1?6c), 76.59%), which are also the major fatty acids of R. oryzae Alt 505(T) and R. pseudoryzae J34A-127(T). The DNA G+C content of strain F11(T) was 59.3±0.4 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic analysis as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics, strain F11(T) could be separated from all recognized Rhizobium species. Strain F11(T) (=DSM 21882(T) =CCTCC AB 209029(T)) was considered to be representative of a novel species of Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium phenanthrenilyticum sp. nov. is proposed.

Wen Y; Zhang J; Yan Q; Li S; Hong Q

2011-01-01

186

Structural characterization of the lipid A component of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 rough and smooth form lipopolysaccharide. Demonstration that the distal amide-linked acyloxyacyl residue containing the long chain fatty acid is conserved in rhizobium and Sinorhizobium sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A broad-host-range endosymbiont, Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is a component of several legume-symbiont model systems; however, there is little structural information on the cell surface glycoconjugates. NGR234 cells in free-living culture produce a major rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS, lacking O-chain) and a minor smooth LPS (containing O-chain), and the structure of the lipid A components was investigated by chemical analyses, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy of the underivatized lipids A. The lipid A from rough LPS is heterogeneous and consists of six major bisphosphorylated species that differ in acylation. Pentaacyl species (52%) are acylated at positions 2, 3, 2', and 3', and tetraacyl species (46%) lack an acyl group at C-3 of the proximal glucosamine. In contrast to Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum, the NGR234 lipid A contains a bisphosphorylated beta-(1' --> 6)-glucosamine disaccharide, typical of enterobacterial lipid A. However, NGR234 lipid A retains the unusual acylation pattern of R. etli lipid A, including the presence of a distal, amide-linked acyloxyacyl residue containing a long chain fatty acid (LCFA) (e.g. 29-hydroxytriacontanoate) attached as the secondary fatty acid. As in R. etli, a 4-carbon fatty acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate, is esterified to (omega - 1) of the LCFA forming an acyloxyacyl residue at that location. The NGR234 lipid A lacks all other ester-linked acyloxyacyl residues and shows extensive heterogeneity of the amide-linked fatty acids. The N-acyl heterogeneity, including unsaturation, is localized mainly to the proximal glucosamine. The lipid A from smooth LPS contains unique triacyl species (20%) that lack ester-linked fatty acids but retain bisphosphorylation and the LCFA-acyloxyacyl moiety. The unusual structural features shared with R. etli/R. leguminosarum lipid A may be essential for symbiosis. PMID:12456672

Gudlavalleti, Seshu K; Forsberg, Lennart S

2002-11-26

187

GROWTH AND EXTRACELLULAR POLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION BY RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI IN DEFINED MEDIUM.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dudman, W. F. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia). Growth and extracellular polysaccharide production by Rhizobium meliloti in defined medium. J. Bacteriol. 88:640-645. 1964.-A defined medium was developed in which Rhizobium meliloti grew well in shaken flasks and produced large yields of extracellular polysaccharide. The medium contains 1% mannitol plus 1% sodium succinate as the carbon source. 0.2% sodium glutamate as the nitrogen source, mineral salts, thiamine, and biotin. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose were inferior to mannitol when compared as carbon sources. The presence of succinate in the medium enhanced polysaccharide production and also stimulated the appearance of an extracellular soluble pigment. In this medium, both growth and polysaccharide production were favored by low aeration.

DUDMAN WF

1964-09-01

188

GROWTH AND EXTRACELLULAR POLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION BY RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI IN DEFINED MEDIUM.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dudman, W. F. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia). Growth and extracellular polysaccharide production by Rhizobium meliloti in defined medium. J. Bacteriol. 88:640-645. 1964.-A defined medium was developed in which Rhizobium meliloti grew well in shaken flasks and produced large yields of extracellular polysaccharide. The medium contains 1% mannitol plus 1% sodium succinate as the carbon source. 0.2% sodium glutamate as the nitrogen source, mineral salts, thiamine, and biotin. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose were inferior to mannitol when compared as carbon sources. The presence of succinate in the medium enhanced polysaccharide production and also stimulated the appearance of an extracellular soluble pigment. In this medium, both growth and polysaccharide production were favored by low aeration. PMID:14208501

DUDMAN, W F

1964-09-01

189

Influence of light on pectic enzymes in root exudates of Trifolium alexandrinum inoculated with Rhizobium trifolii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An in vitro experiment was conduced under bacteriologically controlled conditions to examine the effect of light on the production of pectin methyl esterase (PME) and pectin polygalacturonase (PG) in the root exudates of Trifolium alexandrinum inoculated with an efficient strain of Rhizobium trifolii. The results revealed that PME and PG increased with an increase in the duration of light to which plants were exposed. However, both the enzymes were detected in the root exudates of nonphotosynthesizing plants.

Chhonkar PK

1978-01-01

190

Influence of light on pectic enzymes in root exudates of Trifolium alexandrinum inoculated with Rhizobium trifolii.  

Science.gov (United States)

An in vitro experiment was conduced under bacteriologically controlled conditions to examine the effect of light on the production of pectin methyl esterase (PME) and pectin polygalacturonase (PG) in the root exudates of Trifolium alexandrinum inoculated with an efficient strain of Rhizobium trifolii. The results revealed that PME and PG increased with an increase in the duration of light to which plants were exposed. However, both the enzymes were detected in the root exudates of nonphotosynthesizing plants. PMID:664934

Chhonkar, P K

1978-01-01

191

Effect of salt stress and phosphorus deficiency in mutants of rhizobium obtained by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two strains of Rhizobium: Rhizobium Tropici and Mesorhizobium Ciceri nodulating respectively common bean and chickpea were treated by gamma irradiation (60Co) source. Radiosensibility analysis showed that 800 Gy was the biggest dose supported by these two strains. We isolated gamma irradiated resistant strain in order to select mutant of them which can supported salt stress and phosphorus deficiency. Salinity analysis showed that Mesorhizobium Ciceri 835 strain, can tolerate up to 18g/l (273 mM NaCl) of salt, whereas, their irradiation mutants tolerate salinity up to 33g/l (564mM. NaCl) Rhizobium Tropici CIAT899 can survive at 20g/l (342 mM) either for control strain or mutants. Analysis of phosphorus deficiency showed that either Rhizobium Tropici CIAT899, or Mesorhizobium Ciceri 835 can survive in medium without phosphore. Our results permit us to screen mutants tolerant to these stresses wide spread in Mediterranean soil. In this study, we choose two mutants strains irradiated by 700Gy and two mutants irradiated by 800Gy in each species, these mutants were characterized by their best growth compared with their reference strains. Our results showed that Gamma irradiation modified antibiotic resistance, such as kanamicyne, tetracycline, vancomicyne, streptomicyne, penicilline, either at 700Gy or at 800Gy, we obtained significant modification of response and persistence of penicilline resistance. Biochemical analysis showed that these strains had a variable superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6) activities essentially in Mesorhizobium Ciceri 835 mutant strains, these two enzymatic antioxidants was suggested to play an important role in environmental stress tolerance. (author)

2008-01-01

192

Carbon Metabolism Enzymes of Rhizobium meliloti Cultures and Bacteroids and Their Distribution within Alfalfa Nodules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several carbon metabolism enzymes were measured in cultured cells and bacteroids of Rhizobium meliloti 102F51 and in alfalfa root nodule cytosol. The enzyme activity levels of the pentose phosphate pathway were much higher than those of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas or Entner-Doudoroff pathways in extracts of cultured cells. The pattern of enzyme activities in the bacteroids was different from that of cultured cells.

Irigoyen JJ; Sanchez-Diaz M; Emerich DW

1990-08-01

193

Further examination of presumptive Rhizobium trifolii mutants that nodulate Glycine max.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two recent reports described the isolation of derivatives of a Rhizobium trifolii strain that had gained the ability to nodulate Glycine max and Vigna radiata and that had demonstrated altered patterns of carbon source utilization, free-living nitrogen fixation, and hydrogen uptake. More extensive characterization of these strains now supports the conclusion that these strains are R. japonicum and are not derived from the putative parent R. trifolii.

Ludwig RA; Raleigh EA; Duncan MJ; Signer ER; Gibson AH; Dudman WF; Schwinghamer EA; Jordan DC; Schmidt EL; Tran DT

1979-08-01

194

Biosynthesis and degradation of nodule-specific Rhizobium loti compounds in Lotus nodules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two nodule-specific Rhizobium loti compounds were identified in Lotus tenuis and Lotus pedunculatus nodules induced by strain NZP2037. One, a silver nitrate-positive cation called rhizolotine, has been characterized as the riboside of a novel alpha-hydroxyimino acid containing a 1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine ring (G. J. Shaw, R. D. Wilson, G. A. Lane, L. D. Kennedy, D. B. Scott, and G. J. Gainsford, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., p. 180-181, 1986), and the other, yellow-1, stains yellow with ninhydrin. Both compounds were degraded by R. loti NZP2037 but not by strains of Rhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium trifolii, or Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Under the conditions tested neither compound was able to serve as a sole source of C or N for growth of R. loti NZP2037. Rhizolotine and yellow-1 were found in nodules from a range of different legumes inoculated with NZP2037, suggesting that the Rhizobium and not the host plant determines their synthesis. Neither compound was found in nodulelike structures of L. pedunculatus induced by transposon Tn5-induced noninfectious (Inf-) mutants of NZP2037 or in similar structures induced by a transconjugant of NZP2037 containing the symbiotic (Sym) cointegrate plasmid pPN1 of R. trifolii. Both compounds were also absent in the ineffective nodules induced by the bacterial-release-negative (Bar-) mutant, strain PN239. However, both compounds were present in nodules induced by the fixation-negative (Fix-) mutant PN235 and in Fix+ nodules formed by a plasmid-cured derivative of NZP2037. These results would suggest that infection and bacterial release from the infection thread are necessary for nodule (symbiotic) synthesis of these compounds.

Scott DB; Wilson R; Shaw GJ; Petit A; Tempe J

1987-01-01

195

Rhizobium meliloti Genes Encoding Catabolism of Trigonelline Are Induced under Symbiotic Conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobium meliloti trc genes controlling the catabolism of trigonelline, a plant secondary metabolite often abundant in legumes, are closely linked to nif-nod genes on the symbiotic megaplasmid pSym [Boivin, C., Malpica, C., Rosenberg, C., Denarie, J., Goldman, A., Fleury, V., Maille, M., Message, B., and Tepfer, D. (1989). In Molecular Signals in the Microbe-Plant Symbiotic and Pathogenic Systems. (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), pp. 401-407]. To investigate the role of trigonelline catabolism in the Rhizobium-legume interaction, we studied the regulation of trc gene expression in free-living and in endosymbiotic bacteria using Escherichia coli lacZ as a reporter gene. Experiments performed with free-living bacteria indicated that trc genes were organized in at least four transcription units and that the substrate trigonelline was a specific inducer for three of them. Noninducing trigonelline-related compounds such as betaines appeared to antagonize the inducing effect of trigonelline. None of the general or symbiotic regulatory genes ntrA, dctB/D, or nodD seemed to be involved in trigonelline catabolism. trc fusions exhibiting a low basal and a high induced [beta]-galactosidase activity when present on pSym were used to monitor trc gene expression in alfalfa tissue under symbiotic conditions. Results showed that trc genes are induced during all the symbiotic steps, i.e., in the rhizosphere, infection threads, and bacteroids of alfalfa, suggesting that trigonelline is a nutrient source throughout the Rhizobium-legume association.

Boivin C; Camut S; Malpica CA; Truchet G; Rosenberg C

1990-12-01

196

Effects of Heavy Metal from Polluted Soils on the Rhizobium Diversity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heavy metals adversely influence microorganisms, affecting their growth, abundance, genetic diversity, nodulation ability and efficacy. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize free-leaving Rhizobium from soil which were artificially polluted with Cu (100, 250, and 500 mg kg-1 soil), Zn (300, 700, and 1500 mg kg-1 soil) and Pb (50, 250, and 1000 mg kg-1 soil), but also with a mixture of all these metals, and cultivated with red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and to compare them with bacteria isolated from similar type of soil, but unpolluted. Rhizobia from soil were isolated on YMA medium with or without bromothymol blue (0.00125%) as a pH-change indicator and the morpho-physiological characteristics of the colonies were examined. The number of Rhizobium was estimated using the most probable number method. Compared to the control, a decrease of rhizobia number and an increase of the metal concentration were observed. Several decameric primers (Operon Technology type) were used and a reduced polymorphism among isolated bacteria was observed. Moreover, significant differences were observed among these strains and the collection strains used as reference. Also, when primers nodCF/nodCI for detection of nod genes were used, several amplicons were obtained, different from the results obtained with similar strains isolated from unpolluted soil. These results suggest that the survival „price” of the Rhizobium in such polluted area was the alteration of some genes, including those involved in symbiosis and, probably, in nitrogen fixation.

Vasilica STAN; Eugenia GAMENT; C?lina Petru?a CORNEA; C?t?lina VOAIDE?; Mirela DU?A; Georgiana PLOPEANU

2011-01-01

197

Coexistence of Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium sp. nodule bacteria on two Mimosa spp. in Costa Rica.  

Science.gov (United States)

rRNA gene sequencing and PCR assays indicated that 215 isolates of root nodule bacteria from two Mimosa species at three sites in Costa Rica belonged to the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium. This is the first report of Cupriavidus sp. nodule symbionts for Mimosa populations within their native geographic range in the neotropics. Burkholderia spp. predominated among samples from Mimosa pigra (86% of isolates), while there was a more even distribution of Cupriavidus, Burkholderia, and Rhizobium spp. on Mimosa pudica (38, 37, and 25% of isolates, respectively). All Cupriavidus and Burkholderia genotypes tested formed root nodules and fixed nitrogen on both M. pigra and M. pudica, and sequencing of rRNA genes in strains reisolated from nodules verified identity with inoculant strains. Inoculation tests further indicated that both Cupriavidus and Burkholderia spp. resulted in significantly higher plant growth and nodule nitrogenase activity (as measured by acetylene reduction assays) relative to plant performance with strains of Rhizobium. Given the prevalence of Burkholderia and Cupriavidus spp. on these Mimosa legumes and the widespread distribution of these plants both within and outside the neotropics, it is likely that both beta-proteobacterial genera are more ubiquitous as root nodule symbionts than previously believed. PMID:16461667

Barrett, Craig F; Parker, Matthew A

2006-02-01

198

Biochemical Analysis of Chickpea Protection Against Fusarium Wilt Afforded by Two Rhizobium Isolates  

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Full Text Available Germinated seeds of two chickpea cultivars ILC482 and INRAT87/1, respectively susceptible and moderately resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc), were preinoculated with a suspension of two Rhizobium isolates PchDMS and Pch43. Three days later, the seedlings were challenged by root dip with a conidial suspension of Foc race 0. The two Rhizobium isolates protected chickpea plants from F. oxysporum infection; the best protection has been obtained by PchDMS for the two cultivars. For the susceptible cultivar, mortality was 12.5 and 33.33% for treated plants, respectively with PchDMS and Pch43 as compared to the 79.16% in the inoculated control with Foc only. For the INRAT87/1 Cv. mortality was 8.33 and 12.5% for treated plants, respectively with PchDMS and Pch43 compared to the 54.16% in the control inoculated treatment. The two Rhizobium isolates stimulated the peroxidases and polyphenoloxidases activities and induced the accumulation of phenolic compounds. The maximum of peroxidases activities in plant roots were reached 24 h after challenging. However, the higher activity of polyphenoloxidases and the higher level of the phenolic compounds were recorded 72 h after Foc inoculation. Comparing the two strains, PchDMS was more effective in inducing enzymes and phenolic compounds and highest levels were recorded in INRAT87/1 cultivar.

A. Arfaoui; B. Sifi; M. El Hassni; I. El Hadrami; A. Boudabbous; M. Cherif

2005-01-01

199

In vitro sensitivity of Rhizobium and phosphate solubilising bacteria to herbicides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrogen fixing bacteria, rhizobia and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are the commonly applied microbial inoculants in grain legumes (Pulses). It is important to apply herbicides to control weeds in order to augment yield of the crop. The herbicides may however, be incompatible with the microbial inoculants. This study compared the effect of the recommended pre-plant incorporated herbicide, fluchloralin (20.25 × 10(4) ppm) and pre-emergence herbicide, pendimethalin in two doses (9 × 10(4) and 15 × 10(4) ppm) on the growth and survival of mungbean Rhizobium and PSB, under laboratory conditions. These herbicides were also used under field conditions in conjunction with biofertilizers (R, PSB) to improve grain yield of mungbean. It was found that fluchloralin (20.25 × 10(4) ppm) and the lower dose of pendimethalin (9 × 10(4) ppm) had no adverse effect on growth of Rhizobium and PSB. The higher dose of pendimethalin (15 × 10(4) ppm) was safe on PSB but it imposed a retarding effect on the growth of Rhizobium.

Jeenie; Sharma P; Khanna V

2011-06-01

200

Cloning and DNA Sequence Analysis of the Haloalkanoic Permease Uptake Gene from Rhizobium sp. RC1  

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Full Text Available The aims of the study were to clone and identify the putative haloacid permease gene in Rhizobium sp. RC1. The putative dehrP gene encoding an uptake protein in Rhizobium sp. RC1 was identified by DNA sequence analysis. An approximately 3.8 kb DNA sequence upstream of dehalogenase D (dehD) in plasmid pSC1 was analyzed and revealed an open reading frame of 1239 kb which encoded for 412 amino acids with calculated subunit molecular weight of 45 kDa and isoelectric point of 9.78. The amino acid sequence of DehrP gave high sequence identity of 86% with putative monochloropropionic acid permease from Agrobacterium sp. NHG3 and 62% with haloacid-specific transporter from Burkholderia cepacia MBA4. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence with the CD server (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) NCBI database also revealed the putative DehrP contained signatures of sugar transport proteins of an integral membrane protein. Therefore, a new Rhizobial dehalogenase genetic organization was proposed. However, further characterization of this transporter protein is required to fully comprehend the dehalogenase uptake system of Rhizobium sp. RC1.

N.H. Jing; R.Ab. Wahab; S. Hamdan; F. Huyop

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Rhizobium freirei, a symbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris very effective in fixing nitrogen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can establish symbiotic associations with several Rhizobium species; however, the effectiveness of most strains in fixing nitrogen under field conditions is very low. PRF 81T is a very effective strain usually referred as R. tropici and successfully used in thousands of doses of commercial inoculants for the common bean crop in Brazil; it has shown high rates of nitrogen fixation in all areas representative of the crop in the country. Here we present results indicating that PRF 81T, although belonging to the "R. tropici group", that includes ten Rhizobium species - R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum, R. multihospitium, R. miluonense, R. hainanense, R. calliandrae, R. mayense, R. jaguaris and R. rhizogenes - represents a new species. Several morpho-physiological traits differentiated PRF 81T from related species. Differences were also confirmed in the analysis of rep-PCR (sharing less than 45% with the other species), MLSA with recA, atpD and rpoB genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. The novel species, for which we propose the name Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., is able to establish effective root nodule symbioses with Phaseolus vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena esculenta, Crotalaria juncea and Macroptilium atropurpureum. The type strain is PRF 81T (=CNPSo 122T, =SEMIA 4080T, =IPR-Pv81T; =WDCM 440T).

Dall'agnol RF; Ribeiro RA; Ormeno-Orrillo E; Rogel MA; Delamuta JR; Andrade DS; Martínez-Romero E; Hungria M

2013-06-01

202

Rhizobium freirei, a symbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris very effective in fixing nitrogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can establish symbiotic associations with several Rhizobium species; however, the effectiveness of most strains in fixing nitrogen under field conditions is very low. PRF 81T is a very effective strain usually referred as R. tropici and successfully used in thousands of doses of commercial inoculants for the common bean crop in Brazil; it has shown high rates of nitrogen fixation in all areas representative of the crop in the country. Here we present results indicating that PRF 81T, although belonging to the "R. tropici group", that includes ten Rhizobium species - R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum, R. multihospitium, R. miluonense, R. hainanense, R. calliandrae, R. mayense, R. jaguaris and R. rhizogenes - represents a new species. Several morpho-physiological traits differentiated PRF 81T from related species. Differences were also confirmed in the analysis of rep-PCR (sharing less than 45% with the other species), MLSA with recA, atpD and rpoB genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. The novel species, for which we propose the name Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., is able to establish effective root nodule symbioses with Phaseolus vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena esculenta, Crotalaria juncea and Macroptilium atropurpureum. The type strain is PRF 81T (=CNPSo 122T, =SEMIA 4080T, =IPR-Pv81T; =WDCM 440T). PMID:23771622

Dall'agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeno-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

2013-06-14

203

The conjugative plasmid of a bean-nodulating Sinorhizobium fredii strain is assembled from sequences of two Rhizobium plasmids and the chromosome of a Sinorhizobium strain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Bean-nodulating Rhizobium etli originated in Mesoamerica, while soybean-nodulating Sinorhizobium fredii evolved in East Asia. S. fredii strains, such as GR64, have been isolated from bean nodules in Spain, suggesting the occurrence of conjugative transfer events between introduced and native strains. In R. etli CFN42, transfer of the symbiotic plasmid (pRet42d) requires cointegration with the endogenous self-transmissible plasmid pRet42a. Aiming at further understanding the generation of diversity among bean nodulating strains, we analyzed the plasmids of S. fredii GR64: pSfr64a and pSfr64b (symbiotic plasmid). Results The conjugative transfer of the plasmids of strain GR64 was analyzed. Plasmid pSfr64a was self-transmissible, and required for transfer of the symbiotic plasmid. We sequenced pSfr64a, finding 166 ORFs. pSfr64a showed three large segments of different evolutionary origins; the first one presented 38 ORFs that were highly similar to genes located on the chromosome of Sinorhizobium strain NGR234; the second one harbored 51 ORFs with highest similarity to genes from pRet42d, including the replication, but not the symbiosis genes. Accordingly, pSfr64a was incompatible with the R. etli CFN42 symbiotic plasmid, but did not contribute to symbiosis. The third segment contained 36 ORFs with highest similarity to genes localized on pRet42a, 20 of them involved in conjugative transfer. Plasmid pRet42a was unable to substitute pSfr64a for induction of pSym transfer, and its own transfer was significantly diminished in GR64 background. The symbiotic plasmid pSfr64b was found to differ from typical R. etli symbiotic plasmids. Conclusions S. fredii GR64 contains a chimeric transmissible plasmid, with segments from two R. etli plasmids and a S. fredii chromosome, and a symbiotic plasmid different from the one usually found in R. etli bv phaseoli. We infer that these plasmids originated through the transfer of a symbiotic-conjugative-plasmid cointegrate from R. etli to a S. fredii strain, and at least two recombination events among the R. etli plasmids and the S. fredii genome. As in R. etli CFN42, the S. fredii GR64 transmissible plasmid is required for the conjugative transfer of the symbiotic plasmid. In spite of the similarity in the conjugation related genes, the transfer process of these plasmids shows a host-specific behaviour.

Cervantes Laura; Bustos Patricia; Girard Lourdes; Santamaría Rosa; Dávila Guillermo; Vinuesa Pablo; Romero David; Brom Susana

2011-01-01

204

pyd Genes of Rhizobium sp. Strain TAL1145 Are Required for Degradation of 3-Hydroxy-4-Pyridone, an Aromatic Intermediate in Mimosine Metabolism  

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Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 degrades the Leucaena toxin mimosine and its degradation product 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (HP). The aim of this investigation is to characterize the Rhizobium genes for HP degradation and transport. These genes were localized by subcloning and mutagenesis on a previously iso...

Awaya, Jonathan D.; Fox, Paul M.; Borthakur, Dulal

205

Biocontrol of Bean Ashy Stem Blight by Improved Rhizobium Biotechnology. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

USAID's Science Advisor recently completed a research project in the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico to develop bacterial-based methods to control fungal diseases, primarily Ashy Stem Blight (Macrophomina phaseolina) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)...

E. C. Schroeder R. Echavez-Badel Y. A. Velazquez

1993-01-01

206

Nodules are induced on alfalfa roots by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium trifolii containing small segments of the Rhizobium meliloti nodulation region  

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Regions of the Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes from the symbiotic plasmid were transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium trifolii by conjugation. The A. tumefaciens and R. trifolii trans-conjugants were unable to elicit curling of alfalfa root hairs, but were able to induce nodule development at a low frequency. These were judged to be genuine nodules on the basis of cytological and developmental criteria. Like genuine alfalfa nodules, the nodules were initiated from divisions of the inner root cortical cells. They developed a distally positioned meristem and several peripheral vascular bundles. An endodermis separated the inner tissues of the nodule from the surrounding cortex. No infection threads were found to penetrate either root hairs or the nodule cells. Bacteria were found only in intercellular spaces. Thus, alfalfa nodules induced by A. tumefaciens and R. trifolii transconjugants carrying small nodulation clones of R. meliloti were completely devoid of intracellular bacteria. When these strains were inoculated onto white clover roots, small nodule-like protrusions developed that, when examined cytologically, were found to more closely resemble roots than nodules. Although the meristem was broadened and lacked a root cap, the protrusions had a central vascular bundle and other rootlike features. The results suggest that morphogenesis of alfalfa root nodules can be uncoupled from infection thread formation. The genes encoded in the 8.7-kilobase nodulation fragment are sufficient in A. tumefaciens or R. trifolii backgrounds for nodule morphogenesis.

Hirsch, A.M.; Drake, D.; Jacobs, T.W.; Long, S.R.

1985-01-01

207

Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), lentil (Lens culinaris M.) and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) in pots and fields. Twenty isolates of rhizobia were isolated from root nodules each of mung bean, lentil and chickpea and were screened under axenic conditions. On the basis of their promising performance under axenic conditions, nine most efficient isolates (three from each legume host) were selected, characterized and further evaluated for their growth promoting activities by conducting pot and field experiments. Results of pot experiment revealed that maximum increase in grain yield, 1000 grain weight, N, P and K uptake (up to 47.89, 54.52, 73.46, 84.66 and 59.19% by CRI28, respectively, over un-inoculated control) was produced by the isolate of Mesorhizobium ciceri. Whereas, maximum improvement in rest of the parameters was caused by the isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli (i.e. fresh biomass, straw yield and root length up to 36.30% by A18, 25.46% by S6 and 81.89% by A18, respectively over un-inoculated control). Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates came out to be the least effective among the species tested. Similarly, all the selected isolates improved the growth and yield attributing parameters in fields as well but with varying capacity compared with un-inoculated control. The selected isolates of Mesorhizobium ciceri and Rhizobium phaseoli again remained superior compared to the isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum under field conditions. The results of this study imply that rhizobium species had potential to promote growth and yield of maize but this technology should be employed after appropriate site specific investigations of particular rhizobial specie with respect to specific non-leguminous crop variety to get maximum benefit in terms of better growth and yield.

Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Khalid; Asif Tanveer

2012-01-01

208

Yield Performance of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) cv. Barimung-4 as Influenced by Rhizobium Inoculation and NPK Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the Regional Agricultural Research Station of Barisal, Bangladesh during the Kharif season of the year 2000 to find the optimum fertilizer rate for summer mungbean cv. Barimung-4 in an attempt to maximize the yield potential. In this regard, various combinations of NPK fertilizers and Rhizobium inoculation (N20P40K20 kg ha?1, P40K20 kg ha?1, N20K20 kg ha?1, N20P40 kg ha?1, N20 kg ha?1, Rhizobium + P40K20 kg ha?1, Rhizobium, and control) were imposed to the experimental plots. Results revealed that Barimung-4 produced the maximum seed (1270.21 kg ha?1) and straw yields (2434.36 kg ha?1) when the crop was fertilized with N20P40K20 kg ha?1 followed by Rhizobium + P40K20 kg ha?1 (1220.30 and 2406.14 kg ha?1, respectively. The lowest seed and straw yields were obtained from the control (887.01 and 1864.68 kg ha?1, respectively). Different plant characteristics such as plant height, branches/plant, pods/plant, pod length, seeds/pod, 1000-seed weight and harvest index increased significantly due to the application of various combinations of NPK fertilizers and Rhizobium inoculation over the control.

M.A. Rahman; N. Islam; A. Islam; M.K. Hassan; M.M.R. Talukder

2002-01-01

209

Synergism of VAM and Rhizobium on production and metabolism of IAA in roots and root nodules of Vigna mungo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mature and healthy root nodules of Vigna mungo appeared to contain higher amount of indole-acetic acid (IAA) than non-nodulated roots. Dual effect of VAM fungus, Glomus fasciculatum and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Rhizobium sp. on the nodulation of roots of V. mungo was studied. It was recorded that the roots which were inoculated simultaneously with both the symbionts i.e., G. fasciculatum and Rhizobium exhibited greater amount of IAA production than the non-inoculated roots. A tryptophan pool present in the mature nodules and young leaves might serve as a precursor for IAA production in the roots and in the nodules. Activity of IAA-metabolizing enzymes, such as IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase was investigated which indicates the active metabolism of IAA in roots and nodules. The Rhizobium symbiont isolated from fresh nodules of V. mungo produced significant amount of IAA under in vitro condition when tryptophan was added to the medium as precursor. Present study represents some beneficial effects of Rhizobium and G. fasciculatum on the production and metabolism of IAA in roots and nodules of V. mungo. The important physiological implication of the study on IAA production and its metabolism in Rhizobium-Legume-VAM tripartite symbiosis is certainly representing a new approach to satisfy the hormonal balance in the host plant.

Chakrabarti J; Chatterjee S; Ghosh S; Chatterjee NC; Dutta S

2010-09-01

210

Synergism of VAM and Rhizobium on production and metabolism of IAA in roots and root nodules of Vigna mungo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mature and healthy root nodules of Vigna mungo appeared to contain higher amount of indole-acetic acid (IAA) than non-nodulated roots. Dual effect of VAM fungus, Glomus fasciculatum and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Rhizobium sp. on the nodulation of roots of V. mungo was studied. It was recorded that the roots which were inoculated simultaneously with both the symbionts i.e., G. fasciculatum and Rhizobium exhibited greater amount of IAA production than the non-inoculated roots. A tryptophan pool present in the mature nodules and young leaves might serve as a precursor for IAA production in the roots and in the nodules. Activity of IAA-metabolizing enzymes, such as IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase was investigated which indicates the active metabolism of IAA in roots and nodules. The Rhizobium symbiont isolated from fresh nodules of V. mungo produced significant amount of IAA under in vitro condition when tryptophan was added to the medium as precursor. Present study represents some beneficial effects of Rhizobium and G. fasciculatum on the production and metabolism of IAA in roots and nodules of V. mungo. The important physiological implication of the study on IAA production and its metabolism in Rhizobium-Legume-VAM tripartite symbiosis is certainly representing a new approach to satisfy the hormonal balance in the host plant. PMID:20306316

Chakrabarti, Jayanta; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Sisir; Chatterjee, Narayan Chandra; Dutta, Sikha

2010-03-21

211

Evaluation of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seeds Inoculation with Rhizobium phaseoli and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield and Yield Components  

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Full Text Available To study the effect of co-inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Rhizobium, on yield and yield components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars was investigated in 2 consecutive years under field condition of plant growing evidence indicates that soil beneficial bacteria can positively affect symbiotic performance of rhizobia. PGPR strains Pseudomonas fluorescens P-93 and Azospirillum lipoferum S-21 as well as two highly effective Rhizobium strains were used in this study. Common bean seeds of three cultivars were inoculated with Rhizobium singly or in a combination with PGPR to evaluate their effect on growth characters. A significant variation of plant growth in response to inoculation with Rhizobium strains was observed. Treatment with PGPR significantly increased pod per plant, number of seeds per pod, weight of 100 seed, weight of seeds per plant, weight of pods per plant, total dry matter in R6 as well as seed yield and protein content. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR demonstrated a significant increase in the yield and yield components. The results showed that all treatments of bacteria increased yield; however, strains Rb-133 with Pseudomonas fluorescens P-93 gave the highest seed yield, number of pods per plant, weight of 100 seed, seed protein yield, number seed per pod, seed protein yield.

M. Yadegari; H.A. Rahmani; G. Noormohammadi; A. Ayneband

2008-01-01

212

Effects of salt and pH stress on temperature-tolerant Rhizobium sp. NBRI330 nodulating Prosopis juliflora.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted to examine the growth response of a rhizobial strain Rhizobium sp. NBRI330 isolated from root nodules of Prosopis juliflora growing in alkaline soil. The strain had the ability to nodulate P. juliflora. Nursery grown plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. NBRI330 had 60.6% higher plant dry weight, as compared with uninoculated plants. The individual stress survival limit of a rhizobial strain Rhizobium sp. NBRI330 isolated from alkaline soil in a medium containing 32% (wt/vol) salt was 8 h, and at 55 degrees C up to 3 h. The length of Rhizobium sp. NBRI330 in salt-stressed cells increased significantly to 3.04 microm from 1.75 microm of non-stressed control cells. On the contrary, the length of pH-stressed cells declined to 1.40 microm. Compared with non-stressed control rod-shaped cells, the shape of temperature-stressed cells changed to spherical, of 0.42 microm diameter. High temperature (45 degrees C) was tolerated efficiently by Rhizobium sp. NBRI330 in the presence of salt at pH 12, as compared with pH 7.

Kulkarni S; Nautiyal CS

2000-04-01

213

Effects of salt and pH stress on temperature-tolerant Rhizobium sp. NBRI330 nodulating Prosopis juliflora.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to examine the growth response of a rhizobial strain Rhizobium sp. NBRI330 isolated from root nodules of Prosopis juliflora growing in alkaline soil. The strain had the ability to nodulate P. juliflora. Nursery grown plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. NBRI330 had 60.6% higher plant dry weight, as compared with uninoculated plants. The individual stress survival limit of a rhizobial strain Rhizobium sp. NBRI330 isolated from alkaline soil in a medium containing 32% (wt/vol) salt was 8 h, and at 55 degrees C up to 3 h. The length of Rhizobium sp. NBRI330 in salt-stressed cells increased significantly to 3.04 microm from 1.75 microm of non-stressed control cells. On the contrary, the length of pH-stressed cells declined to 1.40 microm. Compared with non-stressed control rod-shaped cells, the shape of temperature-stressed cells changed to spherical, of 0.42 microm diameter. High temperature (45 degrees C) was tolerated efficiently by Rhizobium sp. NBRI330 in the presence of salt at pH 12, as compared with pH 7. PMID:10688689

Kulkarni, S; Nautiyal, C S

2000-04-01

214

Mathématiques, Mind et Geist.  

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Full Text Available L’article est une exploration systématique de la dualité des figures du Mind et du Geist, le premier étant entendu comme l’esprit en tant que partie de la nature scientifiquement objectivable, le second comme l’esprit en tant qu’acteur immatériel insaisissable de la pensée. De plus, cette dualité est étudiée du point de vue de l’interférence de la mathématique avec elle, dans plusieurs contextes. Sont ainsi successivement analysés : le conflit entre les deux « modèles » du Mind, le computationnaliste et le dynamiciste; la définition philosophique et la définition épistémologique du Geist ; le jeu entre Mind et Geist dans les recherches cognitives contemporaines ; l’ambivalence de la logique et des mathématiques vis-à-vis de l’opposition Mind/Geist. Dans la partie finale, on propose une définition personnelle du Geist–en termes d’adresse et de sujet–dont dérive une détermination du Mind. Revenant sur ces nouvelles bases à l’interférence avec la mathématique, on conclut sur la question essentielle et délicate de la paramétrisation de la conscience.This paper systematically investigates the conflicting figures of Mind and Geist : Mind has to be understood as some part of nature likely to become the object of science, while Geist names the unmaterial unseizable protagonist of thought. Further, the opposition of the two figures is studied in the light of the way mathematics interfere with it, in several contexts. This leads to following analyses : how computational and dynamicist models of Mind compete within cognitive science; how Geist may be defined philosophically and epistemologically ; how Mind and Geist differently come to be considered or to be aimed at within contemporary cognitive research ; how mathematics and logic play an ambivalent part with respect to the Mind/Geist opposition. In the final section of the paper, a personal definition of the Geist–in terms of address and subject–is proposed, which also leads to some conceptual determination of the Mind. Coming back to the interference with mathematics on this new basis, the paper concludes by an examination of the difficult question of the parametrization of consciousness.

Jean-Michel Salanskis

2004-01-01

215

Gérer et alerter  

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Full Text Available Sur la base de deux événements d’inondation ayant touché récemment, dans des contextes politiques, organisationnels et hydrologiques bien différents, de nouveaux quartiers d’habitation, cet article rend compte des pratiques des acteurs impliqués dans des situations d’alerte et de crise en Suisse. Le recensement des acteurs – à travers leur rôle et leur place dans les mécanismes de préparation, d’alerte et de gestion –, ainsi que l’inventaire des documents mobilisés par ceux-ci, ont été réalisés dans les deux cas. Cette analyse a permis d’évaluer la gestion des événements, de déceler les changements organisationnels qui ont suivi les crises et de connaître la conception et le degré de formalisation du risque dont étaient dotés les différents acteurs avant et après les inondations. Plus encore, l’analyse a documenté les nouveaux processus d’alerte et de prévision qui ont été mis en place suite aux événements. Il s’avère ainsi que les épisodes d’inondation agissent de façon décisive sur la production de connaissances, à un degré variable selon les acteurs. Ces épisodes révèlent aussi parfois l’existence de connaissances « en attente » qui ne sont pas encore intégrées dans les procédures institutionnelles. Tant du point de vue de la prévision que de la gestion de la crise, ils permettent aussi de tester les canaux de l’information et de combler les déficits d’organisation, de collaboration et de sécurisation des dispositifs de communication. En outre, les risques et les crises liés aux inondations modifient les dynamiques et les politiques territoriales, conséquences du réajustement des réseaux d’acteurs. La mise en place de dispositifs d’intervention et de gestion de crise se montre cependant plus efficace que la refonte des dispositifs d’aménagement, généralement longue. Toutefois, la mémoire des événements se dégradant avec le temps, une inscription territoriale du risque s’avère nécessaire.Based on two flood events that recently affected new housing areas in very different political, organisational and hydrological contexts, this article examines the practices of actors involved in emergency and crisis situations in Switzerland. In both cases, the actors are identified – through their role and their position in the various procedures related to crisis management – and an inventory is made of the documents used. The study examines how the flood events were managed, identifies the organisational changes that followed the crises, and determines how the risk was conceived and to what extent it was formalised by the different actors both before and after the floods. Finally new forecasting and warning procedures that were set up following the events are described. The study shows that floods have a decisive impact on the production of knowledge, but that this phenomenon varies according to the actors. Events such as floods also sometimes reveal the existence of "latent" knowledge, or knowledge that is available but has not yet been integrated into institutional procedures. In terms of both forecasting and crisis management, these events also provide the opportunity to test information channels and to identify and correct any problems relating to organisation, cooperation or the reliability of means of communication. Among other things, the risks and crises related to flooding modify the dynamics and policies of the local area as a result of readjustments in the networks of actors. The introduction of emergency and crisis management measures appears more effective, however, than the reorganisation of planning and development procedures, a process which generally takes a lot longer. Nevertheless, since the recollection of events tends to fade with time, it is important that risks find a more concrete form of spatial expression on the landscape.

Valérie November; Reynald Delaloye; Marion Penelas

2009-01-01

216

Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Wolf Creek Generating Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. STN 50-482, Kansas Gas and Electric Company, et al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial- and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Air-quality impacts will also be small. However, steam fog from the station's cooling lake has the potential for reducing visibility over nearby roads and bridges. A fog-monitoring program for roads and bridges near the lake has been recommended. Impacts to historic and prehistoric sites will be negligible. Chemical discharges to the Neosho River are expected to have no appreciable impacts on water quality under normal conditions and will be required to meet conditions of the station's NPDES permit. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission line facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for the Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1

1982-01-01

217

Bouvard et Pécuchet et le savoir médical  

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Full Text Available Le présent article a pour objet le dossier médical que Flaubert a constitué pour la préparation du chapitre III de Bouvard et Pécuchet. Ce dossier considérable, qui contient des notes de lecture prises par le romancier en vue de la rédaction du chapitre médical, nous permet de comprendre à quel point le « comique d’idées » propre au roman encyclopédique est le produit d’un travail intense sur le savoir. L’écriture romanesque de Bouvard explore en effet les configurations épistémologiques de chaque discipline, et met au jour surtout ses apories et ses insuffisances. Nous nous proposons donc d’aborder le dossier médical pour saisir le sens de l’excès documentaire pour l’esthétique flaubertienne. Notre étude se compose de trois parties. D’abord, nous étudierons la composition du dossier en nous demandant quels ouvrages médicaux a lu l’auteur de Bouvard. Ensuite, nous essaierons d’examiner le travail critique de Flaubert pratiqué sur les discours du savoir, en particulier la manière dont il traque et construit des contradictions. Enfin, nous analyserons un épisode du roman, celui de la fièvre typhoïde de Gouy, dont l’étude de la genèse nous montrera l’inscription de l’épistémologique dans la représentation romanesque.This article proposes to study the medical documents gathered by Flaubert for the preparation of Chapter III of Bouvart et Pécuchet. This substantial file, which contains reading notes taken by the novelist for the writing of the medical chapter, allows us to understand to what extent the “comic of ideas”, characteristic of the encyclopedic novel, is the result of an intensive work on knowledge. Indeed, the novelistic writing of Bouvard explores the epistemological configurations of each discipline, and in particular reveals its aporia and its insufficiencies. We have chosen to focus on the medical file in order to understand the meaning of the documentary excess with respect toFlaubert’s esthetics. First we shall study the components of the file, identifying the medical works read by the author of Bouvard. Then we will examine Flaubert’s critical reflection on knowledge, in particular the way he hunts down and constructs contradictions. Finally, we will analyze an episode in the novel, that of Gouy’s typhoid fever. We shall study its genesis which will show the presence of the epistemological in the art of the novel.

Norioki Sugaya

2009-01-01

218

Magnesium-content of Rhizobium nodules in different plants: the importance of magnesium in nitrogen-fixation of nodules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Rhizobium bacteria induce nodules (tumors) in roots of leguminous crops that fix nitrogen (N2) from the atmosphere. METHODS: Trials were carried on in sterile perlite where two species of peas were grown hydroponically, and in two different soil types (brown forest soil and meadow silt soil), in a field where different leguminous plants were chosen for test plants: lupin, soybean, broad-bean, lentil and bean inoculated by Rhizobium bacteria. The Mg-content of the nutrient solution was higher than that of the control, but in the soil tests 1% Mg leaf fertilization was applied after bacterial inoculation. Number, weight and Mg-content of nodules were evaluated using an AAS method compared with the thick and thin hair/roots of the given plant. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results clearly show that the Mg nutrition treatment increased the number of Rhizobium nodules and their Mg-content, resulting in increased N2-fixation and yield.

Kiss SA; Stefanovits-Bányai E; Takács-Hájos M

2004-12-01

219

Symbiotic effectiveness and ecological characterization of indigenous Rhizobium loti populations in Uruguay Eficiência simbiótica e caracterização ecológica de uma população nativa de Rhizobium loti no Uruguai  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to describe the distribution, density and seasonal variation of the indigenous populations of Rhizobium loti in different Uruguayan soils and to determine the symbiotic effectiveness and stress tolerance factors of different isolates, both with the aim of obtaining selected strains to re-introduce as inoculants in Lotus pastures. R. loti was present in ten soils studied and their densities varied from year to year and within each soil. All the isolates nodulated Lotus corniculatus effectively. The nodules in Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus subbiflorus were small, red on the surface and ineffective in nitrogen fixation. The study of 50 isolates from the ten soils showed high variability in their symbiotic efficiency and tolerance to pH. The indigenous population was acid tolerant in culture medium (pH 4.5), 83% of them could grow at pH 4.5 in 3 days. This work showed that there was a great diversity between the strains of R. loti isolated from Uruguayan soils and supports the importance of selecting among them the most efficient and resistant strains to be included in the inoculants.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram descrever a distribuição, densidade e variação sazonal de populações nativas de Rhizobium loti em diferentes solos uruguaios, e determinar a eficiência simbiótica e os fatores de tolerância a estresse de diversos isolados, tendo em vista a obtenção de cepas a serem reintroduzidas como inoculantes em pastagens de Lotus. Rhizobium loti estava presente em dez solos estudados, e suas densidades variavam de ano para ano e em cada solo. Todos os isolados nodularam efetivamente o Lotus corniculatus. Os nódulos no Lotus pedunculatus e no Lotus subbiflorus eram pequenos, vermelhos na superfície, e ineficazes na fixação de N. O estudo de 50 isolados dos dez solos mostraram alta variabilidade na sua eficiência simbiótica, e alta tolerância ao pH. A população nativa era tolerante à acidez em meio de cultura (pH 4,5); 83% dela pode crescer em pH 4,5 em três dias. O presente trabalho mostrou que há grande diversidade entre as cepas de R. loti isoladas de solos uruguaios, e acentua a importância de se selecionar entre elas as mais eficientes e resistentes, para serem incluídas como inoculantes.

Amalia Baraibar; Llillian Frioni; Maria Elena Guedes; Hans Ljunggren

1999-01-01

220

Symbiotic effectiveness and ecological characterization of indigenous Rhizobium loti populations in Uruguay/ Eficiência simbiótica e caracterização ecológica de uma população nativa de Rhizobium loti no Uruguai  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram descrever a distribuição, densidade e variação sazonal de populações nativas de Rhizobium loti em diferentes solos uruguaios, e determinar a eficiência simbiótica e os fatores de tolerância a estresse de diversos isolados, tendo em vista a obtenção de cepas a serem reintroduzidas como inoculantes em pastagens de Lotus. Rhizobium loti estava presente em dez solos estudados, e suas densidades variavam de ano para ano e em cada so (more) lo. Todos os isolados nodularam efetivamente o Lotus corniculatus. Os nódulos no Lotus pedunculatus e no Lotus subbiflorus eram pequenos, vermelhos na superfície, e ineficazes na fixação de N. O estudo de 50 isolados dos dez solos mostraram alta variabilidade na sua eficiência simbiótica, e alta tolerância ao pH. A população nativa era tolerante à acidez em meio de cultura (pH 4,5); 83% dela pode crescer em pH 4,5 em três dias. O presente trabalho mostrou que há grande diversidade entre as cepas de R. loti isoladas de solos uruguaios, e acentua a importância de se selecionar entre elas as mais eficientes e resistentes, para serem incluídas como inoculantes. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to describe the distribution, density and seasonal variation of the indigenous populations of Rhizobium loti in different Uruguayan soils and to determine the symbiotic effectiveness and stress tolerance factors of different isolates, both with the aim of obtaining selected strains to re-introduce as inoculants in Lotus pastures. R. loti was present in ten soils studied and their densities varied from year to year and within each soil. All (more) the isolates nodulated Lotus corniculatus effectively. The nodules in Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus subbiflorus were small, red on the surface and ineffective in nitrogen fixation. The study of 50 isolates from the ten soils showed high variability in their symbiotic efficiency and tolerance to pH. The indigenous population was acid tolerant in culture medium (pH 4.5), 83% of them could grow at pH 4.5 in 3 days. This work showed that there was a great diversity between the strains of R. loti isolated from Uruguayan soils and supports the importance of selecting among them the most efficient and resistant strains to be included in the inoculants.

Baraibar, Amalia; Frioni, Llillian; Guedes, Maria Elena; Ljunggren, Hans

1999-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Implementation and validation of the linear collider final focus prototype: ATF2 at KEK (Japan); Implementation et validation de la focalisation finale du collisionneur lineaire: ATF2 at KEK (Japan)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two linear collider projects (ILC and CLIC) require beam delivery systems with the same local chromaticity correction scheme in the final focus. ATF2 at KEK (Japan), an implementation of this scheme scaled down in energy, uses the beam extracted from ATF, which is one of the most successful damping rings in the world. The ATF2 goals are to prove the feasibility and the stability of the linear collider final focus system and to define and test the experimental correction procedures. The nominal beam sizes at the interaction point are 3 {mu}m horizontally and 37 nm vertically. The work in this thesis was started before the commissioning and covered its first year at KEK. At the beginning, we observed that the stripline BPMs were not working properly so we investigated their behavior in detail. The problem was characterized and later solved in 2010 by upgrading the electronics. We then developed an efficient procedure to check the modeling of the beam line, comparing measurements of transfer matrices to model predictions calculated on line. After obtaining a good agreement, we were able to successfully test the trajectory correction algorithm which had been developed, reducing the difference between BPM measurements and the target values down to 0.5 mm horizontally and 0.2 mm vertically. We also successfully developed an algorithm to reconstruct pulse to pulse beam trajectory fluctuations with sub-micron precision. This reconstruction also gave a precise determination of the energy fluctuation, allowing a global fit of the dispersion function along the beam line with a precision of a few mm. A simple and robust IP beam size tuning method using sextupoles displacements was also studied in simulation, whose performance indicates that, given some assumptions on the error level of the beam, convergence within 20% of the nominal beam size should be possible in 8 hours with a 80% probability. (author)

Renier, Y.

2010-06-15

222

Isolation and characterization of Azospirillum lipoferum locus that complements Rhizobium meliloti dctA and dctB mutations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A DNA probe containing the structural gene for dicarboxylate transport (dct A) of Rhizobium meliloti hybridized strongly with the fragments of Azospirillum lipoferum genomic DNA. A genomic library of A. lipoferum was screened for the dct A gene by complementation of a dct A mutant of Rhizobium meliloti. A recombinant cosmid, p37D, capable of restoring growth of the dct A mutant on dicarboxylates was isolated and found to hybridize to the dctA probe. The ability of p37D to complement the dct B mutant of R. meloliti indicated that dct A and dct B genes in A. lipoferum may be organized adjacent to each other.

Tripathi AK; Mishra BM

1996-05-01

223

Isolation and characterization of Azospirillum lipoferum locus that complements Rhizobium meliloti dctA and dctB mutations.  

Science.gov (United States)

A DNA probe containing the structural gene for dicarboxylate transport (dct A) of Rhizobium meliloti hybridized strongly with the fragments of Azospirillum lipoferum genomic DNA. A genomic library of A. lipoferum was screened for the dct A gene by complementation of a dct A mutant of Rhizobium meliloti. A recombinant cosmid, p37D, capable of restoring growth of the dct A mutant on dicarboxylates was isolated and found to hybridize to the dctA probe. The ability of p37D to complement the dct B mutant of R. meloliti indicated that dct A and dct B genes in A. lipoferum may be organized adjacent to each other. PMID:8640608

Tripathi, A K; Mishra, B M

1996-05-01

224

Isotopic discrimination of nitrogen associated with biological nitrogen fixation on the system Rhizobium versus beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two experiments were carried out in the greenhouse using a complete randomized experimental design. The first experiments was designed to assess the effect of three bean cultivars, inoculated with a mixture of efficient Rhizobium strains on the isotopic N discrimination at four development stages of beans plants. The second experiment was carried out to verify if there is any discrimination caused by the Rhizobium strains used. The plants of both experiments were grown in a N free medium, with 5 replicates. At the harvesting, ?N-15% was determined in the following parts of the bean plants: nodules, roots, shoots, cotyledons and pods. (author)

1989-01-01

225

Rhizobium meliloti Genes Encoding Catabolism of Trigonelline Are Induced under Symbiotic Conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobium meliloti trc genes controlling the catabolism of trigonelline, a plant secondary metabolite often abundant in legumes, are closely linked to nif-nod genes on the symbiotic megaplasmid pSym [Boivin, C., Malpica, C., Rosenberg, C., Denarie, J., Goldman, A., Fleury, V., Maille, M., Message, B., and Tepfer, D. (1989). In Molecular Signals in the Microbe-Plant Symbiotic and Pathogenic Systems. (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), pp. 401-407]. To investigate the role of trigonelline catabolism in the Rhizobium-legume interaction, we studied the regulation of trc gene expression in free-living and in endosymbiotic bacteria using Escherichia coli lacZ as a reporter gene. Experiments performed with free-living bacteria indicated that trc genes were organized in at least four transcription units and that the substrate trigonelline was a specific inducer for three of them. Noninducing trigonelline-related compounds such as betaines appeared to antagonize the inducing effect of trigonelline. None of the general or symbiotic regulatory genes ntrA, dctB/D, or nodD seemed to be involved in trigonelline catabolism. trc fusions exhibiting a low basal and a high induced [beta]-galactosidase activity when present on pSym were used to monitor trc gene expression in alfalfa tissue under symbiotic conditions. Results showed that trc genes are induced during all the symbiotic steps, i.e., in the rhizosphere, infection threads, and bacteroids of alfalfa, suggesting that trigonelline is a nutrient source throughout the Rhizobium-legume association. PMID:12354952

Boivin, C.; Camut, S.; Malpica, C. A.; Truchet, G.; Rosenberg, C.

1990-12-01

226

Nitrogen-fixing nodules with Ensifer adhaerens harboring Rhizobium tropici symbiotic plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ensifer adhaerens is a soil bacterium that attaches to other bacteria and may cause lysis of these other bacteria. Based on the sequence of its small-subunit rRNA gene, E. adhaerens is related to Sinorhizobium spp. E. adhaerens ATCC 33499 did not nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris (bean) or Leucaena leucocephala, but with symbiotic plasmids from Rhizobium tropici CFN299 it formed nitrogen-fixing nodules on both hosts. The nodule isolates were identified as E. adhaerens isolates by growth on selective media. PMID:11425750

Rogel, M A; Hernández-Lucas, I; Kuykendall, L D; Balkwill, D L; Martinez-Romero, E

2001-07-01

227

Nitrogen-fixing nodules with Ensifer adhaerens harboring Rhizobium tropici symbiotic plasmids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ensifer adhaerens is a soil bacterium that attaches to other bacteria and may cause lysis of these other bacteria. Based on the sequence of its small-subunit rRNA gene, E. adhaerens is related to Sinorhizobium spp. E. adhaerens ATCC 33499 did not nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris (bean) or Leucaena leucocephala, but with symbiotic plasmids from Rhizobium tropici CFN299 it formed nitrogen-fixing nodules on both hosts. The nodule isolates were identified as E. adhaerens isolates by growth on selective media.

Rogel MA; Hernández-Lucas I; Kuykendall LD; Balkwill DL; Martinez-Romero E

2001-07-01

228

[Production of inoculates for leguminous plants. Production of cellular suspensions of Rhizobium (Lotus group)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of culture medium composition and operative conditions on the cellular growth of Rhizobium sp (group Lotus) strain is studied. As much as 1 x 10(9) cell/ml were obtained in 16 hours using sucrose in the medium as carbon source. The best growth rate was obtained (mu = O,22 h-1) when the experiments were performed at 400 r.p.m. and one volume of air/volume of medium x minute (OAR = 793,0 ml of oxygen/1 h).

Balatti AP; Mazza LA; Lopreto CR

1977-05-01

229

Mutagenesis in pea (Pisum sativum L.) as a tool for studying plant Rhizobium symbiosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pea mutants for symbiotic characteristics were obtained by treating seeds with ethylmethanesulphonate. They consisted of 15 mutants with no nodules (nod-), 10 mutants with inefficient nodules (nod+fix-) and four hypernodulating mutants (nod++nts) that also express a nitrate tolerant character of nodulation and fixation; 6, 7 and 1 loci, respectively, were identified. Strain specificity was found between a (nod+fix-) mutant and two Rhizobium leguminosarum strains. These isogenic mutants were also used in an agronomic study of nitrogen nutrition and in a cytological study to determine the stage at which abortion of symbiosis occurs. (author). 16 refs.

1991-01-01

230

Growth response of Albizzia lebbek (L.) Benth. to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Trichoderma viride and Rhizobium leguminosarum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The synergistic effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomus mosseae and Acaulospora laevis), plant growth promoting bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum and Trichoderma viride on plant growth and some physiological parameters in Albizzia lebbek was studied. Dual inoculation of G. mosseae and T.viride was the best combination for increasing leaf area and stomatal conductance. The P content was also high in root (0.35±0.04) and shoot (0.28±0.03) in addition to chlorophyll in plants inoculated with G. mosseae plus T.viride after 90 days of inoculation under polyhouse conditions.

SAPANA SHARMA ASHOK AGGARWAL*

2011-01-01

231

Production and composition of extracellular polysaccharide synthesized by a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) was produced by a Rhizobium sp. isolated from the root nodules of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Maximum EPS production (346 mg l(-1)) was when the yeast extract basal medium was supplemented with mannitol (1%), biotin (1.5 mg l(-1)) and asparagine (0.3%). Ribose (53%) and mannose (47%) were the principle monomers of the EPS. Chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis showed that this polymer, which has Man(4)Rib(1) as an oligomeric subunit, has an apparent molecular mass of 750 kDa.

Mandal SM; Ray B; Dey S; Pati BR

2007-08-01

232

Production and composition of extracellular polysaccharide synthesized by a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.  

Science.gov (United States)

An extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) was produced by a Rhizobium sp. isolated from the root nodules of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Maximum EPS production (346 mg l(-1)) was when the yeast extract basal medium was supplemented with mannitol (1%), biotin (1.5 mg l(-1)) and asparagine (0.3%). Ribose (53%) and mannose (47%) were the principle monomers of the EPS. Chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis showed that this polymer, which has Man(4)Rib(1) as an oligomeric subunit, has an apparent molecular mass of 750 kDa. PMID:17487547

Mandal, Santi Mohan; Ray, Bimalendu; Dey, Satyahari; Pati, Bikas Ranjan

2007-05-09

233

Physiological distinctions of pea symbiotic mutants with various nodulation level under inoculation by Rhizobium leguminosarum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was focused on morphological and physiological peculiarities of pea plants with various nodulation ability under the infection by Rhizobium leguminosarum. Microscopic studies identified distinct features in formation of root nodules in different pea mutants. We revealed differences in the content of indole-acetic acid (IAA) in mutants in the root zones differing by sensibility to R. leguminosarum. It was concluded that hormonal system of plants plays an important role in control of nodulation process, and emergence of mutations inducing disturbance of nodule-forming ability apparently depends on root hormonal status, in particular, IAA concentration ensuring both formation of nodule meristem and further organogenesis of the nodule.

Akimova G. P.; Sokolova ?. G.; Maksimova L. A.

2012-01-01

234

Associação de Rhizobium sp. a duas leguminosas na tolerância à atrazina Association of Rhizobium sp. with two legumes on atrazine tolerance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A associação de bactérias a plantas tem sido estudada como uma possível tecnologia emergente, para fitorremediação de contaminantes, entre eles os herbicidas, que, por sua recalcitrância, ameaçam a qualidade do ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a tolerância de mucuna-anã (Stizolobium deeringianum Bort) e mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy), inoculadas e não inoculadas com Rhizobium sp., ao herbicida atrazina. Os tratamentos foram: plantas com inoculante + 0,1 g/m², 0,2 g/m² atrazina e sem atrazina (T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente), sem inoculante + 0,1 g/m², 0,2 g/m² atrazina e sem atrazina (T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Foram avaliados germinação, sobrevivência, número de nódulos, altura, biomassa verde, biomassa seca da parte aérea, após o crescimento das plantas por 50 dias em casa de vegetação. Nos tratamentos com inoculante, avaliou-se a porcentagem de germinação de plantas bioindicadoras (Bidens pilosa L.). Mucuna-preta e mucuna-anã demonstraram maior tolerância ao herbicida quando associadas ao Rhizobium. Os valores de sobrevivência de mucuna-preta, nas doses 0,1 e 0,2 g/m² de atrazina (T1 e T2), foram de 34 a 24% superiores aos observados nas mesmas doses, mas sem o inoculante (T4 e T5). Para mucuna-anã, T1 e T2 foram de 17 e 8% superiores a T4 e T5, respectivamente. As alturas médias de mucuna-anã em T1, T2 e T3 foram mais elevadas que em T4, T5 e T6, reforçando a importância do simbionte à resistência ao herbicida. Os resultados encontrados para as variáveis altura, biomassa verde e seca para mucuna-preta não apresentaram diferença estatística entre os tratamentos com e sem inoculante, mostrando uma resistência natural à atrazina e a possibilidade de atuar como planta remediadora. A germinação de B. pilosa indica uma possível degradação da atrazina no solo com ambas as espécies de mucunas inoculadas com Rhizobium sp.The association of bacteria with plants has been studied as a possible emerging technology for phytoremediation of contaminants, including herbicides, which pose as a threatening to environmental quality due to their recalcitrance. The aim of this study was to assess the tolerance of dwarf mucuna (Stizolobium deeringianum Bort) and black mucuna (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy) inoculated and uninoculated with Rhizobium to the herbicide atrazine. The treatments were: plants with inoculant + 0.1 g/m², 0.2 g/m² atrazine, and without atrazine (T1, T2 and T3, respectively), plants without inoculant + 0.1 g/m², 0.2 g/m² atrazine and without atrazine (T4, T5 and T6, respectively). The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with three replications. Plants were grown in a greenhouse for 50 days and the variables germination, survival, number of nodules, height, green/dry biomass of the aerial part were evaluated. In the treatments with inoculants, the germination percentage of bioindicator plants (Bidens pilosa L.) was also evaluated. Black mucuna and dwarf mucuna showed greater tolerance to the herbicide when associated with Rhizobium. The survival rates of black mucuna at the doses 0.1 and 0.2 g/m² atrazine (T1 and T2) were 34 and 24% higher than those observed at the same doses, but without the inoculant (T4 and T5). For dwarf mucuna, T1 and T2 were 17 and 8% higher than T4 and T5, respectively. The average heights of dwarf mucuna in T1, T2 and T3 were higher than in T4, T5 and T6, reinforcing the importance of the symbiont to the herbicide resistance. The results found for the variables height, green and dry biomass for black mucuna were not significantly different among the treatments with and without inoculant, showing a natural resistance to atrazine and the possibility of acting as a remediation plant. The germination of B. pilosa indicates a possible degradation of atrazine in the soil by both mucuna species inoculated with Rhizobium sp.

Danielle Camargo; Kelly Lopes Bispo; Luciane Sene

2011-01-01

235

Curriculum Development and Education for Living Together: Conceptual and Managerial Challenges in Africa. Final Report of the Seminar (Nairobi, Kenya, June 25-29, 2001) (Developpement du Curriculum et Education pour Vivre Ensemble: Problemes de Concepts et de Gestion en Afrique. Rapport Final du Seminaire (Nairobi, Kenya, 25-29 Juin 2001).  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Nairobi, Kenya, seminar sought to analyze existing official school curricula from the vantage point of their potential contribution to learning and to address the issue of curriculum management with a view to improving the capacity of basic schooling to contribute to enhanced social cohesion. This final report is divided into four parts. Part…

Aglo, John, Ed.; Lethoko, Mankolo, Ed.

236

Sequence analysis of hypothetical lysine exporter genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii from calamine old waste heaps and their evolutionary history.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to identify heavy metal detoxification system in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii isolated from Trifolium repens inhabiting old (70-100 years) Zn-Pb waste heaps in Poland by PCR reaction with czcD1 and czcD2 primers. By sequence analysis, four different genotypes of obtained amplicons were identified among eight examined isolates. Their sequence similarity ranged 91-99 %. They indicated the highest sequence identity to the hypothetical lysine exporter gene of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii WSM1325 (91-97 %) and 76-81 % sequence similarity to hypothetical lysine exporter genes of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii WSM2304 and R. etli CFN42 and CIAT652. On phylogenetic tree of obtained amplicons, all four studied R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii genotypes formed common monophyletic cluster with R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii WSM1325 at 100 % bootstrap support showing that all four amplicons obtained in PCR with czcD1 and czcD2 primers are fragments of hypothetical lysine exporter gene (lysE). We also suggest that Lys efflux exporter may participate in heavy metal transport out of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii cells.

Ole?ska E; Ma?ek W

2013-05-01

237

Lactose inhibits the growth of Rhizobium meliloti cells that contain an actively expressed Escherichia coli lactose operon.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Expression of the Escherichia coli lactose operon in Rhizobium meliloti 104A14 made the cells sensitive to the addition of the beta-galactosides lactose, phenyl-beta-D-galactoside, and lactobionic acid. Growth stopped when the beta-galactoside was added and viability decreased modestly during the ne...

Timblin, C R; Kahn, M L

238

Deduced products of C4-dicarboxylate transport regulatory genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum are homologous to nitrogen regulatory gene products.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have sequenced two genes dctB and dctD required for the activation of the C4-dicarboxylate transport structural gene dctA in free-living Rhizobium leguminosarum. The hydropathic profile of the dctB gene product (DctB) suggested that its N-terminal region may be located in the periplasm and its C-...

Ronson, C W; Astwood, P M; Nixon, B T; Ausubel, F M

239

[3H] dihydrostreptomycin accumulation and binding to ribosomes in Rhizobium mutants with different levels of streptomycin resistance.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rhizobium trifolii B1, a symbiotic nitrogen fixer, is sensitive to streptomycin (10 microgram/ml) and spontaneously produces spheroplast-like forms during cultivation. Streptomycin-resistant mutants selected with high doses of antibiotic (1,000 microgram/ml) showed pleiotropic changes, including los...

Zelazna-Kowalska, I

240

Rhizobium qilianshanense sp. nov., a novel species isolated from root nodule of Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During a study of the diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from root nodules of Oxytropis ochrocephala grown in the northwest of China, four strains were classified in the genus Rhizobium on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. These strains have identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, which showed a mean similarity of 94.4 % with the most closely related species, Rhizobium oryzae. Analysis of recA and glnA sequences showed that these strains have less than 88.1 and 88.7 % similarity with the defined species of Rhizobium, respectively. The genetic diversity revealed by ERIC-PCR fingerprinting indicated that the isolates correspond to different strains. Strain CCNWQLS01(T) contains Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone. The major fatty acids were identified as feature 8 (C18: 1?7c and/or C18: 1?6c; 67.2 %). Therefore, a novel species Rhizobium qilianshanense sp. nov. is proposed, and CCNWQLS01(T) (= ACCC 05747(T) = JCM 18337(T)) is designated as the type strain.

Xu L; Zhang Y; Deng ZS; Zhao L; Wei XL; Wei GH

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Evaluation of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seeds Inoculation with Rhizobium phaseoli and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield and Yield Components  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To study the effect of co-inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Rhizobium, on yield and yield components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars was investigated in 2 consecutive years under field condition of plant growing evidence indicates tha...

M. Yadegari; H.A. Rahmani; G. Noormohammadi; A. Ayneband

242

Three genes of a motility operon and their role in flagellar rotary speed variation in Rhizobium meliloti.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The peritrichous flagella of Rhizobium meliloti rotate only clockwise and control directional changes of swimming cells by modulating flagellar rotary speed. Using Tn5 insertions, we have identified and sequenced a motility (mot) operon containing three genes, motB, motC, and motD, that are translat...

Platzer, J; Sterr, W; Hausmann, M; Schmitt, R

243

PQQ-DEPENDENT ORGANIC ACID PRODUCTION AND EFFECT ON COMMON BEAN GROWTH BY RHIZOBIUM TROPICI CIAT 899  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 is capable of synthesizing inactive apo-glucose dehydrogenase (GDH). To become an active holo enzyme, GDH requires the cofactor pyrrolo quinoline quinone (PQQ). When R. tropici CIAT 899 was grown in a broth culture medium containing hydroxyapatite and PQQ, the pH decreased...

244

Identification of the Rhizobium meliloti alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhA) and heterologous expression in Alcaligenes eutrophus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A screen for Rhizobium meliloti genes which improve the growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus on sucrose identified the first alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhA) isolated from the Rhizobiaceae. R. meliloti adhA is constitutively expressed in A. eutrophus and has alcohol dehydrogenase activity. R. meliloti adhA mutants retain some alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

Willis LB; Walker GC

1998-05-01

245

Structures of the lipopolysaccharides from Rhizobium leguminosarum RBL5523 and its UDP-glucose dehydrogenase mutant (exo5)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rhizobial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required to establish an effective symbiosis with its host plant. An exo5 mutant of Rhizobium leguminosarum RBL5523, strain RBL5808, is defective in UDP-glucose (Glc) dehydrogenase that converts UDP-Glc to UDP-glucuronic acid (GlcA). This mutant is unable to syn...

Muszy?ski, Artur; Laus, Marc; Kijne, Jan W; Carlson, Russell W

246

Characterization and symbiotic importance of acidic extracellular polysaccharides of Rhizobium sp. strain GRH2 isolated from acacia nodules.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rhizobium sp. wild-type strain GRH2 was originally isolated from root nodules of the leguminous tree Acacia cyanophylla and has a broad host range which includes herbaceous legumes, e.g., Trifolium spp. We examined the extracellular exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by strain GRH2 and found three i...

Lopez-Lara, I M; Orgambide, G; Dazzo, F B; Olivares, J; Toro, N

247

Mimosine, a Toxin Present in Leguminous Trees (Leucaena spp.), Induces a Mimosine-Degrading Enzyme Activity in Some Rhizobium Strains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thirty-seven Rhizobium isolates obtained from the nodules of leguminous trees (Leucaena spp.) were selected on the basis of their ability to catabolize mimosine, a toxin found in large quantities in the seeds, foliage, and roots of plants of the genera Leucaena and Mimosa. A new medium containing mi...

Soedarjo, Muchdar; Hemscheidt, Thomas K.; Borthakur, Dulal

248

Study of final states involving 2 particle jets and missing energy with the DELPHI detector at LEP; Etude des etats finals contenant deux jets de particules et de l'energie manquante avec le detecteur DELPHI a LEP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The observation of the Higgs boson would be of great importance for the understanding of the electroweak symmetry breaking. In the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), the lightest Higgs boson is neutral and scalar, and its mass must be less than 130 GeV/c{sup 2}. In this thesis, we have studied events characterized by the presence of two particle jets and missing energy. This is a very clear signature of the production of the Higgs boson in association with a Z{sup 0} boson. This production is followed by the decay of the Higgs boson into a bb-bar pair and the Z{sup 0} boson in {nu}{nu}-bar pair. In these studies, it is important to detect all particles in order to achieve a good resolution in energy. For these reasons, we have devoted ourselves to improving DELPHI's hermeticity mainly in the regions located at 40 deg C and 140 deg C. Using the data collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP in 1998 and in 1999 at four different energies in the centre of mass ({radical}s = 189, 196, 200 and 202 GeV), no signal has been observed, allowing us to exclude the Higgs boson at 95 % confidence level up to a mass of: m{sub H} > 98.0 (98.5) GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% C.L. this analysis; m{sub H} > 103.9 (106.3) GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% C.L. DELPHI combined. The values in parentheses show the expected limits and indicate the sensitivity of the analysis. If these results are interpreted in the framework of the MSSM we obtain: m{sub h} > 85.0 (85.3) GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% C.L. Studying the same topology, we have also searched for a Higgs boson decaying into a pair of non detectable particles (Invisible Higgs) in association with a Z{sup 0} boson decaying into a quark/antiquark pair. In this case too, no signal has been observed, which can be translated into a lower limit on the mass of the Higgs boson at 95% confidence level: m{sub h{sub inv}} > 105.5 (105.3) GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% C.L. Finally, we have measured the production cross section of a pair of Z{sup 0} bosons where one decays to a quark/antiquark pair (all flavours) and the other to a pair of neutrinos. The result is in very good agreement with the value predicted by the Standard Model: {sigma}{sup NC02}/{sigma}{sup MS} = 0.94{+-}0.25 this analysis; {sigma}{sup NC02}/{sigma}{sup MS} = 1.04{+-}0.12 DELPHI combined. (author)

Ferrer Ribas, E

2000-05-09

249

The role of GSTs in the tolerance of Rhizobium leguminosarum to cadmium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A high intraspecific difference in cadmium (Cd) tolerance exits among Rhizobium leguminosarum strains. The higher tolerance to Cd appeared to be related to the efficiency of the glutathione (GSH)-Cd chelation mechanism, but it is not known how efficiency is influenced. Thus, in this work it was intended to investigate the traits behind the efficiency of intracellular Cd chelation by GSH. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) are a family of multi-functional dimeric proteins, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are implicated in a variety of stress conditions. The common feature of these enzymes is to catalyze the conjugation of the sulfur atom of GSH with a large variety of hydrophobic toxic compounds of both endogenous and exogenous origin. Taking into account the reactions catalyzed by GSTs, it was hypothesized that they could be involved in the GSH-Cd complex formation in R. leguminosarum. Differences in GSTs activity between strains could explain variation in Cd chelation efficiency detected among strains and, consequently, discrepancy in tolerance to Cd. Thus, GST isoforms of R. leguminosarum strains with distinct tolerances to Cd were purified and their activity investigated. The relationship between chelation efficiency and enzymatic activity of GSTs was demonstrated, supporting the hypothesis that GSTs, in particular one isoform, was involved in the formation of GSH-Cd complexes and in the tolerance of Rhizobium to Cd.

Corticeiro S; Freitas R; Figueira E

2013-08-01

250

The Rhizobium meliloti PII protein, which controls bacterial nitrogen metabolism, affects alfalfa nodule development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation involves the development of specialized organs called nodules within which plant photosynthates are exchanged for combined nitrogen of bacterial origin. To determine the importance of bacterial nitrogen metabolism in symbiosis, we have characterized a key regulator of this metabolism in Rhizobium meliloti, the uridylylatable P(II) protein encoded by glnB. We have constructed both a glnB null mutant and a point mutant making nonuridylylatable P(II). In free-living conditions, P(II) is required for expression of the ntrC-dependent gene glnII and for adenylylation of glutamine synthetase I. P(II) is also required for efficient infection of alfalfa but not for expression of nitrogenase. However alfalfa plants inoculated with either glnB mutant are nitrogen-starved in the absence of added combined nitrogen. We hypothesize that P(II) controls expression or activity of a bacteroid ammonium transporter required for a functional nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Therefore, the P(II) protein affects both Rhizobium nitrogen metabolism and alfalfa nodule development. PMID:9159400

Arcondéguy, T; Huez, I; Tillard, P; Gangneux, C; de Billy, F; Gojon, A; Truchet, G; Kahn, D

1997-05-01

251

Effects of simulated, acidified rain on nodulation of leguminous plants by Rhizobium spp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid to pH 3.2 inhibited Rhizobium nodulation of greenhouse- and field-grown kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgarius ''Red Kidney'') and greenhouse-grown soybeans (Glycine max ''Lee''). Plants were inoculated with Rhizobium and exposed at regular intervals to simulated rain of pH 3.2 +/- 0.1 or pH 6.0 +/- 0.2 at a rate of 1.9-5.7 cm/week for 1-9 weeks. Nodulation of kidney beans and soybeans exposed to acid ''rain'' (pH 3.2) was inhibited by 73%. Neither nitrogenase activity per plant nor nitrogenase activity per nodule formed was consistently inhibited, however. Nodulation of kidney beans was inhibited when ''rain'' of pH 3.2 was applied only to the foliage as well as when applied only to the soil or to the soil and foliage together. Inhibition of nodulation was partially or completely reversed in three or four soil types tested by addition of dolomitic lime (0.75 g/kg soil approx. = 1500 kg/ha). These results suggest that acidic precipitation is a potentially important environmental stress factor under marginal site conditions where bacterial symbiosis may be critical to the fitness of temperate leguminous plants.

Shriner, D.S.; Johnston, J.W.

1981-01-01

252

Studies on Nodulation, Biochemical Analysis and Protein Profiles of Rhizobium Isolated From Indigofera species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nodulation characteristics in five species of Indigofera viz., I .trita, I. linnaei, I. astragalina, I. parviflora and I. viscosa was studied at regular intervals on the plants raised in garden soil. Among the species studied, highest average number of nodules per plant of 23 with maximum sized nodules of 8.0 mm diameter was observed in I. astragalina. Biochemical analysis of root nodules of I. astragalina revealed that the leghaemoglobin content of nodules and nitrogen content of root, shoot, leaves and nodules were gradually increased up to 60 DAS, and then decreased with increase in age. Rhizobium isolates of five species of Indigofera were isolated and screened for enzymatic activities and total cellular protein profiles. All the five isolates showed nitrate reductase, citrase, tryptophanase and catalase activity while much variation was observed for enzymes like gelatinase, urease, caseinase, lipase, amylase, lysine decarboxylase and protease activities. Among the isolates studied, only the isolate from I. viscosa has the ability to solubilize the insoluble tricalcium phosphate. All the Rhizobium isolates exhibit similarity in protein content, except the isolate from I. viscosa which showed one additional protein band.

Kumari, B. S.; Ram, M. R.; Mallaiah, K. V.

2010-01-01

253

Effects of high temperature on survival, symbiotic performance and genomic modifications of bean nodulating Rhizobium strains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High temperatures can affect the survival, establishment and symbiotic properties of Rhizobium strains. Bean nodulating Rhizobium strains are considered particularly sensitive because on this strains genetic recombinations and/or deletions occur frequently, thus compromising the use of these bacteria as inoculants. In this study R. tropici and R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains isolated from Cerrado soils were exposed to thermal stress and the strains? growth, survival and symbiotic relationships as well as alterations in their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics were analyzed. After successive thermal shocks at 45ºC for four hours, survival capacity appeared to be strain-specific, independent of thermo-tolerance and was more apparent in R. tropici strains. Certain R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains had significant alterations in plant dry weight and DNA patterns obtained by AP-PCR method. R. tropici strains (with the exception of FJ2.21) were more stable than R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains because no significant phenotypic alterations were observed following thermal treatments and they maintained their original genotypic pattern after inoculation in plants.

Pinto Patrícia P.; Raposeiras Ruy; Macedo Andrea M.; Seldin Lucy; Paiva Edilson; Sá Nadja M.H.

1998-01-01

254

Rhizobium meliloti exopolysaccharide mutants elicit feedback regulation of nodule formation in alfalfa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nodule formation by wild-type Rhizobium meliloti is strongly suppressed in younger parts of alfalfa (Medicago sativum L.) root systems as a feedback response to development of the first nodules. Mutants of R. meliloti deficient in exopolysaccharide synthesis can induce the formation of organized nodular structures (pseudonodules) on alfalfa roots but are defective in their ability to invade and multiply within host tissues. The formation of empty pseudonodules by exo mutants was found to elicit a feedback suppression of nodule formation similar to that elicited by the wild-type bacteria. Inoculation of an exo mutant onto one side of a split-root system 24 hours before inoculation of the second side with wild-type cells suppressed wild-type nodule formation on the second side in proportion to the extent of pseudonodule formation by the exo mutants. The formation of pseudonodules is thus sufficient to elicit systemic feedback control of nodulation in the host root system: infection thread development and internal proliferation of the bacteria are not required for elicitation of feedback. Pseudonodule formation by the exo mutants was found to be strongly suppressed in split-root systems by prior inoculation on the opposite side with the wild type. Thus, feedback control elicited by the wild-type inhibits Rhizobium-induced redifferentiation of host root cells.

Caetano-Anolles, G.; Lagares, A.; Bauer, W.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-02-01

255

Variability of isolated colonies in bean nodulating Rhizobium strains before and after exposure to high temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Irregular response to bean plants to Rhizobium inoculation has been attributed to among other factors, low competitive ability, low N2 fixation efficiency and genetic instability of the symbiont. This genetic instability caused by high rates of genomic rearrangements and/or plasmid deletions can be accentuated by high temperatures. This fact may limit the utilization of these strains as inoculants, especially in tropical soils. In this study, the variability of isolated colonies derived from effective R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (SLP1.3 and BR 10.026) and R tropici (SLA2.2 and BR322) strains was evaluated before and after exposure to high temperatures (four consecutive thermal shocks at 45masculineC). This evaluation involved plant dry matter analysis of inoculated plants and genotypic (plasmid profile and genomic patterns via RAPD) analysis of the Rhizobium strains. The results evidenced that high temperature improve the natural performance variability especially between isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains. The plasmid profile of isolated colonies from R. tropici strains were identical regardless of temperature treatment whereas isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli alterations were detected especially after the thermal treatment. The genomic patterns generated by AP-PCR showed more alterations and genetic variation in isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains indicating that R. tropici strains are more stable and lower affected by high temperature.

Raposeiras Rui; Pinto Patrícia P.; Passos Raul V.M.; Seldin Lucy; Paiva Edilson; Scotti M. Rita; Sá Nadja M.H.

2002-01-01

256

Mimosine Content of Leucaena leucocephala and the Sensitivity of Rhizobium to Mimosine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mimosine was qualitatively and quantitatively estimated from the different parts of Leucaena leucocephala strains K-8 and K-67. The amount of mimosine as percentage of dry weight in the two strains were, respectively, as follows: seeds, 6.82, 9.98; old leaves, 1.5, 1.33; young leaves, 2.85, 3.33; main root, 1.13, 1.02; lateral roots, 1.46, 1.17; stems, 0.73, 0.33. Rhizobium isolates from L. leucocephala (UAS-Ll-8, UAS-Ll-67), Mimosa pudica (UAS-Mp) and Prosopis juliflora (UAS-Pj) formed an effective (nod(+) fix(+)) association with Leucaena, while an isolate from Crotalaria sp. (UAS-Cr) proved to be ineffective (nod(+) fix(-)). All isolates performed better than reference strain TAL-82. Strain UAS-Pj gave optimum nodulation and plant growth characteristics. The effect of mimosine on the vegetative Rhizobium cultures was studied by the lawn method of growing rhizobia, using 2.5 to 15 mg·ml(-1) mimosine. All the effective strains were stimulated by mimosine up to 7.5 mg·ml(-1)strains. UAS-Ll-8 and UAS-Ll-67 were stimulated up to 15 mg·ml(-1) of mimosine. The ineffective strain UAS-Cr was inhibited at all the concentrations of mimosine tried.

Mathews A; Vittal Rai P

1985-01-01

257

Revegetating fly ash landfills with Prosopis juliflora L.: impact of different amendments and Rhizobium inoculation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A revegetation trial was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of growing a legume species, Prosopis juliflora L., on fly ash ameliorated with combination of various organic amendments, blue-green algal biofertilizer and Rhizobium inoculation. Significant enhancements in plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, protein content and in vivo nitrate reductase activity were found in the plants grown on ameliorated fly ash in comparison to the plants growing in unamended fly ash or garden soil. Higher growth was obtained in fly ash amended with blue-green algae (BGA) than farmyard manure or press mud (PM), a waste from sugar-processing industry, due to the greater contribution of plant nutrients, supply of fixed nitrogen and increased availability of phosphorus. Nodulation was suppressed in different amendments of fly ash with soil in a concentration-duration-dependent manner, but not with other amendments. Plants accumulated higher amounts of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr in various fly ash amendments than in garden soil. Further, inoculation of the plant with a fly ash tolerant Rhizobium strain conferred tolerance for the plant to grow under fly ash stress conditions with more translocation of metals to the above ground parts. The results showed the potential of P. juliflora to grow in plantations on fly ash landfills and to reduce the metal contents of fly ash by bioaccumulation in its tissues.

Rai UN; Pandey K; Sinha S; Singh A; Saxena R; Gupta DK

2004-05-01

258

Mimosine Content of Leucaena leucocephala and the Sensitivity of Rhizobium to Mimosine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mimosine was qualitatively and quantitatively estimated from the different parts of Leucaena leucocephala strains K-8 and K-67. The amount of mimosine as percentage of dry weight in the two strains were, respectively, as follows: seeds, 6.82, 9.98; old leaves, 1.5, 1.33; young leaves, 2.85, 3.33; main root, 1.13, 1.02; lateral roots, 1.46, 1.17; stems, 0.73, 0.33. Rhizobium isolates from L. leucocephala (UAS-Ll-8, UAS-Ll-67), Mimosa pudica (UAS-Mp) and Prosopis juliflora (UAS-Pj) formed an effective (nod(+) fix(+)) association with Leucaena, while an isolate from Crotalaria sp. (UAS-Cr) proved to be ineffective (nod(+) fix(-)). All isolates performed better than reference strain TAL-82. Strain UAS-Pj gave optimum nodulation and plant growth characteristics. The effect of mimosine on the vegetative Rhizobium cultures was studied by the lawn method of growing rhizobia, using 2.5 to 15 mg·ml(-1) mimosine. All the effective strains were stimulated by mimosine up to 7.5 mg·ml(-1)strains. UAS-Ll-8 and UAS-Ll-67 were stimulated up to 15 mg·ml(-1) of mimosine. The ineffective strain UAS-Cr was inhibited at all the concentrations of mimosine tried. PMID:23195805

Mathews, A; Vittal Rai, P

2012-01-20

259

Revegetating fly ash landfills with Prosopis juliflora L.: impact of different amendments and Rhizobium inoculation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A revegetation trial was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of growing a legume species, Prosopis juliflora L., on fly ash ameliorated with combination of various organic amendments, blue-green algal biofertilizer and Rhizobium inoculation. Significant enhancements in plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, protein content and in vivo nitrate reductase activity were found in the plants grown on ameliorated fly ash in comparison to the plants growing in unamended fly ash or garden soil. Higher growth was obtained in fly ash amended with blue-green algae (BGA) than farmyard manure or press mud (PM), a waste from sugar-processing industry, due to the greater contribution of plant nutrients, supply of fixed nitrogen and increased availability of phosphorus. Nodulation was suppressed in different amendments of fly ash with soil in a concentration-duration-dependent manner, but not with other amendments. Plants accumulated higher amounts of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr in various fly ash amendments than in garden soil. Further, inoculation of the plant with a fly ash tolerant Rhizobium strain conferred tolerance for the plant to grow under fly ash stress conditions with more translocation of metals to the above ground parts. The results showed the potential of P. juliflora to grow in plantations on fly ash landfills and to reduce the metal contents of fly ash by bioaccumulation in its tissues. PMID:14987858

Rai, U N; Pandey, K; Sinha, S; Singh, A; Saxena, R; Gupta, D K

2004-05-01

260

Associação de Rhizobium sp. a duas leguminosas na tolerância à atrazina/ Association of Rhizobium sp. with two legumes on atrazine tolerance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A associação de bactérias a plantas tem sido estudada como uma possível tecnologia emergente, para fitorremediação de contaminantes, entre eles os herbicidas, que, por sua recalcitrância, ameaçam a qualidade do ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a tolerância de mucuna-anã (Stizolobium deeringianum Bort) e mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy), inoculadas e não inoculadas com Rhizobium sp., ao herbicida atrazina. Os tratamentos foram: (more) plantas com inoculante + 0,1 g/m², 0,2 g/m² atrazina e sem atrazina (T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente), sem inoculante + 0,1 g/m², 0,2 g/m² atrazina e sem atrazina (T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Foram avaliados germinação, sobrevivência, número de nódulos, altura, biomassa verde, biomassa seca da parte aérea, após o crescimento das plantas por 50 dias em casa de vegetação. Nos tratamentos com inoculante, avaliou-se a porcentagem de germinação de plantas bioindicadoras (Bidens pilosa L.). Mucuna-preta e mucuna-anã demonstraram maior tolerância ao herbicida quando associadas ao Rhizobium. Os valores de sobrevivência de mucuna-preta, nas doses 0,1 e 0,2 g/m² de atrazina (T1 e T2), foram de 34 a 24% superiores aos observados nas mesmas doses, mas sem o inoculante (T4 e T5). Para mucuna-anã, T1 e T2 foram de 17 e 8% superiores a T4 e T5, respectivamente. As alturas médias de mucuna-anã em T1, T2 e T3 foram mais elevadas que em T4, T5 e T6, reforçando a importância do simbionte à resistência ao herbicida. Os resultados encontrados para as variáveis altura, biomassa verde e seca para mucuna-preta não apresentaram diferença estatística entre os tratamentos com e sem inoculante, mostrando uma resistência natural à atrazina e a possibilidade de atuar como planta remediadora. A germinação de B. pilosa indica uma possível degradação da atrazina no solo com ambas as espécies de mucunas inoculadas com Rhizobium sp. Abstract in english The association of bacteria with plants has been studied as a possible emerging technology for phytoremediation of contaminants, including herbicides, which pose as a threatening to environmental quality due to their recalcitrance. The aim of this study was to assess the tolerance of dwarf mucuna (Stizolobium deeringianum Bort) and black mucuna (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy) inoculated and uninoculated with Rhizobium to the herbicide atrazine. The treatments were: (more) plants with inoculant + 0.1 g/m², 0.2 g/m² atrazine, and without atrazine (T1, T2 and T3, respectively), plants without inoculant + 0.1 g/m², 0.2 g/m² atrazine and without atrazine (T4, T5 and T6, respectively). The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with three replications. Plants were grown in a greenhouse for 50 days and the variables germination, survival, number of nodules, height, green/dry biomass of the aerial part were evaluated. In the treatments with inoculants, the germination percentage of bioindicator plants (Bidens pilosa L.) was also evaluated. Black mucuna and dwarf mucuna showed greater tolerance to the herbicide when associated with Rhizobium. The survival rates of black mucuna at the doses 0.1 and 0.2 g/m² atrazine (T1 and T2) were 34 and 24% higher than those observed at the same doses, but without the inoculant (T4 and T5). For dwarf mucuna, T1 and T2 were 17 and 8% higher than T4 and T5, respectively. The average heights of dwarf mucuna in T1, T2 and T3 were higher than in T4, T5 and T6, reinforcing the importance of the symbiont to the herbicide resistance. The results found for the variables height, green and dry biomass for black mucuna were not significantly different among the treatments with and without inoculant, showing a natural resistance to atrazine and the possibility of acting as a remediation plant. The germination of B. pilosa indicates a possible degradation of atrazine in the soil by both mucuna species inoculated with Rh

Camargo, Danielle; Bispo, Kelly Lopes; Sene, Luciane

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Genetics and biochemistry of the Rhizobium meliloti acidic extracellular heteropolysaccharide and its role in nodulation: Annual report for the period 1 June 1987-31 May 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The symbiotic association of Rhizobium with legumes results in a vital supply of inexpensive nitrogen for the growth of crops such as soybean and alfalfa. In a complex series of events, the bacterial symbiont, Rhizobium, induces the formation of a specialilzed root structure, the nodule. Rhizobium then enters the cells of the nodule and fixes nitrogen. We are interested in an extracellular polysaccharide, produced by Rhizobium, which is required for nodule entry. We have found that R. meliloti mutants which produce the polysaccharide but fail to enter nodules, actually produce an abnormal form of the polysacchardie which lacks succinate. Recently we have discovered a second polysaccharide which can be produced in place of the first polysacchaaride and also satisfy the requirement for nodule entry. We are studying the gentic regulation of the production of the two polysaccharides.

Leigh, J.A.

1988-01-01

262

Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information about specific projects using ET covers. There are three general approaches for non-conventional cover systems to achieve approval for installation; the first is when equivalent performance to conventional final cover systems can be demonstrated directly on site. This is the approach used by the Sandia study, by most ACAP sites, and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. A second approach is used when there are data from a site specific study such as an ACAP installation at a site that has analogous soil and climate conditions. Several sites in Colorado and Southern California have achieved approval based on data from similar sites. The third most common approach for regulatory approval is by installation of data collection systems with the agreement that the permanence of the ET cover installation is contingent on success of the cover in meeting certain performance goals. This article is intended as an introduction to the topic and is not intended to serve as guidance for design or construction, nor indicate the appropriateness of using an ET cover systems at a particular site.

Rock S; Myers B; Fiedler L

2012-01-01

263

Milieu interstellaire et fragmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: 1. Les phases du milieu interstellaire. 2. Abondances (élémentaires et moléculaires) et rapports isotopiques dans le milieu interstellaire. 3. Structure et fragmentation de la phase froide du milieu interstellaire.

Falgaronne, E.

264

Rhizobium lipopolysaccharide modulates infection thread development in white clover root hairs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between Rhizobium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and white clover roots was examined. The Limulus lysate assay indicated that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (hereafter called R. trifolii) released LPS into the external root environment of slide cultures. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that purified LPS from R. trifolii 0403 bound rapidly to root hair tips and infiltrated across the root hair wall. Infection thread formation in root hairs was promoted by preinoculation treatment of roots with R. trifolii LPS at a low dose (up to 5 micrograms per plant) but inhibited at a higher dose. This biological activity of LPS was restricted to the region of the root present at the time of exposure to LPS, higher with LPS from cells in the early stationary phase than in the mid-exponential phase, incubation time dependent, incapable of reversing inhibition of infection by NO3- or NH4+, and conserved among serologically distinct LPSs from several wild-type R. trifolii strains (0403, 2S-2, and ANU843). In contrast, infections were not increased by preinoculation treatment of roots with LPSs from R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 300, R. meliloti 102F28, or members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Most infection threads developed successfully in root hairs pretreated with R. trifolii LPS, whereas many infections aborted near their origins and accumulated brown deposits if pretreated with LPS from R. meliloti 102F28. LPS from R. leguminosarum 300 also caused most infection threads to abort. Other specific responses of root hairs to infection-stimulating LPS from R. trifolii included acceleration of cytoplasmic streaming and production of novel proteins. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicated that biologically active LPS from R. trifolii 0403 in the early stationary phase had less fucose but more 2-O-methylfucose, quinovosamine, 3,6-dideoxy-3-(methylamino)galactose, and noncarbohydrate substituents (O-methyl, N-methyl, and acetyl groups) on glycosyl components than did inactive LPS in the mid-exponential phase. We conclude that LPS-root hair interactions trigger metabolic events that have a significant impact on successful development of infection threads in this Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. PMID:1885517

Dazzo, F B; Truchet, G L; Hollingsworth, R I; Hrabak, E M; Pankratz, H S; Philip-Hollingsworth, S; Salzwedel, J L; Chapman, K; Appenzeller, L; Squartini, A

1991-09-01

265

Efeito residual da vinhaça na população autóctone de Rhizobium do solo Residual effects of sugar cane vinasse on indigenous Rhizobia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A adição de vinhaça na cultura canavieira tem sido praticada em áreas próximas às usinas de cana. Seria de interesse a avaliação do efeito da vinhaça no Rhizobium presente no solo (autóctone), uma vez que leguminosas têm sido indicadas para cultivo intercalar com a cana. Um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de verificar a influência da aplicação contínua, durante três anos, de concentrações crescentes de vinhaça (0, 100 e 1.000 m³/ha/ano), com intervalos de seis meses entre aplicações, na população autóctone de Rhizobium que nodula amendoim, soja, feijão e crotalária. Em cada cultura, foram usados controle com solo sem adição da vinhaça e um tratamento inoculado com uma estirpe de Rhizobium de conhecida eficiência, recomendada para a cultura. Uma análise do efeito de uma dose adicional de 1,5 ppm do herbicida 2,4-D no tratamento com 100 m³/ha/ano foi também efetuada. Apesar de os resultados serem variados entre as culturas, ocorreram efeitos da vinhaça sobre a população de Rhizobium, causando aumentos de nodulação na crotalária e diminuição no amendoim. Não foram observados efeitos na nodulação do feijoeiro em nenhum dos tratamentos com a vinhaça, nem na soja, que nodulou somente com a dose mais elevada, sugerindo que o Rhizobium japonicum no solo estudado estava presente em baixo número. O tratamento com herbicida mostrou tendência de favorecer a nodulação e, conseqüentemente, a fixação biológica de N2, medida através do N na planta.The addition of vinasse on sugar cane plantations nearby alcohol fermentation plants is a common practice. Legumes are recommended to be intercropped with sugar cane. A greenhouse experiment was carried out with the objective of verifying the influence of continuous application of vinasse (0; 100 and 1000 m³/ha/year) at six month interval during three years on soil rhizobia which nodulate peanuts, soybeans, dry-beans and crotalaria. Controls without vinasse and with efficient Rhizobium sp. strain were maintained. The effect of 2,4 D application on the 100 m³ vinasse/ha treatment was also studied. Although results were variable and dependent on crop, the addition of vinasse influenced the rhizobia population, causing for instance, reductions on nodulation of peanuts and increases on that of crotalaria; no effects were observed either on drybeans or soybeans. Indigenous population of soybean Rhizobiun was inexpressive. The herbicide treatment showed tendency to favour nodulation and consequently N2 fixation.

Eli Sidney Lopes; Sonia Cristina Perón; Edilberto Princi Portugal; Antonio Roberto Giardini

1986-01-01

266

Rapport final de la Collaboration CERN-CNRS pour la construction du LHC Accord Technique d'Exécution No 2 Cryostats et assemblage des sections droites courtes (SSS) du LHC  

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Depuis 1995 et suite à la signature du protocole de Collaboration, le CERN, le CEA et le CNRS ont étroitement collaboré dans le cadre de la contribution exceptionnelle de la France à la construction du LHC. Pour le CNRS, l'Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay a pris en charge deux Accords Techniques d'Exécution. Le premier concerne la conception et l'assemblage des Sections Droites Courtes de la machine, et le deuxième, l'étalonnage des thermomètres cryogéniques du LHC. Dans le cadre de l'Accord Technique d'Exécution N°2, le Bureau d'Etudes de la Division Accélérateur de l'IPNO et le groupe AT-CRI du CERN ont travaillé de concert pour mener à bien la conception des SSS (Short Straight Section) et de tous les équipements nécessaires à l'assemblage. Ce rapport a donc pour objectif de dresser, en termes d'historique, d'organisation, de résultats quantitatifs et qualitatifs et de moyens mis en ?uvre, un tableau aussi complet que possible du déroulement de cette Collaboration entre le CERN e...

Bergot, JB; Poncet, A; Rohmig, P; Roy, E; Vincent, D

2006-01-01

267

Molecular cloning and genetic organization of C4-dicarboxylate transport genes from Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cosmids containing C4-dicarboxylate transport (dct) genes were identified from a gene bank of Rhizobium leguminosarum DNA made in the broad-host-range vector pLAFR1 by their ability to complement R. trifolii dct mutants. The dct genes were further characterized by subcloning, restriction site mapping, and transposon Tn5 and Tn7 mutageneses. Three dct loci were identified within a 5.5-kilobase region of DNA, in the order dctA-dctB-dctC. The results suggested that dctA encoded a structural component necessary for C4-dicarboxylate transport, whereas dctB and dctC encoded positive regulatory elements, and that dctA was transcribed divergently from dctB and dctC. Expression of dctA and dctC was obtained from vector promoters in some pLAFR1- and pSUP106-based plasmids.

Ronson CW; Astwood PM; Downie JA

1984-12-01

268

Molecular cloning and genetic organization of C4-dicarboxylate transport genes from Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cosmids containing C4-dicarboxylate transport (dct) genes were identified from a gene bank of Rhizobium leguminosarum DNA made in the broad-host-range vector pLAFR1 by their ability to complement R. trifolii dct mutants. The dct genes were further characterized by subcloning, restriction site mapping, and transposon Tn5 and Tn7 mutageneses. Three dct loci were identified within a 5.5-kilobase region of DNA, in the order dctA-dctB-dctC. The results suggested that dctA encoded a structural component necessary for C4-dicarboxylate transport, whereas dctB and dctC encoded positive regulatory elements, and that dctA was transcribed divergently from dctB and dctC. Expression of dctA and dctC was obtained from vector promoters in some pLAFR1- and pSUP106-based plasmids. PMID:6094513

Ronson, C W; Astwood, P M; Downie, J A

1984-12-01

269

Bacteroid-encoded proteins are secreted into the peribacteroid space by Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacteroids of Rhizobium leguminosarum in root nodules of Pisum sativum are enclosed by a plant-derived peribacteroid membrane (PBM). The contents of the interstitial peribacteroid space (PBS) between bacteroid membrane and PBM were isolated by a controlled osmotic shock of PBM-enclosed bacteroids and analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Silver staining revealed approximately 40 PBS polypeptides. Ex planta 35S-methionine labeling of PBM-enclosed bacteroids revealed that about 90% of the PBS proteins are synthesized by the bacteroid. Approximately 30% of the PBS polypeptides are common between the PBS and the periplasmic space of free-living bacteria; one (38 kDa) PBS protein is also excreted by free-living bacteria in the bacterial culture medium. At least four bacteroid-encoded PBS polypeptides were clearly identified as symbiosis-specific.

Katinakis P; Lankhorst RMK; Louwerse J; Kammen Avan; Bos RCvanden

1988-01-01

270

Requirement of succinate dehydrogenase activity for symbiotic bacteroid differentiation of Rhizobium meliloti in alfalfa nodules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the cellular morphologies of a wild-type Rhizobium meliloti strain (L5-30), a nitrogen fixation-ineffective (Fix-) succinate dehydrogenase mutant (Sdh-) strain, and a Fix+ Sdh+ revertant strain within alfalfa nodules and after free-living growth in a minimal medium containing 27 mM mannitol plus 20 mM succinate. The results showed a requirement of succinate dehydrogenase activity for symbiotic differentiation and maintenance of R. meliloti bacteroids within alfalfa nodules and for succinate-induced cellular pleomorphism in free-living cultures. Also, the Sdh- strain had a 3.5-fold lower rate of oxygen consumption in the defined medium than did the wild type. PMID:3662521

Gardiol, A E; Truchet, G L; Dazzo, F B

1987-08-01

271

[Characterization of Rhizobium isolates from acid and alkaline soils in semi-arid regions of Pernambuco].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genetic variety of the Rhizobium isolates from acid and alkaline soils in the semiarid zone of Pernambuco state was evaluated through the use of 17 primers of arbitrary sequence. Amplified products were separated by electrophoresis in agarose gel at 1.4% and visualized by ethidium bromide coloration. The results obtained suggest a high genetic variety of the isolates in relation to the standard strain. Data were analyzed by UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average), based on Jaccard's coefficient and visualized through dendrograms. The strains isolated from the acid soils were included in one group whereas the strains from alkaline soils were located in other three groups. Meanwhile, one of the groups formed by strain Isol-14, isolated from acid soils is more related to the groups of strains isolated from acid soils than to the remaining groups from alkaline soils.

Da Silva ML; Burity HA; Figueiredo MV; De Freitas NS; Mergulhão AC; De Lyra MC

2002-10-01

272

Mutations inducing an active-site aperture in Rhizobium sp. sucrose isomerase confer hydrolytic activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sucrose isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of sucrose isomers of high biotechnological and pharmaceutical interest. Owing to the complexity of the chemical synthesis of these isomers, isomaltulose and trehalulose, enzymatic conversion remains the preferred method for obtaining these products. Depending on the microbial source, the ratio of the sucrose-isomer products varies significantly. In studies aimed at understanding and explaining the underlying molecular mechanisms of these reactions, mutations obtained using a random-mutagenesis approach displayed a major hydrolytic activity. Two of these variants, R284C and F164L, of sucrose isomerase from Rhizobium sp. were therefore crystallized and their crystal structures were determined. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants allowed the identification of the molecular determinants that favour hydrolytic activity compared with transferase activity. Substantial conformational changes resulting in an active-site opening were observed, as were changes in the pattern of water molecules bordering the active-site region.

Lipski A; Watzlawick H; Ravaud S; Robert X; Rhimi M; Haser R; Mattes R; Aghajari N

2013-02-01

273

Mutations inducing an active-site aperture in Rhizobium sp. sucrose isomerase confer hydrolytic activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sucrose isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of sucrose isomers of high biotechnological and pharmaceutical interest. Owing to the complexity of the chemical synthesis of these isomers, isomaltulose and trehalulose, enzymatic conversion remains the preferred method for obtaining these products. Depending on the microbial source, the ratio of the sucrose-isomer products varies significantly. In studies aimed at understanding and explaining the underlying molecular mechanisms of these reactions, mutations obtained using a random-mutagenesis approach displayed a major hydrolytic activity. Two of these variants, R284C and F164L, of sucrose isomerase from Rhizobium sp. were therefore crystallized and their crystal structures were determined. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants allowed the identification of the molecular determinants that favour hydrolytic activity compared with transferase activity. Substantial conformational changes resulting in an active-site opening were observed, as were changes in the pattern of water molecules bordering the active-site region. PMID:23385465

Lipski, Alexandra; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Robert, Xavier; Rhimi, Moez; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

2013-01-19

274

Increased pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase activity results in an alternative gluconeogenic pathway in Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) meliloti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The formation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is a major step in the gluconeogenic pathway in which tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates are converted to hexose sugars. In Rhizobium (now Sinorhizobium) meliloti this step is catalysed by the enzyme PEP carboxykinase (PCK) which converts oxaloacetate to PEP. R. meliloti Pck- mutants grow very poorly with TCA cycle intermediates as the sole source of carbon. Here, the isolation and mapping of suppressor mutations which allow Pck- mutants to grow on succinate and other TCA cycle intermediates is reported. Tn5 insertions which abolished the suppressor phenotype and mapped to the suppressor locus were located within the pod gene encoding pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK). Strains carrying suppressor mutations had increased PPDK activity compared to the wild-type. The suppressor phenotype was dependent on the combined activities of malic enzyme and PPDK, which thus represent an alternative route for the formation of PEP in R. meliloti. PPDK activity was not required for symbiotic N2 fixation.

Osterås M; Driscoll BT; Finan TM

1997-05-01

275

Isolation of a strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobacter) utilizing methylene urea (ureaformaldehyde) as nitrogen source.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methylene ureas (MU) are slow-release nitrogen fertilizers degraded in soil by microbial enzymatic activity. Improved utilization of MU in agricultural production requires more knowledge about the organisms and enzymes responsible for its degradation. A Gram-negative, MU-degrading organism was isolated from a soil in Sacramento Valley, California. The bacterium was identified as Agrobacterium tumefaciens (recently also known as Rhizobium radiobacter) using both genotypic and phenotypic characterization. The pathogenic nature of the organism was confirmed by a bioassay on carrot disks. The MU-hydrolyzing enzyme (MUase) was intracellular and was induced by using MU as a sole source of nitrogen. The bacterial growth was optimized in NH4Cl, urea, or peptone, whereas the production and specific activity of MUase were maximized with either NH4Cl or urea as a nitrogen source. The result has a practical significance, demonstrating a potential to select for this plant pathogen in soils fertilized with MU.

Koivunen ME; Morisseau C; Horwath WR; Hammock BD

2004-03-01

276

Phenotypic tests in Rhizobium species description: an opinion and (a sympatric speciation) hypothesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobia seem to have large degradative and metabolic capabilities that allow them to grow on diverse soil and rhizospheric substances, many of which are still unknown. Rhizobial genome sequences encode numerous transporters for unknown substrates, and transcriptomic studies have revealed genes with unknown functions that are highly expressed in roots or rhizospheres. It is proposed here that some of these unknown-function genes may have roles in the assimilation of root or soil substances and that rhizobial speciation avoids nutrient competition. Phenotypic tests, as currently performed in taxonomy (mainly for carbon and nitrogen usage), seem to underestimate rhizobial catabolic capabilities and the differences among species. Furthermore, considering that many Rhizobium transporter and catabolism genes are plasmid-borne, the value of phenotypic results in taxonomic studies is questionable. Genomotaxonomy could soon become a robust basis for proposing novel rhizobial species.

Ormeño-Orrillo E; Martínez-Romero E

2013-05-01

277

Requirement of succinate dehydrogenase activity for symbiotic bacteroid differentiation of Rhizobium meliloti in alfalfa nodules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the cellular morphologies of a wild-type Rhizobium meliloti strain (L5-30), a nitrogen fixation-ineffective (Fix-) succinate dehydrogenase mutant (Sdh-) strain, and a Fix+ Sdh+ revertant strain within alfalfa nodules and after free-living growth in a minimal medium containing 27 mM mannitol plus 20 mM succinate. The results showed a requirement of succinate dehydrogenase activity for symbiotic differentiation and maintenance of R. meliloti bacteroids within alfalfa nodules and for succinate-induced cellular pleomorphism in free-living cultures. Also, the Sdh- strain had a 3.5-fold lower rate of oxygen consumption in the defined medium than did the wild type.

Gardiol AE; Truchet GL; Dazzo FB

1987-08-01

278

Genetic analysis and regulation of the Rhizobium meliloti genes controlling C4-dicarboxylic acid transport.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genes controlling the transport of C4-dicarboxylic acids from Rhizobium meliloti have been cloned and analysed. The nucleotide sequence of the control region of the structural dctA and the regulatory dctBD genes has been determined. Comparison with the Rhizobium leguminosarum dct genes revealed a high degree of homology. Gene fusions to the enteric lacZY reporter gene were constructed and the expression of the dctA and dctBD genes studied under various physiological conditions. In free-living cells, the regulatory dctBD genes are absolutely required for the expression of the dctA gene. In the root nodule environment, a dctA::lacZY gene fusion was found to be expressed in an R. meliloti strain mutated in both the dctB and dctD genes, but not in a strain mutated in the dctB gene alone. The presence of the conserved upstream NifA-binding sites on the dctA promoter sequence, coupled with the fact that the dctA::lacZY gene fusion is not expressed in root nodules formed by a nifA mutant strain of R. meliloti, supports the suggestion that NifA may be involved in the symbiotic expression of dctA in the absence of the regulatory dctBD genes. Under micro-aerobic conditions, however, NifA induction alone is not sufficient for expression of the dctA promoter, even though the NifA-dependent nifHDK promoter is highly expressed under these conditions.

Wang YP; Birkenhead K; Boesten B; Manian S; O'Gara F

1989-12-01

279

Genetic analysis and regulation of the Rhizobium meliloti genes controlling C4-dicarboxylic acid transport.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genes controlling the transport of C4-dicarboxylic acids from Rhizobium meliloti have been cloned and analysed. The nucleotide sequence of the control region of the structural dctA and the regulatory dctBD genes has been determined. Comparison with the Rhizobium leguminosarum dct genes revealed a high degree of homology. Gene fusions to the enteric lacZY reporter gene were constructed and the expression of the dctA and dctBD genes studied under various physiological conditions. In free-living cells, the regulatory dctBD genes are absolutely required for the expression of the dctA gene. In the root nodule environment, a dctA::lacZY gene fusion was found to be expressed in an R. meliloti strain mutated in both the dctB and dctD genes, but not in a strain mutated in the dctB gene alone. The presence of the conserved upstream NifA-binding sites on the dctA promoter sequence, coupled with the fact that the dctA::lacZY gene fusion is not expressed in root nodules formed by a nifA mutant strain of R. meliloti, supports the suggestion that NifA may be involved in the symbiotic expression of dctA in the absence of the regulatory dctBD genes. Under micro-aerobic conditions, however, NifA induction alone is not sufficient for expression of the dctA promoter, even though the NifA-dependent nifHDK promoter is highly expressed under these conditions. PMID:2695394

Wang, Y P; Birkenhead, K; Boesten, B; Manian, S; O'Gara, F

1989-12-21

280

The common nodABC genes of Rhizobium meliloti are host-range determinants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Symbiotic bacteria of the genus Rhizobium synthesize lipo-chitooligosaccharides, called Nod factors (NFs), which act as morphogenic signal molecules on legume hosts. The common nodABC genes, present in all Rhizobium species, are required for the synthesis of the core structure of NFs. NodC is an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, and NodB is a chitooligosaccharide deacetylase; NodA is involved in N-acylation of the aminosugar backbone. Specific nod genes are involved in diverse NF substitutions that confer plant specificity. We transferred to R. tropici, a broad host-range tropical symbiont, the ability to nodulate alfalfa, by introducing nod genes of R. meliloti. In addition to the specific nodL and nodFE genes, the common nodABC genes of R. meliloti were required for infection and nodulation of alfalfa. Purified NFs of the R. tropici hybrid strain, which contained chitin tetramers and were partly N-acylated with unsaturated C16 fatty acids, were able to elicit nodule formation on alfalfa. Inactivation of the R. meliloti nodABC genes suppressed the ability of the NFs to nodulate alfalfa. Studies of NFs from nodA, nodB, nodC, and nodI mutants indicate that (i) NodA of R. meliloti, in contrast to NodA of R. tropici, is able to transfer unsaturated C16 fatty acids onto the chitin backbone and (ii) NodC of R. meliloti specifies the synthesis of chitin tetramers. These results show that allelic variation of the common nodABC genes is a genetic mechanism that plays an important role in signaling variation and in the control of host range. PMID:8986807

Roche, P; Maillet, F; Plazanet, C; Debellé, F; Ferro, M; Truchet, G; Promé, J C; Dénarié, J

1996-12-24

 
 
 
 
281

Effect of Rhizobium inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization on productivity of Pisum sativum L.  

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Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the second most important grain legume crop in the world which has a wide array of uses for human food and fodder. One of the major factors that determines the use of field pea is the yield potential of cultivars. Presently, pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds and foliar application of microelement fertilizers are prospective solutions and may be reasonable agrotechnical options. This research was undertaken because of the potentially high productivity of the 'afila' morphotype in good wheat complex soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vaccination with Rhizobium and foliar micronutrient fertilization on yield of the afila pea variety. The research was based on a two-year (2009–2010) controlled field experiment, conducted in four replicates and carried out on the experimental field of the Bayer company located in Modzurów, Silesian region. experimental field soil was Umbrisol – slightly degraded chernozem, formed from loess. Nitragina inoculant, as a source of symbiotic bacteria, was applied before sowing seeds. Green area index (GAI) of the canopy, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were determined at characteristic growth stages. The presented results of this study on symbiotic nitrogen fixation by leguminous plants show that the combined application of Nitragina and Photrel was the best combination for productivity. Remote measurements of the pea canopy indexes indicated the formation of the optimum leaf area which effectively used photosynthetically active radiation. The use of Nitragina as a donor of effective Rhizobium for pea plants resulted in slightly higher GAI values and the optimization of PAR and NDVI. It is not recommended to use foliar fertilizers or Nitragina separately due to the slowing of pea productivity.

Tadeusz Zaj?c; Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra; Andrzej Oleksy

2013-01-01

282

Presença e eficiência de Rhizobium Japonicum em solos cultivados ou não com soja, no estado deSão Paulo/ Presence and efficiency of Rhizobium Japonicum in soils previously cultivated and never cultivated with soybeans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foi conduzido um ensaio em solução nutritiva sem nitrogênio, com condições assépticas, usando-se como inoculantes para as plantas amostras de solos LR e LB coletadas em locais já cultivados e não com soja, com o objetivo de verificar a presença de Rhizobium capaz de nodular o cultivar santa-rosa. Verificou-se que solos ainda não cultivados com a leguminosa são desprovidos de Rhizobium japonicum, e também que essa bactéria é encontrada em solos previamente cultivados, fixando nitrogênio em quantidades equivalentes à de uma estirpe selecionada. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out in Leonard jars using Latosolic B Terra Roxa and Dark Red Latosol soil samples as inoculum to detect the presence and efficiency of rhizobia able to nodulate cultivar Santa-Rosa of soybean (Glycine max. (L) Merrill). Results have shown that no rhizobia were present in those soils. Rhizobium japonicum with efficiency comparable to a selected strain survived in the same soils, when they were previously cropped with inoculated soybeans.

Lopes, Eli Sidney; Giardini, Antônio Roberto; Kiihl, Romeu A. S.

1976-07-01

283

Evolución del tamaño y del peso del fruto de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) Liang et Fergurson) cultivar "Hayward" durante la etapa final de crecimiento/ Evolution of the size and weight of "Hayward" kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) Liang et Fergurson) cultivar during the final stage of growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó un ensayo durante tres años consecutivos con el fin de monitorear la evolución del tamaño y del peso de los frutos de una plantación comercial de kiwi variedad Hayward ubicada en la provincia de Córdoba. El objetivo fue determinar la evolución del peso y del tamaño del fruto durante la etapa final de crecimiento. Se seleccionaron doce plantas representativas y se realizaron cosechas durante cuatro semanas en tres años sucesivos desde el 4/3 al 24/3, a (more) partir de que los frutos alcanzaron 5° Brix. Las variables evaluadas fueron: peso del fruto, longitud del fruto, diámetro mayor y menor al momento de la cosecha y luego de seis días a temperatura ambiente. El peso del fruto se incrementó desde un valor mínimo de 83,71 g a 121,1 g. La pérdida de peso luego de seis días fue desde un mínimo de 3,11 g a un máximo de 6,01 g. La longitud pasó de 54,73 mm a 64,20 mm. El diámetro mayor pasó de 52,12 mm a 59,7 mm, presentando una disminución después de seis días de un mínimo de 0,27 mm a un máximo 7,12 mm. El diámetro menor pasó de 42 mm a 54,41 mm entre la primera y la cuarta cosecha. Todas las variables presentaron un incremento en la medida en que atrasaba la cosecha, lo que justifica una cosecha más tardía, en función del tamaño de los frutos. Abstract in english A follow-up trial of the evolution of fruit size and fruit weight of a "Hayward" kiwifruit cultivar was conducted in a commercial plantation in the province of Córdoba during three consecutive years. Twelve representative plants were selected and kiwifruit were harvested during three consecutive years, during four weeks, from March 4th to March 24th, when they reached 5° Brix. The examined variables were fruit weight, fruit length, major diameter and minor diameter of t (more) he fruit at the moment of harvest and after six days at room temperature. Fruit weight increased from a minimum value of 83.71 g to 121.1 g. After six days, the weight loss varied from a minimum of 3.11 g to a maximum of 6.01 g. Fruit length went from 54.73 mm to 64.20 mm. The major diameter varied from 52.12 mm to 59.7 mm presenting a decrease after six days from a minimum of 0.27 mm to a maximum of 7.12 mm. The minor diameter went from 42 mm to 54.41 mm between the first and the fourth harvest. All the variables showed an increase as the harvest was delayed, which seems to justify a later harvest considering the size of the fruit.

Ontivero Urquiza, Mónica G; Altube, Héctor Abel; Baghin, Leonardo

2012-12-01

284

Stimulation of indoleacetic acid production in a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo by root nodule phenolic acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of endogenous root nodules phenolic acids on indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by its symbiont (Rhizobium) was examined. The root nodules contain higher amount of IAA and phenolic acids than non-nodulated roots. Presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes, IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase indicate the metabolism of IAA in the nodules and roots. Three most abundant endogenous root nodule phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and p-coumaric acid) have been identified and their effects on IAA production by the symbiont have been studied in L-tryptophan supplemented yeast extract basal medium. Protocatechuic acid (1.5 microg ml(-1)) showed maximum stimulation (2.15-fold over control) of IAA production in rhizobial culture. These results indicate that the phenolic acids present in the nodule might serve as a stimulator for IAA production by the symbiont (Rhizobium). PMID:19151966

Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Santi; Mandal, Mahitosh; Das, Amit K; Das, Amit; Pati, Bikas R; Pati, Bikas; Ghosh, Ananta K; Ghosh, Ananta

2009-01-17

285

Stimulation of indoleacetic acid production in a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo by root nodule phenolic acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of endogenous root nodules phenolic acids on indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by its symbiont (Rhizobium) was examined. The root nodules contain higher amount of IAA and phenolic acids than non-nodulated roots. Presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes, IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase indicate the metabolism of IAA in the nodules and roots. Three most abundant endogenous root nodule phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and p-coumaric acid) have been identified and their effects on IAA production by the symbiont have been studied in L-tryptophan supplemented yeast extract basal medium. Protocatechuic acid (1.5 microg ml(-1)) showed maximum stimulation (2.15-fold over control) of IAA production in rhizobial culture. These results indicate that the phenolic acids present in the nodule might serve as a stimulator for IAA production by the symbiont (Rhizobium).

Mandal SM; Mandal S; Mandal M; Das AK; Das A; Pati BR; Pati B; Ghosh AK; Ghosh A

2009-04-01

286

Mimosine, a Toxin Present in Leguminous Trees (Leucaena spp.), Induces a Mimosine-Degrading Enzyme Activity in Some Rhizobium Strains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty-seven Rhizobium isolates obtained from the nodules of leguminous trees (Leucaena spp.) were selected on the basis of their ability to catabolize mimosine, a toxin found in large quantities in the seeds, foliage, and roots of plants of the genera Leucaena and Mimosa. A new medium containing mimosine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was used for selection. The enzymes of the mimosine catabolic pathway were inducible and were present in the soluble fraction of the cell extract of induced cells. On the basis of a comparison of the growth rates of Rhizobium strains on general carbon and nitrogen sources versus mimosine, the toxin appears to be converted mostly to biomass and carbon dioxide. Most isolates able to grow on mimosine as a source of carbon and nitrogen are also able to utilize 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, a toxic intermediate of mimosine degradation in other organisms.

Soedarjo M; Hemscheidt TK; Borthakur D

1994-12-01

287

Dual inoculation with an Aarbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus and Rhizobium to facilitate the growth of alfalfa on coal mine substrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Glomus mosseae and Rhizobium on Medicago sativa grown on three types of coal mine substrates, namely a mixture of coal wastes and sands (CS), coal wastes and fly ash (CF), and fly ash (FA). Inoculation with Rhizobium alone did not result in any growth response but G. mosseae alone displayed a significant effect on plant growth. G. mosseae markedly increased the survival rate of M. sativa in CS substrate. In CF and FA substrates the respective oven dry weights of M. sativa inoculated with G. mosseae were 1.8 and 5.1 times higher than those without inoculation. Based on nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) uptake and legume growth, the results also show that dual inoculation in CS and CF substrates elicited a synergistic effect. This indicates that inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may be a promising approach for revegetation of coal mine substrates.

Wu, F.Y.; Bi, Y.L.; Wong, M.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China)

2009-07-01

288

Rhizobium meliloti Nod factors elicit cell-specific transcription of the ENOD12 gene in transgenic alfalfa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracellular lipo-oligosaccharides of Rhizobium, known as Nod factors, play a key role in the molecular signal exchange which leads to the specific nitrogen-fixing symbiotic association between the soil microbe and its host legume. The biological activity of Nod factors and their perception by the host plant during the earliest stages of the Rhizobium/legume interaction have been studied using transgenic alfalfa carrying a fusion between the promoter of the early nodulin gene MtENOD12 and the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Histochemical staining has shown that GUS accumulates specifically in the differentiating root epidermis, prior to and during root hair emergence, within 2-3 h following the addition of purified Rhizobium meliloti Nod factors. This precocious transcriptional activation of the MtENOD12 gene, reminiscent of that observed after inoculation with intact Rhizobium, implies that the Nod factor signal can be perceived at a developmental stage preceding root hair formation. GUS activity can be detected following treatment with a wide range of R. meliloti Nod factor concentrations down to 10(-13) M, and furthermore, this rapid response to the bacterial elicitor appears to be non-systemic. Significantly, MtENOD12-GUS expression is not observed after inoculation with a R. meliloti nodH mutant which synthesizes exclusively non-sulphated Nod factors. Indeed purified Nod factors which lack the sulphate substituent are approximately 1000-fold less active than their sulphated counterparts. Thus, the triggering of ENOD12 transcription in the alfalfa root epidermis is a rapid molecular response which is subject to the same host-specificity determinant (Nod factor sulphation) that governs the interaction between alfalfa and its bacterial symbiont. PMID:7920714

Journet, E P; Pichon, M; Dedieu, A; de Billy, F; Truchet, G; Barker, D G

1994-08-01

289

Similarity between the Rhizobium meliloti fliP gene and pathogenicity-associated genes from animal and plant pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nucleotide sequence of the Rhizobium meliloti (Rm) fliP gene was determined. Rm strains carrying insertions within this gene were non-motile, lacked flagella and formed normal N2-fixing root nodules on alfalfa. The FliP protein showed similarity to several bacterial gene products involved in pathogenicity in both plant and animal pathogens. It is likely that all of these proteins share a common functional role in the secretion of specific proteins from bacterial cells. PMID:7828930

Finan, T M; Gough, C; Truchet, G

1995-01-11

290

Symbiotic Characteristics and Rhizobium Requirements of a Leucaena leucocephala x Leucaena diversifolia Hybrid and Its Parental Genotypes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 56-day-old plants, Leucaena leucocephala and its hybrid with L. diversifolia showed 100% more total N than did L. diversifolia. Significant (P < 0.01) host-inoculation interaction in total N was 14.4% of the total phenotypic variation. The most effective and competitive Rhizobium sp. for the leucaenas was TAL 1145. Three-strain mixed inoculation was inferior to TAL 1145 alone.

Somasegaran P; Martin RB

1986-12-01

291

Quantitative analysis of the naringenin-inducible proteome in Rhizobium leguminosarum by isobaric tagging and mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rhizobium-legume interaction is a critical cornerstone of crop productivity and environmental sustainability. Its potential improvement relies on elucidation of the complex molecular dialogue between its two partners. In the present study, the proteomic patterns of gnotobiotic cultures of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 grown for 6 h in presence or absence of the nod gene-inducing plant flavonoid naringenin (10 ?M) were analyzed using the iTRAQ approach. A total of 1334 proteins were identified corresponding to 18.67% of the protein-coding genes annotated in the sequenced genome of bv. viciae 3841. The abundance levels of 47 proteins were increased upon naringenin treatment showing fold change ratios ranging from 1.5 to 25 in two biological replicates. Besides the nod units, naringenin enhanced the expression of a number of other genes, many of which organized in operons, including ?(1-2) glucan production and secretion, succinoglycan export, the RopA outer membrane protein with homology to an oligogalacturonide-specific porin motif, other enzymes for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and proteins involved in the translation machinery. Data were validated at the transcriptional and phenotypic levels by RT-PCR and an assay of secreted sugars in culture supernatants, respectively. The current approach provides not only a high-resolution analysis of the prokaryotic proteome but also unravels the rhizobium molecular dialogue with legumes by detecting the enhanced expression of several symbiosis-associated proteins, whose flavonoid-dependency had not yet been reported. PMID:23580418

Tolin, Serena; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Moscatiello, Roberto; Masi, Antonio; Navazio, Lorella; Sablok, Gaurav; Squartini, Andrea

2013-05-13

292

Calcium-Dependent Regulation of Genes for Plant Nodulation in Rhizobium leguminosarum Detected by iTRAQ Quantitative Proteomic Analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobia, the nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts of legumes, represent an agricultural application of primary relevance and a model of plant-microbe molecular dialogues. We recently described rhizobium proteome alterations induced by plant flavonoids using iTRAQ. Herein, we further extend that experimentation, proving that the transient elevation in cytosolic calcium is a key signaling event necessary for the expression of the nodulation (nod) genes. Ca(2+) involvement in nodulation is a novel issue that we recently flagged with genetic and physiological approaches and that hereby we demonstrate also by proteomics. Exploiting the multiple combinations of 4-plex iTRAQ, we analyzed Rhizobium leguminosarum cultures grown with or without the nod gene-inducing plant flavonoid naringenin and in the presence or absence of the extracellular Ca(2+) chelator EGTA. We quantified over a thousand proteins, 189 of which significantly altered upon naringenin and/or EGTA stimulation. The expression of NodA, highly induced by naringenin, is strongly reduced when calcium availability is limited by EGTA. This confirms, from a proteomic perspective, that a Ca(2+) influx is a necessary early step in flavonoid-mediated legume nodulation by rhizobia. We also observed other proteins affected by the different treatments, whose identities and roles in nodulation and rhizobium physiology are likewise discussed.

Arrigoni G; Tolin S; Moscatiello R; Masi A; Navazio L; Squartini A

2013-09-01

293

VARIATION IN RHIZOBIUM GROWTH DUE TO SEED AND ROOT EXUDATES RELEASED FROM GAMMA IRRADIATED GLYCINE MAX SEEDS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, seeds of Glycine max Giza 122 were irradiated with gamma rays from 60Co source at various doses (10 to 200 Gy), sterilized and soaked into an aerated solution of CaSO4 (1 mmol and pH 6.5). The capacities of the released seed exudates (SEs) and root exudates (REs) to promote Rhizobium leguminosarum growth were investigated as well as biochemical analysis of the exudates was carried out. SE of both control and gamma irradiated seeds resulted in a higher Rhizobium population and polysaccharide production than RE. Relative to control, the highly effective doses in Rhizobium growth and polysaccharide production were 25 and 200 Gy; the former was a promoter while the later was an inhibitor. HPLC analysis of soluble carbohydrates revealed the presence of glucose (Glu), rhamnose (Rha) and fructose (Fru) in the SE and RE. Protein content in SE was lower than that in RE; the highest values were due to 10 Gy and 25 Gy in SE and RE, respectively. Free amino acids content in SE was increased up to 25 Gy then decreased while RE was increased by increasing gamma doses from 10 to 200 Gy

2008-01-01

294

Quantitative analysis of the naringenin-inducible proteome in Rhizobium leguminosarum by isobaric tagging and mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rhizobium-legume interaction is a critical cornerstone of crop productivity and environmental sustainability. Its potential improvement relies on elucidation of the complex molecular dialogue between its two partners. In the present study, the proteomic patterns of gnotobiotic cultures of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 grown for 6 h in presence or absence of the nod gene-inducing plant flavonoid naringenin (10 ?M) were analyzed using the iTRAQ approach. A total of 1334 proteins were identified corresponding to 18.67% of the protein-coding genes annotated in the sequenced genome of bv. viciae 3841. The abundance levels of 47 proteins were increased upon naringenin treatment showing fold change ratios ranging from 1.5 to 25 in two biological replicates. Besides the nod units, naringenin enhanced the expression of a number of other genes, many of which organized in operons, including ?(1-2) glucan production and secretion, succinoglycan export, the RopA outer membrane protein with homology to an oligogalacturonide-specific porin motif, other enzymes for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and proteins involved in the translation machinery. Data were validated at the transcriptional and phenotypic levels by RT-PCR and an assay of secreted sugars in culture supernatants, respectively. The current approach provides not only a high-resolution analysis of the prokaryotic proteome but also unravels the rhizobium molecular dialogue with legumes by detecting the enhanced expression of several symbiosis-associated proteins, whose flavonoid-dependency had not yet been reported.

Tolin S; Arrigoni G; Moscatiello R; Masi A; Navazio L; Sablok G; Squartini A

2013-06-01

295

Common bean cultivars performance under Rhizobium inoculation and the relation between yield components traitsDesempenho de cultivares de feijoeiro sob inoculação com Rhizobium e relação entre os caracteres componentes do rendimento de grãos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study was to evaluate the Rhizobium inoculation effect on the grain yield characters in common bean cultivars, to quantify the possible relationship between these characters, and verify the genetic similarity among cultivars to suggest possible combinations to be adopted in crosses by breeding programs. It was evaluated six commercial common bean cultivars (IAPAR 81, Carioca, SCS-202 Guará, BRS Valente, FTS Soberano e IPR Uirapuru), with and without inoculation of Rhizobium bacteria. The experimental design was randomized block design with four replications, in factorial arrangement (6x2), with six cultivars and two inoculation levels. Each plot had six rows with three meters in length and 0.50 meters between rows, with 4 m2 plot. The yield components traits in common bean, under the conditions of this study, do not show to be influenced by Rhizobium’s inoculation. The number of grains per pod has a relation with the definition of yield per area in commercial common bean cultivars, while the numbers of pods and grains per plant showed strong positive correlation with grain yield per plant. The SCS-202 Guará, FTS Soberano e IPR Uirapuru cultivars show high grain yield, characterizing potential parents to be adopted in bean breeding programs.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o efeito da inoculação com Rhizobium sobre os caracteres de rendimento de grãos em cultivares comerciais de feijoeiro, quantificar as possíveis relações entre estes caracteres, e verificar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares avaliadas a fim de sugerir possíveis genitores para compor combinações promissoras a serem adotadas em cruzamentos artificiais pelos programas de melhoramento. Foram avaliadas seis cultivares comerciais de feijoeiro (IAPAR 81, Carioca, SCS-202 Guará, BRS Valente, FTS Soberano e IPR Uirapuru), com e sem a inoculação de bactérias do gênero Rhizobium. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, onde os tratamentos foram combinados em esquema fatorial (6 x 2), sendo seis cultivares e dois níveis de inoculação. Cada parcela foi constituída por seis linhas de três metros de comprimento espaçadas em 0,50 m, com área útil de 4m2. Os componentes do rendimento de grãos em feijoeiro, nas condições de realização deste estudo, não mostram ser influenciadas pela inoculação com Rhizobium. O caráter número de grãos por legume apresenta relação positiva com a definição da produtividade de grãos por área em cultivares comerciais de feijoeiro, enquanto que os números de legumes e de grãos por planta evidenciam forte correlação positivas com a produção de grãos por planta. A cultivar BRS Valente apresenta maior dissimilaridade genética no grupo de genótipos avaliados. As cultivares SCS-202 Guará, FTS Soberano e IPR Uirapuru evidenciam elevado rendimento de grãos, caracterizando genitores potenciais a serem adotados em programas de melhoramento do feijoeiro.

Fernando José Hawerroth; Maraisa Crestani; Julio Cesar Pires Santos

2011-01-01

296

Modélisation dynamique et SIG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Méthodes de modélisation dynamique et SIG sont ici couplés. Cette intégration SIG-modélisation dynamique aide à l’élaboration des modèles et constitue un véritable outil de recherche en géographie.

Hélène MATHIAN; Lena SANDERS

1993-01-01

297

Energie et développement  

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Full Text Available Cet article introduit le dossier thématique consacré à la relation intime entre énergie et développement. Les auteurs retracent l’importance des énergies fossiles dans la croissance économique du monde occidental dès le XIXe siècle et le rôle central du pétrole au XXe siècle pour s’interroger sur les limites de ce modèle de développement face aux contraintes géologiques et climatiques. Ils examinent le fossé et les malentendus qui séparent les sciences de l’homme  et les sciences de la nature, ainsi que les récentes initiatives de dialogue interdisciplinaire autour de l’économie écologique et de l’écologie industrielle. Ils analysent ensuite les enjeux spécifiques aux pays en développement ainsi que l’inadéquation du système de gouvernance internationale pour faire face aux tensions croissantes liées à la déplétion du pétrole, aux asymétries d’accès et d’exploitation des ressources minérales et aux conséquences environnementales d’une consommation croissante de ressources non renouvelables.

Jacques Grinevald; Gilles Carbonnier

2011-01-01

298

Vêtement et textile : sources et ressources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Progressivement, les acteurs de la recherche scientifique s’organisent en réseaux, conscients que l’amélioration des connaissances passe par le partage et l’élaboration collective. L’outil internet offre une interface efficace, mais son offre est si multiple qu’elle mérite d’être organisée. L’histoire du vêtement, des matières et des accessoires textiles bénéficie désormais d’une interface spécifique à l’échelle de la recherche française, mais aussi internationale. Le projet « Vêtement et tex...

Sophie Jolivet-Jacquet

2009-01-01

299

Chrysoeriol and Luteolin Released from Alfalfa Seeds Induce nod Genes in Rhizobium meliloti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Flavonoid signals from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed and root exudates induce transcription of nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti. The flavone luteolin previously was isolated from alfalfa seeds by other workers and identified as the first nod gene inducer for R. meliloti. Our recent study of ;Moapa 69' alfalfa root exudates found no luteolin but did identify three other nod gene inducers: 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone, 4',7-dihydroxyflavone, and 4',7-dihydroxyflavanone. The goal of the current study was to identify and quantify nod gene-inducing flavonoids that may influence Rhizobium populations around a germinating alfalfa seed. Aqueous rinses of Moapa 69 alfalfa seeds were collected and assayed for induction of a nodABC-lacZ fusion in R. meliloti. During the first 4 hours of imbibition, total nod gene-inducing activity was released from seeds at 100-fold higher rates than from roots of 72-hour-old seedlings. Five flavonoids were purified and identified by spectroscopic analyses (ultraviolet/visible absorbance, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy) and comparison with authentic standards. Two very active nod gene-inducing flavonoids, chrysoeriol (3'-methoxyluteolin) and luteolin, were identified in seed rinses. Luteolin required a higher concentration (18 nanomolar) than chrysoeriol (5 nanomolar) for half-maximum induction of nodABC-lacZ in R. meliloti, and both were less active than 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone (2 nanomolar) from root exudates. Seeds exuded three other luteolin derivatives: luteolin-7-O-glucoside, 5-methoxyluteolin, and 3',5-dimethoxyluteolin. Their combined quantities were 24-fold greater than that of luteolin plus chrysoeriol. Most nod gene-inducing activity of these luteolin derivatives apparently is associated with degradation to luteolin and chrysoeriol. However, their presence in large quantities suggests that they may contribute significantly to nod gene-inducing activity in the soil. These results indicate the importance of germinating seeds as a source of nod gene-inducing flavonoids and emphasize the quantitative and qualitative differences in those compounds around the seed and root.

Hartwig UA; Maxwell CA; Joseph CM; Phillips DA

1990-01-01

300

Fiction, existence et référence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’article publié ici se propose d’emprunter une voie qui n’avait pas été empruntée dans les explorations précédentes de l’auteur. En effet, on verra qu’il s’agit ici de surmonter les difficultés auxquelles sont confrontées les théories réalistes de la fiction et en particulier la théorie artefactuelle dont Amie Thomasson est l’auteur.La question principale s’édicte en ces termes : s’il y a des personnages de fiction, comment se fait-il qu’il nous soit naturel de dire que tel ou tel personnage n’existe pas ?  Comment rendre compte des affirmations de non-existence des personnages de fiction, en particulier lorsqu’on est un réaliste de la fiction ?L’auteur confronte trois manières de traiter ces affirmations : l’approche par la quantification restreinte et l’approche linguistique et enfin l’approche des conditions d’application, point de vue auquel l’auteur se rallie. La première approche consiste à faire des restrictions spatiales ou catégorielles afin de cerner le champ de la référence. La seconde approche, qui est celle que les théoriciens de la référence directe emploient majoritairement, consiste à passer par le métalangage, c’est-à-dire de passer à un niveau sémantique supérieur. La dernière approche, celle par les conditions d’application, est construite sur les vertus des deux premières approches. Enfin, l’auteur élargira l’apport de cette dernière approche aux débats métaphysiques.The Amie Thomasson’s paper continues to explore the thesis she developed in Fiction and Metaphysics about the problems of reference. More precisely, the issues are about the problems that a realistic view of abstract objects can encounter. Here, the question has to be written in a particular way: if there are fictional characters, why do we quite naturally say that such or such character doesn’t exist? How can a realist overthrow such difficulties explaining the claims of non-existence can be true when we are for such a view?  The author presents three approaches of these claims: the restricted quantification approach, the metalinguistic approach and finally the application conditions approach. The first approach is about spatial and categorical restrictions in order to outline the field the reference is applied. The second approach is the way the direct reference theorists choose. The strategy consists in using the metalanguage that is to say to pass by a higher semantic level. The last approach which is the condition application approach is constructed with the virtues of the previous approaches. Finally, the author will show how the last view can be used for the metaphysics discussions.

Amie L. Thomasson

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Ecotoxicological assessment of pesticides towards the plant growth promoting activities of Lentil (Lens esculentus)-specific Rhizobium sp. strain MRL3.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the selected pesticides [herbicides (metribuzin and glyphosate), insecticides (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) and fungicides (hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin)] at the recommended and the higher dose rates on plant growth promoting traits of Rhizobium sp. strain MRL3 isolated from lentil-nodules. Strain MRL3 was explicitly selected owing to its high pesticide-tolerance ability and substantial production of indole acetic acid, siderophores (salicylic acid and 2, 3 dihydroxy benzoic acid), exo-polysaccharides, HCN and ammonia. A trend of pesticide-concentration dependent progressive-decline for plant growth promoting properties of Rhizobium sp. strain MRL3 was observed excluding exo-polysaccharides which was regularly augmented on exceeding the concentration of each tested pesticide from the recommended dose. Commonly, the maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting traits of Rhizobium was shown by glyphosate, imidacloprid and hexaconazole at three times the recommended rate among herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, respectively.

Ahemad M; Khan MS

2011-06-01

302

Vin et Mondialisation : préface  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’actualité cinématographique de ces derniers mois avec la sortie de Mondovino et Sideways illustre un certain nombre de tensions qui s’attachent à la mondialisation du produit “vin” et au soi-disant clivage entre le Nouveau Monde et la Vieille Europe, la marque et le terroir, la modernité et la tradition, autant de concepts masquant la complexité de ce processus. Le terme de ‘mondialisation’, d’usage fort répandu dans les médias, mérite sans doute quelques précautions. L’usage courant renvoi...

Chantal Crenn; Marion Demossier; Isabelle Techoueyres

2004-01-01

303

Cartographie et intelligence artificielle  

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Full Text Available Le monde complexe dans lequel nous évoluons est aussi paradoxal : ainsi, que peut-on prédire quant à la diffusion du savoir faire des géographes en termes de cartographie et de visualisation de l’information géographique ? On voit surgir toujours plus d’instruments et d’occasions de se repérer et d’admirer des images de la terre, mais il n’est pas sûr que cela fasse progresser dans le public la connaissance des cartes et de leur interprétation. Prenons l’exemple du repérage, par GPS, et bient...

Denise Pumain

2005-01-01

304

Role of motility and chemotaxis in efficiency of nodulation by Rhizobium meliloti. [Medicago sation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spontaneous mutants of Rhizobium meliloti L5-30 defective in motility or chemotaxis were isolated and compared against the parent with respect to symbiotic competence. Each of the mutants were able to generate normal nodules on the host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa), but had slightly delayed nodule formation, diminished nodulation int he initially susceptible region of the host root, and relatively low representation in nodules following co-inoculation with equal numbers of the parent. When inoculated in growth pouches with increasing dosages of the parental strain, the number of nodules formed in the initially susceptible region of the root increased sigmoidally, with an optimum concentration of about 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} bacteria/plant. The dose-response behavior of the nonmotile and nonchemotactic mutants was similar, but they required 10- to 30-fold higher concentrations of bacteria to generate the same number of nodules. The distribution frequencies of nodules at different positions along the primary root were very similar for the mutants and parent, indicating that reduced nodulation by the mutants in dose-response experiments probably reflects reduced efficiency of nodule initiation rather than developmentally delayed nodule initiation. The number of bacteria that firmly adsorbed to the host root surface during several hours of incubation was 5- to 20-fold greater for the parent than the mutants.

Caetano-Anolles, G.; Wall, L.G.; De Micheli, A.T.; Macchi, E.M.; Bauer, W.D.; Favelukes, G. (Universidad Nacional de la Plata (Argentina))

1988-04-01

305

Evaluation of acidic heteropolysaccharide structures in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars altered in nodulation genes and host range.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1H-NMR spectroscopy showed that the extracellular heterpolysaccharides (EPS) from derivatives of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii ANU843 altered in pSym nod composition or function (transposon insertions, deletion of pSym, induction by flavone, and introduction of cloned pSym nod regions from ANU843 and R. l. bv. viciae 248 on recombinant plasmids into the pSym-cured background of ANU843) differed only in 3-hydroxybutyrate stoichiometry per octaglycosyl unit. This change in EPS was likely to be an indirect effect of altered growth during expression of pSym nod genes in the presence of the flavone. No modifications were found in EPS made by R. l. bv. phaseoli 8002 when its resident pSym was deleted or replaced with pSym from R. l. bv. viciae 248, or with a derivative of this pSym lacking the host-specific nodulation genes nodFELMNTO. Thus, although certain O-acyl noncarbohydrate substitutions in EPS are affected by pSym nod genes (including the ones that determine host range) in certain backgrounds of R. leguminosarum, this change does not occur universally among all strains of R. leguminosarum. We conclude that the structure of the acidic EPS does not control host-specific nodulation of white clover, hairy vetch, and beans for the strains of R. leguminosarum tested here.

Orgambide G; Philip-Hollingsworth S; Cargill L; Dazzo F

1992-11-01

306

Relationships between C4 dicarboxylic acid transport and chemotaxis in Rhizobium meliloti.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between chemotaxis and transport of C4 dicarboxylic acids was analyzed with Rhizobium meliloti dct mutants defective in one or all of the genes required for dicarboxylic acid transport. Succinate, malate, and fumarate were moderately potent chemoattractants for wild-type R. meliloti and appeared to share a common chemoreceptor. While dicarboxylate transport is inducible, taxis to succinate was shown to be constitutive. Mutations in the dctA and dctB genes both resulted in the reduction, but not elimination, of chemotactic responses to succinate, indicating that transport via DctA or chemosensing via DctB is not essential for C4 dicarboxylate taxis, although they appear to contribute to it. Mutations in dctD and rpoN genes did not affect taxis to succinate. Aspartate, which is also transported by the dicarboxylate transport system, elicited strong chemotactic responses via a chemoreceptor distinct from the succinate-malate-fumarate receptor. Taxis to aspartate was unaltered in dctA and dctB mutants but was considerably reduced in both dctD and rpoN mutants, indicating that aspartate taxis is strongly dependent on elements responsible for transcriptional activation of dctA. Methylation and methanol release experiments failed to show a significant increase in methyl esterification of R. meliloti proteins in response to any of the attractants tested. PMID:8468289

Robinson, J B; Bauer, W D

1993-04-01

307

Relationships between C4 dicarboxylic acid transport and chemotaxis in Rhizobium meliloti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between chemotaxis and transport of C4 dicarboxylic acids was analyzed with Rhizobium meliloti dct mutants defective in one or all of the genes required for dicarboxylic acid transport. Succinate, malate, and fumarate were moderately potent chemoattractants for wild-type R. meliloti and appeared to share a common chemoreceptor. While dicarboxylate transport is inducible, taxis to succinate was shown to be constitutive. Mutations in the dctA and dctB genes both resulted in the reduction, but not elimination, of chemotactic responses to succinate, indicating that transport via DctA or chemosensing via DctB is not essential for C4 dicarboxylate taxis, although they appear to contribute to it. Mutations in dctD and rpoN genes did not affect taxis to succinate. Aspartate, which is also transported by the dicarboxylate transport system, elicited strong chemotactic responses via a chemoreceptor distinct from the succinate-malate-fumarate receptor. Taxis to aspartate was unaltered in dctA and dctB mutants but was considerably reduced in both dctD and rpoN mutants, indicating that aspartate taxis is strongly dependent on elements responsible for transcriptional activation of dctA. Methylation and methanol release experiments failed to show a significant increase in methyl esterification of R. meliloti proteins in response to any of the attractants tested.

Robinson JB; Bauer WD

1993-04-01

308

New betaproteobacterial Rhizobium strains able to efficiently nodulate Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among the leguminous trees native to Uruguay, Parapiptadenia rigida (Angico), a Mimosoideae legume, is one of the most promising species for agroforestry. Like many other legumes, it is able to establish symbiotic associations with rhizobia and belongs to the group known as nitrogen-fixing trees, which are major components of agroforestry systems. Information about rhizobial symbionts for this genus is scarce, and thus, the aim of this work was to identify and characterize rhizobia associated with P. rigida. A collection of Angico-nodulating isolates was obtained, and 47 isolates were selected for genetic studies. According to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of their nifH and 16S rRNA genes, the isolates could be grouped into seven genotypes, including the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium, among which the Burkholderia genotypes were the predominant group. Phylogenetic studies of nifH, nodA, and nodC sequences from the Burkholderia and the Cupriavidus isolates indicated a close relationship of these genes with those from betaproteobacterial rhizobia (beta-rhizobia) rather than from alphaproteobacterial rhizobia (alpha-rhizobia). In addition, nodulation assays with representative isolates showed that while the Cupriavidus isolates were able to effectively nodulate Mimosa pudica, the Burkholderia isolates produced white and ineffective nodules on this host.

Taulé C; Zabaleta M; Mareque C; Platero R; Sanjurjo L; Sicardi M; Frioni L; Battistoni F; Fabiano E

2012-03-01

309

A second exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium meliloti strain SU47 that can function in root nodule invasion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobium meliloti strain SU47 produces the calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide, succinoglycan, that is required for alfalfa root nodule invasion. Strains derived from R. meliloti SU47 secreted an acidic exopolysaccharide, EPSb, that replaced succinoglycan in nodule invasion. EPSb, which has not formerly been identified among the Rhizobiaceae, consisted of the repeating unit 4,6-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)-alpha-D-Galp1----3(X-O-Ac)-beta-D-G lcp1----3. EPSb synthesis occurred either in strains containing a mutation in a locus designated mucR or in strains with a recombinant cosmid pMuc. mucR mapped slightly counterclockwise from pyr49 on the chromosome, while pMuc contained genes mapping to the megaplasmid pRmeSU47b. In exoA, -F, and -H mutants, which are deficient in normal succinoglycan secretion and nodule invasion, a transposon Tn5 insertion in mucR or the presence of pMuc resulted in EPSb secretion and a restoration of nodule invasion on Medicago sativa and Melilotus alba. Mutants in exoB and exoC were incapable of succinoglycan and EPSb secretion as well as nodule invasion. A mutant that secreted succinoglycan but was incapable of EPSb secretion invaded nodules normally.

Zhan HJ; Levery SB; Lee CC; Leigh JA

1989-05-01

310

A second exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium meliloti strain SU47 that can function in root nodule invasion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobium meliloti strain SU47 produces the calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide, succinoglycan, that is required for alfalfa root nodule invasion. Strains derived from R. meliloti SU47 secreted an acidic exopolysaccharide, EPSb, that replaced succinoglycan in nodule invasion. EPSb, which has not formerly been identified among the Rhizobiaceae, consisted of the repeating unit 4,6-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)-alpha-D-Galp1----3(X-O-Ac)-beta-D-G lcp1----3. EPSb synthesis occurred either in strains containing a mutation in a locus designated mucR or in strains with a recombinant cosmid pMuc. mucR mapped slightly counterclockwise from pyr49 on the chromosome, while pMuc contained genes mapping to the megaplasmid pRmeSU47b. In exoA, -F, and -H mutants, which are deficient in normal succinoglycan secretion and nodule invasion, a transposon Tn5 insertion in mucR or the presence of pMuc resulted in EPSb secretion and a restoration of nodule invasion on Medicago sativa and Melilotus alba. Mutants in exoB and exoC were incapable of succinoglycan and EPSb secretion as well as nodule invasion. A mutant that secreted succinoglycan but was incapable of EPSb secretion invaded nodules normally. PMID:2717610

Zhan, H J; Levery, S B; Lee, C C; Leigh, J A

1989-05-01

311

Identification and Characterization of a Bacteroid-Specific Dehydrogenase Complex in Rhizobium leguminosarum PRE  

Science.gov (United States)

In membranes of Rhizobium leguminosarum bacteroids isolated from nitrogen-fixing pea root nodules, two different protein complexes with NADH dehydrogenase activity were detected. One of these complexes, with a molecular mass of 110 kilodaltons, was also found in membranes of free-living rhizobia, but the other, with a molecular mass of 550 kilodaltons, appeared to be present only in bacteroids. The bacteroid-specific complex, referred to as DH1, probably consists of at least four different subunits. Using antibodies raised against the separate polypeptides, we found that a 35,000-molecular-weight polypeptide (35K polypeptide) in the DH1 complex is bacteroid specific, while the other proposed subunits were also detectable in cytoplasmic membranes of free-living bacteria. Dehydrogenase complex DH1 is also present in bacteroids of a R. leguminosarum nifA mutant, indicating that the synthesis of the dehydrogenase is not dependent on the gene product of this nif-regulatory gene. A possible involvement of the bacteroid-specific DH1 complex in electron transport to nitrogenase is discussed. Images

Lankhorst, Rene M. Klein; Katinakis, Panagiotis; van Kammen, Albert; van den Bos, Rommert C.

1988-01-01

312

Identification and Characterization of a Bacteroid-Specific Dehydrogenase Complex in Rhizobium leguminosarum PRE.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In membranes of Rhizobium leguminosarum bacteroids isolated from nitrogen-fixing pea root nodules, two different protein complexes with NADH dehydrogenase activity were detected. One of these complexes, with a molecular mass of 110 kilodaltons, was also found in membranes of free-living rhizobia, but the other, with a molecular mass of 550 kilodaltons, appeared to be present only in bacteroids. The bacteroid-specific complex, referred to as DH1, probably consists of at least four different subunits. Using antibodies raised against the separate polypeptides, we found that a 35,000-molecular-weight polypeptide (35K polypeptide) in the DH1 complex is bacteroid specific, while the other proposed subunits were also detectable in cytoplasmic membranes of free-living bacteria. Dehydrogenase complex DH1 is also present in bacteroids of a R. leguminosarum nifA mutant, indicating that the synthesis of the dehydrogenase is not dependent on the gene product of this nif-regulatory gene. A possible involvement of the bacteroid-specific DH1 complex in electron transport to nitrogenase is discussed.

Lankhorst RM; Katinakis P; van Kammen A; van den Bos RC

1988-12-01

313

New betaproteobacterial Rhizobium strains able to efficiently nodulate Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the leguminous trees native to Uruguay, Parapiptadenia rigida (Angico), a Mimosoideae legume, is one of the most promising species for agroforestry. Like many other legumes, it is able to establish symbiotic associations with rhizobia and belongs to the group known as nitrogen-fixing trees, which are major components of agroforestry systems. Information about rhizobial symbionts for this genus is scarce, and thus, the aim of this work was to identify and characterize rhizobia associated with P. rigida. A collection of Angico-nodulating isolates was obtained, and 47 isolates were selected for genetic studies. According to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of their nifH and 16S rRNA genes, the isolates could be grouped into seven genotypes, including the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium, among which the Burkholderia genotypes were the predominant group. Phylogenetic studies of nifH, nodA, and nodC sequences from the Burkholderia and the Cupriavidus isolates indicated a close relationship of these genes with those from betaproteobacterial rhizobia (beta-rhizobia) rather than from alphaproteobacterial rhizobia (alpha-rhizobia). In addition, nodulation assays with representative isolates showed that while the Cupriavidus isolates were able to effectively nodulate Mimosa pudica, the Burkholderia isolates produced white and ineffective nodules on this host. PMID:22226956

Taulé, Cecilia; Zabaleta, María; Mareque, Cintia; Platero, Raúl; Sanjurjo, Lucía; Sicardi, Margarita; Frioni, Lillian; Battistoni, Federico; Fabiano, Elena

2012-01-06

314

Common regulatory elements control symbiotic and microaerobic induction of nifA in Rhizobium meliloti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have previously demonstrated that the nifA promoter (nifAp) of Rhizobium meliloti is inducible under microaerobic conditions in the absence of alfalfa. Here we show that microaerobic activation of nifAp involves both cis- and trans-acting regulatory controls identical to those used symbiotically. The start site for nifA mRNA synthesis was found to be the same during symbiosis and microaerobiosis, and a deletion analysis of nifAp demonstrated that DNA between positions -62 and -45 is essential for induction. Mutants isolated as being unable to induce nifA microaerobically also were found to be defective in symbiotic nitrogen fixation with alfalfa. Such mutants form nodules that are equivalent cytologically to those induced by nifA::Tn5 mutants. Genetic and structural studies have localized the mutations to a cluster of fix genes 200 kilobases distant from the nod-nif region on the pSym megaplasmid [Renalier, M.-H., Batut, J., Ghai, J., Terzaghi, B., Gherardi, M., David, M., Garnerone, A.-M., Vasse, J., Truchet, G., Huguet, T. & Boistard, P. (1987) J. Bacteriol. 169, 2231-2238].

Virts EL; Stanfield SW; Helinski DR; Ditta GS

1988-05-01

315

Assignment of symbiotic developmental phenotypes to common and specific nodulation (nod) genetic loci of Rhizobium meliloti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobium meliloti nodulation (nod) genes required for specific infection and nodulation of alfalfa have been cloned. Transposon Tn5 mutagenesis defined three nod regions spanning 16 kilobases of the pSym megaplasmid. Genetic and cytological studies of 62 nodulation-defective mutants allowed the assignment of symbiotic developmental phenotypes to common and specific nod loci. Root hair curling was determined by both common (region I) and specific (region III) nod transcription units; locus IIIb (nodH gene) positively controlled curling on the homologous host alfalfa, whereas loci IIIa (nodFE) and IIIb (nodH) negatively controlled curling on heterologous hosts. Region I (nodABC) was required for bacterial penetration and infection thread initiation in shepherd's crooks, and the nodFE transcription unit controlled infection thread development within the alfalfa root hair. In contrast, induction of nodule organogenesis, which can be triggered from a distance, seemed to be controlled by common nodABC genes and not to require specific nod genes nodFE and nodH. Region II affected the efficiency of hair curling and infection thread formation. PMID:3023297

Debellé, F; Rosenberg, C; Vasse, J; Maillet, F; Martinez, E; Dénarié, J; Truchet, G

1986-12-01

316

Common regulatory elements control symbiotic and microaerobic induction of nifA in Rhizobium meliloti.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously demonstrated that the nifA promoter (nifAp) of Rhizobium meliloti is inducible under microaerobic conditions in the absence of alfalfa. Here we show that microaerobic activation of nifAp involves both cis- and trans-acting regulatory controls identical to those used symbiotically. The start site for nifA mRNA synthesis was found to be the same during symbiosis and microaerobiosis, and a deletion analysis of nifAp demonstrated that DNA between positions -62 and -45 is essential for induction. Mutants isolated as being unable to induce nifA microaerobically also were found to be defective in symbiotic nitrogen fixation with alfalfa. Such mutants form nodules that are equivalent cytologically to those induced by nifA::Tn5 mutants. Genetic and structural studies have localized the mutations to a cluster of fix genes 200 kilobases distant from the nod-nif region on the pSym megaplasmid [Renalier, M.-H., Batut, J., Ghai, J., Terzaghi, B., Gherardi, M., David, M., Garnerone, A.-M., Vasse, J., Truchet, G., Huguet, T. & Boistard, P. (1987) J. Bacteriol. 169, 2231-2238]. PMID:2834732

Virts, E L; Stanfield, S W; Helinski, D R; Ditta, G S

1988-05-01

317

Osmotic control of glycine betaine biosynthesis and degradation in Rhizobium meliloti  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine has been shown to confer an enhanced level of osmotic stress tolerance in Rhizobium meliloti. In this study, the authors used a physiological approach to investigate the mechanism by which glycine betaine is accumulated in osmotically stressed R. meliloti. Results from growth experiments, /sup 14/C labeling of intermediates, and enzyme activity assays are presented. The results provide evidence for the pathway of biosynthesis and degradation of glycine betaine and the osmotic effects on this pathway. High osmolarity in the medium decreased the activities of the enzymes involved in the degradation of glycine betaine but not those of enzymes that lead to its biosynthesis from choline. Thus, the concentration of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine is increased in stressed cells. This report demonstrates the ability of the osmolarity of the growth medium to regulate the use of glycine betaine as a carbon and nitrogen source or as an osmoprotectant. The mechanisms of osmoregulation in R. meliloti and Escherichia coli are compared.

Smith, L.T.; Pocard, J.A.; Bernard, T.; Le Rudulier, D.

1988-07-01

318

Osmotic control of glycine betaine biosynthesis and degradation in Rhizobium meliloti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine has been shown to confer an enhanced level of osmotic stress tolerance in Rhizobium meliloti. In this study, the authors used a physiological approach to investigate the mechanism by which glycine betaine is accumulated in osmotically stressed R. meliloti. Results from growth experiments, 14C labeling of intermediates, and enzyme activity assays are presented. The results provide evidence for the pathway of biosynthesis and degradation of glycine betaine and the osmotic effects on this pathway. High osmolarity in the medium decreased the activities of the enzymes involved in the degradation of glycine betaine but not those of enzymes that lead to its biosynthesis from choline. Thus, the concentration of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine is increased in stressed cells. This report demonstrates the ability of the osmolarity of the growth medium to regulate the use of glycine betaine as a carbon and nitrogen source or as an osmoprotectant. The mechanisms of osmoregulation in R. meliloti and Escherichia coli are compared.

1988-01-01

319

Rhizobium Strain Effects on Yield and Bleeding Sap Amino Compounds in Pisum sativum.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bleeding sap composition, dry matter production and N distribution in pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown with and without nitrate and nodulated with either R. leguminosarum strain 128c53 or strain 1044 were compared. Nitrate increased the total dry matter production of both symbioses, but decreased both the proportions of belowground dry matter to total dry matter production and nodule dry matter to total belowground dry matter production. The total dry matter yield and N accumulation was greater in the symbiosis with strain 1044, whereas the accumulation of N in the roots plus nodules relative to the total N-accumulation was greater with strain 128c53 due to a higher production of nodule tissue. The root bleeding sap of the symbiosis with the greater yield (strain 1044) contained high levels of asparagine and aspartic acid. In the 128c53 symbiosis, glutamine plus homoserine accounted for a higher percentage of the organic solutes transporting newly assimilated N from the root system than in the association with 1044. The Rhizobium strain effect on amino compound composition of the bleeding sap may indicate an influence of the bacteroids on either the N-assimilatory enzyme system in the plant cytosol, or on the pools of the Krebs cycle intermediates or related compounds in the nodules.

Rosendahl, Lis

1984-01-01

320

Transformation of pWWO in Rhizobium leguminosarum DPT to Engineer Toluene Degrading Ability for Rhizoremediation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoremediation of organic xenobiotics is based on interactions between plants and their associated micro-organisms. The present work was designed to engineer a bacterial system having toluene degradation ability along with plant growth promoting characteristics for effective rhizoremediation. pWWO harboring the genes responsible for toluene breakdown was isolated from Pseudomonas putida MTCC 979 and successfully transformed in Rhizobium DPT. This resulted in a bacterial strain (DPT(T)) which had the ability to degrade toluene as well as enhance growth of host plant. The frequency of transformation was recorded 5.7 × 10(-6). DPT produced IAA, siderophore, chitinase, HCN, ACC deaminase, solubilized inorganic phosphate, fixed atmospheric nitrogen and inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro. During pot assay, 50 ppm toluene in soil was found to inhibit the germination of Cajanus cajan seeds. However when the seeds bacterized with toluene degrading P. putida or R. leguminosarum DPT were sown in pots, again no germination was observed. Non-bacterized as well as bacterized seeds germinated successfully in toluene free soil as control. The results forced for an alternative mode of application of bacteria for rhizoremediation purpose. Hence bacterial suspension was mixed with soil having 50 ppm of toluene. Germination index in DPT treated soil was 100% while in P. putida it was 50%. Untreated soil with toluene restricted the seeds to germinate. PMID:23729882

Goel, Garima; Pandey, Piyush; Sood, Anchal; Bisht, Sandeep; Maheshwari, D K; Sharma, G D

2011-12-15

 
 
 
 
321

Transformation of pWWO in Rhizobium leguminosarum DPT to Engineer Toluene Degrading Ability for Rhizoremediation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoremediation of organic xenobiotics is based on interactions between plants and their associated micro-organisms. The present work was designed to engineer a bacterial system having toluene degradation ability along with plant growth promoting characteristics for effective rhizoremediation. pWWO harboring the genes responsible for toluene breakdown was isolated from Pseudomonas putida MTCC 979 and successfully transformed in Rhizobium DPT. This resulted in a bacterial strain (DPT(T)) which had the ability to degrade toluene as well as enhance growth of host plant. The frequency of transformation was recorded 5.7 × 10(-6). DPT produced IAA, siderophore, chitinase, HCN, ACC deaminase, solubilized inorganic phosphate, fixed atmospheric nitrogen and inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro. During pot assay, 50 ppm toluene in soil was found to inhibit the germination of Cajanus cajan seeds. However when the seeds bacterized with toluene degrading P. putida or R. leguminosarum DPT were sown in pots, again no germination was observed. Non-bacterized as well as bacterized seeds germinated successfully in toluene free soil as control. The results forced for an alternative mode of application of bacteria for rhizoremediation purpose. Hence bacterial suspension was mixed with soil having 50 ppm of toluene. Germination index in DPT treated soil was 100% while in P. putida it was 50%. Untreated soil with toluene restricted the seeds to germinate.

Goel G; Pandey P; Sood A; Bisht S; Maheshwari DK; Sharma GD

2012-06-01

322

Simple and rapid determination of histamine in food using a new histamine dehydrogenase from Rhizobium sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A colorimetric enzyme assay for the quantitative analysis of histamine in food has been developed using a new histamine dehydrogenase (HDH) from Rhizobium sp. The HDH specifically catalyzes the oxidation of histamine but not other biogenic amines such as putrescine and cadaverine. The principle of our photometric assay is as follows. The HDH catalyzes the oxidative deamination of histamine in the presence of 1-methoxy PMS (electron carrier), which converts WST-8 (tetrazolium salt) to a formazan. This product is measured in the visible range at 460 nm. The correlation between the histamine level and absorbance was acceptable, ranging from 0 to 96 microM with histamine standard solutions, corresponding to 0 to 30 microM of the reaction solution (r = 1.000, CV = 1.0% or less). Assays of canned tuna (in oil and soup) and raw tuna with 45-675 micromol/kg histamine added showed good recoveries of 96-113, 98-108, and 100-106%. The histamine contents of a commercial canned tuna and fish meal containing histamine at high concentrations were determined using the new method and other reference methods (HPLC method, Association of Official Analytical Chemists official method, and two commercial enzyme immunoassay test kits). This simple and rapid enzymatic method is as reliable as the conventional methods. PMID:16236240

Sato, Tsuneo; Horiuchi, Tatsuo; Nishimura, Ikuko

2005-09-26

323

Escherichia coli BdcA controls biofilm dispersal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Rhizobium meliloti  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we showed that BdcA controls Escherichia coli biofilm dispersal by binding the ubiquitous bacterial signal cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP); upon reducing the concentration of c-di-GMP, the cell shifts to the planktonic state by increasing motility, decreasing aggregation, and decreasing production of biofilm adhesins. Findings Here we report that BdcA also increases biofilm dispersal in other Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Rhizobium meliloti. BdcA binds c-di-GMP in these strains and thereby reduces the effective c-di-GMP concentrations as demonstrated by increases in swimming motility and swarming motility as well as by a reduction in extracellular polysaccharide production. We also develop a method to displace existing biofilms by adding BdcA via conjugation from E. coli in mixed-species biofilms. Conclusion Since BdcA shows the ability to control biofilm dispersal in diverse bacteria, BdcA has the potential to be used as a tool to disperse biofilms for engineering and medical applications.

Ma Qun; Zhang Guishan; Wood Thomas K

2011-01-01

324

Escherichia coli BdcA controls biofilm dispersal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Rhizobium meliloti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Previously we showed that BdcA controls Escherichia coli biofilm dispersal by binding the ubiquitous bacterial signal cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP); upon reducing the concentration of c-di-GMP, the cell shifts to the planktonic state by increasing motility, decreasing aggregation, and decreasing production of biofilm adhesins. FINDINGS: Here we report that BdcA also increases biofilm dispersal in other Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Rhizobium meliloti. BdcA binds c-di-GMP in these strains and thereby reduces the effective c-di-GMP concentrations as demonstrated by increases in swimming motility and swarming motility as well as by a reduction in extracellular polysaccharide production. We also develop a method to displace existing biofilms by adding BdcA via conjugation from E. coli in mixed-species biofilms. CONCLUSION: Since BdcA shows the ability to control biofilm dispersal in diverse bacteria, BdcA has the potential to be used as a tool to disperse biofilms for engineering and medical applications.

Ma Q; Zhang G; Wood TK

2011-01-01

325

Growth yields, polysaccharide production and energy conservation in chemostat cultures of Rhizobium trifolii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobium trifolii was grown in a defined medium in chemostat cultures. Extracellular polysaccharide production was found in carbon-sufficient as well as in carbon-limited cultures. Extracellular polysaccharide production in carbon-limited cultures was strongly dependent on the growth rate. In mannitol-limited cultures, asparagine was always totally depleted from the culture medium. Only when the asparagine supply was not sufficient to meet the nitrogen need of the culture, ammonia assimilation took place. Excess organic nitrogen was excreted as ammonia. Whether ammonia assimilation or ammonia excretion took place was also dependent on the growth rate. Respiration-coupled proton translocation measurements showed the presence of three energy conserving sites in an electron transport chain which is branched. Assuming a H+/P ratio of 4, a P/O ratio of 2.33 was found. Growth yield calculations indicated a P/O ratio of approximately 2. Sulphate limitation in the chemostat culture resulted in a decrease in the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and in a less stringent coupling between growth and energy yielding processes.

de Hollander JA; Bettenhaussen CW; Stouthamer AH

1979-01-01

326

Growth yields, polysaccharide production and energy conservation in chemostat cultures of Rhizobium trifolii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobium trifolii was grown in a defined medium in chemostat cultures. Extracellular polysaccharide production was found in carbon-sufficient as well as in carbon-limited cultures. Extracellular polysaccharide production in carbon-limited cultures was strongly dependent on the growth rate. In mannitol-limited cultures, asparagine was always totally depleted from the culture medium. Only when the asparagine supply was not sufficient to meet the nitrogen need of the culture, ammonia assimilation took place. Excess organic nitrogen was excreted as ammonia. Whether ammonia assimilation or ammonia excretion took place was also dependent on the growth rate. Respiration-coupled proton translocation measurements showed the presence of three energy conserving sites in an electron transport chain which is branched. Assuming a H+/P ratio of 4, a P/O ratio of 2.33 was found. Growth yield calculations indicated a P/O ratio of approximately 2. Sulphate limitation in the chemostat culture resulted in a decrease in the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and in a less stringent coupling between growth and energy yielding processes. PMID:122050

de Hollander, J A; Bettenhaussen, C W; Stouthamer, A H

1979-01-01

327

A second exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium meliloti strain SU47 that can function in root nodule invasion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rhizobium meliloti strain SU47 produces the calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide, succinoglycan, that is required for alfalfa root nodule invasion. Strains derived from R. meliloti SU47 secreted an acidic exopolysaccharide, EPSb, that replaced succinoglycan in nodule invasion. EPSb, which has not formerly been identified among the Rhizobiaceae, consisted of the repeating unit 4,6-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)-{alpha}-D-Galp1{yields}3(X-O-Ac)-{beta}-D-Glcp1{yields}3. EPSb synthesis occurred either in strains containing a mutation in a locus designated mucR or in strains with a recombinant cosmid pMuc. mucR mapped slightly counterclockwise from pyr49 on the chromosome, while pMuc contained genes mapping to the megaplasmid pRmeSU47b. In exoA, -F, and -H mutants, which are deficient in normal succinoglycan secretion and nodule invasion, a transposon Tn5 insertion in mucR or the presence of pMuc resulted in EPSb secretion and a restoration of nodule invasion on Medicago sativa and Melilotus alba. Mutants in exoB and exoC were incapable of succinoglycan and EPSb secretion as well as nodule invasion. A mutant that secreted succinoglycan but was incapable of EPSb secretion invaded nodules normally.

Zhan, Hangjun; Levery, S.B.; Lee, C.C.; Leigh, J.A. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1989-05-01

328

Glucose catabolism in two derivatives of a Rhizobium japonicum strain differing in nitrogen-fixing efficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiorespirometric and enzymatic analyses reveal that glucose-grown cells of Rhizobium japonicum isolates I-110 and L1-110, both derivatives of R. japonicum strain 3I1b110, possess an active tricarboxylic acid cycle and metabolize glucose by simultaneous operation of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas and Entner-Doudoroff pathways. The hexose cycle may play a minor role in the dissimilation of glucose. Failure to detect the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent decarboxylating 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44) evidences absence of the pentose phosphate pathway. Transketolase and transaldolase reactions, however, enable R. japonicum to produce the precursors for purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis from fructose-6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. A constitutive nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase has been detected. The enzyme is stimulated by either mannitol or fuctose and might initiate a new catabolic pathway. R. japonicum isolate I-110, characterized by shorter generation times on glucose and greater nitrogen-fixing efficiency, oxidizes glucose more extensively than type L1-110 and utilizes preferentially the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, whereas the Entner-Doudoroff pathway apparently predominates in type L1-110.

Mulongoy K; Elkan GH

1977-07-01

329

Increased effectiveness of competitive rhizobium strains upon inoculation of Cajanus cajan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field study was conducted in lysimeters containing /sup 15/N-enriched soil to determine the effects of four competitive rhizobium strains upon yield parameters of pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan). The greatest differences observed were in seed yields; strain P132 effected the highest seed yield (121 +/- 20 g per plant), and the control strain (indigenous rhizobia) effected the lowest yield (43.9 +/- 8 g per plant). With the exception of seeds and pods, the dry matter weights were not different. Although there appeared to be no effect by inoculum strains on the fractional content of N derived from biological nitrogen fixation when the total plant biomass was considered, strains P132 and 401 partitioned more of the N derived from fixation into seeds and leaves than did the other strains. Because the seeds comprised the major portion of plant N, more total N and more N derived from biological nitrogen fixation (about half of total N) were found in plants inoculated with P132, whereas the smallest amount was found in the uninoculated controls. P132 was also the best competitor with respect to indigenous rhizobia and accounted for all of the nodules found on the plants in which it was inoculated.

Hernandez, B.S.; Poth, M.; Focht, D.D.

1987-09-01

330

Effect of leguminous lectins on the growth of Rhizobium tropici CIAT899.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobium tropici is a Gram-negative bacterium that induces nodules and fixed atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and some other leguminous species. Lectins are proteins that specifically bind to carbohydrates and, consequently, modulate different biological functions. In this study, the d-glucose/ d-mannose-binding lectins (from seeds of Dioclea megacarpa, D. rostrata and D. violacea) and D-galactose-binding lectins (from seeds of Bauhinia variegata, Erythina velutina and Vatairea macrocarpa) were purified using chromatographic techniques and evaluated for their effect on the growth of R. tropici CIAT899. All lectins were assayed with a satisfactory degree of purity according to SDS-PAGE analysis, and stimulated bacterial growth; in particular, the Dioclea rostrata lectin was the most active among all tested proteins. As confirmed in the present study, both d-galactose- and d-glucose/d-mannose-binding lectins purified from the seeds of leguminous plants may be powerful biotechnological tools to stimulate the growth of R. tropici CIAT99, thus improving symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and common bean and, hence, the production of this field crop. PMID:23685936

de Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Cunha, Cláudio Oliveira; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Bastos, Rafaela Mesquita; Mercante, Fábio Martins; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; dos Santos, Ricardo Pires; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

2013-05-17

331

Evaluation of the recA-based containment system in Rhizobium meliloti GR4.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobium meliloti recA strains have been reported as safe hosts for deliberate release experiments due to their reduced survival in soil microcosms. Using R. meliloti integration vectors, two GUS-positive RecA+ and RecA- isogenic derivatives of R. meliloti strain GR4 were constructed. In contrast to previously reported RecA- strains, the RecA- strain GR4KLR showed similar doubling times as its isogenic RecA+ strain GR4KLC. Accordingly, GR4KLR showed normal growth competition capacity when coinoculated with the parental strain in sterile soil microcosms. In addition, the recA mutant showed delayed nodulation on axenically grown alfalfa plants, and its competitive nodulation ability was severely affected. This defect could be corrected by a genetic manipulation based on the use of a multicopy nifA-expressing plasmid. Another novel phenotype associated with the recA mutation in R. meliloti GR4 was an increased rate of plasmid loss. When inoculated in non-sterile soil microcosms, RecA+ and RecA- strains established at high cell densities and no significant differences in their survival were found after 150 days incubation. Our results show that symbiotic performance of a R. meliloti GR4 recA strain may be significantly altered whereas its relative survival in a test soil where it was to be released was not significantly reduced with respect to RecA+ strains.

Herrera-Cervera JA; Rodriguez-Alonso FI; Olivares J; Sanjuan J

1997-01-01

332

Flavonoids Released Naturally from Alfalfa Seeds Enhance Growth Rate of Rhizobium meliloti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) releases different flavonoids from seeds and roots. Imbibing seeds discharge 3',4',5,7-substituted flavonoids; roots exude 5-deoxy molecules. Many, but not all, of these flavonoids induce nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti. The dominant flavonoid released from alfalfa seeds is identified here as quercetin-3-O-galactoside, a molecule that does not induce nod genes. Low concentrations (1-10 micromolar) of this compound, as well as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, another major flavonoid released from germinating seeds, and the aglycones, quercetin and luteolin, increase growth rate of R. meliloti in a defined minimal medium. Tests show that the 5,7-dihydroxyl substitution pattern on those molecules was primarily responsible for the growth effect, thus explaining how 5-deoxy flavonoids in root exudates fail to enhance growth of R. meliloti. Luteolin increases growth by a mechanism separate from its capacity to induce rhizobial nod genes, because it still enhanced growth rate of R. meliloti lacking functional copies of the three known nodD genes. Quercetin and luteolin also increased growth rate of Pseudomonas putida. They had no effect on growth rate of Bacillus subtilis or Agrobacterium tumefaciens, but they slowed growth of two fungal pathogens of alfalfa. These results suggest that alfalfa can create ecochemical zones for controlling soil microbes by releasing structurally different flavonoids from seeds and roots.

Hartwig UA; Joseph CM; Phillips DA

1991-03-01

333

Bacterial Growth Rates and Competition Affect Nodulation and Root Colonization by Rhizobium meliloti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The addition of streptomycin to nonsterile soil suppressed the numbers of bacterial cells in the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) for several days, resulted in the enhanced growth of a streptomycin-resistant strain of Rhizobium meliloti, and increased the numbers of nodules on the alfalfa roots. A bacterial mixture inoculated into sterile soil inhibited the colonization of alfalfa roots by R. meliloti, caused a diminution in the number of nodules, and reduced plant growth. Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas marginalis, Acinetobacter sp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae suppressed the colonization by R. meliloti of roots grown on agar and reduced nodulation by R. meliloti, the suppression of nodulation being statistically significant for the first three species. Bradyrhizobium sp. and "Sarcina lutea" did not suppress root colonization nor nodulation by R. meliloti. The doubling times in the rhizosphere for E. aerogenes, P. marginalis, Acinetobacter sp., and K. pneumoniae were less and the doubling times for Bradyrhizobium sp. and "S. lutea" were greater than the doubling time of R. meliloti. Under the same conditions, Arthrobacter citreus injured alfalfa roots. We suggest that competition by soil bacteria reduces nodulation by rhizobia in soil and that the extent of inhibition is related to the growth rates of the rhizosphere bacteria.

Li DM; Alexander M

1986-10-01

334

Population Changes and Persistence of Rhizobium phaseoli in Soil and Rhizospheres.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of legume cultivation on the establishment and persistence of an inoculant strain of Rhizobium phaseoli and its ability to compete with a resident population of R. phaseoli for nodule occupancy was examined utilizing strain-specific fluorescent antibodies. The soil (Hubbard loamy sand) was inoculated homogeneously with 5 x 10 cells per g of soil and confined in plastic cylinders kept in field plots. Inoculated and uninoculated cylinders were either left fallow or planted to two seeds of legumes. Two hosts, navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Seafarer and snap bean cv. Picker, as well as a nonhost, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cv. Wilkin, were used. Inoculant Viking 1 was highly stimulated in all three rhizospheres sampled at 6 (flowering), 10 (podfill), and 17 (decay) weeks and in the following spring, whereas counts in fallow soil decreased rapidly. Although the overwintering population remained highest in the vicinity of decaying host roots, Viking 1 persisted, even in fallow soil, to produce abundant nodulation of host plants the following spring. Viking 1 was an excellent competitor for nodulation sites on the roots of the hosts; it thoroughly outcompeted the resident population of R. phaseoli, occupying virtually 100% of the nodules under inoculated conditions in all experiments.

Robert FM; Schmidt EL

1983-02-01

335

Population Changes and Persistence of Rhizobium phaseoli in Soil and Rhizospheres †  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of legume cultivation on the establishment and persistence of an inoculant strain of Rhizobium phaseoli and its ability to compete with a resident population of R. phaseoli for nodule occupancy was examined utilizing strain-specific fluorescent antibodies. The soil (Hubbard loamy sand) was inoculated homogeneously with 5 × 105 cells per g of soil and confined in plastic cylinders kept in field plots. Inoculated and uninoculated cylinders were either left fallow or planted to two seeds of legumes. Two hosts, navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Seafarer and snap bean cv. Picker, as well as a nonhost, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cv. Wilkin, were used. Inoculant Viking 1 was highly stimulated in all three rhizospheres sampled at 6 (flowering), 10 (podfill), and 17 (decay) weeks and in the following spring, whereas counts in fallow soil decreased rapidly. Although the overwintering population remained highest in the vicinity of decaying host roots, Viking 1 persisted, even in fallow soil, to produce abundant nodulation of host plants the following spring. Viking 1 was an excellent competitor for nodulation sites on the roots of the hosts; it thoroughly outcompeted the resident population of R. phaseoli, occupying virtually 100% of the nodules under inoculated conditions in all experiments.

Robert, Francoise M.; Schmidt, E. L.

1983-01-01

336

Population Changes and Persistence of Rhizobium phaseoli in Soil and Rhizospheres.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of legume cultivation on the establishment and persistence of an inoculant strain of Rhizobium phaseoli and its ability to compete with a resident population of R. phaseoli for nodule occupancy was examined utilizing strain-specific fluorescent antibodies. The soil (Hubbard loamy sand) was inoculated homogeneously with 5 x 10 cells per g of soil and confined in plastic cylinders kept in field plots. Inoculated and uninoculated cylinders were either left fallow or planted to two seeds of legumes. Two hosts, navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Seafarer and snap bean cv. Picker, as well as a nonhost, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cv. Wilkin, were used. Inoculant Viking 1 was highly stimulated in all three rhizospheres sampled at 6 (flowering), 10 (podfill), and 17 (decay) weeks and in the following spring, whereas counts in fallow soil decreased rapidly. Although the overwintering population remained highest in the vicinity of decaying host roots, Viking 1 persisted, even in fallow soil, to produce abundant nodulation of host plants the following spring. Viking 1 was an excellent competitor for nodulation sites on the roots of the hosts; it thoroughly outcompeted the resident population of R. phaseoli, occupying virtually 100% of the nodules under inoculated conditions in all experiments. PMID:16346203

Robert, F M; Schmidt, E L

1983-02-01

337

The RPG gene of Medicago truncatula controls Rhizobium-directed polar growth during infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobia can infect roots of host legume plants and induce new organs called nodules, in which they fix atmospheric nitrogen. Infection generally starts with root hair curling, then proceeds inside newly formed, intracellular tubular structures called infection threads. A successful symbiotic interaction relies on infection threads advancing rapidly at their tips by polar growth through successive cell layers of the root toward developing nodule primordia. To identify a plant component that controls this tip growth process, we characterized a symbiotic mutant of Medicago truncatula, called rpg for rhizobium-directed polar growth. In this mutant, nitrogen-fixing nodules were rarely formed due to abnormally thick and slowly progressing infection threads. Root hair curling was also abnormal, indicating that the RPG gene fulfils an essential function in the process whereby rhizobia manage to dominate the process of induced tip growth for root hair infection. Map-based cloning of RPG revealed a member of a previously unknown plant-specific gene family encoding putative long coiled-coil proteins we have called RRPs (RPG-related proteins) and characterized by an "RRP domain" specific to this family. RPG expression was strongly associated with rhizobial infection, and the RPG protein showed a nuclear localization, indicating that this symbiotic gene constitutes an important component of symbiotic signaling.

Arrighi JF; Godfroy O; de Billy F; Saurat O; Jauneau A; Gough C

2008-07-01

338

The RPG gene of Medicago truncatula controls Rhizobium-directed polar growth during infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobia can infect roots of host legume plants and induce new organs called nodules, in which they fix atmospheric nitrogen. Infection generally starts with root hair curling, then proceeds inside newly formed, intracellular tubular structures called infection threads. A successful symbiotic interaction relies on infection threads advancing rapidly at their tips by polar growth through successive cell layers of the root toward developing nodule primordia. To identify a plant component that controls this tip growth process, we characterized a symbiotic mutant of Medicago truncatula, called rpg for rhizobium-directed polar growth. In this mutant, nitrogen-fixing nodules were rarely formed due to abnormally thick and slowly progressing infection threads. Root hair curling was also abnormal, indicating that the RPG gene fulfils an essential function in the process whereby rhizobia manage to dominate the process of induced tip growth for root hair infection. Map-based cloning of RPG revealed a member of a previously unknown plant-specific gene family encoding putative long coiled-coil proteins we have called RRPs (RPG-related proteins) and characterized by an "RRP domain" specific to this family. RPG expression was strongly associated with rhizobial infection, and the RPG protein showed a nuclear localization, indicating that this symbiotic gene constitutes an important component of symbiotic signaling. PMID:18621693

Arrighi, Jean-François; Godfroy, Olivier; de Billy, Françoise; Saurat, Olivier; Jauneau, Alain; Gough, Clare

2008-07-09

339

Un nouvel habitat du Bronze final IIIb dans le Val d’Orléans et ses traces de métallurgie du fer : Bonnée, Les Terres à l’Est du Bourg (Centre, Loiret) A new settlement from late Bronze IIIb in the val d’Orléans: Bonnée, Les Terres à l’Est du Bourg (lands to the east of the town) (Centre, Loiret)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La multiplication récente des diagnostics archéologiques autour du petit bourg actuel de Bonnée a permis la détection d’une occupation du Bronze final IIIb (circa 900-750 av. n.-e.) sur environ un hectare aux Terres à l’Est du Bourg. Les limites inhérentes à ce type d’intervention réduisent l’interprétation des structures et toute approche spatiale de ce probable habitat repéré. L’étude conjointe des différents mobiliers en particulier céramique et métallurgique, mais aussi le torchis et la faune, atteste de sa culture matérielle et de son intérêt. Ces scories pourraient être parmi les plus anciennes traces en région Centre d’activité métallurgique du fer. Des activités de post-réduction sont avérées et certaines opérations de forgeage sont supposées.La découverte de cet habitat dans ce secteur du lit majeur de la Loire, apporte de nouvelles données concernant l’occupation du sol et ses problématiques évolutives dans le Val d’Orléans sur ces périodes de transition avec le Hallstatt ancien.The recent increase in the archaeological evaluations around the village of Bonnée has enabled the discovery of a final Bronze Age IIIb settlement (circa 900-750 BP) on about a hectare of the Terres à l’Est du Bourg. The limits inherent in this type of work restrict the interpretation of structures and all spatial approaches to this likely dwelling. The joint study of the different furnishings, in particular ceramics and metal, but also the cob and fauna, attests to its material culture and its interest. The slag could be amongst the oldest iron metallurgy remains from the Centre region. Some activities of post-forging are proven and certain operations are guessed at. The discovery of this settlement in this sector of the major bed of the Loire, has produced new data concerning the occupation of the land and its evolutionary problems in the valley of Orleans over these periods of transition in the early Hallstatt.

Stéphane Joly; Florent Mercey; Anne Filippini; Valérie Abenzoar; Morgane Liard; Fréderic Poupon

2011-01-01

340

TYCHO: état actuel et perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

La réduction du programme TYCHO est en bonne voie: Les résultats astrométriques, en cours de finalisation, sont conformes aux espérances et permettent une première définition de la sélection finale des étoiles du catalogues. Celle-ci pourrait comprendre environ 1038000 étoiles, retenues sur des critères adaptés à l'origine de leur inclusion dans le programme. La réduction photométrique devrait s'achever d'ici quelques mois, le calcul des magnitudes moyennes se faisant par la méthode dite de l'analyse de survie. Le traitement des étoiles doubles pourrait permettre la découverte de couples aussi serrés que 0.35?environ.

Halbwachs, J. L.; Egret, D.

 
 
 
 
341

Biological nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium sp. native gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium [Jacq.] Kunth ex Walp.) under greenhouse conditions/ Fijación biológica de nitrógeno por Rhizobium sp. nativo de matarratón (Gliricidia sepium [Jacq.] Kunth ex Walp.) bajo condiciones de invernadero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó un experimento bajo condiciones de invernadero con el fin de evaluar la asociación y fijación biológica de nitrógeno (FBN) en seis cepas nativas de Rhizobium sp. aisladas de nódulos de matarratón y una cepa comercial (Rhizobiol©). Las suspensiones de 106 y 108 células/mL para cada una de las cepas estudiadas y aplicadas en dos ensayos separados: el primero con semillas y la segundo con plántulas de 35 días de edad matarratón. En el ensayo de semilla (more) se calcula el porcentaje acumulado de germinación durante 7 días. En ambos ensayos, después de 42 días en las semillas y 52 días en plántulas se determinó la altura y diámetro del tallo, número de hojas, peso seco de la parte aérea, número de nódulos por planta y el porcentaje de nitrógeno. Todos los tratamientos estimularon la germinación, el crecimiento y FBN, siendo mejor en las cepas nativas a una concentración de 108 células/mL, en comparación con la cepa comercial y el control. Estos resultados indican el efecto positivo ejercido por Rhizobium sp., en la promoción del crecimiento y FBN, que podrían ser utilizados para estudios adicionales para determinar la producción de un biofertilizante, permitiendo potenciar la producción de cultivos de matarratón como alimento de ganado bovino como fuente de proteína en el Centro de Biotecnología del Caribe Abstract in english An experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in order to evaluate the association and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), six native strains of Rhizobium sp isolated from nodules gliricidia and a commercial strain (Rhizobiol©). Suspensions of 106 and 108 cells/mL for each of the strains studied and applied in two separate trials: the first with seeds and the second with seedlings 35 days of age gliricidia. In the seed test is calculated the cumulative percenta (more) ge of germination for 7 days. In both trials after 42 days in seeds and seedlings 52 days in length was measured and stem diameter, leaf number, dry weight of aerial parts, number of nodules/plant and percentage of nitrogen. All treatments stimulated germination, growth and BNF, being better in the native strains at a concentration of 108 cells/mL, compared with the commercial strain and the control. These results indicate the positive effect exerted by Rhizobium sp., in promoting growth and BNF, which could be used for further studies to establish the production of a biofertilizer, allowing potentiate the production of crops by gliricidia for food arich cattle as source of protein in the Caribbean Biotechnology Center

Cubillos-Hinojosa, Juan Guillermo; Milian-Mindiola, Pablo Ernesto; Hernández-Mulford, Jorge Luis

2011-12-01

342

L’excellence : impossible sans un personnel stable et expérimenté  

CERN Multimedia

Le monde entier avait les yeux fixés sur le CERN ce 4 juillet 2012, quand ATLAS et CMS ont annoncé leur découverte d’une particule « compatible avec le Higgs ». Début 2013 il n’a fallu que quelques jours pour régler le LHC et faire tourner des protons et des ions lourds. Toutes ces découvertes et prouesses techniques n’ont été possibles que grâce à l’expérience et la poursuite de l’excellence d’équipes soudées de techniciens et ingénieurs qui ont conçu, construit, mis en marche, et finalement font fonctionner ce complexe d’accélérateurs unique au monde. Un service d’excellence avec un encadrement adéquat Entre 2002 et 2012 (voir Fig. 1), le nombre d’utilisateurs est passé de 5912 à...

Association du personnel

2013-01-01

343

Transfer of R1drd19 plasmid from Escherichia coli J53 to Rhizobium trifolii by conjugation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rldrd19 plasmid was transferred by conjugation from Escherichia coli J53 to Rhizobium trifolii T24, T26 and 24XSM strains with frequency 10(-3) to 10(-5). The R. trifolii exconjugants carrying Rldrd19 were in turn able to transfer the R factor by conjugation to other R. trifolii strains. Rldrd19 was maintained stably in R. trifolii. R. trifolii 24XSM, T26 and 14M were also found to harbor an endogenous plasmid (molecular weight 5.5 megadaltons) with undetermined as yet properties. Ridrd19 could be stably maintained in the same cell together with the endogenous plasmid.

Kowalczuk E; Lorkiewicz Z

1977-01-01

344

Transfer of R1drd19 plasmid from Escherichia coli J53 to Rhizobium trifolii by conjugation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rldrd19 plasmid was transferred by conjugation from Escherichia coli J53 to Rhizobium trifolii T24, T26 and 24XSM strains with frequency 10(-3) to 10(-5). The R. trifolii exconjugants carrying Rldrd19 were in turn able to transfer the R factor by conjugation to other R. trifolii strains. Rldrd19 was maintained stably in R. trifolii. R. trifolii 24XSM, T26 and 14M were also found to harbor an endogenous plasmid (molecular weight 5.5 megadaltons) with undetermined as yet properties. Ridrd19 could be stably maintained in the same cell together with the endogenous plasmid. PMID:67758

Kowalczuk, E; Lorkiewicz, Z

1977-01-01

345

Two-dimensional proteome reference map of Rhizobium tropici PRF 81 reveals several symbiotic determinants and strong resemblance with agrobacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobium tropici strain PRF 81 is used in commercial inoculants for common-bean crops in Brazil because of its high efficiency in nitrogen fixation and, as in other strains belonging to this species, its tolerance of environmental stresses, representing a useful biological alternative to chemical nitrogen fertilizers. In this study, a proteomic reference map of PRF 81 was obtained by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. In total, 115 spots representing 109 different proteins were successfully identified, contributing to a better understanding of the rhizobia-legume symbiosis and supporting, at proteomics level, a strong resemblance with agrobacteria.

Gomes DF; Batista JS; Torres AR; de Souza Andrade D; Galli-Terasawa LV; Hungria M

2012-03-01

346

Legume-bacterium (Rhizobium) Association-Symbiosis, A Marriage of Convenience, Necessary Evil or Bacterium Taken Hostage by the Legume  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nitrogen (N) is the key nutrient element, limiting crop production under most situations. A major reason for insufficient N supplies being its presence in soil in organic forms which must be mineralized before being used by the plants. However, leguminous plants are equipped with the facility to acquire a major portion of N directly from atmospheric N2 through bacterial fixation (reduction). The bacteria (Rhizobium spp) reside inside the special structures on plant roots i.e., nodules and reduce atmospheric N at the expense of C supplied by the plant. This paper presents an analysis of the nature of association between the legume and bacterium.

F. Azam

2001-01-01

347

Déserts et Thébaïdes (suite)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Faisant suite aux trois volets de notre analyse des traductions allemandes de l’incipit de Bouvard et Pécuchet, cet article se détache de la traduction comme pratique herméneutique pour la regarder au miroir d’autres approches du texte flaubertien, et en confirmer la lecture en la complétant, notamment par une attention portée aux noms propres, cet angle mort de la pratique traductive. Nous continuerons donc à rapprocher Antoine de Bouvard et Pécuchet, mais en recherchant cette fois la trace désertique du saint dans les anthroponymes et la topographie du roman parisien. Mais l’onomastique de Bouvard est, comme le roman lui-même, placé sous le signe de la copie, et il nous faudra donc chemin faisant élargir l’intertexte à Madame Bovary et à L’Éducation sentimentale.

Loïc Windels

2012-01-01

348

Supersymétrie et mathématiques  

CERN Multimedia

Nous presentons une introduction aux concepts de la supersymetrie par l'intermediaire de trois exemples: (i) Mecanique quantique supersymetrique, (ii) Superalgebres de Lie, (iii) Superconnexions de Quillen. Les points communs a toutes ces notions sont soulignes et des applications sont indiquees. En particulier nous esquissons la demonstration du theoreme de Gauss et Bonnet d'apres Patodi et la demonstration des inegalites de Morse d'apres Witten.

Gieres, François

1994-01-01

349

Topographie et topologie textuelles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Depuis ses débuts la statistique linguistique, y compris lorsqu’elle s’applique à l’étude des textes et des discours, a principalement recouru à des modèles qui tendent à négliger ce fait majeur qu’un texte est une structure ordonnée ; les dénombrements, les relevés de fréquences, les calculs de spécificités reposent tous sur le fameux schéma d’urne et renoncent à prendre en compte le positionnement dans le texte des unités dénombrées. Certes, les résultats ainsi obtenus sont généralement intéressants et bien interprétables, et ils ont largement contribué au développement et aux succès de la discipline. Mais ils se pourraient qu’ils soient en train d’atteindre leurs limites. Ou, du moins, de ne plus suffire pour donner entière satisfaction au chercheur. De plus en plus souvent en effet, ceux-ci souhaitent pouvoir établir, à côté de la dimension paradigmatique appréhendée par ce type de calculs statistiques traditionnels, la dimension syntagmatique des données textuelles, saisies à courte ou à longue portée : distribution régulière ou non d’une entité linguistique (mot ou catégorie grammaticale) susceptible d’arriver à intervalles à peu près égaux ou, au contraire, en paquets plus ou moins denses ; répartition d’un élément au fil du texte, selon la structure globale de celui-ci et ses parties constituantes ; phénomènes d’échos et d’alignements dans la mise en parallèle de deux textes ou deux portions de textes ; etc. Bien sûr, des travaux, dont certains sont déjà anciens, ont abordé ces questions : parmi les plus connus citons tous ceux d’A. Salem qui ont établi la pertinence de la fameuse notion de « segment répété » et qui ont mis en place les outils pour les repérer et les analyser ; citons aussi les travaux de P. Lafon sur les « rafales » et son article "Statistique des localisations des formes d’un texte" paru en 1984 dans la revue Mots ; ou encore l’article de D. Sérant et Ph. Thoiron sur la « topographie des formes répétées » (Revue Informatique et Statistique dans les Sciences humaines 24, pp. 333-343) ; etc. Actuellement, cette question reprend de l’acuité et les études, ainsi que les développements logiciels afférents, se multiplient. Le moment nous semble donc venu de faire le point. Ce numéro de Lexicometrica accueillera donc exclusivement des contributions consacrées aux notions de topographie et topologie textuelles, c’est-à-dire à la prise en compte, dans les exploitations automatiques des textes numérisés et dans leur traitement quantitatif de la linéarité intrinsèque du texte, voire de sa structure en réseau avec d’autres textes au sein d’un corpus fortement cohérent (cas des recueils par exemple).

Sylvie Mellet; Jean-Pierre Barthélemy; Damon Mayaffre; Etienne Brunet; Julien Bourdaillet; Jean-Gabriel Ganascia; Jean-Louis Lebrave; Stephan Vonfelt

2009-01-01

350

Development and trifoliin A-binding ability of the capsule of Rhizobium trifolii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The age-dependent lectin-binding ability of Rhizobium trifolii 0403 capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was examined by following the development of the capsule and its ability to interact with the white clover lectin trifoliin A. Bacteria grown on agar plates for 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days were examined by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies prepared against either R. trifolii 0403 CPS or trifoliin A after pretreatment with the lectin. The capsule began to develop at one pole by day 3 and completely surrounded the cells in cultures incubated for 5 days or longer. The capsular polysaccharide on cells cultured for 3 and 5 days was completely reactive with trifoliin A, became noticeably less reactive by day 7, and was only reactive with the lectin at one pole of a few cells after that time. The quantity and location of lectin receptors on bacteria of different ages directly correlated with their attachment in short-term clover root hair-binding studies. Cells from 3- or 21-day-old cultures attached almost exclusively in a polar fashion, whereas cells grown for 5 days attached to root hairs randomly and in the highest numbers. CPS isolated from a 5-day-old culture had higher lectin-binding ability than CPS from 3- and 7-day-old cultures, whereas the CPS from a 14-day-old culture had the lowest. Chemical analyses of the isolated CPS showed changes in the levels of uronic acids (as glucuronic acid), pyruvate, and O-acetyl substitutions with culture age, but the neutral sugar composition remained relatively constant. These results provide evidence that the age-dependent distribution of lectin receptors dictates the level and orientation of attachments of R. trifolii 0403 to clover root hairs. PMID:6376470

Sherwood, J E; Vasse, J M; Dazzo, F B; Truchet, G L

1984-07-01

351

Foliar Chlorosis in Symbiotic Host and Nonhost Plants Induced by Rhizobium tropici Type B Strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 induced chlorosis in the leaves of its symbiotic hosts, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb.), and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Chlorosis induction by strains CIAT899 and CT9005, an exopolysaccharide-deficient mutant of CIAT899, required carbon substrate. When the bacteria were added at planting in a solution of mannitol (50 g/liter), as few as 10 cells of CIAT899 were sufficient to induce chlorosis in bean plants. All carbon sources tested, including organic acids and mono- and disaccharides, supported chlorosis induction. The addition of a carbon source did not affect the growth rate or the population density of CT9005 in the bean plant rhizosphere. Cell-free filtrates of cultures of CT9005 did not induce detectable chlorosis. All type B strains of R. tropici tested also induced chlorosis in common bean. Type A strains of R. tropici and all other species of bacteria tested did not induce chlorosis. Several lines of evidence indicated that nodulation was not required for chlorosis induction. Strain RSP900, a pSym-cured derivative of CIAT899, induced chlorosis in wild-type P. vulgaris. In addition, NOD125, a nodulation-defective line of common bean, developed chlorosis when inoculated with CIAT899, but did not develop nodules. CIAT899 consistently induced severe chlorosis in the leaves of the nonhost legumes alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), and induced chlorosis in 29 to 58% of the plants tested of sunflower, cucumber, and tomato seedlings, but it did not induce chlorosis in the leaves of corn or wheat. Chlorosis induction in nonhost plants also required carbon substrate. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that R. tropici type B strains produce a chlorosis-inducing factor that affects a wide range of plant species. PMID:16348994

O'connell, K P; Handelsman, J

1993-07-01

352

Foliar Chlorosis in Symbiotic Host and Nonhost Plants Induced by Rhizobium tropici Type B Strains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 induced chlorosis in the leaves of its symbiotic hosts, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb.), and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Chlorosis induction by strains CIAT899 and CT9005, an exopolysaccharide-deficient mutant of CIAT899, required carbon substrate. When the bacteria were added at planting in a solution of mannitol (50 g/liter), as few as 10 cells of CIAT899 were sufficient to induce chlorosis in bean plants. All carbon sources tested, including organic acids and mono- and disaccharides, supported chlorosis induction. The addition of a carbon source did not affect the growth rate or the population density of CT9005 in the bean plant rhizosphere. Cell-free filtrates of cultures of CT9005 did not induce detectable chlorosis. All type B strains of R. tropici tested also induced chlorosis in common bean. Type A strains of R. tropici and all other species of bacteria tested did not induce chlorosis. Several lines of evidence indicated that nodulation was not required for chlorosis induction. Strain RSP900, a pSym-cured derivative of CIAT899, induced chlorosis in wild-type P. vulgaris. In addition, NOD125, a nodulation-defective line of common bean, developed chlorosis when inoculated with CIAT899, but did not develop nodules. CIAT899 consistently induced severe chlorosis in the leaves of the nonhost legumes alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), and induced chlorosis in 29 to 58% of the plants tested of sunflower, cucumber, and tomato seedlings, but it did not induce chlorosis in the leaves of corn or wheat. Chlorosis induction in nonhost plants also required carbon substrate. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that R. tropici type B strains produce a chlorosis-inducing factor that affects a wide range of plant species.

O'connell KP; Handelsman J

1993-07-01

353

Nodulation gene factors and plant response in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. [Nodulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our original application aimed to identify genes outside the common nod region involved in nodulation and host range of alfalfa. This has been revised by adding other studies on nodulation gene action and removing molecular studies of gene action. Our restated goals and progress are as follows. An early goal was identification and characterization of additional nodulation genes. By means of transposon mutagenesis, mapping and marker exchange we have established 87 independent mutations in a 20kb area represented by plasmid pRmJT5. We discovered four new genes: nodP, nodD3, syrA and syrM. The sequence, start site and protein product for nodFe, nodG, and nodH were also identified. Regulation of nod FEGH was studied. nod FEGH can be induced by luteolin in the presence of noodle; nodD1; noD3 and syrM, a symbiotic regulator gene also increase transcription of nod FEGH. syrA will interact with syrM; syrM also regulates exopolysaccharide genes and is believed to be a master regulator. As part of these studies, an in vitro transcription/translation system for Rhizobium was developed. Adjacent to nodP we discussed nodQ, nodPQ occurrs in two highly consumed copies. nodQ appears by sequence analysis to be similar to initiation and elongation factors, with the highest homology in the GDP binding domain. We have also investigated the nod strain, WL131. WL131 has an insertion, ISRm3, interrupting nodG, and a nonsase mutation in nodH, nodH is responsible for the lack of nodulation. We are currently investigating supernatant factors, host range effects C by spot inoculation, glucaronidase fusion proteins, and are developing, a single root hair inoculation protocol. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Long, S.R.

1990-01-01

354

Proteomic profiling of Rhizobium tropici PRF 81: identification of conserved and specific responses to heat stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rhizobium tropici strain PRF 81 (= SEMIA 4080) has been used in commercial inoculants for application to common-bean crops in Brazil since 1998, due to its high efficiency in fixing nitrogen, competitiveness against indigenous rhizobial populations and capacity to adapt to stressful tropical conditions, representing a key alternative to application of N-fertilizers. The objective of our study was to obtain an overview of adaptive responses to heat stress of strain PRF 81, by analyzing differentially expressed proteins when the bacterium is grown at 28°C and 35°C. RESULTS: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) revealed up-regulation of fifty-nine spots that were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF. Differentially expressed proteins were associated with the functional COG categories of metabolism, cellular processes and signaling, information storage and processing. Among the up-regulated proteins, we found some related to conserved heat responses, such as molecular chaperones DnaK and GroEL, and other related proteins, such as translation factors EF-Tu, EF-G, EF-Ts and IF2. Interestingly, several oxidative stress-responsive proteins were also up-regulated, and these results reveal the diversity of adaptation mechanisms presented by this thermotolerant strain, suggesting a cross-talk between heat and oxidative stresses. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide valuable protein-expression information relevant to the ongoing genome sequencing of strain PRF 81, and contributes to our still-poor knowledge of the molecular determinants of the thermotolerance exhibited by R. tropici species.

Gomes DF; Batista JS; Schiavon AL; Andrade DS; Hungria M

2012-01-01

355

Proteomic profiling of Rhizobium tropici PRF 81: identification of conserved and specific responses to heat stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium tropici strain PRF 81 (= SEMIA 4080) has been used in commercial inoculants for application to common-bean crops in Brazil since 1998, due to its high efficiency in fixing nitrogen, competitiveness against indigenous rhizobial populations and capacity to adapt to stressful tropical conditions, representing a key alternative to application of N-fertilizers. The objective of our study was to obtain an overview of adaptive responses to heat stress of strain PRF 81, by analyzing differentially expressed proteins when the bacterium is grown at 28°C and 35°C. Results Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) revealed up-regulation of fifty-nine spots that were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF. Differentially expressed proteins were associated with the functional COG categories of metabolism, cellular processes and signaling, information storage and processing. Among the up-regulated proteins, we found some related to conserved heat responses, such as molecular chaperones DnaK and GroEL, and other related proteins, such as translation factors EF-Tu, EF-G, EF-Ts and IF2. Interestingly, several oxidative stress-responsive proteins were also up-regulated, and these results reveal the diversity of adaptation mechanisms presented by this thermotolerant strain, suggesting a cross-talk between heat and oxidative stresses. Conclusions Our data provide valuable protein-expression information relevant to the ongoing genome sequencing of strain PRF 81, and contributes to our still-poor knowledge of the molecular determinants of the thermotolerance exhibited by R. tropici species.

Gomes Douglas; Batista Jesiane Stefânia da Silva; Schiavon Aline; Andrade Diva; Hungria Mariangela

2012-01-01

356

Role of Motility and Chemotaxis in Efficiency of Nodulation by Rhizobium meliloti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spontaneous mutants of Rhizobium meliloti L5-30 defective in motility or chemotaxis were isolated and compared against the parent with respect to symbiotic competence. Each of the mutants was able to generate normal nodules on the host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa), but had slightly delayed nodule formation, diminished nodulation in the initially susceptible region of the host root, and relatively low representation in nodules following co-inoculation with equal numbers of the parent. When inoculated in growth pouches with increasing dosages of the parental strain, the number of nodules formed in the initially susceptible region of the root increased sigmoidally, with an optimum concentration of about 10(5) to 10(6) bacteria/plant. The dose-response behavior of the nonmotile and nonchemotactic mutants was similar, but they required 10- to 30-fold higher concentrations of bacteria to generate the same number of nodules. The distribution frequencies of nodules at different positions along the primary root were very similar for the mutants and parent, indicating that reduced nodulation by the mutants in dose-response experiments probably reflects reduced efficiency of nodule initiation rather than developmentally delayed nodule initiation. The number of bacteria that firmly adsorbed to the host root surface during several hours of incubation was 5- to 20-fold greater for the parent than the mutants. The mutants were also somewhat less effective than their parent as competitors in root adsorption assays. It appears that motility and chemotaxis are quantitatively important traits that facilitate the initial contact and adsorption of symbiotic rhizobia to the host root surface, increase the efficiency of nodule initiation, and increase the rate of infection development.

Caetano-Anollés G; Wall LG; De Micheli AT; Macchi EM; Bauer WD; Favelukes G

1988-04-01

357

What determines the efficiency of N(2)-fixing Rhizobium-legume symbioses?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biological nitrogen fixation is vital to nutrient cycling in the biosphere and is the major route by which atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) is reduced to ammonia. The largest single contribution to biological N(2) fixation is carried out by rhizobia, which include a large group of both alpha and beta-proteobacteria, almost exclusively in association with legumes. Rhizobia must compete to infect roots of legumes and initiate a signaling dialog with host plants that leads to nodule formation. The most common form of infection involves the growth of rhizobia down infection threads which are laid down by the host plant. Legumes form either indeterminate or determinate types of nodules, with these groups differing widely in nodule morphology and often in the developmental program by which rhizobia form N(2) fixing bacteroids. In particular, indeterminate legumes from the inverted repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) (e.g., peas, vetch, alfalfa, medics) produce a cocktail of antimicrobial peptides which cause endoreduplication of the bacterial genome and force rhizobia into a nongrowing state. Bacteroids often become dependent on the plant for provision of key cofactors, such as homocitrate needed for nitrogenase activity or for branched chain amino acids. This has led to the suggestion that bacteroids at least from the IRLC can be considered as ammoniaplasts, where they are effectively facultative plant organelles. A low O(2) tension is critical both to induction of genes needed for N(2) fixation and to the subsequent exchange of nutrient between plants and bacteroids. To achieve high rates of N(2) fixation, the legume host and Rhizobium must be closely matched not only for infection, but for optimum development, nutrient exchange, and N(2) fixation. In this review, we consider the multiple steps of selection and bacteroid development and how these alter the overall efficiency of N(2) fixation.

Terpolilli JJ; Hood GA; Poole PS

2012-01-01

358

Competition among rhizobium species for nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala in two tropical soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The successful nodulation of legumes by a Rhizobium strain is determined by the competitve ability of that strain against the mixture of other native and inoculant rhizobia. Competition among six Leucaena rhizobial strains in single and multistrain inoculants were studied. Field inoculation trials were conducted in an oxisol and a mollisol soil, both of which contained indigenous Leucaena-nodulating rhizobia. Strain-specific fluorescent antibodies were used for the identification of the strains in Leucaena nodules. Mixtures of three recommended inoculum strains for Leucaena species (TAL82, TAL582, and TAL1145) were used in peat-based inocula either alone or with one of the three other strains isolated from the sites, B213, B214, and B215. Each of these latter three strains was also used as single-strain inocula to study their competition with the native rhizobia in the two soil systems. In the oxisol soil, strains B213 and B215, when used as single-strain inocula, outcompeted the native rhizobia and formed 92 and 62% of the nodules, respectively. Strain B214 was the least competitive in oxisol soil, where it formed 30% of the nodules, and the best in mollisol soil, where it formed 70% of the nodules. The most successful competitor for nodulation in multistrain inocula was strain TAL1145, which outcompeted native and other inoculum Leucaena rhizobia is both soils. None of the strains in single or multistrain inoculants was capable of completely overcoming the resident rhizobia, which formed 4 to 70% of the total nodules in oxisol soil and 12 to 72% in mollisol soil. No strong relationship was detected between the size of the rhizosphere population of a strain and its successful occupation of nodules. 24 references.

Moawad, H.; Bohlool, B.B.

1984-07-01

359

Localization and symbiotic function of a region on the Rhizobium leguminosarum Sym plasmid pRL1JI responsible for a secreted, flavonoid-inducible 50-kilodalton protein.  

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A previously described (R. A. de Maagd, C. A. Wijffelman, E. Pees, and B. J. J. Lugtenberg, J. Bacteriol. 170:4424-4427, 1988) Sym plasmid-dependent, naringenin-inducible 50-kilodalton protein of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae is further characterized in this paper. The protein was overproduc...

de Maagd, R A; Spaink, H P; Pees, E; Mulders, I H; Wijfjes, A; Wijffelman, C A; Okker, R J; Lugtenberg, B J

360

Alleviation of drought stress in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by co-inoculation with Paenibacillus polymyxa and Rhizobium tropici  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A greenhouse experiment was performed to evaluate the influence of Rhizobium when co-inoculated with each of two Paenibacillus polymyxa strains, singly and in mixture on growth, nitrogen content, phytohormone levels and nodulation of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under three levels of drought stress. Stress was applied continuously by the control of matric potential (? m) through a porous cup. Bean plants cv. Tenderlake were grown in pots with Fluvic Neosol eutrophic soil under three different ? m (S ? -7.0; S ? -70.0 and S ? <-85kPa). The seeds were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici (CIAT 899) and each of P. polymyxa (DSM 36) and P. polymyxa Loutit (L) singly and in mixture (CIAT 899+DSM36+Loutit). Co-inoculation of bean with Rhizobium and both Paenibacillus strains resulted increased plant growth, nitrogen content and nodulation compared to inoculation with Rhizobium alone. This was particularly evident at the most negative ? m (S ? <-85kPa) we used. Drought stress triggered a change in phytohormonal balance, including an increase in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) content, a small decline in indole acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellic acid (GA?) and a sharp fall in zeatin content in bean leaves. The content of endogenous Cks decreased under water stress, possibly amplifying the response of shoots to increasing ABA content. We hypothesize that co-inoculation of bean with R. tropici (CIAT 899) and P. polymyxa strains (DSM 36) and Loutit (L) mitigates some of the negative effects of drought stress on bean.

Figueiredo Ma?rciaVB; Burity He?lioA; Marti?nez CosmeR; Chanway ChristopherP

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Rhodobacter sphaeroides rdxA, a homolog of Rhizobium meliloti fixG, encodes a membrane protein which may bind cytoplasmic [4Fe-4S] clusters.  

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In the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a chromosomal gene, rdxA, which encodes a 52-kDa protein, was found to be homologous to fixG, the first gene of a Rhizobium meliloti nitrogen fixation operon on the pSym plasmid (D. Kahn, M. David, O. Domergue, M.-L. Daveran, J. Ghai, P. R. Hi...

Neidle, E L; Kaplan, S

362

Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM3625, a Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont of Mimosa pudica Isolated in French Guiana (South America)  

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Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM3625 is a Mimosa pudica symbiont isolated in French Guiana. This strain serves as a model bacterium for comparison of adaptation to mutualism (symbiotic traits, bacterial genetic programs for plant infection) between alpha and beta rhizobial symbionts of Mimosa pudica.

Moulin, Lionel; Mornico, Damien; Melkonian, Rémy; Klonowska, Agnieszka

363

Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM3625, a Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont of Mimosa pudica Isolated in French Guiana (South America).  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM3625 is a Mimosa pudica symbiont isolated in French Guiana. This strain serves as a model bacterium for comparison of adaptation to mutualism (symbiotic traits, bacterial genetic programs for plant infection) between alpha and beta rhizobial symbionts of Mimosa pudica. PMID:23405314

Moulin, Lionel; Mornico, Damien; Melkonian, Rémy; Klonowska, Agnieszka

2013-01-24

364

Structural genes of dinitrogenase and dinitrogenase reductase are transcribed from two separate promoters in the broad host range cowpea Rhizobium strain IRc78  

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The nucleotide sequence of the structural gene (nifD) coding for the ?-subunit of dinitrogenase along with its flanking sequences has been determined in cowpea Rhizobium IRc78. The coding sequence consists of 1500 nucleotides, which corresponds to a predicted amino acid sequence of 500 residues and ...

Yun, Allen C.; Szalay, Aladar A.

365

Real-Time Imaging of Fluorescent Flagellar Filaments of Rhizobium lupini H13-3: Flagellar Rotation and pH-Induced Polymorphic Transitions  

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The soil bacterium Rhizobium lupini H13-3 has complex right-handed flagellar filaments with unusual ridged, grooved surfaces. Clockwise (CW) rotation propels the cells forward, and course changes (tumbling) result from changes in filament speed instead of the more common change in direction of rotat...

Scharf, Birgit

366

Rhizosphere Response as a Factor in Competition Among Three Serogroups of Indigenous Rhizobium japonicum for Nodulation of Field-Grown Soybeans †  

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Rhizosphere response was studied as a factor in competition among indigenous Rhizobium japonicum serogroups for the nodulation of soybeans under field conditions. R. japonicum serogroups 110, 123, and 138 were found to coexist in a Waukegan field soil where they were determined to be the major nodul...

Moawad, H. A.; Ellis, W. R.; Schmidt, E. L.

367

Growth, nodulation and yield of mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) as affected by Rhizobium inoculation and soil applied L-tryptophan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the grain legumes in Pakistan are poorly nodulated either because of low indigenous rhizobialpopulation or due to inefficient strains of native rhizobia. However, improvement in nodulation could be achievedthrough inoculation with effective rhizobial strains. A pot trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Rhizobiuminoculation along with L-tryptophan (L-TRP), a precursor of indole acetic acid (IAA) on growth, yield andnodulation of mash been. The results indicated that Rhizobium inoculation along with L-tryptophan application (6mg kg-1 soil) significantly improved plant height (44.6%) as compared to control. Different improvements in rootlength (72.4%), oven dry root weight (Five fold), no. of pods plant-1 (86.4%), no. of grains per pod (42.8%), 100-grain weight (18.9%) and nitrogen concentration in grains (two fold), was noted as compared with the controlwhere L-TRP was applied @ 2 mg kg-1 soil. There was a significant increase in number of nodules plant-1 (one fold),nodule fresh weight plant-1 (two fold) and nodule dry weight plant-1 (four fold) with Rhizobium inoculation alongwith L-TRP application @ 2 mg kg-1 soil as compared to Rhizobium inoculation alone. The study showed thatRhizobium inoculation along with L-TRP application could be a better approach for sustainable legume production.

Muhammad Iqbal Hussain*, Muhammad Javed Akhtar, Hafiz Naeem Asghar and Maqshoof Ahmad

2011-01-01

368

Involvement of exo5 in Production of Surface Polysaccharides in Rhizobium leguminosarum and Its Role in Nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra  

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Analysis of two exopolysaccharide-deficient mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum, RBL5808 and RBL5812, revealed independent Tn5 transposon integrations in a single gene, designated exo5. As judged from structural and functional homology, this gene encodes a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase responsible for th...

Laus, Marc C.; Logman, Trudy J.; van Brussel, Anton A. N.; Carlson, Russell W.; Azadi, Parastoo; Gao, Mu-Yun; Kijne, Jan W.

369

Characterization of genes for synthesis and catabolism of a new rhizopine induced in nodules by Rhizobium meliloti Rm220-3: extension of the rhizopine concept.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rhizopines are selective growth substrates synthesized in nodules only by strains of rhizobia capable of their catabolism. We report the isolation and study of genes for the synthesis and catabolism of a new rhizopine, scyllo-inosamine (sIa), from alfalfa nodules induced by Rhizobium meliloti Rm220-...

Saint, C P; Wexler, M; Murphy, P J; Tempé, J; Tate, M E; Murphy, P J

370

Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM3625, a Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont of Mimosa pudica Isolated in French Guiana (South America).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM3625 is a Mimosa pudica symbiont isolated in French Guiana. This strain serves as a model bacterium for comparison of adaptation to mutualism (symbiotic traits, bacterial genetic programs for plant infection) between alpha and beta rhizobial symbionts of Mimosa pudica.

Moulin L; Mornico D; Melkonian R; Klonowska A

2013-01-01

371

Realkompetenceprocessen i et helhedsperspektiv  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rie Thomsen, PhD-stipendiat ved Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitet, har udviklet den model for et helhedsperspektiv på realkompetenceprocessen, der er emnet for denne artikel. Den er skrevet  i et samarbejde mellem Rie Thomsen og Randi Jensen, sekretariatsleder i Daghøjskoleforeningen, specielt med henblik på pilotprojektet uddannelse af Realkompetencevejledere i folkeoplysningen. Maj 2007.

Thomsen, Rie; Jensen, Randi

2007-01-01

372

Jeux et enjeux olympiques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les actes de candidatures et de choix des villes pour l'organisation des différentes sessions des Jeux Olympiques contemporains ne sont pas le fruit du hasard. Dans l'un et l'autre cas, il s'agit d'actes dont la signification s'inscrit dans le contexte politique du moment.

Pierre LEBLANC; Youssef FATES

1989-01-01

373

Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiovar viciae is the symbiont of lentils in the Middle East and Europe but not in Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lentil is the oldest of the crops that have been domesticated in the Fertile Crescent and distributed to other regions during the Bronze Age, making it an ideal model to study the evolution of rhizobia associated with crop legumes. Housekeeping and nodulation genes of lentil nodulating rhizobia from the region where lentil originated (Turkey and Syria) and regions to which lentil was introduced later (Germany and Bangladesh) were analyzed to determine their genetic diversity, population structure and taxonomic position. There are four different lineages of rhizobia associated with lentil nodulation, of which three are new and endemic to Bangladesh, while Mediterranean and Central European lentil symbionts belong to the Rhizobium leguminosarum lineage. The endemic lentil grex pilosae may have played a significant role in the origin of these new lineages in Bangladesh. The availability of R. leguminosarum with lentil at the centre of origin and in countries where lentil was introduced later suggests that R. leguminosarum is the original symbiont of lentil. Lentil seeds might have played a significant role in the initial dispersal of this Rhizobium species within the Middle East and on to other countries. Nodulation gene sequences revealed a high similarity to those of symbiovar viciae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Rashid MH; Gonzalez J; Young JP; Wink M

2013-08-01

374

Rhizobium meliloti elicits transient expression of the early nodulin gene ENOD12 in the differentiating root epidermis of transgenic alfalfa.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the molecular responses of the host legume during early stages of the symbiotic interaction with Rhizobium, we have cloned and characterized the infection-related early nodulin gene MtENOD12 from Medicago truncatula. In situ hybridization experiments have shown that, within the indeterminate Medicago nodule, transcription of the MtENOD12 gene begins in cell layers of meristematic origin that lie ahead of the infection zone, suggesting that these cells are undergoing preparation for bacterial infection. Histochemical analysis of transgenic alfalfa plants that express an MtENOD12 promoter-beta-glucuronidase gene fusion has confirmed this result and further revealed that MtENOD12 gene transcription occurs as early as 3 to 6 hr following inoculation with R. meliloti in a zone of differentiating root epidermal cells which lies close to the growing root tip. It is likely that this transient, nodulation (nod) gene-dependent activation of the ENOD12 gene also corresponds to the preparation of the plant for bacterial infection. We anticipate that this extremely precocious response to Rhizobium will provide a valuable molecular marker for studying early signal exchange between the two symbiotic organisms. PMID:1446169

Pichon, M; Journet, E P; Dedieu, A; de Billy, F; Truchet, G; Barker, D G

1992-10-01

375

Homology of genes for exopolysaccharide synthesis in Rhizobium leguminosarum and effect of cloned exo genes on nodule formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A 5.4 kb BamHI fragment of Rhizobium leguminosarum (R.l.) bv. trifolii TA1 was found to carry genes involved in exopolysaccharide synthesis (exo genes). This fragment was strongly hybridized to the total DNA from DNA from R.l. bv. viciae and bv. phaseoli digested with EcoRI. No homology was found with total DNA of R. melilotic and Rhizobium sp. NGR 234. The exo genes R.l. bv. trifolii TA1 conjugally introduced into R.l. bv. viciae 1302 considerably affected the symbiosis: the nodules induced on vetch were abortive and did not fix nitrogen. On the other hand, Phaseolus beans infected with R.l. bv. trifolii exo genes formed the nitrogen-fixing nodules. It can be conduced that additional copies of exo genes introduced into wild type R.l. strains can disturb the synthesis of acidic exopolysaccharides and affect symbiosis of the plants forming indeterminate nodules, but do not affect symbiosis of the plants forming the determinate nodules. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

376

Role of Some Chemical Compounds on the Detoxification of Rhizobium leguminsarum biovar vicia by Some Heavy Metals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The toxic effect of different concentrations of some heavy metals (Cadmium, Zinc and Lead) on the growth of cultured Rhizobium leguminsarum biovar vicia was studied and their LD50 toxicity were determined. The 50% inhibition of bacterial growth was achieved by contaminating the culture with 2.1 ?M of Cadmium, 30 ?M of Zinc or 290 ?M of Lead. In attempts to counteract the toxic effect of these heavy metals, several compounds were tested to reactivate the Rhizobium growth and to abolish the toxic effect, either partially or totally, which is caused by the presence of heavy metals (as in case of presence of sewage sludge). Positive results were obtained from the addition of some of these compounds as: Mannitol and Glutamate, 5,7 dihydroxyflavone, Thiamine hydrochloride, Calcium chloride and Calcium ionophore A23187. Their most effective concentrations were determined for each compound in the presence of each heavy metal at its concentration of LD50. An average recovery in bacterial growth, in presence of each of Cadmium, Zinc and Lead, individually, were as fellows: 97, 90, 88, 84 and 83%, due to the individual addition of 214 mM mannitol + 42 mM glutamate, 0.96 mM thiamine hydrochloride, 7.79 mM calcium chloride, 2.98 x 10-3 mM calcium ionophore A23187 and 0.69 mM of 5,7-dihydroxy flavone, resepectively.

Sanaa Mostafa El-Deeb; Fawziah Saleh Al-Sheri

2005-01-01

377

Evidence for Cytokinin Involvement in Rhizobium (IC3342)-Induced Leaf Curl Syndrome of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan Millsp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

A uniquely abnormal shoot development (shoot tip-bending, leaf curling, release from apical dominance, and stunted growth) in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan Millsp) induced by a nodulating Rhizobium strain, IC3342, is thought to be due to a hormonal imbalance. Amaranthus betacyanin bioassay indicated that xylem exudate and leaf extracts from pigeonpea plants with Rhizobium-induced leaf curl symptoms contained high concentrations of cytokinin relative to those in normal plants. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of samples purified with high performance liquid chromatography revealed that zeatin riboside (ZR) and dihydrozeatin riboside (DZR) concentrations in xylem sap from plants with leaf curl symptoms were 7 to 9 times higher than those in the sap from symptomless, nodulated plants. The sap from symptomless plants nodulated by a Curl(-) mutant had ZR and DZR concentrations comparable to those in the normal plant sap. RIA indicated that the respective concentrations of zeatin and N(6)-isopenteny-ladenine in culture filtrates of the curl-inducing strain IC3342 were 26 and 8 times higher than those in filtrates of a related normal nodulating strain (ANU240). Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses revealed similar differences. Gene-specific hybridization and sequence comparisons failed to detect any homology of IC3342 DNA to Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Pseudomonas savastanoi genetic loci encoding enzymes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis. PMID:16668086

Upadhyaya, N M; Parker, C W; Letham, D S; Scott, K F; Dart, P J

1991-04-01

378

Evidence for Cytokinin Involvement in Rhizobium (IC3342)-Induced Leaf Curl Syndrome of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan Millsp.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A uniquely abnormal shoot development (shoot tip-bending, leaf curling, release from apical dominance, and stunted growth) in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan Millsp) induced by a nodulating Rhizobium strain, IC3342, is thought to be due to a hormonal imbalance. Amaranthus betacyanin bioassay indicated that xylem exudate and leaf extracts from pigeonpea plants with Rhizobium-induced leaf curl symptoms contained high concentrations of cytokinin relative to those in normal plants. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of samples purified with high performance liquid chromatography revealed that zeatin riboside (ZR) and dihydrozeatin riboside (DZR) concentrations in xylem sap from plants with leaf curl symptoms were 7 to 9 times higher than those in the sap from symptomless, nodulated plants. The sap from symptomless plants nodulated by a Curl(-) mutant had ZR and DZR concentrations comparable to those in the normal plant sap. RIA indicated that the respective concentrations of zeatin and N(6)-isopenteny-ladenine in culture filtrates of the curl-inducing strain IC3342 were 26 and 8 times higher than those in filtrates of a related normal nodulating strain (ANU240). Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses revealed similar differences. Gene-specific hybridization and sequence comparisons failed to detect any homology of IC3342 DNA to Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Pseudomonas savastanoi genetic loci encoding enzymes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis.

Upadhyaya NM; Parker CW; Letham DS; Scott KF; Dart PJ

1991-04-01

379

Enfants, chercheurs et citoyens  

CERN Document Server

J'ai consacré ma vie à la physique. J'aimerais que tous les enfants aient la chance de satisfaire leur goût pour la recherche et de développer leur intelligence. J'ai découvert à Chicago, chez mon ami Leon Lederman, une méthode d'enseignement des sciences à l'école qui m'a subjugué. J'ai vu, à tous les niveaux, en physique, en chimie, en sciences naturelles et en mathématiques, des enfants qui expérimentaient avec joie, apprenaient les concepts fondamentaux à leur rythme, réfléchissant et discutant. Je voyais en gestation des êtres libres, capables de rechercher une vérité qui ne leur était pas assenée. J'ai voulu confronter des enseignants français du primaire et du secondaire à ces recherches qui ne se limitent pas à l'enseignement primaire. C'est leur regard critique et surtout leurs idées pour notre enseignement que j'ai rassemblés dans ce livre.

Lederman, Leon

1998-01-01

380

75 FR 37651 - United States et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc. et al.; Public Comments and Response on...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Final Judgment in United States et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc. et al., Civil Action No. 1:10-CV-00139-RMC, which were filed in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia on June 17, 2010, together with the...

2010-06-29

 
 
 
 
381

Study of vibrations and stabilization of linear collider final doublets at the sub-nanometer scale; Etude des vibrations et de la stabilisation a l'echelle sous-nanometrique des doublets finaux d'un collisionneur lineaire  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CLIC is one of the current projects of high energy linear colliders. Vertical beam sizes of 0.7 nm at the time of the collision and fast ground motion of a few nanometers impose an active stabilization of the final doublets at a fifth of nanometer above 4 Hz. The majority of my work concerned vibrations and active stabilization study of cantilever and slim beams in order to be representative of the final doublets of CLIC. In a first part, measured performances of different types of vibration sensors associated to an appropriate instrumentation showed that accurate measurements of ground motion are possible from 0.1 Hz up to 2000 Hz on a quiet site. Also, electrochemical sensors answering a priori the specifications of CLIC can be incorporated in the active stabilization at a fifth of nanometer. In a second part, an experimental and numerical study of beam vibrations enabled to validate the efficiency of the numerical prediction incorporated then in the simulation of the active stabilization. Also, a study of the impact of ground motion and of acoustic noise on beam vibrations showed that an active stabilization is necessary at least up to 1000 Hz. In a third part, results on the active stabilization of a beam at its two first resonances are shown down to amplitudes of a tenth of nanometer above 4 Hz by using in parallel a commercial system performing passive and active stabilization of the clamping. The last part is related to a study of a support for the final doublets of a linear collider prototype in phase of finalization, the ATF2 prototype. This work showed that relative motion between this support and the ground is below imposed tolerances (6 nm above 0.1 Hz) with appropriate boundary conditions. (author)

Bolzon, B

2007-11-15

382

Modélisation et statistique spatiales  

CERN Document Server

La statistique spatiale connaît un développement important du fait de son utilisation dans de nombreux domaines : sciences de la terre, environnement et climatologie, épidémiologie, économétrie, analyse d'image, etc… Ce livre présente les principaux modèles spatiaux utilisés ainsi que leur statistique pour les trois types de données : géostatistiques (observation sur un domaine continu), données sur réseau discret, données ponctuelles. L'objectif est présenter de façon concise mais mathématiquement complète les modèles les plus classiques (second ordre et variogramme ; modèle latticiel et cham

Gaetan, Carlo

2008-01-01

383

Proverbe et expression figée  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les deux types d’énoncés sentencieux abordés dans cette étude ne feront pas l’objet d’une analyse formelle de type structural, se proposant de décrire une éventuelle architecture et des propriétés syntaxiques spécifiques. Il ne s’agira non plus d’une approche stylistique, rhétorique ou pragmatique. En revanche, c’est une vision de sémantique référentielle qui sera projetée sur ce type de séquences, laquelle essaiera de surprendre un trait fondamental et constant des proverbes, qui permet de le distinguer des expressions figées, et dont l’identification est apte aussi de prédire quelles phrases de la langue pourraient accéder au statut des proverbes.

Laura Cî?u

2008-01-01

384

Guerre et genre  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ce mémoire d’habilitation à diriger des recherches comprend, sous le titre « Guerre et genre », trois volumes. Le rapport de synthèse (volume 3) retrace le parcours personnel et intellectuel de l’auteur autour de trois axes : Identités de genre et guerre, violence en temps de guerre, historiographie du genre. Le recueil (volume 2) comprend dix articles significatifs de ces thématiques. Enfin, le mémoire inédit (volume 1) porte sur les enfants nés de couple franco?allemands pendant la Seconde ...

Fabrice Virgili

2010-01-01

385

Des racines et des ailes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor